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Sample records for feeding alters ugt1a1

  1. Polymorphisms of UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 & UGT1A1*28 in three major ethnic groups from Malaysia.

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    Teh, L K; Hashim, H; Zakaria, Z A; Salleh, M Z

    2012-08-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) have been associated with a wide variation of responses among patients prescribed with irinotecan. Lack of this enzyme is known to be associated with a high incidence of severe toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of three different variants of UGT1A1 (UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 and UGT1A1*28), which are associated with reduced enzyme activity and increased irinotecan toxicity, in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malays, Chinese and Indians). A total of 306 healthy unrelated volunteers were screened for UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*27. Blood samples (5 ml) were obtained from each subject and DNA was extracted. PCR based methods were designed and validated for detection of UGT1A1*, UUGT1A1*27 and UUGT1A1*28. Direct DNA sequencing was performed to validate the results of randomly selected samples. Malays and Indian have two-fold higher frequency of homozygous of UGT1A1*28 (7TA/7TA) which was 8 and 8.8 per cent, respectively compared to the Chinese (4.9%). However, the distribution of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*27 showed no significant differences among them. UGT1A1*27 which has not been detected in Caucasian and African American population, was found in the Malaysian Malays (3.33%) and Malaysian Chinese (2.0%). There was interethnic variability in the frequency of UGT1A1*28 in the Malaysian population. Our results suggest that genotyping of UUGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*27 need to be performed before patients are prescribed with irinotecan due to their high prevalence of allelic variant which could lead to adverse drug reaction.

  2. Regulation of UGT1A1 and HNF1 transcription factor gene expression by DNA methylation in colon cancer cells

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    Harvey Mario

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1 is a pivotal enzyme involved in metabolism of SN-38, the active metabolite of irinotecan commonly used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer. We previously demonstrated aberrant methylation of specific CpG dinucleotides in UGT1A1-negative cells, and revealed that methylation state of the UGT1A1 5'-flanking sequence is negatively correlated with gene transcription. Interestingly, one of these CpG dinucleotides (CpG -4 is found close to a HNF1 response element (HRE, known to be involved in activation of UGT1A1 gene expression, and within an upstream stimulating factor (USF binding site. Results Gel retardation assays revealed that methylation of CpG-4 directly affect the interaction of USF1/2 with its cognate sequence without altering the binding for HNF1-alpha. Luciferase assays sustained a role for USF1/2 and HNF1-alpha in UGT1A1 regulation in colon cancer cells. Based on the differential expression profiles of HNF1A gene in colon cell lines, we also assessed whether methylation affects its expression. In agreement with the presence of CpG islands in the HNF1A promoter, treatments of UGT1A1-negative HCT116 colon cancer cells with a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor restore HNF1A gene expression, as observed for UGT1A1. Conclusions This study reveals that basal UGT1A1 expression in colon cells is positively regulated by HNF1-alpha and USF, and negatively regulated by DNA methylation. Besides, DNA methylation of HNF1A could also play an important role in regulating additional cellular drug metabolism and transporter pathways. This process may contribute to determine local inactivation of drugs such as the anticancer agent SN-38 by glucuronidation and define tumoral response.

  3. [Detection of UGT1A1*28 Polymorphism Using Fragment Analysis].

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    Huang, Ying; Su, Jian; Huang, Xiaosui; Lu, Danxia; Xie, Zhi; Yang, Suqing; Guo, Weibang; Lv, Zhiyi; Wu, Hongsui; Zhang, Xuchao

    2017-12-20

    Uridine-diphosphoglucuronosyl transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1), UGT1A1*28 polymorphism can reduce UGT1A1 enzymatic activity, which may lead to severe toxicities in patients who receive irinotecan. This study tries to build a fragment analysis method to detect UGT1A1*28 polymorphism. A total of 286 blood specimens from the lung cancer patients who were hospitalized in Guangdong General Hospital between April 2014 to May 2015 were detected UGT1A1*28 polymorphism by fragment analysis method. Comparing with Sanger sequencing, precision and accuracy of the fragment analysis method were 100%. Of the 286 patients, 236 (82.5% harbored TA6/6 genotype, 48 (16.8%) TA 6/7 genotype and 2 (0.7%) TA7/7 genotype. Our data suggest hat the fragment analysis method is robust for detecting UGT1A1*28 polymorphism in clinical practice. It's simple, time-saving, and easy-to-carry.

  4. Assignment of the human UDP glucuronosyltransferase gene (UGT1A1) to chromosome region 2q37

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Es, H. H.; Bout, A.; Liu, J.; Anderson, L.; Duncan, A. M.; Bosma, P.; Oude Elferink, R.; Jansen, P. L.; Chowdhury, J. R.; Schurr, E.

    1993-01-01

    UDP glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) comprise a multigene family of drug-metabolizing enzymes. The sub-family of UGTs that conjugate bilirubin and phenolic compounds with glucuronic acid has been termed UGT1A1. In man, UGT1A1 isoforms are encoded by a single gene, UGT1A1. Protein isoforms encoded by

  5. Molecular cloning, sequence identification and expression profile of domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus UGT1A1 gene

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    Yang Deming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic guinea pig is a model animal for human disease research. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1 is an important human disease-related gene. In this study, the complete coding sequence of domestic guinea pig gene UGT1A1 was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The open reading frame of the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene is 1602 bp in length and was found to encode a protein of 533 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the UGT1A1 protein of domestic guinea pig shared high homology with the UGT1A1 proteins of degu (84%, damara mole-rat (84%, human (80%, northern white-cheeked gibbon (80%, Colobus angolensis palliatus (80% and golden snub-nosed monkey (79%. This gene contains five exons and four introns, as revealed by the computer-assisted analysis. The results also showed that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene had a close genetic relationship with the UGT1A1 gene of degu. The prediction of transmembrane helices showed that domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 might be a transmembrane protein. Expression profile analysis indicated that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene was differentially expressed in detected domestic guinea pig tissues. Our experiment laid a primary foundation for using the domestic guinea pig as a model animal to study the UGT1A1-related human diseases.

  6. Bilirubin glucuronidation revisited: proper assay conditions to estimate enzyme kinetics with recombinant UGT1A1.

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    Zhou, Jin; Tracy, Timothy S; Remmel, Rory P

    2010-11-01

    Bilirubin, an end product of heme catabolism, is primarily eliminated via glucuronic acid conjugation by UGT1A1. Impaired bilirubin conjugation, caused by inhibition of UGT1A1, can result in clinical consequences, including jaundice and kernicterus. Thus, evaluation of the ability of new drug candidates to inhibit UGT1A1-catalyzed bilirubin glucuronidation in vitro has become common practice. However, the instability of bilirubin and its glucuronides presents substantial technical challenges to conduct in vitro bilirubin glucuronidation assays. Furthermore, because bilirubin can be diglucuronidated through a sequential reaction, establishment of initial rate conditions can be problematic. To address these issues, a robust high-performance liquid chromatography assay to measure both bilirubin mono- and diglucuronide conjugates was developed, and the incubation conditions for bilirubin glucuronidation by human embryonic kidney 293-expressed UGT1A1 were carefully characterized. Our results indicated that bilirubin glucuronidation should be assessed at very low protein concentrations (0.05 mg/ml protein) and over a short incubation time (5 min) to assure initial rate conditions. Under these conditions, bilirubin total glucuronide formation exhibited a hyperbolic (Michaelis-Menten) kinetic profile with a K(m) of ∼0.2 μM. In addition, under these initial rate conditions, the relative proportions between the total monoglucuronide and the diglucuronide product were constant across the range of bilirubin concentration evaluated (0.05-2 μM), with the monoglucuronide being the predominant species (∼70%). In conclusion, establishment of appropriate incubation conditions (i.e., very low protein concentrations and short incubation times) is necessary to properly characterize the kinetics of bilirubin glucuronidation in a recombinant UGT1A1 system.

  7. Genetic variation in statin intolerance and a possible protective role for UGT1A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Willrich, Maria Alice; Kaleta, Erin J; Bryant, Sandra C; Spears, Grant M; Train, Laura J; Peterson, Sandra E; Lennon, Vanda A; Kopecky, Stephen L; Baudhuin, Linnea M

    2018-01-01

    The etiology of statin intolerance is hypothesized to be due to genetic variants that impact statin disposition and clearance. We sought to determine whether genetic variants were associated to statin intolerance. The studied cohort consisted of hyperlipidemic participants (n = 90) clinically diagnosed with statin intolerance by a cardiologist and matched controls without statin intolerance. Creatine kinase activity, lipid profiles and genetic analyses were performed on genes involved in statin metabolism and included UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 sequencing and targeted analyses of CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, SLCO1B1*5 and *1b, ABCB1 c.3435C>T, ABCG2 c.421C>A and GATM rs9806699. Although lipids were higher in cases, genetic variant minor allele frequencies were similar between cases and controls, except for UGT1A1*28, which was less prevalent in cases than controls.

  8. Phenotyping of UGT1A1 Activity Using Raltegravir Predicts Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Irinotecan in FOLFIRI.

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    Lawrence Soon-U Lee

    Full Text Available Irinotecan toxicity correlates with UGT1A1 activity. We explored whether phenotyping UGT1A1 using a probe approach works better than current genotyping methods.Twenty-four Asian cancer patients received irinotecan as part of the FOLFIRI regimen. Subjects took raltegravir 400 mg orally and intravenous midazolam 1 mg. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using WinNonLin and NONMEM. Genomic DNA was isolated and screened for the known genetic variants in UGT1A1 and CYP3A4/5.SN-38G/SN-38 AUC ratio correlated well with Raltegravir glucuronide/ Raltegravir AUC ratio (r = 0.784 p<0.01. Midazolam clearance correlated well with irinotecan clearance (r = 0.563 p<0.01. SN-38 AUC correlated well with Log10Nadir Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC (r = -0.397 p<0.05. Significant correlation was found between nadir ANC and formation rate constant of raltegravir glucuronide (r = 0.598, P<0.005, but not UGT1A1 genotype.Raltegravir glucuronide formation is a good predictor of nadir ANC, and can predict neutropenia in East Asian patients. Prospective studies with dose adjustments should be done to develop raltegravir as a probe to optimize irinotecan therapy.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00808184.

  9. Differences in UGT1A1, UGT1A7, and UGT1A9 polymorphisms between Uzbek and Japanese populations.

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    Maeda, Hiromichi; Hazama, Shoichi; Shavkat, Abdiev; Okamoto, Ken; Oba, Koji; Sakamoto, Junichi; Takahashi, Kenichi; Oka, Masaki; Nakamura, Daisuke; Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Okayama, Naoko; Mishima, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Michiya

    2014-06-01

    Uridine-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) is a key enzyme involved in irinotecan metabolism, and polymorphisms in the UGT1A gene are associated with irinotecan-induced toxicity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the allele frequencies of UGT1A polymorphisms in healthy Uzbek volunteers, and to compare them with those of the Japanese population. A total of 97 healthy volunteers from Uzbekistan were enrolled and blood samples were collected from each participant. Genotyping analysis was performed by fragment size analysis for UGT1A1*28, direct sequencing for UGT1A7*3 and UGT1A9*22, and TaqMan assays for UGT1A1*93, UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27, UGT1A1*60, and UGT1A7*12. The frequencies of polymorphisms were compared with the Japanese population by using the data previously reported from our study group. When the Uzbek and Japanese populations were compared, heterozygotes or homozygotes for UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*60, and UGT1A1*93 were significantly more frequent in the Uzbek population (P Japanese population (P Japanese population. A comprehensive study of the influence of UGT1A1 polymorphisms on the risk of irinotecan-induced toxicity is necessary for optimal use of irinotecan treatment.

  10. The effect of UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism in the development of hyperbilirubinemia and cholelithiasis in hemoglobinopathy patients.

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    Suad AlFadhli

    Full Text Available Present study was aimed to explore the effect of (TAn UGT1A1 gene promoter polymorphism on bilirubin metabolism, bilirubinaemia, predisposition to cholelithiasis and subsequent cholecystectomy, in Sickle-Cell Anemia (SCA and beta-Thalasemia major (bTH in Kuwaiti subjects compared to other population. This polymorphism was analyzed and correlated to total bilirubin and cholelithiasis in 270 age, gender, ethnically matched subjects (92 bTH, 116 SCA and 62 Controls using PCR, dHPLC, fragment analysis and direct sequencing. Four genotypes of UGT1A1 were detected in this study (TA6/6, TA6/7, TA6/8 and TA7/7. (TA6/8 was found only in four individuals; hence it was not included in the analysis. There was a statistically significant association of genotypes with serum total bilirubin levels in both bTH and SCA groups (p<0.001. Subjects with (TA7/7 had the highest total serum bilirubin level (178.7 ± 3.5 µmole/l. A significant association was observed between allele (TA7 and cholelithiasis development (p = 0.0001. The 40%, 67.5% and 100% of SCA with (TA6/6, (TA6/7 and (TA7/7 respectively developed cholelithiasis and were subsequently cholecystectomized. Our results confirm UGT1A1 (TA7 allele as one of the factors accounting for the hyperbilirubinemia and cholelithiasis observed in SCA and bTH.

  11. A translationally optimized AAV-UGT1A1 vector drives safe and long-lasting correction of Crigler-Najjar syndrome

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    Giuseppe Ronzitti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crigler-Najjar syndrome is a severe metabolic disease of the liver due to a reduced activity of the UDP Glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1 enzyme. In an effort to translate to the clinic an adeno-associated virus vector mediated liver gene transfer approach to treat Crigler-Najjar syndrome, we developed and optimized a vector expressing the UGT1A1 transgene. For this purpose, we designed and tested in vitro and in vivo multiple codon-optimized UGT1A1 transgene cDNAs. We also optimized noncoding sequences in the transgene expression cassette. Our results indicate that transgene codon-optimization is a strategy that can improve efficacy of gene transfer but needs to be carefully tested in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, while inclusion of introns can enhance gene expression, optimization of these introns, and in particular removal of cryptic ATGs and splice sites, is an important maneuver to enhance safety and efficacy of gene transfer. Finally, using a translationally optimized adeno-associated virus vector expressing the UGT1A1 transgene, we demonstrated rescue of the phenotype of Crigler-Najjar syndrome in two animal models of the disease, Gunn rats and Ugt1a1-/- mice. We also showed long-term (>1 year correction of the disease in Gunn rats. These results support further translation of the approach to humans.

  12. Combined effect of regulatory polymorphisms on transcription of UGT1A1 as a cause of Gilbert syndrome

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    Sato Hiroshi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gilbert syndrome is caused by defects in bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1. The most common variation believed to be involved is A(TA7TAA. Although several polymorphisms have been found to link with A(TA7TAA, the combined effect of regulatory polymorphisms in the development of Gilbert syndrome remains unclear. Methods In an analysis of 15 patients and 60 normal subjects, we detected 14 polymorphisms and nine haplotypes in the regulatory region. We classified the 4-kbp regulatory region of the patients into: the TATA box including A(TA7TAA; a phenobarbital responsive enhancer module including c.-3275T>G; and a region including other ten linked polymorphisms. The effect on transcription of these polymorphisms was studied. Results All haplotypes with A(TA7TAA had c.-3275T>G and additional polymorphisms. In an in-vitro expression study of the 4-kbp regulatory region, A(TA7TAA alone did not significantly reduce transcription. In contrast, c.-3275T>G reduced transcription to 69% of that of wild type, and the linked polymorphisms reduced transcription to 88% of wild type. Transcription of the typical regulatory region of the patients was 56% of wild type. Co-expression of constitutive androstane receptor (CAR increased the transcription of wild type by a factor of 4.3. Each polymorphism by itself did not reduce transcription to the level of the patients, however, even in the presence of CAR. Conclusions These results imply that co-operation of A(TA7TAA, c.-3275T>G and the linked polymorphisms is necessary in causing Gilbert syndrome.

