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Sample records for feeding complementarity affect

  1. Horizontal Complementarity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryngaert, C.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter tackles the question whether a subsidiarity/complementarity principle – as is set out in Article 17 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court – governs domestic prosecutions for international crimes on the basis of universal jurisdiction (a ‘horizontal’ complementarity

  2. Alimentação complementar: práticas inadequadas em lactentes Complementary feeding: inappropriate practices in infants

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    Michelle Cavalcante Caetano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar as práticas e o consumo alimentar de lactentes saudáveis de três metrópoles do Brasil. MÉTODOS: Por meio de estudo prospectivo, analisaram-se registros alimentares de 7 dias consecutivos de amostra intencional, por cotas e ponderada, das cidades de Curitiba, São Paulo e Recife, de 179 lactentes saudáveis, entre 4 e 12 meses, que não se encontravam em aleitamento materno (AM exclusivo. As mães receberam orientação verbal e escrita, por nutricionista, visando a uniformização da anotação do registro alimentar. Para o cálculo de ingestão, utilizou-se o Programa de Apoio à Nutrição (NutWin. RESULTADOS: A mediana de idade dos lactentes foi de 6,8 meses (4,0-12,6 meses. Observou-se que 50,3% já não recebiam AM. Destes, 12,0 e 6,7% dos menores e maiores de 6 meses, respectivamente, utilizavam fórmulas infantis em substituição ao leite materno. A maioria dos lactentes, portanto, recebia leite de vaca integral. A diluição da fórmula infantil foi correta em apenas 23,8 e 34,7% das crianças menores e maiores de 6 meses, respectivamente. Em relação à alimentação complementar, observou-se que a mediana de idade foi de 4 meses para sua introdução e de 5,5 meses para a alimentação da família. Verificou-se elevada inadequação quantitativa na ingestão de micronutrientes para lactentes de 6 a 12 meses que não recebiam AM, destacando-se as de zinco (75% e ferro (45%. CONCLUSÃO: O presente estudo mostrou elevada frequência de práticas e consumo alimentar inadequados em lactentes muito jovens. É possível que essas práticas levem a aumento no risco de desenvolvimento futuro de doenças crônicas.OBJECTIVE: To assess feeding practices and dietary intake of healthy infants in three Brazilian municipalities. METHODS: By means of a prospective study, we analyzed the food record of 7 consecutive days of an intentional sample (quota and weighted sampling of 179 healthy infants, aged between 4 and 12 months

  3. Assessing climate change impact on complementarity between solar and hydro power in areas affected by glacier shrinkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diah Puspitarini, Handriyanti; François, Baptiste; Zoccatelli, Davide; Brown, Casey; Creutin, Jean-Dominique; Zaramella, Mattia; Borga, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Variable Renewable Energy (VRE) sources such as wind, solar and runoff sources are variable in time and space, following their driving weather variables. In this work we aim to analyse optimal mixes of energy sources, i.e. mixes of sources which minimize the deviation between energy load and generation, for a region in the Upper Adige river basin (Eastern Italian Alps) affected by glacier shrinking. The study focuses on hydropower (run of the river - RoR) and solar energy, and analyses the current situation as well different climate change scenarios. Changes in glacier extent in response to climate warming and/or altered precipitation regimes have the potential to substantially alter the magnitude and timing, as well as the spatial variation of watershed-scale hydrologic fluxes. This may change the complementarity with solar power as well. In this study, we analyse the climate change impact on complementarity between RoR and solar using the Decision Scaling approach (Brown et al. 2012). With this approach, the system vulnerability is separated from the climatic hazard that can come from any set of past or future climate conditions. It departs from conventional top-down impact studies because it explores the sensitivity of the system response to a plausible range of climate variations rather than its sensitivity to the time-varying outcome of individual GCM projections. It mainly relies on the development of Climate Response Functions that bring together i) the sensitivity of some system success and/or failure indicators to key external drivers (i.e. mean features of regional climate) and ii) the future values of these drivers as simulated from climate simulation chains. The main VRE sources used in the study region are solar- and hydro-power (with an important fraction of run-of-the river hydropower). The considered indicator of success is the 'energy penetration' coefficient, defined as the long-run percentage of energy demand naturally met by the VRE on an hourly

  4. Recomendações para alimentação complementar da criança em aleitamento materno Recommendations for the complementary feeding of the breastfed child

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    Cristina M. G. Monte

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão sobre as evidências que embasam as recomendações atuais da alimentação complementar de crianças em aleitamento materno. FONTES DE DADOS: Foi realizada extensa revisão bibliográfica sobre o tópico, tendo sido consultados artigos selecionados a partir de pesquisa das bases de dados MEDLINE e Lilacs, publicações de organismos nacionais e internacionais, dissertações e teses. Alguns artigos-chave foram selecionados a partir de citações em outros artigos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Novos conhecimentos sobre alimentação infantil adquiridos nos últimos 20 anos resultaram em mudanças significativas nas atuais recomendações alimentares de crianças amamentadas em relação às recomendações anteriores. As atuais necessidades nutricionais recomendadas são menores que as anteriores, os alimentos complementares são introduzidos em uma idade mais precisa, em torno dos 6 meses, e são recomendados novos métodos de promoção da alimentação saudável da criança. As novas recomendações enfatizam as práticas alimentares saudáveis, as quais englobam tanto a quantidade quanto a qualidade adequadas dos alimentos, inclusive o cuidado com o manuseio, preparo, administração e armazenamento dos alimentos e o respeito e adequação às características culturais de cada povo. CONCLUSÕES: A alimentação complementar adequada da criança em aleitamento materno é crítica para o ótimo crescimento e desenvolvimento da criança. Portanto, é um fator essencial para a segurança alimentar e para o desenvolvimento das populações e seus países. Cabe aos profissionais de saúde repassar efetivamente às mães/cuidadores as novas recomendações para a promoção da alimentação complementar saudável da criança amamentada. Cabe aos governos propiciar as condições adequadas para essa promoção.OBJECTIVE: To present a review on the evidences that support the current recommendations for breastfed children

  5. Alimentação complementar nos primeiros dois anos de vida Complementary feeding in the first two years of life

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    Lucivalda Pereira Magalhães de Oliveira

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a alimentação complementar de crianças nos primeiros dois anos de vida. MÉTODOS: Este é um estudo transversal, com amostra constituída de 724 crianças residentes na cidade de Salvador, BA, Brasil, elegíveis por meio de amostragem por conglomerados em três estágios. As informações referentes ao consumo alimentar foram coletadas por meio do inquérito recordatório de 24 horas e processadas pelo programa Virtual Nutri. O pacote estatístico STATA, que incorpora o efeito da ponderação, foi utilizado para realizar as análises estatísticas. RESULTADOS: Observou-se que o desmame é praticado precocemente. O consumo de leite materno declina expressivamente a partir dos seis meses de idade, e é substituído pelas fórmulas à base de leite em pó integral, espessante e açúcar. A participação dos hidratos de carbono no valor calórico total da dieta aumenta com a idade, enquanto que o lipídeo diminui expressivamente. A distribuição média da energia e da proteína da dieta está acima do recomendado segundo a idade para todos os grupos etários, mas é grande a variabilidade do consumo intragrupo. A realização do desjejum, do almoço e do jantar foi registrada para aproximadamente 90% das crianças investigadas. CONCLUSÃO: A iniciação do consumo de alimentos complementares acontece em período bem precoce da vida, e são oferecidos em quantidade insuficiente para suprir as recomendações nutricionais, particularmente de micronutrientes.OBJECTIVE: To analyze complementary feeding in the first two years of life. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study with seven hundred and twenty-four children, residents of the city of Salvador (Bahia, Brazil and chosen by randomized sampling using a three stage-design. Information concerning dietary intake was collected by 24-hour dietary recalls and processed by means of the Virtual Nutri Program. The STATA software, which includes the effect of statistical weighting

  6. Práticas de alimentação complementar no primeiro ano de vida e fatores associados Complementary feeding practices in the first year of life and associated factors

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    Ligia Mara Parreira Silva

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Investigar a prevalência de consumo de alimentos complementares e os fatores associados à alimentação complementar oportuna em menores de um ano. MÉTODOS: Participaram do estudo 1 176 crianças, durante a Campanha Nacional de Vacinação de 2003, em São Bernardo do Campo (SP, cujos acompanhantes responderam questionário que incluiu questões sobre a alimentação da criança nas 24 horas precedentes. A estimativa da prevalência de consumo dos alimentos complementares foi realizada por um modelo de regressão logística ajustado por idade; as medianas de introdução de alimentos por análise de sobrevida e os fatores associados à alimentação complementar oportuna por regressão de Poisson com ajuste robusto de variância e seleção hierarquizada de variáveis. RESULTADOS: Observou-se introdução precoce de alimentos complementares: no quarto mês, cerca de um terço das crianças recebiam suco de fruta e um quarto das crianças recebiam mingau, fruta ou sopa, ao passo que a probabilidade de consumir a comida da família aos oito meses foi baixa (48%. A mediana de idade para o consumo de frutas foi de 266 dias (IC95% 256-275, de papa de legumes foi 258 dias (IC95% 250-264 e comida da família, 292 dias (IC 95% 287-303. Os fatores associados ao consumo de alimentos sólidos antes dos seis meses de idade foram: sistema de assistência à saúde; idade materna; trabalho materno e uso de chupeta. CONCLUSÃO: O consumo precoce de alimentos sólidos, um risco potencial para a saúde infantil e para o desenvolvimento de doenças crônicas na idade adulta, evidenciam a necessidade de ações programáticas para reversão deste quadro.OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the complementary feeding practices and the factors associated with the appropriate timing of complementary feeding in children under one year of age. METHODS: The parents or caregivers of 1,176 children who attended the National Immunization Campaign in São Bernardo

  7. Semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckhardt, U.

    1978-04-01

    Semidefinite linear complementarity problems arise by discretization of variational inequalities describing e.g. elastic contact problems, free boundary value problems etc. In the present paper linear complementarity problems are introduced and the theory as well as the numerical treatment of them are described. In the special case of semidefinite linear complementarity problems a numerical method is presented which combines the advantages of elimination and iteration methods without suffering from their drawbacks. This new method has very attractive properties since it has a high degree of invariance with respect to the representation of the set of all feasible solutions of a linear complementarity problem by linear inequalities. By means of some practical applications the properties of the new method are demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  8. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how different feeding methods may affect the learning of feeding, sorting, and competitive behavior of growing dairy heifers. We hypothesized that heifers previously fed a total mixed ration (TMR) would distribute their feeding time more evenly throughout the day, sort the new ration less, compete less for feed, maintain a more solid fecal consistency, and continue to grow rapidly compared with heifers previously fed a top-dressed ration (TDR). Thirty-two Holstein heifers (237.2+/-21.9 d of age) were divided into 8 groups of 4 and exposed to 1 of 2 treatments for 13 wk: 1) TMR or 2) TDR, with each containing 65% grass/alfalfa haylage and 35% textured concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Following this feeding period, all heifers were switched to an unfamiliar TMR containing 56.1% grass/alfalfa haylage, 21.0% corn silage, 21.0% high-moisture corn, and 1.9% mineral supplement (DM basis) for 7 wk. Group DM intakes were recorded daily throughout the experiment. Feeding behavior, recorded using time-lapse video, and sorting behavior were measured for 7 d during wk 1, 4, and 7 after the dietary change. Feeding competition was measured on d 2, 4, and 6 of each recording week. Sorting activity was determined through particle size analysis of the fresh feed and orts. The particle size separator separated feed into 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting of each fraction was calculated as actual intake expressed as a percentage of predicted intake. Animals were scored for fecal consistency twice weekly, using a scale from 1 (liquid) to 4 (solid). Heifers were weighed every 2 wk. Neither DM intake (9.0 kg/d) nor average daily gain (1.2 kg/d) differed between treatments. Sorting also did not differ between treatments. Heifers tended to spend more time feeding if they had previously been fed a TDR (198.8 vs. 186.8 min/d). As they had done before the dietary change, heifers previously fed the TDR spent more time at the

  9. Balancing charge in the complementarity-determining regions of humanized mAbs without affecting pI reduces non-specific binding and improves the pharmacokinetics.

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    Datta-Mannan, Amita; Thangaraju, Arunkumar; Leung, Donmienne; Tang, Ying; Witcher, Derrick R; Lu, Jirong; Wroblewski, Victor J

    2015-01-01

    Lowering the isoelectric point (pI) through engineering the variable region or framework of an IgG can improve its exposure and half-life via a reduction in clearance mediated through non-specific interactions. As such, net charge is a potentially important property to consider in developing therapeutic IgG molecules having favorable pharmaceutical characteristics. Frequently, it may not be possible to shift the pI of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) dramatically without the introduction of other liabilities such as increased off-target interactions or reduced on-target binding properties. In this report, we explored the influence of more subtle modifications of molecular charge on the in vivo properties of an IgG1 and IgG4 monoclonal antibody. Molecular surface modeling was used to direct residue substitutions in the complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) to disrupt positive charge patch regions, resulting in a reduction in net positive charge without affecting the overall pI of the mAbs. The effect of balancing the net positive charge on non-specific binding was more significant for the IgG4 versus the IgG1 molecule that we examined. This differential effect was connected to the degree of influence on cellular degradation in vitro and in vivo clearance, distribution and metabolism in mice. In the more extreme case of the IgG4, balancing the charge yielded an ∼7-fold improvement in peripheral exposure, as well as significantly reduced tissue catabolism and subsequent excretion of proteolyzed products in urine. Balancing charge on the IgG1 molecule had a more subtle influence on non-specific binding and yielded only a modest alteration in clearance, distribution and elimination. These results suggest that balancing CDR charge without affecting the pI can lead to improved mAb pharmacokinetics, the magnitude of which is likely dependent on the relative influence of charge imbalance and other factors affecting the molecule's disposition.

  10. Recomendações para alimentação complementar de crianças menores de dois anos Recommendations for the complementary feeding of children under age two years

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    Mara Cláudia Azevedo Pinto Dias

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo revisar as recomendações atuais sobre a alimentação complementar de crianças menores de dois anos a partir da pesquisa em banco de dados - SciELO, MedLine e Lilacs - e de publicações da Organização Mundial da Saúde e do Ministério da Saúde. Utilizou-se o descritor desmame ou weaning e definiram-se os limites de crianças de 0 a 23 meses, período de publicação de 2002 a 2006 e idioma de redação em português, inglês e espanhol. Nos últimos anos acumularam-se evidências científicas sobre a importância da amamentação exclusiva nos primeiros seis meses, da alimentação complementar oportuna e da manutenção do aleitamento materno até os dois anos ou mais. A alimentação complementar adequada deve compreender alimentos ricos em energia, proteína e micronutrientes, sem contaminação, sem excesso de sal ou condimentos, em quantidade apropriada, fáceis de preparar, assegurando-se a consistência e a densidade energética adequadas. A família tem papel decisivo na formação de novos hábitos, no autocontrole da ingestão alimentar e na formação de um padrão de comportamento alimentar que pode ser adequado ou não. A introdução da alimentação complementar é uma etapa crítica e vários são os prejuízos do aleitamento artificial e da introdução precoce e/ou inadequada dos alimentos. Aos profissionais da saúde cabe orientar os pais quanto às práticas da alimentação complementar apropriada e orientar as ações governamentais, tendo como objetivo máximo o crescimento e o desenvolvimento pleno das crianças menores de dois anos.The objective of the present study was to review the current recommendations on the complementary feeding of children younger than two years of age. The keyword weaning was used to search the databases SciELO, MedLine and Lilacs for articles on the subject. Publications from the World Health Organization and the Brazilian Ministry of Health were also

  11. Complementarity and stability conditions

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    Howard Georgi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the issue of complementarity between the confining phase and the Higgs phase for gauge theories in which there are no light particles below the scale of confinement or spontaneous symmetry breaking. We show with a number of examples that even though the low energy effective theories are the same (and trivial, discontinuous changes in the structure of heavy stable particles can signal a phase transition and thus we can sometimes argue that two phases which have different structures of heavy particles that cannot be continuously connected and thus the phases cannot be complementary. We discuss what this means and suggest that such “stability conditions” can be a useful physical check for complementarity.

  12. Complementares? Sim, obrigado

    OpenAIRE

    Candeias, Analisa; Peres, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Cada vez mais no âmbito da saúde e dos cuidados é necessário encontrar novas formas de estar, de cuidar e de conceber cuidados. As práticas complementares aos cuidados de que são exemplo a acupuntura, o shiatsu, a reflexologia, são cada vez mais estudadas e investigadas, sendo sem dúvida procuradas pelos cidadãos.

  13. Aleitamento materno, alimentação complementar, sobrepeso e obesidade em pré-escolares Amamantamiento materno, alimentación complementaria, sobrepeso y obesidad en preescolares Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, overweight and obesity in pre-school children

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    Viviane Gabriela Nascimento Simon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a associação do sobrepeso e da obesidade com o aleitamento materno e a alimentação complementar em pré-escolares. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal envolvendo 566 crianças matriculadas em escolas particulares no município de São Paulo, SP, 2004-2005. A variável dependente foi sobrepeso e obesidade. Para a classificação do estado nutricional das crianças foram utilizadas as curvas de percentis do Índice de Massa Corporal para idade, classificando como sobrepeso valores e"P85 e OBJETIVO: Analizar la asociación del sobrepeso y de la obesidad con el amamantamiento materno y la alimentación complementaria en preescolares. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal envolviendo 566 niños matriculados en escuelas privadas en el municipio de Sao Paulo (Sureste de Brasil, 2004-2005. La variable dependiente fue sobrepeso y obesidad. Para la clasificación del estado nutricional de los niños fueron utilizadas las curvas de percentiles del índice de masa corporal para edad, clasificando como sobrepeso valores ?P85 y OBJECTIVE: To analyze the association of overweight and obesity with breastfeeding and complementary feeding in pre-school children. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 566 children, enrolled in private schools of the city of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2004-2005. The dependent variable was overweight and obesity. Body Mass Index percentile curves were employed to classify children's nutritional status, considering values e"P85 and feeding; and current feeding. Analysis of association between explanatory variables and outcome was performed with simple logistic regression and multiple logistic regression with hierarchical model. RESULTS: Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population studied

  14. How does supplementary feeding affect endoparasite infection in wild boar?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oja, Ragne; Velstrom, Kaisa; Moks, Epp

    2017-01-01

    , as well as accumulation of parasites in the environment, may increase parasite prevalence. Our aim was to investigate whether host density or the number of feeding sites drives endoparasite infection in an Estonian wild boar (Sus scrofa) population. For this, we collected wild boar faeces from forests...... contamination or indicate that supplementary feeding sites are suitable habitat for soil-dwelling nematodes. These results suggest that the effects of supplementary feeding on parasite prevalence in wild boar are mediated by the characteristics of parasite life cycles....

  15. Alimentação complementar em crianças no segundo ano de vida Alimentación complementar en niños en el segundo año de vida Complementary feeding of children in the second year of life

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    Cláudia Regina L. Alves

    2012-12-01

    sobre las prácticas de alimentación de sus hijos. Se compararon las prácticas alimentares de los niños en LMC con aquellos SLM por medio de las pruebas chi cuadrado o exacto de Fisher, t de Student y Kruskal-Wallis, con un nivel de significancia de 5%. RESULTADOS: Fueron evaluados 118 niños con promedio de edad de 16,8±4,0 meses, siendo que el 35% de ellos todavía eran amamantadas y el 15,3% mantuvieron lactancia exclusiva por seis meses. En los niños amamantados, la duración mediana de la lactancia exclusiva fue de cuatro meses y, en los destetados, dos meses (p=0,13. En ambos grupos, hubo introducción temprana de alimentos complementares, elevado consumo de alimentos industrializados, alta prevalencia de consumo diario de aceites/grasas (90,7% y bajo consumo de frutas (38,1%. CONCLUSIÓN: Los resultados apuntan prácticas alimentares inadecuadas en los lactantes, independiente de la recomendación de consumo de leche materna, denotando la necesidad de perfeccionamiento e integración de las acciones de promoción de la lactancia materna y alimentación sana en los servicios de atención primaria a la salud.OBJECTIVE: To study the eating habits of children in their second year of life, comparing these habits in children that received complementary breastfed to the ones who weaned before 12 months of life. METHODS: Cross-sectional study involving children aged 12 to 24 months in a primary health care service in Belo Horizonte, in the state of Minas Gerais, Southeast Brazil. Mothers were interviewed about the feeding practices of their children. The eating habits of complementary breastfed children were compared to those who weaned before 12 months of life by the chi-square, Fisher, Student's t, and Kruskal-Wallis tests, with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: 118 children were included with a mean age of 16.8±4.0 months. About 35% of them were still breastfed and only 15.3% kept exclusive breastfeeding for six months. In breastfed children the median

  16. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted with eighteen rumen cannulated sheep fed on a chopped lucerne diet. Previous level of intake significantly influenced the level at which sheep initially established voluntary feed intake. This difference had disappeared after three weeks on an ad lib. intake. Perturbation analysis of the results ...

  17. Feeding Frequency Affects Cultured Rat Pituitary Cells in Low Gravity

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    Hymer, W. C.; Grindeland, R. E.; Salada, T.; Cenci, R.; Krishnan, K.; Mukai, C.; Nagaoka, S.

    1996-01-01

    In this report, we describe the results of a rat pituitary cell culture experiment done on STS-65 in which the effect of cell feeding on the release of the six anterior pituitary hormones was studied. We found complex microgravity related interactions between the frequency of cell feeding and the quantity and quality (i.e. biological activity) of some of the six hormones released in flight. Analyses of growth hormone (GH) released from cells into culture media on different mission days using gel filtration and ion exchange chromatography yielded qualitatively similar results between ground and flight samples. Lack of cell feeding resulted in extensive cell clumping in flight (but not ground) cultures. Vigorous fibroblast growth occurred in both ground and flight cultures fed 4 times. These results are interpreted within the context of autocrine and or paracrine feedback interactions. Finally the payload specialist successfully prepared a fresh trypsin solution in microgravity, detached the cells from their surface and reinserted them back into the culture chamber. These cells reattached and continued to release hormone in microgravity. In summary, this experiment shows that pituitary cells are microgravity sensitive and that coupled operations routinely associated with laboratory cel1 culture can also be accomplished in low gravity.

  18. Adenovirus-mediated suppression of hypothalamic glucokinase affects feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uranga, Romina María; Millán, Carola; Barahona, María José; Recabal, Antonia; Salgado, Magdiel; Martinez, Fernando; Ordenes, Patricio; Elizondo-Vega, Roberto; Sepúlveda, Fernando; Uribe, Elena; García-Robles, María de Los Ángeles

    2017-06-16

    Glucokinase (GK), the hexokinase involved in glucosensing in pancreatic β-cells, is also expressed in arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons and hypothalamic tanycytes, the cells that surround the basal third ventricle (3V). Several lines of evidence suggest that tanycytes may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Tanycytes have extended cell processes that contact the feeding-regulating neurons in the AN, particularly, agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. In this study, we developed an adenovirus expressing GK shRNA to inhibit GK expression in vivo. When injected into the 3V of rats, this adenovirus preferentially transduced tanycytes. qRT-PCR and Western blot assays confirmed GK mRNA and protein levels were lower in GK knockdown animals compared to the controls. In response to an intracerebroventricular glucose injection, the mRNA levels of anorexigenic POMC and CART and orexigenic AgRP and NPY neuropeptides were altered in GK knockdown animals. Similarly, food intake, meal duration, frequency of eating events and the cumulative eating time were increased, whereas the intervals between meals were decreased in GK knockdown rats, suggesting a decrease in satiety. Thus, GK expression in the ventricular cells appears to play an important role in feeding behavior.

  19. Factors affecting the voluntary feed intake of sheep grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The factors which are detrimental to forage quality such as oxalates and nitrates are higher in the young and actively growing material than in older material, while the in vitro production of foam seems unrelated to forage quality and remained high despite changes in other factors which detrimentally affected forage quality.

  20. Nocturnal Light Pulses Lower Carbon Dioxide Production Rate without Affecting Feed Intake in Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Jia Huang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of nocturnal light pulses (NLPs on the feed intake and metabolic rate in geese. Fourteen adult Chinese geese were penned individually, and randomly assigned to either the C (control or NLP group. The C group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod (12 h light and 12 h darkness per day, whereas the NLP group was exposed to a 12L:12D photoperiod inserted by 15-min lighting at 2-h intervals in the scotophase. The weight of the feed was automatically recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 wk. The fasting carbon dioxide production rate (CO2 PR was recorded at 1-min intervals for 1 d. The results revealed that neither the daily feed intake nor the feed intakes during both the daytime and nighttime were affected by photoperiodic regimen, and the feed intake during the daytime did not differ from that during the nighttime. The photoperiodic treatment did not affect the time distribution of feed intake. However, NLPs lowered (p<0.05 the mean and minimal CO2 PR during both the daytime and nighttime. Both the mean and minimal CO2 PR during the daytime were significantly higher (p<0.05 than those during the nighttime. We concluded that NLPs lowered metabolic rate of the geese, but did not affect the feed intake; both the mean and minimal CO2 PR were higher during the daytime than during the nighttime.

  1. Management factors affecting mortality, feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, P S; Fahey, A G; Manzanilla, E G; O'Doherty, J V; de Blas, C; Gasa, J

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of animal management and farm facilities on total feed intake (TFI), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and mortality rate (MORT) of grower-finishing pigs. In total, 310 batches from 244 grower-finishing farms, consisting of 454 855 Pietrain sired pigs in six Spanish pig companies were used. Data collection consisted of a survey on management practices (season of placement, split-sex by pens, number of pig origins, water source in the farm, initial or final BW) and facilities (floor, feeder, ventilation or number of animals placed) during 2008 and 2009. Results indicated that batches of pigs placed between January and March had higher TFI (P=0.006), FCR (P=0.005) and MORT (P=0.03) than those placed between July and September. Moreover, batches of pigs placed between April and June had lower MORT (P=0.003) than those placed between January and March. Batches which had split-sex pens had lower TFI (P=0.001) and better FCR (P<0.001) than those with mixed-sex in pens; pigs fed with a single-space feeder with incorporated drinker also had the lowest TFI (P<0.001) and best FCR (P<0.001) in comparison to single and multi-space feeders without a drinker. Pigs placed in pens with <50% slatted floors presented an improvement in FCR (P<0.05) than pens with 50% or more slatted floors. Batches filled with pigs from multiple origins had higher MORT (P<0.001) than those from a single origin. Pigs housed in barns that performed manual ventilation control presented higher MORT (P<0.001) in comparison to automatic ventilation. The regression analysis also indicated that pigs which entered to grower-finisher facilities with higher initial BW had lower MORT (P<0.05) and finally pigs which were sent to slaughterhouse with a higher final BW presented higher TFI (P<0.001). The variables selected for each dependent variable explained 61.9%, 24.8% and 20.4% of the total variability for TFI, FCR and MORT, respectively. This study indicates that

  2. Birth-Order Complementarity and Marital Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vos, Cornelia J. Vanderkooy; Hayden, Delbert J.

    1985-01-01

    Tested the influence of birth-order complementarity on marital adjustment among 327 married women using the Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (1976). Birth-order complementarity was found to be unassociated with marital adjustment. (Author/BL)

  3. Maternal negative affect is associated with emotional feeding practices and emotional eating in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Campbell, Karen J; Wertheim, Eleanor H; Skouteris, Helen; Gibbons, Kay

    2014-09-01

    Although mothers of young children frequently experience negative affect, little is known about the association between these symptoms and their children's eating behaviors. We aimed to test a model in which maternal negative affect would be related to maternal emotional eating which in turn would be associated with child emotional eating through maternal feeding practices (emotional and instrumental feeding) in a cross-sectional sample of mothers and their children. A sample of 306 mothers (mean age = 35.0 years, SD = 0.46) of 2-year-old children completed a survey assessing symptoms of depression, anxiety and stress, maternal emotional eating, maternal feeding practices, and child emotional eating. Maternal symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress were correlated with maternal emotional eating (p emotional eating (p emotional eating. As this model was theoretically plausible these changes were made. The resulting model proved a good fit to the data, χ2 = 17.36, p = .098, and explained 29% of the variance in child emotional eating. High levels of negative affect and associated emotional eating in mothers may contribute to the use of instrumental and emotional feeding practices. Our findings suggested that maternal negative affect has an indirect effect on children's emotional eating, primarily through mothers' own emotional eating and feeding her child to regulate the child's emotions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Emotional Feeding and Emotional Eating: Reciprocal Processes and the Influence of Negative Affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Barker, Edward D; Llewellyn, Clare; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-04-25

    Emotional eating, that is, eating more in response to negative mood, is often seen in children. But the origins of emotional eating remain unclear. In a representative community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds followed up at ages 6, 8, and 10 years (analysis sample: n = 801), one potential developmental pathway was examined: a reciprocal relation between parental emotional feeding and child emotional eating. The results revealed that higher levels of emotional feeding predicted higher levels of emotional eating and vice versa, adjusting for body mass index and initial levels of feeding and eating. Higher levels of temperamental negative affectivity (at age 4) increased the risk for future emotional eating and feeding. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  5. Complementarity in Categorical Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heunen, Chris

    2012-07-01

    We relate notions of complementarity in three layers of quantum mechanics: (i) von Neumann algebras, (ii) Hilbert spaces, and (iii) orthomodular lattices. Taking a more general categorical perspective of which the above are instances, we consider dagger monoidal kernel categories for (ii), so that (i) become (sub)endohomsets and (iii) become subobject lattices. By developing a `point-free' definition of copyability we link (i) commutative von Neumann subalgebras, (ii) classical structures, and (iii) Boolean subalgebras.

  6. Circadian and feeding rhythms differentially affect rhythmic mRNA transcription and translation in mouse liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atger, Florian; Gobet, Cédric; Marquis, Julien; Martin, Eva; Wang, Jingkui; Weger, Benjamin; Lefebvre, Grégory; Descombes, Patrick; Naef, Felix; Gachon, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression are a hallmark of rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Such oscillations are controlled by the interplay between the circadian clock and feeding rhythms. Although rhythmic mRNA accumulation has been extensively studied, comparatively less is known about their transcription and translation. Here, we quantified simultaneously temporal transcription, accumulation, and translation of mouse liver mRNAs under physiological light–dark conditions and ad libitum or night-restricted feeding in WT and brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1)-deficient animals. We found that rhythmic transcription predominantly drives rhythmic mRNA accumulation and translation for a majority of genes. Comparison of wild-type and Bmal1 KO mice shows that circadian clock and feeding rhythms have broad impact on rhythmic gene expression, Bmal1 deletion affecting surprisingly both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Translation efficiency is differentially regulated during the diurnal cycle for genes with 5′-Terminal Oligo Pyrimidine tract (5′-TOP) sequences and for genes involved in mitochondrial activity, many harboring a Translation Initiator of Short 5′-UTR (TISU) motif. The increased translation efficiency of 5′-TOP and TISU genes is mainly driven by feeding rhythms but Bmal1 deletion also affects amplitude and phase of translation, including TISU genes. Together this study emphasizes the complex interconnections between circadian and feeding rhythms at several steps ultimately determining rhythmic gene expression and translation. PMID:26554015

  7. Posttreatment Feeding Affects Mortality of Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) Exposed to Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narinderpal; Wang, Changlu; Cooper, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Insecticide sprays and dusts are used for controlling bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. In natural environments, bed bugs have daily access to hosts after they are exposed to insecticides. The established laboratory insecticide bioassay protocols do not provide feeding after insecticide treatments, which can result in inflated mortality compared with what would be encountered in the field. We evaluated the effect of posttreatment feeding on mortality of bed bugs treated with different insecticides. None of the insecticides tested had a significant effect on the amount of blood consumed and percent feeding. The effect of posttreatment feeding on bed bug mortality varied among different insecticides. Feeding significantly reduced mortality in bed bugs exposed to deltamethrin spray, an essential oil mixture (Bed Bug Fix) spray, and diatomaceous earth dust. Feeding increased the mean survival time for bed bugs treated with chlorfenapyr spray and a spray containing an essential oil mixture (Ecoraider), but did not affect the final mortality. First instars hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray had reduced feeding compared with nymphs hatched from nontreated eggs. Those nymphs hatched from eggs treated with chlorfenapyr liquid spray and successfully fed had reduced mortality and a higher mean survival time than those without feeding. We conclude that the availability of a bloodmeal after insecticide exposure has a significant effect on bed bug mortality. Protocols for insecticide efficacy testing should consider offering a bloodmeal to the treated bed bugs within 1 to 3 d after treatment. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Conception of Anthropological Complementarism. An Introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hoche, Prof. em. Dr. Hans-Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    The aims of 'Anthropological Complementarism' in a nutshell(sect. 1). Against a watered-down conception of psychophysical complementarity (sect. 2). Linguistic and logical problems of identity and non-identity (sect. 3). A 'noematic' approach to consciousness (sect. 4). A plea for a pure noematics (sect. 5). My own consciousness as experienced by myself is not a part of nature (sect. 6). The major ontological tenets of mine (sect. 7). Complementarism proper (sect. 8). Suitable and unsuitable ...

  9. Traversable Wormholes and Black Hole Complementarity

    OpenAIRE

    Gottesman, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Black hole complementarity is incompatible with the existence of traversable wormholes. In fact, traversable wormholes cause problems for any theory where information comes out in the Hawking radiation.

  10. Rescuing complementarity with little drama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, Ning [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena (United States); Bouland, Adam [Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge (United States); Chatwin-Davies, Aidan; Pollack, Jason [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena (United States); Yuen, Henry [Computer Science Division, University of California, Berkeley,Berkeley (United States)

    2016-12-07

    The AMPS paradox challenges black hole complementarity by apparently constructing a way for an observer to bring information from the outside of the black hole into its interior if there is no drama at its horizon, making manifest a violation of monogamy of entanglement. We propose a new resolution to the paradox: this violation cannot be explicitly checked by an infalling observer in the finite proper time they have to live after crossing the horizon. Our resolution depends on a weak relaxation of the no-drama condition (we call it “little-drama”) which is the “complementarity dual” of scrambling of information on the stretched horizon. When translated to the description of the black hole interior, this implies that the fine-grained quantum information of infalling matter is rapidly diffused across the entire interior while classical observables and coarse-grained geometry remain unaffected. Under the assumption that information has diffused throughout the interior, we consider the difficulty of the information-theoretic task that an observer must perform after crossing the event horizon of a Schwarzschild black hole in order to verify a violation of monogamy of entanglement. We find that the time required to complete a necessary subroutine of this task, namely the decoding of Bell pairs from the interior and the late radiation, takes longer than the maximum amount of time that an observer can spend inside the black hole before hitting the singularity. Therefore, an infalling observer cannot observe monogamy violation before encountering the singularity.

  11. Identification of nonviable genes affecting touch sensitivity in Caenorhabditis elegans using neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoyin; Cuadros, Margarete Diaz; Chalfie, Martin

    2015-01-09

    Caenorhabditis elegans senses gentle touch along the body via six touch receptor neurons. Although genetic screens and microarray analyses have identified several genes needed for touch sensitivity, these methods miss pleiotropic genes that are essential for the viability, movement, or fertility of the animals. We used neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference to screen genes that cause lethality or paralysis when mutated, and we identified 61 such genes affecting touch sensitivity, including five positive controls. We confirmed 18 genes by using available alleles, and further studied one of them, tag-170, now renamed txdc-9. txdc-9 preferentially affects anterior touch response but is needed for tubulin acetylation and microtubule formation in both the anterior and posterior touch receptor neurons. Our results indicate that neuronally enhanced feeding RNA interference screens complement traditional mutageneses by identifying additional nonviable genes needed for specific neuronal functions. Copyright © 2015 Chen et al.

  12. Adult carbohydrate feeding affects reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordao, Alexandre L., E-mail: aljordao@hotmail.co [Instituto de Pesquisas Cientificas e Tecnologicas do Estado do Amapa (IEPA), Macapa, AP (Brazil); Nakano, Octavio, E-mail: onakano@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Janeiro, Vanderly, E-mail: vjaneiro@hotmail.co [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Estatistica

    2010-06-15

    Reproduction of most insects depend on nutrients accumulated during the larval stage, but many lepidopteran species will also depend on nutrients obtained at the adult stage. Feeding at the adult stage allows the intake of carbohydrate and amino acid rich solutions, which may have an effect on the species reproduction and population growth. The objectives of the current study were to characterize the effects of sugar consumption by adults of the potato tuber moth, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller), on its reproduction. To initially test the food intake by adults, a 10% honey solution or water (control), both containing a liquid dye were offered to adult insects 24 h after emergence, and the presence of the dye was observed by analysis of their digestive system. The effects of adult feeding on a 10% honey solution on the reproductive performance of P. operculella were evaluated by assessing the oviposition rate, fecundity and fertility. Adult feeding was proved by the presence of the dye within the digestive system of adults of P. operculella. Although the oviposition rate and fertility were not affected by adult feeding, female fecundity was higher in honey-fed females as compared to the water-fed females. (author)

  13. Modelling switching power converters as complementarity systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camlibel, Mehmet; Iannelli, Luigi; Vasca, Francesco

    2004-01-01

    Switched complementarity models of linear circuits with ideal diodes and/or ideal switches allow one to study well-posedness and stability issues for these circuits by employing the complementarity problems of the mathematical programming. In this paper, we demonstrate that other types of typical

  14. Epiphytic bacteria on lettuce affect the feeding behavior of an invasive pest slug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birte Peters

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant–animal interactions are not isolated pairwise relationships but are always accompanied by diverse assemblages of microbes. Additional to direct effects of microorganisms on their hosts, recent investigations demonstrated that bacteria associated with plants can modify the behavior of organisms of higher trophic levels. However, in the context of herbivory, functions of non-phytopathogenic bacteria colonizing leaf surfaces remain understudied. This study showed that naturally occurring epiphytic bacteria affect the feeding behavior of a generalist herbivore. Epiphytic bacteria isolated from leaves of Lactuca sativa var. capitata were screened for their potential to influence feeding choices of the slug Arion vulgaris. Cultivated bacteria were inoculated in artificial food substrates or on sterile leaves of gnotobiotic lettuce plants and were offered to slugs in different behavioral bioassays. A large proportion of bacterial strains tested induced behavioral alterations in the feeding choices of slugs. Behavioral responses of slugs were further modified by antibiotic treatment of slugs prior to choice tests indicating that both bacteria associated with plants and animals affect plant–animal interactions. Our results emphasize the important role of bacteria in plant–animal interactions and suggest a prominent role of bacteria in herbivory in natural, horticultural, and agricultural systems.

  15. Feeding levels during the growing phase affect the production of primiparous Finnish Landrace ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. SORMUNEN-CRISTIAN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different feeding levels on the performance of primiparous ewes was studied in 31 Finnish Landrace ewes bred to lamb at the age of one year. Ewe lambs, initially weighing on average 19.2 kg (SEM 0.63, were placed on a low (L, standard (S or high (H level of feeding from 2 months of age to the end of mating and from 2 months pre-partum to the end of 8-week lactation. Changes in live weight were affected by the diet. During rearing, the ewe lambs on L diet gained significantly less (18.0 vs. 24.1 kg/lamb, P

  16. Feeding Experience of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Affects Their Performance on Different Host Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, M. Mostafizur Rahman; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B is extremely polyphagous with >600 species of host plants. We hypothesized that previous experience of the whitefly on a given host plant affects their host selection and performance on the plants without previous experience. We investigated the host selection for feeding and oviposition of adults and development and survival of immatures of three host-plant-experienced populations of B. tabaci, namely Bemisia-eggplant, Bemisia-tomato and Bemisia-cucumber, on their experienced host plant and each of the three other plant species (eggplant, tomato, cucumber and pepper) without previous experience. We found that the influence of previous experience of the whiteflies varied among the populations. All populations refused pepper for feeding and oviposition, whereas the Bemisia-cucumber and the Bemisia-eggplant strongly preferred cucumber. Bemisia-tomato did not show strong preference to any of the three host palnts. Development time from egg to adult eclosion varied among the populations, being shortest on eggplant, longest on pepper, and intermediate on tomato and cucumber except for the Bemisia-cucumber developed similarly on tomato and pepper. The survivorship from egg to adult eclosion of all populations was highest on eggplant (80-98%), lowest on pepper (0-20%), and intermediate on tomato and cucumber. In conclusion, the effects of previous experience of whiteflies on host selection for feeding and oviposition, development, and survivorship varied depending on host plants, and host plants play a stronger role than previous experience. Preference of feeding and oviposition by adults may not accurately reflect host suitability of immatures. These results provided important information for understanding whitefly population dynamics and dispersal among different crop systems. PMID:24146985

  17. Water level affects availability of optimal feeding habitats for threatened migratory waterbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharon-Rotman, Yaara; McEvoy, John; Zhaoju, Zheng; Yu, Hui; Wang, Xin; Si, Yali; Xu, Zhenggang; Yuan, Zeng; Jeong, Wooseog; Cao, Lei; Fox, Anthony D

    2017-12-01

    Extensive ephemeral wetlands at Poyang Lake, created by dramatic seasonal changes in water level, constitute the main wintering site for migratory Anatidae in China. Reductions in wetland area during the last 15 years have led to proposals to build a Poyang Dam to retain high winter water levels within the lake. Changing the natural hydrological system will affect waterbirds dependent on water level changes for food availability and accessibility. We tracked two goose species with different feeding behaviors (greater white-fronted geese Anser albifrons [grazing species] and swan geese Anser cygnoides [tuber-feeding species]) during two winters with contrasting water levels (continuous recession in 2015; sustained high water in 2016, similar to those predicted post-Poyang Dam), investigating the effects of water level change on their habitat selection based on vegetation and elevation. In 2015, white-fronted geese extensively exploited sequentially created mudflats, feeding on short nutritious graminoid swards, while swan geese excavated substrates along the water edge for tubers. This critical dynamic ecotone successively exposes subaquatic food and supports early-stage graminoid growth during water level recession. During sustained high water levels in 2016, both species selected mudflats, but also to a greater degree of habitats with longer established seasonal graminoid swards because access to tubers and new graminoid growth was restricted under high-water conditions. Longer established graminoid swards offer less energetically profitable forage for both species. Substantial reduction in suitable habitat and confinement to less profitable forage by higher water levels is likely to reduce the ability of geese to accumulate sufficient fat stores for migration, with potential carryover effects on subsequent survival and reproduction. Our results suggest that high water levels in Poyang Lake should be retained during summer, but permitted to gradually recede

  18. How does feed with different levels of vegetable origin affect the sensory quality of ice storage Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldig, Grethe; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Holm, Jørgen

    such as soy oil or rapeseed oil combined with vegetable proteins. Such a change in feeding regime will result in a “green fish” and may affect flesh quality and eating quality. The objective was to study the effect of vegetable based feed on sensory of ice storage farmed rainbow trout. Experimental design...... carnivores, is facing major challenges as a consequence of the limited access in future sustainable resources of wild fish or other sea living organisms from a lower trophic level for feed production. Consequently, alternative feeding regimes are now considered e.g. use of components of vegetable origin...... and methods Feed trials Rainbow trout were farmed in tanks at Biomar A/S, Hirtshals and fed on six different diets covering only marine, only vegetables and mixture of marine and vegetable feeds. Trout for the quality study were slaughtered, vacuum-packed and stored at -80°C until analysis. Sensory Quality...

  19. The Kantian framework of complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuffaro, Michael

    A growing number of commentators have, in recent years, noted the important affinities in the views of Immanuel Kant and Niels Bohr. While these commentators are correct, the picture they present of the connections between Bohr and Kant is painted in broad strokes; it is open to the criticism that these affinities are merely superficial. In this essay, I provide a closer, structural, analysis of both Bohr's and Kant's views that makes these connections more explicit. In particular, I demonstrate the similarities between Bohr's argument, on the one hand, that neither the wave nor the particle description of atomic phenomena pick out an object in the ordinary sense of the word, and Kant's requirement, on the other hand, that both 'mathematical' (having to do with magnitude) and 'dynamical' (having to do with an object's interaction with other objects) principles must be applicable to appearances in order for us to determine them as objects of experience. I argue that Bohr's 'complementarity interpretation' of quantum mechanics, which views atomic objects as idealizations, and which licenses the repeal of the principle of causality for the domain of atomic physics, is perfectly compatible with, and indeed follows naturally from a broadly Kantian epistemological framework.

  20. Feeding on different attractive flowering plants affects the energy reserves of Culex pipiens pallens adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bao-Ting; Hu, Yin; Ding, Yan-Mei; Tian, Jia-Xin; Mo, Jian-Chu

    2018-01-01

    Mosquito adults usually need to ingest sugar from nectar host plants to sustain their metabolic needs. Mosquitoes could be differentially attracted by various flowering plant species, and the volatiles were thought to be important factors attributed to the differential attractiveness. However, whether mosquitoes' preference for host plants correlates with their nutritional rewards from sugar sources remains unclear. In the present study, the preference of newly emerged Culex pipiens pallens to three kinds of flowering plants (Ligustrum quihoui, Abelia chinensis, and Nerium indicum) was determined in the olfactometer. Besides, when the newly emerged mosquitoes were provided with these flowering plants as sugar sources, the content of their metabolic reserves (glycogen, lipid, and protein) was determined. The results revealed that Cx. pipiens pallens could be differentially attracted by the odors emitted by the inflorescences of the tested flowering plants, and the nutritional rewards of mosquitoes were significantly affected by feeding on different inflorescences. The present study demonstrated that feeding on nectar host plants with differential attraction could affect the energy reserves of Cx. pipiens pallens.

  1. Complementarity beyond physics Niels Bohr's parallels

    CERN Document Server

    Bala, Arun

    2017-01-01

    In this study Arun Bala examines the implications that Niels Bohr’s principle of complementarity holds for fields beyond physics. Bohr, one of the founding figures of modern quantum physics, argued that the principle of complementarity he proposed for understanding atomic processes has parallels in psychology, biology, and social science, as well as in Buddhist and Taoist thought. But Bohr failed to offer any explanation for why complementarity might extend beyond physics, and his claims have been widely rejected by scientists as empty speculation. Scientific scepticism has only been reinforced by the naïve enthusiasm of postmodern relativists and New Age intuitionists, who seize upon Bohr’s ideas to justify anti-realist and mystical positions. Arun Bala offers a detailed defence of Bohr’s claim that complementarity has far-reaching implications for the biological and social sciences, as well as for comparative philosophies of science, by explaining Bohr’s parallels as responses to the omnipresence...

  2. Alimentação complementar de lactentes em uma cidade desenvolvida no contexto de um país em desenvolvimento Supplementary feeding of infants in a developed city within the context of a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Laura Delbue Bernardi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer o momento da introdução de alimentos complementares na dieta dos lactentes no Município de Campinas, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 2 857 crianças menores de 2 anos sorteadas no banco de nascidos vivos (SINASC da secretaria de saúde do município entre 2004 e 2005. As mães responderam a um questionário contendo 87 questões fechadas que coletou informações sociais, sobre aleitamento materno e sobre a época de introdução de outros alimentos. RESULTADOS: A caracterização das mães revelou que 13,5% eram adolescentes, 73,1% completaram o ensino fundamental ou médio, 45,9% desempenhavam funções de nível técnico, 6,7% tinham profissões de nível superior e 2,7% eram profissionais da saúde. O nível socioeconômico médio da população foi da classe C; porém, todas as classes sociais estiveram representadas. A mediana do aleitamento materno exclusivo foi de 90 dias (IC95%: 87,6 a 92,4. Para introdução de água (IC95%: 118,6 a 121,4 e de chá (IC95%: 113,2 a 126,8, a mediana foi de 120 dias; da papa salgada (IC95%: 178,6 a 181,4 e leite em pó (IC95%: 169,0 a 191,0, de 180 dias. Antes dos 4 meses, 39,1% haviam ingerido leite em pó e 2,1% refrigerantes, dados que subiram para 63,2 e 69,1%, respectivamente, com 1 ano. As mulheres que trabalhavam em profissões de nível técnico, as que estavam desempregadas e as que não tinham companheiro ofereceram leite materno por menos tempo. CONCLUSÕES: A mediana do aleitamento materno exclusivo está distante do preconizado devido à oferta de líquidos. A introdução alimentar revelou-se precoce, principalmente para guloseimas.OBJECTIVE: To establish the timing for introducing supplementary foods in the diet of infants from the city of Campinas, state of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 2 857 children younger than 2 years of age randomly selected from the city department of health live birth database

  3. Complementarity of information sent via different bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Yu, Sixia; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We discuss quantitatively the complementarity of information transmitted by a quantum system prepared in a basis state in one out of several different mutually unbiased bases (MUBs). We obtain upper bounds on the information available to a receiver who has no knowledge of which MUB was chosen...... by the sender. These upper bounds imply a complementarity of information encoded via different MUBs and ultimately ensure the security in quantum key distribution protocols....

  4. Uncertainty and complementarity in axiomatic quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    An investigation of the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle is carried through. The physical content of these principles and their representation in the conventional Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics forms a natural starting point. Thereafter is presented more general axiomatic framework for quantum mechanics, namely, a probability function formulation of the theory. Two extra axioms are stated, reflecting the ideas of the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle, respectively. The quantal features of these axioms are explicated. (author)

  5. Complementary feeding practices to children during their first year of life Prácticas de alimentación complementaria en niños dentro del primer año de vida Práticas de alimentação complementar em crianças no primeiro ano de vida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Garcia de Lima Parada

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate complementary feeding practices during children's first year of life in Botucatu, SP, Brazil. Practices were described according to the age range and the breastfeeding (BF practice. Data were collected during a multi-vaccination campaign through the interview of 1,238 individuals who accompanied children younger than one year old being vaccinated. Differences associated with the BF situation were identified by the chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. The early introduction of complementary food was observed, which led to the low frequency of exclusive breastfeeding (36.9% El objetivo fue estudiar las prácticas de alimentación complementaria en el primer año de vida de niños en la región de Botucatu, SP, las cuales fueron descritas según el grupo etáreo y las prácticas de lactancia materna (LM. Fueron entrevistados 1238 acompañantes de niños menores de 1 año vacunados en la Campaña de Vacunación Múltiple. Diferencias asociadas con la situación de LM fueron identificadas a través del test Chi-cuadrado y el test exacto de Fisher. La introducción de alimentos conplementarios fue precoz, lo que produjo una baja frecuencia en la lactancia materna exclusiva (36,9% en Objetivou-se estudar práticas de alimentação complementar no primeiro ano de vida em Botucatu, SP, descrevendo-as segundo faixa etária e presença do aleitamento materno (AM. Foram entrevistados 1.238 acompanhantes das crianças menores de 1 ano vacinadas em Campanha de Multivacinação. Diferenças associadas à situação do AM foram identificadas pelo teste qui-quadrado e teste exato de Fisher. A introdução de alimentos complementares foi precoce, levando à baixa freqüência de aleitamento materno exclusivo (36,9% em <4 meses. Crianças menores de 4 meses consumiram chás (30,7%, crianças entre 4 e 6 meses consumiram frutas (54,1%, sopas (39,9% e comida (19,2%. Sucos foram oferecidos a apenas 15,2% das crianças menores de 4

  6. Mechanisms Affecting the Gut of Preterm Infants in Enteral Feeding Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Embleton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Large randomized controlled trials (RCTs in preterm infants offer unique opportunities for mechanistic evaluation of the risk factors leading to serious diseases, as well as the actions of interventions designed to prevent them. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC a serious inflammatory gut condition and late-onset sepsis (LOS are common feeding and nutrition-related problems that may cause death or serious long-term morbidity and are key outcomes in two current UK National Institutes for Health Research (NIHR trials. Speed of increasing milk feeds trial (SIFT randomized preterm infants to different rates of increases in milk feeds with a primary outcome of survival without disability at 2 years corrected age. Enteral lactoferrin in neonates (ELFIN randomizes infants to supplemental enteral lactoferrin or placebo with a primary outcome of LOS. This is a protocol for the mechanisms affecting the gut of preterm infants in enteral feeding trials (MAGPIE study and is funded by the UK NIHR Efficacy and Mechanistic Evaluation programme. MAGPIE will recruit ~480 preterm infants who were enrolled in SIFT or ELFIN. Participation in MAGPIE does not change the main trial protocols and uses non-invasive sampling of stool and urine, along with any residual resected gut tissue if infants required surgery. Trial interventions may involve effects on gut microbes, metabolites (e.g., short-chain fatty acids, and aspects of host immune function. Current hypotheses suggest that NEC and/or LOS are due to a dysregulated immune system in the context of gut dysbiosis, but mechanisms have not been systematically studied within large RCTs. Microbiomic analysis will use next-generation sequencing, and metabolites will be assessed by mass spectrometry to detect volatile organic and other compounds produced by microbes or the host. We will explore differences between disease cases and controls, as well as exploring the actions of trial interventions. Impacts of this research

  7. Lamb meat quality as affected by a natural or artificial milk feeding regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, M; Bella, M; Priolo, A; Barbagallo, D; Galofaro, V; Landi, C; Pennisi, P

    2006-06-01

    Fourteen Barbaresca lambs were divided into two groups of seven at 24h from birth and reared exclusively on natural milk (NR) or on artificial milk (AR). Lambs were slaughtered at 40 days of age. The NR group tended (Pmeat was darker (Pmeat from the AR group, resulting in a higher (Pmeat than in the NR group. On the other hand, α-linolenic (Pmeat from the NR group than in the AR group, leading to a lower (Pmeat compared to AR meat. Finally, a milk-feeding regime exclusively based on artificial milk adversely affected the dietetic value of lamb meat compared to a natural rearing system, reducing the level of desirable fatty acids such as n-3 series and CLA.

  8. Does a mother singing to her premature baby affect feeding in the neonatal intensive care unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenfeld, Hugh; Eisenfeld, Leonard

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that premature neonates exposed to music have reduced symptoms of stress, faster weight gain, and shorter neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stays. This pilot study attempted to measure contingent effects of mothers' singing during feedings. Mothers sang to their babies during 2 of 4 feedings on 2 consecutive days, logging songs they sang, and subjectively evaluating each feeding. Infants' heart and respiration rates were recorded as well as duration of feeding and volume of fluid taken orally; feeding velocity and percent of feeding goal were calculated. In paired t tests, no significant benefits or deterrents assignable to the singing were observed.

  9. Fillet texture of Rainbow trout as affected by feeding strategy, slaughtering procedure and storage post-mortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgemand, J.; Rønsholdt, B.; Alsted, N.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the enactment of environmental legislation in Denmark, feed expenditure by commercial aquaculture operations has been limited. This development has created a demand for high energy diets, which presently dominate the market place. Such diets limit waste load to the surrounding environment......, but is the quality of the fish as end product affected? It is well established that fillet quality varies according to several factors, including feed composition and feeding regime. An experiment was thus designed to evaluate the effect of differing: i) amount of protein fed ii) amount of fat fed, iii) starvation...

  10. Feeding rates affect stress and non-specific immune responses of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala subjected to hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Xu, Chao; Tian, Hong-Yan; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of feeding rates on stress response, innate immunity and hypoxia resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala. Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding rates (2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7% of body weight/day) for 60 days. Then, fish were subjected to hypoxic conditions and haemato-immunological parameters were analyzed pre- and post-challenge. Low feed ration resulted in decreased liver superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and reduced glutathione contents. Inadequate feeding also adversely affected the immune functions of fish, as was characterized by the relatively low haemato-immunological parameters (including alternative complement (ACH50), myeloperoxidase (MPO), plasma protein profiles and transferring) and high hypoxia-induced mortality. High feed ration did not lead to the improvement in antioxidant capability, immune responses and survival. In addition, plasma cortisol, glucose and transferrin levels as well as lysozyme activities all increased significantly after hypoxia challenge, whereas the opposite was true for plasma ACH50 and MPO activities as well as protein profiles in terms of hypoxia challenge. An interaction between feeding rate and hypoxia was also observed in plasma cortisol, glucose and protein profiles. In conclusion, a feeding rate of 4-5% of body weight/day is optimal to boost the innate immunity of juvenile blunt snout bream. Low ration resulted in decreased antioxidant capability, compromised immune functions and reduced hypoxia resistance, while over feeding did not benefit the health status. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Uncertainty and Complementarity in Axiomatic Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Pekka J.

    1980-11-01

    In this work an investigation of the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle is carried through. A study of the physical content of these principles and their representation in the conventional Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics forms a natural starting point for this analysis. Thereafter is presented more general axiomatic framework for quantum mechanics, namely, a probability function formulation of the theory. In this general framework two extra axioms are stated, reflecting the ideas of the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle, respectively. The quantal features of these axioms are explicated. The sufficiency of the state system guarantees that the observables satisfying the uncertainty principle are unbounded and noncompatible. The complementarity principle implies a non-Boolean proposition structure for the theory. Moreover, nonconstant complementary observables are always noncompatible. The uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle, as formulated in this work, are mutually independent. Some order is thus brought into the confused discussion about the interrelations of these two important principles. A comparison of the present formulations of the uncertainty principle and the complementarity principle with the Jauch formulation of the superposition principle is also given. The mutual independence of the three fundamental principles of the quantum theory is hereby revealed.

  12. Alimentação complementar e estado nutricional de crianças menores de dois anos atendidas no Programa Saúde da Família em Acrelândia, Acre, Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira Complementary feeding and nutritional status of 6-24-month-old children in Acrelândia, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Tarricone Garcia

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de investigar o estado nutricional e alimentação complementar em crianças de 6 a 24 meses, residentes na Amazônia Ocidental Brasileira, um estudo transversal foi realizado na área urbana do Município de Acrelândia, Estado do Acre, com 164 crianças. As prevalências de déficit de estatura/idade e anemia foram de 12% e 40%, respectivamente, e de deficiência de ferro isolada, de 85%. Os níveis séricos das vitaminas A e B12 estavam baixos em 15% e 12% das crianças, respectivamente. Houve baixo consumo alimentar dos seguintes nutrientes (% de crianças abaixo das recomendações: ácido fólico (33%, vitamina C (40%, vitamina A (42%, zinco (46% e ferro (71%. A biodisponibilidade de ferro da dieta foi de 8%. Observou-se baixo consumo de frutas, hortaliças e carnes, com consumo excessivo de leite de vaca e mingau.Our objective was to investigate nutritional status and complementary feeding practices in children from 6 to 24 months of age living in the Western Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional study was conducted within an urban area of Acrelândia, Acre State. A total of 164 children were studied. Prevalence rates for stunting and anemia were 12% and 40%, respectively, and overall prevalence of iron deficiency was 85%. Vitamin A and B12 serum levels were below normal thresholds in 15% and 12% of children, respectively. Low intake was observed for the following nutrients (% of children: folic acid (33%, vitamin C (40%, vitamin A (42%, zinc (46%, and iron (71%. Iron bioavailability in the diet was approximately 8%. Very low dietary intakes of fruits, vegetables, and meats were observed, in contrast with excessive consumption of cow's milk and porridge.

  13. Diet and Feeding Pattern Affect the Diurnal Dynamics of the Gut Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Zarrinpar, Amir; Chaix, Amandine; Yooseph, Shibu; Panda, Satchidananda

    2014-01-01

    The gut microbiome and daily feeding/fasting cycle influence host metabolism and contributes to obesity and metabolic diseases. However, fundamental characteristics of this relationship between the feeding/fasting cycle and the gut microbiome is unknown. Our studies show that the gut microbiome is highly dynamic, exhibiting daily cyclical fluctuations in composition. Diet-induced obesity dampens the daily feeding/fasting rhythm and diminishes many of these cyclical fluctuations. Time restrict...

  14. Management factors affecting aggression in dynamic group housing systems with electronic sow feeding - a field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L S; Bertelsen, D; Jensen, K H

    1999-01-01

    A series of 24-h video studies on four commercial Danish pig herds investigated the behaviour of pregnant sows kept in dynamic groups (72 to 200 sows) with electronic sow feeding (ESF). The herds mainly differed with respect to provision of a layer of unchopped straw as bedding material......, the frequency of introduction/removal of animals, space allowance in the lying area, group size and number of feeding stations, and starting times for the feeding cycle. All herds had one feeding cycle per 24 h. Six 24-h video recordings in the most settled period with respect to rank relationships (2 to 12...

  15. Biotic and abiotic factors affect green ash volatile production and emerald ash borer adult feeding preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Poland, Therese M

    2009-12-01

    The emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an exotic woodborer first detected in 2002 in Michigan and Ontario and is threatening the ash resource in North America. We examined the effects of light exposure and girdling on green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) volatile production, and effects of light exposure, girdling, and leaf age on emerald ash borer adult feeding preferences and phototaxis. Green ash seedlings grown under higher light exposure had lower amounts of three individual volatile compounds, (Z)-3-hexenol, (E)-beta-ocimene, and (Z,E)-alpha-farnesene, as well as the total amount of six detected volatile compounds. Girdling did not affect the levels of these volatiles. Emerald ash borer females preferred mature leaves, leaves from girdled trees, and leaves grown in the sun over young leaves, leaves from nongirdled trees, and leaves grown in the shade, respectively. These emerald ash borer preferences were most likely because of physical, nutritional, or biochemical changes in leaves in response to the different treatments. Emerald ash borer females and males showed positive phototaxis in laboratory arenas, a response consistent with emerald ash borer preference for host trees growing in sunlight.

  16. Feeding heat-oxidized oil to dairy cows affects milk fat nutritional quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleem, M; Enjalbert, F; Farizon, Y; Meynadier, A

    2018-01-01

    Heating oil and oilseeds results in oxidation products that affect ruminal biohydrogenation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, altering milk fatty acids profile, and could be transferred to milk. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of oil heating on rumen and milk fatty acids profile and the transfer of oxidation products to milk. Sunflower oil was heated at 150°C for 15 h and given to lactating dairy cows in a 2×2 arrangement: two groups of two cows, equipped with a ruminal cannula and receiving two diets (containing either heated or unheated oil) during two experimental periods. Oil heating generated hydroperoxides and/or hydroxyacids and aldehydes, in particular trans-2,trans-4-decadienal. In milk, heated oil only significantly decreased trans-11-C18:1 and cis-9,trans-11-CLA percentage compared to non-heated oil, and slightly increased cis-9,cis-12-C18:2 percentage, which was probably linked to an inhibition of the ruminal Δ12 isomerase by oxidative products in the rumen. However, feeding highly oxidized oil did not result in the appearance of hydroperoxides or hydroxyacids in milk and did not increase milk aldehydes content.

  17. Bohr's Philosophy of Wave–Particle Complementarity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 10. Bohr's Philosophy of Wave–Particle Complementarity. Dipankar Home. General Article Volume 18 Issue 10 October 2013 pp 905-916. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Black Hole Complementarity and Violation of Causality

    OpenAIRE

    Rozenblit, Moshe

    2017-01-01

    Analysis of a massive shell collapsing on a solid sphere shows that black hole complementarity (BHC) violates causality in its effort to save information conservation. In particular, this note describes a hypothetical contraption based on BHC that would allow the transfer of information from the future to the present.

  19. Single Photon Experiments and Quantum Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiev D. D.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Single photon experiments have been used as one of the most striking illustrations of the apparently nonclassical nature of the quantum world. In this review we examine the mathematical basis of the principle of complementarity and explain why the Englert-Greenberger duality relation is not violated in the configurations of Unruh and of Afshar.

  20. Black hole complementarity: The inside view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Lowe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of black hole complementarity, a proposal is made for an approximate interior effective field theory description. For generic correlators of local operators on generic black hole states, it agrees with the exact exterior description in a region of overlapping validity, up to corrections that are too small to be measured by typical infalling observers.

  1. How predictability of feeding patches affects home range and foraging habitat selection in avian social scavengers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Monsarrat

    Full Text Available Feeding stations are commonly used to sustain conservation programs of scavengers but their impact on behaviour is still debated. They increase the temporal and spatial predictability of food resources while scavengers have supposedly evolved to search for unpredictable resources. In the Grands Causses (France, a reintroduced population of Griffon vultures Gyps fulvus can find carcasses at three types of sites: 1. "light feeding stations", where farmers can drop carcasses at their farm (spatially predictable, 2. "heavy feeding stations", where carcasses from nearby farms are concentrated (spatially and temporally predictable and 3. open grasslands, where resources are randomly distributed (unpredictable. The impact of feeding stations on vulture's foraging behaviour was investigated using 28 GPS-tracked vultures. The average home range size was maximal in spring (1272 ± 752 km(2 and minimal in winter (473 ± 237 km(2 and was highly variable among individuals. Analyses of home range characteristics and feeding habitat selection via compositional analysis showed that feeding stations were always preferred compared to the rest of the habitat where vultures can find unpredictable resources. Feeding stations were particularly used when resources were scarce (summer or when flight conditions were poor (winter, limiting long-ranging movements. However, when flight conditions were optimal, home ranges also encompassed large areas of grassland where vultures could find unpredictable resources, suggesting that vultures did not lose their natural ability to forage on unpredictable resources, even when feeding stations were available. However during seasons when food abundance and flight conditions were not limited, vultures seemed to favour light over heavy feeding stations, probably because of the reduced intraspecific competition and a pattern closer to the natural dispersion of resources in the landscape. Light feeding stations are interesting tools

  2. Round-bale feeder design affects hay waste and economics during horse feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, K; Wilson, J; Cleary, K; Lazarus, W; Thomas, W; Hathaway, M

    2012-03-01

    Many horse owners find round bales convenient, less labor intensive, and more affordable than other hay types, but report an inability to control horse BW gain and excessive hay waste. The objectives were to compare hay waste, hay intake, and payback of 9 round-bale feeders and a no-feeder control when used during horse feeding. Nine round-bale feeders were tested: Cinch Net, Cone, Covered Cradle, Hayhut, Hay Sleigh, Ring, Tombstone, Tombstone Saver, and Waste Less. Each feeder design was placed on the ground in a dirt paddock. Five groups of 5 horses were fed in rotation for a 4-d period with each feeder. Every fourth day, groups were rotated among paddocks and a new round bale was placed in each feeder. In the 5 paddocks used, 5 feeders were installed for d 1 through 20, and the remaining 4 feeders and no-feeder control were installed for d 21 through 40. Groups of horses were sequentially assigned to feeders using two 5 × 5 Latin squares, the first for d 1 through 20, the second for d 21 through 40. Horse groups of similar age, BW, breed, and sex were formed from 25 Quarter Horse and Thoroughbred geldings and open mares (means: 11 yr; 541 kg of BW). Hay on the ground surrounding the feeder was collected daily, dried, and weighed. The total amount of hay removed around each feeder for a 4-d period was considered waste. Dry matter intake was estimated as the difference between hay disappearance and waste. Number of months for the reduction in waste to repay feeder cost (payback) were calculated using hay valued at $110/t, and improved feeder efficiency over the control. Feeder design did not affect hay intake (P > 0.05); all feeders resulted in an estimated hay intake of 2.0 to 2.4% BW; the no-feeder control resulted in a reduced intake of 1.3% BW (P = 0.001). Mean percentage of hay waste differed among feeders (P payback (P payback, but not estimated hay intake or BW change during horse feeding.

  3. Different blood and sugar feeding regimes affect the productivity of Anopheles arabiensis colonies (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiens, D; Soliban, S M; Balestrino, F; Alsir, R; Vreysen, M J B; Gilles, J R L

    2013-03-01

    The success of the sterile insect technique for the management of mosquito populations depends on the release of large numbers of competitive sterile male insects. Sustainable mosquito production can only be obtained when proper mass-rearing equipment and adequate methods are available, including those to feed blood to the female mosquitoes. The blood feeding apparatus Hemotek consists of a small aluminum plate to which a collagen membrane is fixed and filled with blood kept warm by an electric heating element. A larger aluminum plate was developed to feed a larger number of female mosquitoes with blood that is kept at a constant temperature. The effect of different blood feeding regimes (feeding frequency and time the blood is kept in the Hemotek) and sugar deprivation before blood feeding on egg production of female Anopheles arabiensis Patton was tested. Egg production was higher when blood was offered to the mosquitoes every day as compared with every 2 or 4 d. Sugar deprivation for 7 h before blood feeding enhanced egg production by 50% compared with female mosquitoes that had continuous access to sugar. Neither male nor female survival was impaired. Finally, we showed that the same blood could be kept warm and used over several hours to feed mosquitoes in multiple cages without any impact on egg production or hatch rate. Being able to use the same blood over extended periods would save considerable time, handling, and funds.

  4. Emotional Feeding and Emotional Eating: Reciprocal Processes and the Influence of Negative Affectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Steinsbekk, Silje; Barker, Edward D.; Llewellyn, Clare; Fildes, Alison; Wichstrøm, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Emotional eating, that is, eating more in response to negative mood, is often seen in children. But the origins of emotional eating remain unclear. In a representative community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds followed up at ages 6, 8, and 10 years (analysis sample: n = 801), one potential developmental pathway was examined: a reciprocal relation between parental emotional feeding and child emotional eating. The results revealed that higher levels of emotional feeding predicted higher levels ...

  5. Does feeding frequency affect utilization of added amino acids in Nile tilapia?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoque, Rezaul; Bajgai, Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the major farmed fish species, with main production in Asia, South and Central America that can tolerate a wide range of environmental stress and easily adapt with low quality of feed ingredients. The aims of the experiments were to determine effects of feeding frequency on utilization of protein and energy in Nile tilapia, to quantify differences in excretion of ammonia and ammonium in Nile tilapia fed the same daily ration, distributed over 2 a...

  6. Task-Oriented and Bottle Feeding Adversely Affect the Quality of Mother-Infant Interactions Following Abnormal Newborn Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tluczek, Audrey; Clark, Roseanne; McKechnie, Anne Chevalier; Orland, Kate Murphy; Brown, Roger L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Examine effects of newborn screening (NBS) and neonatal diagnosis on the quality of mother-infant interactions in the context of feeding. Methods Study compared the quality of mother-infant feeding interactions among four groups of infants classified by severity of NBS and diagnostic results: cystic fibrosis (CF), congenital hypothyroidism, heterozygote CF carrier, and healthy with normal NBS. The Parent-Child Early Relational Assessment and a task-oriented item measured the quality of feeding interactions for 130 dyads, infant ages 3–19 weeks (M=9.19, SD=3.28). The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory measured maternal depression and anxiety. Results Composite Indicator Structure Equation Modeling showed that infant diagnostic status and, to a lesser extent, maternal education predicted feeding method. Mothers of infants with CF were most likely to bottle feed, which was associated with more task-oriented maternal behavior than breastfeeding. Mothers with low task-oriented behavior showed more sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues, as well as less negative affect and behavior in their interactions with their infants than mothers with high task-oriented scores. Mothers of infants with CF were significantly more likely to have clinically significant anxiety and depression than the other groups. However, maternal psychological profile did not predict feeding method or interaction quality. Conclusions Mothers in the CF group were the least likely to breastfeed. Research is needed to explicate long-term effects of feeding methods on quality of mother-child relationship and ways to promote continued breastfeeding following a neonatal CF diagnosis. PMID:20495477

  7. Early life handling decreases serotonin turnover in the nucleus accumbens and affects feeding behavior of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, A K; Silveira, P P; Diehl, L A; Crema, L M; Clemente, Z; Peres, W; Costa, G; Scorza, C; Quillfeldt, J A; Dalmaz, C

    2010-03-01

    In our previous studies, we reported that neonatally handled rats have an increased ingestion of sweet food but are resistant to the damaging effects of a chronic exposure to a highly palatable diet. Accumbal serotonin (5-HT) is important for feeding behavior and plays a role in the vulnerability to diet-induced obesity. Therefore, our hypotheses were (1) 5-HT turnover in the nucleus accumbens is altered in neonatally handled animals and plays a role in their differential feeding behavior and (2) if this is so, a chronic pharmacological treatment affecting 5-HT reuptake (chronic imipramine) would be able to revert the behavioral findings. Litters were divided into nonhandled and handled (10 min/day, Days 1-10 after birth). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that a decreased 5-HT metabolism in the nucleus accumbens was observed in adult handled animals. In Experiment 2, the two previous groups were subdivided and assigned to receive imipramine diluted in water or water alone. After 30 days of treatment, we evaluated their weight gain and feeding behavior. Handled rats weighed less than nonhandled rats, and all imipramine-treated rats showed a reduction in weight gain after 60 days of treatment. Imipramine reverted the increased sweet food consumption seen in neonatally handled rats. We conclude that serotonin is involved in the altered feeding behavior of neonatally handled rats, and this protocol is an important tool for studying the mechanisms by which early life events have a long-term impact on feeding preferences.

  8. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konuma, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Yusuke; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Nagata, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp)-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III) because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids) was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  9. Imbalanced Hemolymph Lipid Levels Affect Feeding Motivation in the Two-Spotted Cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Konuma

    Full Text Available Insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. Adipokinetic hormone (AKH is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. We recently demonstrated that RNA interference (RNAi-mediated knockdown of the AKH receptor (AKHR reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus. This result indicated that reduced hemolymph lipid levels might motivate crickets to feed. In the present study, to elucidate whether hemolymph lipid levels contribute to insect feeding behavior, we attempted to manipulate hemolymph lipid levels via the lipophorin (Lp-mediated lipid transferring system in G. bimaculatus. Of the constituent proteins in Lp, we focused on apolipophorin-III (GrybiApoLp-III because of its possible role in facilitating lipid mobilization. First, we used RNAi to reduce the expression of GrybiApoLp-III. RNAi-mediated knockdown of GrybiApoLp-III had little effect on basal hemolymph lipid levels and the amount of food intake. In addition, hemolymph lipid levels remained static even after injecting AKH into GrybiApoLp-IIIRNAi crickets. These observations indicated that ApoLp-III does not maintain basal hemolymph lipid levels in crickets fed ad libitum, but is necessary for mobilizing lipid transfer into the hemolymph following AKH stimulation. Second, Lp (containing lipids was injected into the hemolymph to induce a temporary increase in hemolymph lipid levels. Consequently, the initiation of feeding was delayed in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that increased hemolymph lipid levels reduced the motivation to feed. Taken together, these data validate the importance of basal hemolymph lipid levels in the control of energy homeostasis and for regulating feeding behavior in crickets.

  10. Molecular evidence for ongoing complementarity and horizontal gene transfer in endosymbiotic systems of mealybugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eLópez-Madrigal

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular bacterial supply of essential amino acids is common among sap-feeding insects, thus complementing the scarcity of nitrogenous compounds in plant phloem. This is also the role of the two mealybug endosymbiotic systems whose genomes have been sequenced. In the nested endosymbiotic system from Planococcus citri (Pseudococcinae, Candidatus Tremblaya princeps and Candidatus Moranella endobia cooperate to synthesize essential amino acids, while in Phenacoccus avenae (Phenacoccinae this function is performed by its single endosymbiont Candidatus Tremblaya phenacola. However, little is known regarding the evolution of essential amino acid supplementation strategies in other mealybug systems. To address this knowledge gap, we screened for the presence of six selected loci involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis in five additional mealybug species. We found evidence of ongoing complementarity among endosymbionts from insects of subfamily Pseudococcinae, as well as horizontal gene transfer affecting endosymbionts from insects of family Phenacoccinae, providing a more comprehensive picture of the evolutionary history of these endosymbiotic systems. Additionally, we report two diagnostic motifs to help identify invasive mealybug species.

  11. Supplementary feeding of wild birds indirectly affects ground beetle populations in suburban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orros, Melanie E; Thomas, Rebecca L; Holloway, Graham J; Fellowes, Mark D E

    Supplementary feeding of wild birds by domestic garden-holders is a globally widespread and popular form of human-wildlife interaction, particularly in urban areas. Vast amounts of energy are thus being added to garden ecosystems. However, the potential indirect effects of this activity on non-avian species have been little studied to date, with the only two previous studies taking place under experimentally manipulated conditions. Here we present the first evidence of a localised depletive effect of wild bird feeding on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in suburban gardens under the usual feeding patterns of the garden-holders. We trapped significantly fewer ground beetles directly under bird-feeding stations than in matched areas of habitat away from feeders. Video analysis also revealed significantly higher activity by ground-foraging birds under the feeding stations than in the control areas. Small mammal trapping revealed no evidence that these species differ in abundance between gardens with and without bird feeders. We therefore suggest that local increases in ground-foraging activity by bird species whose diets encompass arthropods as well as seed material are responsible for the reduction in ground beetle numbers. Our work therefore illustrates that providing food for wild birds can have indirect negative effects on palatable prey species under typical conditions.

  12. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  13. Feeding frequency affects stress, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Fei; Tian, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Ding-Dong; Jiang, Guang-Zhen; Liu, Wen-Bin

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of feeding frequency on stress, innate immunity and disease resistance of juvenile blunt snout bream Megalobrama amblycephala (average weight: 9.92 ± 0.06 g). Fish were randomly assigned to one of six feeding frequencies (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 times/day) following the same ration size for 8 weeks. After the feeding trial, fish were challenged by Aeromonas hydrophila and cumulative mortality was recorded for the next 10 days. Daily gain index of fish fed 3-5 times/day was significantly higher than that of the other groups. High feeding frequencies induced significantly elevated plasma levels of both cortisol and lactate. Fish fed 3-4 times/day exhibited relatively low liver catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities as well as malondialdehyde contents, but obtained significantly higher reduced glutathione levels and post-challenged haemato-immunological parameters (include blood leukocyte and erythrocyte counts as well as plasma lysozyme, alternative complement, acid phosphatase and myeloperoxidase activities) compared with that of the other groups. After challenge, the lowest mortality was observed in fish fed 4 times/day. It was significantly lower than that of fish fed 1-3 times/day, but exhibited no statistical difference with that of the other groups. In conclusion, both low and high feeding frequencies could cause oxidative stress of juvenile M. amblycephala, as might consequently lead to the depressed immunity and reduced resistance to A. hydrophila infection. The optimal feeding frequency to enhance growth and boost immunity of this species at juvenile stage is 4 times/day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Horizons of description: Black holes and complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokulich, Peter Joshua Martin

    Niels Bohr famously argued that a consistent understanding of quantum mechanics requires a new epistemic framework, which he named complementarity . This position asserts that even in the context of quantum theory, classical concepts must be used to understand and communicate measurement results. The apparent conflict between certain classical descriptions is avoided by recognizing that their application now crucially depends on the measurement context. Recently it has been argued that a new form of complementarity can provide a solution to the so-called information loss paradox. Stephen Hawking argues that the evolution of black holes cannot be described by standard unitary quantum evolution, because such evolution always preserves information, while the evaporation of a black hole will imply that any information that fell into it is irrevocably lost---hence a "paradox." Some researchers in quantum gravity have argued that this paradox can be resolved if one interprets certain seemingly incompatible descriptions of events around black holes as instead being complementary. In this dissertation I assess the extent to which this black hole complementarity can be undergirded by Bohr's account of the limitations of classical concepts. I begin by offering an interpretation of Bohr's complementarity and the role that it plays in his philosophy of quantum theory. After clarifying the nature of classical concepts, I offer an account of the limitations these concepts face, and argue that Bohr's appeal to disturbance is best understood as referring to these conceptual limits. Following preparatory chapters on issues in quantum field theory and black hole mechanics, I offer an analysis of the information loss paradox and various responses to it. I consider the three most prominent accounts of black hole complementarity and argue that they fail to offer sufficient justification for the proposed incompatibility between descriptions. The lesson that emerges from this

  15. Sire and liveweight affect feed intake and methane emissions of sheep confined in respiration chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, D L; Goopy, J P; Donaldson, A J; Woodgate, R T; Oddy, V H; Hegarty, R S

    2014-12-01

    Daily methane production and feed intake were measured on 160 adult ewes, which were the progeny of 20 sires and 3 sire types (Merino, dual-purpose and terminal) from a genetically diverse flock. All animals were housed in individual pens and fed a 50/50 mix of chaffed lucerne and oaten hays at 20 g/kg liveweight (LW), with feed refusals measured for at least 10 days before the first of three 22-h measurements in respiration chambers (RC). Feed was withdrawn at 1600 h on the day before each RC test to encourage the ewes to eat the entire ration provided for them in the RC. After the first 1-day RC test, the sheep were returned to their pens for a day, then given a second 1-day RC test, followed by another day in their pens, then a third RC test. After all animals had been tested, they were ranked according to methane emissions adjusted for feed intake in the RC and on the previous day, enabling 10 low and 10 high methane animals to be chosen for repeat measurement. No variation between sires nor consistent effects of LW on feed eaten (%FE, expressed as per cent of feed offered) was evident in the 10 days before the first RC measurement. However, significant differences between sires (equivalent to an estimated heritability of 41%) were identified for %FE during the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days of RC testing (2 and 4 days after the initial RC test). The analysis of all data showed that methane emissions in the RC were related to feed intake on the day of testing and the two previous days (all Pmethane yield, equivalent to an estimated heritability of 9%. Correction for feed intake on the 2 previous days halved the residual variation, allowing other effects to be detected, including effects of LW, twins reared as singles, test batch, RC and test-day effects, but estimated sire variation fell to zero. In order to avoid potential biases, statistical models of methane emissions in the RC need to consider potential confounding factors, such as those identified as significant in

  16. Impacts of Nutrition and Feeding Programs on Farmers’ Management Decisions Affecting the Success of Dairy Farms with Culture Breed Cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Yavuz Topcu; Mehmet Toparlak; Muhlis Macit

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to evaluate all the factors determining the milk production and yield decisions with regard to the nutrition and feeding programs affecting the integrated management strategies on the success of the dairy farms with culture breed cattle under the pasture-based and indoor barn-based production systems. For these aims, data obtained from the individual interviews conducted at the dairy farms with 100 culture breed cattle were used for Principal Component and Multiple Reg...

  17. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  18. Exploring child-feeding style in childcare settings: how might nursery practitioners affect child eating style and weight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, L; Brown, A

    2014-04-01

    Although considerable research has explored the role of parents in affecting child eating habits and weight, there has been little consideration of the impact of other key care providers in the early years. A controlling maternal child-feeding style (e.g. use of pressure to eat or restricting certain foods) has been associated with over consumption, fussy eating and weight issue. Conversely, responsive child-feeding styles whereby children are allowed to regulate their own intake but encouraged to eat a range of foods and try new tastes are associated with healthier eating styles and weight. Increasing numbers of preschool children now spend time in day care settings, many for up to fifty hours a week but interactions with caregivers during mealtimes remain unexplored. The aim of the current study was to begin to explore child-feeding styles of nursery practitioners working with children aged 0-5 years. Sixty three nursery practitioners completed an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire to examine their interactions with children during mealtimes. Themes included pressure to eat, encouragement to eat and use of reward. Typically practitioners reported responsive child-feeding styles with low levels of pressure to eat but high levels of encouragement to try new foods. Use of reward to eat certain foods or as a bribe to modify behaviour was however more common. The findings have important implications for understanding the role of childcare providers in affecting child eating habits and weight. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Content and distribution of phytanic acid diastereomers in organic milk as affected by feed composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Che, Brita Ngum; Kristensen, Troels; Nebel, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Phytanic acid (PA) is a bioactive compound found in milk that is derived from the phytol chain of chlorophyll, and the content of PA in milk fat depends on the availability of phytol from feed. In this study, the content of PA diastereomers was analyzed in milk sampled from five organic herds twice...

  20. Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery Project Management Quality Affecting Procedures Management Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUND, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Management Assessment Plan is to define how management assessments within DST h WFD will be conducted. The plan as written currently includes only WFD Project assessment topics. Other DST and WFD group assessment topics will be added in future revisions

  1. Size distribution in African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) affects feeding behaviour but not growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Aanyu, M.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the effect of size distribution on growth performance and feeding behaviour in juveniles of African catfish. Two thousand sibling fish were grown for 8 weeks until the start of the experiment. Afterwards fish were individually weighed, manually selected and

  2. Basal endogenous phosphorus losses in pigs are affected by both body weight and feeding level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, P.; Laar, van H.; Sips, V.; Walvoort, C.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Two similar experiments were conducted to determine the separate effects of feeding level (FL) and BW on basal endogenous phospho-rous losses (EPL) from the digestive tract and minimal urinary P content in growing-finishing (GF) pigs and sows. After an adaptation period, 16 GF pigs (initial BW 85

  3. Water level affects availability of optimal feeding habitats for threatened migratory waterbirds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aharon-Rotman, Yaara; McEvoy, John; Zheng Zhaoju

    2017-01-01

    , white-fronted geese extensively exploited sequentially created mudflats, feeding on short nutritious graminoid swards, while swan geese excavated substrates along the water edge for tubers. This critical dynamic ecotone successively exposes subaquatic food and supports early-stage graminoid growth...

  4. Do feeding practices of obese dogs, before weight loss, affect the success of weight management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander J; Holden, Shelley L; Gernon, Lucy J; Morris, Penelope J; Biourge, Vincent

    2011-10-01

    Dietary factors (e.g. feeding treats and table scraps) can predispose to obesity in dogs, but it is not known whether they also influence success of weight loss. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine which pre-weight-loss factors were associated with outcome of their weight management regimen in dogs. Information from ninety-five dogs attending the Royal Canin Weight Management Clinic, University of Liverpool (Wirral, UK), was reviewed. The effect of different food types (e.g. dry, wet and home-prepared), feeding practices (e.g. method of portion size calculation and number of meals per day) and use of treats was assessed on outcome measures of the weight management regimen. Before weight loss, most owners (sixty-three out of ninety-five, 66 %) fed twice daily, used complete dry food (seventy-two out of ninety-five, 76 %) and calculated portion size either by measuring cup (thirty-six out of ninety-five, 38 %) or by visual estimation (thirty-seven out of ninety-five, 39 %). Feeding treats was common and included purchased treats (forty-one out of ninety-five, 43 %), table scraps (twenty-four out of ninety-five, 25 %), pet food (eighty-three out of ninety-five, 87 %) and human food (eighty-one out of ninety-five, 85 %). The majority of feeding practices did not influence any outcome measure for the weight-loss period (P>0.05 for all). However, metabolisable energy intake during weight loss was significantly higher in dogs fed dry food (P = 0.047) and lower in dogs fed purchased snacks before weight loss (P = 0.036). Thus, most pre-weight-loss factors have limited effect on outcomes of weight loss. The significance of the associations identified between feeding of dried food and purchased treats, and weight-loss energy intake, requires further study.

  5. Complementarity and nonlocality in two-qudit systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai; Kumar, Asutosh; Wu, Junde

    2018-03-01

    Complementarity and nonlocality are two characteristic traits of quantum physics that distinguish it from classical physics. In this paper, for the two-qubit case, we see that the complementarity between global and local observables in Bell's experiment sets a decisive foundation for the nonlocality of composite systems. We use the Hilbert-Schmidt norm on the commutator of two observables to quantify complementarity between them. Based on the CHSH experiment, we define a measure of complementarity Md for the two-qubit case, and extend it to two-qudit systems. Furthermore, we obtain an upper bound on Md that scales linearly in the Hilbert space dimension of the qudit.

  6. Community biomass and bottom up multivariate nutrient complementarity mediate the effects of bioturbator diversity on pelagic production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Caliman

    Full Text Available Tests of the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning (BEF relationship have focused little attention on the importance of interactions between species diversity and other attributes of ecological communities such as community biomass. Moreover, BEF research has been mainly derived from studies measuring a single ecosystem process that often represents resource consumption within a given habitat. Focus on single processes has prevented us from exploring the characteristics of ecosystem processes that can be critical in helping us to identify how novel pathways throughout BEF mechanisms may operate. Here, we investigated whether and how the effects of biodiversity mediated by non-trophic interactions among benthic bioturbator species vary according to community biomass and ecosystem processes. We hypothesized that (1 bioturbator biomass and species richness interact to affect the rates of benthic nutrient regeneration [dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP] and consequently bacterioplankton production (BP and that (2 the complementarity effects of diversity will be stronger on BP than on nutrient regeneration because the former represents a more integrative process that can be mediated by multivariate nutrient complementarity. We show that the effects of bioturbator diversity on nutrient regeneration increased BP via multivariate nutrient complementarity. Consistent with our prediction, the complementarity effects were significantly stronger on BP than on DIN and TDP. The effects of the biomass-species richness interaction on complementarity varied among the individual processes, but the aggregated measures of complementarity over all ecosystem processes were significantly higher at the highest community biomass level. Our results suggest that the complementarity effects of biodiversity can be stronger on more integrative ecosystem processes, which integrate subsidiary "simpler" processes, via multivariate

  7. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  8. Micronutrient supplementation affects maternal-infant feeding interactions and maternal distress in Bangladesh123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Amy L; Naved, Ruchira T; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Rasmussen, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    Background: Good maternal-infant interaction is essential for optimal infant growth, health, and development. Although micronutrient malnutrition has been associated with poorer interaction, the effects of maternal micronutrient supplementation on interaction are unknown. Objectives: We examined differences in maternal-infant feeding interaction between 3 maternal pre- and postpartum micronutrient supplementation groups that differed in iron dose and inclusion of multiple micronutrients and determined whether any differences observed were mediated by maternal distress. Design: A cohort of 180 pregnant women was selected from 3300 women in the randomized controlled trial Maternal Infant Nutritional Interventions Matlab, which was conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh. At 8 wk of gestation, women were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups to receive a daily supplement of micronutrients (14 wk gestation to 12 wk postpartum): 60 or 30 mg Fe each with 400 μg folic acid or multiple micronutrients (MuMS; 30 mg Fe, 400 μg folic acid, and other micronutrients). A maternal-infant feeding interaction was observed in the home when infants were 3.4–4.0 mo of age, and maternal distress was assessed. Results: Compared with 30 mg Fe, 60 mg Fe decreased the quality of maternal-infant feeding interaction by ≈10%. Compared with 30 mg Fe, MuMS did not improve interaction but reduced maternal early postpartum distress. Distress did not mediate the effects of micronutrient supplementation on interaction. Conclusion: For pregnant and postpartum women, micronutrient supplementation should be based on both nutritional variables (eg, iron status) and functional outcomes (eg, maternal-infant interaction and maternal distress). PMID:19439457

  9. Feeding-Related Traits Are Affected by Dosage of the foraging Gene in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Aaron M; Anreiter, Ina; Neville, Megan C; Sokolowski, Marla B

    2017-02-01

    Nutrient acquisition and energy storage are critical parts of achieving metabolic homeostasis. The foraging gene in Drosophila melanogaster has previously been implicated in multiple feeding-related and metabolic traits. Before foraging's functions can be further dissected, we need a precise genetic null mutant to definitively map its amorphic phenotypes. We used homologous recombination to precisely delete foraging, generating the for 0 null allele, and used recombineering to reintegrate a full copy of the gene, generating the {for BAC } rescue allele. We show that a total loss of foraging expression in larvae results in reduced larval path length and food intake behavior, while conversely showing an increase in triglyceride levels. Furthermore, varying foraging gene dosage demonstrates a linear dose-response on these phenotypes in relation to foraging gene expression levels. These experiments have unequivocally proven a causal, dose-dependent relationship between the foraging gene and its pleiotropic influence on these feeding-related traits. Our analysis of foraging's transcription start sites, termination sites, and splicing patterns using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and full-length cDNA sequencing, revealed four independent promoters, pr1-4, that produce 21 transcripts with nine distinct open reading frames (ORFs). The use of alternative promoters and alternative splicing at the foraging locus creates diversity and flexibility in the regulation of gene expression, and ultimately function. Future studies will exploit these genetic tools to precisely dissect the isoform- and tissue-specific requirements of foraging's functions and shed light on the genetic control of feeding-related traits involved in energy homeostasis. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  10. Aboveground feeding by soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, affects soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, reproduction belowground.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T McCarville

    Full Text Available Heterodera glycines is a cyst nematode that causes significant lost soybean yield in the U.S. Recent studies observed the aphid Aphis glycines and H. glycines interacting via their shared host, soybean, Glycine max. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to discern the effect of A. glycines feeding on H. glycines reproduction. An H. glycines-susceptible cultivar, Kenwood 94, and a resistant cultivar, Dekalb 27-52, were grown in H. glycines-infested soil for 30 and 60 d. Ten days after planting, plants were infested with either zero, five, or ten aphids. At 30 and 60 d, the number of H. glycines females and cysts (dead females and the number of eggs within were counted. In general, H. glycines were less abundant on the resistant than the susceptible cultivar, and H. glycines abundance increased from 30 to 60 d. At 30 d, 33% more H. glycines females and eggs were produced on the resistant cultivar in the ten-aphid treatment compared to the zero-aphid treatment. However, at 30 d the susceptible cultivar had 50% fewer H. glycines females and eggs when infested with ten aphids. At 60 d, numbers of H. glycines females and cysts and numbers of eggs on the resistant cultivar were unaffected by A. glycines feeding, while numbers of both were decreased by A. glycines on the susceptible cultivar. These results indicate that A. glycines feeding improves the quality of soybean as a host for H. glycines, but at higher herbivore population densities, this effect is offset by a decrease in resource quantity.

  11. Serotonin and insulin-like peptides modulate leucokinin-producing neurons that affect feeding and water homeostasis in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiting; Luo, Jiangnan; Carlsson, Mikael A; Nässel, Dick R

    2015-08-15

    Metabolic homeostasis and water balance is maintained by tight hormonal and neuronal regulation. In Drosophila, insulin-like peptides (DILPs) are key regulators of metabolism, and the neuropeptide leucokinin (LK) is a diuretic hormone that also modulates feeding. However, it is not known whether LK and DILPs act together to regulate feeding and water homeostasis. Because LK neurons express the insulin receptor (dInR), we tested functional links between DILP and LK signaling in feeding and water balance. Thus, we performed constitutive and conditional manipulations of activity in LK neurons and insulin-producing cells (IPCs) in adult flies and monitored food intake, responses to desiccation, and peptide expression levels. We also measured in vivo changes in LK and DILP levels in neurons in response to desiccation and drinking. Our data show that activated LK cells stimulate diuresis in vivo, and that LK and IPC signaling affect food intake in opposite directions. Overexpression of the dInR in LK neurons decreases the LK peptide levels, but only caused a subtle decrease in feeding, and had no effect on water balance. Next we demonstrated that LK neurons express the serotonin receptor 5-HT1B . Knockdown of this receptor in LK neurons diminished LK expression, increased desiccation resistance, and diminished food intake. Live calcium imaging indicates that serotonin inhibits spontaneous activity in abdominal LK neurons. Our results suggest that serotonin via 5-HT1B diminishes activity in the LK neurons and thereby modulates functions regulated by LK peptide, but the action of the dInR in these neurons remains less clear. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Contraction intensity and feeding affect collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis rates differently in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; van Hall, Gerrit; Rose, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Exercise stimulates muscle protein fractional synthesis rate (FSR), but the importance of contractile intensity and whether it interplays with feeding is not understood. This was investigated following two distinct resistance exercise (RE) contraction intensities using an intrasubject design...... in the fasted (n = 10) and fed (n = 10) states. RE consisted of 10 sets of knee extensions. One leg worked against light load (LL) at 16% of one-repetition maximum (1RM), the other leg against heavy load (HL) at 70% 1RM, with intensities equalized for total lifted load. Males were infused with [(13)C...... and eukaryotic elongation factor 2 phosphorylations in correspondence with the observed changes in myofibrillar FSR, whereas 4E-BP1 remained to respond only to the HL contraction intensity. Thus the study design allows us to conclude that the MAPk- and mammalian target of rapamycin-dependent signaling responds...

  13. Games of strategic complementarities: An application to bayesian games

    OpenAIRE

    Vives, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    Games of strategic complementarities are those in which any player increases his action in response to an increase in the level of actions of rivals. This paper provides an introduction to the theory of games of strategic complementarities, considers Bayesian games, and provides an application to global games.

  14. Kinetics of metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 in steers as affected by injecting phlorizin and feeding propionate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veenhuizen, J.J.; Russell, R.W.; Young, J.W.

    1988-01-01

    Effects of injecting phlorizin subcutaneously and/or feeding propionate on metabolism of glucose, propionate and CO2 were determined for four steers used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design. Isotope dilution techniques were used to determine a four-pool kinetic solution for the flux of carbon among plasma glucose, rumen propionate, blood CO2 and rumen CO2. Injecting 1 g of phlorizin twice daily for 19 d resulted in 7.1 mol glucose C/d being excreted in urine. The basal glucose production of 13.4 mol C/d was increased to 17.9 mol C/d with phlorizin. There was no change in glucose oxidation or propionate production. The percentage of plasma glucose derived from propionate was unaffected by phlorizin, but 54 +/- 0.4% of total propionate was converted to plasma glucose during phlorizin treatment versus 40 +/- 0.6% during the basal treatment. When propionate was fed (18.3 mol C/d) glucose production increased to 21.2 mol C/d from the basal value of 13.4 mol C/d, and propionate oxidation to CO2 increased to 14.9 mol C/d from the basal value of 4.1 mol C/d. Glucose derived from propionate was 43 +/- 5% for the basal treatment and 67 +/- 3% during propionate feeding. The percentage of propionate converted to plasma glucose and blood and rumen CO2 was not affected by feeding propionate. An increased need for glucose, because of glucose excretion during phlorizin treatment, caused an increased utilization of propionate for gluconeogenesis, but an increased availability of propionate caused an increase in glucose production without affecting the relative distribution of carbon from propionate

  15. Factors affecting soil fauna feeding activity in a fragmented lowland temperate deciduous woodland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake E Simpson

    Full Text Available British temperate broadleaf woodlands have been widely fragmented since the advent of modern agriculture and development. As a result, a higher proportion of woodland area is now subject to edge effects which can alter the efficiency of ecosystem functions. These areas are particularly sensitive to drought. Decomposition of detritus and nutrient cycling are driven by soil microbe and fauna coactivity. The bait lamina assay was used to assess soil fauna trophic activity in the upper soil horizons at five sites in Wytham Woods, Oxfordshire: two edge, two intermediate and one core site. Faunal trophic activity was highest in the core of the woodland, and lowest at the edge, which was correlated with a decreasing soil moisture gradient. The efficiency of the assay was tested using four different bait flavours: standardised, ash (Fraxinus excelsior L., oak (Quercus robur L., and sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.. The standardised bait proved the most efficient flavour in terms of feeding activity. This study suggests that decomposition and nutrient cycling may be compromised in many of the UK's small, fragmented woodlands in the event of drought or climate change.

  16. Comparison of how different feed phosphates affect performance, bone mineralization and phosphorus retention in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hamdi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the comparative P bio-avalability of different sources of phosphate based on their effects on animal performance, bones mineralization and mineral retention in broilers. To achieve this goal, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment 1, twenty diets were prepared including five different phosphorus sources, either mono-calcium phosphate (MCP or 4 different batches of di-calcium phosphate, to supplement non phytic P (NPP levels at 3.0, 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 g/kg in the diets. In Experiment 2, three treatments were used: the low MCP diet was deficient in NPP (3.1 g/kg for the starter phase and 2.8 g/kg for the grower phase; the high MCP diet and the high TCP (tri-calcium phosphate diet included adequate levels of NPP (4.4-4.7 g/kg for the starter phase and 4.2-4.3 g/kg for the grower phase. Phytase was not added to experimental diets. Results of Exp. 1 indicated that an increase of NPP in the diet from 3.0 to 4.0 g/kg increased weight gain and feed intake between d 1 and d 21 (Trial 1. Alternatively, tibia weight and ash percentage at d 21 responded up to the level of 4.5 g/kg and showed significant difference with birds of the 4.0 g/kg NPP group. In Trial 2, chickens fed with the high MCP and TCP had improved growth performances and bone mineralization. No differences were observed on the P availability among different mineral P sources. A level of 4.5 g/kg, NPP is recommended when phytase is not included to maximize both performance and bone mineralization in broiler chickens up to d 21.

  17. Feeding History Affects Intraguild Interactions between Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae and Episyrphus balteatus (Diptera: Syrphidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brecht Ingels

    Full Text Available While the effect of several factors such as predator and prey size, morphology and developmental stage on intraguild predation (IGP is widely investigated, little is known about the influence of diet on the occurrence and outcome of IGP. In the present study, the effect of the diet experienced during larval development on IGP between the ladybird Harmonia axyridis and the syrphid Episyrphus balteatus is investigated. Four diets were tested for H. axyridis: eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella, pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, in an ad libitum amount, pea aphids in a limited amount, and honey bee pollen. For E. balteatus only the two aphid diets were tested. First, experiments were performed to determine the quality of the various diets for development of both predators. Second, IGP experiments between H. axyridis and E. balteatus were performed both in Petri dishes and on potted pepper plants. The diet of both species influenced the incidence of IGP between H. axyridis and E. balteatus both in Petri dishes and on potted plants. In general, smaller larvae of H. axyridis (those fed on poor or restricted diet fed more on hoverflies than large (well-nourished ladybird larvae. Further, poorly nourished (smaller larvae of E. balteatus were more susceptible to predation than well-fed (larger hoverfly larvae. The observed effects were not only due to the lower fitness of larvae of both predators reared on an inferior quality diet but also to changes in predator behaviour. The results from this study show that IGP interactions are influenced by a multitude of factors, including feeding history of the organisms involved, and emphasize the importance of taking these factors into account in order to fully understand the ecological relevance of IGP.

  18. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  19. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P Lipid contents in backfat and LM also declined (-5% and -19%, respectively; P lipid content was greater (P lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  20. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables...... were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while...... BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body...