  13. UGT1A1 (TA)n genotyping in sickle-cell disease: high resolution melting (HRM) curve analysis or direct sequencing, what is the best way?

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    Thomas, Vincent; Mazard, Blandine; Garcia, Caroline; Lacan, Philippe; Gagnieu, Marie-Claude; Joly, Philippe

    2013-09-23

    Minucci et al. have proposed in 2010 a rapid, simple and cost-effective HRM method on the LightCycler 480® apparatus (Roche) for the determination of the 6/6, 6/7 and 7/7 genotypes of the (TA)n UGT1A1 promoter polymorphism. However, they have not studied the n=5 and n=8 alleles which can be quite frequent in sickle-cell disease patients. The aim of our study was to test this HRM protocol to all the 10 possible (TA)n UGT1A1 genotypes (i.e. 5/5, 5/6, 5/7, 5/8, 6/6, 6/7, 6/8, 7/7, 7/8 and 8/8) by using our SCD cohort of patients. All genotypes could be unambiguously identified except 6/7 and 6/8 which give a similar HRM profile. For those two genotypes, the differentiation necessitates either a direct Sanger sequencing or a second PCR protocol followed by a 3% agarose gel migration. For the (TA)n UGT1A1 promoter genotyping of African patients, each lab has to wonder what is the best way between (i) direct Sanger sequencing of all patients and (ii) HRM protocol for all patients followed by a complementary analysis to differentiate the 6/7 and 6/8 genotypes. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of bisphenol A glucuronidation according to UGT1A1*28 polymorphism by a new LC–MS/MS assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trdan Lušin, Tina; Roškar, Robert; Mrhar, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is a frequently used chemical in the manufacture of consumer products. In humans, BPA is extensively metabolized to BPA glucuronide (BPAG) by different UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms. The study has been performed with the intention to improve the accuracy of published physiologically based pharmacokinetic models and to improve regulatory risk assessments of BPA. In order to gain insight into intestine, kidney, liver, and lung glucuronidation of BPA, human microsomes of all tested organs were used. BPAG formation followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics in the intestine and kidney, but followed substrate inhibition kinetics in the liver. Human lung microsomes did not show glucuronidation activity towards BPA. While the liver intrinsic clearance was very high (857 mL min −1 kg body weight −1 ), the tissue intrinsic clearances for the kidney and intestine were less than 1% of liver intrinsic clearance. Since BPA is a UGT1A1 substrate, we postulated that the common UGT1A1*28 polymorphism influences BPA glucuronidation, and consequently, BPA detoxification. Hepatic tissue intrinsic clearances for UGT1A1*1/*1, UGT1A1*1/*28, and UGT1A1*28/*28 microsomes were 1113, 1075, and 284 mL min −1 kg body weight −1 , respectively. Prior to microsomal experiments, the bioproduction of BPAG and stable isotope-labeled BPAG (BPAG d16 ) was performed for the purpose of the reliable and accurate quantification of BPAG. In addition, a sensitive LC–MS/MS analytical method for the simultaneous determination of BPA and BPAG based on two stable isotope-labeled internal standards was developed and validated. In conclusion, our in vitro results show that the liver is the main site of BPA glucuronidation (K m 8.9 μM, V max 8.5 nmol min −1 mg −1 ) and BPA metabolism may be significantly influenced by a person's genotype (K m 10.0–13.1 μM, V max 3.4–16.2 nmol min −1 mg −1 ). This discovery may be an important fact for the

  15. Polymorphisms of estrogen metabolism-related genes ESR1 , UGT2B17 , and UGT1A1 are not associated with osteoporosis in artificial menopausal Japanese women

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    Megumi Yokota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Previous studies have reported an association between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of developing osteoporosis. However, the relationship between osteoporosis and genetic polymorphisms in Japanese women treated with BSO is not well understood. To improve the quality of life for post-BSO patients, it is important to determine the genetic factors that influence their risk for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gene variations of estrogen metabolism-related genes and osteoporosis in surgically menopausal patients, which may improve the quality of life for surgically menopausal patients. Material and methods : This study included 203 menopausal women treated with BSO because of gynecologic disorders. One hundred and twenty-six women with artificial (surgical menopause, who had undergone BSO in the premenopausal period, were compared with 77 women with natural menopause, who had undergone BSO in the postmenopausal period. The women were tested for bone mineral density to diagnose osteoporosis. Polymorphisms of estrogen receptor 1 ( ESR1 and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT genes UGT2B17 and UGT1A1 were analyzed, and their association with bone mass and osteoporosis was statistically evaluated. Results : No significant association was found between osteoporosis and polymorphisms in ESR1 , UGT2B17 , or UGT1A1 in both groups, suggesting that BSO might be a more significant physiological factor in influencing bone mass density compared to genetic variations. Conclusions : These results suggest that the ESR1 , UGT2B17 , and UGT1A1 polymorphisms are not genetic factors affecting osteoporosis in postmenopausal Japanese women.

  16. FOLFIRI and regorafenib combination therapy with dose escalation of irinotecan as fourth-line treatment for patients with metastatic colon cancer according to UGT1A1 genotyping

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    Lu CY

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chien-Yu Lu,1,2 Yung-Sung Yeh,3–5 Ching-Wen Huang,5,6, Cheng-Jen Ma,4,5 Fang-Jung Yu,1,2 Jaw-Yuan Wang4–10 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, 3Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, 4Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, 5Division of Gastroenterology and General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 6Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, 7Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 8Department of Genomic Medicine, 9Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 10Center for Biomarkers and Biotech Drugs, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: Here we report a case of metastatic colon cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and escalated doses of irinotecan (FOLFIRI combined with regorafenib in the fourth-line setting after uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1 genotyping analysis. A 66-year-old male was initially diagnosed with Union Internationale Contre le Cancer stage III descending colon cancer and underwent curative surgery. He received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy; however, liver metastasis developed and a partial hepatectomy was performed thereafter. Unfortunately, pulmonary metastases and recurrent liver tumors were found despite a series of systemic treatments with multiple combinations of cytotoxic and biologic agents. Recently, a novel multikinase inhibitor, regorafenib, was approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to other therapeutic modalities. As further treatment, we combined regorafenib with FOLFIRI, which included dose escalations of irinotecan, after UGT1A1 genotyping analysis. The therapeutic results were promising, with the improvement in liver and pulmonary metastases being

  17. Pegvisomant-Induced Cholestatic Hepatitis in an Acromegalic Patient with UGT1A1 ​⁎ 28 Mutation

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    Maria Susana Mallea-Gil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pegvisomant (PEGv is a growth hormone receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of acromegaly; one of its documented adverse effects is reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes. We report a 39-year-old male acromegalic patient with a pituitary macroadenoma who underwent transsphenoidal surgery. The patient’s condition improved but GH and IGF-I levels did not normalize; as a consequence, we first administered dopamine agonists and then somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs with poor response. PEGv 15 mg every other day was added to lanreotide 120 mg monthly. The patient developed a severe hepatitis five months after starting the combination therapy. Elevated ferritin, iron, and transferrin saturation suggested probable hepatitis due to haemochromatosis. We performed a liver biopsy which showed an acute cholestatic hepatitis consistent with toxic etiology. A heterozygous genotype UGT1A1​⁎28 polymorphism associated with Gilbert’s syndrome was also found in this Argentine patient. The predominant clinical presentation resembled an acute cholestatic hepatitis associated with severe hemosiderosis, a different and new pattern of PEGv hepatotoxicity.

  18. Exome-Wide Association Study Identifies New Low-Frequency and Rare UGT1A1 Coding Variants and UGT1A6 Coding Variants Influencing Serum Bilirubin in Elderly Subjects

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    Oussalah, Abderrahim; Bosco, Paolo; Anello, Guido; Spada, Rosario; Guéant-Rodriguez, Rosa-Maria; Chery, Céline; Rouyer, Pierre; Josse, Thomas; Romano, Antonino; Elia, Maurizzio; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre; Guéant, Jean-Louis

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified loci contributing to total serum bilirubin level. However, no exome-wide approaches have been performed to address this question. Using exome-wide approach, we assessed the influence of protein-coding variants on unconjugated, conjugated, and total serum bilirubin levels in a well-characterized cohort of 773 ambulatory elderly subjects from Italy. Coding variants were replicated in 227 elderly subjects from the same area. We identified 4 missense rare (minor allele frequency, MAF bilirubin level (P = 2.34 × 10−34, P = 7.02 × 10−34, and P = 8.27 × 10−34), as well as unconjugated, and conjugated bilirubin levels. We also identified UGT1A6 variants in association with total (rs6759892, p.Ser7Ala, P = 1.98 × 10−26; rs2070959, p.Thr181Ala, P = 2.87 × 10−27; and rs1105879, p.Arg184Ser, P = 3.27 × 10−29), unconjugated, and conjugated bilirubin levels. All UGT1A1 intronic variants (rs887829, rs6742078, and rs4148325) and UGT1A6 coding variants (rs6759892, rs2070959, and rs1105879) were significantly associated with gallstone-related cholecystectomy risk. The UGT1A6 variant rs2070959 (p.Thr181Ala) was associated with the highest risk of gallstone–related cholecystectomy (OR, 4.58; 95% CI, 1.58–13.28; P = 3.21 × 10−3). Using an exome-wide approach we identified coding variants on UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 genes in association with serum bilirubin level and hyperbilirubinemia risk in elderly subjects. UGT1A1 intronic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs6742078, rs887829, rs4148324) serve as proxy markers for the low-frequency and rare UGT1A1 variants, thereby providing mechanistic explanation to the relationship between UGT1A1 intronic SNPs and the UGT1A1 enzyme activity. UGT1A1 and UGT1A6 variants might be potentially associated with gallstone-related cholecystectomy risk. PMID:26039129

  19. High Expression of UGT1A1/1A6 in Monkey Small Intestine: Comparison of Protein Expression Levels of Cytochromes P450, UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases, and Transporters in Small Intestine of Cynomolgus Monkey and Human.

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    Akazawa, Takanori; Uchida, Yasuo; Miyauchi, Eisuke; Tachikawa, Masanori; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2018-01-02

    Cynomolgus monkeys have been widely used for the prediction of drug absorption in humans. The purpose of this study was to clarify the regional protein expression levels of cytochromes P450 (CYPs), UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs), and transporters in small intestine of cynomolgus monkey using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and to compare them with the corresponding levels in human. UGT1A1 in jejunum and ileum were >4.57- and >3.11-fold and UGT1A6 in jejunum and ileum were >16.1- and >8.57-fold, respectively, more highly expressed in monkey than in human. Also, jejunal expression of monkey CYP3A8 (homologue of human CYP3A4) was >3.34-fold higher than that of human CYP3A4. Among apical drug efflux transporters, BCRP showed the most abundant expression in monkey and human, and the expression levels of BCRP in monkey and human were >1.74- and >1.25-fold greater than those of P-gp and >2.76- and >4.50-fold greater than those of MRP2, respectively. These findings should be helpful to understand species differences of the functions of CYPs, UGTs, and transporters between monkey and human. The UGT1A1/1A6 data would be especially important because it is difficult to identify isoforms responsible for species differences of intestinal glucuronidation by means of functional studies due to overlapping substrate specificity.

  20. Duplicação [TA] na região promotora do gene UGT1A1 : revisão sistemática e meta - análise

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    Monteiro, Susana Cristina Fidalgo

    2012-01-01

    O Síndroma de Gilbert (SG) é uma entidade clínica comum caracterizada por uma forma benigna de hiperbilirrubinemia não conjugada, na ausência de disfunção hepática e de hemólise. O seu diagnóstico, inicialmente de carácter presuntivo, passou a dispor de caracterização molecular quando, em 1995, foram descritas as primeiras mutações no gene UridinoDifosfato-glucuronosil transferase-1 (UGT1A1). Em particular, uma duplicação de 2 nucleotídeos [TA] na região promotora do gene, que tem vindo a rev...

  1. Kaempferol protects against propacetamol-induced acute liver injury through CYP2E1 inactivation, UGT1A1 activation, and attenuation of oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Shiun; Wang, Ying-Han; Lai, Yan-Yun; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Liou, Gan-Guang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Wang, Sue-Hong

    2018-06-15

    Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose can induce acute liver injury (ALI) with significant morbidity and mortality. Propacetamol is an APAP prodrug, which is clinically bioequivalent to APAP. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of kaempferol on propacetamol-induced ALI and its underlying mechanism in mice. Kaempferol pretreatment (125 mg/kg) before propacetamol injection significantly decreased propacetamol-induced serum ALT and AST activities, and DNA fragmentation. Kaempferol administration also reduced propacetamol-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation partly through downregulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, upregulation of UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A1 (UGT1A1) expression, restoration of the activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GPx and catalase toward normal, recovery of propacetamol-suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expressions, and maintenance of normal glutathione level. Furthermore, kaempferol markedly attenuated APAP-induced serum TNF-α and IL-6 productions, downregulated APAP-induced phosphorylations of JNK and ERK, and decreased early hepatic apoptosis via decreasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activation. Furthermore, administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and kaempferol significantly rescued more mice than a low dose of NAC only did when a lethal dose of propacetamol injected and therapized at a delayed time point. These data suggested that kaempferol protects the liver against propacetamol-induced injury through anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of UGT1A1*28 genotype and SN-38 pharmacokinetics for irinotecan-based chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer: results from a multicenter, retrospective study in Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xun; Cao, Weiguo; Ding, Honghua; Liu, Tianshu; Zhou, Xinli; Wang, Mei; Zhong, Ming; Zhao, Ziyi; Xu, Qing; Wang, Liwei

    2013-09-01

    The UGT1A1*28 polymorphism, although closely linked with CPT-11-related adverse effects, cannot be used alone to guide individualized treatment decisions. However, CPT-11 dosage can be adjusted according to measured SN-38 pharmacokinetics. Our study is designed to investigate whether there is a relationship between SN-38 peak or valley concentrations and efficacy or adverse effects of CPT-11-based chemotherapy. We retrospectively studied 98 patients treated with advanced colorectal cancer in various UGT1A1*28 genotype groups (mainly (TA)6/(TA)6 and (TA)6/(TA)7 genotypes) treated with CPT-11 as first-line chemotherapy in Shanghai. One hundred and sixty-four advanced colorectal cancer patients were enrolled. To understand differences in genotype expression, the frequency of UGT1A1*28 thymine-adenine (TA) repeats in TATA box arrangement was assessed by PCR with genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood. For ninety-eight cases with the (TA)6/(TA)6 and (TA)6/(TA)7 genotypes treated with CPT-11 as first-line chemotherapy, the plasma concentration of SN-38 was detected by HPLC 1.5 and 49 h after CPT-11 infusion. Efficacy and adverse effects were observed subsequently, and the relationship between SN-38 plasma concentration and efficacy or adverse effects within genotype groups, as well as differences in efficacy and adverse effects between (TA)6/(TA)6 and (TA)6/(TA)7 genotypes were analyzed statistically. One hundred and fourteen patients (69.51 %) were identified with the (TA)6/(TA)6 genotype, forty-eight patients (29.27 %) with the (TA)6/(TA)7 genotype, and two patients (1.22 %) with the (TA)7/(TA)7 genotype. The average peak and valley concentrations of SN-38 after CPT-11 infusion and plasma bilirubin average levels before and after CPT-11 treatment in the (TA)6/(TA)7 genotype group were all higher than those in (TA)6/(TA)6 group, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.00). Stepwise regression analysis showed that SN-38 peak and valley

  3. Algal Toxins Alter Copepod Feeding Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Talapatra, Siddharth; Katz, Joseph; Tester, Patricia A.; Waggett, Rebecca J.; Place, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major) to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod’s feeding appendages–a “sampling beating” that has short durations (<100 ms) and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration “grazing beating” that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod’s grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod’s feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods. PMID:22629336

  4. Algal toxins alter copepod feeding behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiarong Hong

    Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.