  1. PET microplastics do not negatively affect the survival, development, metabolism and feeding activity of the freshwater invertebrate Gammarus pulex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Annkatrin; Scherer, Christian; Brennholt, Nicole; Reifferscheid, Georg; Wagner, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Over the past decade, microscopic plastic debris, known as microplastics, emerged as a contaminant of concern in marine and freshwater ecosystems. Although regularly detected in aquatic environments, the toxicity of those synthetic particles is not well understood. To address this, we investigated whether the exposure to microplastics adversely affects the amphipod Gammarus pulex, a key freshwater invertebrate. Juvenile (6-9 mm) and adult (12-17 mm) individuals were exposed to irregular, fluorescent polyethylene terephthalate fragments (PET, 10-150 μm; 0.8-4,000 particles mL -1 ) for 24 h. Results show that body burden after 24 h depends on the dose and age of G. pulex with juveniles ingesting more microplastics than adults. After chronic exposure over 48 d, microplastics did not significantly affect survival, development (molting), metabolism (glycogen, lipid storage) and feeding activity of G. pulex. This demonstrates that even high concentrations of PET particles did not negatively interfere with the analyzed endpoints. These results contradict previous research on marine crustaceans. Differences may result from variations in the exposure regimes (e.g., duration, particle concentrations), plastic characteristics (e.g., type, size, shape, additives) as well as the species-specific morphological, physiological and behavioral traits. As a detritivorous shredder G. pulex is adapted to feed on non-digestible materials and might, therefore, be less sensitive towards exposure to synthetic particles. Accordingly, we argue that the autecology needs to be taken into account and that research should focus on identifying traits that render species susceptible to microplastic exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High-fat diet feeding differentially affects the development of inflammation in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot-Legris, Owein; Masquelier, Julien; Everard, Amandine; Cani, Patrice D; Alhouayek, Mireille; Muccioli, Giulio G

    2016-08-26

    Obesity and its associated disorders are becoming a major health issue in many countries. The resulting low-grade inflammation not only affects the periphery but also the central nervous system. We set out to study, in a time-dependent manner, the effects of a high-fat diet on different regions of the central nervous system with regard to the inflammatory tone. We used a diet-induced obesity model and compared at several time-points (1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 16 weeks) a group of mice fed a high-fat diet with its respective control group fed a standard diet. We also performed a large-scale analysis of lipids in the central nervous system using HPLC-MS, and we then tested the lipids of interest on a primary co-culture of astrocytes and microglial cells. We measured an increase in the inflammatory tone in the cerebellum at the different time-points. However, at week 16, we evidenced that the inflammatory tone displayed significant differences in two different regions of the central nervous system, specifically an increase in the cerebellum and no modification in the cortex for high-fat diet mice when compared with chow-fed mice. Our results clearly suggest region-dependent as well as time-dependent adaptations of the central nervous system to the high-fat diet. The differences in inflammatory tone between the two regions considered seem to involve astrocytes but not microglial cells. Furthermore, a large-scale lipid screening coupled to ex vivo testing enabled us to identify three classes of lipids-phosphatidylinositols, phosphatidylethanolamines, and lysophosphatidylcholines-as well as palmitoylethanolamide, as potentially responsible for the difference in inflammatory tone. This study demonstrates that the inflammatory tone induced by a high-fat diet does not similarly affect distinct regions of the central nervous system. Moreover, the lipids identified and tested ex vivo showed interesting anti-inflammatory properties and could be further studied to better characterize

  3. Real Capital: Complementarity and Structural Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriasov Iurii О.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two opposite approaches to the concept of real capital are considered. The presupposition for studying capital within the neoclassical school, which can be characterized as “empirical realism”, is the homogeneity of capital. This allows to apply formal methods of studying and modeling industrial processes but excludes from consideration the properties and characteristics of capital as a real factor of production. The approach of the Austrian school corresponding to traditions of “critical realism” in the economy focuses on real properties of capital and its role in the process of public production. The aim of this study is to clarify the idea of real capital, its properties, structural characteristics and mechanisms of formation. According to this, the characteristic of two different approaches is given. It is shown that the heterogeneity of capital is the basis of complementarity of capital goods and their combinations in each particular case of their application. The same capital goods have different performance depending on the method of their combination as a result of the production plans of entrepreneurs. Emergent properties of capital are also the result of the combination. Differences in the use and combination of capital determine its overall structure, subsystems of which are natural objects at different levels included in the production, capital goods themselves and their various combinations, social capital. Each of these subsystems is relatively independent and forms a higher level subsystem.

  4. A holographic model for black hole complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, David A.; Thorlacius, Larus

    2016-01-01

    We explore a version of black hole complementarity, where an approximate semiclassical effective field theory for interior infalling degrees of freedom emerges holographically from an exact evolution of exterior degrees of freedom. The infalling degrees of freedom have a complementary description in terms of outgoing Hawking radiation and must eventually decohere with respect to the exterior Hamiltonian, leading to a breakdown of the semiclassical description for an infaller. Trace distance is used to quantify the difference between the complementary time evolutions, and to define a decoherence time. We propose a dictionary where the evolution with respect to the bulk effective Hamiltonian corresponds to mean field evolution in the holographic theory. In a particular model for the holographic theory, which exhibits fast scrambling, the decoherence time coincides with the scrambling time. The results support the hypothesis that decoherence of the infalling holographic state and disruptive bulk effects near the curvature singularity are complementary descriptions of the same physics, which is an important step toward resolving the black hole information paradox.

  5. A holographic model for black hole complementarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, David A. [Physics Department, Brown University,Providence, RI 02912 (United States); Thorlacius, Larus [University of Iceland, Science Institute,Dunhaga 3, IS-107, Reykjavik (Iceland); The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics,Department of Physics, Stockholm University,AlbaNova University Centre, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2016-12-07

    We explore a version of black hole complementarity, where an approximate semiclassical effective field theory for interior infalling degrees of freedom emerges holographically from an exact evolution of exterior degrees of freedom. The infalling degrees of freedom have a complementary description in terms of outgoing Hawking radiation and must eventually decohere with respect to the exterior Hamiltonian, leading to a breakdown of the semiclassical description for an infaller. Trace distance is used to quantify the difference between the complementary time evolutions, and to define a decoherence time. We propose a dictionary where the evolution with respect to the bulk effective Hamiltonian corresponds to mean field evolution in the holographic theory. In a particular model for the holographic theory, which exhibits fast scrambling, the decoherence time coincides with the scrambling time. The results support the hypothesis that decoherence of the infalling holographic state and disruptive bulk effects near the curvature singularity are complementary descriptions of the same physics, which is an important step toward resolving the black hole information paradox.

  6. A toy model of black hole complementarity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Souvik; Papadodimas, Kyriakos; Raju, Suvrat

    2016-01-01

    We consider the algebra of simple operators defined in a time band in a CFT with a holographic dual. When the band is smaller than the light crossing time of AdS, an entire causal diamond in the center of AdS is separated from the band by a horizon. We show that this algebra obeys a version of the Reeh-Schlieder theorem: the action of the algebra on the CFT vacuum can approximate any low energy state in the CFT arbitrarily well, but no operator within the algebra can exactly annihilate the vacuum. We show how to relate local excitations in the complement of the central diamond to simple operators in the band. Local excitations within the diamond are invisible to the algebra of simple operators in the band by causality, but can be related to complicated operators called "precursors". We use the Reeh-Schlieder theorem to write down a simple and explicit formula for these precursors on the boundary. We comment on the implications of our results for black hole complementarity and the emergence of bulk locality fr...

  7. Minor milk constituents are affected by protein concentration and forage digestibility in the feed ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Torben; Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-02-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate if selected minor milk components would be indicative for the nutritional situation of the cow. Forty-eight dairy cows were offered a high digestible ration vs. a lower digestible ration combined with 2 protein levels in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, cholesterol, triacylglycerides (TAG), uric acid and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) were measured and correlated mutually and towards other milking parameters (yield, h since last milking, days in milk (DIM), urea, etc). The variation range of the suggested variables were broad, a fact that may support their utilisation as predictive parameters. The content of milk metabolites was significantly affected by the change in rations as milk glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, uric acid, and the ratio cholesterol: triacylglycerides increased with higher energy intake while BHBA and TAG decreased. The content of some of the milk metabolites changed during 24 h day/night periods: BHBA, cholesterol, uric acid and TAG increased whereas free glucose decreased in the night period. Certain associations between milk metabolites and calculated energy parameters like ECM, body condition score (BCS), and body weight gain were found, however, these associations were to some extent explained by an interaction with DIM, just as changes in milk metabolites during a 24 h period seems to interfere. It is concluded that the practical use of the suggested milk variables should be based on more than one metabolite and that stage of lactation and possibly time of the day where the milk is collected should be incorporated in predictive models.

  8. External tagging does not affect the feeding behavior of a coral reef fish, Chaetodon vagabundus (Pisces: Chaetodontidae)

    KAUST Repository

    Berumen, Michael L.

    2009-11-10

    Increasingly, the ability to recognize individual fishes is important for studies of population dynamics, ecology, and behavior. Although a variety of methods exist, external tags remain one of the most widely applied because they are both effective and cost efficient. However, a key assumption is that neither the tagging procedure nor the presence of a tag negatively affects the individual. While this has been demonstrated for relatively coarse metrics such as growth and survival, few studies have examined the impact of tags and tagging on more subtle aspects of behavior. We tagged adult vagabond butterflyfish (Chaetodon vagabundus) occupying a 30-ha insular reef in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, using a commonly-utilized t-bar anchor tag. We quantified and compared feeding behavior (bite rate), which is sensitive to stress, of tagged and untagged individuals over four separate sampling periods spanning 4 months post-tagging. Bite rates did not differ between tagged and untagged individuals at each sampling period and, combined with additional anecdotal observations of normal pairing behavior and successful reproduction, suggest that tagging did not adversely affect individuals. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009.

  9. Does feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and metabolism according to muscle type in pigs (Sus scrofa)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, Florence; Lebret, Bénédicte

    2007-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether feed restriction and re-alimentation differently affect lipid content and activities of lipogenic or catabolic enzymes according to muscle types in pigs. At around 28 kg body mass (BW), sixty pigs (n=30 per group) were allocated to either ad libitum (AL) or restricted/re-feeding (RA) regimens. After feed restriction (80 kg BW), lipid content was reduced (P<0.01) in the oxidative rhomboideus (RH) as in the glycolytic biceps femoris (BF) muscles of RA pigs compared with AL pigs. Lower activities (P<0.05) of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase (FAS) and malic enzyme (ME) were observed in the RH but not in the BF of RA vs. AL pigs. After re-feeding (110 kg BW), lipid content was restored in the RH, but was still 12% lower (P<0.05) in the BF of RA compared with AL pigs. In the RH, the trend for an enhanced FAS activity and for a smaller weight-related decrease of ME activity in RA pigs than AL pigs during re-feeding, may have contributed to the muscle fat recovery observed in the RA pigs. In the BF, higher oxidative enzyme activities (P<0.10) in RA pigs compared to AL pigs might explain the incomplete lipid recovery observed after re-feeding in the former animals. In conclusion, metabolic activities in response to restriction and re-feeding differed according to muscle metabolic type.

  10. Factors affecting the cholesterol content of milk of cows fed conserved feeds in a TMR system throughout the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Strzałkowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cholesterol content in the milk of high yielding cows fed a uniform diet composed of conserved feeds over the whole year. The investigationswere conducted on 124 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, selected fromherd yielding 8457 kg milk with 4,58 % and 3,56 % of fat and protein content, respectively. The cows were maintained in a loose barn and fed ad libitum with TMR (total mixed ration throughout the year. The diets consisted of corn silage and grass silage (at 50:50 ration on dry matter basis and concentrates with mineral-vitaminmixture additives. Samples of milk were collected individually from each cow at monthly intervals during the whole year. The cholesterol content in milk (mg/dL and in milk fat (mg/g was related to the stage of lactation, season of the year, somatic cell count and fat content, but was not affected by the parity. The cholesterol content in daily milk yield (mg/cow/day depended also on parity. Even though the cows were fed a uniform diet throughout the year according to the TMR system the cholesterol content in milk differed among seasons.

  11. On the Character of Quantum Law: Complementarity, Entanglement, and Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2017-08-01

    This article considers the relationships between the character of physical law in quantum theory and Bohr's concept of complementarity, under the assumption of the unrepresentable and possibly inconceivable nature of quantum objects and processes, an assumption that may be seen as the most radical departure from realism currently available. Complementarity, the article argues, is a reflection of the fact that, as against classical physics or relativity, the behavior of quantum objects of the same type, say, all electrons, is not governed by the same physical law in all contexts, specifically in complementary contexts. On the other hand, the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics offers correct probabilistic or statistical predictions (no other predictions are possible on experimental grounds) in all contexts, here, again, under the assumption that quantum objects themselves and their behavior are beyond representation or even conception. Bohr, in this connection, spoke of "an entirely new situation as regards the description of physical phenomena that, the notion of complementarity aims at characterizing." The article also considers the relationships among complementarity, entanglement, and quantum information, by basing these relationships on this understanding of complementarity.

  12. Feed rate affecting surface roughness and tool wear in dry hard turning of AISI 4140 steel automotive parts using TiN+AlCrN coated inserts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paengchit, Phacharadit; Saikaew, Charnnarong

    2018-02-01

    This work aims to investigate the effects of feed rate on surface roughness (Ra) and tool wear (VB) and to obtain the optimal operating condition of the feed rate in dry hard turning of AISI 4140 chromium molybdenum steel for automotive industry applications using TiN+AlCrN coated inserts. AISI 4140 steel bars were employed in order to carry out the dry hard turning experiments by varying the feed rates of 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1 mm/rev based on experimental design technique that can be analyzed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). In addition, the cutting tool inserts were examined after machining experiments by SEM to evaluate the effect of turning operations on tool wear. The results showed that averages Ra and VB were significantly affected by the feed rate at the level of significance of 0.05. Averages Ra and VB values at the feed rate of 0.06 mm/rev were lowest compared to average values at the feed rates of 0.08 and 0.1 mm/rev, based on the main effect plot.

  13. Capital-Skill Complementarity and Rigid Relative Wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose Skaksen, Jan; Sørensen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    The relative demand for skills has increased considerably in many OECD countriesduring recent decades. This development is potentially explained by capital-skillcomplementarity and high growth rates of capital equipment. When productionfunctions are characterized by capital-skill complementarity......, relative wages and employmentof skilled labor are countercyclical because capital equipment is a quasi-fixed factor in the short run. The exact behavior of the two variables depends onrelative wage flexibility. Relative wages are rigid in Denmark, implying that the employmentshare of skills should...... be countercyclical. The labor market is competitivein the United States and therefore relative wages of skilled labor are expected to becountercyclical. We find that the business cycle development of the two economiesis consistent with capital-skill complementarity.Keywords: capital-skill complementarity, relative...

  14. Natural variations of precursors in pig meat affect the yield of heterocyclic amines--effects of RN genotype, feeding regime, and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Viktoria; Solyakov, Alexey; Skog, Kerstin; Lundström, Kerstin; Jägerstad, Margaretha

    2002-05-08

    Pig meat shows natural variations in the concentrations of precursors of heterocyclic amines (HCAs), which may affect formation of HCAs in cooked pig meat. To study this, 26 pigs with an inherent genetic variation (carriers and noncarriers of the RN(-) allele) were subjected to different feeding regimes (conventional feed compared with feed composed according to organic standards). In addition, the effect of sex (castrated males or females) was considered when assessing chemical and technological meat quality parameters. Concentrations of precursors of HCAs, i.e., creatine, residual glycogen, dipeptides, and free amino acids, were analyzed in the raw meat, and the levels of some HCAs (4,8-DiMeIQx, MeIQx, PhIP, harman, and norharman) were then determined in fried meat patties prepared from these pigs. The RN genotype most affected technological meat quality parameters and the level of precursors of HCAs, especially the level of residual glycogen, where carriers of the RN(-) allele showed levels four times as high as those of noncarriers (75.3 +/- 2.6 compared with 17.2 +/- 2.4 micromol/g meat, least-squares means +/- SE). The increased level of residual glycogen resulted in about 50% lower amounts of total mutagenic HCAs in cooked meat compared with cooked meat from normal pigs. Fried meat from carriers of the RN(-) allele obtained darker crust color than meat from noncarriers. Feeding regime and sex did not significantly affect the chemical composition of the meat or the formation of HCAs.

  15. Hilbertian quantum theory as the theory of complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahti, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the notion of complementary physical quantities assumes the possibility of performing ideal first-kind measurements of such quantities. This then leads to an axiomatic reconstruction of the Hilbertian quantum theory based on the complementarity principle and on its connection with the measurement theoretical idealization known as the projection postulate. As the notion of complementary physical quantities does not presuppose the notion of probability, the given axiomatic reconstruction reveals complementarity as an essential reason for the irreducibly probabilistic nature of the quantum theory. (author)

  16. Complementarity models of competitive oligopolistic electric power generation markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Carolyn Burr

    2000-10-01

    This dissertation examines a number of different models of a competitive power market. We first give an overview of the structure of a power market and how deregulation plays a role. After a brief survey of literature and introductory mathematical background, we introduce variational inequalities in the context of the Nash equilibrium problem and discuss an extension of this problem. As in the Nash. equilibrium problem, there is a given set of players; in the extension, we add a market clearing condition. This extension can also be modeled as a variational inequality (VI) and applies directly to the models that are presented in the later chapters. In Chapter 3, we discuss the special physical properties of electricity. These properties, which are unique to an electric power network, allow us to reduce the size and complexity of our models significantly. In Chapters 4 and 5, we introduce and discuss the power models. In Chapter 4, we consider a Cournot oligopolistic market, in which all firms play an equally competitive role in the market. We introduce arbitrage into the market and see how that affects the models. All of the models in Chapter 4 can be stated as linear or mixed linear complementarity problems. We prove existence and uniqueness results for each of the models. We also give a comparison of the models. In Chapter 5, we consider an oligopolistic market in which there are dominant firms. In these models, we examine more carefully the bid selection process supervised by the independent system operator (ISO). The case where there is one dominant firm can be modeled as a mathematical program with equilibrium constraints (MPEC). We describe an interior point algorithm to solve this problem. We also consider the case of two dominant firms, and present numerical results for both of these cases.

  17. Greater than the sum of their parts: Exploring the environmental complementarity of state, private and community protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiphaine Leménager

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In a context of unprecedented environmental crisis, protected areas are expected to play a central role. Although considerable work has been done to understand the effectiveness of different types of protected area, there has been limited investigation of how a combination of different types of protected area within a system affects its overall environmental outcomes. Defining and using the concept of environmental complementarity, the paper explores whether or not the presence of private, state and community protected areas in a landscape has a positive effect on biodiversity conservation outcomes. Based on a Kenyan case study, it emphasizes the important and currently undervalued role of state protected areas and shows that other types of protected area can be analyzed as being a support. It suggests there is a complex array of complementarities between community, state and private protected areas. Differences in management capacity, staff skills, social acceptability, access to financial resources, tourism products, ecological resources, etc. between types of protected area were found to drive additionality and synergistic complementarities that undeniably contribute to strengthening the overall protected area system and increasing its resilience, as well as its capacity to generate environmental outcomes. Keywords: Biodiversity, Protected area, Environmental complementarity, Strategies

  18. Soft-diet feeding after weaning affects behavior in mice: Potential increase in vulnerability to mental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nose-Ishibashi, K; Watahiki, J; Yamada, K; Maekawa, M; Watanabe, A; Yamamoto, G; Enomoto, A; Matsuba, Y; Nampo, T; Taguchi, T; Ichikawa, Y; Saido, T C; Mishima, K; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshikawa, T; Maki, K

    2014-03-28

    Mastication is one of the most important oral functions, and the period during which mastication is acquired overlaps with the term of rapid development and maturation of the neural systems. In particular, the acquisition period after weaning is related to the potential onset of mental disorders. However, the roles of mastication during this period for brain development remain largely unknown. Therefore, we used a series of standard behavioral analyses, assessment of hippocampal cell proliferation, and the expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), TrkB, and Akt1 in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of mice to investigate the effects of post-weaning mastication on brain function. We fed 21-day-old C57BL6/J male mice either a hard or a soft diet for 4weeks and conducted a series of standard behavioral tests from 7weeks of age. Further, histological analysis with bromodeoxyuridine was performed to compare hippocampal cell proliferation at 7 and 14weeks of age. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed to compare BDNF, TrkB, and Akt1 expression in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of 14-week-old mice. Compared to mice fed a hard diet (HDM), soft-diet mice (SDM) showed behavioral impairments, including decreased home cage activity, increased open field test activity, and deficits in prepulse inhibition. These results were similar to those observed in mouse models of schizophrenia. However, no effects were observed on anxiety-like behaviors or memory/learning tests. Compared to HDM, SDM showed significantly decreased hippocampal cell proliferation and hippocampal BDNF and Akt1 gene expression at 14weeks of age. A soft diet after weaning may have resulted in histological and molecular changes in the hippocampus and influenced outcomes of behavioral tests related to mental disorders. Our findings suggest that soft-diet feeding after weaning may affect both physical and mental development of mice, and may increase vulnerability to mental disorders

  19. Exploring the complementarity between innovation and export for SMEs growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golovko, E.; Valentini, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we advance and test the idea that innovation and export are complementary strategies for SMEs' growth. We argue that innovation and export positively reinforce each other in a dynamic virtuous circle, and we identify and describe the process through which this complementarity

  20. From Complementarity to Conflict: A Historical Analysis of Farmer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    From Complementarity to Conflict: A Historical Analysis of Farmer-Fulbe Relations in West Africa. M Davidheiser, AM Luna. Abstract. This paper provides a socio-historical analysis of conflict between Fulbe pastoralists and farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa. The discussion examines various structural factors that have fostered ...

  1. Female choice for genetic complementarity in birds: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mays Jr., H. L.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Liu, M.; Hill, G. E.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 134, č. 1 (2008), s. 147-158 ISSN 0016-6707 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/06/0851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Female mate choice * Genetic compatibility * Genetic complementarity * Heterosis * Heterozygosity * Sexual selection Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.980, year: 2008

  2. Indistinguishability of particles and complementarity in statistical thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neri, D.

    1987-01-01

    It is discussed the complementarity existing between statistical and dynamical descriptions of macroscopic system, introduced by Bohr and quantitatively expressed by some correlation relations obtained in the framework of the Landau's fluctation theory. An operative analysis of this logical relation leads to a new interpretation of the concept of indistinguishability of identical particles

  3. How Hybrid Organizations Turn Antagonistic Assets into Complementarities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hockerts, Kai

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on people excluded from traditional markets as employees, producers, or consumers on the grounds that they lack the appropriate skills. It describes the processes through which these perceived liabilities can be overcome by so-called hybrid organizations. Hybrids pursue expli...... for complementarities, and by creating demands for antagonistic assets, or by using partnerships....

  4. The principle of complementarity in the design of reserve networks ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper sketches the historical development of the principle of complementarity and its applications in practical policy decisions. In the first section a brief account is given of the circumstances out of which concerns for more explicit systematic methods for the assessment of the conservation value of different areas arose.

  5. Complementarity controversy in wave–particle duality revisited

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    computing and quantum cryptography. 3. Confronting the complementarity principle ... in the formal scheme for approximate joint measurement of noncommuting ob- servables proposed by Busch et al [40] in terms ... of classical and quantum languages, are indeed semiclassical. In QM, interference is the existence of bright ...

  6. The development of the gut microbiota in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is affected by first feeding and diet type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; von Gersdorff Jørgensen, L.; Strube, Mikael Lenz

    2014-01-01

    - or plant based diet with or without the probiont Pediococcus acidilactici. Before first feeding the main part of the sequence reads grouped to the genus Sediminibacterium probably originating from the surrounding water. The microbial abundance and diversity increased after first-feeding and the microbiota...... then changed towards phylum Firmicutes dominance for plant based fed fish and towards dominance of phylum Proteobacteria for the marine fed fish. After first-feeding, there were significantly higher abundances of Streptococcus, Leuconostoc and Weissella in fish fed the plant-based diet. The microbiota...... clustered separately according to the diet type, but only minor effects were seen from the probiont when using PCA-analysis. The constitutive transcription level of most examined immune genes increased during the ontogenic shift, but the results could not explain the differences in the composition...

  7. Fillet texture of Rainbow trout as affected by feeding strategy, slaughtering procedure and storage post-mortem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Færgemand, J.; Rønsholdt, B.; Alsted, N.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the enactment of environmental legislation in Denmark, feed expenditure by commercial aquaculture operations has been limited. This development has created a demand for high energy diets, which presently dominate the market place. Such diets limit waste load to the surrounding environment,...

  8. Could plant-feeding nematodes affect the competition between grass species during succession in grasslands under restoration management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschoor, B.C.; Pronk, T.E.; Goede, de R.G.M.; Brussaard, L.

    2002-01-01

    1 We examined the effects of plant-feeding nematodes on competition between Holcus lanatus and Anthoxanthum odoratum. In the Drentse A nature reserve, the Netherlands, a relatively productive grassland, represented by H. lanatus, has gradually been replaced by a less-productive community,

  9. Feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid affects enteric methane production and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.; Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study potential interaction between the effects of feeding nitrate and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; C22:6 n-3) on enteric CH4 production and performance of lactating dairy cows. Twenty-eight lactating Holstein dairy cows were grouped into 7 blocks of 4

  10. The nutritional status of young children and feeding practices two years after the Wenchuan Earthquake in the worst-affected areas in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Huo, Junsheng; Zhao, Liyun; Fu, Ping; Wang, Jie; Huang, Jian; Wang, Lijuan; Song, Pengkun; Fang, Zheng; Chang, Suying; Yin, Shian; Zhang, Jian; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the nutritional status and feeding practices of young children in the worst-affected areas of China two years after the Wenchuan Earthquake. The sample consisted of 1,254 children 6-23 months of age living in four selected counties from the disaster-affected provinces of Sichuan, Shaanxi and Gansu. Length-for-age, weight-for-age, weight-for-length, and hemoglobin concentration were used to evaluate nutritional status. Interviews with selected children's caretakers collected basic demographic information, children's medical history, and child feeding practices. Stunting, underweight, and wasting prevalence rates in children 6-23 months of age were 10.8%, 4.9% and 2.8% respectively, and anemia prevalence was 52.2%. Only 12.3% of children had initiated breastfeeding within the first hour after birth. Overall, 90.9% of children had ever been breastfed, and 87% children 6-8 months of age had received solid, semi-solid or soft foods the day before the interview. The diets of 45% of children 6-23 months of age met the definition of minimum dietary diversity, and the diets of 39% of breastfed and 7.6% non- breastfed children 6-23 months of age met the criteria for minimum meal frequency. The results highlight that a substantial proportion of young children in the earthquake affected disaster areas continue to have various forms of malnutrition, with an especially high prevalence of anemia, and that most feeding practices are suboptimal. Further efforts should be made to enhance the nutritional status of these children. As part of this intervention, it may be necessary to improve child feeding practices.

  11. Complementarity As Generative Principle: A Thought Pattern for Aesthetic Appreciations and Cognitive Appraisals in General

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Bao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In experimental aesthetics the relationship between the arts and cognitive neuroscience has gained particular interest in recent years. But has cognitive neuroscience indeed something to offer when studying the arts? Here we present a theoretical frame within which the concept of complementarity as a generative or creative principle is proposed; neurocognitive processes are characterized by the duality of complementary activities like bottom-up and top-down control, or logistical functions like temporal control and content functions like perceptions in the neural machinery. On that basis a thought pattern is suggested for aesthetic appreciations and cognitive appraisals in general. This thought pattern is deeply rooted in the history of philosophy and art theory since antiquity; and complementarity also characterizes neural operations as basis for cognitive processes. We then discuss some challenges one is confronted with in experimental aesthetics; in our opinion, one serious problem is the lack of a taxonomy of functions in psychology and neuroscience which is generally accepted. This deficit makes it next to impossible to develop acceptable models which are similar to what has to be modeled. Another problem is the severe language bias in this field of research as knowledge gained in many languages over the ages remains inaccessible to most scientists. Thus, an inspection of research results or theoretical concepts is necessarily too narrow. In spite of these limitations we provide a selective summary of some results and viewpoints with a focus on visual art and its appreciation. It is described how questions of art and aesthetic appreciations using behavioral methods and in particular brain-imaging techniques are analyzed and evaluated focusing on such issues like the representation of artwork or affective experiences. Finally, we emphasize complementarity as a generative principle on a practical level when artists and scientists work

  12. Complementarity As Generative Principle: A Thought Pattern for Aesthetic Appreciations and Cognitive Appraisals in General

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; von Stosch, Alexandra; Park, Mona; Pöppel, Ernst

    2017-01-01

    In experimental aesthetics the relationship between the arts and cognitive neuroscience has gained particular interest in recent years. But has cognitive neuroscience indeed something to offer when studying the arts? Here we present a theoretical frame within which the concept of complementarity as a generative or creative principle is proposed; neurocognitive processes are characterized by the duality of complementary activities like bottom-up and top-down control, or logistical functions like temporal control and content functions like perceptions in the neural machinery. On that basis a thought pattern is suggested for aesthetic appreciations and cognitive appraisals in general. This thought pattern is deeply rooted in the history of philosophy and art theory since antiquity; and complementarity also characterizes neural operations as basis for cognitive processes. We then discuss some challenges one is confronted with in experimental aesthetics; in our opinion, one serious problem is the lack of a taxonomy of functions in psychology and neuroscience which is generally accepted. This deficit makes it next to impossible to develop acceptable models which are similar to what has to be modeled. Another problem is the severe language bias in this field of research as knowledge gained in many languages over the ages remains inaccessible to most scientists. Thus, an inspection of research results or theoretical concepts is necessarily too narrow. In spite of these limitations we provide a selective summary of some results and viewpoints with a focus on visual art and its appreciation. It is described how questions of art and aesthetic appreciations using behavioral methods and in particular brain-imaging techniques are analyzed and evaluated focusing on such issues like the representation of artwork or affective experiences. Finally, we emphasize complementarity as a generative principle on a practical level when artists and scientists work directly together which can

  13. Diet Affects Muscle Quality and Growth Traits of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus: A Comparison Between Grass and Artificial Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish muscle, the main edible parts with high protein level and low fat level, is consumed worldwide. Diet contributes greatly to fish growth performance and muscle quality. In order to elucidate the correlation between diet and muscle quality, the same batch of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus were divided into two groups and fed with either grass (Lolium perenne, Euphrasia pectinata and Sorghum sudanense or artificial feed, respectively. However, the different two diets didn't result in significant differences in all the detected water quality parameters (e.g., Tm, pH, DO, NH3/NH4+-N, NO3--N, NO2-, TN, TP, and TOC between the two experimental groups. After a 4-month culture period, various indexes and expression of myogenic regulatory factor (MRFs and their related genes were tested. The weight gain of the fish fed with artificial feed (AFG was nearly 40% higher than the fish fed with grass (GFG. Significantly higher alkaline phosphatase, total cholestrol, high density cholestrol and total protein were detected in GFG as compared to AFG. GFG also showed increased hardness, resilience and shear force in texture profile analysis, with significantly bigger and compact muscle fibers in histologic slices. The fat accumulation was most serious in the abdomen muscle of AFG. Additionally, the expression levels of MyoG, MyoD, IGF-1, and MSTNs were higher, whereas Myf-5, MRF4, and IGF-2 were lower in most positional muscles of GFG as compared to AFG. Overall, these results suggested that feeding grass could promote muscle growth and development by stimulating muscle fiber hypertrophy, as well as significantly enhance the expression of CoL1As. Feeding C. idellus with grass could also improve flesh quality by improving muscle characteristics, enhancing the production of collagen, meanthile, reducing fat accumulation and moisture in muscle, but at the cost of a slower growth.

  14. Dietary energy source and feeding levels during the rearing period affect ovarian follicular development and oocyte maturation in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, D S; Fang, Z F; Wu, D; Zhuo, Y; Xu, S Y; Wang, Y Z; Zhou, P; Lin, Y

    2010-07-15

    Fifty-four Landrace x Yorkshire gilts (59.0 +/- 4.2 kg and 147 +/- 3 d old) were used to examine the effects of dietary energy source (starch or mixed fat) at high [112.5% of energy requirements recommended by NRC (1998)], normal (100%), and low (87.5%) energy feeding levels on ovarian follicular development and oocyte maturation. Forty-seven estrus gilts were slaughtered at Day 19 after the second estrus; oocytes were recovered from follicles >4 mm in diameter, and matured in vitro for 44 h. Gilts fed high-energy diets had more follicles >4 mm (mean, 25.8 vs. 19.1, P energy diet. Furthermore, gilts fed starch-rich diets had enhanced oocyte nuclear maturation relative to those fed fat-rich diets (75.4 vs. 68.0%, P energy feeding groups, high-energy feeding groups had higher (P energy group than in the normal group. Compared with gilts fed the high-energy diet supplemented with fat, gilts fed the high-energy diet supplemented with starch had a tendency (P nuclear maturation during culture in vitro. We inferred that starch-rich, high-energy diets during rearing may improve ovarian follicular development and oocyte maturation in replacement gilts. Crown Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A complementarity model for the European natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, Ruud; Gabriel, Steven A.; Holz, Franziska; Zhuang, Jifang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed and comprehensive complementarity model for computing market equilibrium values in the European natural gas system. Market players include producers and their marketing arms which we call 'traders', pipeline and storage operators, marketers, LNG liquefiers, regasifiers, tankers, and three end-use consumption sectors. The economic behavior of producers, traders, pipeline and storage operators, liquefiers and regasifiers is modeled via optimization problems whose Karush-Kuhn-Tucker (KKT) optimality conditions in combination with market-clearing conditions form the complementarity system. The LNG tankers, marketers and consumption sectors are modeled implicitly via appropriate cost functions, aggregate demand curves, and ex post calculations, respectively. The model is run on several case studies that highlight its capabilities, including a simulation of a disruption of Russian supplies via Ukraine

  16. Bohrian Complementarity in the Light of Kantian Teleology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringe, Hernán

    2014-03-01

    The Kantian influences on Bohr's thought and the relationship between the perspective of complementarity in physics and in biology seem at first sight completely unrelated issues. However, the goal of this work is to show their intimate connection. We shall see that Bohr's views on biology shed light on Kantian elements of his thought, which enables a better understanding of his complementary interpretation of quantum theory. For this purpose, we shall begin by discussing Bohr's views on the analogies concerning the epistemological situation in biology and in physics. Later, we shall compare the Bohrian and the Kantian approaches to the science of life in order to show their close connection. On this basis, we shall finally turn to the issue of complementarity in quantum theory in order to assess what we can learn about the epistemological problems in the quantum realm from a consideration of Kant's views on teleology.

  17. Chemometric analysis of the secondary metabolite profile of Yarrow (Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. affected by phloem feeding Myzus persicae Sulzer aphids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Giorgi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Yarrow (Achillea collina Becker ex Rchb. has a high content of secondary metabolites including phenolic acids. Among them, hydroxycinnamic acid such as chlorogenic acid and its derivatives were found to be the most abundant ones. The phloem feeding Myzus persicae Sulzer was hypothesized to affect the contents of secondary metabolites and change the metabolite profile. A high-performance liquid chromatography technique (HPLC was used to evaluate whether there is a difference in the phenolic profile between aphid infested and non-infested yarrow leaves. M. persicae colonies composed of between 20 and 30 individuals were allowed to feed for 10 and 20 days. Preprocessing was carried out to standardize the procedures in order to obtain optimal separation of analytes, good chromatographic peak shape and robustness of the results. The methanol extracts of leaves were analyzed by means of HPLC, and the time series of peak areas obtained from each extract were evaluated through chemometric analyses. Results of the phenolic fingerprints showed a specific chromatographic profile with 58 peaks. An autoregression analysis demonstrated the absence of correlation. The discriminant analysis carried out with the data satisfying the assumption of the absence of collinearity showed a significant effect of phloem feeding on soluble phenolic compounds and identified two peaks that separate aphid infested from non-infested plants. The hydroxycinnamic acids widely found in A. collina leaves were not affected by M. persicae feeding. The results are the basis for the current studies aiming at the identification of chemical compounds that correspond to the peaks.

  18. Temporal and spatial complementarity of the wind and the solar resources in the Iberian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez, Sonia; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Sarsa, Antonio; Lorente-PLazas, Raquel; Pozo-Vázquez, David; Montávez, Juan Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Both Iberian countries (Portugal and Spain) are investing considerably in new wind and solar power plants to achieve a sustainable future, both in environmental and economic terms. Resource evaluation, aimed at optimizing the power generation according to the energy demand, is a mandatory requisite for the success of such a large amount of investments. However, this aim is difficult to attain due to the lack of lengthy and reliable observational datasets, implying poor spatial coverage. Hence, here we rely on a hindcast simulation spanning the period 1959-2007 and covering the whole Iberian Peninsula with resolution of 10 km, to retrieve the primary meteorological variables from which estimations of wind and solar power are done. Based on that, we have investigated the temporal (at the monthly timescale) and spatial complementarity of the wind and the solar resources in the Iberian Peninsula. The annual cycle of energy demand in Iberia shows two maxima centered in winter and summer and relatively smaller loads during the transitional seasons, with both the shape and the monthly values of this cycle having experienced small changes in the recent years. Since the annual cycle of wind (solar) power presents a clear maximum in winter (summer), it is immediate to infer that both cycles could be combined in order to achieve the shape required by the annual cycle of energy demand. Interannually, both resources show large variability in the winter months. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the monthly series of wind and solar power are strongly anticorrelated during winter and thus, both series could be also combined in order to achieve minimum interannual variability in the resulting wind-plus-solar production output. Moreover we found that this interannual complementarity is related, at least partially, to the multiple influence of the three main large-scale modes of climatic variability affecting Europe (NAO, EA and SCAND) since while their positive phases enhance

  19. Negative Impact of HRM Complementarity on Knowledge Transfer in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge......-related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer...

  20. Negative Impact of HRM Complementarity on Knowledge Transfer in MNCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minbaeva, Dana

    2005-01-01

    -related outcomes will result incrowding effect of extrinsic and intrinsic motivation and be negative. Hypothesesderived from these arguments are tested on the data from 92 subsidiaries of Danishmultinational corporations located in 11 countries.Extrinsic/intrinsic motivation, HRM practices, knowledge transfer......This paper explores reasons for negative complementarity among HRM practices. It isbuilt upon the premise that there are certain HRM practices influencing extrinsic andintrinsic motivation of knowledge receivers. If those HRM practices are applied in acomplementary way, their impact on knowledge...

  1. A Preconditioned Multisplitting and Schwarz Method for Linear Complementarity Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuiyu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The preconditioner presented by Hadjidimos et al. (2003 can improve on the convergence rate of the classical iterative methods to solve linear systems. In this paper, we extend this preconditioner to solve linear complementarity problems whose coefficient matrix is M-matrix or H-matrix and present a multisplitting and Schwarz method. The convergence theorems are given. The numerical experiments show that the methods are efficient.

  2. Benefits of integrating complementarity into priority threat management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadés, Iadine; Nicol, Sam; van Leeuwen, Stephen; Walters, Belinda; Firn, Jennifer; Reeson, Andrew; Martin, Tara G; Carwardine, Josie

    2015-04-01

    Conservation decision tools based on cost-effectiveness analysis are used to assess threat management strategies for improving species persistence. These approaches rank alternative strategies by their benefit to cost ratio but may fail to identify the optimal sets of strategies to implement under limited budgets because they do not account for redundancies. We devised a multiobjective optimization approach in which the complementarity principle is applied to identify the sets of threat management strategies that protect the most species for any budget. We used our approach to prioritize threat management strategies for 53 species of conservation concern in the Pilbara, Australia. We followed a structured elicitation approach to collect information on the benefits and costs of implementing 17 different conservation strategies during a 3-day workshop with 49 stakeholders and experts in the biodiversity, conservation, and management of the Pilbara. We compared the performance of our complementarity priority threat management approach with a current cost-effectiveness ranking approach. A complementary set of 3 strategies: domestic herbivore management, fire management and research, and sanctuaries provided all species with >50% chance of persistence for $4.7 million/year over 20 years. Achieving the same result cost almost twice as much ($9.71 million/year) when strategies were selected by their cost-effectiveness ranks alone. Our results show that complementarity of management benefits has the potential to double the impact of priority threat management approaches. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  3. Factors affecting the cholesterol content of milk of cows fed conserved feeds in a TMR system throughout the year

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Strzałkowska; Artur Jóźwik; Emilia Bagnicka; Józef Krzyżewski; Ross G. Cooper; Jarosław Olav Horbańczuk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cholesterol content in the milk of high yielding cows fed a uniform diet composed of conserved feeds over the whole year. The investigationswere conducted on 124 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, selected fromherd yielding 8457 kg milk with 4,58 % and 3,56 % of fat and protein content, respectively. The cows were maintained in a loose barn and fed ad libitum with TMR (total mixed ration) throughout the year. The diets consisted of corn silage ...

  4. Dietary macronutrients and feeding frequency affect fasting and postprandial concentrations of hormones involved in appetite regulation in adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbs, D C; Vester Boler, B M; Ridge, T K; Spears, J K; Graves, T K; Swanson, K S

    2010-12-01

    Identifying dietary effects on appetite-regulating hormones will enhance our understanding of appetite control. Before complex diets are tested, effects of specific macronutrients or feeding frequency should be identified. The objectives of this nutrition study were to identify differences in endocrine response with feeding frequency (Exp. 1) and after a single dose of a sole macronutrient (Exp. 2). A control diet supplying similar energy content from carbohydrate, protein, and fat was fed to maintain ideal BW. In Exp. 1, 8 healthy adult (1.9 ± 0.1 yr old) female hound cross dogs with an average BW of 22 kg (4.8 ± 0.8 BCS based on a 9-point scale) were randomly allotted to 1 of 2 treatments (fed once or twice daily) in a crossover design. After a 14-d adaptation period, a blood sample was taken (10 mL) before feeding, and samples were collected every 2 h postprandially for 24 h. In Exp. 2, dogs were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. After a 6-d adaptation period, the normal meal on d 7 was replaced with a bolus of maltodextrin (50 g in water; CARB), canned chicken (50 g; PROT), lard (25 g; fat), or water (200 mL). A blood sample (10 mL) was taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 240, 300, and 360 min postprandial. Total ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), insulin, and glucose concentrations were measured. Data were analyzed to compare changes from baseline and area under the curve (AUC) among treatments. In Exp. 1, all hormones were quite variable throughout the day, with a few insulin and GLP-1 differences because of feeding frequency. In Exp. 2, CARB produced a marked peak in glucose and insulin concentrations compared with PROT, fat, or water, resulting in increased glucose (P < 0.001) and insulin (P = 0.07) incremental AUC values. On the other hand, the fat treatment led to increased GLP-1 concentrations over time. Ghrelin AUC was not different among treatments. The circulating hormone data were highly

  5. Restricted feeding regime affects clock gene expression profiles in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of rats exposed to constant light

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, Marta; Polidarová, Lenka; Sládek, Martin; Sumová, Alena

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 197, - (2011), s. 65-71 ISSN 0306-4522 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/0321; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/11/0668; GA MŠk(CZ) LC554 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GD309/08/H079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : circadian system * suprachiasmatic nucleus * restricted feeding * constant light Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 3.380, year: 2011

  6. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontemps-Gallo, Sébastien; Lawrence, Kevin; Gherardini, Frank C

    2016-08-01

    Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase) of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase) to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm), osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1) and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS) of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA) required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi.

  7. Two Different Virulence-Related Regulatory Pathways in Borrelia burgdorferi Are Directly Affected by Osmotic Fluxes in the Blood Meal of Feeding Ixodes Ticks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bontemps-Gallo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lyme disease, caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, is a vector-borne illness that requires the bacteria to adapt to distinctly different environments in its tick vector and various mammalian hosts. Effective colonization (acquisition phase of a tick requires the bacteria to adapt to tick midgut physiology. Successful transmission (transmission phase to a mammal requires the bacteria to sense and respond to the midgut environmental cues and up-regulate key virulence factors before transmission to a new host. Data presented here suggest that one environmental signal that appears to affect both phases of the infective cycle is osmolarity. While constant in the blood, interstitial fluid and tissue of a mammalian host (300 mOsm, osmolarity fluctuates in the midgut of feeding Ixodes scapularis. Measured osmolarity of the blood meal isolated from the midgut of a feeding tick fluctuates from an initial osmolarity of 600 mOsm to blood-like osmolarity of 300 mOsm. After feeding, the midgut osmolarity rebounded to 600 mOsm. Remarkably, these changes affect the two independent regulatory networks that promote acquisition (Hk1-Rrp1 and transmission (Rrp2-RpoN-RpoS of B. burgdorferi. Increased osmolarity affected morphology and motility of wild-type strains, and lysed Hk1 and Rrp1 mutant strains. At low osmolarity, Borrelia cells express increased levels of RpoN-RpoS-dependent virulence factors (OspC, DbpA required for the mammalian infection. Our results strongly suggest that osmolarity is an important part of the recognized signals that allow the bacteria to adjust gene expression during the acquisition and transmission phases of the infective cycle of B. burgdorferi.

  8. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulshreshtha, Garima; Rathgeber, Bruce; Stratton, Glenn; Thomas, Nikhil; Evans, Franklin; Critchley, Alan; Hafting, Jeff; Prithiviraj, Balakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of red seaweed supplementation to standard poultry diets on production performance, egg quality, intestinal histology, and cecal short-chain fatty acids in Lohmann Brown Classic laying hens. A total of 160 birds were randomly assigned to 8 treatment groups. Control hens were fed a basal layer diet; positive control hens were fed a diet containing 2% inulin; and 6 treatment groups were fed a diet containing one of the following; 0.5, 1, or 2% Chondrus crispus (CC0.5, CC1, and CC2, respectively) and one of the same 3 levels of Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii (SG0.5, SG1, and SG2, respectively). Dietary supplementation had no significant effect on the feed intake, BW, egg production, fecal moisture content, and blood serum profile of the birds. The feed conversion ratio per gram of egg was significantly more efficient (P = 0.001) for CC2 and SG2 treatments. Moreover, SG1 supplementation increased egg yolk weight (P = 0.0035) and birds with CC1 supplementation had higher egg weight (P = 0.0006). The SG2 and CC2 groups had greater (P hens. ©2014 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Carcass morphology and meat quality from roosters slaughtered at eight months affected by genotype and finishing feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Franco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the carcass characteristics and the meat quality of the roosters from the autochthonous Mos breed slaughtered at 8 months. With comparative purpose roosters from hybrid line Sasso T44 were used in this study. Birds were reared on their typical production system (extensive indoor or barns and finishing diet whit corn. Both live and carcass weight were higher for commercial breed (p<0.001. Drumstick, thigh and wing percentages were greater in Mos breed than in Sasso T-44, while breast was similar for both genotypes. Only significant differences in cholesterol and alpha-tocopherol content between genotypes have been found, whereas finishing feeding treatment had effect on moisture, intramuscular fat content, cholesterol, tocopherol isomers and meat yellowness. Unsaturated fatty acids constituted the main contribution to total amount of fatty acid (FA, where monounsaturated oleic acid was the major compound, and found higher concentrations in commercial breed. Mos breed showed higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and lower amounts of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA than Sasso T-44. The relation PUFA/SFA was above 0.68 for Mos breed and was slightly lower for the other genotype. In conclusion, the carcass morphology and meat quality was influenced by breed and finishing feeding with corn.

  10. Grooming-related feeding motivates macaques to groom and affects grooming reciprocity and episode duration in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishi, Kenji; Yamada, Kazunori; Nakamichi, Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    Allogrooming is considered as an altruistic behavior wherein primates exchange grooming as a tradable commodity for reciprocal grooming or other commodities such as support during aggression and tolerance during co-feeding. First, we report a case of the grooming relationships of the lowest-ranking adult female in a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). The female (Lp) had lost a portion of the fur and was groomed by higher-ranking individuals without providing reciprocal grooming or other commodities. The groomers probably fed on lice eggs from the fur of Lp more frequently than from that of other adult groomees. This suggests that grooming-related feeding (GRF) motivated many individuals to groom Lp and influenced grooming reciprocity in dyads. Second, we investigated quantitative grooming data for adult females. A high GRF rate was found to lengthen the duration of grooming, suggesting that GRF motivates groomers to groom. From these results, we proposed 2 possible reasons for groomers' sensitivity to GRF rate: (1) the nutritional benefit from GRF compensates for part of the cost of giving grooming and facilitates giving grooming and (2) groomer's sensitivity to the GRF rate maintains the efficiency of removing lice eggs and ensures the groomee's hygienic benefit in receiving grooming. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Health, Enterprise, and Labor Complementarity in the Household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhvaryu, Achyuta; Nyshadham, Anant

    2017-05-01

    We study the role of household enterprise as a coping mechanism after health shocks. Using variation in the cost of traveling to formal sector health facilities to predict recovery from acute illness in Tanzania, we show that individuals with prolonged illness switch from farm labor to enterprise activity. This response occurs along both the extensive (entry) and intensive (capital stock and labor supply) margins. Family members who are not ill exhibit exactly the same pattern of responses. Deriving a simple extension to the canonical agricultural household model, we show that our results suggest complementarities in household labor.

  12. Simple security proof of quantum key distribution based on complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koashi, M

    2009-01-01

    We present an approach to the unconditional security of quantum key distribution protocols based on a complementarity argument. The approach is applicable to, but not limited to, every case that has been treated via the argument by Shor and Preskill based on entanglement distillation, with a benefit of decoupling of the error correction from the privacy amplification. It can also treat cases with uncharacterized apparatuses. We derive a secure key rate for the Bennett-Brassard-1984 protocol with an arbitrary source characterized only by a single parameter representing the basis dependence.

  13. Reinforcement learning in complementarity game and population dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, Jürgen; Li, Wei

    2014-02-01

    We systematically test and compare different reinforcement learning schemes in a complementarity game [J. Jost and W. Li, Physica A 345, 245 (2005)] played between members of two populations. More precisely, we study the Roth-Erev, Bush-Mosteller, and SoftMax reinforcement learning schemes. A modified version of Roth-Erev with a power exponent of 1.5, as opposed to 1 in the standard version, performs best. We also compare these reinforcement learning strategies with evolutionary schemes. This gives insight into aspects like the issue of quick adaptation as opposed to systematic exploration or the role of learning rates.

  14. The methodological lesson of complementarity: Bohr’s naturalistic epistemology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folse, H J

    2014-01-01

    Bohr’s intellectual journey began with the recognition that empirical phenomena implied the breakdown of classical mechanics in the atomic domain; this, in turn, led to his adoption of the ‘quantum postulate’ that justifies the ‘stationary states’ of his atomic model of 1913. His endeavor to develop a wider conceptual framework harmonizing both classical and quantum descriptions led to his proposal of the new methodological goals and standards of complementarity. Bohr’s claim that an empirical discovery can demand methodological revision justifies regarding his epistemological lesson as supporting a naturalistic epistemology. (paper)

  15. Description of All Solutions of a Linear Complementarity Problem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rohn, Jiří

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, - (2009), s. 246-252 E-ISSN 1081-3810 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/1957; GA ČR GC201/08/J020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : linear complementarity problem * Moore-Penrose inverse * verified solution * absolute value equation Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.892, year: 2009 http://www.math.technion.ac.il/iic/ ela / ela -articles/articles/vol18_pp246-252.pdf

  16. Metabolic complementarity and genomics of the dual bacterial symbiosis of sharpshooters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongying Wu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mutualistic intracellular symbiosis between bacteria and insects is a widespread phenomenon that has contributed to the global success of insects. The symbionts, by provisioning nutrients lacking from diets, allow various insects to occupy or dominate ecological niches that might otherwise be unavailable. One such insect is the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Homalodisca coagulata, which feeds on xylem fluid, a diet exceptionally poor in organic nutrients. Phylogenetic studies based on rRNA have shown two types of bacterial symbionts to be coevolving with sharpshooters: the gamma-proteobacterium Baumannia cicadellinicola and the Bacteroidetes species Sulcia muelleri. We report here the sequencing and analysis of the 686,192-base pair genome of B. cicadellinicola and approximately 150 kilobase pairs of the small genome of S. muelleri, both isolated from H. coagulata. Our study, which to our knowledge is the first genomic analysis of an obligate symbiosis involving multiple partners, suggests striking complementarity in the biosynthetic capabilities of the two symbionts: B. cicadellinicola devotes a substantial portion of its genome to the biosynthesis of vitamins and cofactors required by animals and lacks most amino acid biosynthetic pathways, whereas S. muelleri apparently produces most or all of the essential amino acids needed by its host. This finding, along with other results of our genome analysis, suggests the existence of metabolic codependency among the two unrelated endosymbionts and their insect host. This dual symbiosis provides a model case for studying correlated genome evolution and genome reduction involving multiple organisms in an intimate, obligate mutualistic relationship. In addition, our analysis provides insight for the first time into the differences in symbionts between insects (e.g., aphids that feed on phloem versus those like H. coagulata that feed on xylem. Finally, the genomes of these two symbionts provide potential

  17. High fat feeding affects the number of GPR120 cells and enteroendocrine cells in the mouse stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eWidmayer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-term intake of dietary fat is supposed to be associated with adaptive reactions of the organism and it is assumptive that this is particularly true for fat responsive epithelial cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies suggest that epithelial cells expressing the receptor for medium and long chain fatty acids, GPR120 (FFAR4, may operate as fat sensors. Changes in expression level and/or cell density are supposed to be accompanied with a consumption of high fat (HF diet. To assess whether feeding a HF diet might impact on the expression of fatty acid receptors or the number of lipid sensing cells as well as enteroendocrine cell populations, gastric tissue samples of non-obese and obese mice were compared using a real time PCR and immunohistochemical approach. In this study, we have identified GPR120 cells in the corpus region of the mouse stomach which appeared to be brush cells. Monitoring the effect of HF diet on the expression of GPR120 revealed that after 3 weeks and 6 months the level of mRNA for GPR120 in the tissue was significantly increased which coincided with and probably reflected a significant increase in the number of GPR120 positive cells in the corpus region; in contrast, within the antrum region, the number of GPR120 cells decreased. Furthermore, dietary fat intake also led to changes in the number of enteroendocrine cells producing either ghrelin or gastrin. After 3 weeks and even more pronounced after 6 months the number of ghrelin cells and gastrin cells was significantly increased. These results imply that a HF diet leads to significant changes in the cellular repertoire of the stomach mucosa. Whether these changes are a consequence of the direct exposure to high fat in the luminal content or a physiological response to the high level of fat in the body remains elusive.

  18. High fat feeding affects the number of GPR120 cells and enteroendocrine cells in the mouse stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmayer, Patricia; Goldschmid, Hannah; Henkel, Helena; Küper, Markus; Königsrainer, Alfred; Breer, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Long-term intake of dietary fat is supposed to be associated with adaptive reactions of the organism and it is assumptive that this is particularly true for fat responsive epithelial cells in the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies suggest that epithelial cells expressing the receptor for medium and long chain fatty acids, GPR120 (FFAR4), may operate as fat sensors. Changes in expression level and/or cell density are supposed to be accompanied with a consumption of high fat (HF) diet. To assess whether feeding a HF diet might impact on the expression of fatty acid receptors or the number of lipid sensing cells as well as enteroendocrine cell populations, gastric tissue samples of non-obese and obese mice were compared using a real time PCR and immunohistochemical approach. In this study, we have identified GPR120 cells in the corpus region of the mouse stomach which appeared to be brush cells. Monitoring the effect of HF diet on the expression of GPR120 revealed that after 3 weeks and 6 months the level of mRNA for GPR120 in the tissue was significantly increased which coincided with and probably reflected a significant increase in the number of GPR120 positive cells in the corpus region; in contrast, within the antrum region, the number of GPR120 cells decreased. Furthermore, dietary fat intake also led to changes in the number of enteroendocrine cells producing either ghrelin or gastrin. After 3 weeks and even more pronounced after 6 months the number of ghrelin cells and gastrin cells was significantly increased. These results imply that a HF diet leads to significant changes in the cellular repertoire of the stomach mucosa. Whether these changes are a consequence of the direct exposure to HF in the luminal content or a physiological response to the high level of fat in the body remains elusive.

  19. Stability of neutrino parameters and self-complementarity relation with varying SUSY breaking scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, K. Sashikanta; Roy, Subhankar; Singh, N. Nimai

    2018-03-01

    The scale at which supersymmetry (SUSY) breaks (ms) is still unknown. The present article, following a top-down approach, endeavors to study the effect of varying ms on the radiative stability of the observational parameters associated with the neutrino mixing. These parameters get additional contributions in the minimal supersymmetric model (MSSM). A variation in ms will influence the bounds for which the Standard Model (SM) and MSSM work and hence, will account for the different radiative contributions received from both sectors, respectively, while running the renormalization group equations (RGE). The present work establishes the invariance of the self complementarity relation among the three mixing angles, θ13+θ12≈θ23 against the radiative evolution. A similar result concerning the mass ratio, m2:m1 is also found to be valid. In addition to varying ms, the work incorporates a range of different seesaw (SS) scales and tries to see how the latter affects the parameters.

  20. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 3: diversion of crops grown for human consumption to animal feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.; Nisbet, A.F.

    2002-01-01

    This report forms part of a series describing a study to evaluate selected options for the management of food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. This report considers the scope for the redirection of contaminated foods grown for human consumption to animal feeds and addresses whether crops grown for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for animal production systems; what the likely impact on contamination levels in animal products is; whether amounts of waste food could be reduced in the event of a nuclear accident; and whether the option is acceptable to the farming industry, retail trade and consumers. The study identified that foods intended for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for beef cattle and sheep and, to a limited extent, for breeding sows but it is essential that a suitable nutritional balance is maintained. The scope to provide suitable alternative diets is, however, limited and is dependent upon the time of year at which the deposition occurs. If crops were contaminated at the relevant CFIL, not all of the alternative diets considered would result in animal products that were below the corresponding CFIL value, thus limiting any benefit in implementing the option. Except possibly in the most extreme of circumstances, this management option would not be considered acceptable by consumers or by the retail trade and farmers would only implement such a measure if there was a suitable market for the resultant produce. This work was undertaken under the Environmental Assessments Department and Emergency Response Group's Quality Management System, which has been approved by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance to the Quality Management Standards ISO 9001:2000 and TickIT Guide Issue 5, certificate number 956546. (author)

  1. Management options for food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. Task 3: diversion of crops grown for human consumption to animal feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.; Wilkins, B.T.; Nisbet, A.F

    2002-07-01

    This report forms part of a series describing a study to evaluate selected options for the management of food production systems affected by a nuclear accident. This report considers the scope for the redirection of contaminated foods grown for human consumption to animal feeds and addresses whether crops grown for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for animal production systems; what the likely impact on contamination levels in animal products is; whether amounts of waste food could be reduced in the event of a nuclear accident; and whether the option is acceptable to the farming industry, retail trade and consumers. The study identified that foods intended for human consumption can be used as animal feeds for beef cattle and sheep and, to a limited extent, for breeding sows but it is essential that a suitable nutritional balance is maintained. The scope to provide suitable alternative diets is, however, limited and is dependent upon the time of year at which the deposition occurs. If crops were contaminated at the relevant CFIL, not all of the alternative diets considered would result in animal products that were below the corresponding CFIL value, thus limiting any benefit in implementing the option. Except possibly in the most extreme of circumstances, this management option would not be considered acceptable by consumers or by the retail trade and farmers would only implement such a measure if there was a suitable market for the resultant produce. This work was undertaken under the Environmental Assessments Department and Emergency Response Group's Quality Management System, which has been approved by Lloyd's Register Quality Assurance to the Quality Management Standards ISO 9001:2000 and TickIT Guide Issue 5, certificate number 956546. (author)

  2. Complementarity of long pulse and short pulse spallation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezei, F.

    1995-01-01

    The complementarity of short pulse spallation sources (SPSS) and steady state (CW) reactors is a widely accepted concept. SPSS and long pulse spallation sources (LPSS) are complementary in two ways: a) in their performance in neutron scattering experiments LPSS closely emulate CW reactors. In this respect two facets of the time-of-flight (TOF) monochromator method adequate for LPSS will be discussed: the superiority of the TOF approach to the crystal monochromator method in high resolution powder diffraction, and the novel technique of repetition rate multiplication in TOF spectroscopy, b) LPSS combined with adequate chopper systems can also emulate SPSS in a number of applications. It will be shown that the LPSS method of producing short neutron pulses is more efficient for cold and thermal neutrons (below an energy of about 100 MeV), while SPSS is the more favourable approach for hot, epithermal neutrons, i.e. in the slowing down regime in contrast to the moderated regime. These two aspects of complementarity of LPSS and SPSS lead to the conclusions that for about 75% of the spectrum of neutron scattering experiments as known of today the LPSS approach is the most advantageous one with a feasible neutron intensity exceeding that available at ILL by a factor of about 30, while for the remaining 25% of applications the SPSS technique is superior with a well-known potential of a similar gain over present day performances. (author) 7 figs., 6 refs

  3. Mathematical programs with complementarity constraints in traffic and telecommunications networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, Daniel

    2008-06-13

    Given a suitably parametrized family of equilibrium models and a higher level criterion by which to measure an equilibrium state, mathematical programs with equilibrium constraints (MPECs) provide a framework for improving or optimizing the equilibrium state. An example is toll design in traffic networks, which attempts to reduce total travel time by choosing which arcs to toll and what toll levels to impose. Here, a Wardrop equilibrium describes the traffic response to each toll design. Communication networks also have a deep literature on equilibrium flows that suggest some MPECs. We focus on mathematical programs with complementarity constraints (MPCCs), a subclass of MPECs for which the lower level equilibrium system can be formulated as a complementarity problem and therefore, importantly, as a nonlinear program (NLP). Although MPECs and MPCCs are typically non-convex, which is a consequence of the upper level objective clashing with the users' objectives in the lower level equilibrium program, the last decade of research has paved the way for finding local solutions of MPCCs via standard NLP techniques.

  4. Uso de terapias integrativas e complementares por pacientes em quimioterapia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julyane Felipette Lima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Conhecer as terapias integrativas e complementares utilizadas pelos pacientes em quimioterapia oncológica. Metodologia: Estudo qualitativo, realizado com seis pacientes oncológicos em tratamento quimioterápico, em um serviço de oncologia do sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista, em junho de 2010, sendo a análise de conteúdo tipo temática. Resultados: As terapias apontadas neste estudo foram a homeopatia, a fitoterapia e as plantas medicinais e percebeu-se que elas aumentam a sensação de bem-estar, possibilitam o estabelecimento de vínculos positivos com profissionais da saúde, e fazem parte do saber popular e estão interligadas ao conhecimento científico. Conclusões: Apreende-se que uso de terapias integrativas e complementares em oncologia permite a aproximação do profissional enfermeiro com o paciente em quimioterapia, conhecendo-o em sua complexidade.

  5. Maternal folate depletion and high-fat feeding from weaning affects DNA methylation and DNA repair in brain of adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langie, Sabine A S; Achterfeldt, Sebastian; Gorniak, Joanna P; Halley-Hogg, Kirstin J A; Oxley, David; van Schooten, Frederik J; Godschalk, Roger W L; McKay, Jill A; Mathers, John C

    2013-08-01

    The mechanisms through which environmental and dietary factors modulate DNA repair are still unclear but may include dysregulation of gene expression due to altered epigenetic markings. In a mouse model, we investigated the effect of maternal folate depletion during pregnancy and lactation, and high-fat feeding from weaning, on base excision repair (BER) and DNA methylation and expression of selected BER-related genes in the brain of adult offspring. While folate depletion did not affect BER activity of the mothers, BER increased in the offspring at weaning (P=0.052). In the long term, as observed in 6-mo-old offspring, the double insult, i.e., maternal low-folate supply and high-fat feeding from weaning, decreased BER activity significantly in the cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and subcortical regions (P≤0.017). This fall in BER activity was associated with small changes in methylation or expression of BER-related genes. Maternal folate depletion led to slightly increased oxidative DNA damage levels in subcortical regions of adult offspring, which may increase sensitivity to oxidative stress and predispose to neurological disorders. In summary, our data suggest that low-folate supply during early life may leave an epigenetic mark that can predispose the offspring to further dietary insults, causing adverse effects during adult life.

  6. Complementarity as a Function of Stage in Therapy: An Analysis of Minuchin's Structural Family Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Heather; Vande Kemp, Hendrika

    1987-01-01

    Explored the level of family therapist complementarity in the early, middle and late stages of therapy performing a micro-analysis of Salvador Minuchin with one family in successful therapy. Level of therapist complementarity was signficantly greater in the early and late stages than in the middle stage, and was significantly correlated with…

  7. Study of 'Track-Time' complementarity in the longitudinal development of Extensive Air Showers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procureur, J.; Dumora, D.

    1997-01-01

    Among the various Extensive Air Showers (EAS) observables only three are composed of penetrant particles: Cherenkov photons, muons and neutrinos. Due to their high penetration strength the information related to their creation is practically conserved undeformed. Due to difficulties of observation, the neutrinos have not been used until now. The photons were largely observed in the last years either by Cherenkov effect for the low energies or by scintillation effect for the ultra-high energies. We think that the muons present serious advantages relative to photons: their characteristics are more sensible to the EAS initial development and consequently to the mass of cosmic projectiles generating the showers and to the nature of the interactions at ultra-high energy, they represent directly the development of the hadron cascades with no intervention from electromagnetic interactions, they can be observed continuously, not only during the nights without moon and clouds. Although, the muons are much fewer than the photons, hence, larger fluctuations will affect their analysis. We have simulated by Monte Carlo modelling the individual propagation of the each EAS muon. Actually, we have determined the distribution of depths of the muon creation in the earth atmosphere by taking into account the coordinates and directions (Track) and the differences in the muon arrival moments (Time). We have shown that at large distances from the shower core and for muons having energies of GeV order, the measurements of tracks and times are complementary (the TTC complementarity) in determining the depths of the muon creation with a accuracy of 35 g.cm -2 . This TTC complementarity entails important consequences in determining the core localization of the giant shower in the observation plane

  8. Complementarity of statstical treatments to reconstruct worldwide routes of invasion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lombaert, Eric; Guillemaud, Thomas; Lundgren, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Inferences about introduction histories of invasive species remain challenging because of the stochastic demographic processes involved. Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) can help to overcome these problems, but such method requires a prior understanding of population structure over the study...... area, necessitating the use of alternative methods and an intense sampling design. In this study, we made inferences about the worldwide invasion history of the ladybird Harmonia axyridis by various population genetics statistical methods, using a large set of sampling sites distributed over most...... of the species’ native and invaded areas. We evaluated the complementarity of the statistical methods and the consequences of using different sets of site samples for ABC inferences. We found that the H. axyridis invasion has involved two bridgehead invasive populations in North America, which have served...

  9. Accelerator and reactor complementarity in coherent neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, James B.; Dutta, Bhaskar; Liao, Shu; Newstead, Jayden L.; Strigari, Louis E.; Walker, Joel W.

    2018-02-01

    We study the complementarity between accelerator and reactor coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering (CE ν NS ) experiments for constraining new physics in the form of nonstandard neutrino interactions (NSI). First, considering just data from the recent observation by the Coherent experiment, we explore interpretive degeneracies that emerge when activating either two or four unknown NSI parameters. Next, we demonstrate that simultaneous treatment of reactor and accelerator experiments, each employing at least two distinct target materials, can break a degeneracy between up and down flavor-diagonal NSI terms that survives analysis of neutrino oscillation experiments. Considering four flavor-diagonal (e e /μ μ ) up- and down-type NSI parameters, we find that all terms can be measured with high local precision (to a width as small as ˜5 % in Fermi units) by next-generation experiments, although discrete reflection ambiguities persist.

  10. Energy security and climate change protection: Complementarity or tradeoff?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Stephen P.A.; Huntington, Hillard G.

    2008-01-01

    Energy security and climate change protection have risen to the forefront of energy policy - linked in time and a perception that both goals can be achieved through the same or similar policies. Although such complementarity can exist for individual technologies, policymakers face a tradeoff between these two policy objectives. The tradeoff arises when policymakers choose the mix of individual technologies with which to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and enhance energy security. Optimal policy is achieved when the cost of the additional use of each technology equals the value of the additional energy security and reduction in greenhouse gas emission that it provides. Such an approach may draw more heavily on conventional technologies that provide benefits in only one dimension than on more costly technologies that both increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (author)

  11. A complementarity model for solving stochastic natural gas market equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Jifang; Gabriel, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic equilibrium model for deregulated natural gas markets. Each market participant (pipeline operators, producers, etc.) solves a stochastic optimization problem whose optimality conditions, when combined with market-clearing conditions give rise to a certain mixed complementarity problem (MiCP). The stochastic aspects are depicted by a recourse problem for each player in which the first-stage decisions relate to long-term contracts and the second-stage decisions relate to spot market activities for three seasons. Besides showing that such a market model is an instance of a MiCP, we provide theoretical results concerning long-term and spot market prices and solve the resulting MiCP for a small yet representative market. We also note an interesting observation for the value of the stochastic solution for non-optimization problems

  12. A complementarity model for solving stochastic natural gas market equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jifang Zhuang; Gabriel, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a stochastic equilibrium model for deregulated natural gas markets. Each market participant (pipeline operators, producers, etc.) solves a stochastic optimization problem whose optimality conditions, when combined with market-clearing conditions give rise to a certain mixed complementarity problem (MiCP). The stochastic aspects are depicted by a recourse problem for each player in which the first-stage decisions relate to long-term contracts and the second-stage decisions relate to spot market activities for three seasons. Besides showing that such a market model is an instance of a MiCP, we provide theoretical results concerning long-term and spot market prices and solve the resulting MiCP for a small yet representative market. We also note an interesting observation for the value of the stochastic solution for non-optimization problems. (author)

  13. Fish complementarity is associated to forests in Amazonian streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues Bordignon

    Full Text Available The functional structure of communities is commonly measured by the variability in functional traits, which may demonstrate complementarity or redundancy patterns. In this study, we tested the influence of environmental variables on the functional structure of fish assemblages in Amazonian streams within a deforestation gradient. We calculated six ecomorphological traits related to habitat use from each fish species, and used them to calculate the net relatedness index (NRI and the nearest taxon index (NTI. The set of species that used the habitat differently (complementary or overdispersed assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of forests. The set of species that used the habitat in a similar way (redundant or clustered assemblages occurred in sites with a greater proportion of grasses in the stream banks. Therefore, the deforestation of entire watersheds, which has occurred in many Amazonian regions, may be a central factor for the functional homogenization of fish fauna.

  14. Interference and complementarity for two-photon hybrid entangled states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogueira, W. A. T.; Santibanez, M.; Delgado, A.; Saavedra, C.; Neves, L.; Lima, G.; Padua, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we generate two-photon hybrid entangled states (HESs), where the polarization of one photon is entangled with the transverse spatial degree of freedom of the second photon. The photon pair is created by parametric down-conversion in a polarization-entangled state. A birefringent double-slit couples the polarization and spatial degrees of freedom of these photons, and finally, suitable spatial and polarization projections generate the HES. We investigate some interesting aspects of the two-photon hybrid interference and present this study in the context of the complementarity relation that exists between the visibility of the one-photon and that of the two-photon interference patterns.

  15. Does Long-Term Feeding on Alternative Prey Affect the Biological Performance of Neoseiulus barkeri (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on the Target Spider Mites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Ying; Zhang, Guo-Hao; Tian, Chuan-Bei; Liu, Ming-Xiu; Liu, Yi-Qing; Liu, Huai; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2017-06-01

    The predatory mite Neoseiulus barkeri (Hughes) is a good biological control agent for many small sucking pests. We aimed to determine whether rearing long term on alternative prey versus target prey species affected the performance of N. barkeri. Therefore, we investigated the prey preference, life tables, and population parameters of N. barkeri between alternative prey Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) and three species of spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch, Panonychus citri (McGregor), and Eotetranychus kankitus Ehara. We found that N. barkeri preferred the tetranychid mites to the alternative prey. Between the tetranychid mites, the predator consumed more P. citri and E. kankitus than T. urticae. When reared on T. urticae, the total developmental time and longevity of N. barkeri were the longest, whereas the intrinsic rate of increase was the lowest, indicating that the biotic fitness of predatory mite preyed on target of T. urticae was higher than on alternative prey of T. putrescentiae. However, total developmental time, longevity, and fecundity did not differ between N. barkeri reared on T. putrescentiae and P. citri, although these parameters were higher than those for mites reared on E. kankitus, indicating that the predatory mite reared on T. putrescentiae may not be affected to control P. citri, and that coexistence of P. citri and E. kankitus may enhance the control efficiency of N. barkeri. Altogether, our results demonstrated that long-term feeding on the alternative prey T. putrescentiae did not affect the performance of the predatory mite N. barkeri on various target spider mites. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Rapid Online Analysis of Local Feature Detectors and Their Complementarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoaib Ehsan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A vision system that can assess its own performance and take appropriate actions online to maximize its effectiveness would be a step towards achieving the long-cherished goal of imitating humans. This paper proposes a method for performing an online performance analysis of local feature detectors, the primary stage of many practical vision systems. It advocates the spatial distribution of local image features as a good performance indicator and presents a metric that can be calculated rapidly, concurs with human visual assessments and is complementary to existing offline measures such as repeatability. The metric is shown to provide a measure of complementarity for combinations of detectors, correctly reflecting the underlying principles of individual detectors. Qualitative results on well-established datasets for several state-of-the-art detectors are presented based on the proposed measure. Using a hypothesis testing approach and a newly-acquired, larger image database, statistically-significant performance differences are identified. Different detector pairs and triplets are examined quantitatively and the results provide a useful guideline for combining detectors in applications that require a reasonable spatial distribution of image features. A principled framework for combining feature detectors in these applications is also presented. Timing results reveal the potential of the metric for online applications.

  17. Omics Data Complementarity Underlines Functional Cross-Communication in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malod-Dognin Noël

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the complete functional layout of a cell and understanding the cross-talk between different processes are fundamental challenges. They elude us because of the incompleteness and noisiness of molecular data and because of the computational intractability of finding the exact answer. We perform a simple integration of three types of baker’s yeast omics data to elucidate the functional organization and lines of cross-functional communication. We examine protein–protein interaction (PPI, co-expression (COEX and genetic interaction (GI data, and explore their relationship with the gold standard of functional organization, the Gene Ontology (GO. We utilize a simple framework that identifies functional cross-communication lines in each of the three data types, in GO, and collectively in the integrated model of the three omics data types; we present each of them in our new Functional Organization Map (FOM model. We compare the FOMs of the three omics datasets with the FOM of GO and find that GI is in best agreement with GO, followed COEX and PPI. We integrate the three FOMs into a unified FOM and find that it is in better agreement with the FOM of GO than those of any omics dataset alone, demonstrating functional complementarity of different omics data.

  18. Phenomenology and the life sciences: Clarifications and complementarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheets-Johnstone, Maxine

    2015-12-01

    This paper first clarifies phenomenology in ways essential to demonstrating its basic concern with Nature and its recognition of individual and cultural differences as well as commonalities. It furthermore clarifies phenomenological methodology in ways essential to understanding the methodology itself, its purpose, and its consequences. These clarifications show how phenomenology, by hewing to the dynamic realities of life itself and experiences of life itself, counters reductive thinking and "embodiments" of one kind and another. On the basis of these clarifications, the paper then turns to detailing conceptual complementarities between phenomenology and the life sciences, particularly highlighting studies in coordination dynamics. In doing so, it brings to light fundamental relationships such as those between mind and motion and between intrinsic dynamics and primal animation. It furthermore highlights the common concern with origins in both phenomenology and evolutionary biology: the history of how what is present is related to its inception in the past and to its transformations from past to present. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. New error bounds for linear complementarity problems of weakly chained diagonally dominant B-matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Deshu

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Some new error bounds for the linear complementarity problems are obtained when the involved matrices are weakly chained diagonally dominant B-matrices. Numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness of the proposed bounds.

  20. A Strongly and Superlinearly Convergent SQP Algorithm for Optimization Problems with Linear Complementarity Constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Jinbao; Li Jianling; Mo Xingde

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses a kind of optimization problem with linear complementarity constraints, and presents a sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm for solving a stationary point of the problem. The algorithm is a modification of the SQP algorithm proposed by Fukushima et al. [Computational Optimization and Applications, 10 (1998),5-34], and is based on a reformulation of complementarity condition as a system of linear equations. At each iteration, one quadratic programming and one system of equations needs to be solved, and a curve search is used to yield the step size. Under some appropriate assumptions, including the lower-level strict complementarity, but without the upper-level strict complementarity for the inequality constraints, the algorithm is proved to possess strong convergence and superlinear convergence. Some preliminary numerical results are reported

  1. The Role of the Popes in the Invention of Complementarity and the Anathematization of Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Anne Case

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the origins and uses by the Vatican of the theological anthropology of complementarity, arguing that the doctrine of complementarity, under which the sexes are essentially different though not unequal, is an invention of the twentieth century untraceable in earlier centuries, but developed by, among others, the Popes from Pius XII through Benedict XVI, in part as a response to feminist claims, including those recently anathematized by the Vatican under the term ‘gender.’ After exploring some difficulties with the application of the doctrine of complementarity as Catholic orthodoxy, the article concludes by compiling preliminary evidence as to the extent Pope Francis will continue his predecessors’ approach to complementarity.

  2. Temporal and spatial complementarity of wind and solar resources in Lower Silesia (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurasz, Jakub; Wdowikowski, Marcin; Kaźmierczak, Bartosz; Dąbek, Paweł

    2017-11-01

    This paper investigates the concept of temporal and spatial complementarity of wind and solar resources in Lower Silesia (south-wester Poland). For the purpose of our research we have used hourly load and energy yield from photovoltaics and wind turbines covering period 2010-2014. In order to assess the spatial complementarity we have divided the considered voivodeship into 74 squared regions with maximal area of 400 km2. The obtained results indicate an existence of temporal complementarity on a monthly time scale and a positive correlation between load and wind generation patterns (also on a monthly time scale). The temporal complementarity for hourly time series in relatively low but has potential to smooth the energy generation curves.

  3. Niels Bohr's complementarity its structure, history, and intersections with hermeneutics and deconstruction

    CERN Document Server

    Katsumori, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Through detailed textual and conceptual analysis, and with special attention to the potentially conflicting elements of Bohr's thought, this volume's fresh approach analyzes the relations between realism and antirealism through the prism of complementarity.

  4. Complementarities between organizational changes, R&D activity and technological cooperation for the French manufacturing firms

    OpenAIRE

    Hajjem, Olfa; Ayadi, Mohamed; Garrouste, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the determinants of the French companies’ innovation activity while highlighting the importance and the complementarities of the organizational and technological practices’impact. Our results suggest on one hand, that the product or process innovation is determined by the internal and external attributes of the company (size, demand pull and technological class). On the other hand, the complementarities tests between the technological (R&D activity and ...

  5. Complementarity and Area-Efficiency in the Prioritization of the Global Protected Area Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Peter; Toivonen, Tuuli; Montesino Pouzols, Federico; Lehtomäki, Joona; Di Minin, Enrico; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-01-01

    Complementarity and cost-efficiency are widely used principles for protected area network design. Despite the wide use and robust theoretical underpinnings, their effects on the performance and patterns of priority areas are rarely studied in detail. Here we compare two approaches for identifying the management priority areas inside the global protected area network: 1) a scoring-based approach, used in recently published analysis and 2) a spatial prioritization method, which accounts for complementarity and area-efficiency. Using the same IUCN species distribution data the complementarity method found an equal-area set of priority areas with double the mean species ranges covered compared to the scoring-based approach. The complementarity set also had 72% more species with full ranges covered, and lacked any coverage only for half of the species compared to the scoring approach. Protected areas in our complementarity-based solution were on average smaller and geographically more scattered. The large difference between the two solutions highlights the need for critical thinking about the selected prioritization method. According to our analysis, accounting for complementarity and area-efficiency can lead to considerable improvements when setting management priorities for the global protected area network.

  6. Complementarity and Area-Efficiency in the Prioritization of the Global Protected Area Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Kullberg

    Full Text Available Complementarity and cost-efficiency are widely used principles for protected area network design. Despite the wide use and robust theoretical underpinnings, their effects on the performance and patterns of priority areas are rarely studied in detail. Here we compare two approaches for identifying the management priority areas inside the global protected area network: 1 a scoring-based approach, used in recently published analysis and 2 a spatial prioritization method, which accounts for complementarity and area-efficiency. Using the same IUCN species distribution data the complementarity method found an equal-area set of priority areas with double the mean species ranges covered compared to the scoring-based approach. The complementarity set also had 72% more species with full ranges covered, and lacked any coverage only for half of the species compared to the scoring approach. Protected areas in our complementarity-based solution were on average smaller and geographically more scattered. The large difference between the two solutions highlights the need for critical thinking about the selected prioritization method. According to our analysis, accounting for complementarity and area-efficiency can lead to considerable improvements when setting management priorities for the global protected area network.

  7. Memories of mother, complementarity and shame: predicting response to subliminal stimulation with "Mommy and I are one".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohlberg, Staffan; Claesson, Katja; Birgegard, Andreas

    2003-09-01

    A poorly understood finding with potentially wide-ranging implications is that subliminal stimulation with "Mommy and I are one" affects behavior. In this study (n= 62), "Mommy and I are one" lowered implicit mood (p= 0.0015) in comparison with a neutral stimulus ("People are walking"). The effect was most pronounced in shame-prone participants with less positive memories of their mother, and low self-mother complementarity (interaction p= 0.0044). Effects of a potentially shame-inducing stimulus ("I am completely isolated") were not significant (ps > 0.11). The results concerning less positive memories of mother replicate previous findings. We suggest that activation of unconscious associative networks explains the data. Though more research is needed, the cognitive content of these networks may involve representations of self-with-mother; for some, the affective content could involve shame.

  8. Accounting for complementarity to maximize monitoring power for species management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Ayesha I T; Chadès, Iadine; Possingham, Hugh P

    2013-10-01

    To choose among conservation actions that may benefit many species, managers need to monitor the consequences of those actions. Decisions about which species to monitor from a suite of different species being managed are hindered by natural variability in populations and uncertainty in several factors: the ability of the monitoring to detect a change, the likelihood of the management action being successful for a species, and how representative species are of one another. However, the literature provides little guidance about how to account for these uncertainties when deciding which species to monitor to determine whether the management actions are delivering outcomes. We devised an approach that applies decision science and selects the best complementary suite of species to monitor to meet specific conservation objectives. We created an index for indicator selection that accounts for the likelihood of successfully detecting a real trend due to a management action and whether that signal provides information about other species. We illustrated the benefit of our approach by analyzing a monitoring program for invasive predator management aimed at recovering 14 native Australian mammals of conservation concern. Our method selected the species that provided more monitoring power at lower cost relative to the current strategy and traditional approaches that consider only a subset of the important considerations. Our benefit function accounted for natural variability in species growth rates, uncertainty in the responses of species to the prescribed action, and how well species represent others. Monitoring programs that ignore uncertainty, likelihood of detecting change, and complementarity between species will be more costly and less efficient and may waste funding that could otherwise be used for management. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  9. Impact of climate change on Taiwanese power market determined using linear complementarity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tung, Ching-Pin; Tseng, Tze-Chi; Huang, An-Lei; Liu, Tzu-Ming; Hu, Ming-Che

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impact of climate change on average temperature is estimated. ► Temperature elasticity of demand is measured. ► Impact of climate change on Taiwanese power market determined. -- Abstract: The increase in the greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere causes significant changes in climate patterns. In turn, this climate change affects the environment, ecology, and human behavior. The emission of greenhouse gases from the power industry has been analyzed in many studies. However, the impact of climate change on the electricity market has received less attention. Hence, the purpose of this research is to determine the impact of climate change on the electricity market, and a case study involving the Taiwanese power market is conducted. First, the impact of climate change on temperature is estimated. Next, because electricity demand can be expressed as a function of temperature, the temperature elasticity of demand is measured. Then, a linear complementarity model is formulated to simulate the Taiwanese power market and climate change scenarios are discussed. Therefore, this paper establishes a simulation framework for calculating the impact of climate change on electricity demand change. In addition, the impact of climate change on the Taiwanese market is examined and presented.

  10. QCM-based measurement of bond rupture forces in DNA double helices for complementarity sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dultsev, Fedor N; Kolosovsky, Eugeny A; Mik, Ivan A; Lomzov, Alexander A; Pyshnyi, Dmitrii V

    2014-04-08

    After fixing the DNA molecule in the form of a double helix on the surface of a thickness shear mode resonator (QCM), mechanical oscillations at increasing amplitude cause detorsion of the helix. The force necessary for detorsion can be determined from the voltage applied to the QCM at the rupture moment. The high sensitivity of this method is due to the fact that measurements are carried out in the frequency region around the QCM resonance, where any (even very weak) distortions of the consistent oscillating system cause noticeable distortions of the amplitude-frequency dependence, and these distortions are used to fix the rupture moment. The measured rupture forces were within 30-40 pN, and the sensitivity was 10(8) molecules. It was demonstrated that the proposed procedure allows one to determine the factors that affect the stability of the DNA double helix. This procedure can be the basis for the development of a new method of rapid DNA analysis. Experiments performed with model DNA showed that it is possible to reveal complementarity between two DNA samples.

  11. Shining light on benthic macroalgae: mechanisms of complementarity in layered macroalgal assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh W Tait

    Full Text Available Phototrophs underpin most ecosystem processes, but to do this they need sufficient light. This critical resource, however, is compromised along many marine shores by increased loads of sediments and nutrients from degraded inland habitats. Increased attenuation of total irradiance within coastal water columns due to turbidity is known to reduce species' depth limits and affect the taxonomic structure and architecture of algal-dominated assemblages, but virtually no attention has been paid to the potential for changes in spectral quality of light energy to impact production dynamics. Pioneering studies over 70 years ago showed how different pigmentation of red, green and brown algae affected absorption spectra, action spectra, and photosynthetic efficiency across the PAR (photosynthetically active radiation spectrum. Little of this, however, has found its way into ecological syntheses of the impacts of optically active contaminants on coastal macroalgal communities. Here we test the ability of macroalgal assemblages composed of multiple functional groups (including representatives from the chlorophyta, rhodophyta and phaeophyta to use the total light resource, including different light wavelengths and examine the effects of suspended sediments on the penetration and spectral quality of light in coastal waters. We show that assemblages composed of multiple functional groups are better able to use light throughout the PAR spectrum. Macroalgal assemblages with four sub-canopy species were between 50-75% more productive than assemblages with only one or two sub-canopy species. Furthermore, attenuation of the PAR spectrum showed both a loss of quanta and a shift in spectral distribution with depth across coastal waters of different clarity, with consequences to productivity dynamics of diverse layered assemblages. The processes of light complementarity may help provide a mechanistic understanding of how altered turbidity affects macroalgal assemblages

  12. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  13. Early-age feed restriction affects viability and gene expression of satellite cells isolated from the gastrocnemius muscle of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yue

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle growth depends on the fusion of proliferate satellite cells to existing myofibers. We reported previously that 0–14 day intermittent feeding led to persistent retardation in myofiber hypertrophy. However, how satellite cells respond to such nutritional insult has not been adequately elucidated. Results One-day-old broiler chicks were allocated to control (Con, ad libitum feeding, intermittent feeding (IF, feed provided on alternate days and re-feeding (RF, 2 days ad libitum feeding after 12 days of intermittent feeding groups. Chickens were killed on Day 15 and satellite cells were isolated. When cultured, satellite cells from the IF group demonstrated significant retardation in proliferation and differentiation potential, while RF partly restored the proliferation rate and differentiation potential of the satellite cells. Significant up-regulation of insulin like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR (P0.05 and thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα (P0.05, and down-regulation of growth hormone receptor (GHR (P0.01 and IGF-I (P0.01 mRNA expression was observed in freshly isolated IF satellite cells when compared with Con cells. In RF cells, the mRNA expression of IGF-I was higher (P0.05 and of TRα was lower (P0.01 than in IF cells, suggesting that RF restored the mRNA expression of TRα and IGF-I, but not of GHR and IGF-IR. The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio tended to increase in the IF group, which was reversed in the RF group (P0.05, indicating that RF reduced the pro-apoptotic influence of IF. Moreover, no significant effect of T3 was detected on cell survival in IF cells compared with Con (PP0.05 cells. Conclusions These data suggest that early-age feed restriction inhibits the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells, induces changes in mRNA expression of the GH/IGF-I and thyroid hormone receptors in satellite cells, as well as blunted sensitivity of satellite cells to T3, and that RF partially reverses these effects. Thus

  14. Does skin-to-skin contact and breast feeding at birth affect the rate of primary postpartum haemorrhage: Results of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton, A; Fahy, K; Rolfe, M; Skinner, V; Hastie, C

    2015-11-01

    to examine the effect of skin-to-skin contact and breast feeding within 30 minutes of birth, on the rate of primary postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) in a sample of women who were at mixed-risk of PPH. retrospective cohort study. two obstetric units plus a freestanding birth centre in New South Wales (NSW) Australia. after excluding women (n=3671) who did not have opportunity for skin to skin and breast feeding, I analysed birth records (n=7548) for the calendar years 2009 and 2010. Records were accessed via the electronic data base ObstetriX. skin to skin contact and breast feeding within 30 minutes of birth. outcome measure was PPH i.e. blood loss of 500ml or more estimated at birth. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression (unadjusted and adjusted). after adjustment for covariates, women who did not have skin to skin and breast feeding were almost twice as likely to have a PPH compared to women who had both skin to skin contact and breast feeding (aOR 0.55, 95% CI 0.41-0.72, poxytocin release. Childbearing women should be educated and supported to have pronurturance during third and fourth stages of labour. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Information technology, organizational change and firm productivity: A panel study of complementarity effects and clustering patterns in Manufacturing and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Zand, Fardad; Van Beers, Cees; Van Leeuwen, George

    2011-01-01

    Organizational complementarities are an essential factor in the process of creating business value from information technology (IT) investments. Organizational change (OC) is an important complementarity. This paper investigates complementarities between IT capital and OC initiatives of the firm. It analyzes the productivity impact of different clusters of IT and OC in the manufacturing and services sectors of the economy. Three dimensions of OC are studied: process, structure, and boundary c...

  16. Bee diversity effects on pollination depend on functional complementarity and niche shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fründ, Jochen; Dormann, Carsten F; Holzschuh, Andrea; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-09-01

    Biodiversity is important for many ecosystem processes. Global declines in pollinator diversity and abundance have been recognized, raising concerns about a pollination crisis of crops and wild plants. However, experimental evidence for effects of pollinator species diversity on plant reproduction is extremely scarce. We established communities with 1-5 bee species to test how seed production of a plant community is determined by bee diversity. Higher bee diversity resulted in higher seed production, but the strongest difference was observed for one compared to more than one bee species. Functional complementarity among bee species had a far higher explanatory power than bee diversity, suggesting that additional bee species only benefit pollination when they increase coverage of functional niches. In our experiment, complementarity was driven by differences in flower and temperature preferences. Interspecific interactions among bee species contributed to realized functional complementarity, as bees reduced interspecific overlap by shifting to alternative flowers in the presence of other species. This increased the number of plant species visited by a bee community and demonstrates a new mechanism for a biodiversity-function relationship ("interactive complementarity"). In conclusion, our results highlight both the importance of bee functional diversity for the reproduction of plant communities and the need to identify complementarity traits for accurately predicting pollination services by different bee communities.

  17. Trust Ecologies and Channel Complementarity for Information Seeking in Cancer Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seow Ting; Dutta, Mohan J; Lin, Julian; Luk, Pauline; Kaur-Gill, Satveer

    2018-01-01

    Our paper extends channel complementarity theory, which has focused on evidence of complementarity and patterns of channel use, by elucidating the notion of trust complementarity. We examined trust, an information-carrier characteristic and a core construct in health-focused decision-making to understand cancer information seeking, based on data from two nationally representative surveys in Singapore. Trust is found to be differential, relational, and ecological, with implications for individuals' access to and reliance on doctors, family/friends, newspapers/magazines, radio, TV, and the Internet for cancer prevention information. In an ideal trust complementarity environment, an individual should be able to traverse a range of communication channels seamlessly. Our findings however suggest that although individuals trust different channels complementarily, their trust patterns are limited and fettered. We identified two types of trust ecologies shaped by dual-channel and polymorphic complementarity patterns that suggest that health information seekers are trapped within specific trust ecologies that prevent them from navigating a broader range of communication channels for cancer prevention.

  18. Accumulation and evolution of tocopherols in dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs as affected by their feeding and rearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey, A I; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of feeding and rearing systems on the accumulation and evolution of α- and γ-tocopherols in relation to storage time in dry-cured ham slices and pieces was investigated. The accumulation of γ-tocopherol in Musculus Biceps femoris or fat of cured hams was lower in groups fed acorns i...

  19. Feed intake, growth, digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen in young pigs as affected by dietary cation-anion difference and supplementation of xylanase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Schulze, H.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na K -Cl, mEq/kg diet) and xylanase addition on feed consumption, digestibility of nutrients, plasma electrolyte balance and growth performance in young pigs. A 2 3 factorial arrangement with three dietary CAD

  20. Stressing fish in Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS): Does stress induced in one group of fish affect the feeding motivation of other fish sharing the same RAS?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Eding, E.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2011-01-01

    As a consequence of water re-use and high stocking densities, Recirculating Aquaculture Systems (RAS) may lead to an accumulation of substances released by the fish into the water, e.g. cortisol and alarm pheromones. This study investigated the effect of stressing fish on the feeding motivation of

  1. High-saturated fat-sucrose feeding affects lactation energetics in control mice and mice selectively bred for high wheel-running behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guidotti, Stefano; Jonas, Izabella; Schubert, Kristin A.; Garland, Theodore; Meijer, Harro A. J.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; van Dijk, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    Feeding a diet high in fat and sucrose (HFS) during pregnancy and lactation is known to increase susceptibility to develop metabolic derangements later in life. A trait for increased behavioral activity may oppose these effects, since this would drain energy from milk produced to be made available

  2. Ultradian feeding in mice not only affects the peripheral clock in the liver, but also the master clock in the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, Satish; Raingard, Hélène; Dumont, Stéphanie; Kalsbeek, A.; Vuillez, Patrick; Challet, Etienne

    2017-01-01

    Restricted feeding during the resting period causes pronounced shifts in a number of peripheral clocks, but not the central clock in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). By contrast, daily caloric restriction impacts also the light-entrained SCN clock, as indicated by shifted oscillations of clock

  3. Black hole complementarity with the generalized uncertainty principle in Gravity's Rainbow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Yongwan; Um, Hwajin; Kim, Wontae

    2018-02-01

    When gravitation is combined with quantum theory, the Heisenberg uncertainty principle could be extended to the generalized uncertainty principle accompanying a minimal length. To see how the generalized uncertainty principle works in the context of black hole complementarity, we calculate the required energy to duplicate information for the Schwarzschild black hole. It shows that the duplication of information is not allowed and black hole complementarity is still valid even assuming the generalized uncertainty principle. On the other hand, the generalized uncertainty principle with the minimal length could lead to a modification of the conventional dispersion relation in light of Gravity's Rainbow, where the minimal length is also invariant as well as the speed of light. Revisiting the gedanken experiment, we show that the no-cloning theorem for black hole complementarity can be made valid in the regime of Gravity's Rainbow on a certain combination of parameters.

  4. A methodology to quantify and optimize time complementarity between hydropower and solar PV systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kougias, Ioannis; Szabó, Sándor; Monforti-Ferrario, Fabio; Huld, Thomas; Bódis, Katalin

    2016-04-01

    Hydropower and solar energy are expected to play a major role in achieving renewable energy sources' (RES) penetration targets. However, the integration of RES in the energy mix needs to overcome the technical challenges that are related to grid's operation. Therefore, there is an increasing need to explore approaches where different RES will operate under a synergetic approach. Ideally, hydropower and solar PV systems can be jointly developed in such systems where their electricity output profiles complement each other as much as possible and minimize the need for reserve capacities and storage costs. A straightforward way to achieve that is by optimizing the complementarity among RES systems both over time and spatially. The present research developed a methodology that quantifies the degree of time complementarity between small-scale hydropower stations and solar PV systems and examines ways to increase it. The methodology analyses high-resolution spatial and temporal data for solar radiation obtained from the existing PVGIS model (available online at: http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/pvgis/) and associates it with hydrological information of water inflows to a hydropower station. It builds on an exhaustive optimization algorithm that tests possible alterations of the PV system installation (azimuth, tilt) aiming to increase the complementarity, with minor compromises in the total solar energy output. The methodology has been tested in several case studies and the results indicated variations among regions and different hydraulic regimes. In some cases a small compromise in the solar energy output showed significant increases of the complementarity, while in other cases the effect is not that strong. Our contribution aims to present these findings in detail and initiate a discussion on the role and gains of increased complementarity between solar and hydropower energies. Reference: Kougias I, Szabó S, Monforti-Ferrario F, Huld T, Bódis K (2016). A methodology for

  5. Financial liberalization and growth in African economies: The role of policy complementarities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousmanou Njikam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines whether the effect of financial liberalization on economic growth depends on reform complementarities. A non-linear growth regression specification that interacts a proxy of financial liberalization with proxies of reform complementarities is estimated using a panel of 45 Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA countries. The cross-country, panel-data evidence shows no clear relationship between financial liberalization and growth. The study however finds that financial liberalization is more likely to positively and significantly increase growth across the SSA region if the following complementary reforms are undertaken e.g. improvement in educational attainment, macroeconomic and external stability, and overall governance.

  6. Experimental investigation of halogen-bond hard-soft acid-base complementarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riel, Asia Marie S; Jessop, Morly J; Decato, Daniel A; Massena, Casey J; Nascimento, Vinicius R; Berryman, Orion B

    2017-04-01

    The halogen bond (XB) is a topical noncovalent interaction of rapidly increasing importance. The XB employs a `soft' donor atom in comparison to the `hard' proton of the hydrogen bond (HB). This difference has led to the hypothesis that XBs can form more favorable interactions with `soft' bases than HBs. While computational studies have supported this suggestion, solution and solid-state data are lacking. Here, XB soft-soft complementarity is investigated with a bidentate receptor that shows similar associations with neutral carbonyls and heavy chalcogen analogs. The solution speciation and XB soft-soft complementarity is supported by four crystal structures containing neutral and anionic soft Lewis bases.

  7. Wave-particle duality and Bohr's complementarity principle in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, D.; Basu, A.N.; Sengupta, S.

    1995-01-01

    Interest on Bohr's complementarity principle has recently been revived particularly because of several thought experiments and some actually performed experiments to test the validity of mutual exclusiveness of wave and particle properties. A critical review of the situation is undertaken and it is pointed out that the problem with mutual exclusiveness arises because of some vagueness in the conventional formulation. An attempt is made to remove this vagueness by connecting the origin of mutual exclusiveness to some principles of quantum mechanics. Accordingly, it becomes obvious that to contradict complementarity principle without contradicting quantum mechanics would be impossible. Some of the recent experiments are critically analysed. (author). 31 refs., 3 ills

  8. Complementarity of real-time neutron and synchrotron radiation structural investigations in molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenov, V. L.; Kiselev, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    General problems of the complementarity of different physical methods and specific features of the interaction between neutron and matter and neutron diffraction with respect to the time of flight are discussed. The results of studying the kinetics of structural changes in lipid membranes under hydration and self-assembly of the lipid bilayer in the presence of a detergent are reported. The possibilities of the complementarity of neutron diffraction and X-ray synchrotron radiation and developing a free-electron laser are noted.

  9. Complementarity of real-time neutron and synchrotron radiation structural investigations in molecular biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, V. L.; Kiselev, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    General problems of the complementarity of different physical methods and specific features of the interaction between neutron and matter and neutron diffraction with respect to the time of flight are discussed. The results of studying the kinetics of structural changes in lipid membranes under hydration and self-assembly of the lipid bilayer in the presence of a detergent are reported. The possibilities of the complementarity of neutron diffraction and X-ray synchrotron radiation and developing a free-electron laser are noted.

  10. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect......Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...

  11. Feeding broilers with dry whey powder and whey protein concentrate affected productive performance, ileal digestibility of nutrients and cecal microbiota community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Quiroga, C; Camarinha-Silva, A; Borda-Molina, D; Atxaerandio, R; Ruiz, R; García-Rodríguez, A

    2018-04-01

    Dietary interventions are a common practice in the poultry industry to promote optimal performance and health of animals. Here, we aim at assessing the influence of supplementing broiler diets with dry whey powder (DWP) and whey protein concentrate (WPC) on nutrient coefficient of apparent ileal digestibility (CAID) and productive performance. Cecal microbiota composition was also determined using Illumina amplicon sequencing. Dietary treatments were control diet (no supplementation of DWP or WPC), 60-DWP (60 g/kg of DWP), and 80-WPC (80 g/kg of WPC). One-day-old male broilers were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, and housed in floor pens. In Trial 1, 90 1-day-old chicks were allocated to three pens/treatment, with 10 birds/pen, during 21 days for CAID evaluation. Diet 60-DWP increased Ca CAID (P=0.041), while diet 80-WPC improved Ca and P CAID (PWPC increased their BW, average daily gain (ADG) and feed intake (FI) during the starter (PWPC reduced the feed conversion ratio of chickens during the starter period (PWPC differed from those fed with control diet (R=0.776, P=0.008; and R=0.740, P=0.008, respectively). The abundance of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides spp., Escherichia coli/Shigella flexneri and Megamonas furniformis increased when 60-DWP and 80-WPC diets were offered, while the presence of Helicobacter pullorum decreased. Lactobacillus salivarius consistently increased in chickens with better feed conversion ratio, which were those fed with 60-DWP. The results obtained in the present study indicate that growth of chickens is improved by DWP and WPC supplementation because of a higher mineral digestibility, increased feed intake and modulation of cecal microbiota communities.