  5. Supplemental feeding alters migration of a temperate ungulate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer D; Kauffman, Matthew J; Monteith, Kevin L; Scurlock, Brandon M; Albeke, Shannon E; Cross, Paul C

    Conservation of migration requires information on behavior and environmental determinants. The spatial distribution of forage resources, which migration exploits, often are altered and may have subtle, unintended consequences. Supplemental feeding is a common management practice, particularly for ungulates in North America and Europe, and carryover effects on behavior of this anthropogenic manipulation of forage are expected in theory, but have received limited empirical evaluation, particularly regarding effects on migration. We used global positioning system (GPS) data to evaluate the influence of winter feeding on migration behavior of 219 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) from 18 fed ranges and 4 unfed ranges in western Wyoming. Principal component analysis revealed that the migratory behavior of fed and unfed elk differed in distance migrated, and the timing of arrival to, duration on, and departure from summer range. Fed elk migrated 19.2 km less, spent 11 more days on stopover sites, arrived to summer range 5 days later, resided on summer range 26 fewer days, and departed in the autumn 10 days earlier than unfed elk. Time-to-event models indicated that differences in migratory behavior between fed and unfed elk were caused by altered sensitivity to the environmental drivers of migration. In spring, unfed elk migrated following plant green-up closely, whereas fed elk departed the feedground but lingered on transitional range, thereby delaying their arrival to summer range. In autumn, fed elk were more responsive to low temperatures and precipitation events, causing earlier departure from summer range than unfed elk. Overall, supplemental feeding disconnected migration by fed elk from spring green-up and decreased time spent on summer range, thereby reducing access to quality forage. Our findings suggest that ungulate migration can be substantially altered by changes to the spatial distribution of resources, including those of anthropogenic origin, and that

  6. Supplemental feeding alters migration of a temperate ungulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer D; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Cross, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of migration requires information on behavior and environmental determinants. The spatial distribution of forage resources, which migration exploits, often are altered and may have subtle, unintended consequences. Supplemental feeding is a common management practice, particularly for ungulates in North America and Europe, and carryover effects on behavior of this anthropogenic manipulation of forage are expected in theory, but have received limited empirical evaluation, particularly regarding effects on migration. We used global positioning system (GPS) data to evaluate the influence of winter feeding on migration behavior of 219 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) from 18 fed ranges and 4 unfed ranges in western Wyoming. Principal component analysis revealed that the migratory behavior of fed and unfed elk differed in distance migrated, and the timing of arrival to, duration on, and departure from summer range. Fed elk migrated 19.2 km less, spent 11 more days on stopover sites, arrived to summer range 5 days later, resided on summer range 26 fewer days, and departed in the autumn 10 days earlier than unfed elk. Time-to-event models indicated that differences in migratory behavior between fed and unfed elk were caused by altered sensitivity to the environmental drivers of migration. In spring, unfed elk migrated following plant green-up closely, whereas fed elk departed the feedground but lingered on transitional range, thereby delaying their arrival to summer range. In autumn, fed elk were more responsive to low temperatures and precipitation events, causing earlier departure from summer range than unfed elk. Overall, supplemental feeding disconnected migration by fed elk from spring green-up and decreased time spent on summer range, thereby reducing access to quality forage. Our findings suggest that ungulate migration can be substantially altered by changes to the spatial distribution of resources, including those of anthropogenic origin, and that

  7. The UGT1A1*28 allele and disease in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jesper Padkær

    2014-01-01

    Baggrund: Bilirubin er slutproduktet i hæms metabolisme. Ukonjugeret bilirubin er neuro-toksisk, men også en potent antioxidant af mulig klinisk relevans. Fortolkningen af observationelle bilirubin studier vanskeliggøres af potentiel revers kausalitet og adskillige tænkelige confoundere. En måde ...

  8. Parasite-altered feeding behavior in insects: integrating functional and mechanistic research frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Melissa A; Singer, Michael S

    2017-08-15

    Research on parasite-altered feeding behavior in insects is contributing to an emerging literature that considers possible adaptive consequences of altered feeding behavior for the host or the parasite. Several recent ecoimmunological studies show that insects can adaptively alter their foraging behavior in response to parasitism. Another body of recent work shows that infection by parasites can change the behavior of insect hosts to benefit the parasite; manipulations of host feeding behavior may be part of this phenomenon. Here, we address both the functional and the underlying physiological frontiers of parasite-altered feeding behavior in order to spur research that better integrates the two. Functional categories of parasite-altered behavior that are adaptive for the host include prophylaxis, therapy and compensation, while host manipulation is adaptive for the parasite. To better understand and distinguish prophylaxis, therapy and compensation, further study of physiological feedbacks affecting host sensory systems is especially needed. For host manipulation in particular, research on mechanisms by which parasites control host feedbacks will be important to integrate with functional approaches. We see this integration as critical to advancing the field of parasite-altered feeding behavior, which may be common in insects and consequential for human and environmental health. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Changes in microbial water quality in RAS following altered feed loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Vadstein, Olav

    2018-01-01

    and inorganic nutrients available for microbial growth in RAS. How these nutrient inputs affect and regulate bacteria in RAS water is, however, unclear. To investigate this relationship and the associated water quality dynamics, the effects of altered feed loading on microbial water quality in RAS was studied....... The study included six independent, identical pilot-scale RAS, each with a total volume of 1.7 m3 (make-up water: 80 L/day) stocked with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). All systems had been operating with constant and identical feed loading of 3.13 kg feed/m3 make-up water for a period......Intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with its hyper-eutrophic water offer ideal conditions for bacterial growth, abundance and activity, potentially affecting fish and system performance. Feed composition and feed loading in particular will have significant impact on organic...

  10. Temporal organization of feeding in Syrian hamsters with a genetically altered circadian period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oklejewicz, M; Overkamp, GJF; Stirland, JA; Daan, S

    2001-01-01

    The variation in spontaneous meal patterning was studied in three genotypes (tau +/+, tau +/- and tau -/-) of the Syrian hamster with an altered circadian period. Feeding activity was monitored continuously in 13 individuals from each genotype in constant dim light conditions. All three genotypes

  11. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  12. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V.; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  13. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-02-01

    The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three studies on N. europaea were compared to achieve a

  14. Issues related to volatilization, phase alteration, and presence of unreacted feed in the borosilicate glass wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, V.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has outlined the requirements in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) that must be met before they will accept West Valley canistered vitrified waste forms for shipment to a federal depository. In this study the glass volatilization was studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to evaluate the absence of free gases, free liquids, explosives, pyrophorics, combustibles, and organics in the waste form. The total carbon in the samples was analyzed using a carbon determinator, phase alteration by heat-treating samples for extended periods of time (45-day) at T g -10 degrees C and T g +10 degrees C (where T g is the glass transition temperature), and the presence of unreacted feed in glass by comparing x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for glass and dried feed. The results of this study indicate that the West Valley vitrification process completely transforms the feed into glass. Also the TGA, XRD, and scanning transmission electron microscopy data indicates that there is no significant volatilization, redox reactions, and phase alterations in the waste form up to more than 200 degrees C above the T g . 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs

  15. Enteral Tube Feeding Alters the Oral Indigenous Microbiota in Elderly Adults ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Takeshita, Toru; Yasui, Masaki; Tomioka, Mikiko; Nakano, Yoshio; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    Enteral tube feeding is widely used to maintain nutrition for elderly adults with eating difficulties, but its long-term use alters the environment of the oral ecosystem. This study characterized the tongue microbiota of tube-fed elderly adults by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of 44 tube-fed subjects were compared with those of 54 subjects fed orally (average age, 86.4 ± 6.9 years). Bar-coded pyrosequencing data were also ...

  16. Association of serum bilirubin and promoter variations in HMOX1 and UGT1A1 genes with sporadic colorectal cancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásková, A.; Novotný, J.; Novotný, L.; Vodička, Pavel; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Schwertner, H. A.; Hubáček, J. A.; Punčochářová, L.; Šmerhovský, Z.; Vítek, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 131, č. 7 (2012), s. 1549-1555 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME849; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06155; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11030 Program:2B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : bilirubin * bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase * colorectal cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.198, year: 2012

  17. Exercise training alters effect of high-fat feeding on the ACTH stress response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankord, Ryan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Turk, James R; Hamilton, Marc T; Laughlin, M Harold

    2008-06-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors influence neuroendocrine output. The purpose of this study was to test, in an animal model of diet-induced cardiovascular disease, the effects of high-fat feeding and exercise training on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol response to an acute stressor. We also hypothesized that exercise training would reverse the high-fat diet-induced changes in FFAs and thereby restore the ACTH and cortisol response. Pigs were placed in 1 of 4 groups (normal diet, sedentary; normal diet, exercise training; high-fat diet, sedentary; high-fat diet, exercise training; n = 8/group). Animals were placed on their respective dietary and activity treatments for 16-20 weeks. After completion of the treatments animals were anesthetized and underwent surgical intubation. Blood samples were collected after surgery and the ACTH and cortisol response to surgery was determined and the circulating concentrations of FFAs, glucose, cholesterol, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured. Consistent with our hypothesis, high-fat feeding increased FFAs by 200% and decreased the ACTH stress response by 40%. In exercise-trained animals, the high-fat diet also increased FFA; however, the increase in FFA in exercise-trained pigs was accompanied by a 60% increase in the ACTH response. The divergent effect of high-fat feeding on ACTH response was not expected, as exercise training alone had no effect on the ACTH response. Results demonstrate a significant interaction between diet and exercise and their effect on the ACTH response. The divergent effects of high-fat diet could not be explained by changes in weight gain, blood glucose, insulin, or IGF-1, as these were altered by high-fat feeding, but unaffected by exercise training. Thus, the increase in FFA with high-fat feeding may explain the blunted

  18. Enteral tube feeding alters the oral indigenous microbiota in elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Toru; Yasui, Masaki; Tomioka, Mikiko; Nakano, Yoshio; Shimazaki, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Yoshihisa

    2011-10-01

    Enteral tube feeding is widely used to maintain nutrition for elderly adults with eating difficulties, but its long-term use alters the environment of the oral ecosystem. This study characterized the tongue microbiota of tube-fed elderly adults by analyzing the 16S rRNA gene. The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) profiles of 44 tube-fed subjects were compared with those of 54 subjects fed orally (average age, 86.4 ± 6.9 years). Bar-coded pyrosequencing data were also obtained for a subset of the subjects from each group (15 tube-fed subjects and 16 subjects fed orally). The T-RFLP profiles demonstrated that the microbiota of the tube-fed subjects was distinct from that of the subjects fed orally (permutational multivariate analysis of variance [perMANOVA], P < 0.001). The pyrosequencing data revealed that 22 bacterial genera, including Corynebacterium, Peptostreptococcus, and Fusobacterium, were significantly more predominant in tube-fed subjects, whereas the dominant genera in the subjects fed orally, such as Streptococcus and Veillonella, were present in much lower proportions. Opportunistic pathogens rarely detected in the normal oral microbiota, such as Corynebacterium striatum and Streptococcus agalactiae, were often found in high proportions in tube-fed subjects. The oral indigenous microbiota is disrupted by the use of enteral feeding, allowing health-threatening bacteria to thrive.

  19. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort alters and facilitates swallowing during feeding sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, J; Hara, A; Nomura, T; Kondo, H

    2014-03-01

    The key objective of mastication is to form a food bolus suitable for smooth swallowing. However, chewing is usually performed without a conscious effort. Poor bolus formation can cause pharyngeal residue and suffocation in elderly individuals with reduced swallowing function. Therefore, chewing with a conscious effort may help the bolus to more easily pass the pharynx. This study aimed to clarify the impact of mastication with a conscious effort on the feeding sequence. Subjects included 25 dentulous volunteers who were informed and provided written consent. Lateral videofluoroscopy was performed during the feeding of solid agar jelly under two conditions: chewing naturally in their usual manner (without volition) and chewing with a conscious effort (with volition). Temporal evaluation was performed for mastication, stage II transport (STII), swallow onset and oropharyngeal transit time. Moreover, bolus volume at swallow onset and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness were measured. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort lengthened the duration of the chewing sequence before and after STII and delayed the swallow onset despite the fact that the bolus volume in the vallecula and hypopharynx (HYP) had significantly increased. Furthermore, with volition, the bolus transit time from swallow onset in the oral cavity, upper oropharynx and HYP was reduced, and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness demonstrated significant improvement. These results suggest that volitional chewing with a conscious effort can alter bolus transport and swallowing, resulting in easier swallowing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Metabolic and feeding behavior alterations provoked by prenatal exposure to aspartame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Poser Toigo, E; Huffell, A P; Mota, C S; Bertolini, D; Pettenuzzo, L F; Dalmaz, C

    2015-04-01

    The use of artificial sweeteners has increased together with the epidemic growth of obesity. In addition to their widespread use in sodas, artificial sweeteners are added to nearly 6000 other products sold in the US, including baby foods, frozen dinners and even yogurts. It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners can lead to body weight gain and an altered metabolic profile. However, very few studies have evaluated the effects of maternal consumption of artificial non-caloric sweeteners on body weight, feeding behavior or the metabolism of offspring in adult life. In this study, we found that animals exposed to aspartame during the prenatal period presented a higher consumption of sweet foods during adulthood and a greater susceptibility to alterations in metabolic parameters, such as increased glucose, LDL and triglycerides. These effects were observed in both males and females, although they were more pronounced in males. Despite the preliminary nature of this study, and the need for further confirmation of these effects, our data suggest that the consumption of sweeteners during gestation may have deleterious long-term effects and should be used with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Feeding period restriction alters the expression of peripheral circadian rhythm genes without changing body weight in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagoon Jang

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that the circadian clock is closely associated with metabolic regulation. However, whether an impaired circadian clock is a direct cause of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight gain is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that body weight gain in mice is not significantly changed by restricting feeding period to daytime or nighttime. The expression of peripheral circadian clock genes was altered by feeding period restriction, while the expression of light-regulated hypothalamic circadian clock genes was unaffected by either a normal chow diet (NCD or a high-fat diet (HFD. In the liver, the expression pattern of circadian clock genes, including Bmal1, Clock, and Per2, was changed by different feeding period restrictions. Moreover, the expression of lipogenic genes, gluconeogenic genes, and fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver was also altered by feeding period restriction. Given that feeding period restriction does not affect body weight gain with a NCD or HFD, it is likely that the amount of food consumed might be a crucial factor in determining body weight. Collectively, these data suggest that feeding period restriction modulates the expression of peripheral circadian clock genes, which is uncoupled from light-sensitive hypothalamic circadian clock genes.

  2. Aggregated filter-feeding consumers alter nutrient limitation: consequences for ecosystem and community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carla L; Vaughn, Caryn C; Forshay, Kenneth J; Cooper, Joshua T

    2013-06-01

    Nutrient cycling is a key process linking organisms in ecosystems. This is especially apparent in stream environments in which nutrients are taken up readily and cycled through the system in a downstream trajectory. Ecological stoichiometry predicts that biogeochemical cycles of different elements are interdependent because the organisms that drive these cycles require fixed ratios of nutrients. There is growing recognition that animals play an important role in biogeochemical cycling across ecosystems. In particular, dense aggregations of consumers can create biogeochemical hotspots in aquatic ecosystems via nutrient translocation. We predicted that filter-feeding freshwater mussels, which occur as speciose, high-biomass aggregates, would create biogeochemical hotspots in streams by altering nutrient limitation and algal dynamics. In a field study, we manipulated nitrogen and phosphorus using nutrient-diffusing substrates in areas with high and low mussel abundance, recorded algal growth and community composition, and determined in situ mussel excretion stoichiometry at 18 sites in three rivers (Kiamichi, Little, and Mountain Fork Rivers, south-central United States). Our results indicate that mussels greatly influence ecosystem processes by modifying the nutrients that limit primary productivity. Sites without mussels were N-limited with -26% higher relative abundances of N-fixing blue-green algae, while sites with high mussel densities were co-limited (N and P) and dominated by diatoms. These results corroborated the results of our excretion experiments; our path analysis indicated that mussel excretion has a strong influence on stream water column N:P. Due to the high N:P of mussel excretion, strict N-limitation was alleviated, and the system switched to being co-limited by both N and P. This shows that translocation of nutrients by mussel aggregations is important to nutrient dynamics and algal species composition in these rivers. Our study highlights the

  3. Blocking opioid receptors alters short-term feed intake and oro-sensorial preferences in weaned calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A

    2012-05-01

    during the first 4 h after feeding and tended to prefer SF only after 6 h from feeding. Plasma glucose, insulin, and cholecystokinin concentrations were greater in FED than in FAS calves. Injection of naloxone decreased plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in NAL calves. Blocking opioid receptors reduced intake the first 2 h after naloxone injection in FED calves, altered oro-sensorial preferences, and reduced plasma GLP-1 concentration. In conclusion, the opioid peptide system may control short-term feed intake by modulating the oro-sensorial response triggered by feed consumption, especially when calves are fed ad libitum. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Origin and alteration of organic matter in termite mounds from different feeding guilds of the Amazon rainforests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V B; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰) and δ15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors.

  5. Origin and Alteration of Organic Matter in Termite Mounds from Different Feeding Guilds of the Amazon Rainforests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V. B.; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf

    2015-01-01

    The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰) and δ15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors. PMID:25909987

  6. Positive effects of acarbose in the diabetic rat are not altered by feeding schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, B E; Vasselli, J R; Katovich, M J

    1998-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that chronic dietary treatment with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, improves glucose homeostasis in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. In this study we evaluated the effects of 4 weeks of acarbose treatment on glucose homeostasis in STZ-diabetic rats for both meal-fed (three times daily) and ad libitum feeding conditions. Sprague Dawley male rats (n = 58) were started on a daily meal-feeding paradigm consisting of three 2-h feeding periods: 0700 to 0900 hours, 1300 to 1500 hours, and 1900 to 2100 hours. Following 2 weeks of adaptation, half of the animals were switched to ad libitum feeding. The feeding paradigm itself (meal fed versus ad lib.) affected neither body weight nor daily food intake. Twenty animals from each feeding group then received STZ (60 mg/kg i.v.), whereas control animals received vehicle injections only. Two days later, the diet of 10 STZ-treated animals from each paradigm was supplemented with acarbose (40 mg of BAY G 5421/100-g diet), and the groups were treated for 4 weeks. Untreated diabetic rats had lower body weight than vehicle-injected control rats at all time points after STZ treatment. Acarbose treatment delayed this effect on body weight. STZ treatment induced hyperphagia regardless of feeding paradigm, which was significantly attenuated by acarbose only for the first week of treatment. Untreated diabetic rats had fasting blood glucose values 4 times those of vehicle-injected controls in both the meal-fed and ad libitum-fed conditions. Acarbose significantly lowered fasting blood glucose in the treated STZ groups. Blood glucose was also assessed 0, 90, and 180 min following the start of a meal. The postprandial rise in blood glucose was significantly reduced in acarbose-treated meal-fed diabetic rats, to values not significantly different from those of vehicle-injected control rats. During the fourth week of treatment glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in untreated

  7. Feed intake alters immune cell functions and ovarian infiltration in broiler hens: implications for reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei

    2014-06-01

    Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P hens. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  8. Complementary feeding with cow's milk alters sleeping metabolic rate in breast-fed infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, H; Wells, JCK; Coward, WA; Duro, D; Victora, CG; Vonk, RJ; Wright, A; Visser, GH

    Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of

  9. Sindbis virus infection alters blood feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F

    2012-03-01

    Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.

  10. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (U.S.)

  11. Altering iodine metabolism in the calf by feeding iodine-binding agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.

    1975-01-01

    Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (auth)

  12. Alteration of metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets with in-feed antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Yu, Kaifan; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Chuanjian; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun

    2017-04-01

    In-feed antibiotics have been used to promote growth in piglets, but its impact on metabolomics profiles associated with host metabolism is largely unknown. In this study, to test the hypothesis that antibiotic treatment may affect metabolite composition both in the gut and host biofluids, metabolomics profiles were analyzed in antibiotic-treated piglets. Piglets were fed a corn-soy basal diet with or without in-feed antibiotics from postnatal day 7 to day 42. The serum biochemical parameters, metabolomics profiles of the serum, urine, and jejunal digesta, and indicators of microbial metabolism (short-chain fatty acids and biogenic amines) were analyzed. Compared to the control group, antibiotics treatment did not have significant effects on serum biochemical parameters except that it increased (P Antibiotics treatment increased the relative concentrations of metabolites involved in amino-acid metabolism in the serum, while decreased the relative concentrations of most amino acids in the jejunal content. Antibiotics reduced urinary 2-ketoisocaproate and hippurate. Furthermore, antibiotics decreased (P Antibiotics significantly affected the concentrations of biogenic amines, which are derived from microbial amino-acid metabolism. The three major amines, putrescine, cadaverine, and spermidine, were all increased (P antibiotics-treated piglets. These results identified the phenomena that in-feed antibiotics may have significant impact on the metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets.

  13. Origin and alteration of organic matter in termite mounds from different feeding guilds of the Amazon rainforests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Siebers

    Full Text Available The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS, non-cellulosic (NCPS, and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS. The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰ and δ15N (6.6‰ values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰, reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes < Embiratermes < Anoplotermes and increasing xylophagy for Cornitermes < Nasutitermes., and that the nest material of Constrictotermes was similar to the microepiphytes sample, confirming the report that Constrictotermes belongs to the microepiphyte-feeders. We therewith document that nest chemistry of rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors.

  14. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Corcoran

    Full Text Available Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS, Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05 smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively. Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing

  15. Supplemental feeding for ecotourism reverses diel activity and alters movement patterns and spatial distribution of the southern stingray, Dasyatis americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M

    2013-01-01

    Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (pecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively). Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and develop precautionary policies regarding proposed feeding sites.

  16. Metabolic Costs of Feeding Predictively Alter the Spatial Distribution of Individuals in Fish Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Stephanie; Persson, Anna; Norin, Tommy; Killen, Shaun S

    2018-04-02

    Group living is ubiquitous among animals [1, 2], but the exact benefits of group living experienced by individual groupmates is related to their spatial location within the overall group [3-5]. Individual variation in behavioral traits and nutritional state is known to affect interactions between individuals and their social group [6, 7], but physiological mechanisms underpinning collective animal behavior remain largely unexplored [8]. Here, we show that while fish at the front of moving groups are most successful at capturing food items, these individuals then show a systematic, post-feeding movement toward the rear of groups. Using observations of fish feeding in groups coupled with estimates of metabolic rate in fish consuming different meal sizes, we demonstrate that the magnitude of this shift in spatial position is directly related to the aerobic metabolic scope remaining after accounting for energetic costs of digestion. While previous work has shown that hungry individuals occupy anterior positions in moving groups [9, 10], our results show that the metabolic demand of food processing reduces the aerobic capacity available for locomotion in individuals that eat most, thus preventing them from maintaining leading positions. This basic trade-off between feeding and locomotor capacity could fundamentally dictate the spatial position of individuals within groups, perhaps obviating the role of individual traits in determining spatial preferences over shorter timescales (e.g., hours to days). This may be a general constraint for individuals within animal collectives, representing a key, yet overlooked, mediator of group functioning that could affect leadership, social information transfer, and group decision making. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. La Crosse virus infection alters blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bryan T; Brewster, Carlyle C; Paulson, Sally L

    2012-11-01

    The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus.

  18. Feeding oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq. fronds alters rumen protozoal population and ruminal fermentation pattern in goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.

  19. Adaptive immunity alters distinct host feeding pathways during nematode induced inflammation, a novel mechanism in parasite expulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J Worthington

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal infection is often associated with hypophagia and weight loss; however, the precise mechanisms governing these responses remain poorly defined. Furthermore, the possibility that alterations in feeding during infection may be beneficial to the host requires further study. We used the nematode Trichinella spiralis, which transiently inhabits the small intestine before migrating to skeletal muscle, as a biphasic model of infection to determine the cellular and molecular pathways controlling feeding during enteric and peripheral inflammation. Through the infection of genetically modified mice lacking cholecystokinin, Tumor necrosis factor α receptors and T and B-cells, we observed a biphasic hypophagic response to infection resulting from two separate immune-driven mechanisms. The enteroendocrine I-cell derived hormone cholecystokinin is an essential mediator of initial hypophagia and is induced by CD4+ T-cells during enteritis. In contrast, the second hypophagic response is extra-intestinal and due to the anorectic effects of TNFα during peripheral infection of the muscle. Moreover, via maintaining naive levels of the adipose secreted hormone leptin throughout infection we demonstrate a novel feedback loop in the immunoendocrine axis. Immune driven I-cell hyperplasia and resultant weight loss leads to a reduction in the inflammatory adipokine leptin, which in turn heightens protective immunity during infection. These results characterize specific immune mediated mechanisms which reduce feeding during intestinal or peripheral inflammation. Importantly, the molecular mediators of each phase are entirely separate. The data also introduce the first evidence that I-cell hyperplasia is an adaptively driven immune response that directly impinges on the outcome to infection.

  20. Feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet induced epigenetic alterations in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhong Dong

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding a high-concentrate corn straw (HCS diet (65% concentrate+35% corn straw on the epigenetic changes in the mammary tissue of dairy cows in comparison with a low-concentrate corn straw (LCS diet (46% concentrate+54% corn straw and with a low-concentrate mixed forage (LMF diet (46% concentrate+54% mixed forage.Multiparous mid-lactation Chinese Holstein cows were fed one of these three diets for 6 weeks, at which time blood samples and mammary tissue samples were collected. Mammary arterial and venous blood samples were analyzed for lipopolysaccharide (LPS concentrations while mammary tissue samples were assayed for histone H3 acetylation and the methylation of specific genes associated with fat and protein synthesis.Extraction of histones and quantification of histone H3 acetylation revealed that acetylation was significantly reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. Cows fed the HCS diet had significantly higher LPS concentrations in the mammary arterial blood, as compared with cows fed the LCS diet. We found that the extent of histone H3 acetylation was negatively correlated with LPS concentrations. The methylation of the stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase gene associated with milk fat synthesis was increased in cows fed the HCS diet. By contrast, methylation of the gene encoding the signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A was reduced in cows fed the HCS diet, suggesting that feeding a high-concentrate corn straw diet may alter the methylation of specific genes involved in fat and protein synthesis in the mammary tissue of dairy cows.Feeding the high-concentrate diet induced epigenetic changes in the mammary tissues of dairy cows, possibly through effecting the release of differing amounts of LPS into the mammary blood.

  1. Life History Responses and Feeding Behavior of Microcrustacea in Altered Gravity - Applicability in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jessica; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Laforsch, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Manned space missions, as for example to the planet Mars, are a current objective in space exploration. During such long-lasting missions, aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) could facilitate independence of resupply from Earth by regenerating the atmosphere, purifying water, producing food and processing waste. In such BLSS, microcrustaceans could, according to their natural role in aquatic ecosystems, link oxygen liberating, autotrophic algae and higher trophic levels, such as fish. However, organisms employed in BLSS will be exposed to high acceleration (hyper- g) during launch of spacecrafts as well as to microgravity (μ g) during space travel. It is thus essential that these organisms survive, perform and reproduce under altered gravity conditions. In this study we present the first data in this regard for the microcrustaceas Daphnia magna and Heterocypris incongruens. We found that after hyper- g exposure (centrifugation) approximately one third of the D. magna population died within one week (generally indicating that possible belated effects have to be considered when conducting and interpreting experiments during which hyper- g occurs). However, suchlike and even higher losses could be countervailed by the surviving daphnids' unaltered high reproductive capacity. Furthermore, we can show that foraging and feeding behavior of D. magna (drop tower) and H. incongruens (parabolic flights) are rarely altered in μ g. Our results thus indicate that both species are suitable candidates for BLSS utilized in space.

  2. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements.

  3. Rib fractures in chronic alcoholic men: Relationship with feeding habits, social problems, malnutrition, bone alterations, and liver dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Reimers, Emilio; García-Valdecasas-Campelo, Elena; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Milena-Abril, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Eva; Martínez-Riera, Antonio; Pérez-Ramírez, Alina; Alemán-Valls, María Remedios

    2005-10-01

    Rib fractures are common in alcoholics. This high prevalence might be due to ethanol-associated malnutrition, bone disease, liver dysfunction, or the peculiar lifestyle of the alcoholic with frequent trauma and altercations. In this study we try to discern the role of these factors on rib fracture (assessed on a plain thoracic X-ray film) in 81 consecutive alcoholic patients, 25 of them cirrhotics. Serum albumin, prothrombin aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen, osteocalcin, insulin growth factor 1, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, parathyroid hormone, estradiol, free testosterone, and corticosterone were measured, and the patients also underwent assessment of bone mineral density by a HOLOGIC QDR-2000 bone densitometer (Waltham, MA, USA). Body mass index, triceps skinfold, and brachial perimeter were also determined, and the patients and their families were asked about tobacco consumption, social and familial links, consumption of ethanol by other members of the family, kind of job, and feeding habits. Forty-two male nondrinker sanitary workers of similar age served as controls. Forty of the 81 patients showed rib fractures. There was a statistically significant association between rib fractures and disruption of social and familial links, irregular feeding habits (in bars or pubs, not at home), ethanol consumption by close relatives, and intensity of tobacco consumption, but not between rib fractures and liver function tests, nutritional parameters, or bone mineral density, besides a nearly significant trend (p = .053) with the presence of osteopenia at the femoral neck. Patients with major withdrawal symptoms at admission also presented more frequent rib fractures. We conclude that rib fractures in alcoholics are related to the peculiar lifestyle of these patients rather than to bone alterations, liver dysfunction, or nutritional status.

  4. Association of human liver bilirubin UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity with a polymorphism in the promoter region of the UGT1A1 gene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, MTM; Jansen, PLM; Steegers, EAP; Peters, WHM

    Background/Aims: Gilbert's syndrome is a benign form of a deficiency in bilirubin glucuronidation. It is associated with a homozygous polymorphism, A(TA)(7)TAA instead of A(TA)(6)TAA, in the TATA-box of the promoter region of the bilirubin UDP-glucuronyltransferase gene. In this study the

  5. Meal pattern alterations associated with intermittent fasting for weight loss are normalized after high-fat diet re-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T

    2017-05-15

    Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High-grain diet feeding altered the composition and functions of the rumen bacterial community and caused the damage to the laminar tissues of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R Y; Jin, W; Feng, P F; Liu, J H; Mao, S Y

    2018-03-19

    In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (Pdiet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (Pbacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.

  7. Altered feeding patterns in rats exposed to a palatable cafeteria diet: increased snacking and its implications for development of obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah I Martire

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.

  8. Mice lacking natural killer T cells are more susceptible to metabolic alterations following high fat diet feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brittany V Martin-Murphy

    Full Text Available Current estimates suggest that over one-third of the adult population has metabolic syndrome and three-fourths of the obese population has non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Inflammation in metabolic tissues has emerged as a universal feature of obesity and its co-morbidities, including NAFLD. Natural Killer T (NKT cells are a subset of innate immune cells that abundantly reside within the liver and are readily activated by lipid antigens. There is general consensus that NKT cells are pivotal regulators of inflammation; however, disagreement exists as to whether NKT cells exert pathogenic or suppressive functions in obesity. Here we demonstrate that CD1d(-/- mice, which lack NKT cells, were more susceptible to weight gain and fatty liver following high fat diet (HFD feeding. Compared with their WT counterparts, CD1d(-/- mice displayed increased adiposity and greater induction of inflammatory genes in the liver suggestive of the precursors of NAFLD. Calorimetry studies revealed a significant increase in food intake and trends toward decreased metabolic rate and activity in CD1d(-/- mice compared with WT mice. Based on these findings, our results suggest that NKT cells play a regulatory role that helps to prevent diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction and may play an important role in mechanisms governing cross-talk between metabolism and the immune system to regulate energy balance and liver health.