  12. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  13. Feeding of waste milk to Holstein calves affects antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli and Pasteurella multocida isolated from fecal and nasal swabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynou, G; Bach, A; Terré, M

    2017-04-01

    The use of milk containing antimicrobial residues in calf feeding programs has been shown to select for resistant fecal Escherichia coli in dairy calves. However, information is scarce about the effects of feeding calves waste milk (WM) on the prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns of fecal E. coli and nasal Pasteurella multocida isolates from calves fed either milk replacer (MR) or WM in 8 commercial dairy farms (4 farms per feeding program). Fecal and nasal swabs were collected from 20 ± 5 dairy calves at 42 ± 3.2 d of age, and from 10 of these at approximately 1 yr of age in each study farm to isolate the targeted bacteria. Furthermore, resistance of E. coli isolates from calf-environment and from 5 calves at birth and their dams was also evaluated in each study farm. Resistances were tested against the following antimicrobial agents: amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur, colistin, doxycycline (DO), enrofloxacin (ENR), erythromycin, florfenicol, imipenem, and streptomycin. A greater number of fecal E. coli resistant to ENR, florfenicol, and streptomycin and more multidrug-resistant E. coli phenotypes were isolated in feces of calves fed WM than in those fed MR. However, the prevalence of fecal-resistant E. coli was also influenced by calf age, as it increased from birth to 6 wk of age for ENR and DO and decreased from 6 wk to 1 yr of age for DO regardless of the feeding program. From nasal samples, an increase in the prevalence of colistin-resistant P. multocida was observed in calves fed WM compared with those fed MR. The resistance patterns of E. coli isolates from calves and their dams tended to differ, whereas similar resistance profiles among E. coli isolates from farm environment and calves were observed. The findings of this study suggest that feeding calves WM fosters the presence of resistant bacteria in the lower gut and respiratory tracts of dairy calves

  14. Trade unions and liberal values: struggle or complementarity in a democratic society?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Tupitzya

    2014-02-01

    Thus, viewing the political position of trade unions in a modern democratic society suggests that the trade union units are fully capable to absorb some elements of liberal doctrines. This indicates a broad base complementarity and mutual conceptual foundations of trade unionism and democratic society.

  15. Equilibrium problems with complementarity constraints: case study with applications to oligopolistic markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mordukhovich, B. S.; Outrata, Jiří; Červinka, Michal

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 56, č. 4 (2007), s. 479-494 ISSN 0233-1934 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1030405 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : equilibrium problems with complementarity constraints * multiobjective optimization * necessary optimality conditions * numerical methods * oligopolistic markets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.408, year: 2007

  16. Compatibility and Complementarity of Classroom Ecology and Didactique Research Perspectives in Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leriche, Jérôme; Desbiens, Jean-François; Amade-Escot, Chantal; Tinning, Richard

    2016-01-01

    A large diversity of theoretical frameworks exists in the physical education literature. This article focuses on two of those frameworks to examine their compatibility and their complementarity. The classroom ecology paradigm concentrates on the balance between three task systems, two vectors, and programs of actions proposed by the physical…

  17. Correlations in local measurements on a quantum state, and complementarity as an explanation of nonclassicality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We consider the classical correlations that two observers can extract by measurements on a bipartite quantum state and we discuss how they are related to the quantum mutual information of the state. We show with several examples how complementarity gives rise to a gap between the quantum and the ...

  18. Popov–Belevitch–Hautus type tests for the controllability of linear complementarity systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camlibel, M. Kanat

    2007-01-01

    It is well-known that checking certain controllability properties of very simple piecewise linear systems are undecidable problems. This paper deals with the controllability problem of a class of piecewise linear systems, known as linear complementarity systems. By exploiting the underlying

  19. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE COMPLEMENTARITY PRINCIPLE WITHIN THE ROME STATUTE IN INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heribertus Jaka Triyana

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In practice, the application of the complementarity principle in the Rome Statute remains unclear, particularly with respect to the prioritization of national penal law jurisdiction. This paper willdiscuss the relevance of the complementarity principle to the development of a national criminal justice system and to the investigation and prosecution of the most serious crimes provided for in the Statute. It was concluded that the complementarity principle should be used to unravel the twisted development of the national criminal justice system in accordance with the provisions of international law. We need to establish our national criminal justice system as the main and foremost forum (hence, willing and able in the process of investigating and prosecuting the most serious crimes on earth. Dalam praktik, aplikasi Asas Pelengkap (the complementarity principle dalam Statuta Roma masihbelum jelas, khususnya terkait dengan pengutamaan (prioritization yurisdiksi hukum pidana nasional. Oleh karena itu, tulisan ini akan membahas relevansi asas tersebut terhadap pembangunan sistem hukum pidana nasional dan terhadap penyelidikan dan penuntutan kejahatan paling serius yang diatur dalam Statuta. Disimpulkan bahwa Asas Pelengkap harus Mahkamah digunakan sebagai pengurai benang kusutpembangunan sistem hukum pidana nasional Indonesia sesuai dengan ketentuan hukum internasional supaya menjadi forum utama (mau dan mampu dalam proses penyelidikan dan penuntutan kejahatan paling serius di muka bumi.

  20. Glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to feeding hay with different non-structural carbohydrate content in control and polysaccharide storage myopathy-affected horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgia, L; Valberg, S; McCue, M; Watts, K; Pagan, J

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the glycaemic/insulinaemic responses to hay with non-structural carbohydrate (NSC, soluble carbohydrate) of 17% (HC), 10% (MC) or 4% (LC) differs in control horses and whether these responses differ between control and horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM). Five clinically normal control horses and seven PSSM horses, all unfit and of Quarter Horse breeding (age 9.4 ± 3.4 years, body condition score range: 4.5-6). A crossover design compared the HC and LC hay, with horses randomly assigned to hay type for 5 days, and all horses fed the MC hay during washout, after which the diets were switched. Horses were fed 1.5% BW (as fed) divided into 2 feeding per day, no grain. On morning of the fifth day of each block (seventh day for washout), horses were given 0.5% BW in hay, blood was drawn before and every 30 min for 5 h after feeding, and the rate of intake was measured. Whole blood glucose and plasma insulin were measured. The intake rate was significantly higher for HC. In control horses, the insulin area under the curve (6891.7 ± 3524.2 HC vs. 1185.4 ± 530.2 LC) was significantly higher than LC. Polysaccharide storage myopathy horses had significantly higher glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to HC vs. LC, however; the magnitude of insulin response was lower and glucose response higher in PSSM vs. control horses. Results suggest that insulin responses can differ significantly with the NSC content of hay. Feeding hay with 17% NSC produces elevations in insulin that could be detrimental for PSSM horses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Gonadosomatic index and some hematological parameters in African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822 as affected by feed type and temperature level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed A. Al-Deghayem

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of different feeds/nutrients and temperature on the gonadal development of Clarias gariepinus. The gonadosomatic index (GSI and blood parameters including red blood cell count (RBCs, white blood cell count (WBCs, hemoglobin (Hgb level, hematocrit (HCT, platelets (PLT and mean corpuscular volume (MCV were investigated. Four types of fish feed of 36% protein content [D1(fish meal, D2 (soybean meal, D3 (peameal and D4 (commercial tilapia feed] and 3 different levels of temperature (T1(24℃, T2(28℃ and T3(32℃ were tried in this study for a duration of 4 months. The mean values were as follows: female GSI (14.68 ± 4.86, male GSI (0.70 ± 0.32, RBCs x 106(2.45± 0.64, WBCs x 103(9.28 ± 2.34, Hgb (12.42± 2.21g/dl, HCT (29.06 ± 3.54%, PLT (90.75 ± 9.18/mm3, and MCV (118.08 ± 10.3 g/l. Fish meal diet revealed the most significant (p<0.05 increase in weight gain, female GSI, and also exerted significant increases on most of the blood parameters. This study revealed that animal-based protein diet and temperature around 28℃ were the critical requirements for the physiological performance and relative gonadal weight of C. gariepinus. GSI and blood parameters were useful indicators of stress exerted by nutrition and temperature on fish, and their study is critical for fish health and mass production of viable seeds for aquaculture enterprise.

  2. Factors are not the same for risk of stopping exclusive breast-feeding and introducing different types of liquids and solids in HIV-affected communities in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, Grace S; Lartey, Anna; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Mazur, Robert E; Brakohiapa, Lucy; Birks, Katherine A

    2016-07-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) for 6 months supports optimal infant growth, health and development. This paper examined whether maternal HIV status was associated with EBF and other infant feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled after HIV counselling, and their babies were followed up for up to 1 year. Data on household socio-economics and demographics, maternal characteristics and infants' daily diet were available for 482 infants and their mothers (150 HIV-positive (HIV-P), 170 HIV-negative (HIV-N) and 162 HIV-unknown (HIV-U)). Survival analyses estimated median EBF duration and time to introduction of liquids and foods; hazards ratios (HR) used data from 1-365 and 1-183 d, adjusting for covariates. Logistic regression estimated the probability of EBF for 6 months. Being HIV-P was associated with a shorter EBF duration (139 d) compared with HIV-N (163 d) and HIV-U (165 d) (P=0·004). Compared with HIV-N, being HIV-P was associated with about a 40 % higher risk of stopping EBF at any time point (HR 1·39; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·84; P=0·018) and less than half as likely to complete 6 months of EBF (adjusted OR 0·42; 95 % CI 0·22, 0·81; P=0·01). Being HIV-P tended to be or was associated with a higher risk of introducing non-milk liquids (HR 1·34; 95 % CI 0·98, 1·83; P=0·068), animal milks (HR 2·37; 95 % CI 1·32, 4·24; P=0·004) and solids (HR 1·56; 95 % CI 1·10, 2·22; P=0·011) during the first 6 months. Weight-for-age Z-score was associated with EBF and introducing formula. Different factors (ethnicity, food insecurity, HIV testing strategy) were associated with the various feeding behaviours, suggesting that diverse interventions are needed to promote optimal infant feeding.

  3. Presence of Trifolium repens Promotes Complementarity of Water Use and N Facilitation in Diverse Grass Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pauline; Picon-Cochard, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-months mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures) and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens) on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency, and deep root growth) were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs. tall and deep). Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures was not only

  4. Presence of Trifolium repens promotes complementarity of water use and N facilitation in diverse grass mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eHernandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-month mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency and deep root growth were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs tall and deep. Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures

  5. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  6. The presence of inositol phosphates in gastric pig digesta is affected by time after feeding a nonfermented or fermented liquid wheat- barley-based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Jørgensen, H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2011-01-01

    increased the degradation of gastric InsP(6). However, considerable amounts of intact InsP(6) still passed into the small intestine because of a shortage of time for InsP(6) degradation in the stomach. Therefore, to increase the apparent digestibility of plant P in dry wheat- and barley-based diets...... collection of gastric digesta. For each pig, the digesta was collected once daily at 1, 2, 3, or 5 h after feeding the morning meal. A basal wheat- and barley-based diet was steam-pelleted at 90°C. The dietary treatments were a nonfermented basal diet (NF-BD), the NF-BD with microbial phytase (750 phytase......The objective was to quantify the retention of digesta and evaluate the degradation of phytate or inositol hexakisphosphate (InsP(6)) and lower inositol phosphates (InsP(5), InsP(4), InsP(3), and InsP(2)) in the stomach at different times after feeding pigs a fermented liquid diet with microbial...

  7. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  8. Weaning age affects growth, feed intake, gastrointestinal development, and behavior in Holstein calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and

  9. Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Serum Mineral Chemistry as Affected by Dietary Sodium and Sodium Salts Fed to Broiler Chickens Reared under Phase Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. H. Mushtaq

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A basal diet (0.8 g/kg dNa was formulated in which each of the two sources (NaHCO3 and Na2SO4 were supplemented in such a way to attain four levels (1.7, 2.6, 3.5, and 4.4 g/kg of total dNa, respectively, under 4×2 factorial arrangement. Eight dietary treatments were replicated four times, with 40 birds in each replicate (n = 1,280. The diets supplemented with Na2SO4 to attain higher levels of dNa showed highest BW gain and feed intake (FI during d 1 to 10 (interaction effects while 2.6 g/kg dNa exhibited improved BW gain and gain:feed (FG during d 11 to 20. Linear rise in daily water intake (DWI was associated with diets containing increasing dNa during d 1 to 42 (p≤0.036. During the first 10 d, DWI:FI was found highest in NaHCO3 diets while Na2SO4 diets showed highest DWI:FI during last 10 d of the experiment (p≤0.036. Increasing dNa and changing Na2SO4 with NaHCO3 salt increased pH and resulted in poor growth performance. Dressing weight (p≤0.001 and abdominal fat (p≤0.001; quadratic effect were reduced, whereas breast (p≤0.001 and thigh (p<0.001 weights were aggravated with increasing dNa (linear effects. Present findings suggested higher levels of dNa from Na2SO4 as the supplemental salt in broiler diets would produce better growth performance, especially in first ten days of life, and improve carcass and body organ characteristics.

  10. Trace elements in blood collected from birds feeding in the area around Doñana National Park affected by the toxic spill from the Aznacóllar mine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito, V; Devesa, V; Muñoz, O; Suñer, M A; Montoro, R; Baos, R; Hiraldo, F; Ferrer, M; Fernández, M; González, M J

    1999-12-06

    A long-term monitoring plan was established to study if bird populations around Doñana National Park were affected by the toxic spill from the Aznalcóllar mine. The concentrations of Zn, Pb, As, Cu, Sb, Co, Tl and Cd in the blood of 11 bird species feeding in the area were determined. The parameters which most affect the accumulation of trace elements in the birds studied are, firstly, species and secondly, trophic position, sex, days of exposure and weight. In some individuals, Zn and Cu occurred at higher levels than the reference values for contaminated areas. Concentrations of Pb and Cd in a considerable number of individuals were higher than those found in birds from uncontaminated areas. The present data, together with the lack of data on blood metal concentration prior to the spill, do not offer any conclusive evidence of the influence of the spill on avian blood metal concentrations.

  11. Capital-energy complementarity in aggregate energy-economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogan, W.W.

    1979-10-01

    The interplay between capital and energy will affect the outcome of energy-policy initiatives. A static model clarifies the interpretation of the conflicting empirical evidence on the nature of this interplay. This resolves an apparent conflict between engineering and economc interpretations and points to an additional ambiguity that can be resolved by distinguishing between policy issues at aggregated and disaggregated levels. Restrictions on aggregate energy use should induce reductions in the demand for capital and exacerbate the economic impacts of the energy policy. 32 references.

  12. Impact of mothers' negative affectivity, parental locus of control and child-feeding practices on dietary patterns of 3-year-old children: the MoBa Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ystrom, Eivind; Barker, Mary; Vollrath, Margarete E

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the current study were to (1) identify dietary patterns in 3-year-old children; (2) investigate the extent to which negative affectivity, external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices (pressure to eat and restriction) relate to these dietary patterns; and (3) to examine to what extent external parental locus of control and control-oriented child-feeding practices serve as mediators for these effects. This study was part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, comprising 14,122 mothers completing assessments at 6 months, 18 months and 3 years post-partum. Factor analysis of the children's diet identified two weakly correlated dietary patterns, labeled 'unhealthy' and 'wholesome'. Mothers high in negative affectivity perceived they had little control over their child's behaviour, which in turn was associated with both pressuring their child to eat and restricting the child's food intake and a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet in the child. Pressuring the child to eat was independently associated with a less wholesome and a more unhealthy diet. Restricting the child's diet was associated with a more wholesome and a less unhealthy diet. These findings held after controlling for maternal smoking, education, age, body mass index, marital status, homemaker status and child gender. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A Smoothing Method with Appropriate Parameter Control Based on Fischer-Burmeister Function for Second-Order Cone Complementarity Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Narushima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We deal with complementarity problems over second-order cones. The complementarity problem is an important class of problems in the real world and involves many optimization problems. The complementarity problem can be reformulated as a nonsmooth system of equations. Based on the smoothed Fischer-Burmeister function, we construct a smoothing Newton method for solving such a nonsmooth system. The proposed method controls a smoothing parameter appropriately. We show the global and quadratic convergence of the method. Finally, some numerical results are given.

  14. Fat accumulation, fatty acids and melting point changes in broiler chick abdominal fat as affected by time of dietary fat feeding and slaughter age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, J M; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A; Rey, A I

    2017-03-23

    1. This work aims to quantify changes in fatty acid profile, melting point, abdominal fat accumulation and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances production depending on dietary fat source and age at slaughter, and to estimate the optimal date for the change from an unsaturated fat to a saturated fat diet or vice versa. 2. Treatments established were (1) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 49 d (TTT); (2) birds fed 8% tallow from 21 to 37 d and 8% sunflower oil from d 38 to 49 (TSS); (3) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 37 d and 8% tallow from d 38 to 49 (STT); (4) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 41 d and 8% tallow from d 42 to 49 (SST); (5) birds fed 8% sunflower oil from 21 to 49 d (SSS). Birds from each group were slaughtered on d 21, 29, 38, 40, 42, 44, 46 and 49. 3. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) proportion in the SSS group reached maximum values at d 40 and fitted a quadratic response. This group also showed a decrease in saturated fatty acids (SATs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) of lower intensity than the PUFA increase. The highest synthesis of SAT + MUFA was found in the SSS and TSS groups, whereas these had the lowest body-to-dietary PUFA ratio. 4. A high and quadratic increase in the MUFA proportion was observed during the first 10 d of feeding with the tallow-enriched diet at the expenses of the proportion of PUFA that quadratically decreased (minimum values at d 38). 5. Lipogenic and desaturation capacity decreased with age. 6. The TSS group increased tissue PUFA content faster that the SST group decreased PUFA content after the change in diet which indicates that the earlier feeding has to be taken into consideration for obtaining higher or lower changes in quality parameters. 7. The melting point of the SSS group showed a lower response to the dietary treatment in the initial period when compared to the TTT treatment. 8. The TTT, STT, SST and TSS groups showed similar fat accumulation, and changes in lipid

  15. Radiation pasteurization of poultry feed: Preliminary results of feeding tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borsa, J.; Guenter, B.

    1992-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as a vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it would directly offset the cost of treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. The results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed. 10 refs, 8 tabs

  16. Heat-treatment, phytase and fermented liquid feeding affect the presence of inositol phosphates in ileal digesta and phosphorus digestibility in pigs fed a wheat and barley diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Karoline; Jørgensen, H.; Tauson, Anne-Helene

    2010-01-01

    × 4 Latin square with four pigs fed four diets. A basal wheat/barley-based diet was fed either as non-heat-treated or heat-treated (steam-pelleted at 90°C). The heat-treatment resulted in an inactivation of plant phytase below detectable level. Diet 1 (non-heat-treated basal diet fed dry); diet 2...... by total collection of faeces (ATTDTotal) and Cr2O3 (ATTDCr). InsP6 was completely degraded in diet 4 before feeding resulting in no InsP6-P being present in ileal digesta. InsP6-P concentration in ileal digesta decreased with increasing dietary levels of plant or microbial phytase in pigs fed the dry...... (heat-treated basal diet fed dry); diet 3 (as diet 2 but with microbial phytase (750 FTU/kg as fed) fed dry); diet 4 (as diet 3 fed liquid (fermented for 17.5 h nighttime and 6.5 h daytime at 20°C with 50% residue in the tank)). Chromic oxide (Cr2O3) was included as marker and ATTD was determined both...

  17. In vitro gas production in rumen fluid of buffalo as affected by urea-calcium mixture in high-quality feed block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Wanapat, Metha

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of urea-calcium sulphate mixture (U-cas) levels in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on ruminal digestibility, fermentation and gas kinetics in rumen fluid of swamp buffalo by using in vitro techniques. The treatments were seven levels of U-cas incorporated in HQFB at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18% and the experimental design was a completely randomized design. Gas production rate constants for the insoluble fraction, potential extent of gas and cumulative gas were linearly increased with increasing levels of U-cas in HQFB. The in vitro dry matter digestibility, in vitro organic matter digestibility, true digestibility and microbial mass were altered by treatments and were greatest at 18% U-cas supplementation. Concentrations of propionate were linearly increased with increasing levels of U-cas and was highest with U-cas supplementation at 18%. The NH3 -N concentration was highest when urea was added in the HQFB while NH3 -N concentration tended to be reduced with increasing level of U-cas. The findings suggest supplementation of 18% U-cas in HQFB improves kinetics of gas production, rumen fermentation, digestibility and microbial mass as well as controlling the rate of N degradation in the rumen of swamp buffalo. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Perinatal exposure to a diet high in saturated fat, refined sugar and cholesterol affects behaviour, growth, and feed intake in weaned piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clouard, Caroline; Gerrits, Walter J.J.; Kemp, Bas; Val-Laillet, David; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2016-01-01

    The increased consumption of diets high in saturated fats and refined sugars is a major public health concern in Western human societies. Recent studies suggest that perinatal exposure to dietary fat and/or sugar may affect behavioural development. We thus investigated the effects of perinatal

  19. A Regularization SAA Scheme for a Stochastic Mathematical Program with Complementarity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To reflect uncertain data in practical problems, stochastic versions of the mathematical program with complementarity constraints (MPCC have drawn much attention in the recent literature. Our concern is the detailed analysis of convergence properties of a regularization sample average approximation (SAA method for solving a stochastic mathematical program with complementarity constraints (SMPCC. The analysis of this regularization method is carried out in three steps: First, the almost sure convergence of optimal solutions of the regularized SAA problem to that of the true problem is established by the notion of epiconvergence in variational analysis. Second, under MPCC-MFCQ, which is weaker than MPCC-LICQ, we show that any accumulation point of Karash-Kuhn-Tucker points of the regularized SAA problem is almost surely a kind of stationary point of SMPCC as the sample size tends to infinity. Finally, some numerical results are reported to show the efficiency of the method proposed.

  20. A class of singular Ro-matrices and extensions to semidefinite linear complementarity problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar K.C.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For ARnxn and qRn, the linear complementarity problem LCP(A, q is to determine if there is xRn such that x ≥ 0; y = Ax + q ≥ 0 and xT y = 0. Such an x is called a solution of LCP(A,q. A is called an Ro-matrix if LCP(A,0 has zero as the only solution. In this article, the class of R0-matrices is extended to include typically singular matrices, by requiring in addition that the solution x above belongs to a subspace of Rn. This idea is then extended to semidefinite linear complementarity problems, where a characterization is presented for the multplicative transformation.

  1. SPACE: a suite of tools for protein structure prediction and analysis based on complementarity and environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Vladimir; Eyal, Eran; Gerzon, Sergey; Potapov, Vladimir; Babor, Mariana; Prilusky, Jaime; Edelman, Marvin

    2005-07-01

    We describe a suite of SPACE tools for analysis and prediction of structures of biomolecules and their complexes. LPC/CSU software provides a common definition of inter-atomic contacts and complementarity of contacting surfaces to analyze protein structure and complexes. In the current version of LPC/CSU, analyses of water molecules and nucleic acids have been added, together with improved and expanded visualization options using Chime or Java based Jmol. The SPACE suite includes servers and programs for: structural analysis of point mutations (MutaProt); side chain modeling based on surface complementarity (SCCOMP); building a crystal environment and analysis of crystal contacts (CryCo); construction and analysis of protein contact maps (CMA) and molecular docking software (LIGIN). The SPACE suite is accessed at http://ligin.weizmann.ac.il/space.

  2. Movement Speed and Accuracy in Space and Time: The Complementarity of Error Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Matheus M; Hsieh, Tsung-Yu; Newell, Karl M

    2018-01-29

    Movement speed-accuracy trade-off is a function of the space-time constraints of the task. We investigated the space-time account of Hancock and Newell (1985) and the hypothesis of complementarity between the four moments of the error distribution in space and time. Twelve participants performed 15 conditions in a line drawing task composed of different spatial (10, 20, and 30 cm) and temporal (250 to 2,500 ms) criteria. The results showed that all moments of distributions changed systematically between conditions but there were some departures from the Hancock and Newell predictions. In contrast, individual analysis revealed the complementarity of the spatial and temporal error including a trade-off between the four moments of error. These findings support a complementary space-time account of movement speed and accuracy.

  3. Plant diversity increases spatio-temporal niche complementarity in plant-pollinator interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venjakob, Christine; Klein, Alexandra-Maria; Ebeling, Anne; Tscharntke, Teja; Scherber, Christoph

    2016-04-01

    Ongoing biodiversity decline impairs ecosystem processes, including pollination. Flower visitation, an important indicator of pollination services, is influenced by plant species richness. However, the spatio-temporal responses of different pollinator groups to plant species richness have not yet been analyzed experimentally. Here, we used an experimental plant species richness gradient to analyze plant-pollinator interactions with an unprecedented spatio-temporal resolution. We observed four pollinator functional groups (honeybees, bumblebees, solitary bees, and hoverflies) in experimental plots at three different vegetation strata between sunrise and sunset. Visits were modified by plant species richness interacting with time and space. Furthermore, the complementarity of pollinator functional groups in space and time was stronger in species-rich mixtures. We conclude that high plant diversity should ensure stable pollination services, mediated via spatio-temporal niche complementarity in flower visitation.

  4. Wave-particle dualism and complementarity unraveled by a different mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzel, Ralf; Puhlmann, Dirk; Heuer, Axel; Schleich, Wolfgang P

    2012-06-12

    The precise knowledge of one of two complementary experimental outcomes prevents us from obtaining complete information about the other one. This formulation of Niels Bohr's principle of complementarity when applied to the paradigm of wave-particle dualism--that is, to Young's double-slit experiment--implies that the information about the slit through which a quantum particle has passed erases interference. In the present paper we report a double-slit experiment using two photons created by spontaneous parametric down-conversion where we observe interference in the signal photon despite the fact that we have located it in one of the slits due to its entanglement with the idler photon. This surprising aspect of complementarity comes to light by our special choice of the TEM(01) pump mode. According to quantum field theory the signal photon is then in a coherent superposition of two distinct wave vectors giving rise to interference fringes analogous to two mechanical slits.

  5. Getting the full picture: Assessing the complementarity of citizen science and agency monitoring data

    OpenAIRE

    Hadj-Hammou, Jeneen; Loiselle, Steven; Ophof, Daniel; Thornhill, Ian

    2017-01-01

    While the role of citizen science in engaging the public and providing large-scale datasets has been demonstrated, the nature of and potential for this science to supplement environmental monitoring efforts by government agencies has not yet been fully explored. To this end, the present study investigates the complementarity of a citizen science programme to agency monitoring of water quality. The Environment Agency (EA) is the governmental public body responsible for, among other duties, man...

  6. Corporate Governance and Employees in Germany: Changing Linkages, Complementarities, and Tensions

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory Jackson; Martin Hopner; Antje Kurdelbusch

    2004-01-01

    This article examines institutional linkages between corporate governance and labour management in Germany. German corporate governance was characterised by the importance of banks, ownership concentration, long-term investment, and stable corporate networks. This system displayed important complementarities with stable long-term employment, investment in worker training, flexible quality production, low variability and dispersion in pay, and cooperative industrial relations during the post-w...

  7. Variation in fat mobilization during early lactation differently affects feed intake, body condition, and lipid and glucose metabolism in high-yielding dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C; Hametner, C; Tuchscherer, A; Losand, B; Kanitz, E; Otten, W; Singh, S P; Bruckmaier, R M; Becker, F; Kanitz, W; Hammon, H M

    2013-01-01

    Fat mobilization to meet energy requirements during early lactation is inevitable because of insufficient feed intake, but differs greatly among high-yielding dairy cows. Therefore, we studied milk production, feed intake, and body condition as well as metabolic and endocrine changes in high-yielding dairy cows to identify variable strategies in metabolic and endocrine adaptation to overcome postpartum metabolic load attributable to milk production. Cows used in this study varied in fat mobilization around calving, as classified by mean total liver fat concentrations (LFC) postpartum. German Holstein cows (n=27) were studied from dry off until d 63 postpartum in their third lactation. All cows were fed the same total mixed rations ad libitum during the dry period and lactation. Plasma concentrations of metabolites and hormones were measured in blood samples taken at d 56, 28, 15, and 5 before expected calving and at d 1 and once weekly up to d 63 postpartum. Liver biopsies were taken on d 56 and 15 before calving, and on d 1, 14, 28, and 49 postpartum to measure LFC and glycogen concentrations. Cows were grouped accordingly to mean total LFC on d 1, 14, and 28 in high, medium, and low fat-mobilizing cows. Mean LFC (±SEM) differed among groups and were 351±14, 250±10, and 159±9 mg/g of dry matter for high, medium, and low fat-mobilizing cows, respectively, whereas hepatic glycogen concentrations postpartum were the highest in low fat-mobilizing cows. Cows in the low group showed the highest dry matter intake and the least negative energy balance postpartum, but energy-corrected milk yield was similar among groups. The decrease in body weight postpartum was greatest in high fat-mobilizing cows, but the decrease in backfat thickness was greatest in medium fat-mobilizing cows. Plasma concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were highest around calving in high fat-mobilizing cows. Plasma triglycerides were highest in the medium group and

  8. The VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine affects effort-related decision making in a progressive ratio/chow feeding choice task: reversal with antidepressant drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Randall

    Full Text Available Behavioral activation is a fundamental feature of motivation, and organisms frequently make effort-related decisions based upon evaluations of reinforcement value and response costs. Furthermore, people with major depression and other disorders often show anergia, psychomotor retardation, fatigue, and alterations in effort-related decision making. Tasks measuring effort-based decision making can be used as animal models of the motivational symptoms of depression, and the present studies characterized the effort-related effects of the vesicular monoamine transport (VMAT-2 inhibitor tetrabenazine. Tetrabenazine induces depressive symptoms in humans, and also preferentially depletes dopamine (DA. Rats were assessed using a concurrent progressive ratio (PROG/chow feeding task, in which they can either lever press on a PROG schedule for preferred high-carbohydrate food, or approach and consume a less-preferred lab chow that is freely available in the chamber. Previous work has shown that the DA antagonist haloperidol reduced PROG work output on this task, but did not reduce chow intake, effects that differed substantially from those of reinforcer devaluation or appetite suppressant drugs. The present work demonstrated that tetrabenazine produced an effort-related shift in responding on the PROG/chow procedure, reducing lever presses, highest ratio achieved and time spent responding, but not reducing chow intake. Similar effects were produced by administration of the subtype selective DA antagonists ecopipam (D1 and eticlopride (D2, but not by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor neutral antagonist and putative appetite suppressant AM 4413, which suppressed both lever pressing and chow intake. The adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3, the antidepressant and catecholamine uptake inhibitor bupropion, and the MAO-B inhibitor deprenyl, all reversed the impairments induced by tetrabenazine. This work demonstrates the potential utility of the PROG/chow procedure as a

  9. A Replication of Channel Complementarity Theory among Internet Users in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Julian; Dutta, Mohan J

    2017-04-01

    This article examined channel complementarity in health information seeking among Internet users in India. It posited that online users complementarily use different channels to search for health information. Based on the existing literature, it suggested that age is an important moderator of different channels as health information sources. Data regarding the consumption of 11 different channels were collected from nearly 1,000 Internet users. The results demonstrated complementary use of different channels as health information sources in relationship to the Internet as a health information source, except for newspapers and family members. Moreover, not supporting our hypothesis regarding the sources of health information among online users, the Internet was surprisingly not the primary source of health information, being shadowed by the predominant and significantly greater use of newspapers as sources of health information among online users in India. Extending the theory of channel complementarity, we found that age is an important moderator of complementary relationships among various channels as health information sources, demonstrating that younger users were more likely to use greater numbers of channels complementarily as compared to older users. Contributions to channel complementarity and implications of research are discussed on the basis of the findings.

  10. The Commission as a Party before the Court – Reflections on the Complementarity Arrangement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika Rudman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights has worked as the continent's watchdog, under the ACHPR, for almost 30 years. Much has changed since the time of its inception. More institutions, set to ensure the implementation of the ACHPR, have been added. As the African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights became operational, a two-tiered human rights system was created.This article explores the inter-relationship between the ACHPR, the Protocol Establishing the African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights and the Procedural Rules of these two institutions within the specific context of the African Commission's mandate to refer communications to the African Court. The aim is to offer a purposeful interpretation of the Procedural Rules governing referrals, guided by the understanding of the principle of complementarity in the preparatory works. The author argues that an appropriate interpretation of complementarity, within the context of referrals, becomes vital in alleviating one of the long-term plagues of the African, protective, human rights system, namely the lack of resources and human capital. It is suggested that the African Commission and the African Court can only be effective if they take proper cognisance of the principle of complementarity, in referring and receiving communications.

  11. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via the nose, ... portion of the small intestine Naso – nose NG – Nasogastric Tube -ostomy – new opening Percutaneous – through the skin PEJ – ...

  12. Feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, S L

    1986-12-01

    Problems related to feeding behavior in horses fall into three main categories: underconsumption, overconsumption, and abnormal consumption. Anorexia may be caused by a variety of diseases and overcome by removing the underlying causes (pain, fever), and physical or chemical stimulation of appetite. "Hypophagia" may be caused by poor dentition, disease, or stress. Again, removal of the cause or stimulation by physical or chemical means may improve intakes. Acute and chronic overconsumption of feeds are reflections of the normal controls (or lack thereof) of feeding in the horse. The only reliable prevention is to limit access to feeds. Abnormal eating behaviors such as pica or coprophagy are usually caused by a dietary imbalance or boredom. Coprophagey, however, is a normal behavior in young foals. Drinking disorders are rare, the only common one being the avoidance of "strange" water. Masking water at home with specific flavors such as peppermint or vinegar may encourage the horse to drink water from other sources to which the "home" flavor has been added.

  13. fish feed

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    with fishing nets. Fish were identified and authenticated at the Fishery section,. Department of Biological Sciences,. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria ..... salmon.Aquaculture, 89: 301-314. GABRIEL, U. U., AKINROTIMI, O. A.,. BEKIBELE, D. O., ONUNKWO, D. N. and ANYANWU, P. E. (2007). Locally produced fish feed ...

  14. Tocopherol content, weight loss and instrumental color analysis of Iberian dry-cured ham as affected by rearing and feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daza, Argimiro

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rearing (outdoor vs indoor and feeding systems (acorn and grass vs mixed diets on ham quality from Duroc x Iberian pigs were studied. Seven groups of 5 females each were used. One group was reared under freerange conditions and fed with acorns and grass (outdoor pigs. Six group were fed mixed diets in confinement (indoor pigs under a factorial design 3 x 2 with three types of dietary fat: monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and medium (monounsaturated and polyunsaturated and two levels of α-tocopheryl-acetate. The α-and γ-tocopherol contents were higher (P Se ha estudiado el efecto del régimen de producción (en libertad vs estabulados y el sistema de alimentación (bellota y pasto vs piensos formulados en la calidad del jamón de cerdos Ibéricos cruzados con Duroc. Siete grupos de 5 hembras cada uno fueron usadas. Un grupo fue criado en condiciones de libertad y alimentado con bellotas y pasto (Cerdos en libertad. Seis grupos fueron alimentados con dietas formuladas en confinamiento (Cerdos estabulados usando un diseño factorial de 3 x 2 con tres tipos de grasa en la dieta: monoinsaturada, poliinsaturada y media (monoinsaturada y polinsaturada y dos niveles de acetato de α-tocoferol. Los contenidos de α- y γ-tocoferol fueron más altos (p < 0.05 en jamones de cerdos criados en libertad que en jamones de cerdos estabulados. Los jamones de cerdos estabulados pesaron menos que los jamones de cerdos en libertad y los valores de color rojo fueron mayores en jamones de cerdos en libertad que en cerdos estabulados. Después de 4 días de almacenamiento, la muestra de jamón de cerdos en libertad mostraron una menor tendencia (p < 0.10 a perder peso que aquellos de cerdos alimentados con un nivel basal de vitamina E. Estos resultados indican que cerdos Ibérico criados en libertad y alimentados con bellota y pasto incrementan su contenido en tocoferoles y mejoran el color y las pérdidas de peso de los jamones curados.

  15. Feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs reared under precision feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Kipper, M; Hauschild, L; Rivest, J

    2016-07-01

    The feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs reared under precision feeding strategies was studied in 35 barrows and 35 females (average initial BW of 30.4 ± 2.2 kg) over 84 d. Five different feeding programs were evaluated, namely a conventional 3-phase program in which pigs were fed with a constant blend of diet A (high nutrient density) and diet B (low nutrient density) and 4 daily phase-feeding programs in which pigs were fed daily with a blend meeting 110, 100, 90, or 80% of the individual Lys requirements. Electronic feeder systems automatically recorded the visits to the feeder, the time of the meals, and the amount of feed consumed per meal. The trial lasted 84 d and the database contained 59,701 feeder visits. The recorded database was used to calculate the number of meals per day, feeding time per meal (min), intervals between meals (min), feed intake per meal (g), and feed consumption rate (feed intake divided by feeding time per meal, expressed in g/min) of each animal. The feeding pattern was predominantly diurnal (73% of the feeder visits). Number of meals, duration of meals, time between meals, feed consumed per meal, and feed consumption rate were not affected by the feeding programs. The females ingested 19% less feed per meal and had a 6% lower feed consumption rate in comparison with the barrows ( feeding behavior was not correlated with diet composition. However, feed efficiency was negatively correlated with amount of feed consumed per meal ( = -0.38, feed consumption rate ( = -0.44, Feed consumption rate was also negatively correlated with protein efficiency ( = -0.44, feed consumption rate and number of meals per day are the variables related most closely to pig production performance results. Current results indicate that using precision feeding as an approach to reduce Lys intake does not interfere with the feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs.

  16. Serotonin delivery into the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus affects differently feeding pattern and body weight in obese and lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetissov, Sergueï O; Meguid, Michael M

    2010-04-01

    To determine if central serotonin (5-HT)-induced satiety is altered in obesity. Obese and lean Zucker rats received infusion of 5-HT (5 microg/0.5 microl/h) or saline into the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMN) for 2 weeks. In lean rats, 5-HT decreased body weight (7%) and total food intake (15%) which was due to a decreased meal size during the dark phase. In obese rats, a decrease of food intake was also observed in the dark phase, but it was compensated by an increased food intake during the light phase, resulting in no significant changes of total food intake and body weight. In obese rats, meal number but not meal size was affected by 5-HT delivery. Body fat content was not affected by 5-HT in obese rats, while cessation of 5-HT delivery in lean rats resulted in 13% increase. Intra-VMN 5-HT in obese rats did not increase meal-associated satiety as it did in lean rats, but modulated hunger. These results show that the Zucker obese phenotype is characterized by VMN resistance to 5-HT, which may contribute to neurobiological mechanisms of increased meal size and food intake and may diminish anti-obesity effects of serotonergic anorexiants. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Principles of classical statistical mechanics: A perspective from the notion of complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez Abad, Luisberis

    2012-01-01

    Quantum mechanics and classical statistical mechanics are two physical theories that share several analogies in their mathematical apparatus and physical foundations. In particular, classical statistical mechanics is hallmarked by the complementarity between two descriptions that are unified in thermodynamics: (i) the parametrization of the system macrostate in terms of mechanical macroscopic observablesI=(I i ), and (ii) the dynamical description that explains the evolution of a system towards the thermodynamic equilibrium. As expected, such a complementarity is related to the uncertainty relations of classical statistical mechanics ΔI i Δη i ≥k. Here, k is the Boltzmann constant, η i =∂S(I|θ)/∂I i are the restituting generalized forces derived from the entropy S(I|θ) of a closed system, which is found in an equilibrium situation driven by certain control parameters θ=(θ α ). These arguments constitute the central ingredients of a reformulation of classical statistical mechanics from the notion of complementarity. In this new framework, Einstein postulate of classical fluctuation theory dp(I|θ)∼exp[S(I|θ)/k]dI appears as the correspondence principle between classical statistical mechanics and thermodynamics in the limit k→0, while the existence of uncertainty relations can be associated with the non-commuting character of certain operators. - Highlights: ► There exists a direct analogy between quantum and classical statistical mechanics. ► Statistical form of Le Chatellier principle leads to the uncertainty principle. ► Einstein postulate is simply the correspondence principle. ► Complementary quantities are associated with non-commuting operators.

  18. Medicina alternativa e complementar e diabetes mellitus: uma articulação a ser estudada

    OpenAIRE

    Motta, Júlia Maria Casulari; Barros, Nelson Filice de; Castellanos, Marcelo Eduardo Pfeiffer; Alegre, Sara Monte; Tovey, Philip; Broom, Alex

    2009-01-01

    Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sistemática da literatura sobre o uso de Medicina Alternativa e Complementar no tratamento do diabetes melitus do tipo 2, em seis revistas internacionais, especializadas em pesquisa qualitativa, dos campos das ciências sociais e saúde, disponíveis no portal de periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior – CAPES. Foram analisados 25 artigos publicados de 1998 a 2008. De acordo com as suas temáticas,os artigos foram organizados nas...

  19. Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúncia Urban

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Melostelis gen. nov., espécies novas e notas complementares sobre Anthidiini (Hymenoptera, Apidae. Melostelis gen. nov. é proposto para um novo Anthidiini cleptoparasita. São descritas e ilustradas duas espécies novas: Melostelis amazonensis sp. nov. de Manaus, Amazonas e Larocanthidium chacoense sp. nov. de Porto Murtinho, Mato Grosso do Sul. São dados a conhecer os machos de Epanthidium bolivianum Urban, 1995 e Epanthidium araranguense Urban, 2006 e, registrados pela primeira vez no Brasil, na sub-região do chaco, Ketianthidium zanolae Urban, 2000 e Epanthidium bolivianum.

  20. Práticas integrativas e complementares no cuidado de enfermagem: um enfoque ético

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Gonzalez Martins de Magalhães; Neide Aparecida Titonelli Alvim

    2013-01-01

    Os objetivos deste estudo foram caracterizar a participação de usuários na opção e no cuidado de enfermagem por meio de práticas integrativas e complementares de saúde (PICS); e analisar esta participação sob o enfoque ético do cuidado de enfermagem. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida com usuários de PICS, em instituições públicas de saúde onde há enfermeiros que as aplicam; foi aprovada pelos Comi...

  1. Solving complementarity problems: Application to a diphasic flow in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Gharbia, I.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript deals with numerical methods for linear and nonlinear complementarity problems, and, more specifically, with solving gas phase appearance and disappearance modeled as a complementarity problem. In the first part of this manuscript, we focused on the plain Newton-min method to solve the linear complementarity problem (LCP for short) 0 ≤x perpendicular to (Mx+q) ≥ 0 that can be viewed as a non-smooth Newton algorithm without globalization technique to solve the system of piecewise linear equations min(x,Mx+q) = 0, which is equivalent to the LCP. When M is an M-matrix of order n, the algorithm was known to converge in at most n iterations. We show that this result no longer holds when M is a P-matrix of order ≥ 3. On the one hand, we offer counter-examples showing that the algorithm may cycle in those cases. P-matrices are interesting since they are those ensuring the existence and uniqueness of the solution to the LCP for an arbitrary q. Incidentally, convergence occurs for a P-matrix of order 1 or 2. On the other hand, we provide a new algorithmic characterization of P-matricity: we show that a nondegenerate square real matrix M is a P-matrix if and only if, whatever is the real vector q, the Newton-min algorithm does not cycle between two points. In order to force the convergence of the Newton-min algorithm with P-matrices, we have derived a new method, which is robust, easy to describe, and simple to implement. It is globally convergent and the numerical results reported in this manuscript show that it outperforms a method of Harker and Pang. In the second part of this manuscript, we consider the modeling of migration of hydrogen produced by the corrosion of the nuclear waste packages in an underground storage including the dissolution of hydrogen. It results in a set of nonlinear partial differential equations with nonlinear complementarity constraints. We show how to apply a robust and efficient solution strategy, the Newton-min method

  2. A large-scale linear complementarity model of the North American natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, Steven A.; Jifang Zhuang; Kiet, Supat

    2005-01-01

    The North American natural gas market has seen significant changes recently due to deregulation and restructuring. For example, third party marketers can contract for transportation and purchase of gas to sell to end-users. While the intent was a more competitive market, the potential for market power exists. We analyze this market using a linear complementarity equilibrium model including producers, storage and peak gas operators, third party marketers and four end-use sectors. The marketers are depicted as Nash-Cournot players determining supply to meet end-use consumption, all other players are in perfect competition. Results based on National Petroleum Council scenarios are presented. (Author)

  3. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  4. Anticipating and Managing Future Trade-offs and Complementarities between Ecosystem Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Reed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how, with the aid of computer models developed in close collaboration with decision makers and other stakeholders, it is possible to quantify and map how policy decisions are likely to affect multiple ecosystem services in future. In this way, potential trade-offs and complementarities between different ecosystem services can be identified, so that policies can be designed to avoid the worst trade-offs, and where possible, enhance multiple services. The paper brings together evidence from across the Rural Economy and Land Use Programme's Sustainable Uplands project for the first time, with previously unpublished model outputs relating to runoff, agricultural suitability, biomass, heather cover, age, and utility for Red Grouse (Lagopus scotica, grass cover, and accompanying scenario narratives and video. Two contrasting scenarios, based on policies to extensify or intensify land management up to 2030, were developed through a combination of interviews and discussions during site visits with stakeholders, literature review, conceptual modeling, and process-based computer models, using the Dark Peak of the Peak District National Park in the UK as a case study. Where extensification leads to a significant reduction in managed burning and grazing or land abandonment, changes in vegetation type and structure could compromise a range of species that are important for conservation, while compromising provisioning services, amenity value, and increasing wildfire risk. However, where extensification leads to the restoration of peatlands damaged by former intensive management, there would be an increase in carbon sequestration and storage, with a number of cobenefits, which could counter the loss of habitats and species elsewhere in the landscape. In the second scenario, land use and management was significantly intensified to boost UK self-sufficiency in food. This would benefit certain provisioning services but would have negative

  5. Feeding-induced changes in allatostatin-A and short neuropeptide F in the antennal lobes affect odor-mediated host seeking in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Christ

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is a model species in which the endogenous regulation of odor-mediated host seeking behavior has received some attention. Sugar feeding and host seeking in female A. aegypti are transiently inhibited following a blood meal. This inhibition is partially mediated by short neuropeptide F (sNPF. The paired antennal lobes (ALs, as the first processing centers for olfactory information, has been shown to play a significant role in the neuropeptidergic regulation of odor-mediated behaviors in insects. The expression of sNPF, along with other peptides in the ALs of A. aegypti, indicate parallel neuromodulatory systems that may affect olfactory processing. To identify neuropeptides involved in regulating the odor-mediated host seeking behavior in A. aegypti, we use a semi-quantitative neuropeptidomic analysis of single ALs to analyze changes in the levels of five individual neuropeptides in response to different feeding regimes. Our results show that the level of sNPF-2, allatostatin-A-5 (AstA-5 and neuropeptide-like precursor-1-5 (NPLP-1-5, but not of tachykinin-related-peptides and SIFamide (SIFa, in the AL of female mosquitoes, changes 24 h and 48 h post-blood meal, and are dependent on prior access to sugar. To assess the role of these neuropeptides in modulating host seeking behavior, when systemically injected individually, sNPF-2 and AstA-5 significantly reduced host seeking behavior. However, only the injection of the binary mixture of the two neuropeptides lead to a host seeking inhibition similar to that observed in blood fed females. We conclude that modulation of the odor mediated host seeking behavior of A. aegypti is likely regulated by a dual neuropeptidergic pathway acting in concert in the ALs.

  6. Reaction of some rumen micro flora to different supplementary feeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminant animals lack enzymes to break down fibrous feeds but they harbor microorganisms capable of degrading their feeds. Rumen microbes are affected by feed substrates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate rumen microbial changes as the function of varying supplementary feeds. Two protein supplements ...

  7. Spatiotemporal Modeling for Assessing Complementarity of Renewable Energy Sources in Distributed Energy Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camargo, L.; Zink, R.; Dorner, W.

    2015-07-01

    Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES) have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP). This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS) processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  8. Off-diagonal dark-matter phenomenology: Exploring enhanced complementarity relations in nonminimal dark sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kumar, Jason; Thomas, Brooks; Yaylali, David

    2017-12-01

    In most multicomponent dark-matter scenarios, two classes of processes generically contribute to event rates at experiments capable of probing the nature of the dark sector. The first class consists of "diagonal" processes involving only a single species of dark-matter particle—processes analogous to those which arise in single-component dark-matter scenarios. By contrast, the second class consists of "off-diagonal" processes involving dark-matter particles of different species. Such processes include inelastic scattering at direct-detection experiments, asymmetric production at colliders, dark-matter co-annihilation, and certain kinds of dark-matter decay. In typical multicomponent scenarios, the contributions from diagonal processes dominate over those from off-diagonal processes. Unfortunately, this tends to mask those features which are most sensitive to the multicomponent nature of the dark sector. In this paper, by contrast, we point out that there exist natural, multicomponent dark-sector scenarios in which the off-diagonal contributions actually dominate over the diagonal. This then gives rise to a new, enhanced picture of dark-matter complementarity. In this paper, we introduce a scenario in which this situation arises and examine the enhanced picture of dark-matter complementarity which emerges.

  9. Atitude de Estudantes de Medicina frente a Terapias Alternativas e Complementares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayara Mendes Morales

    Full Text Available O uso das Terapias Alternativas e Complementares (TAC vem aumentando ao longo dos anos no Brasil e no mundo com o advento de políticas de saúde favoráveis ao emprego dessas práticas. No entanto, as escolas médicas ainda não oferecem disciplinas curriculares sobre este tema. Com o intuito de descrever as atitudes dos estudantes de Medicina de uma universidade do Sul do Brasil com relação às terapias complementares, foi realizado um estudo observacional transversal descritivo, por meio da aplicação de um questionário. Houve 65,22% de taxa de resposta, e a terapia mais conhecida pelos estudantes foi a Fitoterapia (90,3%. A maioria deles demonstrou atitudes favoráveis com relação às terapias, e 75,26% gostariam de aprender sobre o tema em aulas curriculares.

  10. What is complementarity?: Niels Bohr and the architecture of quantum theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plotnitsky, Arkady

    2014-01-01

    This article explores Bohr’s argument, advanced under the heading of ‘complementarity,’ concerning quantum phenomena and quantum mechanics, and its physical and philosophical implications. In Bohr, the term complementarity designates both a particular concept and an overall interpretation of quantum phenomena and quantum mechanics, in part grounded in this concept. While the argument of this article is primarily philosophical, it will also address, historically, the development and transformations of Bohr’s thinking, under the impact of the development of quantum theory and Bohr’s confrontation with Einstein, especially their exchange concerning the EPR experiment, proposed by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen in 1935. Bohr’s interpretation was progressively characterized by a more radical epistemology, in its ultimate form, which was developed in the 1930s and with which I shall be especially concerned here, defined by his new concepts of phenomenon and atomicity. According to this epistemology, quantum objects are seen as indescribable and possibly even as inconceivable, and as manifesting their existence only in the effects of their interactions with measuring instruments upon those instruments, effects that define phenomena in Bohr’s sense. The absence of causality is an automatic consequence of this epistemology. I shall also consider how probability and statistics work under these epistemological conditions. (paper)

  11. DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM SISTEMA WEB PARA ACESSO E CONTROLE DE ATIVIDADES COMPLEMENTARES EM CURSOS SUPERIORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Highor de Souza Rizzi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho tem por objetivo apresentar o Sistema para Controle de Normas Complementares, desenvolvido para o núcleo de informática do Instituto Federal do Espírito Santo, campus de Alegre, com o intuito de digitalizar, cadastrar e gerenciar as atividades complementares exercidas pelos alunos do campus. Atualmente, este processo é feito manualmente, utilizando recursos exclusivamente físicos, sendo potencialmente vulneráveis à ações do meio. Recursos físicos, tais como papel, pastas, entre outros, são frágeis e estão sujeitos a perda por mal manuseio, ações do tempo e principalmente não podem ser acessados por mais de um individuo simultaneamente. A solução proposta dispõe de um modelo de software baseado na arquitetura cliente servidor, disponível na web, e contemplará metodologias e técnicas computacionais para suportar e usufruir dos mais recentes recursos informáticos disponíveis atualmente.

  12. Complementarity and the Nature of Uncertainty Relations in Einstein–Bohr Recoiling Slit Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shogo Tanimura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A model of the Einstein–Bohr recoiling slit experiment is formulated in a fully quantum theoretical setting. In this model, the state and dynamics of a movable wall that has two slits in it, as well as the state of a particle incoming to the two slits, are described by quantum mechanics. Using this model, we analyzed complementarity between exhibiting an interference pattern and distinguishing the particle path. Comparing the Kennard–Robertson type and the Ozawa-type uncertainty relations, we conclude that the uncertainty relation involved in the double-slit experiment is not the Ozawa-type uncertainty relation but the Kennard-type uncertainty relation of the position and the momentum of the double-slit wall. A possible experiment to test the complementarity relation is suggested. It is also argued that various phenomena which occur at the interface of a quantum system and a classical system, including distinguishability, interference, decoherence, quantum eraser, and weak value, can be understood as aspects of entanglement. Quanta 2015; 4: 1–9.

  13. SPATIOTEMPORAL MODELING FOR ASSESSING COMPLEMENTARITY OF RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramirez Camargo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spatial assessments of the potential of renewable energy sources (RES have become a valuable information basis for policy and decision-making. These studies, however, do not explicitly consider the variability in time of RES such as solar energy or wind. Until now, the focus is usually given to economic profitability based on yearly balances, which do not allow a comprehensive examination of RES-technologies complementarity. Incrementing temporal resolution of energy output estimation will permit to plan the aggregation of a diverse pool of RES plants i.e., to conceive a system as a virtual power plant (VPP. This paper presents a spatiotemporal analysis methodology to estimate RES potential of municipalities. The methodology relies on a combination of open source geographic information systems (GIS processing tools and the in-memory array processing environment of Python and NumPy. Beyond the typical identification of suitable locations to build power plants, it is possible to define which of them are the best for a balanced local energy supply. A case study of a municipality, using spatial data with one square meter resolution and one hour temporal resolution, shows strong complementarity of photovoltaic and wind power. Furthermore, it is shown that a detailed deployment strategy of potential suitable locations for RES, calculated with modest computational requirements, can support municipalities to develop VPPs and improve security of supply.

  14. AVC: Selecting discriminative features on basis of AUC by maximizing variable complementarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Wang, Jun; Wei, Jinmao

    2017-03-14

    The Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve is well-known in evaluating classification performance in biomedical field. Owing to its superiority in dealing with imbalanced and cost-sensitive data, the ROC curve has been exploited as a popular metric to evaluate and find out disease-related genes (features). The existing ROC-based feature selection approaches are simple and effective in evaluating individual features. However, these approaches may fail to find real target feature subset due to their lack of effective means to reduce the redundancy between features, which is essential in machine learning. In this paper, we propose to assess feature complementarity by a trick of measuring the distances between the misclassified instances and their nearest misses on the dimensions of pairwise features. If a misclassified instance and its nearest miss on one feature dimension are far apart on another feature dimension, the two features are regarded as complementary to each other. Subsequently, we propose a novel filter feature selection approach on the basis of the ROC analysis. The new approach employs an efficient heuristic search strategy to select optimal features with highest complementarities. The experimental results on a broad range of microarray data sets validate that the classifiers built on the feature subset selected by our approach can get the minimal balanced error rate with a small amount of significant features. Compared with other ROC-based feature selection approaches, our new approach can select fewer features and effectively improve the classification performance.

  15. Efetividade da Estratégia Nacional para Alimentação Complementar Saudável na melhoria da alimentação complementar de lactentes em um município do Sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Baldissera, Rosane; Issler, Roberto Mário Silveira; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo

    2016-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a efetividade da Estratégia Nacional para Alimentação Complementar Saudável (ENPACS) na melhoria da alimentação complementar no primeiro ano de vida em um município brasileiro. Trata-se de um estudo avaliativo de impacto, envolvendo 340 crianças com idades entre 6 e 12 meses, acompanhadas nas unidades básicas de saúde. Os desfechos avaliados foram prevalência do consumo de verduras, legumes, frutas e alimentos não saudáveis, e prevalência de...

  16. From selection to complementarity: shifts in the causes of biodiversity-productivity relationships in a long-term biodiversity experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargione, Joseph; Tilman, David; Dybzinski, Ray; Lambers, Janneke Hille Ris; Clark, Chris; Harpole, W Stanley; Knops, Johannes M H; Reich, Peter B; Loreau, Michel

    2007-03-22

    In a 10-year (1996-2005) biodiversity experiment, the mechanisms underlying the increasingly positive effect of biodiversity on plant biomass production shifted from sampling to complementarity over time. The effect of diversity on plant biomass was associated primarily with the accumulation of higher total plant nitrogen pools (N g m-2) and secondarily with more efficient N use at higher diversity. The accumulation of N in living plant biomass was significantly increased by the presence of legumes, C4 grasses, and their combined presence. Thus, these results provide clear evidence for the increasing effects of complementarity through time and suggest a mechanism whereby diversity increases complementarity through the increased input and retention of N, a commonly limiting nutrient.

  17. Feeding/nutrition interactions affecting aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pigs are social animals. From an evolutionary perspective, being social conveys a number of benefits, but potentially some disadvantages, especially for certain individuals within the group. For example, living in a social group can improve successful foraging in a natural setting, but competition w...

  18. Adubação complementar para a mexeriqueira 'Rio' em sistema de cultivo orgânico Complementary fertilization to willowleaf mandarim in organic cultivation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillipe S. Marini

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da adubação complementar com o biofertilizante Supermagro, a urina de vaca e a manipueira na produção e nos teores de nutrientes nas folhas da mexeriqueira (Citrus deliciosa Tenore cv. Rio em sistema de cultivo orgânico. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições. Todas as plantas foram adubadas com esterco bovino e os tratamentos aplicados foram complementares a essa adubação. Foram constituídos dez tratamentos obtidos pelos tipos de adubo e por seu modo de aplicação (via solo, via pulverizações foliares ou ambos e uma testemunha. A produção foi avaliada nas safras de 2006 e 2007 e os teores de nutrientes nas folhas, em 2005, 2006 e 2007. A adubação complementar não influenciou a produção de frutos. As aplicações de urina de vaca via solo, com ou sem aplicação foliar, e da manipueira, independentemente do modo de aplicação, contribuíram para elevar os teores de S nas folhas. O Supermagro aplicado via solo aumentou os teores de B nas folhas e, quando aplicado via foliar, aumentou os teores de Zn.The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of complementary fertilization with the biofertilizer Supermagro, cow urine and cassava wastewater in the production and levels of nutrients in the leaves of willowleaf mandarim 'Rio' (Citrus deliciosa Tenore in organic cultivation system. The experimental design used was the randomized blocks, with five replications. All plants were fertilized with cow manure and the applied treatments were complementary to this fertilization. Ten treatments were constituted, by fertilizer types and by modes of application (soil, foliar spray or both plus a control. The fruits were harvested in 2006 and 2007. The nutrient content in leaves was determined in 2005, 2006 and 2007. The complementary fertilization did not affect the fruit production. However, the cow urine applied on soil, with or without

  19. The eukaryotic cell originated in the integration and redistribution of hyperstructures from communities of prokaryotic cells based on molecular complementarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Vic; Root-Bernstein, Robert

    2009-06-04

    In the "ecosystems-first" approach to the origins of life, networks of non-covalent assemblies of molecules (composomes), rather than individual protocells, evolved under the constraints of molecular complementarity. Composomes evolved into the hyperstructures of modern bacteria. We extend the ecosystems-first approach to explain the origin of eukaryotic cells through the integration of mixed populations of bacteria. We suggest that mutualism and symbiosis resulted in cellular mergers entailing the loss of redundant hyperstructures, the uncoupling of transcription and translation, and the emergence of introns and multiple chromosomes. Molecular complementarity also facilitated integration of bacterial hyperstructures to perform cytoskeletal and movement functions.

  20. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  1. Specker's parable of the overprotective seer: A road to contextuality, nonlocality and complementarity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Yeong-Cherng; Spekkens, Robert W.; Wiseman, Howard M.

    2011-01-01

    In 1960, the mathematician Ernst Specker described a simple example of nonclassical correlations, the counter-intuitive features of which he dramatized using a parable about a seer, who sets an impossible prediction task to his daughter's suitors. We revisit this example here, using it as an entree to three central concepts in quantum foundations: contextuality, Bell-nonlocality, and complementarity. Specifically, we show that Specker's parable offers a narrative thread that weaves together a large number of results, including the following: the impossibility of measurement-noncontextual and outcome-deterministic ontological models of quantum theory (the 1967 Kochen-Specker theorem), in particular, the recent state-specific pentagram proof of Klyachko; the impossibility of Bell-local models of quantum theory (Bell's theorem), especially the proofs by Mermin and Hardy and extensions thereof; the impossibility of a preparation-noncontextual ontological model of quantum theory; the existence of triples of positive operator valued measures (POVMs) that can be measured jointly pairwise but not triplewise. Along the way, several novel results are presented: a generalization of a theorem by Fine connecting the existence of a joint distribution over outcomes of counterfactual measurements to the existence of a measurement-noncontextual and outcome-deterministic ontological model; a generalization of Klyachko's proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem from pentagrams to a family of star polygons; a proof of the Kochen-Specker theorem in the style of Hardy's proof of Bell's theorem (i.e., one that makes use of the failure of the transitivity of implication for counterfactual statements); a categorization of contextual and Bell-nonlocal correlations in terms of frustrated networks; a derivation of a new inequality testing preparation noncontextuality; some novel results on the joint measurability of POVMs and the question of whether these can be modeled noncontextually. Finally

  2. Solar thermal and natural gas: an efficient complementarity; Solaire thermique et gaz naturel: une complementarite performante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-10-01

    This document summarizes the content of a conference-debate organized by Cegibat, the information service of Gaz de France for building engineering professionals, about the complementarity between natural gas and solar thermal energies, in particular for the production of domestic hot water: 1 - the market of solar thermal energy in France (development, energy efficiency, different technical solutions, financial help, questions and answers with the public); 2 - the 'Dolce Vita' solar offer for individual houses (customers expectations, available techniques, fitter's testimony, questions and answers with the public); 3 - presentation of a combines solar system: the direct solar floor; 4 - the domestic solar hot water offer 'Dolce Vita'; 5 -testimonies; 6 - results warranty; 7 - conclusion. (J.S.)

  3. Créditos do ICMS: inconstitucionalidade da legislação complementar

    OpenAIRE

    Demilson Dagostim

    2005-01-01

    A não-cumulatividade do ICMS - Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços de transporte e comunicação é um princípio assegurado pela Constituição do Brasil de 1988 que faz nascer para o contribuinte um crédito fiscal financeiro toda vez que este adquire uma mercadoria ou um serviço com incidência do imposto. A Lei Complementar n° 87 de 1996 veio confirmar que o crédito no ICMS é financeiro, ou seja, não apenas produtos intermediários e matérias-primas dão direito a este crédito, como ...

  4. Práticas integrativas e complementares no cuidado de enfermagem: um enfoque ético

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Mariana Gonzalez Martins de; Alvim, Neide Aparecida Titonelli

    2013-01-01

    Os objetivos deste estudo foram caracterizar a participação de usuários na opção e no cuidado de enfermagem por meio de práticas integrativas e complementares de saúde (PICS); e analisar esta participação sob o enfoque ético do cuidado de enfermagem. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida com usuários de PICS, em instituições públicas de saúde onde há enfermeiros que as aplicam; foi aprovada pelos Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa das instituições envolvidas. Utilizaram-se o Método Criativo...

  5. Improved Full-Newton-Step Infeasible Interior-Point Method for Linear Complementarity Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Lešaja

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We present an Infeasible Interior-Point Method for monotone Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP which is an improved version of the algorithm given in [13]. In the earlier version, each iteration consisted of one feasibility step and few centering steps. The improved version guarantees that after one feasibility step, the new iterate is feasible and close enough to the central path thanks to the much tighter proximity estimate which is based on the new lemma introduced in [18]. Thus, the centering steps are eliminated. Another advantage of this method is the use of full-Newton-steps, that is, no calculation of the step size is required. The preliminary implementation and numerical results demonstrate the advantage of the improved version of the method in comparison with the old one.

  6. de Sitter space as a tensor network: Cosmic no-hair, complementarity, and complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ning; Cao, ChunJun; Carroll, Sean M.; Chatwin-Davies, Aidan

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the proposed connection between de Sitter spacetime and the multiscale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA) tensor network, and ask what can be learned via such a construction. We show that the quantum state obeys a cosmic no-hair theorem: the reduced density operator describing a causal patch of the MERA asymptotes to a fixed point of a quantum channel, just as spacetimes with a positive cosmological constant asymptote to de Sitter space. The MERA is potentially compatible with a weak form of complementarity (local physics only describes single patches at a time, but the overall Hilbert space is infinite dimensional) or, with certain specific modifications to the tensor structure, a strong form (the entire theory describes only a single patch plus its horizon, in a finite-dimensional Hilbert space). We also suggest that de Sitter evolution has an interpretation in terms of circuit complexity, as has been conjectured for anti-de Sitter space.

  7. Antibody complementarity-determining regions (CDRs: a bridge between adaptive and innate immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Gabrielli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been documented that, independently from the specificity of the native antibody (Ab for a given antigen (Ag, complementarity determining regions (CDR-related peptides may display differential antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities.In this study we demonstrate that a synthetic peptide with sequence identical to V(HCDR3 of a mouse monoclonal Ab (mAb specific for difucosyl human blood group A is easily taken up by macrophages with subsequent stimulation of: i proinflammatory cytokine production; ii PI3K-Akt pathway and iii TLR-4 expression. Significantly, V(HCDR3 exerts therapeutic effect against systemic candidiasis without possessing direct candidacidal properties.These results open a new scenario about the possibility that, beyond the half life of immunoglobulins, Ab fragments may effectively influence the antiinfective cellular immune response in a way reminiscent of regulatory peptides of innate immunity.

  8. Complementarity of WIMP Sensitivity with direct SUSY, Monojet and Dark Matter Searches in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, Alexandre; Mahmoudi, Farvah

    2014-01-01

    This letter presents new results on the combined sensitivity of the LHC and underground dark matter search experiments to the lightest neutralino as WIMP candidate in the minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. We show that monojet searches significantly extend the sensitivity to the neutralino mass in scenarios where scalar quarks are nearly degenerate in mass with it. The inclusion of the latest bound by the LUX experiment on the neutralino-nucleon spin-independent scattering cross section expands this sensitivity further, highlighting the remarkable complementarity of jets/$\\ell$s+MET and monojet at LHC and dark matter searches in probing models of new physics with a dark matter candidate. The qualitative results of our study remain valid after accounting for theoretical uncertainties.

  9. Psychosocial and economic determinants of infant feeding intent by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -economic factors would affect infant feeding choices made antenatally by pregnant HIV-positive women after the routine prevention of mother-to-child transmission counselling process. Patients and methods. The antenatal feeding choices ...

  10. Getting the full picture: Assessing the complementarity of citizen science and agency monitoring data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loiselle, Steven; Ophof, Daniel; Thornhill, Ian

    2017-01-01

    While the role of citizen science in engaging the public and providing large-scale datasets has been demonstrated, the nature of and potential for this science to supplement environmental monitoring efforts by government agencies has not yet been fully explored. To this end, the present study investigates the complementarity of a citizen science programme to agency monitoring of water quality. The Environment Agency (EA) is the governmental public body responsible for, among other duties, managing and monitoring water quality and water resources in England. FreshWater Watch (FWW) is a global citizen science project that supports community monitoring of freshwater quality. FWW and EA data were assessed for their spatio-temporal complementarity by comparing the geographical and seasonal coverage of nitrate (N-NO3) sampling across the River Thames catchment by the respective campaigns between spring 2013 and winter 2015. The analysis reveals that FWW citizen science-collected data complements EA data by filling in both gaps in the spatial and temporal coverage as well as gaps in waterbody type and size. In addition, partial spatio-temporal overlap in sampling efforts by the two actors is discovered, but EA sampling is found to be more consistent than FWW sampling. Statistical analyses indicate that regardless of broader geographical overlap in sampling effort, FWW sampling sites are associated with a lower stream order and water bodies of smaller surface areas than EA sampling sites. FWW also samples more still-water body sites than the EA. As a possible result of such differences in sampling tendencies, nitrate concentrations, a measure of water quality, are lower for FWW sites than EA sites. These findings strongly indicate that citizen science has clear potential to complement agency monitoring efforts by generating information on freshwater ecosystems that would otherwise be under reported. PMID:29211752

  11. Getting the full picture: Assessing the complementarity of citizen science and agency monitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Hammou, Jeneen; Loiselle, Steven; Ophof, Daniel; Thornhill, Ian

    2017-01-01

    While the role of citizen science in engaging the public and providing large-scale datasets has been demonstrated, the nature of and potential for this science to supplement environmental monitoring efforts by government agencies has not yet been fully explored. To this end, the present study investigates the complementarity of a citizen science programme to agency monitoring of water quality. The Environment Agency (EA) is the governmental public body responsible for, among other duties, managing and monitoring water quality and water resources in England. FreshWater Watch (FWW) is a global citizen science project that supports community monitoring of freshwater quality. FWW and EA data were assessed for their spatio-temporal complementarity by comparing the geographical and seasonal coverage of nitrate (N-NO3) sampling across the River Thames catchment by the respective campaigns between spring 2013 and winter 2015. The analysis reveals that FWW citizen science-collected data complements EA data by filling in both gaps in the spatial and temporal coverage as well as gaps in waterbody type and size. In addition, partial spatio-temporal overlap in sampling efforts by the two actors is discovered, but EA sampling is found to be more consistent than FWW sampling. Statistical analyses indicate that regardless of broader geographical overlap in sampling effort, FWW sampling sites are associated with a lower stream order and water bodies of smaller surface areas than EA sampling sites. FWW also samples more still-water body sites than the EA. As a possible result of such differences in sampling tendencies, nitrate concentrations, a measure of water quality, are lower for FWW sites than EA sites. These findings strongly indicate that citizen science has clear potential to complement agency monitoring efforts by generating information on freshwater ecosystems that would otherwise be under reported.

  12. Getting the full picture: Assessing the complementarity of citizen science and agency monitoring data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeneen Hadj-Hammou

    Full Text Available While the role of citizen science in engaging the public and providing large-scale datasets has been demonstrated, the nature of and potential for this science to supplement environmental monitoring efforts by government agencies has not yet been fully explored. To this end, the present study investigates the complementarity of a citizen science programme to agency monitoring of water quality. The Environment Agency (EA is the governmental public body responsible for, among other duties, managing and monitoring water quality and water resources in England. FreshWater Watch (FWW is a global citizen science project that supports community monitoring of freshwater quality. FWW and EA data were assessed for their spatio-temporal complementarity by comparing the geographical and seasonal coverage of nitrate (N-NO3 sampling across the River Thames catchment by the respective campaigns between spring 2013 and winter 2015. The analysis reveals that FWW citizen science-collected data complements EA data by filling in both gaps in the spatial and temporal coverage as well as gaps in waterbody type and size. In addition, partial spatio-temporal overlap in sampling efforts by the two actors is discovered, but EA sampling is found to be more consistent than FWW sampling. Statistical analyses indicate that regardless of broader geographical overlap in sampling effort, FWW sampling sites are associated with a lower stream order and water bodies of smaller surface areas than EA sampling sites. FWW also samples more still-water body sites than the EA. As a possible result of such differences in sampling tendencies, nitrate concentrations, a measure of water quality, are lower for FWW sites than EA sites. These findings strongly indicate that citizen science has clear potential to complement agency monitoring efforts by generating information on freshwater ecosystems that would otherwise be under reported.

  13. Diagnostico das praticas de alimentacao complementar para o matriciamento das acoes na Atencao Basica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Amaral Mais

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A alimentação complementar adequada e oportuna é essencial para o crescimento e o desenvolvimento saudáveis da criança, sendo a Atenção Primária à Saúde, em especial os Núcleos de Apoio à Saúde da Família, o lócus ideal para o desenvolvimento de ações pertinentes a esta prática. Estudo transversal com aplicação de questionário para mães e avaliação antropométrica de 324 crianças visou desenvolver um escore de inadequações na alimentação complementar e estudar suas relações com variáveis socioeconômicas, clínico-epidemiológicas e nutricionais. Para quantificação das inadequações alimentares foi criado um escore por meio do Método Delphi. Foram observadas altas frequências para todas as inadequações, especialmente na introdução tardia de sólidos (80,2%, precoce de açúcares/engrossantes (78,1% e precoce de líquidos (73,5%. Entre as variáveis mais significantemente associadas com o escore estão desmame precoce do aleitamento materno exclusivo (p = 0,000 e total (p = 0,005, ausência de companheiro (p = 0,001 e a mãe ser chefe da família (p = 0,025. A utilização do escore identifica situações de maior risco para subsidiar as ações prioritárias da assistência nutricional, especialmente para promover o trabalho matricial.

  14. Créditos do ICMS: inconstitucionalidade da legislação complementar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demilson Dagostim

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A não-cumulatividade do ICMS - Imposto sobre Circulação de Mercadorias e Serviços de transporte e comunicação é um princípio assegurado pela Constituição do Brasil de 1988 que faz nascer para o contribuinte um crédito fiscal financeiro toda vez que este adquire uma mercadoria ou um serviço com incidência do imposto. A Lei Complementar n° 87 de 1996 veio confirmar que o crédito no ICMS é financeiro, ou seja, não apenas produtos intermediários e matérias-primas dão direito a este crédito, como também bens do ativo fixo, de uso ou consumo, serviços, energia elétrica e comunicações. A legislação complementar vem adiando desde 1996 o direito dos contribuintes de utilizarem esse crédito financeiro, o que é inconstitucional. The no-cumulative of ICMS Tax on Circulation of Goods and trans port Services andcommunication is an insured rule for the Constitution of Brazi! 1988 that generatesfor the taxpayer financial fiscal credit when he acquires merchandise or servicewith incidence of the taxo The Law ComplementaI n' 87 of 1996 came to confirm thatthe credit in /CMS is financial, in other words, products notjust consumed in theproductive process they give right to the credit, also goods of the fixed assets, of useor consumption, services, electric power and communications. The ComplementaIlegislation is postponing since 1996 the taxpayers' right they to use that financialcredit, what is unconstitutional.

  15. The Impact of Electronic Commerce on the Publishing Industry: Towards a Business Value Complementarity Framework of Electronic Publishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scupola, Ada

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the publishing industry and its use of information and communication technologies focuses on the way in which electronic-commerce technologies are changing and could change the publishing processes, and develops a business complementarity model of electronic publishing to maximize profitability and improve the competitive position.…

  16. Characteristics of lipids and their feeding value in swine diets

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Brian J.; Kellner, Trey A.; Shurson, Gerald C.

    2015-01-01

    In livestock diets, energy is one of the most expensive nutritional components of feed formulation. Because lipids are a concentrated energy source, inclusion of lipids are known to affect growth rate and feed efficiency, but are also known to affect diet palatability, feed dustiness, and pellet quality. In reviewing the literature, the majority of research studies conducted on the subject of lipids have focused mainly on the effects of feeding presumably high quality lipids on growth perform...

  17. Electricity and the Technology–Skill Complementarity: Evidence from the Swedish Industrial Census of 1931

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svante Prado

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the popularity among economists of attributing the surging inequality of recent decades to technology–skill complementarity, researchers with a keen eye on history have been reluctant to pick up this thread. This paper joins Claudia Goldin and Lawrence Katz’s attempt to examine the role of electrification as an example of a technology that is complementary to workers’ rising skill levels. Sweden electrified manufacturing processes rapidly in the first quarter of the twentieth century, while the supply of skills through secondary education only increased significantly in the 1950s. We use industry-specific information from the Swedish Industrial Census of 1931 to establish whether electricity and the use of white-collar workers correlated positively. The results indicate that the correlation was positive, but the estimated effect was rather small. Moreover, the available evidence for skill ratios does not suggest that inequality, thus measured, increased. We conclude that labor market institutions prevented—and also overturned—the inequality push emanating from technology.

  18. Complementarity of DM searches in a consistent simplified model: the case of Z{sup ′}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacques, Thomas [SISSA and INFN,via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); Katz, Andrey [Theory Division, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Rameez, Mohamed [Département de Physique Nucléaire et Corpusculaire,Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland); Riotto, Antonio [Département de Physique Théorique and Center for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève 4 (Switzerland)

    2016-10-14

    We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC, direct and indirect detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy Z{sup ′} mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that for heavy dark matter indirect detection provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while IceCube bounds are typically stronger than those from direct detection. The LHC constraints are dominant for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun and the Galactic Center are either bb̄ or tt̄, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by Zh channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast IceCube constraints to allow proper comparison with constraints from direct and indirect detection experiments and LHC exclusions.

  19. A stabilized complementarity formulation for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Zhang, H. W.; Wu, J.; Yan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Bi-modulus materials with different mechanical responses in tension and compression are often found in civil, composite, and biological engineering. Numerical analysis of bimodular materials is strongly nonlinear and convergence is usually a problem for traditional iterative schemes. This paper aims to develop a stabilized computational method for nonlinear analysis of 3D bimodular materials. Based on the parametric variational principle, a unified constitutive equation of 3D bimodular materials is proposed, which allows the eight principal stress states to be indicated by three parametric variables introduced in the principal stress directions. The original problem is transformed into a standard linear complementarity problem (LCP) by the parametric virtual work principle and a quadratic programming algorithm is developed by solving the LCP with the classic Lemke's algorithm. Update of elasticity and stiffness matrices is avoided and, thus, the proposed algorithm shows an excellent convergence behavior compared with traditional iterative schemes. Numerical examples show that the proposed method is valid and can accurately analyze mechanical responses of 3D bimodular materials. Also, stability of the algorithm is greatly improved.

  20. The complementarity-determining region sequences in IgY antivenom hypervariable regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gitirana da Rocha

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "Development of IgY antibodies against anti-snake toxins endowed with highly lethal neutralizing activity" (da Rocha et al., 2017 [1]. Complementarity-determining region (CDR sequences are variable antibody (Ab sequences that respond with specificity, duration and strength to identify and bind to antigen (Ag epitopes. B lymphocytes isolated from hens immunized with Bitis arietans (Ba and anti-Crotalus durissus terrificus (Cdt venoms and expressing high specificity, affinity and toxicity neutralizing antibody titers were used as DNA sources. The VLF1, CDR1, CDR2, VLR1 and CDR3 sequences were validated by BLASTp, and values corresponding to IgY VL and VH anti-Ba or anti-Cdt venoms were identified, registered [Gallus gallus IgY Fv Light chain (GU815099/Gallus gallus IgY Fv Heavy chain (GU815098] and used for molecular modeling of IgY scFv anti-Ba. The resulting CDR1, CDR2 and CDR3 sequences were combined to construct the three - dimensional structure of the Ab paratope.

  1. Expressing complementarity and the x-p commutation relation through further quantum inequalities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Estrada, Ramon F [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: rfa@fis.ucm.es

    2010-03-15

    Complementarity and the commutation relation of position (x) and momentum (p) imply much more than the fundamental x-p uncertainty inequality. Here, we display some further consequences of the former that could have certain pedagogical interest and, so, contribute to the teaching of quantum mechanics. Inspired by an elementary derivation of the x-p uncertainty inequality, based upon a positive quadratic polynomial, we explore one possible extension, via quartic polynomials and simple algebra and integrations. Our analysis, aimed at providing some further pedagogic expression of genuine quantum behaviours, yields other quantum inequalities for expectation values, expressed through suitable discriminants associated with quartic algebraic equations, which differ from (and are not a strict consequence of) the x-p uncertainty inequality. Those quantum inequalities are confirmed, and genuine non-classical behaviours are exhibited, for simple cases: a harmonic oscillator, a hydrogenic atom and free Gaussian wave packets. The physical interest of the expectation values involved in the quantum inequalities and of the latter is discussed, in the framework of quantum optics and squeezing phenomena.

  2. Complementarity of DM Searches in a Consistent Simplified Model: the Case of Z'

    CERN Document Server

    Jacques, Thomas; Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide; Rameez, Mohamed; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC and direct detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy $Z'$ mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that in most cases IceCube provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while the LHC constraints are only meaningful for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun are either $b \\bar b$ or $t \\bar t$, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by $Zh$ channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast Ice...

  3. Complementarity of DM searches in a consistent simplified model: the case of Z′

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacques, Thomas; Katz, Andrey; Morgante, Enrico; Racco, Davide; Rameez, Mohamed; Riotto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the constraints from direct and indirect detection on fermionic Majorana Dark Matter (DM). Because the interaction with the Standard Model (SM) particles is spin-dependent, a priori the constraints that one gets from neutrino telescopes, the LHC, direct and indirect detection experiments are comparable. We study the complementarity of these searches in a particular example, in which a heavy Z ′ mediates the interactions between the SM and the DM. We find that for heavy dark matter indirect detection provides the strongest bounds on this scenario, while IceCube bounds are typically stronger than those from direct detection. The LHC constraints are dominant for smaller dark matter masses. These light masses are less motivated by thermal relic abundance considerations. We show that the dominant annihilation channels of the light DM in the Sun and the Galactic Center are either bb̄ or tt̄, while the heavy DM annihilation is completely dominated by Zh channel. The latter produces a hard neutrino spectrum which has not been previously analyzed. We study the neutrino spectrum yielded by DM and recast IceCube constraints to allow proper comparison with constraints from direct and indirect detection experiments and LHC exclusions.

  4. Expressing complementarity and the x-p commutation relation through further quantum inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Estrada, Ramon F

    2010-01-01

    Complementarity and the commutation relation of position (x) and momentum (p) imply much more than the fundamental x-p uncertainty inequality. Here, we display some further consequences of the former that could have certain pedagogical interest and, so, contribute to the teaching of quantum mechanics. Inspired by an elementary derivation of the x-p uncertainty inequality, based upon a positive quadratic polynomial, we explore one possible extension, via quartic polynomials and simple algebra and integrations. Our analysis, aimed at providing some further pedagogic expression of genuine quantum behaviours, yields other quantum inequalities for expectation values, expressed through suitable discriminants associated with quartic algebraic equations, which differ from (and are not a strict consequence of) the x-p uncertainty inequality. Those quantum inequalities are confirmed, and genuine non-classical behaviours are exhibited, for simple cases: a harmonic oscillator, a hydrogenic atom and free Gaussian wave packets. The physical interest of the expectation values involved in the quantum inequalities and of the latter is discussed, in the framework of quantum optics and squeezing phenomena.

  5. CULTURA ORGANIZACIONAL COMO FATOR COMPLEMENTAR ÀS DIMENSÕES CULTURAIS DE HOFSTEDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Moreira Casagrande

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Partindo do pressuposto de que a cultura organizacional gera expectativas quanto a comportamentos nas organizações, a temática deste trabalho enquadra-se no campo de estudo de gestão de pessoas e apresenta uma abordagem teórico-empírica que tem o objetivo de analisar eventuais fragilidades teóricas causadas pela negligência do impacto da cultura organizacional na composição das dimensões culturais de Hofstede. Utilizou-se como metodologia uma análise descritiva com base nos resultados obtidos em estudos realizados em três organizações: uma cooperativa de crédito, um banco e um hospital. Os resultados sugerem que, na medida em que cultura organizacional de um determinado setor gera entendimentos partilhados e um senso comum que influencia os comportamentos no ambiente organizacional, deve ser considerada de forma complementar à abordagem das dimensões culturais de Hofstede, a qual concede protagonismo à cultura nacional na sua análise.

  6. Complementarity of hydro and wind power: Improving the risk profile of energy inflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denault, Michel; Dupuis, Debbie; Couture-Cardinal, Sebastien

    2009-01-01

    The complementarity of two renewable energy sources, namely hydro and wind, is investigated. We consider the diversification effect of wind power to reduce the risk of water inflow shortages, an important energy security concern for hydropower-based economic zones (e.g. Quebec and Norway). Our risk measure is based on the probability of a production deficit, in a manner akin to the value-at-risk, simulation analysis of financial portfolios. We examine whether the risk level of a mixed hydro-and-wind portfolio of generating assets improves on the risk of an all-hydro portfolio, by relaxing the dependence on water inflows and attenuating the impact of droughts. Copulas are used to model the dependence between the two sources of energy. The data considered, over the period 1958-2003, are for the province of Quebec, which possesses large hydro and wind resources. Our results indicate that for all scenarios considered, any proportion of wind up to 30% improves the production deficit risk profile of an all-hydro system. We can also estimate the value, in TW h, of any additional one percent of wind in the portfolio. (author)

  7. Information-reality complementarity: The role of measurements and quantum reference frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez, P. R.; Angelo, R. M.

    2018-02-01

    Recently, a measure has been put forward which allows for the quantification of the degree of reality of an observable for a given preparation [Bilobran and Angelo, Europhys. Lett. 112, 40005 (2015), 10.1209/0295-5075/112/40005]. Here we employ this quantifier to establish, on formal grounds, relations among the concepts of measurement, information, and physical reality. After introducing mathematical objects that unify weak and projective measurements, we study scenarios showing that an arbitrary-intensity unrevealed measurement of a given observable generally leads to an increase of its reality and also of its incompatible observables. We derive a complementarity relation connecting an amount of information associated with the apparatus with the degree of irreality of the monitored observable. Specifically for pure states, we show that the entanglement with the apparatus precisely determines the amount by which the reality of the monitored observable increases. We also point out some mechanisms whereby the irreality of an observable can be generated. Finally, using the aforementioned tools, we construct a consistent picture to address the measurement problem.

  8. Exploring forest infrastructures equipment through multivariate analysis: complementarities, gaps and overlaps in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bajocco

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The countries of the Mediterranean basin face several challenges regarding the sustainability of forest ecosystems and the delivery of crucial goods and services that they provide in a context of rapid global changes. Advancing scientific knowledge and foresting innovation is essential to ensure the sustainable management of Mediterranean forests and maximize the potential role of their unique goods and services in building a knowledge-based bioeconomy in the region. In this context, the European project FORESTERRA ("Enhancing FOrest RESearch in the MediTERRAnean through improved coordination and integration” aims at reinforcing the scientific cooperation on Mediterranean forests through an ambitious transnational framework in order to reduce the existing research fragmentation and maximize the effectiveness of forest research activities. Within the FORESTERRA project framework, this work analyzed the infrastructures equipment of the Mediterranean countries belonging to the project Consortium. According to the European Commission, research infrastructures are facilities, resources and services that are used by the scientific communities to conduct research and foster innovation. To the best of our knowledge, the equipment and availability of infrastructures, in terms of experimental sites, research facilities and databases, have only rarely been explored. The aim of this paper was hence to identify complementarities, gaps and overlaps among the different forest research institutes in order to create a scientific network, optimize the resources and trigger collaborations.

  9. Supporting Sensemaking of Complex Objects with Visualizations: Visibility and Complementarity of Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamran Sedig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Making sense of complex objects is difficult, and typically requires the use of external representations to support cognitive demands while reasoning about the objects. Visualizations are one type of external representation that can be used to support sensemaking activities. In this paper, we investigate the role of two design strategies in making the interactive features of visualizations more supportive of users’ exploratory needs when trying to make sense of complex objects. These two strategies are visibility and complementarity of interactions. We employ a theoretical framework concerned with human–information interaction and complex cognitive activities to inform, contextualize, and interpret the effects of the design strategies. The two strategies are incorporated in the design of Polyvise, a visualization tool that supports making sense of complex four-dimensional geometric objects. A mixed-methods study was conducted to evaluate the design strategies and the overall usability of Polyvise. We report the findings of the study, discuss some implications for the design of visualization tools that support sensemaking of complex objects, and propose five design guidelines. We anticipate that our results are transferrable to other contexts, and that these two design strategies can be used broadly in visualization tools intended to support activities with complex objects and information spaces.

  10. On the connection between complementarity and uncertainty principles in the Mach–Zehnder interferometric setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosyk, G M; Portesi, M; Holik, F; Plastino, A

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the connection between the complementarity and uncertainty principles of quantum mechanics within the framework of Mach–Zehnder interferometry. We focus our attention on the trade-off relation between complementary path information and fringe visibility. This relation is equivalent to the uncertainty relation of Schrödinger and Robertson for a suitably chosen pair of observables. We show that it is equivalent as well to the uncertainty inequality provided by Landau and Pollak. We also study the relationship of this trade-off relation with a family of entropic uncertainty relations based on Rényi entropies. There is no equivalence in this case, but the different values of the entropic parameter do define regimes that provides us with a tool to discriminate between non-trivial states of minimum uncertainty. The existence of such regimes agrees with previous results of Luis (2011 Phys. Rev. A 84 034101), although their meaning was not sufficiently clear. We discuss the origin of these regimes with the intention of gaining a deeper understanding of entropic measures. (paper)

  11. An interior-point method for the Cartesian P*(k-linear complementarity problem over symmetric cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kheirfam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A novel primal-dual path-following interior-point algorithm for the Cartesian P*(k-linear complementarity problem over symmetric cones is presented. The algorithm is based on a reformulation of the central path for finding the search directions. For a full Nesterov-Todd step feasible interior-point algorithm based on the new search directions, the complexity bound of the algorithm with small-update approach is the best-available bound.

  12. Solution of a General Linear Complementarity Problem Using Smooth Optimization and Its Application to Bilinear Programming and LCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, L.; Friedlander, A.; Guedes, M.; Judice, J.

    2001-01-01

    This paper addresses a General Linear Complementarity Problem (GLCP) that has found applications in global optimization. It is shown that a solution of the GLCP can be computed by finding a stationary point of a differentiable function over a set defined by simple bounds on the variables. The application of this result to the solution of bilinear programs and LCPs is discussed. Some computational evidence of its usefulness is included in the last part of the paper

  13. Interpersonal Complementarity – Self-rated Behavior by Normal and Antisocial Adolescents with a Liked and Disliked Peer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Hakelind

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of complementarity in interpersonal theory and the SASB model (Structural Analysis of Social Behavior as developed by Benjamin (1974 were used to study how adolescents in a normal group of 60 adolescents and a group of 42 adolescents with severe behavioural problems rated that they usually behaved in relation to a liked and disliked peer. The peer’s behaviour varied in a systematic way on the dimensions of affiliation and dominance. Complementary behavior was defined as the same behaviour from peer and self and anticomplementarity was defined as opposite behaviour from self in relation the peer’s behavior. Consistent over the two groups complementarity and anticomplementarity were influenced by both the peer’s behaviour and type of relationship with the peer. Friendly behaviour from a liked peer evoked much more complementary friendly behaviour compared to a disliked peer who with the same behaviour evoked almost as much anticomplementary hostile behaviour as complementary friendly behaviour. Hostile behaviour from a disliked peer evoked much more complementary hostile behaviour compared to a liked peer with the same kind of behavior. Autonomy granting from a liked peer evoked more complementary autonomous behaviour compared to a disliked peer. Differences between the two groups were small and only in relation with a disliked peer. The results were discussed in terms of interpersonal theory and the principle of complementarity with focus on kind of relationship.

  14. Medicinas alternativas e complementares no ensino médico: revisão sistemática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Corrêa Christensen

    Full Text Available O aumento crescente da utilização das medicinas alternativas e complementares (MAC requer que os profissionais de saúde estejam aptos a informar e atender seus pacientes, reconhecer efeitos colaterais, interações medicamentosas e praticar com segurança as medicinas complementares, isoladas ou associadas às medicinas convencionais. Este trabalho faz uma revisão sistemática da literatura (RSL sobre o ensino das MAC em escolas médicas, com a finalidade de refletir sobre as evidências publicadas. Foram analisados 33 artigos indexados no banco eletrônico de referências Pubmed, identificados a partir dos descritores: "ensino das medicinas alternativas e complementares" e "comple mentary and alternative medicine teaching". Observaram-se diferentes formas de inserção das MAC no ensino, atitudes positivas dos estudantes de Medicina frente a elas e desejo de aprendê-las com o objetivo de tratar e orientar futuros pacientes. Conclui-se que o ensino das MAC nas escolas de Medicina tem como fundamento adicionar à prática médica ferramentas diagnósticas e terapêuticas para a atenção, prevenção e promoção, nos diversos níveis de complexidade do sistema de saúde.

  15. Multiple-algorithm parallel fusion of infrared polarization and intensity images based on algorithmic complementarity and synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yang, Fengbao; Ji, Linna; Lv, Sheng

    2018-01-01

    Diverse image fusion methods perform differently. Each method has advantages and disadvantages compared with others. One notion is that the advantages of different image methods can be effectively combined. A multiple-algorithm parallel fusion method based on algorithmic complementarity and synergy is proposed. First, in view of the characteristics of the different algorithms and difference-features among images, an index vector-based feature-similarity is proposed to define the degree of complementarity and synergy. This proposed index vector is a reliable evidence indicator for algorithm selection. Second, the algorithms with a high degree of complementarity and synergy are selected. Then, the different degrees of various features and infrared intensity images are used as the initial weights for the nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF). This avoids randomness of the NMF initialization parameter. Finally, the fused images of different algorithms are integrated using the NMF because of its excellent data fusing performance on independent features. Experimental results demonstrate that the visual effect and objective evaluation index of the fused images obtained using the proposed method are better than those obtained using traditional methods. The proposed method retains all the advantages that individual fusion algorithms have.

  16. Information-theoretic security proof of differential-phase-shift quantum key distribution protocol based on complementarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizutani, Akihiro; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Kato, Go; Takeuchi, Yuki; Tamaki, Kiyoshi

    2018-01-01

    We prove the information-theoretic security of the differential-phase-shift (DPS) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol in the asymptotic regime based on the complementarity approach (arXiv:0704.3661 (2007)). Our security proof provides a slightly better key generation rate compared to the one derived in the previous security proof in (arXiv:1208.1995 (2012)) that is based on the Shor-Preskill approach (Shor and Preskill 2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 85 441). This improvement is obtained because the complementarity approach can employ more detailed information on Alice’s sending state in estimating the leaked information to an eavesdropper. Moreover, we remove the necessity of the numerical calculation that was needed in the previous analysis to estimate the leaked information. This leads to an advantage that our security proof enables us to evaluate the security of the DPS protocol with any block size. This paper highlights one of the fundamental differences between the Shor-Preskill and the complementarity approaches.

  17. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

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  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  4. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  5. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed: Effect of irradiated feed on reproductive performance, growth and fur quality of mink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passey, C. A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Malo, R.; Wilson, J.

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P = 0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep the animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality.

  6. Complementarity of flux- and biometric-based data to constrain parameters in a terrestrial carbon model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenggang Du

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available To improve models for accurate projections, data assimilation, an emerging statistical approach to combine models with data, have recently been developed to probe initial conditions, parameters, data content, response functions and model uncertainties. Quantifying how many information contents are contained in different data streams is essential to predict future states of ecosystems and the climate. This study uses a data assimilation approach to examine the information contents contained in flux- and biometric-based data to constrain parameters in a terrestrial carbon (C model, which includes canopy photosynthesis and vegetation–soil C transfer submodels. Three assimilation experiments were constructed with either net ecosystem exchange (NEE data only or biometric data only [including foliage and woody biomass, litterfall, soil organic C (SOC and soil respiration], or both NEE and biometric data to constrain model parameters by a probabilistic inversion application. The results showed that NEE data mainly constrained parameters associated with gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (RE but were almost invalid for C transfer coefficients, while biometric data were more effective in constraining C transfer coefficients than other parameters. NEE and biometric data constrained about 26% (6 and 30% (7 of a total of 23 parameters, respectively, but their combined application constrained about 61% (14 of all parameters. The complementarity of NEE and biometric data was obvious in constraining most of parameters. The poor constraint by only NEE or biometric data was probably attributable to either the lack of long-term C dynamic data or errors from measurements. Overall, our results suggest that flux- and biometric-based data, containing different processes in ecosystem C dynamics, have different capacities to constrain parameters related to photosynthesis and C transfer coefficients, respectively. Multiple data sources could also

  7. Práticas integrativas e complementares no cuidado de enfermagem: um enfoque ético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Gonzalez Martins de Magalhães

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste estudo foram caracterizar a participação de usuários na opção e no cuidado de enfermagem por meio de práticas integrativas e complementares de saúde (PICS; e analisar esta participação sob o enfoque ético do cuidado de enfermagem. MÉTODOS: Pesquisa qualitativa, desenvolvida com usuários de PICS, em instituições públicas de saúde onde há enfermeiros que as aplicam; foi aprovada pelos Comitês de Ética em Pesquisa das instituições envolvidas. Utilizaram-se o Método Criativo Sensível e análise de discurso. RESULTADOS: Ao considerar a autonomia e a participação dos sujeitos como questão cidadã, retoma-se a discussão sobre o seu direito de opção face aos serviços ofertados. Este direito como condição ética implica ter acesso adequado às informações sobre diferentes possibilidades terapêuticas; depende da ampliação da capacidade dos sujeitos de compreender e agir sobre o mundo e si mesmo. CONCLUSÃO: Há de se ter atenção para que seja preservada a essência da integralidade das PICS, seus princípios e finalidades.

  8. Steric complementarity in the decoding center is important for tRNA selection by the ribosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khade, Prashant K; Shi, Xinying; Joseph, Simpson

    2013-10-23

    Accurate tRNA selection by the ribosome is essential for the synthesis of functional proteins. Previous structural studies indicated that the ribosome distinguishes between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs by monitoring the geometry of the codon-anticodon helix in the decoding center using the universally conserved 16S ribosomal RNA bases G530, A1492 and A1493. These bases form hydrogen bonds with the 2'-hydroxyl groups of the codon-anticodon helix, which are expected to be disrupted with a near-cognate codon-anticodon helix. However, a recent structural study showed that G530, A1492 and A1493 form hydrogen bonds in a manner identical with that of both cognate and near-cognate codon-anticodon helices. To understand how the ribosome discriminates between cognate and near-cognate tRNAs, we made 2'-deoxynucleotide and 2'-fluoro substituted mRNAs, which disrupt the hydrogen bonds between the A site codon and G530, A1492 and A1493. Our results show that multiple 2'-deoxynucleotide substitutions in the mRNA substantially inhibit tRNA selection, whereas multiple 2'-fluoro substitutions in the mRNA have only modest effects on tRNA selection. Furthermore, the miscoding antibiotics paromomycin and streptomycin rescue the defects in tRNA selection with the multiple 2'-deoxynucleotide substituted mRNA. These results suggest that steric complementarity in the decoding center is more important than the hydrogen bonds between the A site codon and G530, A1492 and A1493 for tRNA selection. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. O uso de Elisa como ferramenta complementar para o controle da tuberculose bovina no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Lilenbaum

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available A detecção de animais infectados é um dos mais importantes fatores envolvidos no controle da tuberculose e, com algumas variações, é realizado através de testes intradérmicos de tuberculinização. No entanto, animais negativos aos testes intradérmicos podem estar infectados e representam uma importante ameaça aos programas de erradicação da tuberculose. Apesar deste conhecido fenômeno, o uso de ELISA não é rotina nestes programas. Nosso objetivo foi o de descrever experiências do uso a campo de ELISA na detecção de animais anérgicos no Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Dentre 18 rebanhos envolvidos em um programa de controle da tuberculose, dois apresentaram animais infectados negativos aos testes intradérmicos, o que atrasou e comprometeu o sucesso do programa, com severas perdas econômicas. A infecção nestes animais foi identificada através de ELISA e confirmada pelo isolamento de M.bovis nas lesões pulmonares. Desta forma foram considerados como a mais provável fonte de infecção e responsáveis pela manutenção da enfermidade nos rebanhos. Sem o uso de testes sorológicos como ELISA estes animais provavelmente permaneceriam nos rebanhos perpetuando a infecção e a erradicação da enfermidade seria impossível. Em conclusão, sugere-se o uso de ELISA como uma valiosa ferramenta complementar para identificar animais anérgicos que possam atuar como reservatórios do agente nos rebanhos.

  10. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  11. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby separately. Likewise, some babies might show a preference for individual feedings. Try different approaches or a ... Brodsky D, et al. Breastfeeding and the premature infant. In: Primary Care of the Premature Infant. Philadelphia, ...

  12. Complementarity, quartic polynomials and one-photon-added coherent and squeezed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Estrada, Ramón F.