  9. Duodenal and ileal glucose infusions differentially alter gastrointestinal peptides, appetite response, and food intake: a tube feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppitt, Sally D; Shin, Hyun Sang; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Lo, Kim; Pahl, Malcolm; Duxfield, Janice; Lane, Mark; Ingram, John R

    2017-09-01

    Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides. Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration. On the day before the intervention (day 0), a 380-cm multilumen tube (1.75-mm diameter) with independent port access to the duodenum and ileum was inserted, and position was confirmed by X-ray. Subsequently (days 1-4), a standardized breakfast meal was followed midmorning by a 90-min infusion of isotonic glucose (15 g, 235 kJ) or saline to the duodenum or ileum. Appetite ratings were assessed with the use of visual analog scales (VASs), blood samples collected, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) measured at lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner. Results: Thirteen participants completed the 4 infusion days. There was a significant effect of nutrient infused and site (treatment × time, P appetite, and decreased ad libitum EI at a subsequent meal. Although glucose to the duodenum also suppressed appetite ratings, eating behavior was not altered. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12612000429853. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  10. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Cynthia; He, Zhengcheng; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Sweeney, Marva I

    2015-01-01

    Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (pblueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric acid.

  11. Methyl vitamins contribute to obesogenic effects of a high multivitamin gestational diet and epigenetic alterations in hypothalamic feeding pathways in Wistar rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Huot, Pedro S P; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Kubant, Ruslan; Dodington, David W; Ward, Wendy E; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey

    2015-03-01

    High multivitamin (HV, tenfold AIN-93G) gestational diets fed to Wistar rats increase food intake, obesity, and characteristics of metabolic syndrome in the offspring. We hypothesized that methyl vitamins, and specifically folate, in the HV gestational diet contribute to the obesogenic phenotypes consistent with their epigenetic effects on hypothalamic food intake regulatory mechanisms. Male offspring of dams fed the AIN-93G diet with high methyl vitamins (HMethyl; tenfold folate, vitamins B12, and B6) (Study 1) and HV with recommended folate (HVRF) (Study 2) were compared with those from HV and recommended vitamin (RV) fed dams. All offspring were weaned to a high fat diet for 8 wks. HMethyl diet, similar to HV, and compared to RV, resulted in higher food intake, body weight, and metabolic disturbances. Removing folate additions to the HV diet in HVRF offspring normalized the obesogenic phenotype. Methyl vitamins, and folate in HV diets, altered hypothalamic gene expression toward increased food intake concurrent with DNA methylation and leptin and insulin receptor signaling dysfunction. Methyl vitamins in HV gestational diets contribute to obesogenic phenotypes and epigenetic alterations in the hypothalamic feeding pathways in the offspring. Folate alone accounts for many of these effects. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Metabolic alterations due to caloric restriction and every other day feeding in normal and growth hormone receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Reyhan; Bonkowski, Michael S; Arum, Oge; Strader, April D; Bartke, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Mutations causing decreased somatotrophic signaling are known to increase insulin sensitivity and extend life span in mammals. Caloric restriction and every other day (EOD) dietary regimens are associated with similar improvements to insulin signaling and longevity in normal mice; however, these interventions fail to increase insulin sensitivity or life span in growth hormone receptor knockout (GHRKO) mice. To investigate the interactions of the GHRKO mutation with caloric restriction and EOD dietary interventions, we measured changes in the metabolic parameters oxygen consumption (VO2) and respiratory quotient produced by either long-term caloric restriction or EOD in male GHRKO and normal mice. GHRKO mice had increased VO2, which was unaltered by diet. In normal mice, EOD diet caused a significant reduction in VO2 compared with ad libitum (AL) mice during fed and fasted conditions. In normal mice, caloric restriction increased both the range of VO2 and the difference in minimum VO2 between fed and fasted states, whereas EOD diet caused a relatively static VO2 pattern under fed and fasted states. No diet significantly altered the range of VO2 of GHRKO mice under fed conditions. This provides further evidence that longevity-conferring diets cause major metabolic changes in normal mice, but not in GHRKO mice.

  13. Probiotics Blunt the Anti-Hypertensive Effect of Blueberry Feeding in Hypertensive Rats without Altering Hippuric Acid Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Blanton

    Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric

  14. Dietary β-glucan (MacroGard®) enhances survival of first feeding turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) larvae by altering immunity, metabolism and microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miest, Joanna J; Arndt, Carmen; Adamek, Mikolaj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2016-01-01

    Reflecting the natural biology of mass spawning fish aquaculture production of fish larvae is often hampered by high and unpredictable mortality rates. The present study aimed to enhance larval performance and immunity via the oral administration of an immunomodulator, β-glucan (MacroGard(®)) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) were incubated with or without yeast β-1,3/1,6-glucan in form of MacroGard(®) at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. Rotifers were fed to first feeding turbot larvae once a day. From day 13 dph onwards all tanks were additionally fed untreated Artemia sp. nauplii (1 nauplius ml/L). Daily mortality was monitored and larvae were sampled at 11 and 24 dph for expression of 30 genes, microbiota analysis, trypsin activity and size measurements. Along with the feeding of β-glucan daily mortality was significantly reduced by ca. 15% and an alteration of the larval microbiota was observed. At 11 dph gene expression of trypsin and chymotrypsin was elevated in the MacroGard(®) fed fish, which resulted in heightened tryptic enzyme activity. No effect on genes encoding antioxidative proteins was observed, whilst the immune response was clearly modulated by β-glucan. At 11 dph complement component c3 was elevated whilst cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, toll like receptor 3 and heat shock protein 70 were not affected. At the later time point (24 dph) an anti-inflammatory effect in form of a down-regulation of hsp 70, tnf-α and il-1β was observed. We conclude that the administration of MacroGard(®) induced an immunomodulatory response and could be used as an effective measure to increase survival in rearing of turbot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal “junk-food” feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Z. Y.; Muhlhausler, B. S.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal “junk-food” diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16±0.6 vs. 11±0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19±1.3 vs. 13±0.4 g/kg/d; Pjunk-food intake in postnatal life.—Ong, Z. Y., Muhlhausler, B. S. Maternal “junk-food” feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring. PMID:21427213

  16. Alteration of lipid metabolism in rats with intestinal syndrome of raiation sickness in conditions of parenteral feeding with lipofundfin and infusolipol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, S.A.; Yusupova, I.U.; Grozdov, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    Local X-irradiation of rat abdomen (13.5 Gy) caused a pronounced intestinal syndrome which was partially coped with by parenteral feeding. The results indicate (1) a satisfactory assimilation of fatty emulsions used at certain doses and with certain parenteral diet composition, (2) a favourable effect of fatty emulsions on lipid metabolism in irradiated rats, and (3) some advantages of the parenteral feeding with infusolipol over lipofundin S

  17. Persistence of blood changes associated with alteration of the dietary electrolyte balance in commercial pigs after feed withdrawal, transportation, and lairage, and the effects on performance and carcass quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, L N; Engle, T E; Paradis, M A; Correa, J A; Anderson, D B

    2010-12-01

    Increasing dietary electrolyte balance (dEB) has previously been shown to reduce the incidence of nonambulatory and noninjured swine, improve meat quality, and reduce the incidence of gastric ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dEB under commercial conditions. Due to the variability in feed withdrawal, transport, and lairage conditions in the swine industry, it was necessary to determine first the persistence of blood changes during the marketing process after alteration of dEB. Sixteen pens of 8 crossbred barrows were assigned to a low (121 mEq/kg) or high (375 mEq/kg) dEB diet, calculated as Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-), to determine the persistence of blood changes associated with the alteration of dEB. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) requirements for energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Dietary treatments were provided for ad libitum intake for 3 d before slaughter. Before transport, animals were fasted in the barn for approximately 10 h. After fasting, animals were shipped to the packing plant, rested for 8 h, and subsequently slaughtered. Initial and final BW of the animals were obtained. Blood was sampled at baseline (2 d before administration of diets), before feed withdrawal (0 h), after feed withdrawal (10 h), and at exsanguination (20 h). Consumption of the high dEB diet for 3 d resulted in an increase in blood TCO(2) (P = 0.001), HCO(3)(-) (P = 0.001), and base excess (P = 0.0003) and a decrease in Cl(-) (P = 0.0002) and anion gap (P = 0.01). These differences, however, were not maintained for any of the blood components after the 10-h feed withdrawal (P > 0.22). Increasing dEB had no adverse effects (P > 0.18) on growth performance, meat quality, or carcass yield and did not decrease pars esophageal ulcer scores. This study demonstrated that the effect of dEB on blood components was not maintained after a 10-h feed withdrawal. Therefore, it is likely that the ability of the animal to withstand any increased

  18. Alterations in the molecular species of rat liver lecithin by corn-oil feeding to essential fatty acid-deficient rats as a function of time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golde, L.M.G. van; Pieterson, W.A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1968-01-01

    The present paper describes, as a function of time, the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the molecular species pattern of rat liver lecithin which are observed when corn oil is fed to essential fatty acid-deficient rats. One of the most important changes observed was a very rapid

  19. Junk-food enhances conditioned food cup approach to a previously established food cue, but does not alter cue potentiated feeding; implications for the effects of palatable diets on incentive motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derman, Rifka C; Ferrario, Carrie R

    2018-03-16

    Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS). Further, to determine the degree to which effects of "junk-food" were selective to Pavlovian motivational processes, we varied the predictive validity of the CS by including training groups conditioned with unique CS-US contingencies ranging from -1.0 to +1.0. "Junk-food" did not enhance cue potentiated feeding in any group, but expression of this potentiation effect varied with the CS-US contingency independent of diet. In contrast, "junk-food" consistently enhanced conditioned approach to the food cup; this effect was dependent on the previously established CS-US contingency. That is, consumption of "junk-food" following training enhanced approach to the food cup only in response to CSs with previously positive CS-US contingencies. This was accompanied by reduced motivation for the US itself. Together these data show that "junk-food" consumption selectively enhances incentive motivational responses to previously established food CSs, without altering cue potentiated feeding induced by these same CSs, and in the absence of enhanced motivation for food itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  1. In ovo feeding of creatine pyruvate alters energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity and myogenic gene expression of breast muscle in embryos and neonatal broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, M M; Gao, T; Zhang, L; Li, J L; Lv, P A; Yu, L L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2017-09-01

    We investigated the effects of in ovo feeding (IOF) of creatine pyruvate (CrPyr) on energy reserves, satellite cell mitotic activity (SCMA) and myogenic gene expression in breast muscle of embryos and neonatal broilers. A total of 960 eggs were randomly allocated into three treatments: 1) non-injected control group, 2) saline group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%), and 3) CrPyr group injected with 0.6 mL of physiological saline (0.75%) containing 12 mg CrPyr/egg at 17.5 d of incubation. After hatching, a total of 120 male chicks were randomly assigned to each treatment group, with eight replicate sets per group. Selected chicks had body BW close to the average of their pooled group. Our results showed that the total and relative breast muscle weights of broilers subjected to CrPyr treatment were higher than those in the control and saline groups on 19 d of incubation (19 E), the day of hatch, 3 and 7 d post-hatch (P creatine concentrations on 19 E, the day of hatch and 3 d post-hatch, the same treatment increased phosphocreatine concentrations on 19 E. Broilers in the CrPyr group showed higher expression of myogenic differentiation 1 (MyoD) (P < 0.05), myogenin and paired box 7 (Pax7), as well as higher index of SCMA on 3 d post-hatch. However, myostatin mRNA expression in CrPyr-treated broilers was down-regulated on 3 d post-hatch (P < 0.05). These results indicated that IOF of CrPyr increased energy reserves of embryos and SCMA of broilers on 3 d post-hatch, which led to enhanced muscle growth in the late embryos and neonatal broilers. Additionally, IOF of CrPyr increased the activity of satellite cells possibly through up-regulating MyoD, myogenin, and Pax7 mRNA expression and down-regulating myostatin mRNA expression. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  2. Mice long-term high-fat diet feeding recapitulates human cardiovascular alterations: an animal model to study the early phases of diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián D Calligaris

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypercaloric diet ingestion and sedentary lifestyle result in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of clinical features secondary to obesity, considered as a pre-diabetic condition and recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. To better understand the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, animal models that reproduce the etiology, course and outcomes of these pathologies are required. The aim of this work was to characterize the long-term effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the mice cardiovascular system, in order to make available a new animal model for diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS/RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standardized high-fat diet (obese or regular diet (normal for 16 months. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated testing plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Arterial pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer (non invasive method and by hemodynamic parameters (invasive method. Cardiac anatomy was described based on echocardiography and histological studies. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization under a stress test. Cardiac remodelling and metabolic biomarkers were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. As of month eight, the obese mice were overweight, hyperglycaemic, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic. At month 16, they also presented normal arterial pressure but altered vascular reactivity (vasoconstriction, and cardiac contractility reserve reduction, heart mass increase, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart metabolic compensations. By contrast, the normal mice remained healthy throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Mice fed with a high-fat diet for prolonged time recapitulates the etiology, course and outcomes of the early phases of human diabetic cardiomyopathy.

  3. High-fat diet feeding alters metabolic response to fasting/non fasting conditions. Effect on caveolin expression and insulin signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ruiz, Ana; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos

    2011-04-13

    The effect of food intake on caveolin expression in relation to insulin signalling was studied in skeletal muscle and adipocytes from retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue, comparing fasted (F) to not fasted (NF) rats that had been fed a control or high-fat (HF) diet for 72 days. Serum glucose was analysed enzymatically and insulin and leptin by ELISA. Caveolins and insulin signalling intermediaries (IR, IRS-1 and 2 and GLUT4) were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. Caveolin and IR phosphorylation was measured by immunoprecipitation. Data were analysed with Mann-Whitney U test. High-fat fed animals showed metabolic alterations and developed obesity and insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle, food intake (NF) induced activation of IR and increased expression of IRS-2 in control animals with normal metabolic response. HF animals became overweight, hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperleptinemic and showed insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle of these animals, food intake (NF) also induced IRS-2 expression together with IR, although this was not active. Caveolin 3 expression in this tissue was increased by food intake (NF) in animals fed either diet. In RP adipocytes of control animals, food intake (NF) decreased IR and IRS-2 expression but increased that of GLUT4. A similar but less intense response was found in SC adipocytes. Food intake (NF) did not change caveolin expression in RP adipocytes with either diet, but in SC adipocytes of HF animals a reduction was observed. Food intake (NF) decreased caveolin-1 phosphorylation in RP but increased it in SC adipocytes of control animals, whereas it increased caveolin-2 phosphorylation in both types of adipocytes independently of the diet. Animals fed a control-diet show a normal response to food intake (NF), with activation of the insulin signalling pathway but without appreciable changes in caveolin expression, except a small increase of caveolin-3 in muscle. Animals fed a high-fat diet

  4. Features of an altered AMPK metabolic pathway in Gilbert’s Syndrome, and its role in metabolic health

    OpenAIRE

    Christine Mölzer; Marlies Wallner; Carina Kern; Anela Tosevska; Ursula Schwarz; Rene Zadnikar; Daniel Doberer; Rodrig Marculescu; Karl-Heinz Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Energy metabolism, involving the ATP-dependent AMPK-PgC-Ppar pathway impacts metabolic health immensely, in that its impairment can lead to obesity, giving rise to disease. Based on observations that individuals with Gilbert?s syndrome (GS; UGT1A1 *28 promoter mutation) are generally lighter, leaner and healthier than controls, specific inter-group differences in the AMPK pathway regulation were explored. Therefore, a case-control study involving 120 fasted, healthy, age- and gender matched s...

  5. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. - Highlights: • Breast-feeding can be a factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. • UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the sole bilirubin-metabolizing enzyme. • Extrahepatic UGT1A1 plays an important role in bilirubin metabolism. • We discuss the potential mechanism of breast milk-induced neonatal jaundice.

  6. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi, E-mail: fujiwarar@pharm.kitasato-u.ac.jp [Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, Kitasato University, Tokyo (Japan); Maruo, Yoshihiro [Department of Pediatrics, Shiga University of Medical Science, Shiga (Japan); Chen, Shujuan [Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Tukey, Robert H., E-mail: rtukey@ucsd.edu [Department of Pharmacology, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. - Highlights: • Breast-feeding can be a factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. • UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the sole bilirubin-metabolizing enzyme. • Extrahepatic UGT1A1 plays an important role in bilirubin metabolism. • We discuss the potential mechanism of breast milk-induced neonatal jaundice.

  7. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: Advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H

    2015-11-15

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Shengjiang Xiexin Decoction Alters Pharmacokinetics of Irinotecan by Regulating Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters: A Multi-Target Therapy for Alleviating the Gastrointestinal Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huan-Yu; Li, Peng-Fei; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Yue, Jia-Jing; He, Yang; Luo, Xiao-Mei; Su, Mei-Feng; Liao, Shang-Gao; Shi, Yue

    2017-01-01

    Shengjiang Xiexin decoction (SXD), a classic traditional Chinese medical formula chronicled in Shang Han Lun , is used in modern clinical practice to decrease gastrointestinal toxicity induced by the chemotherapeutic drug irinotecan (CPT-11). In this study, the effect of SXD on the pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and its active metabolites (SN-38 and SN-38G), and the underlying mechanisms were further examined. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38G in the plasma, bile, liver, intestine, and intestinal contents of control and SXD-pre-treated rats after intravenous administration of CPT-11. SXD pretreatment increased the area under the curve (AUC) and the initial plasma concentration (C 0 ) of CPT-11 but decreased the plasma clearance (CL). The AUC and the maximum plasma concentration (C max ) of SN-38 decreased, whereas the C max of SN-38G increased. Compared with that of the control group, the biliary excretion of CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38G was inhibited. The CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38G concentrations in the liver, intestine, and intestinal contents were different between the two groups. Furthermore, the hepatic expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp-2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) was significantly down-regulated by SXD, while the hepatic and jejunal uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) expression was elevated. The hydrolysis of CPT-11 to SN-38 by CES and the glucuronidation of SN-38 to SN-38G by UGT were affected by liver and jejunum S9 fractions from rats pre-treated with SXD. Therefore, this study demonstrated for the first time that SXD could alter the pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and its metabolites to alleviate CPT-11-induced diarrhea. And the underlying mechanism of drug interaction between CPT-11 and SXD involves decreasing hepatic Mrp-2 and P

  9. Shengjiang Xiexin Decoction Alters Pharmacokinetics of Irinotecan by Regulating Metabolic Enzymes and Transporters: A Multi-Target Therapy for Alleviating the Gastrointestinal Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan-yu Guan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Shengjiang Xiexin decoction (SXD, a classic traditional Chinese medical formula chronicled in Shang Han Lun, is used in modern clinical practice to decrease gastrointestinal toxicity induced by the chemotherapeutic drug irinotecan (CPT-11. In this study, the effect of SXD on the pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and its active metabolites (SN-38 and SN-38G, and the underlying mechanisms were further examined. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38G in the plasma, bile, liver, intestine, and intestinal contents of control and SXD-pre-treated rats after intravenous administration of CPT-11. SXD pretreatment increased the area under the curve (AUC and the initial plasma concentration (C0 of CPT-11 but decreased the plasma clearance (CL. The AUC and the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax of SN-38 decreased, whereas the Cmax of SN-38G increased. Compared with that of the control group, the biliary excretion of CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38G was inhibited. The CPT-11, SN-38, and SN-38G concentrations in the liver, intestine, and intestinal contents were different between the two groups. Furthermore, the hepatic expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp-2, P-glycoprotein (P-gp, and carboxylesterase 2 (CES2 was significantly down-regulated by SXD, while the hepatic and jejunal uridine diphosphate (UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1 expression was elevated. The hydrolysis of CPT-11 to SN-38 by CES and the glucuronidation of SN-38 to SN-38G by UGT were affected by liver and jejunum S9 fractions from rats pre-treated with SXD. Therefore, this study demonstrated for the first time that SXD could alter the pharmacokinetics of CPT-11 and its metabolites to alleviate CPT-11-induced diarrhea. And the underlying mechanism of drug interaction between CPT-11 and SXD involves decreasing hepatic Mrp-2 and P

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  12. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  13. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  14. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  15. Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpression in mice abrogates sex differences in body weight, visceral fat, and food intake response to a fast and alters levels of feeding regulatory hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lixin; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette

    2017-01-01

    Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals. Under fed conditions, compared to WT, CRF-OE mice have increased adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weight, plasma corticosterone, leptin and insulin, and hypothalamic leptin receptor and decreased plasma acyl ghrelin. Compared to male, female WT mice have lower body and perigonadal fat and plasma leptin but higher adrenal glands weights. CRF-OE mice lost these sex differences except for the adrenals. Male CRF-OE and WT mice did not differ in hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), while female CRF-OE compared to female WT and male CRF-OE had higher NPY mRNA levels. After fasting, female WT mice lost more body weight and ate more food than male WT, while CRF-OE mice had reduced body weight loss and inhibited food intake without sex difference. In male WT mice, fasting reduced plasma insulin and leptin and increased acyl ghrelin and corticosterone while female WT showed only a rise in corticosterone. In CRF-OE mice, fasting reduced insulin while leptin, acyl ghrelin and corticosterone were unchanged with no sex difference. Fasting blood glucose was higher in CRF-OE with female > male. In WT mice, fasting increased hypothalamic NPY expression in both sexes and decreased POMC only in males, while in CRF-OE mice, NPY did not change, and POMC decreased in males and increased in females. These data indicate that CRF-OE mice have abnormal basal and fasting

  16. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  20. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  1. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  4. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  5. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  6. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-09-01

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  7. Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Environmental Consequences for the Feed Market: a Consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Hamelin, Lorie; Hinrichsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    that such altered chemical composition and crop yields would have for the production of pig feed. Results revealed, among others, that an extra European demand of pig feed under an atmospheric [CO2] of 550 μmole mole-1 would lead to ca. 6% less expansion of additional arable land worldwide, in comparison to feed...

  8. Future atmospheric CO2 concentration and environmental consequences for the feed market: a consequential LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxe, Henrik; Hamelin, Lorie; Hinrichsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    that such altered chemical composition and crop yields would have for the production of pig feed. Results revealed, among others, that an extra European demand of pig feed under an atmospheric [CO2] of 550 μmole mole-1 would lead to ca. 6% less expansion of additional arable land worldwide, in comparison to feed...

  9. Feeding Chromonaela odorata during pregnancy to goat dams affects acceptance of this feedstuff by their offspring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hai, P.V.; Everts, H.; Tien, van D.; Schonewille, J.T.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effect of Chromonaela odorata ingestion by goat dams during pregnancy on intake of C. odorata by their kids. Alteration of prenatal feed preference may be used to increase feed intake of novel feeds and the transit from outdoor to indoor goat farming in Vietnam. Ten female goats

  10. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  11. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  12. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  13. Thiocyanate in food and iodine in milk: From domestic animal feeding to improved understanding of cretinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.; Knudsen, N.

    2002-01-01

    of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter...

  14. Smectite alteration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.M.

    1984-11-01

    This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)

  15. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  16. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  17. Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  1. Transition from tube feeding to oral feeding: experience in a tertiary care paediatric cardiology unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Anne Marie; Finn, Daragh Gerard; Allen, Noeleen; McMahon, Colin J

    2018-05-02

    Home enteral tube feeding (HETF) is imperative for many infants and children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Tube weaning (TW) facilitates the progression from tube feeding to oral diet. There is limited literature on TW practices, protocols and success for children with CHD that have been tube fed. The objective of this study is to assess the process of weaning HETF in a tertiary referral centre for paediatric CHD. Specifically, we aimed to assess the duration of HETF, duration of TW and the interventions involved. We retrospectively reviewed the medical and dietetic records of all infants and children that were successfully weaned off HETF over a 12-month period from January 2015 to December 2015. There were 30 children included in the study, 9 boys and 21 girls. The diagnoses included 15 septal defects, 8 univentricular diagnosis and other diagnoses in 7 children. The median age at initiation of enteral tube feeding was 45 days (range 2-169). The median duration to wean from enteral tube feeding was 52 days (range 2-359). Number of dietetic consults required for successful TW varied among patients, median 5 (range 2-23). The number of days required for successful TW was associated with age and duration on HETF. Dietetic interventions included discontinuation of nutrient dense feeds, altering feed schedule and reduction of feed volume. Weaning HETF is possible in the outpatient setting. Early and frequent dietetic intervention is recommended to ensure prompt discontinuation of HETF when appropriate.

  2. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  3. Role of extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1: advances in understanding breast milk-induced neonatal hyperbilirubinemia

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic ...

  4. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... button, close the clamp on the feeding set, disconnect the extension set from the button, and close ... Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and ... breast pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  15. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    bunk in the 2h following feed delivery (40.6 vs. 25.9 min/d). Heifers previously fed the TDR were displaced from the feed bunk more frequently than heifers previously fed the TMR (23.0 vs. 13.1 times/d), particularly during the 2-h period following feed delivery. Fecal scores were lower (more fluid in consistency) for heifers originally fed the TDR (3.2 vs. 3.7). The continued difference in feed bunk competition suggests that heifers previously fed the TDR had learned these patterns in the past, retaining them even when switched to an unfamiliar ration. Furthermore, lower fecal scores for heifers previously fed the TDR suggest altered rumen fermentation, possibly because of altered diurnal consumption patterns. These results show that feeding a TMR to replacement dairy heifers from a young age promotes a more even diurnal feeding pattern, minimizes feed bunk competition, and promotes a more solid fecal consistency. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  17. Mothers' Psychological Distress and Feeding of Their Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Estrem, Hayley; Pados, Britt F; Knafl, George J; Brandon, Debra

    To examine the change in psychological distress of mothers of preterm infants and its association with maternal feeding behaviors as the infant transitions to full oral feeding. This descriptive exploratory study used a subset of data from a study of the effects of a coregulated feeding intervention for 34 mothers and hospitalized preterm infants in a Level-III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Maternal psychological distress was measured by maternal worry (Child Health Worry Scale), depression (Center for Epidemiology-Depression Scale), and role stress (Parental Stress Scale: NICU-Role Alteration) at three time points: within 1 week prior to the first oral feeding (T1), and at achievement of half (T2) and full oral feeding (T3). Feedings were videotaped at T2 and T3. An observational coding system measured maternal feeding behaviors. Linear mixed modeling evaluated the change in maternal psychological distress and its association with mothers' feeding behaviors as the infant transitioned to full oral feeding. Maternal depressive symptoms were highest at T1 and declined over time. Maternal worry and role stress were also highest at T1 but remained stable from T2 to T3. Increased maternal psychological distress, particularly depressive symptoms and role stress, were associated with less use of developmentally supportive feeding behaviors, that is, minimizing tactile stimulation, providing steady touch to contain or stabilize the infant, and regulating milk flow. Supporting maternal psychological well-being while infants are learning to feed orally may be an appropriate target for interventions to support mother-infant early feeding interactions.

  18. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  19. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  20. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  1. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  2. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  3. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  4. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  6. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  7. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  9. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  10. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  11. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  12. Perinatal programming of neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting feeding behavior and stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah J Spencer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is closely regulated by neuroendocrine mechanisms that can be influenced by stressful life events. However, the feeding response to stress varies among individuals with some increasing and others decreasing food intake after stress. In addition to the impact of acute lifestyle and genetic backgrounds, the early life environment can have a life-long influence on neuroendocrine mechanisms connecting stress to feeding behavior and may partially explain these opposing feeding responses to stress. In this review I will discuss the perinatal programming of adult hypothalamic stress and feeding circuitry. Specifically I will address how early life (prenatal and postnatal nutrition, early life stress, and the early life hormonal profile can program the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, the endocrine arm of the body’s response to stress long-term and how these changes can, in turn, influence the hypothalamic circuitry responsible for regulating feeding behavior. Thus, over- or under-feeding and / or stressful events during critical windows of early development can alter glucocorticoid (GC regulation of the HPA axis, leading to changes in the GC influence on energy storage and changes in GC negative feedback on HPA axis-derived satiety signals such as corticotropin-releasing-hormone. Furthermore, peripheral hormones controlling satiety, such as leptin and insulin are altered by early life events, and can be influenced, in early life and adulthood, by stress. Importantly, these neuroendocrine signals act as trophic factors during development to stimulate connectivity throughout the hypothalamus. The interplay between these neuroendocrine signals, the perinatal environment, and activation of the stress circuitry in adulthood thus strongly influences feeding behavior and may explain why individuals have unique feeding responses to similar stressors.

  13. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) fry. ... Weight gain, specific growth rate and gross food conversion ratio were significantly affected by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  14. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  15. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  16. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  17. Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, L.; Roelofs, T. J.M.; de Jong, J. W.; de Leeuw, A. E.; Luijendijk, M. C.M.; Wolterink-Donselaar, I. G.; van der Plasse, G.; Adan, R. A.H.

    Background:Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced

  18. Does activation of midbrain dopamine neurons promote or reduce feeding?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekhoudt, L.; Roelofs, T. J. M.; de Jong, J. W.; de Leeuw, A. E.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; Wolterink-Donselaar, I. G.; van der Plasse, G.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced

  19. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  20. Radiation technology and feed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radiation technology to prepare feeds and feed additions for cattle of non-feed vegetable blends is considered.Physicochemical foundations of radiation-chemical processes, possibilities of the use of various radiation devices are given. Data on practical realization of the technology are presented and prospects of its introduction to solve the tasks put forward by the USSR program on feed production are analyzed

  1. Rapid and Persistent Suppression of Feeding Behavior Induced by Sensitization Training in "Aplysia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Ama; Kelly, Kathleen; Shields-Johnson, Maria; Hajovsky, Julie; Wainwright, Marcy; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo

    2012-01-01

    In "Aplysia," noxious stimuli induce sensitization of defensive responses. However, it remains largely unknown whether such stimuli also alter nondefensive behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of noxious stimuli on feeding. Strong electric shocks, capable of inducing sensitization, also led to the suppression of feeding. The use of…

  2. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  3. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  4. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  5. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  6. Feeding Problems and Their Underlying Mechanisms in the Esophageal Atresia–Tracheoesophageal Fistula Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    Feeding difficulties such as dysphagia, coughing, choking, or vomiting during meals, slow eating, oral aversion, food refusal, and stressful mealtimes are common in children with repaired esophageal atresia (EA) and the reasons for this are often multifactorial. The aim of this review is to describe the possible underlying mechanisms contributing to feeding difficulties in patients with EA and approaches to management. Underlying mechanisms for these feeding difficulties include esophageal dysphagia, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration, and aversions related to prolonged gastrostomy tube feeding. The initial diagnostic evaluation for feeding difficulties in a patient with EA may involve an esophagram, videofluoroscopic imaging or fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation during swallowing, upper endoscopy with biopsies, pH-impedance testing, and/or esophageal motility studies. The main goal of management is to reduce the factors contributing to feeding difficulties and may include reducing esophageal stasis, maximizing reflux therapies, treating underlying lung disease, dilating strictures, and altering feeding methods, routes, or schedules. PMID:28620597

  7. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  8. Feed- and feed additives-related aspects of gut health and development in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluske, John R

    2013-01-07

    The development of new/different management and feeding strategies to stimulate gut development and health in newly-weaned pigs, in order to improve growth performance while minimizing the use of antimicrobial compounds such as antibiotic growth promotants (AGP) and heavy mineral compounds, is essential for the long-term sustainability of the pig industry. Factors including the sub-optimal intake of nutrients and energy, inappropriate microbiota biomass and (or) balance, immature and compromised immune function, and psychosomatic factors caused by weaning can compromise both the efficiency of digestion and absorption and intestinal barrier function through mucosal damage and alteration of tight junction integrity. As a consequence, pigs at weaning are highly susceptible to pathogenic enteric conditions such as post-weaning diarrhea that may be caused by serotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Many dietary components, e.g., protein, fiber, feed additives and minerals, are known to influence microbial growth in the gastrointestinal tract that in turn can impact upon pig growth and health, although the relationships between these are sometimes not necessarily apparent or obvious. In a world climate of increased scrutiny over the use of antibiotics per se in pig production, certain feed additives are seen as alternatives/replacements to antibiotics, and have evolved in some cases to have important roles in everyday commercial pig nutrition. Nevertheless and in general, there remains inconsistency and variability in the efficacy of some feed additives and in cases of severe disease outbreaks, for example, therapeutic antibiotics and/or heavy minerals such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are generally relied upon. If feed ingredients and (or) feed additives are to be used with greater regularity and reliability, then it is necessary to better understand the mechanisms whereby antibiotics and minerals such as ZnO influence animal physiology, in conjunction with the use of

  9. Wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandari, Hanumanth Rao; Sankarasubramanian, G; Kumar, A Praveen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the existing feeds in use at the GMRT Observatory and details the ongoing development of next generation wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT. The existing feeds include: feed with folded thick dipoles (for 150 MHz), dipole-disc feed (for 325 MHz), dual-band coaxial feed (for 233 MHZ and 610 MHz), and corrugated horn feed (for 1400–1450 MHz). The new broadband feeds covered in this paper are: cone-dipole feeds for 250–500 and 500–1000 MHz, wideband horn feed for 550–900 MHz, and dual ring feed for 130–260 MHz. Design techniques and performance results for these are described.