    2014-04-01

    Complementarity (expressed through the x-p commutation relationship) yields, by using suitable non-negative polynomials, quantum inequalities. The latter become strict equalities only for restricted sets of quantum states, which display genuine quantum features. We have shown in previous studies that: (i) a certain non-negative quartic polynomial f4 led to a new quantum inequality, expressed through the discriminant (D‧r) of the equation f4 = 0 as D‧r ⩽ 0 (ii) D‧r = 0 gave rise to an interesting class of non-Gaussian quantum states |ψ4> and (iii) in quantum optics, a subset of those |ψ4> were the displaced one-photon states, previously proposed by other authors through different motivations and already generated experimentally in 2002. The extension of our previous research studies will be reported here. We shall characterize the general class of non-Gaussian quantum states |ψ4,g> such that D‧r = 0. The class of the |ψ4,g> is larger than and includes that of the former |ψ4>. The Wigner function for the |ψ4,g> is obtained and is negative in some domains. In quantum optics, a subclass of the |ψ4,g> is formed by the single-photon-added coherent states (non-Gaussian) generated experimentally, in turn, in 2004. Another subclass of the |ψ4,g> includes single-photon-added squeezed states and single-photon-added squeezed coherent states (both being non-Gaussian). Mandel's parameters are studied for those states: in particular, its negativity for the single-photon-added squeezed states is established for a certain interval of the squeeze factor. The (Hilbert-Schmidt) non-Gaussianities for both the displaced one-photon states and the single-photon-added squeezed states are obtained explicitly: both of them are numerically equal to 5/12. The possibility of generating the single-photon-added squeezed states experimentally is discussed briefly, by extending previous studies by other authors on producing related quantum states; in particular, we treat in

  13. Antibody complementarity-determining regions (CDRs can display differential antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Polonelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Complementarity-determining regions (CDRs are immunoglobulin (Ig hypervariable domains that determine specific antibody (Ab binding. We have shown that synthetic CDR-related peptides and many decapeptides spanning the variable region of a recombinant yeast killer toxin-like antiidiotypic Ab are candidacidal in vitro. An alanine-substituted decapeptide from the variable region of this Ab displayed increased cytotoxicity in vitro and/or therapeutic effects in vivo against various bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. The possibility that isolated CDRs, represented by short synthetic peptides, may display antimicrobial, antiviral and antitumor activities irrespective of Ab specificity for a given antigen is addressed here. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: CDR-based synthetic peptides of murine and human monoclonal Abs directed to: a a protein epitope of Candida albicans cell wall stress mannoprotein; b a synthetic peptide containing well-characterized B-cell and T-cell epitopes; c a carbohydrate blood group A substance, showed differential inhibitory activities in vitro, ex vivo and/or in vivo against C. albicans, HIV-1 and B16F10-Nex2 melanoma cells, conceivably involving different mechanisms of action. Antitumor activities involved peptide-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. Engineered peptides, obtained by alanine substitution of Ig CDR sequences, and used as surrogates of natural point mutations, showed further differential increased/unaltered/decreased antimicrobial, antiviral and/or antitumor activities. The inhibitory effects observed were largely independent of the specificity of the native Ab and involved chiefly germline encoded CDR1 and CDR2 of light and heavy chains. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high frequency of bioactive peptides based on CDRs suggests that Ig molecules are sources of an unlimited number of sequences potentially active against infectious agents and tumor cells. The easy production and low cost of small

  14. ASPECTOS LEGAIS TRAZIDOS PELA LEI COMPLEMENTAR N°. 139/2011PARA A FORMALIZAÇÃO DO MICROEMPREENDEDOR INDIVIDUAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Valdovir Holanda de Almeida

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo tem por objeto analisar alguns aspectos do Estatuto do Microempresário, Empresário de Pequeno Porte e as mudanças trazidas pela Lei Complementar n°. 139/2011. Para tanto, fez-se uso de pesquisa do tipo bibliográfica e documental interdisciplinar. No primeiro tópico, verificou-se o conceito de Informalidade a luz do critério técnico jurídico, o que diferencia dos termos empregados comumente. Em seguida, no segundo tópico, foi pontuado sobre a importância do Governo como instrumento estimulador da formalização do Microempresário Individual. Já no terceiro tópico, buscou-se discorrer sobre a Lei Complementar n°. 128/2008 ao qual instituiu a figura jurídica do Microempreendedor individual – M.E.I. e no quarto e último tópico, por seu turno, foi analisado a inovação e consequências jurídicas e sociais trazidas Lei Complementar n°. 139/2011, ao qual deu nova redação ao § 1° do art. 4° do Estatuto do Microempresário e Empresário de Pequeno Porte. Ao final, concluiu-se que, o Governo vem otimizando a política de combate a informalidade, buscando efetivar ainda mais os preceitos constitucionais que disciplinam a forma de tratamento do empreendedor hipossuficiente.

  15. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Feeding Emotions Scale. A measure of parent emotions in the context of feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Leslie; Fisher, Jennifer O; Power, Thomas G; Chen, Tzu-An; Cross, Matthew B; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2015-08-01

    Assessing parent affect is important because studies examining the parent-child dyad have shown that parent affect has a profound impact on parent-child interactions and related outcomes. Although some measures that assess general affect during daily lives exist, to date there are only few tools that assess parent affect in the context of feeding. The aim of this study was to develop an instrument to measure parent affect specific to the feeding context and determine its validity and reliability. A brief instrument consisting of 20 items was developed that specifically asks how parents feel during the feeding process. This brief instrument draws on the structure of a well-validated general affect measure. A total of 296 Hispanic and Black Head Start parents of preschoolers completed the Feeding Emotions Scale along with other parent-report measures as part of a larger study designed to better understand feeding interactions during the dinner meal. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model with independent subscales of positive affect and negative affect (Cronbach's alphas of 0.85 and 0.84, respectively). Concurrent and convergent construct validity was evaluated by correlating the subscales of the Feeding Emotions Scale with positive emotionality and negative emotionality from the Differential Emotions Scale - a measure of general adult emotions. Concurrent and convergent criterion validity was evaluated by testing mean differences in affect across parent feeding styles using ANOVA. A significant difference was found across maternal weight status for positive feeding affect. The resulting validated measure can be used to assess parent affect in studies of feeding to better understand how interactions during feeding may impact the development of child eating behaviors and possibly weight status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Working Group Report: Dark Matter Complementarity (Dark Matter in the Coming Decade: Complementary Paths to Discovery and Beyond)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrenberg, Sebastian; et al.,

    2013-10-31

    In this Report we discuss the four complementary searches for the identity of dark matter: direct detection experiments that look for dark matter interacting in the lab, indirect detection experiments that connect lab signals to dark matter in our own and other galaxies, collider experiments that elucidate the particle properties of dark matter, and astrophysical probes sensitive to non-gravitational interactions of dark matter. The complementarity among the different dark matter searches is discussed qualitatively and illustrated quantitatively in several theoretical scenarios. Our primary conclusion is that the diversity of possible dark matter candidates requires a balanced program based on all four of those approaches.

  17. A ACUPUNTURA ENQUANTO PRÁTICA COMPLEMENTAR NA ATENÇÃO Á SAÚDE DO TRABALHADOR.

    OpenAIRE

    TEIXEIRA, R. F.

    2015-01-01

    Em 2006, foi publicada a Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares que contribuiu fortemente para o crescimento de práticas até então denominadas Alternativas, como homeopatia, acupuntura, fitoterapia e outros, no entanto, no que se refere à saúde do trabalhador, a oferta desses serviços pelo SUS ainda é escassa, principalmente a acupuntura, objeto desse estudo. Diante desse contexto, foi desenvolvido um primeiro artigo que versou sobre os saberes milenares que fundamentam a...

  18. CARACTERÍSTICAS DO MERCADO POTENCIAL DA PREVIDÊNCIA COMPLEMENTAR DA AGRICULTURA FAMILIAR NO VALE DO TAQUARI

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlert, Lucildo; Pereira, Tatiana Feijó

    2010-01-01

    Diante das dificuldades e limitações da previdência social para a agricultura familiar, o presente artigo tem por objetivo descrever as características das unidades produtoras e do perfil dos produtores familiares rurais que têm interesse em participar do Regime da Previdência Complementar no Vale do Taquari, que inclui as formas de previdência aberta e fechada, privadas de fundos de pensão e seguradoras para empregados ou membros de uma associação e pessoas em geral. Com base em pesquisa bib...

  19. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  20. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  1. Efetividade da Estratégia Nacional para Alimentação Complementar Saudável na melhoria da alimentação complementar de lactentes em um município do Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Baldissera

    Full Text Available Resumo: O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a efetividade da Estratégia Nacional para Alimentação Complementar Saudável (ENPACS na melhoria da alimentação complementar no primeiro ano de vida em um município brasileiro. Trata-se de um estudo avaliativo de impacto, envolvendo 340 crianças com idades entre 6 e 12 meses, acompanhadas nas unidades básicas de saúde. Os desfechos avaliados foram prevalência do consumo de verduras, legumes, frutas e alimentos não saudáveis, e prevalência de alimentos com consistência adequada para a idade. A regressão de Poisson revelou que a ENPACS esteve associada a uma redução de 32% no consumo de refrigerante e/ou suco industrializado, 35% no de comidas industrializadas e 5% no consumo de alimentos não saudáveis. Não houve aumento no consumo de frutas, legumes, verduras e alimentos com consistência adequada para a idade. Conclui-se que o efeito positivo da estratégia foi parcial, mas que ela tem potencial de contribuir para a melhoria da alimentação infantil, haja vista sua efetividade na redução do consumo de alimentos não saudáveis.

  2. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of genomic information in dairy cattle breeding programs has opend up the possibility to select for novel traits, especially for traits that are traditionally difficult to record in a progeny testing scheme. Feed intake and efficiency is such a difficult to measure trait...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... opportunities Our corporate partners In Your Area Tools & Resources Careers Events in your area Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  5. Serotonin depresses feeding behaviour in ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falibene, Agustina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Josens, Roxana

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behaviour is a complex functional system that relies on external signals and the physiological state of the animal. This is also the case in ants as they vary their feeding behaviour according to food characteristics, environmental conditions and - as they are social insects - to the colony's requirements. The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) was shown to be involved in the control and modulation of many actions and processes related to feeding in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether 5-HT affects nectar feeding in ants by analysing its effect on the sucking-pump activity. Furthermore, we studied 5-HT association with tissues and neuronal ganglia involved in feeding regulation. Our results show that 5-HT promotes a dose-dependent depression of sucrose feeding in Camponotus mus ants. Orally administered 5-HT diminished the intake rate by mainly decreasing the volume of solution taken per pump contraction, without modifying the sucrose acceptance threshold. Immunohistochemical studies all along the alimentary canal revealed 5-HT-like immunoreactive processes on the foregut (oesophagus, crop and proventriculus), while the midgut and hindgut lacked 5-HT innervation. Although the frontal and suboesophageal ganglia contained 5-HT immunoreactive cell bodies, serotonergic innervation in the sucking-pump muscles was absent. The results are discussed in the frame of a role of 5-HT in feeding control in ants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. JUICE: complementarity of the payload in adressing the mission science objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik

    2014-05-01

    radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful particle environment package (PEP), a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The instruments will work together to achieve mission science objectives that otherwise cannot be achieved by a single experiment. For instance, joint J-MAG, 3GM, GALA and JANUS observations would constrain thickness of the ice shell, ocean depth and conductivity. SWI, 3GM and UVS would complement each other in the temperature sounding of the Jupiter atmosphere. The complex coupling between magnetosphere and atmosphere of Jupiter will be jointly studied by combination of aurora imaging (UVS, MAJIS, JANUS) and plasma and fields measurements (J-MAG, RPWI, PEP). The talk will give an overview of the JUICE payload focusing on complementarity and synergy between the experiments.

  7. Práticas integrativas e complementares: oferta e produção de atendimentos no SUS e em municípios selecionados

    OpenAIRE

    Sousa,Islândia Maria Carvalho de; Bodstein,Regina Cele de Andrade; Tesser,Charles Dalcanale; Santos,Francisco de Assis da Silva; Hortale,Virginia Alonso

    2012-01-01

    A Medicina Tradicional/Complementar e Alternativa tem crescido no mundo e sua importância vem sendo ressaltada em diversos estudos. No Brasil, a Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares incentiva sua inserção e fortalecimento na atenção primária. Buscou-se identificar a oferta dos serviços e de práticas integrativas e complementares no SUS e a produção de atendimentos entre os anos 2000 e 2011, analisando as informações disponíveis nos bancos de dados nacionais vis-à-vis os...

  8. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  9. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tube feeding; PEG tube care; Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding ... pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  10. PRÁTICAS INTEGRATIVAS E COMPLEMENTARES: CONHECIMENTO E CREDIBILIDADE DE PROFISSIONAIS DO SERVIÇO PÚBLICO DE SAÚDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouzer Barbosa Alves Gontijo

    Full Text Available Resumo Este estudo foi realizado por meio de questionário para identificar o conhecimento e credibilidade sobre as práticas integrativas e complementares e a Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares. Participaram 118 profissionais da saúde, de nível superior, do Sistema Único de Saúde de três municípios brasileiros, em 2014. Procederam-se à análise descritiva e à análise de cluster (two-step cluster. A maioria dos profissionais conhece parcialmente as práticas integrativas e complementares; considera mais eficiente a acupuntura e a fitoterapia; desconhece a antroposofia e o termalismo; tem menor credibilidade na homeopatia; desconhece a política nacional de práticas integrativas e complementares; considera que seus conhecimentos não foram obtidos durante a graduação, mas principalmente pela leitura e experiência em família; entende que estas práticas devem ser inseridas na graduação e que são importantes para a profissão e para o serviço. A análise de cluster permitiu identificar dois grupos que se diferenciam quanto ao conhecimento e crenças. Conclui-se que há pouco conhecimento e pouca credibilidade nas práticas integrativas e complementares e pouco conhecimento da Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares.

  11. O planejamento tribut??rio com a utiliza????o do simples nacional ou do lucro presumido sob a ??tica da Lei Complementar N?? 147/14

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos, Rodrigo Calvet

    2015-01-01

    A Lei Complementar n?? 123, de 14 de dezembro de 2006, juntamente com suas altera????es, trouxe a promessa de um regime ??nico diferenciado e favorecido a ser dispensado ??s microempresas e empresas de pequeno porte no ??mbito da Uni??o, dos Estados, do Distrito Federal e dos Munic??pios, principalmente no que se refere ?? apura????o e arrecada????o de tributos. Com a promulga????o da Lei Complementar n?? 147, de 7 de agosto de 2014, que alterou a LC n?? 123/06, novas atividade...

  12. PRÁTICAS INTEGRATIVAS E COMPLEMENTARES: CONHECIMENTO E CREDIBILIDADE DE PROFISSIONAIS DO SERVIÇO PÚBLICO DE SAÚDE

    OpenAIRE

    Gontijo, Mouzer Barbosa Alves; Nunes, Maria de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    Resumo Este estudo foi realizado por meio de questionário para identificar o conhecimento e credibilidade sobre as práticas integrativas e complementares e a Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares. Participaram 118 profissionais da saúde, de nível superior, do Sistema Único de Saúde de três municípios brasileiros, em 2014. Procederam-se à análise descritiva e à análise de cluster (two-step cluster). A maioria dos profissionais conhece parcialmente as práticas integrativas...

  13. Práticas integrativas e complementares em saúde: buscando a eficácia no cuidado de enfermagem

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Aparecida Rodrigues; Norma Sueli Santana Pereira; Sarah Marília Bucchi

    2012-01-01

    Introdução: O uso das Praticas Integrativas e Complementares (PIC) vem sendo estimulada há vários anos pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS), que elaborou um documento normativo para fortalecer estas políticas de uso. Atualmente estão sendo muito divulgadas, porém ainda pouco reconhecidas e minimamente praticadas pelos enfermeiros.Objetivo: Esse estudo busca refletir acerca da eficácia das Práticas Integrativas e Complementares (PIC) na promoção da saúde e no cuidado assistencial ao indivíd...

  14. Indulgent feeding style and children's weight status in preschool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Shewchuk, Richard M; Baskin, Monica L; Nicklas, Theresa A; Qu, Haiyan

    2008-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to examine whether parent affect and child temperament characteristics differ across feeding styles in low-income families, given suggestive evidence. The secondary aim was to examine whether feeding styles were still related to children's body mass index independent of parent affect, child temperament, and known correlates. Participants in this study were 718 parents of children attending Head Start programs across two sites (Texas and Alabama). Parents were categorized into feeding styles of authoritative (n = 118), authoritarian (n = 219), indulgent (n = 240) and uninvolved (n = 141) using a parent-report questionnaire characterizing feeding in a general parenting paradigm. Parents completed questionnaires and measured height and weight was obtained from parents and children. Differences were found across feeding styles on parent affect and child temperament characteristics. Indulgent parents reported lower Negative Affect for themselves and lower Negative Affectivity for their children. The indulgent feeding style was significantly associated with higher child body mass index after controlling for parent affect, child temperament, and correlates (ethnicity, child age, parent body mass index). The results of this study not only show a robust association between the indulgent feeding style and weight status of low-income preschool children, but also suggest how congruence between parent emotional affect and child temperament characteristics may contribute to excess consumption among children of indulgent parents.

  15. Comments on "Complementarity and Conflict among Population and Other Policies: Specifying an Economic-Demographic Model for a Developing Country".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A H

    1993-01-01

    The critique of Mariano's economic-demographic model of population and other policies for developing countries cites the value of such a detailed model for developing a family planning policy within the context of macroeconomic government policies. The model points out the impact on fertility of effective family planning policies and increased educational expenditures. Work force participation and reduced fertility is also affected by increased female educational levels, which in combination with increasing health expenditures for children reduces infant mortality as a means of further reducing fertility. Savings and investment increase with reduced fertility and reduce population growth. Per capital income increases with higher investment and lower population growth; the effect is to increase resource availability for improvements in health and education. Rural-urban migration must be balanced by policies in urban areas supporting industrial investment and policies in rural areas for increased educational and health expenditures. Changes in the structure of demand affect the structure of the economy, which in turn affects exports. The paper contributes to a model of simultaneous equations for estimating the linkages between demography and economics factors already known. The model combines the Chicago-Columbia model and the Pennsylvania model but ignores biological variables such as those identified by Behrman and Wolfe as women's health status, breast feeding, and nutritional level. International migration may be important for some countries such as the Philippines and Thailand. Extended families may be an important variable excluded from the model. Criticism is directed to the measure of rural-urban migration which does not separate out by age those migrating between countries. The assumption is that international migrants only come from urban areas. In Bangladesh the man-land ratio was found to be important. Changing definitions of literacy may impact on the

  16. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING DL

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions

  17. Effects of biscuit-type feeding supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of HIV-affected school-age children: a randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kek Khee Loo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine if meat or soy protein dietary supplementation will enhance the neurocognitive performance of HIV-affected children at-risk of malnutrition and food insecurity. Methods: A randomized, double-blind, controlled intervention trial evaluated the effect of nutritional supplementation on the neurocognitive outcomes of 49 HIV-affected school-age children in western Kenya. The intervention consisted in providing the mother, target child, and siblings with one of three isocaloric biscuit-type supplements – soy, wheat, or beef – on 5 days per week for 18 months. Neurocognitive outcomes of the target children were assessed by a battery of eight measures and followed up longitudinally for up to 24 months. Results: Mixed effects modeling demonstrated significant differences in the rates of increase over time among all three groups (F test degrees of freedom of 2, P<0.05 for Raven’s progressive matrices performance, but not for verbal meaning, arithmetic, digit span backward, forward, and total, embedded figure test, and Beery visual–motor integration scores. Conclusion: HIV-affected school-age children provided with soy protein supplementation showed greater improvement in nonverbal cognitive (fluid intelligence performance compared with peers who received isocaloric beef or wheat biscuits. Soy nutrients may have an enhancing effect on neurocognitive skills in HIV-affected school-age children.

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may need time and practice to get comfortable breastfeeding, but you’ll get the hang of it! ... Learn what you can do if you have breastfeeding problems or discomforts . If you’re feeding your ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk is so ... you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... started. Learn what you can do if you have breastfeeding problems or discomforts . If you’re feeding ... Family health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? We've got answers. Reach out ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... what you can do if you have breastfeeding problems or discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby ... breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  7. Changes in microbial water quality in RAS following altered feed loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Vadstein, Olav

    2018-01-01

    Intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with its hyper-eutrophic water offer ideal conditions for bacterial growth, abundance and activity, potentially affecting fish and system performance. Feed composition and feed loading in particular will have significant impact on organic and inor......Intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with its hyper-eutrophic water offer ideal conditions for bacterial growth, abundance and activity, potentially affecting fish and system performance. Feed composition and feed loading in particular will have significant impact on organic...

  8. Consistent feeding positions of great tit parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Poelman, E.H.; Mateman, A.C.; Cassey, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    When parent birds arrive at the nest to provision their young, their position on the nest rim may influence which chick or chicks are fed. As a result, the consistency of feeding positions of the individual parents, and the difference in position between the parents, may affect how equitably food is

  9. Het effect van voersamenstelling op bacteriële darmaandoeningen bij varkens = The effect of feed composition on bacterial intestinal diseases in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.

    2007-01-01

    Feed composition, and especially carbohydrate composition, may affect the development of enteric bacterial diseases. Also the kind of feed ingredients (soybean or not) and feed treatment (milling size, pelletizing, fermentation) may be important. A more coarse grinding, no pelletizing and

  10. Properties of a family of generalized NCP-functions and a derivative free algorithm for complementarity problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sheng-Long; Huang, Zheng-Hai; Chen, Jein-Shan

    2009-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new family of NCP-functions and the corresponding merit functions, which are the generalization of some popular NCP-functions and the related merit functions. We show that the new NCP-functions and the corresponding merit functions possess a system of favorite properties. Specially, we show that the new NCP-functions are strongly semismooth, Lipschitz continuous, and continuously differentiable; and that the corresponding merit functions have SC1 property (i.e., they are continuously differentiable and their gradients are semismooth) and LC1 property (i.e., they are continuously differentiable and their gradients are Lipschitz continuous) under suitable assumptions. Based on the new NCP-functions and the corresponding merit functions, we investigate a derivative free algorithm for the nonlinear complementarity problem and discuss its global convergence. Some preliminary numerical results are reported.

  11. [Santiago Ramón y Cajal and Ivan Petrovich Pavlov: does complementarity exist between their theories?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozo, Jairo A; Rodríguez-Moreno, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Few authors have compared the life and work of Cajal and Pavlov and they refer normally to their coincidence at the XIV Medicine International Congress of Madrid in 1903. To describe the theoretical models of both authors and to explain the possible complementarities between the works of Cajal and Pavlov. We describe the principal bases of the 'neuron theory' of Cajal, compared to the 'reticulated theory', the principal results of Cajal's investigations and the contributions he made to the concept of plasticity. We describe the 'Pavlov's conditional reflections theory', its principal postulates, pavlovians laws and the typology of the nervous system according to Pavlov. The works of Cajal and Pavlov can be understood as complementary under Wallon's proposal and in the frame of the 'strategic epistemology', where the advance of the science is achieved from different but complementary strategies that help each other to construct stronger theoretical models.

  12. Dynamics of a belt-drive system using a linear complementarity problem for the belt pulley contact description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čepon, Gregor; Boltežar, Miha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient and realistic numerical model in order to predict the dynamic response of belt drives. The belt was modeled as a planar beam element based on an absolute nodal coordinate formulation. A viscoelastic material was adopted for the belt and the corresponding damping and stiffness matrices were determined. The belt-pulley contact was formulated as a linear complementarity problem together with a penalty method. This made it possible for us to accurately predict the contact forces, including the stick and slip zones between the belt and the pulley. The belt-drive model was verified by comparing it with the available analytical solutions. A good agreement was found. Finally, the applicability of the method was demonstrated by considering non-steady belt-drive operating conditions.

  13. Complementarity between Internal R&D and R&D Cooperation in the Context of Spanish Technological Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyse the existence of complementarity between the internal R&D activities and the R&D cooperative agreements of Spanish innovative manufacturing firms. This analysis is conducted concerning to the context of technological opportunities (industrial and non-industrial and companies’ protection mechanisms (legal and strategic. The database used is the Community Innovation Survey referring to the Spanish economy. The discussion about the results is performed once the coefficients have been obtained by the Heckman correction method. The results indicate evidence of substitutability between internal R&D and R&D cooperation, and non-industrial technological opportunities and strategic protection mechanisms have no influence on innovation output. In addition, we found that non-industrial technological opportunities increase the probability of innovation in companies, although they have no influence on their innovative performance. In contrast, industrial technological opportunities do not contribute to increasing the likelihood of innovation, but influence their innovative performance.

  14. Complementary systems of aeolian and hydraulic energy in Brazil; Sistemas complementares de energia eolica e hidraulica no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, Dario Jackson; Sugai, Martha Regina von Borstel [Companhia Paranaense de Energia (COPEL), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: dario@copel.com; martha.sugai@copel.com; Amarante, Odilon A. Camargo do [Camargo Schubert Engenheiros Associados Ltda., Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mail: ventar@terra.com.br; Rocha, Nelson de Andrade [Promon Engenharia Ltda, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: nelson.rocha@promon.com.br; Bittencourt, Rogerio Motta [Companhia Hidro Eletrica do Sao Francisco (CHESF), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: rogeriob@chesf.gov.br

    2005-10-15

    One important historical challenge to the operation planning of the Brazilian interconnected electrical system has been the seasonal stabilization of the energy supply, due to the stochastic nature of hydro resources. Most of the significant Brazilian hydro power stations rely on the hydrological regimes of the Southeast, which have a remarkable tendency for seasonal fluctuations of significant amplitude. In the last decades, wind power generation has proven its suitability to the Gigawatt scale, necessary to an effective contribution to electric systems. This paper demonstrates, from existing data, the wind / hydro seasonal complementarity in the relevant areas of Brazil, and discusses its possible effect on the feasibility of seasonal stabilization of the energy supply in the Brazilian interconnected grid, taking advantage of the country's large natural resources available. Case studies for the southern/southeastern and the northeastern regions of Brazil are presented. (author)

  15. Uso da terapia não farmacológica, medicina alternativa e complementar na fibromialgia Non-pharmacological therapy and complementary and alternative medicine in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Sousa Braz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fibromialgia é uma síndrome dolorosa crônica que afeta até 5% da população mundial. Pode associar-se com distúrbios do sono, do humor e fadiga, e cursar com incapacidade funcional. Sua patogênese envolve distúrbio de modulação central da dor, comprometimento do sistema inibitório descendente e hiperatividade da substância P. Em função da vasta sintomatologia apresentada pelos pacientes e da natureza multifatorial da sua patogênese, seu tratamento ideal requer uma abordagem multidisciplinar incluindo a associação de terapia farmacológica e não farmacológica. A terapia farmacológica atualmente preconizada nessa síndrome inclui, entre outros compostos, antidepressivos, moduladores dos canais de cálcio, relaxantes musculares e analgésicos. O tratamento não farmacológico é realizado, na maioria dos casos, por meio de educação do paciente, atividade física aeróbica supervisionada e terapia cognitivo-comportamental. No entanto, muitos pacientes não apresentam respostas satisfatórias ou apresentam efeitos colaterais associados ao uso dos fármacos a longo prazo, além de referirem dificuldades em permanecer em uma terapia baseada em exercícios e medicina física. Há, portanto, um crescente interesse por parte dos médicos e pacientes por uma terapia alternativa e complementar na fibromialgia. Nesta revisão, os autores discorrem sobre as diversas modalidades terapêuticas empregadas nessa doença, enfatizando as evidências da terapia não farmacológica e do uso de medicina alternativa e complementar nesses pacientes.Fibromyalgia is a chronic painful syndrome that affects up to 5% of the world population. It is associated with sleep and mood disorders, fatigue, and functional disability. Its pathogenesis involves a disorder of the central modulation of pain, impairment of the descending inhibitory system, and hyperactivity of substance P. Because of the extensive symptomatology of patients with fibromyalgia and its

  16. Responsive feeding: establishing healthy eating behaviour early on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-04-12

    Apr 12, 2013 ... as well as disturbances in self-esteem, body image and socialisation later in life. Therefore, it is crucial to avoid early-life problems with regard to parent-child feeding experiences.6. Other factors that affect responsive feeding. Various other factors, including time, socio-economic status, the environment ...

  17. Feed preference of grower ostriches consuming diets differing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed costs contribute the largest proportion of the input costs of slaughter birds in an intensive ostrich production unit. Alternative, cheaper feedstuffs, such as lupins (sweet and bitter cultivars), were therefore evaluated to determine the optimal lupin inclusion level in ostrich rations without affecting feed preference and ...

  18. Effect of quantitative feed restriction on pullet development and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hen-day and hen-housed production levels as well as cost of feed per unit weight or dozen eggs, were not significantly affected by the treatments. These studies showed that when growing birds are restricted in quantity of feed fed, they respond with a reduction in mature weight, but the laying phase is unaffected.

  19. Feeding Challenges in Young Children: Toward a Best Practices Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2010-01-01

    Young children often encounter feeding challenges, such as food refusal, an inability to meet nutritional needs, and limited skills to self-feed. Further, overall development can be adversely affected when an infant or a toddler has difficulties with intake of fluid and solid foods. A variety of strategies are available to address these challenges…

  20. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-09

    Feb 9, 2016 ... During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form .... these trials (Lewis et al., 2007) the researchers monitored the effects of feed allocation and feed form on the time taken to ..... This phenomenon has been reported many ...

  1. Avaliação da alimentação complementar nos dois primeiros anos de vida: proposta de indicadores e de instrumento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Martins Oliveira

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste artigo é apresentar indicadores e instrumento para monitoramento da alimentação complementar entre crianças menores de dois anos no Brasil, descrevendo seu processo de formulação. Com base em um modelo teórico sobre atributos, componentes e marcadores de alimentação complementar construído neste estudo, foram sistematizadas as recomendações alimentares referentes a conceitos-chave desse modelo. Essas recomendações foram transformadas em indicadores. Um questionário foi construído com base nas variáveis desses indicadores. Foram realizadas duas oficinas com especialistas em alimentação complementar para discussão sobre os indicadores e o instrumento e quatro pré-testes com a população de interesse. São apresentados 18 indicadores referentes à oportunidade, à adequação nutricional e à segurança da alimentação complementar, e um questionário que permite a construção dos indicadores propostos. Ele pode ser aplicado em inquéritos com entrevistas face a face, por telefone ou em atividades de monitoramento do consumo alimentar em serviços de saúde. São necessárias pesquisas ulteriores para a validação deste questionário.

  2. The potential of a salt-tolerant plant (Distichlis spicata cv. NyPa Forage) to treat effluent from inland saline aquaculture and provide livestock feed on salt-affected farmland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymbery, Alan J; Kay, Gavin D; Doupé, Robert G; Partridge, Gavin J; Norman, Hayley C

    2013-02-15

    Dryland salinity is a major problem affecting food production from agricultural land in Australia and throughout the world. Although there is much interest in using saline groundwater to grow marine fish on salt-affected farmland, the disposal of nutrient enriched, saline aquaculture effluent is a major environmental problem. We investigated the potential of the salt-tolerant NyPa Forage plant (Distichlis spicata L. Greene var. yensen-4a) to trap nutrients from saline aquaculture effluent and subsequently to provide a fodder crop for livestock. Sub-surface flow wetlands containing NyPa Forage were constructed and their efficacy in removing total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate was monitored under different levels of nutrients and salinity. The wetlands removed 60-90% of total nitrogen loads and at least 85% of ammonia, nitrite/nitrate, total phosphorus and orthophosphate loads, with greater efficiency at high nutrient and low salinity levels. The above-ground yield, sodium, crude protein (CP) and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD) of NyPa Forage plants were measured after fertilisation with different nutrient levels and cropping at different frequencies. Yield of plants increased with increased nutrient, while nutritive value was greater when nutrients were applied but did not differ among nutrient levels. Yield was not affected by cropping frequency, but nutritive value was greatest when plants were cropped at intervals of 21 or 42 days. At optimum nutrient addition and cropping levels, the plants had a mean CP content of 16.7% and an in vitro DMD of 67.6%, equivalent to an energy value of 9.5 MJ kg(-1). Assuming an equivalent fibre content and voluntary food intake as grass hay, and no accumulation of other toxic minerals, these nutritive values would be sufficient for maintenance or moderate liveweight gains in dry adult sheep or cattle. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Continuous Formulation for Logical Decisions in Differential Algebraic Systems using Mathematical Programs with Complementarity Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kody M. Powell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a methodology to represent logical decisions in differential algebraic equation simulation and constrained optimization problems using a set of continuous algebraic equations. The formulations may be used when state variables trigger a change in process dynamics, and introduces a pseudo-binary decision variable, which is continuous, but should only have valid solutions at values of either zero or one within a finite time horizon. This formulation enables dynamic optimization problems with logical disjunctions to be solved by simultaneous solution methods without using methods such as mixed integer programming. Several case studies are given to illustrate the value of this methodology including nonlinear model predictive control of a chemical reactor using a surge tank with overflow to buffer disturbances in feed flow rate. Although this work contains novel methodologies for solving dynamic algebraic equation (DAE constrained problems where the system may experience an abrupt change in dynamics that may otherwise require a conditional statement, there remain substantial limitations to this methodology, including a limited domain where problems may converge and the possibility for ill-conditioning. Although the problems presented use only continuous algebraic equations, the formulation has inherent non-smoothness. Hence, these problems must be solved with care and only in select circumstances, such as in simulation or situations when the solution is expected to be near the solver’s initial point.

  4. Reducing Abdominal Fat Deposition in Broiler Through Feeding Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecep Hidayat

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abdominal fat in broiler carcass is considered as a waste and its existence reduces the carcass quality. Abdominal fat deposition is affected by several factors such as genetic, nutrition, feed, sex, age and environment. Reducing abdominal fat deposition can be carried out by regulating the nutrient intake to ensure that no excessive nutrient was consumed. Nutrition effects to reduce abdominal fat deposition are associated with nutrient concentration of ration and quantity of daily feed intake. Daily nutrient intake can be limited, especially through restricted feeding. It is concluded that an appropriate feeding management can reduce abdominal fat deposition in broiler.

  5. Condensate feeding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwami, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To control the dissolved oxygen concentration in water of a condensate feeding system to a desired level. Constitution: Coolant is fed to a nuclear reactor through a route from the steam exit of the reactor and by way of turbine, turbine condensator, condensate pump, condensate desalinator, feedwater heater and feed pump. Steam extraction lines are branched from the turbines, and pipeways are further branched from the steam extraction lines for feeding steam by way of extraction steam injection valves to steam-water mixers disposed on the upstream of the feedwater heater. On the downstream of the feedwater heater, is provided a dissolved oxygen concentration meter, the indication value of which controls the opening degree of the steam injection valves which, in turn, controls the opening degree of the steam feed valves for the feedwater heater to adjust the amount for the injection steams. Accordingly, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water of the condensate feeding system can be controlled by the inclusion of steams with high dissolved oxygen concentration into the feedwater system from the turbine steam extraction lines by way of the mixers. (Furukawa, Y.)

  6. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  7. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  8. Machine Learning for Characterization of Insect Vector Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis S Willett

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Insects that feed by ingesting plant and animal fluids cause devastating damage to humans, livestock, and agriculture worldwide, primarily by transmitting pathogens of plants and animals. The feeding processes required for successful pathogen transmission by sucking insects can be recorded by monitoring voltage changes across an insect-food source feeding circuit. The output from such monitoring has traditionally been examined manually, a slow and onerous process. We taught a computer program to automatically classify previously described insect feeding patterns involved in transmission of the pathogen causing citrus greening disease. We also show how such analysis contributes to discovery of previously unrecognized feeding states and can be used to characterize plant resistance mechanisms. This advance greatly reduces the time and effort required to analyze insect feeding, and should facilitate developing, screening, and testing of novel intervention strategies to disrupt pathogen transmission affecting agriculture, livestock and human health.

  9. Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. II. Effects of gamma radicidation on the biological value of poultry feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, J.H.; Eisenberg, E.; Lapidot, M.; Tsir, D.

    1978-01-01

    Poultry is a major local meat source which is often contaminated with salmonella. A major source of contamination was found to be salmonella-infected poultry feed. Since gamma radiation at doses of up to 1 Mrad reduced salmonella populations in feed by 6 to 7 logs, this study was undertaken to determine if radicidized poultry feed can be used as a step in reducing contamination of poultry without affecting breeder flock performance and longevity. Two breeder flocks, each comprising 300 hens and 50 roosters, were kept in separate coops. One flock was fed untreated feed, while the feed of the other was radicidized at 1 Mrad, which resulted in a level of less than 10 enterobacteria per gram. The flocks were studied for over 12 months, from the emergence of chicks to the end of 6 months of egg production. The quantity of feed supply was controlled to ensure early detection of detrimental effects on the biological value of the feed. For the first 8 weeks, when the feed was freely supplied, no differences were observed in feed utilization or growth. After limited feeding was started, no significant differences were observed in feed utilization and in total amount of feed consumed. The number of fertile eggs, the feed consumption per egg, the age at which the first egg was laid, mortality and the total weight after 22 weeks and 12 1/4 months were practically equivalent in both flocks. Chicks obtained from both flocks showed no significant differences in weight or in feed utilization. (author)

  10. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  11. Ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding versus scheduled interval feeding for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Felicia M; Tosh, Karen; McGuire, William

    2010-02-17

    finding. Limited evidence exists that feeding preterm infants with ad libitum or demand/semi-demand regimens allows earlier attainment of full oral feeding and earlier hospital discharge. This finding should be interpreted cautiously because of methodological weaknesses in the included trials. A large randomised controlled trial is needed to confirm this finding and to determine if ad libitum of demand/semi-demand feeding of preterm infants affects other clinically important outcomes.

  12. Recommended feeding regime and light climate in live feed cultures of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Steensbjerg Bjørbæk, Niels; Rayner, Thomas Allan

    2017-01-01

    for copepod cultures. In the present study, quantification and observations on how three different feeding regimes affected Acartia tonsa cultures, in terms of development time, specific growth rate, egg production, and egg hatching success were done. The three feeding regimes where dispensed as; once a day...... produced in dark cultures. Also, a 2.3 % significantly higher egg hatching success was obtained when culturing in dark. Since feeding regimes do not affect cultures, it is recommended that feeding of A. tonsa should be conducted as practical as possible for the individual copepod farmer, since optimal...... performance will be met as long as feed is supplied in excess. Furthermore, it is recommended that cultures are kept in dark for optimal egg production and sub sequent hatching success....

  13. Challenges in measuring moisture content of feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiex, N; Richardson, C R

    2003-12-01

    Accurate determination of the moisture (water) content in individual feed ingredients and mixed feeds is critical throughout the feed industry. Most analytical methods used to determine apparent water content of feedstuffs are empirical, estimating water by evaporation and loss of weight on drying (oven drying methods). These methods differ greatly in effectiveness, resulting in bias. Bias associated with measuring the water content of feedstuffs is a concern not only because of the lack of confidence in the moisture value itself, but also because moisture determinations affect accurate quantification and expression of other nutrient values. Methods for determining moisture in feeds have frequently been borrowed from the cereal, forage, or other applications without validating the extension of the method. Methods such as Karl Fischer titration measure water by direct comparison to a calibration standard for water and can be used as reference methods for the evaluation of empirical methods. The objective of this paper is to review methods for determining moisture, review comparisons among moisture methods for various feedstuffs, make recommendations for a reference method, and make general recommendations toward improving the results of moisture testing. The need to evaluate and improve moisture methods and standardize practices in laboratories is evident from this study. It also is evident that the methods appropriate for a specific feed ingredient or feed should not be extended to all feeds without proper validation to the new matrices. Part of the validation for empirical methods should be comparison to Karl Fischer or other the direct methods. It also is recommended that the results obtained using oven methods not be termed "moisture;" rather, they should be termed "loss on drying," and the drying conditions should become part of the term.

  14. Nutritional content of modular feeds: how accurate is feed production?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Sharon; Daly, Anne; Ashmore, Catherine; Gokmen-Ozel, Hulya; Dileva, Rosemary; Dumbleton, Belinda; Chahal, Satnam; Macdonald, Anita

    2013-03-01

    This prospective, observational study examined the accuracy of modular feed preparation for children with complex medical conditions requiring specialist feeds. Participants who regularly prepare special feeds at home were observed preparing two feeds with equivalent nutrient composition: a 2-ingredient (2-IF) and 6-ingredient feed (6-IF) under research-conditions, and 8 weeks later under home-conditions. The same feeds (2-IF and 6-IF) prepared by a trained feed-maker served as controls. Biochemical analysis of nutrient content was performed as an objective measure of feed preparation accuracy. 52 participants were studied: one patient and 51 caregivers. Biochemical nutrient analysis was inaccurate for both feeds including control-feeds but was better for the 2-IF. Both feeds were lower in fat than the expected calculation but more so in the 6-IF than the 2-IF (median: 34% vs 84% of calculated research-condition values and 66% vs 90% home-conditions; pfeeds there was equipment inaccuracy, poor ingredient emulsification and ingredient residue left in mixing/measuring containers. Fewer errors occurred with powdered than liquid ingredients. Many errors associated with special feed production are difficult to control. Carers of children with complex medical conditions require improved preparation equipment and techniques and the development of premeasured or combined ingredient preparations to maximise feed accuracy and minimise clinical risk.

  15. Nasogastric and feeding tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharib, Ahmed M; Stern, Eric J; Sherbin, Vandy L; Rohrmann, Charles A

    1996-05-01

    Preview The authors' experience in a radiology department suggested to them that there is a wide range of beliefs among practitioners regarding proper placement of nasogastric and feeding tubes. Improper positioning can cause serious problems, as they explain. Indications for different tube positions, complications of incorrect tube placement, and directions for proper positioning are discussed and illustrated.

  16. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  17. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  19. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  20. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  2. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's ... Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's ...

  4. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R

    2001-06-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  5. Character displacement and the evolution of niche complementarity in a model biofilm community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Crystal N; Traverse, Charles C; Mayo-Smith, Leslie; Buskirk, Sean W; Cooper, Vaughn S

    2015-02-01

    Colonization of vacant environments may catalyze adaptive diversification and be followed by competition within the nascent community. How these interactions ultimately stabilize and affect productivity are central problems in evolutionary ecology. Diversity can emerge by character displacement, in which selection favors phenotypes that exploit an alternative resource and reduce competition, or by facilitation, in which organisms change the environment and enable different genotypes or species to become established. We previously developed a model of long-term experimental evolution in which bacteria attach to a plastic bead, form a biofilm, and disperse to a new bead. Here, we focus on the evolution of coexisting mutants within a population of Burkholderia cenocepacia and how their interactions affected productivity. Adaptive mutants initially competed for space, but later competition declined, consistent with character displacement and the predicted effects of the evolved mutations. The community reached a stable equilibrium as each ecotype evolved to inhabit distinct, complementary regions of the biofilm. Interactions among ecotypes ultimately became facilitative and enhanced mixed productivity. Observing the succession of genotypes within niches illuminated changing selective forces within the community, including a fundamental role for genotypes producing small colony variants that underpin chronic infections caused by B. cenocepacia. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. Dietary protein and carbohydrate affect feeding behavior and metabolic regulation in hummingbirds (Melanotrochilus fuscus Las proteínas y carbohidratos dietarios afectan la conducta de alimentación y la regulación metabólica en picaflores (Melanotrochilus fuscus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA P. ZANOTTO

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to link hummingbird feeding behavior with metabolic regulation and in addition to assess whether dietary composition would affect entrance into torpor. Hummingbirds were fed a combination of diets with contrasting amounts of protein and carbohydrate. The diets were composed of the following: 2.4 % protein (P - 12 % sucrose (S and 0.8 % protein (P - 36 % sucrose (S. The main findings showed that periods of feeding on each of the diets could be distinguished as separate bouts or feeding events. Hummingbirds presented to high protein-low carbohydrate diets (2.4P-12S ingested a larger volume of diet, fed for longer (both around 1.7x and increased the interval between feedings compared with hummingbirds fed diets 0.8P-36S. Physiological regulation between feeding events, on the other hand, was achieved through an increase in metabolic rate for low protein-high sugar diets (0.8P-36S. This response could probably be related to high sucrose assimilation rates through the digestive system of hummingbirds, a process already known to be very efficient in these birds. Additionally, there was a steeper decrease in oxygen consumption for hummingbirds fed diets 2.4P-12S during fasting and a suggestion of a higher torpor incidence in birds fed these dietsEl objetivo de este trabajo fue unir la conducta de alimentación de picaflores con su regulación metabólica y además determinar como la composición dietaria podría afectar la entrada en sopor. Los picaflores fueron alimentados con una combinación de dietas con cantidades contrastantes de proteínas y carbohidratos. La composición dietaria fue: 2,4 % proteína (P - 12 % sacarosa (S y 0.8 % proteína (P - 36 % (sacarosa (S. Se observó que para cada dieta, los períodos de alimentación se pueden distinguir como eventos separados de alimentación. Cuando se enfrentan a dietas de alta proteína-bajo carbohidratos (2,4P-12S, los picaflores ingieren grandes volúmenes de

  7. Reforms and Economic Growth in Transition Economies: Complementarity, Sequencing and Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Staehr

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the effects of sequencing and reform speed on output performance in transition countries. These largely unsettled issues are addressed using principal component techniques to construct reform clusters and by explicit tests of speed effects. The results indicate that broad-based reforms are good for output growth, but so is a policy of liberalisation and small-scale privatisation without structural reforms. Conversely, large-scale privatisation without adjoining reforms, market opening without supporting reforms and bank liberalisation without enterprise restructuring affect growth negatively. Swift reform policies allow transition countries to benefit from higher growth for longer time. The speed of reforms appears otherwise to have little effect on growth in the short and medium term.

  8. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  9. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  10. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A group of slow-growingLandrace and a group of fast-growingLarge White boars were used to study their patterns of feed intake, growth rate and feed utilization. The pigswere fed ad libitum on a high-energydiet of a high protein content and quality. The data show no difference in mean daily feed intakes between the two.

  11. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-04-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by-products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  12. Práticas integrativas e complementares em saúde, uma nova eficácia para o SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Telesi Júnior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As práticas integrativas e complementares em saúde paulatinamente se tornaram uma realidade na rede de atenção à saúde pública em todo o país. O seu uso no Sistema Único de Saúde merece reflexão, especialmente quando se investiga o sentido de sua adoção no Brasil, uma sociedade complexa que tem incorporado recursos tecnológicos cada vez mais sofisticados e dispendiosos. Esse avanço pode ser entendido como expressão de um movimento que se identifica com novos modos de aprender e praticar a saúde, uma vez que as práticas integrativas se caracterizam pela interdisciplinaridade e por linguagens singulares, próprias, que se contrapõem à visão altamente tecnológica de saúde que impera na sociedade de mercado, dominada por convênios de saúde cujo objetivo precípuo é gerar lucro e fragmentar o tratamento do paciente em especialidades que não dão conta da totalidade do ser humano em busca de remédio para seus males.

  13. N+1 Engineering of an Aspartate Isomerization Hotspot in the Complementarity-Determining Region of a Monoclonal Antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Chetan N; Bauer, Scott P; Davies, Julian; Durbin, Jim D; Shiyanova, Tatiyana L; Zhang, Kai; Tang, Jason X

    2016-02-01

    Aspartate (Asp) isomerization is a common degradation pathway and a potential critical quality attribute that needs to be well characterized during the optimization and development of therapeutic antibodies. A putative Asp-serine (Ser) isomerization motif was identified in the complementarity-determining region of a humanized monoclonal antibody and shown to be a developability risk using accelerated stability analyses. To address this issue, we explored different antibody engineering strategies. Direct engineering of the Asp residue resulted in a greater than 5× loss of antigen-binding affinity and bioactivity, indicating a critical role for this residue. In contrast, rational engineering of the Ser residue at the n+1 position had a negligible impact on antigen binding affinity and bioactivity compared with the parent molecule. Furthermore, the n+1 engineering strategy effectively eliminated Asp isomerization as determined by accelerated stability analysis. This outcome affirms that the rate of Asp isomerization is strongly dependent on the identity of the n+1 residue. This report highlights a systematic antibody engineering strategy for mitigating an Asp isomerization developability risk during lead optimization. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribuições para a construção da Nutrição Complementar Integrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Santos Navolar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Toma-se por objeto a existência pouco estudada de outras racionalidades nutricionais distintas da biomédica, comumente inseridas nas chamadas práticas e medicinas tradicionais e/ou complementares. A hipótese é a de que essas outras lógicas alimentares são relevantes em si, merecem estudo, e sua tematização pode contribuir para a promoção da segurança alimentar e nutricional, a educação em saúde e o enriquecimento das práticas dos profissionais no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. O objetivo é contextualizar a aproximação dessas ideias e práticas e apresentar um primeiro desenvolvimento de tal hipótese. Revisita-se o modelo biomédico, dominante na nutrição, defendendo a necessidade de se ampliar essa perspectiva. Combinam-se a categoria "racionalidade médica" e as noções de modelos e correntes alimentares para um mapeamento preliminar das racionalidades e correntes alimentares em foco.

  15. Contribuições para a construção da Nutrição Complementar Integrada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaisa Santos Navolar

    Full Text Available Toma-se por objeto a existência pouco estudada de outras racionalidades nutricionais distintas da biomédica, comumente inseridas nas chamadas práticas e medicinas tradicionais e/ou complementares. A hipótese é a de que essas outras lógicas alimentares são relevantes em si, merecem estudo, e sua tematização pode contribuir para a promoção da segurança alimentar e nutricional, a educação em saúde e o enriquecimento das práticas dos profissionais no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS. O objetivo é contextualizar a aproximação dessas ideias e práticas e apresentar um primeiro desenvolvimento de tal hipótese. Revisita-se o modelo biomédico, dominante na nutrição, defendendo a necessidade de se ampliar essa perspectiva. Combinam-se a categoria "racionalidade médica" e as noções de modelos e correntes alimentares para um mapeamento preliminar das racionalidades e correntes alimentares em foco.

  16. Complementarity in nutrient foraging strategies of absorptive fine roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across 14 coexisting subtropical tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bitao; Li, Hongbo; Zhu, Biao; Koide, Roger T; Eissenstat, David M; Guo, Dali

    2015-10-01

    In most cases, both roots and mycorrhizal fungi are needed for plant nutrient foraging. Frequently, the colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi seems to be greater in species with thick and sparsely branched roots than in species with thin and densely branched roots. Yet, whether a complementarity exists between roots and mycorrhizal fungi across these two types of root system remains unclear. We measured traits related to nutrient foraging (root morphology, architecture and proliferation, AM colonization and extramatrical hyphal length) across 14 coexisting AM subtropical tree species following root pruning and nutrient addition treatments. After root pruning, species with thinner roots showed more root growth, but lower mycorrhizal colonization, than species with thicker roots. Under multi-nutrient (NPK) addition, root growth increased, but mycorrhizal colonization decreased significantly, whereas no significant changes were found under nitrogen or phosphate additions. Moreover, root length proliferation was mainly achieved by altering root architecture, but not root morphology. Thin-root species seem to forage nutrients mainly via roots, whereas thick-root species rely more on mycorrhizal fungi. In addition, the reliance on mycorrhizal fungi was reduced by nutrient additions across all species. These findings highlight complementary strategies for nutrient foraging across coexisting species with contrasting root traits. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Problems of normative strenght and critique within the concept of agonistic participation: Towards the complementarity of agonistic and participatory democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article I argue that there are grounds for considering agonistic democracy and participatory democracy complementarity in order to institutionalize agonism which has thus far lacked an elaborate articulation of its institutional dimension. The two democratic theories share a commitment toward widening the scope of the political as a way of inclusion of citizens and their subsequent political subjectivation and empowerment. Furthermore, there are authors on both sides who think democracy does not need foundations. Agonistic participation and contestation, on the one hand, and the broadening and strengthening of various sectors of political participation, on the other, both open up new possibilities for critique and change, but also create new risks. Building on a redefinition of agonisitic participation, I aim to attenuate an objection that agonism is normatively weak in terms of lacking resources to motivate citizens and justify their critique of practices of domination and oppression. The article concludes that we need to embrace agonistic participation as a means towards the development of democratic political judgement, as there are no other guarantees, i.e. secure foundations, for our ability to distinguish between democratic and non-democratic agon. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47026: Konstitucionalizam i vladavina prava u izgradnji nacionalne države - slučaj Srbije

  18. Impact of MicroRNA Levels, Target-Site Complementarity, and Cooperativity on Competing Endogenous RNA-Regulated Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzler, Rémy; McGeary, Sean E; Title, Alexandra C; Agarwal, Vikram; Bartel, David P; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-11-03

    Expression changes of competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) have been proposed to influence microRNA (miRNA) activity and thereby regulate other transcripts containing miRNA-binding sites. Here, we find that although miRNA levels define the extent of repression, they have little effect on the magnitude of the ceRNA expression change required to observe derepression. Canonical 6-nt sites, which typically mediate modest repression, can nonetheless compete for miRNA binding, with potency ∼20% of that observed for canonical 8-nt sites. In aggregate, low-affinity/background sites also contribute to competition. Sites with extensive additional complementarity can appear as more potent, but only because they induce miRNA degradation. Cooperative binding of proximal sites for the same or different miRNAs does increase potency. These results provide quantitative insights into the stoichiometric relationship between miRNAs and target abundance, target-site spacing, and affinity requirements for ceRNA-mediated gene regulation, and the unusual circumstances in which ceRNA-mediated gene regulation might be observed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The World gas model. A multi-period mixed complementarity model for the global natural gas market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egging, Ruud; Holz, Franziska; Gabriel, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    We provide the description, mathematical formulation and illustrative results of the World Gas Model, a multi-period complementarity model for the global natural gas market with explicit consideration of market power in the upstream market. Market players include producers, traders, pipeline and storage operators, LNG (liquefied natural gas) liquefiers and regasifiers as well as marketers. The model data set contains more than 80 countries and regions and covers 98% of world wide natural gas production and consumption. We also include a detailed representation of cross-border natural gas pipelines and constraints imposed by long-term contracts in the LNG market. The model is calibrated to match production and consumption projections from the PRIMES [EC. European energy and transport: trends to 2030-update 2007. Brussels: European Commission; 2008] and POLES models [EC. World energy technology outlook - 2050 (WETO-H2). Brussels: European Commission; 2006] up to 2030. The results of our numerical simulations illustrate how the supply shares of pipeline and LNG in various regions in the world develop very differently over time. LNG will continue to play a major role in the Asian market, also for new importers like China and India. Europe will expand its pipeline import capacities benefiting from its relative proximity to major gas suppliers. (author)

  20. NÁLISE NÃO-LINEAR DA CONTRIBUIÇÃO DE ARMADURAS COMPLEMENTARES NA RESISTÊNCIA AO ARRANCAMENTO DE PINOS EMBUTIDOS EM CONCRETO

    OpenAIRE

    F. Queiroz, Tássio; P. Maués, Frederico; Costa, Hamilton; A. B. V. Silva, Patrick; P. Ferreira, Maurício; H. Oliveira, Marcos

    2017-01-01

      Resumo. Conectores de aço com cabeça são empregados na ligação entre estruturas mistas de aço e concreto e em estruturas pré-moldadas. Quando solicitados à tração, a resistência ao arrancamento é fator determinante no projeto e o modo de ruptura pela formação do cone de concreto pode ser frágil. Uma das formas de aumentar a resistência dessa ligação é utilizar armaduras complementares. Para avaliar a influência da armadura complementar na resistência ao arrancamento, foram elaborados 6 mode...

  1. Feeding Behavior of Tonkean Macaques (Macaca tonkeana in Schmutzer Primates Center and Ragunan Zoo, Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fery Dwi Riptianingsih

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tonkean macaques are one of seven endemic macaque species on Sulawesi Island. Feeding management in captivity should pay attention to the quality, palatability, and feeding behavior patterns of animals. The goal of this study was to compare the feeding behavior of two social groups of Tonkean macaques at Schmutzer Primates Center (SPC and Ragunan Zoo (RZ with different captive management, which was expected to affect feeding behavior. Ad libitum sampling was used to observe daily behavior and hierarchy, while focal animal sampling was used to observe feeding behavior and feed preference. Data were collected from September 2013 until March 2014 with a total of 495 hours of observations. There were significant differences between the daily behavior of two groups of Tonkean macaques. Resting behavior was dominant in RZ group with non-enrichment feed cage, while feeding behavior was more common in the SPC group with an enrichment feed cage. The SPC group spent most of their feeding time in searching for feed, while choosing, carrying and refusing were greater in the RZ group. Both Tonkean macaque groups showed individual dominance in their feeding behavior. Provisioned feed in both locations had different diversity and preference values. The selection of feed required was based on preference values with attention to Tonkean macaques’ feed in nature. Cage construction, such as the SPC cage, was able to reduce abnormal behavior exhibited by individuals.

  2. Complementarity, relation-specific investment, and opportunism : explaining asymmetric governance modes in hub-and-spoke networks within the enterprise application software industry

    OpenAIRE

    Kude, Thomas; Dibbern, Jens; Heinzl, Armin

    2008-01-01

    In the enterprise application software industry, dominant system vendors (hubs) have formed strategic partnerships with small software companies (spokes), resulting in the emergence of hub-and-spoke networks. Based upon the concept of software stacks, we argue that the governance mechanisms applied by hub and spokes depend on the complementarity between hub’s and spoke’s resources. Specifically, we draw on the relational view and combine it with the resource dependence theory to develop a the...

  3. The Evaluation of Linear Complementarity Problem Method in Modeling the Fluid Cavitation for Squeeze Film Damper with Off-Centered Whirling Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Tieshu Fan; Kamran Behdinan

    2017-01-01

    For the application of squeeze film damper (SFD) in aero-engine, a cavitation model is evaluated by means of linear complementarity problem (LCP) method. Different from the conventional SFD study that employs circular-center orbits (CCOs), a realistic condition is explored where the shaft whirling center and bearing center are misaligned. Taking into account the fluid as incompressible and compressible, the governing equations, including film cavitation, are respectively solved by developing ...

  4. A systematic computational analysis of the rRNA-3 ' UTR sequence complementarity suggests a regulatory mechanism influencing post-termination events in metazoan translation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, Josef; Kolář, Michal; Herrmannová, Anna; Valášek, Leoš Shivaya

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 7 (2016), 957-967-957-967 ISSN 1355-8382 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP305/12/G034 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:68378050 Keywords : metazoan 18S rRNA-mRNA 3 ' UTRs complementarity * large-scale data set * statistics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 4.605, year: 2016

  5. V gamma 9V delta 2 T-cell anergy and complementarity-determining region 3-specific depletion during paroxysm of nonendemic malaria infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Federico; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Montesano, Carla; Enders, Patrick J; Gentile, Marco; Pauza, C David; Gioia, Cristiana; Colizzi, Vittorio; Narciso, Pasquale; Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo; Poccia, Fabrizio

    2003-05-01

    V gamma 9V delta 2 T lymphocytes strongly respond to phosphoantigens from Plasmodium parasites. Thus, we analyzed the changes in V gamma 9V delta 2 T-cell function and repertoire during the paroxysm phase of nonendemic malaria infection. During malaria paroxysm, V gamma 9V delta 2 T cells were early activated but rapidly became anergic and finally loose J gamma 1.2 V gamma 9 complementarity-determining region 3 transcripts.

  6. Vγ9Vδ2 T-Cell Anergy and Complementarity-Determining Region 3-Specific Depletion during Paroxysm of Nonendemic Malaria Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Federico; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Montesano, Carla; Enders, Patrick J.; Gentile, Marco; Pauza, C. David; Gioia, Cristiana; Colizzi, Vittorio; Narciso, Pasquale; Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo; Poccia, Fabrizio

    2003-01-01

    Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes strongly respond to phosphoantigens from Plasmodium parasites. Thus, we analyzed the changes in Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell function and repertoire during the paroxysm phase of nonendemic malaria infection. During malaria paroxysm, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were early activated but rapidly became anergic and finally loose Jγ1.2 Vγ9 complementarity-determining region 3 transcripts. PMID:12704176

  7. Vγ9Vδ2 T-Cell Anergy and Complementarity-Determining Region 3-Specific Depletion during Paroxysm of Nonendemic Malaria Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Martini, Federico; Paglia, Maria Grazia; Montesano, Carla; Enders, Patrick J.; Gentile, Marco; Pauza, C. David; Gioia, Cristiana; Colizzi, Vittorio; Narciso, Pasquale; Pucillo, Leopoldo Paolo; Poccia, Fabrizio

    2003-01-01

    Vγ9Vδ2 T lymphocytes strongly respond to phosphoantigens from Plasmodium parasites. Thus, we analyzed the changes in Vγ9Vδ2 T-cell function and repertoire during the paroxysm phase of nonendemic malaria infection. During malaria paroxysm, Vγ9Vδ2 T cells were early activated but rapidly became anergic and finally loose Jγ1.2 Vγ9 complementarity-determining region 3 transcripts.

  8. A History of Infant Feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the adverti...

  9. CHICKS FEED Introduction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    effic1encv 111 quail clucks fed experimental diet when compared 10 those fed with commercial chick mash It may be pos,1bk 10 use ten111te Js pms1ble replacemem lor fo,h111cal 111 quail chicks· diet. Further studies "111 ... 1982). Many migratory insectivorous birds as well as anteaters, Pangolins and ant Bears feed ...

  10. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  11. Food Safety Information RSS feed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is an RSS Feed of Food Safety information that’s produced in real-time by the CDC. This RSS feed is the integration of two other XML feeds, one from the USDA's...

  12. On the comparison and the complementarity of batteries and fuel cells for electric driving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duigou, Alain; Smatti, Aimen

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers different current and emerging power train technologies (ICE, BEV, HEV, FCEV and FC-RE) and provides a comparison within a techno-economic framework, especially for the architectures of range-extender power trains. The economic benefits in terms of Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) are based on forecasts for the major TCO influencing parameters up to 2030: electric driving distances, energy (fuel, electricity, hydrogen) prices, batteries and fuel cell costs. The model takes into account functional parameters such as the battery range as well as daily trip segmentation statistics. The TCOs of all the vehicles become similar in 2030, given a 200 km battery range for BEVs. BEVs are profitable for yearly mileages of 30,000 km and over, and for higher battery ranges. The competitiveness of FCEVs is examined through the H 2 target price at the pump. There is a very significant effect of the fuel cell cost on the TCO. A FCEV with a fuel cell cost of 40 V/kW will be competitive with a similar ICE car for a 1.75 Euros/l fuel cost and ca. 7 Euros/kg hydrogen cost. This depends too to a great extent on possible ICE cars' CO 2 taxes. As regard the FC-RE electric car, the hydrogen target price at the pump is noticeably higher (ca 10 Euros/Kg). FC-RE cars TCOs are strongly affected by the FC power, the discount rate chosen and the yearly mileage. Moreover, it therefore seems reasonable to confine FC-RE battery ranges in the region of 60 km. (authors)

  13. Complementarities Between Nuclear Security, Safeguards and State System of Accounting for and Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalouneix, J.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear security deals with prevention against theft and diversion of nuclear materials and sabotage against nuclear materials or installations. It is based on provisions of physical protection of nuclear materials and facilities complemented by: - Provisions for accounting for and control to prevent and, where appropriate, detect loss, theft or diversion of nuclear materials; - The nuclear safety provisions to protect nuclear materials and facilities against sabotage. Safeguards are based on the statements and accounting controls in the facilities. The respective aim of EURATOM and IAEA controls is to verify afterwards the respect for the declared use of materials or political commitments undertaken by States under the non-proliferation purpose. However, EURATOM and IAEA controls are not exercised at all facilities (including those working for defence purposes) or in respect of all nuclear materials subject to the French national control. In addition, these international safeguards do not deal with physical protection of nuclear materials which is the sole responsibility of the State. The state control, implemented in France, is positioned upstream to the international controls. It aims to prevent, deter and detect the loss, theft or diversion of nuclear materials in installations or during transport. It places the responsibility of a possible diversion at the operator level. It is made of different components that complement each other and form a coherent whole. This includes: - physical protection; - accounting for and control; - inspections. The physical protection system has to protect nuclear materials against a malicious act. Malicious act means a theft or diversion of nuclear material or an act of sabotage affecting nuclear materials or facilities which could lead to radiological releases into the environment. The accounting for and control system of nuclear materials has to allow the continuous and accurate knowledge of the quantity, quality and location

  14. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on liquid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol describes the analysis of larvae feeding on liquid food. The test is designed for quantitative assessment of the food ingestion rate of individual larvae under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as food deprivation is prolonged. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  15. Does supplemental feeding affect behaviour and foraging of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In response to the provision of high-quality pods of Acacia albida, animals reduced foraging time in 2008 and allocated it to resting. This pattern corresponds to the animals' behaviour in captivity without foraging versus vigilance trade-offs and with predictable (in time and space) access to food. In 2009, supplemental ...

  16. Factors affecting the voluntary feed intakes of sheep grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the fact that a high rumen fill coincided with a high in vitro foam production in one instance may imply that a high saponin content was not instrumental in limiting intake. Only the rumen ammonia concentration and the total nitrogen content of the leaves showed a consistent relationship with voluntary intake.

  17. Control of feed intake as affected by previous treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    takes, accommodated increased intakes mainly by increasing the rate constant which describes the fermentation and outflow of fermentable OM. This rate constant became less im- portant as intake was increased and was progressively replaced by rumen fill, which accommodated 65% of increased intake at 14009 OM ...

  18. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... not: (1) Use animal drugs, including hormones, to promote growth; (2) Provide feed supplements or...; (5) Feed mammalian or poultry slaughter by-products to mammals or poultry; or (6) Use feed, feed...

  19. Uso de práticas integrativas e complementares por doulas em maternidades de Fortaleza (CE e Campinas (SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Magalhães da Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Objetivou-se analisar as Práticas Integrativas e Complementares (PICs utilizadas por doulas nos municípios de Fortaleza (CE e Campinas (SP. É um estudo de natureza qualitativa, com 15 doulas: nove de Fortaleza e seis de Campinas. Os dados foram coletados no segundo semestre de 2010, mediante a realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas, e organizados seguindo a técnica da Análise de Con teúdo na modalidade temática. A interpretação dos resultados baseou-se na noção de que a institucio nalização dos saberes se dá pela conformação de núcleos e de campos. O núcleo demarca a identidade de uma área de saber e de práticas profissionais; e o campo, um espaço de limites imprecisos entre as disciplinas, mas que pode ser submetido a conflitos. Observou-se que o suporte das doulas permeia uma variedade de práticas emolduradas na Medicina Tradicional (MT e das PICs. Essas práticas contri buíram para a diminuição do tempo de trabalho de parto, melhor controle da dor, ajuda na tomada de decisões e empoderamento da mulher. Compreende -se que o espaço de atuação da doula e o uso de PICs convergem para a singularidade, respeito e autonomia da mulher e propõem um novo modelo de saberes e práticas centrado na importância do processo natural do parto.

  20. Uma análise do setor de previdência complementar brasileiro An analisys for brasilian complementary providence sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Willer Pereira Coimbra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o setor de previdência complementar, observando os níveis de concentração, os efeitos das políticas de fiscalização, o grau de eficiência das empresas e as barreiras à entrada e à saída de firmas no setor. A metodologia básica consistiu no cálculo do Índice de Gini e no Método de Análise Envoltória de Dados. As principais conclusões da pesquisa foram que as empresas de tamanho médio são as mais eficientes do setor e estão ganhando participação no mercado, enquanto as cinco maiores empresas continuam, também, ampliando suas participações, a despeito de serem mais ineficientes. Tal fenômeno se explica pela sua ligação com grandes bancos, que se apresentam como uma barreira a novas empresas.The objective of this paper was to analyze the complementary providence sector, observing the concentration level, the effects of fiscalization policies, the degree of firm efficiency and the barriers to entry and exit for firms in the sector. The basic methodology consists in calculating the Gini Index and in Data Envelopment Analysis Method. The main conclusions of this research were that the medium sized firms are the most efficient of the sector, gaining market participation, while the five biggest firms also continue to increase their participations, despite being more inefficient. This phenomenon is explained by the links of these firms with big banks, that constitutes as a barrier for new firms.

  1. Chemical and biological evaluation of the nutritive value of heat-sterilized and radappertized feed mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kooij, J.G. van

    1979-01-01

    In an attempt to develop a procedure for wholesomeness testing of irradiated food, which considers the use of irradiation as a physical process, large-scale feeding tests in pigs were carried out. Basic criteria of this procedure are the testing of wholly irradiated diets and the comparison of irradiation with another physical process, viz. heat treatment. The results of the biological evaluation of the protein showed, that protein quality of sow feed was not noticeably affected by either treatment, while protein quality of creep and hog feed was more adversely affected by heat than by irradiation. Heat-sterilized feeds always demonstrated the lowest values for lysine availability. Feed-borne vitamin E appeared very sensitive to irradiation. Losses of vitamins A, B 1 , B 6 and folic acid were in the order of 20% due to irradiation with 5 Mrad. Losses in heat-sterilized feeds were about 40% for vitamins A, B 1 and B 6 . Prior to heating, sow and creep feeds were fortified with vitamins A, B 1 and B 6 , and hog feed with vitamin A. Hogs on heat-sterilized feed showed a 10% increased feed conversion, indicating a less favourable growth than the pigs on untreated or on irradiated feed. The mean body-weight of piglets at 49 days on heat-sterilized feed was approx. 10% lower (significant at p<0.05) than the body-weight of piglets on either untreated or radappertized creep feed. Body-weight gain values of piglets on heat-sterilized creep feed are markedly lower than those of piglets on either untreated or radappertized creep feeds during that part of the lactation period when the young pigs consume considerable quantities of solid feed. Piglets and hogs on heat-sterilized feeds demonstrated an increased sensitivity to stress conditions

  2. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  3. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... parents may perceive the animality of bovine colostrum, and the background information obtained in piglets, as a threat to the infants' connection to their biological parents as well as the larger human collective. Our study argues that the ‘species flexibility’ of premature beings profoundly shapes...

  5. Oxytocin, feeding and satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy eSabatier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.

  6. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  7. Líquen plano oral (LPO: diagnóstico clínico e complementar Oral lichen planus (OLP: clinical and complementary diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Motta do Canto

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O líquen plano é uma desordem comum do epitélio escamoso estratificado que acomete as mucosas oral e genital, a pele, as unhas e o couro cabeludo. O líquen plano oral (LPO afeta mulheres de meiaidade e apresenta padrões e distribuição característicos, como estriações brancas, pápulas ou placas brancas, eritema, erosões e bolhas, que podem estar associadas a medicações e/ou materiais dentários no paciente. O diagnóstico clínico somente poderá ser feito se a doença apresentar padrões clássicos, como lesões concomitantes na mucosa oral e na pele. O diagnóstico laboratorial por meio do exame histopatológico se caracteriza pela presença de projeções do epitélio em forma de dentes de serra e corpos de Civatte, e possibilita excluir condições de displasia e malignidade. A imunofluorescência direta é utilizada em suspeita de outras doenças, como pênfigo e penfigoide. O LPO é tratado com agentes anti-inflamatórios, principalmente, corticosteroides tópicos, e novos agentes e técnicas têm-se demonstrado eficazes. A transformação maligna do LPO e sua incidência exata permanecem controversas. Este trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar, com base na revisão da literatura, a etiopatogenia, o diagnóstico clínico, exames complementares e complicações do LPO.Lichen planus is a common disorder of the stratified squamous epithelium that affects oral and genital mucous membranes, skin, nails, and scalp. Oral Lichen Planus (OLP affects middle-aged women and shows distribution patterns and characteristics such as white striations, white plaques or papules, erythema, blisters and erosions, and may be associated with medication and/or dental materials used by the patient. The clinical diagnosis can only be made if the disease presents classical patterns such as concomitant lesions in the oral mucosa and skin. The laboratory diagnosis is histopathologically characterized by the presence of projections of the epithelium in the

  8. Continuous nasogastric milk feeding versus intermittent bolus milk feeding for premature infants less than 1500 grams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Shahirose S; Chessell, Lorraine

    2011-11-09

    nasogastric tube feeding method compared to intermittent nasogastric tube feeding method (MD 2.0 g/day; 95% CI 0.5 to 3.5; MD 2.0 g/day; 95% CI 0.2 to 3.8, respectively). A trend toward earlier discharge for infants less than 1000 grams birth weight fed by the continuous tube feeding method compared to intermittent nasogastric tube feeding method (MD -11 days; 95% CI -21.8 to -0.2). Small sample sizes, methodologic limitations, inconsistencies in controlling variables that may affect outcomes, and conflicting results of the studies to date make it difficult to make universal recommendations regarding the best tube feeding method for premature infants less than 1500 grams. The clinical benefits and risks of continuous versus intermittent nasogastric tube milk feeding cannot be reliably discerned from the limited information available from randomised trials to date.

  9. Impact of acetic acid concentration of fermented liquid feed on growth performance of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canibe, Nuria; Pedersen, Anni Øyan; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2010-01-01

    Feeding fermented liquid feed (FLF) to pigs has proven to benefit gastrointestinal health of the animals. However, growth performance data of piglets and growing pigs fed FLF are variable and often a lower feed intake compared to feeding non-FLF or dry feed has been observed. Accumulation...... of microbial metabolites, namely acetic acid, possibly in combination with low feed pH, has been suggested to be determinant in reducing feed intake by impairing palatability. However, this hypothesis has never been investigated. A study was carried out to determine the impact of increasing levels of acetic...... intake and body weight were registered weekly. The results showed that high acetic acid concentration in FLF, accompanied by a slight lower pH level, tended to decrease feed intake without affecting body weight gain. This discrepancy could partly be explained by the difficulty in measuring accurately...

  10. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  11. Health, body condition and blood metabolites in reindeer after submaintenance feed intake and subsequent feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nilsson

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The transition from experimentally induced poor nutritional conditions to feeding was studied with 69 eight-month-old female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. During a pre-experimental period, all reindeer were fed a simulated winter diet with 80% lichens Cladina spp. and 20% Vaccinum myrtillus shrubs and Salix spp. leaves (lichen diet ad lib. The reindeer were divided into five groups. A control group (group C was fed the lichen diet ad lib. throughout the experiment. Four groups were fed half of that ration for eight days and were then totally deprived of feed for one day (restriction period. During the following 34 days (feeding period the groups were re-fed the lichen diet (group L, fed pelleted reindeer feed combined with either lichen (group PL or grass silage (group PS, or fed silage with a gradually increasing addition of pellets (group SP. Weekly measurements of blood samples and body weighr showed that the control group remained clinically healthy and had stable blood plasma concentrations of protein, urea, glucose and insulin throughout the experiment, but they lost weight. At slaughter, before and after the restriction period, all animals had lost rumen-free body weight, but the reindeer fed a restricted amount of feed lost more than the control group. Also the plasma metabolites were affected by the restricted feeding, with increased concentrations of urea and decreased concentrations of glucose. Group L responded immediately to the ad lib. feeding with blood metabolite levels rapidly approaching those of group C. The body weight developments were similar in groups L and C. Although the feed rations were increased gradually, diarrhoea occurred in some animals belonging to groups PL and PS within the first week of the feeding period. All reindeer recovered, after antibiotic treatment of the worst affected animals. The PL and PS groups, which had high contents of metabolisable energy and crude protein in their diets, showed

  12. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that enteral feeding can be given without stimulating pancreatic trypsin secretion provided it is delivered into the mid-distal jejunum. The mechanism may involve activation of the ileal brake mechanism....

  13. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network.......Various effects of coupling between crossed-dipole antennas are analyzed and by using an arbitrary feeding network some generality is preserved. With one cross excited and another cross acting as a parasitic loaded antenna, coupling losses and gain and polarization losses are presented...

  14. Complementarity in Wormhole Chromodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Lee, Kai-Ming; Preskill, John

    1993-01-01

    The electric charge of a wormhole mouth and the magnetic flux ``linked'' by the wormhole are non-commuting observables, and so cannot be simultaneously diagonalized. We use this observation to resolve some puzzles in wormhole electrodynamics and chromodynamics. Specifically, we analyze the color electric field that results when a colored object traverses a wormhole, and we discuss the measurement of the wormhole charge and flux using Aharonov-Bohm interference effects. We suggest that wormhol...

  15. Breast feeding in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Hussein, H B

    1977-04-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding is investigated in relation to duration of breastfeeding without supplementation and the age when solids were first introduced in the infant's diet. The study also evaluates the awareness of the mothers of the benefits of breast milk. 461 mothers were interviewed in May 1976 by 3 doctors including the author. 95% (438) were found to breastfeed their babies at least once or twice a day. However, only 18% (86) of the mothers were fully breastfeeding up to 3 months and 9% (45) were breastfeeding without added solids up to 6 months. A disappointing finding was the introduction of solid foods by 78% (351) of the mothers before the end of the 3rd month; of these, 117 or 25% have introduced the solids as early as the 1st 6 months. Only 5% (23) were artificially feeding their infants. 86% (399) agreed that breast milk was the best milk for their children but only 277 (59%) agreed that infection occurs less frequently in breastfed than bottlefed children. 65% (302) were aware that solids should be introduced after 6 months to the infant's diet. Only 48% (222) were aware that a well-balanced diet is essential for an adequate supply of breast milk. Although 50% (232) reported that they were advised by nurses or bidans to breastfeed their children, only 37% (172) were given instructions on the technique of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding programs launched by the Ministry of Health should promote breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months duration and discourage early complement feeding and introduction of solids to infants less than 6 months of age.

  16. Dry season feeds and feeding: a threat to sustainable ruminant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review of dry season feeds and feeding as a threat to sustainable production of ruminant animal production in Nigeria. The concept of dry season nutrition and challenges posed on ruminant production such as reduction in general performance of animal, increased susceptibility to diseases, reduction in palatability and ...

  17. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  18. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed .... Bank interest rate. TL. = Test length. VC. = Veterinary costs. The following assumptions were made to simulate the profit value and to create a comparable basis for statistical analyses:.

  19. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati...

  20. infant feeding issues implications of formula feeding to reduce hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-03

    Aug 3, 2004 ... unfit bottle feeds with direct access to electricity was significantly higher than that for the group that prepared fit bottle feeds (41% v. 23%; p = 0.040, χ2. = 3.702). Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of households in the unfit group had access to an electric stove for cooking purposes (32% v.

  1. Breast feeding, bottle feeding and caries experience in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the relationship between breast feeding, bottle feeding pattern and caries experience in young children. Methods: Children aged 6 months – 5 years from 3 randomly selected local governments in Lagos State were examined intraorally. Structured questionnaire were administered to the mothers to ...

  2. Effect of early exposure to different feed presentations on feed sorting of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; Devries, T J

    2013-07-01

    This study examined how early exposure to different feed presentations affects development of feed sorting in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed for the first 8 wk of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. All calves received the MIX diet in wk 9 to 11 and, subsequently, a novel total mixed ration (TMR; containing 40.5% corn silage, 22.0% haylage, 21.5% high-moisture corn, and 16.0% protein supplement) in wk 12 to 13. Intake was recorded daily and calves were weighed twice a week. Fresh feed and orts were sampled on d 1 to 4 of wk 6, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 13 for analysis of feed sorting, which was assessed through nutrient analysis for the MIX diet and particle size analysis for the TMR. The particle separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18mm) producing long, medium, short, and fine particle fractions. Sorting of nutrients or particle fractions was calculated as the actual intake as a percentage of predicted intake; values >100% indicate sorting for, whereas values Feed presentation did not affect dry matter intake or growth. Prior to weaning, all calves selected in favor of hay; MIX calves consumed more neutral detergent fiber (NDF) than predicted (103.6%) and less nonfiber carbohydrates (NFC) than predicted (92.6%), and COM calves consumed, as a percentage of dry matter intake, 40.3% hay (vs. 30% offered rate). In wk 8, calves fed COM consumed more NFC than calves fed MIX (1.0 vs. 0.95kg/d) and less NDF (0.43 vs. 0.54kg/d), indicating greater selection in favor of concentrate. However, when provided the MIX diet, calves previously fed COM did not sort, whereas calves previously fed MIX consumed more NFC intake than predicted (103.2%) and less NDF intake than predicted (97.6%). Calves previously fed MIX maintained increased sorting after transition to the

  3. The design of control system of livestock feeding processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihombing, Juna; Napitupulu, Humala L.; Hidayati, Juliza

    2018-03-01

    PT. XYZ is a company that produces animal feed. One type of animal feed produced is 105 ISA P. In carrying out its production process, PT. XYZ faces the problem of rejected feed amounts during 2014 to June 2015 due to the amount of animal feed that exceeds the standard feed quality of 13% of moisture content and 3% for ash content. Therefore, the researchers analyzed the relationship between factors affecting the quality and extent of damage by using regression and correlation and determine the optimum value of each processing process. Analysis results found that variables affecting product quality are mixing time, steam conditioning temperature and cooling time. The most dominant variable affecting the product moisture content is mixing time with the correlation coefficient of (0.7959) and the most dominant variable affecting the ash content of the product during the processing is mixing time with the correlation coefficient of (0.8541). The design of the proposed product processing control is to run the product processing process with mixing time 235 seconds, steam conditioning temperature 87 0C and cooling time 192 seconds. Product quality 105 ISA P obtained by using this design is with 12.16% moisture content and ash content of 2.59%.

  4. Medicinas Alternativas e Complementares: uma metassíntese Complementary and Alternative Medicines: a meta-synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Spadacio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O aumento do uso de Medicinas Alternativas e Complementares (MAC motivou o crescimento do número de estudos qualitativos sobre o tema, justificando a realização de sínteses sobre esse material. Este artigo apresenta uma revisão sistemática de pesquisas qualitativas sobre MAC publicadas em periódicos internacionais. Esta revisão se orientou pela metodologia dos metaestudos. Foi realizada busca em revistas do Portal Periódicos da Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior e foram selecionados 32 artigos para análise. Os estudos revisados apresentam questões que têm como foco: o paciente, suas experiências terapêuticas e seus contextos sociais e culturais; o profissional, as relações profissionais e o processo de profissionalização das MAC; a MAC e sua relação com a biomedicina. Conclui-se que as pesquisas qualitativas sobre as MAC ensejam um olhar exploratório sobre o tema, procurando identificar as experiências de pacientes e profissionais com essas terapêuticas, assim como buscam discutir as conseqüências desse uso para a Medicina Convencional ou biomedicina.The growing use of Complementary and Alternative Medicines (CAM has led to an increase in the number of qualitative studies on the subject, thus justifying a meta-synthesis of the resulting material. The current article presents a systematic review of qualitative studies on CAM published in international journals. The review was conducted according to the meta-synthesis methodology. A search was performed in journals through the Periodicals Periodical of CAPES, the National Agency for the Evaluation of Graduate Studies, and 32 articles were selected for analysis. The reviewed studies raise questions focusing on: patients, their therapeutic experiences, and their social and cultural contexts; professionals, professional relations, and the process of professionalization of CAM; and CAM and their relationship to biomedicine. The article concludes

  5. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  6. Práticas complementares de saúde e os desafios de sua aplicabilidade no hospital: visão de enfermeiros

    OpenAIRE

    Suzane Cristina Costa Melo; Raíra Gomes de Santana; Déborah Cardozo dos Santos; Neide Aparecida Titonelli Alvim

    2013-01-01

    Pesquisa de abordagem qualitativa, descritivo-exploratória, com o objetivo de descrever o conjunto de concepções e saberes que orientam o emprego de práticas integrativas e complementares de saúde (PICS) por enfermeiros; e analisar os desafios que se apresentam à aplicabilidade dessas terapias por enfermeiros no contexto hospitalar. Os sujeitos da pesquisa foram enfermeiros de instituições públicas hospitalares do Rio de Janeiro. A coleta de dados foi feita através de entrevista semiestrutura...

  7. A música como terapia complementar na paliação da dor em idosos hospitalizados: à luz da teoria de Jean Watson

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, Juliana Bezerra do

    2012-01-01

    Estudo de natureza exploratória e descritiva com abordagem qualitativa e quantitativa fundamentado nos princípios filosóficos e científicos do Modelo do Cuidado Transpessoal de Jean Watson, que em sua essência, entre outros fatores, valoriza a dimensão humana em primeiro lugar. O objetivo geral foi analisar a influência da música como terapia complementar na paliação da dor em idosos hospitalizados em unidades de clínica-médica e cirúrgica de um hospital público de grande porte, da cidade do ...

  8. Proteome Analysis of Pyloric Ceca: A Methodology for Fish Feed Development?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Tune; Petersen, Jørgen; Nørrelykke, Mette R.

    2012-01-01

    Changing the protein source of fish feed from fish meal to alternative sources of protein will affect traits such as fish growth, quality, and feed utilization. The present investigation was initiated to introduce a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic workflow as a tool to investi......Changing the protein source of fish feed from fish meal to alternative sources of protein will affect traits such as fish growth, quality, and feed utilization. The present investigation was initiated to introduce a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis based proteomic workflow as a tool...

  9. An investigation of Breast Feeding Self Efficacy and its Relationship with exclusive breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Rahmatnejad

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Child nutrition in different aspects is important in the first years especially the first two years after birth. The most important feature of this period is that the physical and cerebral damage of malnutrition after this period is not compensable. Successful breastfeeding not only depends on psychological and social factors, but also depends on the physiological conditions that can affect the onset of lactation. In addition, other factors are involved in the duration of breastfeeding including: age and maternal education, family income, the first time to decide for breastfeeding, First time feeding, maternal skill and breastfeeding self-efficacy. The aim of this study, was to determine breastfeeding self efficacy and its relationship with exclusive breast-feeding. In this descriptive study, the data collection instrument, was a questionnaire consisted of the demographic characteristics and standard items of breastfeeding self efficacy. The number of participants in this study was 331 persons that selected continuously from the Primiparous women at Shahid Akbarabadi hospital in Tehran. The findings of this study showed promising results in all samples studied, standard deviation and mean score of breastfeeding self-efficacy in exclusive breast-feeding group was 53.64±9.8 and in non exclusive breast-feeding group was 46.11±9.23, which showed that the mothers with exclusive breast-feeding, had higher breastfeeding self-efficacy scores than those fed with the non-exclusive. Therefore according to the reported reduced rate of breast feeding in the recent years, it is necessary to provide appropriate strategies in order to increase breastfeeding self efficacy, especially in primiparous mothers in order to increase breastfeeding rates.

  10. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    .5 g protein/kg ideal body weight/d. Plasma gut peptide responses were monitored in 15 subjects. RESULTS: In comparison with basal fasting trypsin secretion rates (mean = 134 [standard error = 22] U/h), duodenal feeding with the polymeric and elemental formulae stimulated trypsin secretion (mean = 408...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... [standard error = 51] U/h; P standard error = 34] U/h) and mid-distal jejunal (mean = 119 [standard error = 16] U/h) did not. Stimulation was associated with an increase in plasma cholecystokinin, whereas distal jejunal feeding resulted in an increase...

  11. A History of Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  12. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were...... applied in the analysis.Results:There were marked differences in mothers' health concerns in early and in later phases of complementary feeding. In the early phase, feeding a child healthy food was an unquestioned and self-evident practice. The child's food was a specific category, separated from the rest....... Contested and partly contradictory practices resulted, including conscious acceptance of some intake of sugar and unhealthy fats. Perceived relevance of nutritional guidelines on complementary feeding was high in the early phase but declined later.Conclusion:Mothers' concerns and practices in the feeding...

  13. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    addressed these issues. There are several emerging research areas that are likely to provide a better understanding of how complementary feeding influences growth, development, and health. These include the effect of the young child's diet on body composition, gastrointestinal microbiota, and environmental......The complementary feeding period (6-24 months) is a window of opportunity for preventing stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity and for improving long-term development and health. Because WHO published its guiding principles for complementary feeding in 2003, new knowledge and evidence have...... been generated in the area of child feeding. The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the emerging issues in complementary feeding and potential implications on the guidelines revision. Evidence on the effect of the quality and quantity of protein and fat intake on child growth during...

  14. Analysis of feeding behavior of Drosophila larvae on solid food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping

    2012-05-01

    The food responses of Drosophila larvae offer an excellent opportunity to study the genetic and neural regulation of feeding behavior. Compared with fed larvae, hungry larvae are more likely to display aggressive foraging, rapid food intake, compensatory feeding, and stress-resistant food procurement. Behavioral assays have been developed to quantitatively assess particular aspects of the hunger-driven food response. In combination, these assays help define the specific role of signaling molecules or neurons in the regulation of feeding behavior in foraging larvae. This protocol is designed for quantitative assessment of the willingness of individual larvae to procure solid food under different energy states. It provides a simple and reliable way to measure the graded modification of the baseline feeding rate of larvae as the period of food deprivation is increased. The test is applicable to routine functional testing and larger-scale screening of genetic mutations and biologics that might affect food consumption.

  15. The effects of glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    la Fleur, Susanne E

    2006-08-30

    Glucocorticoids have major effects on food intake, however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This article highlights data on the changes that occur when glucocorticoids are removed by adrenalectomy, and the effects of central and systemic administered glucocorticoids on feeding behavior in rats. Next, animal data on the interaction of glucocorticoids with insulin on intake of comfort foods are addressed and the hypothesis that glucocorticoids modify feeding behavior, whereas insulin modifies the choice of food is discussed. Finally a view is presented that hormonal and vagal signals generated when (comfort) food is consumed will affect the corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) brain network important for the response to stress and the regulation of feeding. With a society, where stress is experienced daily and comfort food is found at every street corner, it will be vital to understand the interactions between the systems that react to stress and regulate feeding behavior to fight the obesity epidemic.

  16. Impossibilidade de alteração de lei complementar por lei ordinária em matéria tributária

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Lima Castro Diniz

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Usually the legislator controls a specific subject through a complementary law, although it can be done through a ordinary law, which is different concerning the legislative process, mainly on the quorum matter. A law with these characteristics must be considered complementary law, so that its modification is only possible by a norm on the same level. According to the principles of “more value legitimatory” and liberty of conformation of the legislator in his legislative activity.É comum que o legislador regule um determinado assunto por meio de lei complementar, embora pudesse fazê-lo através de lei ordinária, cujo processo legislativo é diferente, sobretudo pela questão do quorum. Uma lei com essas características deve ser considerada lei complementar, decorrendo daí que sua modificação apenas é possível por norma do mesmo escalão, em face dos princípios da mais valia legitimatória e da liberdade de conformação do legislador na atividade legislativa.

  17. A tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior na propedêutica do exame complementar na avaliação de ectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Freitas Valbon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos a importância da tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior na propedêutica do exame complementar na avaliação de ectasia. Esta descrição da interpretação clínica dos índices da tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior (Pentacam - Oculus, Wetzlar, Germany neste relato de caso, demonstra a relevância de uma nova tecnologia na avaliação da córnea e segmento anterior na suspeita de ceratocone. O diagnóstico de ceratocone foi excluído pela análise dos índices tomográficos de ectasia. Detectou-se assimetria entre os lados nasal e temporal por meio da avaliação do mapa de profundidade de câmara anterior. No exame biomicroscópico sob midríase foi constatado subluxação do cristalino, sendo assim devemos estar atentos não somente aos índices tomográficos corneanos na avaliação do exame complementar e sim analisarmos outros dados importantes oferecidos pela tomografia de córnea e segmento anterior.

  18. Terapias alternativas/complementares no ensino público e privado: análise do conhecimento dos acadêmicos de enfermagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trovo Monica Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visou a análise sobre o conhecimento que alunos de graduação em Enfermagem de duas instituições de ensino, uma pública e uma privada, têm em relação às terapias alternativas/complementares, uma vez que ambas as instituições oferecem disciplina específica nessa área, de forma optativa e obrigatória, respectivamente. Os dados encontrados sugerem que o conhecimento sobre o tema decorre do senso comum, além do ensino acadêmico. Os alunos recomendam mais a utilização de terapias alternativas/complementares do que fazem uso das mesmas, sendo as mais conhecidas por eles: a terapia floral, acupuntura, homeopatia, cromoterapia, fitoterapia, musicoterapia e massagem. E o aspecto mais negligenciado no processo ensino-aprendizagem dessa disciplina relaciona-se com os aspectos legais da especialização nesse campo para o enfermeiro.

  19. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids during this time. Historically, Irish breast-feeding initiation rates have remained strikingly low in comparison with international data and there has been little improvement in breast-feeding duration rates. There is wide geographical variation in terms of breast-feeding initiation both internationally and in Ireland. Some of these differences in breast-feeding rates may be associated with differing socio-economic characteristics. A recent cross-sectional prospective study of 561 pregnant women attending a Dublin hospital and followed from the antenatal period to 6 months post partum has found that 47% of the Irish-national mothers initiated breast-feeding, while only 24% were still offering \\'any\\' breast milk to their infants at 6 weeks. Mothers\\' positive antenatal feeding intention to breast-feed is indicated as one of the most important independent determinants of initiation and \\'any\\' breast-feeding at 6 weeks, suggesting that the antenatal period should be targeted as an effective time to influence and affect mothers\\' attitudes and beliefs pertaining to breast-feeding. These results suggest that the \\'cultural\\' barrier towards breast-feeding appears to still prevail in Ireland and consequently an environment that enables women to breast-feed is far from being achieved. Undoubtedly, a shift towards a more positive and accepting breast-feeding culture is required if national breast-feeding rates are to improve.

  20. Indulgent Feeding Style and Children’s Weight Status in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O.; Shewchuk, Richard M.; Baskin, Monica L.; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Qu, Haiyan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary aim of this study was to examine whether parent affect and child temperament characteristics differ across feeding styles in low-income families, given suggestive evidence. The secondary aim was to examine whether feeding styles were still related to children’s body mass index independent of parent affect, child temperament, and known correlates. Methods Participants in this study were 718 parents of childrens attending Head Start programs across two sites (Texas and Alabama). Parents were categorized into feeding styles of authoritative (n = 118), authoritarian (n = 219), indulgent (n = 240) and uninvolved (n = 141) using a parent-report questionnaire characterizing feeding in a general parenting paradigm. Parents completed questionnaires and measured height and weight was obtained from parents and children. Results Differences were found across feeding styles on parent affect and child temperament characteristics. Indulgent parents reported lower Negative Affect for themselves and lower Negative Affectivity for their children. The indulgent feeding style was significantly associated with higher child body mass index after controlling for parent affect, child temperament, and correlates (ethnicity, child age, parent body mass index). Conclusions The results of this study not only show a robust association between the indulgent feeding style and weight status of low-income preschool childrens, but also suggest how congruence between parent emotional affect and child temperament characteristics may contribute to excess consumption among children of indulgent parents. PMID:18714209

  1. Modulation of SF1 Neuron Activity Coordinately Regulates Both Feeding Behavior and Associated Emotional States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulius Viskaitis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding requires the integration of homeostatic drives with emotional states relevant to food procurement in potentially hostile environments. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH regulates feeding and anxiety, but how these are controlled in a concerted manner remains unclear. Using pharmacogenetic, optogenetic, and calcium imaging approaches with a battery of behavioral assays, we demonstrate that VMH steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1 neurons constitute a nutritionally sensitive switch, modulating the competing motivations of feeding and avoidance of potentially dangerous environments. Acute alteration of SF1 neuronal activity alters food intake via changes in appetite and feeding-related behaviors, including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, and valence. In turn, intrinsic SF1 neuron activity is low during feeding and increases with both feeding termination and stress. Our findings identify SF1 neurons as a key part of the neurocircuitry that controls both feeding and related affective states, giving potential insights into the relationship between disordered eating and stress-associated psychological disorders in humans.

  2. 2SD numerical study of feed-jet flow in gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Dongjun; Zeng Shi

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was adopted to simulate the 2D symmetrical feed-jet flow-field in Iguacu gas centrifuge, in order to study the influence of feed-jet to counter-current. The data acquired from calculation were used to modify the feed boundary condition in counter-current calculation, and the stream lines distribution was got considering the effect o f the feed-jet. Finite volume method and 2-order implicit scheme were adopted to solve Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in cylinder coordinates to simulate the feed-jet flow. Finite difference method was used to solve centrifuge fluid dynamics equations. The result s indicate that the feed-jet flow affects the countercurrent observably, the results of feed-jet flow simulation can be used to modify the conditions to calculate the counter-current in the real centrifuge. (authors)

  3. Percepção de médicos e enfermeiros da Estratégia de Saúde da Família sobre terapias complementares

    OpenAIRE

    Sônia de Castro S Thiago; Charles Dalcanale Tesser

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar a percepção de profissionais da Estratégia de Saúde da Família sobre práticas integrativas e complementares. MÉTODOS: Estudo com 177 médicos e enfermeiros a partir de um questionário auto-aplicado em 2008. As variáveis desfecho foram "interesse pelas práticas integrativas e complementares" e "concordância com a Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares". Sexo, idade, graduação, pós-graduação, tempo de formado e de trabalho, possuir filhos, oferta de prátic...

  4. CONSEQUENCES OF IMPROPER INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.N. Zakharova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of food programming according to which the type of nourishment of an infant programs peculiarities of his metabolism all along his entire future life, and as a consequence, predisposition to certain diseases and characteristics of their run. The work gives an estimate of the hazards and consequences of improper infant feeding and explains the advantages of the breast feeding. The authors present modern information on preparation of baby milk formulas.Key words: infants, health, feeding, adapted milk formulas, nucleotides, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, oligosaccharides.

  5. Feeding the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, W; Smith, M

    1997-03-01

    This article discusses the unequal distribution of food within and among countries of the world, poverty as the main cause of hunger, the patterns of population growth, and future prospects. The evidence reveals the potential for reaching limits of agricultural expansion. Widespread environmental destruction suggests that agricultural lands are declining. Current production patterns may not be sustainable. "Population growth is the single largest determinant of future needs." Farmers of the world's poorest regions must produce food to meet the needs of a doubled population by 2050. The 1996 World Food Summit urged that agricultural policies emphasize environmentally sustainable production methods and a wider variety of crops that would include sorghum and millet. In the early 1990s, 40% of Africa's population was food-energy deficient. Africa has some of the highest population growth rates. Fertility stands at about 6 children/woman. Even with reduced fertility, the African population is expected to double to 22% of world population by 2050. The East Asian population, which is dominated by China, is expected to reach 2.2 billion by 2050. South Asia includes some of the poorest and most densely populated countries; its population is expected to reach 2.2-3.3 billion by 2050. 43% of the malnourished population during 1990-92 lived in sub-Saharan Africa, 22% lived in South Asia, 16% lived in East and Southeast Asia, 15% lived in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 12% lived in the Near East and North Africa. The proportions of underweight children included 58% in South Asia, 30% in sub-Saharan Africa, 25% in the Near East and North Africa, 24% in East and Southeast Asia, and 12% in Latin America and the Caribbean. If everyone adopted a vegetarian diet and no food were wasted, there would be enough food to feed 10 billion people. Malnourishment has the harshest effects on children, rural populations, the growing urban poor, and victims of natural disasters.

  6. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate...... amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude...

  7. Modeling Treated LAW Feed Evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DANIEL, WE

    2004-01-01

    This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process

  8. Rotary powder feed through apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.

    2001-01-01

    A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.

  9. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  10. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  11. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  12. Feed resources and livestock production situation in the highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Disappearance of better quality and palatable species of grasses, expansion of invasive plants like Raphanus raphanistrum and Parthenium hysterophorus, and depletion of soil nutrients were listed as factors affecting the quality of grazing land. An average of 11.55 and 13.89 tons of feed dry matter (DM) was produced per ...

  13. The Effect Of School Feeding Programme On Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The result of the regression analysis showed that punctuality; absenteeism; child's gender; child's age; child's birth order; household size; years of education of the household head and SFP were significant variables which affect attendance of children in school. The t-test revealed that the school-feeding programme [SFP] ...

  14. Whole farm assessment of alternative cropping and feeding strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A change in cropping and feeding practices can affect the performance, economics and environmental impacts of a dairy farm. A whole farm assessment of all major effects can only be done through process level simulation of the production system. The Integrated Farm System Model provides a research an...

  15. Larval fish feeding and turbulence : A case for the downside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    MacKenzie, Brian; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    Theory states that small-scale turbulence decreases pursuit success of planktonic predators by advecting the encountered prey from the reactive zone of the predator during the pursuit event. We tested the quantitative predictions of a previously published model describing this phenomenon in larval...... explain the contradictory observations of how turbulence affects larval fish feeding, growth, and survival in the sea....

  16. INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES IN THE EAST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adequate dietary intake may be a major determinant of the health outcome of children. This study aims at describing the infant and young child feeding practices amongst a group of mothers, factors affecting such practices and the effect of the practice on the nutritional status of the children. Semi-closed ended questionnaire ...

  17. Feeding response of Daphnia cf. similis to different concentration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding response of Daphnia cf. similis to different concentration gradients of Microcystis and its implication for preventing algal blooming. ... Currently freshwater ecosystems are affected worldwide by Cyanobacterial blooms through the process of eutrophication. The objective of this study was to provide experimental ...

  18. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches

  19. Fungal biodegradation of plantain peel for broiler finisher feeding: In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... protein, cholesterol and glucose were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the treatments. Fungal biodegradation of PPL using A.niger has the potential of enhancing feed intake, nutrient digestibility and the body weight gain of broiler finisher. Keywords: Aspergillus niger, biodegradation, nutrient enhancement and broilers.

  20. Effect of Mother's Characteristics and Infant Feeding Practices on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Education and occupation affected the nutritional status of these infants negatively. Conclusion: The study has shown that exclusive breastfeeding remains the best for the infant. It also showed that mother's care giving behaviour was a strong determinant of the nutritional status of the children. Key words: Infant feeding ...