  10. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  11. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  12. Pasture Feeding Changes the Bovine Rumen and Milk Metabolome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom F. O’Callaghan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of two pasture feeding systems—perennial ryegrass (GRS and perennial ryegrass and white clover (CLV—and an indoor total mixed ration (TMR system on the (a rumen microbiome; (b rumen fluid and milk metabolome; and (c to assess the potential to distinguish milk from different feeding systems by their respective metabolomes. Rumen fluid was collected from nine rumen cannulated cows under the different feeding systems in early, mid and late lactation, and raw milk samples were collected from ten non-cannulated cows in mid-lactation from each of the feeding systems. The microbiota present in rumen liquid and solid portions were analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, while 1H-NMR untargeted metabolomic analysis was performed on rumen fluid and raw milk samples. The rumen microbiota composition was not found to be significantly altered by any feeding system in this study, likely as a result of a shortened adaptation period (two weeks’ exposure time. In contrast, feeding system had a significant effect on both the rumen and milk metabolome. Increased concentrations of volatile fatty acids including acetic acid, an important source of energy for the cow, were detected in the rumen of TMR and CLV-fed cows. Pasture feeding resulted in significantly higher concentrations of isoacids in the rumen. The ruminal fluids of both CLV and GRS-fed cows were found to have increased concentrations of p-cresol, a product of microbiome metabolism. CLV feeding resulted in increased rumen concentrations of formate, a substrate compound for methanogenesis. The TMR feeding resulted in significantly higher rumen choline content, which contributes to animal health and milk production, and succinate, a product of carbohydrate metabolism. Milk and rumen-fluids were shown to have varying levels of dimethyl sulfone in each feeding system, which was found to be an important compound for distinguishing between the diets

  13. Automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.; Bona, F.; Dejachy, G.

    1963-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device has been developed (and used) in the framework of corrosion tests realized with constantly renewed uranium hexafluoride. The issue was to feed liquid nitrogen to a large capacity metallic trap in order to condensate uranium hexafluoride at the exit of the corrosion chambers. After having studied various available devices, a feeding device has been specifically designed to be robust, secure and autonomous, as well as ensuring a high liquid nitrogen flowrate and a highly elevated feeding frequency. The device, made of standard material, has been used during 4000 hours without any problem [fr

  14. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  15. Breast feeding in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Hussein, H B

    1977-04-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding is investigated in relation to duration of breastfeeding without supplementation and the age when solids were first introduced in the infant's diet. The study also evaluates the awareness of the mothers of the benefits of breast milk. 461 mothers were interviewed in May 1976 by 3 doctors including the author. 95% (438) were found to breastfeed their babies at least once or twice a day. However, only 18% (86) of the mothers were fully breastfeeding up to 3 months and 9% (45) were breastfeeding without added solids up to 6 months. A disappointing finding was the introduction of solid foods by 78% (351) of the mothers before the end of the 3rd month; of these, 117 or 25% have introduced the solids as early as the 1st 6 months. Only 5% (23) were artificially feeding their infants. 86% (399) agreed that breast milk was the best milk for their children but only 277 (59%) agreed that infection occurs less frequently in breastfed than bottlefed children. 65% (302) were aware that solids should be introduced after 6 months to the infant's diet. Only 48% (222) were aware that a well-balanced diet is essential for an adequate supply of breast milk. Although 50% (232) reported that they were advised by nurses or bidans to breastfeed their children, only 37% (172) were given instructions on the technique of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding programs launched by the Ministry of Health should promote breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months duration and discourage early complement feeding and introduction of solids to infants less than 6 months of age.

  16. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  17. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean daily live mass gain was, however, 174 g/day (20,5%) more for the Large White boars and feed conversion16,5% ... of protein and fat in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed ..... regulation of growth and production.

  18. Nannochloropsis oceania-derived defatted meal as an alternative to fishmeal in Atlantic salmon feeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Sørensen

    Full Text Available Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group. The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the control group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon.

  19. AUTOMATION OF IN FEED CENTERLESS GRINDING MACHINE

    OpenAIRE

    Piyusha P. Jadhav*, Sachin V. Lomte, Sudhir Surve

    2017-01-01

    In-feed centerless grinding technique offers a major contribution to the industries. This is the alternative in-feed centerless grinding technique using regulating wheel. Mainly centerless grinding is divided in three types, and those are End feed, in-feed and through feed Centerless grinding. This paper mainly deals with low cost automation on in-feed Centerless grinding machine using regulating wheel suitable for multiple in-feed type jobs. It deals with the development of a Centerless grin...

  20. Best-feeding the baby

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Best-feeding the baby. Human infants should be fed their own mothers' breast- milk. Where this is unavailable, replacement feeding becomes necessary. Through the ages and right up to the present, human milk has been supplied by other lactating women within or from outside the family. Donated breast-milk has been ...

  1. Altered carbon dioxide metabolism and creatine abnormalities in rett syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halbach, Nicky S J; Smeets, Eric E J; Bierau, Jörgen; Keularts, Irene M L W; Plasqui, Guy; Julu, Peter O O; Engerström, Ingegerd Witt; Bakker, Jaap A.; Curfs, Leopold M G

    2012-01-01

    Despite their good appetite, many females with Rett syndrome (RTT) meet the criteria for moderate to severe malnutrition. Although feeding difficulties may play a part in this, other constitutional factors such as altered metabolic processes are suspected. Irregular breathing is a common clinical

  2. A History of Infant Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  3. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  4. Circadian rhythms, time-restricted feeding, and healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoogian, Emily N C; Panda, Satchidananda

    2017-10-01

    Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models. In humans, epidemiological studies have shown erratic eating patterns increase the risk of disease, whereas sustained feeding-fasting cycles, or prolonged overnight fasting, is correlated with protection from breast cancer. Therefore, optimizing the timing of external cues with defined eating patterns can sustain a robust circadian clock, which may prevent disease and improve prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Developmental Ethanol Exposure Causes Reduced Feeding and Reveals a Critical Role for Neuropeptide F in Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara, Amanda; Gates, Hillary; Urbina, Brianna; French, Rachael

    2018-01-01

    Food intake is necessary for survival, and natural reward circuitry has evolved to help ensure that animals ingest sufficient food to maintain development, growth, and survival. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, co-opt the natural reward circuitry in the brain, and this is a major factor in the reinforcement of drug behaviors leading to addiction. At the junction of these two aspects of reward are alterations in feeding behavior due to alcohol consumption. In particular, developmental alcohol exposure (DAE) results in a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disorders collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). The deleterious effects of DAE include intellectual disabilities and other neurobehavioral changes, including altered feeding behaviors. Here we use Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model organism to study the effects of DAE on feeding behavior and the expression and function of Neuropeptide F. We show that addition of a defined concentration of ethanol to food leads to reduced feeding at all stages of development. Further, genetic conditions that reduce or eliminate NPF signaling combine with ethanol exposure to further reduce feeding, and the distribution of NPF is altered in the brains of ethanol-supplemented larvae. Most strikingly, we find that the vast majority of flies with a null mutation in the NPF receptor die early in larval development when reared in ethanol, and provide evidence that this lethality is due to voluntary starvation. Collectively, we find a critical role for NPF signaling in protecting against altered feeding behavior induced by developmental ethanol exposure. PMID:29623043

  6. The influence of microplastics and halogenated contaminants in feed on toxicokinetics and gene expression in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Granby, Kit; Rainieri, Sandra; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Kotterman, Michiel J.J.; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Cederberg, Tommy Licht; Barranco, Alex; Marques, António; Larsen, Bodil Katrine

    2018-01-01

    When microplastics pollute fish habitats, it may be ingested by fish, thereby contaminating fish with sorbed contaminants. The present study investigates how combinations of halogenated contaminants and microplastics associated with feed are able to alter toxicokinetics in European seabass and

  7. Foraging response and acclimation of ambush feeding and feeding-current feeding copepods to toxic dinoflagellates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jiayi; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    reticulatum. We hypothesize (1) that ambush feeders are less affected by toxic algae than feeding-current feeders, (2) that copepods acclimate to the toxic algae, and (3) that phytoplankton cells previously exposed to copepod cues elicit stronger responses. Both copepod species consumed the toxic algae...... to examine the response and temporal acclimation (5 d) of two copepods with different foraging behaviors to toxic dinoflagellates. Feeding-current feeding Temora longicornis and ambush feeding Acartia tonsa were offered three strains of toxic Alexandrium tamarense and a nontoxic control Protoceratium...... at a reduced rate and there was no difference in their net-response, but the mechanisms differed. T. longicornis responded in strain-specific ways by reducing its feeding activity, by rejecting captured algae, or by regurgitating consumed cells. A. tonsa reduced its consumption rate, jump frequency, and jump...

  8. Peripheral Insulin Doesn’t Alter Appetite of Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline. The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05. Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p0.05. All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.

  9. The potential for eEngineering enhanced functional-feed soybeans for sustainable aquaculture feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliot eHerman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvestedallocated fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange of soybean meal for fishmeal in aquafeed has resulted in reduced growth rates due in part to soybean’s anti-nutritional proteins. To produce an aquaculture soybeans for use in aquaculture feeds a new conventional line has been bred termed Triple Null by stacking null alleles for the feed-relevant proteins Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, lectin, and P34 allergen. Triple Null is now being further enhanced as a platform to build additional transgene traits for production disease vaccines, altered protein composition, and to produce high levels of -carotene an intrinsic orange-colored aquafeed marker to distinguish the seeds from commodity beans and as the metabolic feedstock precursor of highly valued astaxanthin.

  10. The Potential for Engineering Enhanced Functional-Feed Soybeans for Sustainable Aquaculture Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Eliot M; Schmidt, Monica A

    2016-01-01

    Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvested fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange of soybean meal for fishmeal in aquafeed has resulted in reduced growth rates due in part to soybean's anti-nutritional proteins. To produce soybeans for use in aquaculture feeds a new conventional line has been bred termed Triple Null by stacking null alleles for the feed-relevant proteins Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, lectin, and P34 allergen. Triple Null is now being further enhanced as a platform to build additional transgene traits for vaccines, altered protein composition, and to produce high levels of β-carotene an intrinsic orange-colored aquafeed marker to distinguish the seeds from commodity beans and as the metabolic feedstock precursor of highly valued astaxanthin.

  11. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  12. A model of the evolution of larval feeding rate in Drosophila driven by conflicting energy demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Laurence D; Barter, Thomas T

    2015-02-01

    Energy allocation is believed to drive trade-offs in life history evolution. We develop a physiological and genetic model of energy allocation that drives evolution of feeding rate in a well-studied model system. In a variety of stressful environments Drosophila larvae adapt by altering their rate of feeding. Drosophila larvae adapted to high levels of ammonia, urea, and the presence of parasitoids evolve lower feeding rates. Larvae adapted to crowded conditions evolve higher feeding rates. Feeding rates should affect gross food intake, metabolic rates, and efficiency of food utilization. We develop a model of larval net energy intake as a function of feeding rates. We show that when there are toxic compounds in the larval food that require energy for detoxification, larvae can maximize their energy intake by slowing their feeding rates. While the reduction in feeding rates may increase development time and decrease competitive ability, we show that genotypes with lower feeding rates can be favored by natural selection if they have a sufficiently elevated viability in the toxic environment. This work shows how a simple phenotype, larval feeding rates, may be of central importance in adaptation to a wide variety of stressful environments via its role in energy allocation.

  13. Effects of feed forms, levels of quantitative feed restriction on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were subjected to ... Keywords: Broilers, carcass, performance, quantitative feed restriction ...

  14. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  15. [Feeding and aging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Zaplana, Isabel; Maestre González, Elena

    2013-06-01

    Aging is characterized by an increase in relative population of 65 years and older, and can say that, in our country, it is a phenomenon demographic, political, social and health. Several studies have shown that the nutritional status of the general population and the elderly, in particular, is a valid indicator to predict longevity and quality of life of this group of people. The World Health Organization (who) pointed out that the elderly population is a group nutritionally very vulnerable as a result of anatomical and physiological changes associated with aging. Between 35-40 of the elderly has some kind of altered nutrition or malnutrition: protein or protein-energy malnutrition, selective deficiency of vitamins and minerals, inadequate water intake, obesity, etc. The best way to promote the quality of life and prevent disease is a proper diet, also called healthy eating, adapted to the special circumstances which older persons may present without forgetting gastronomy is not incompatible with health. In this article, some tips are also available for preparing and cooking food, as well as culinary strategies to introduce them in the daily menu.

  16. Feeding device for rotary retorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchins, T W.S.

    1923-04-25

    A horizontal rotary retort is heated externally with a feeding-worm or the like for distilling coal, oil shale, etc. It is characterized in that the shaft of the feeder moves adjustably lengthwise, so that, under the hopper more or less of the worm comes for action on the feed, so that the hopper is withdrawn through the retort while it projects into the retort and is secured in a position against the rotation.

  17. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  18. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  19. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  20. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  1. Feeding the Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  2. Radiation protection philosophy alters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firmin, G.

    1977-01-01

    Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)

  3. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  4. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  5. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  6. Breast feeding: is it vital?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnasir, F A

    1990-12-01

    Human milk is the natural food of infants. It is a naturally balanced diet which meets the needs of the newborn. No artificial food can compare with human milk's natural, nutritional, and anti-infective properties. Various agencies have therefore strongly advocated every infant's right to be breast fed. For example, the International Confederation of Midwives at their 1984 meeting recommended that breast feeding be undertaken for at least 6 months especially in areas of the world where the incidence of infant mortality, morbidity, and malnutrition is high. The majority of women should be able to breast feed even if malnourished, and providing food for a lactating woman is less expensive than providing artificial formula for her baby. In some Western countries, breasts are seen more as sex symbols than sources of nourishment for infants. Women in developing countries should instead retain their tradition of breast feeding in the best interest of both their children and society.

  7. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  8. Music and Alterity Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Martí

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.

  9. Dextrose gel treatment does not impair subsequent feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Philip J; Harris, Deborah L; Harding, Jane E

    2017-11-01

    Dextrose gel is increasingly used as first-line treatment for neonatal hypoglycaemia. Treatment with 400 mg/kg previously has been reported to impair subsequent feeding. We sought to determine if the recommended dose of 200 mg/kg altered feeding. Hypoglycaemic babies were randomised to 200 mg/kg dextrose gel or placebo and fed. Prefeed alertness, quality and duration of breast feeding, and the volume of formula taken were assessed on the next feeding. Prefeed alertness scores were similar in babies (n=211) treated with dextrose or placebo gel (124 episodes, OR=1.30 (95% CI 0.62 to 2.77), p=0.49). Breastfed babies were more likely to have good feeding scores after dextrose gel (160 episodes, OR=3.54 (95% CI 1.30 to 9.67), p=0.01) but similar breastfeeding duration (57 episodes, median (range) 20 (3-90) vs 25 (2-80) min, p=0.62). Formula volumes taken were also similar (24 episodes, median (range) 4.6 (2.2-11.3) vs 6.4 (2.0-8.9) mL/kg, p=0.30). Treating hypoglycaemic babies with dextrose gel 200 mg/kg does not depress subsequent feeding and may improve breastfeeding quality. ACTRN 12608000623392. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Pregnancy, breast-feeding and drugs used in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Mark; Goodchild, Jason H

    2012-08-01

    Despite advances in the study of birth defects related to drug exposures during pregnancy, medication use during pregnancy still causes anxiety and misunderstanding among both members of the public and health care professionals. This may result in a woman's unknowingly taking a medication that may harm the fetus or cause a birth defect or discontinuing medications necessary for treating chronic conditions. Using medications while breast-feeding also represents a challenge for patients and prescribers. Many mothers are told they must stop breast-feeding or "pump and discard" their breast milk if they are taking certain medications; however, in many cases, this advice-based on what may be limited education on the part of the health care provider about breast-feeding and medication use-may be incorrect. The authors review the current evidence regarding drugs that may be safe for pregnant or breast-feeding patients and medications that such patients should avoid. When considering prescribing in pregnancy, the dentist must weigh the risk to the fetus versus the benefit to the mother, and the appropriate conclusion should reflect current evidence. In some cases medication dosing should be avoided or altered; however, there are times when it is unnecessary to stop the use of medications. Breast-feeding also represents a clinical challenge, the risks and benefits of which need to be understood by both the patient and practitioner before any medication is administered. Dentists should be familiar with the risks and benefits for pregnant or breast-feeding patients posed by five types of medications: analgesics and anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, local anesthetics, sedatives and emergency medications.

  11. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. infant feeding issues implications of formula feeding to reduce hiv

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-03

    Aug 3, 2004 ... exclusive bottle-feeding is, in theory, negligible. However, .... †Independent sample t-tests; categorical variables were tested using the X2-test. TABLE I. RESULTS FOR FIT ... increase the risk of diarrhoeal events.9. Frequent ...

  13. Feeding habits and comparative feeding rates of three southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food utilization by three arboreal squirrels was studied with regard to feeding habits and efficiency, food preferences and chemical analyses of the food. Food selected in the field by the two forest subspecies the Ngoye red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus ornatus and the Tonga red squirrel, P. p. tongensis are listed.

  14. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati......We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey...... cells have short intense leakage burst, only a very small fraction of prey cells would be available to the copepod at any instance in time and, thus would be inefficient at low prey concentration. Finally, we report a few new observations of prey capture in two species of copepods, Temora longicornis...... and Centropages hamatus, offered a 45-μm sized dinoflagellate at very low concentration. The observed short prey detection distances, up to a few prey cell radii, are consistent with mechanoreception and we argue briefly that near-field mechanoreception is the most likely and common prey perception mechanism...

  15. The influence of supplementary feeding to ewes and creep feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KARIN KOEP

    2015-03-24

    Mar 24, 2015 ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognise the authors and the South African. Journal of Animal Science. .... mix (lick) supplied to producing SA. Mutton Merino ewes and creep feed for suckling lambs grazing wheat stubble during the dry summer period.

  16. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  17. Salmonella Radicidation of Dry Mixed Feeds and Feed Ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossel, D. A.A. [Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research TNO, Zeist (Netherlands); San Marcos University, Lima (Peru)

    1967-11-15

    Feed components contaminated with salmonellae act as vehicles in the transmission of these bacteria to slaughter animals and hence to meat and poultry. Terminal decontamination of ingredients or mixed feed seems required because sanitary improvements in processing, bagging and storage do not always appear effective in considerably reducing salmonella contamination rates. Experiments were carried out to assay the decontamination effect of pelletization of mixed feed. Enumeration of enterobacteriaceae was used as the analytical criterion. It appeared that a temperature over 80 Degree-Sign C generally led to five decimal reductions in enterobacteriaceae counts; however, also currently used lower temperatures may bring about two decimal reductions only. Following earlier experiments with fish meal, range finding tests on the decontamination of mixed feed with {sup 60}Co gamma rays were also performed. To achieve five decimal reductions in the counts of the most resistant enterobacteriaceae which were encountered about 0.5 Mrad was required; survival curves were generally not linear, so that overall effective dose had to be used as a parameter. Feeding experiments with rats, using 35% fish meal irradiated at 0.8 Mrad in the diet for two years, demonstrated that neither losses of nutritive value nor the occurrence of orally toxic factors is effected by such an irradiation treatment. It is recommended that pilot plant tests be carried out. In these tests an attempt should be made to combine improved sanitation and pelletizing with a terminal radiation treatment of the bagged material with the lowest dose required. Such tests should preferably be carried out in suitable areas of countries like Peru or Chile. A brief outline is given of the development work and training of scientific and technical staff that should be carried out during the installation of such a pilot plant. (author)

  18. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  19. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  20. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  1. International trade of animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2018-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  2. Feed-additive probiotics accelerate yet antibiotics delay intestinal microbiota maturation in broiler chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Chen; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Lifeng; Huang, Shi; Su, Xiaoquan; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Heping

    2017-08-03

    Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared. Probiotic feeding resulted in a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and induced the highest level of immunity response, suggesting greater economic benefits in broiler farming. Probiotic use but not antibiotic use recapitulated the characteristics of age-dependent development of gut microbiota in the control group. The maturation of intestinal microbiota was greatly accelerated by probiotic feeding, yet significantly retarded and eventually delayed by antibiotic feeding. LP-8 stimulated the growth of many intestinal Lactobacillus spp. and led to an altered bacterial correlation network where Lactobacillus spp. are negatively correlated with 14 genera and positively linked with none, yet from the start antibiotic feeding featured a less-organized network where such inter-genera interactions were fewer and weaker. Consistently, microbiota-encoded functions as revealed by metagenome sequencing were highly distinct between the two groups. Thus, "intestinal microbiota maturation index" was proposed to quantitatively compare impact of feed additives on animal microecology. Our results reveal a tremendous potential of probiotics as antibiotics' substitute in poultry farming.

  3. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  4. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1999-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  5. Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Boutorh, Julia; De La Rocha, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of ......Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles...

  6. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  7. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent [Bucyrus, KS; Yerganian, Simon Scott [Lee's Summit, MO

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  8. Effects of gamma radiation on fungal microbiota and mycotoxins in broiler chicken feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simas, Monica Mattos dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)

  9. Immunization alters body odor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A; Opiekun, Maryanne; Yamazaki, Kunio; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2014-04-10

    Infections have been shown to alter body odor. Because immune activation accompanies both infection and immunization, we tested the hypothesis that classical immunization might similarly result in the alteration of body odors detectable by trained biosensor mice. Using a Y-maze, we trained biosensor mice to distinguish between urine odors from rabies-vaccinated (RV) and unvaccinated control mice. RV-trained mice generalized this training to mice immunized with the equine West Nile virus (WNV) vaccine compared with urine of corresponding controls. These results suggest that there are similarities between body odors of mice immunized with these two vaccines. This conclusion was reinforced when mice could not be trained to directly discriminate between urine odors of RV- versus WNV-treated mice. Next, we trained biosensor mice to discriminate the urine odors of mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; a general elicitor of innate immunological responses) from the urine of control mice. These LPS-trained biosensors could distinguish between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and RV-treated mouse urine. Finally, biosensor mice trained to distinguish between the odors of RV-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine did not generalize this training to discriminate between the odors of LPS-treated mouse urine and control mouse urine. From these experiments, we conclude that: (1) immunization alters urine odor in similar ways for RV and WNV immunizations; and (2) immune activation with LPS also alters urine odor but in ways different from those of RV and WNV. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. The Effect of Sham Feeding on Neurocardiac Regulation in Healthy Human Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markad V Kamath

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distension and electrical stimuli in the esophagus alter heart rate variability (HRV consistent with activation of vagal afferent and efferent pathways. Sham feeding stimulates gastric acid secretion by means of vagal efferent pathways. It is not known, however, whether activation of vagal efferent pathways is organ- or stimulus-specific.

  11. Influence of feeding thermally peroxidized soybean oil on oxidative status in growing pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding thermally processed peroxidized soybean oil (SO) induces markers of oxidative stress and alters antioxidant status in pig tissue, blood, and urine. Fifty-six barrows (25.3 ± 3.3 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments...

  12. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible

  13. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  14. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  15. Carbon source feeding strategies for recombinant protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... protein expression with the influence of the carbon source feeding ... in the culture media, increasing the peroxisomes numbers ...... source, temperature, pH, O2, methanol feeding strategy) ..... Catabolite Inactivation in Yeast.

  16. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach

  17. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  18. Enteral Nutrition for Feeding Severely Underfed Patients with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriella Gentile

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium. In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to use oral nutrition support and/or artificial nutrition, besides ordinary food; enteral nutrition should be a preferred route of feeding if there is a functional accessible gastrointestinal tract. Refeeding of severely malnourished patients represents two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1 to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; (2 to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious rate of refeeding. The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of refeeding severely underfed patients and to present our experience with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of very severe undernutrition whilst avoiding refeeding syndrome, in 10 patients aged 22 ± 11.4 years and with mean initial body mass index (BMI of 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2. The mean BMI increased from 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2 to 17.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2 and the mean body weight from 27.9 ± 3.3 to 43.0 ± 5.7 kg after 90 days of intensive in-patient treatment (p < 0.0001. Caloric intake levels were established after measuring resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and nutritional support was performed with enteral feeding. Vitamins, phosphate, and potassium supplements were administered during refeeding. All patients achieved a significant modification of BMI; none developed refeeding syndrome. In conclusion, our findings show that, even in cases of extreme undernutrition, enteral feeding may be a well-tolerated way of feeding.

  19. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2016-01-01

    Version 5\\ud Background\\ud \\ud Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis v...

  20. Does breast-feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, M. H.; Ott, P.; Juul, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  1. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  2. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  3. Mechanisms of Feeding Deterrence by Ziziphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-30

    number) e mechanism of feeding deterrence by ziziphins for sout rn armyworms ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) was investigated using bo long... Spodoptera eridania , to investigate the mechanisms of feeding deterrence by ziziphins extracted from the leaves of • .Ziziphus jujuba. Evaluation...Videotape Analysis of Feeding Suppression in the Southern Armyworm ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Produced by Extracts of the

  4. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... hazards present in animal feeds pose a threat to human health. Public concern on health matters related to food has ... meat, milk or eggs (Park and Laing, 1993; Dorner et al.,. 1994). ... are used in animal feed production (yellow whole maize, sifted ... number of fungal species than processed food and feed.

  5. The Hungry Worm Feeds the Bird

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onrust, J.; Piersma, T.

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are important prey for many birds. Based on theirown feeding ecology, earthworms can be separated into two ecotypes: the detritivoresthat feed on organic material and the geophages that feed on soil particlesand organic matter. Detritivores collect their food on the surface

  6. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure...

  7. The carbonaceous matter in the uraniferous dequartzified and albitized leucogranite of Saraya (Senegal): an example of superimposed hydrothermal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouthier, B.

    1988-01-01

    Two superimposed early hydrothermal alterations have been recognized in the Proterozoic Saraya leucogranite. Successively are described a major dequartzification leading to an episyenite infilled with carbonaceous matter and sulfate during an interruption of the system, succeeded by a mobilization of U and other elements during an albitization. A dolomite filling up followed by a silicopotassic feed-back alteration, close down the system [fr

  8. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with

  9. Altered metabolism in cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locasale Jason W

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, considering their anabolic as well as catabolic needs. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/58/

  10. [Hunger and satiety factors in the regulation of pleasure associated with feeding behavior].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetissov, Sergueï O

    2016-01-01

    Feeding is an instinctive behavior accompanied by rewarding feeling of pleasure during obtaining and ingesting food, corresponding to the preparatory and consummatory phases of motivated behavior, respectively. Perception of this emotional state together with alternating feelings of hunger and satiety drives the feeding behavior. Because alterations of feeding behavior including either overeating or anorexia may lead to obesity and cachexia, respectively, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms of regulation of feeding pleasure may help to develop new therapies of these diseases. The dopamine (DA) system of the mesolimbic projections plays a key role in behavioral reward in general and is also involved in regulating feeding-associated pleasure in the forebrain including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). It suggests that this DA system can be selectively activated by factors specific to different types of motivated behavior including hunger- and satiety- related hormones. Indeed, central administrations of either orexigenic ghrelin or anorexigenic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increase DA release in the NAc. However, DA has also been shown to inhibit food intake when injected into the LHA, historically known as a « hunger center », indicating DA functional involvement in regulation of both appetite and feeding pleasure. Although both NAc and LHA contain neurons expressing melanocortin receptors, only the LHA receives the α-MSH containing nerve terminals from the α-MSH producing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, the main relay of the peripheral hunger and satiety signals to the brain. A recent study showed that α-MSH in the LHA enhances satiety and inhibits feeding pleasure while potently stimulating DA release in this area during both preparatory and consummatory phases of feeding. It suggests that altered signaling by α-MSH to the DA system in the LHA may be involved in the pathophysiology of

  11. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...

  12. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  13. Feeding behavior of Nellore cattle fed high concentrations of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco Van Cleef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% crude glycerin in Nellore cattle diets and its effects on feeding behavior parameters. It were used 30 animals with 277.7kg BW and 18 months old, which were kept in feedlot in individual pens during 103 days (21 adaptation and 82 data collection. The animals were assigned (initial weight in blocks and submitted to the following treatments: G0; G7.5; G15; G22.5; and G30, corresponding to control group, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin in the diet dry matter, respectively. The feeding behavior (feeding, idle, ruminating, number of chews, feeding efficiency and ruminating efficiency were evaluated for three days. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design, analyzing contrasts and observing the significance of linear, quadratic and control treatment × glycerin treatments effects. The inclusion up to 30% crude glycerin in diets of Nellore cattle altered the feeding efficiency, expressed in g NDF h-1, the ruminating efficiency relative to NDF, the time and number of chews per ruminal bolus, facilitating the feed ingestion and directly influencing the time spent on feeding.

  14. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  15. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age appropriate - children 6 months to 2 years; Babies - feeding solid food ... per day, but will eat more at each feeding than the first 6 months. If you feed ...

  16. Central lipid detection and the regulation of feeding behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cansell Céline

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The modern abundance of energy-rich foods combined with a shift to more sedentary lifestyles has led to a thermodynamic imbalance in which excessive caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure account for the prevalence of obesity. In particular, exposure to lipid-rich diet is thought to promote metabolic alteration in peripheral tissue associated with obesity-related diseases. The regulation of energy balance depends on the ability of the brain to provide an adaptive response to change in circulating factors of hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is particularly regarded as key integrative structure but, aside from hypothalamic-mediated homeostatic control, feeding behavior is also modulated by sensory inputs, such as tastes and odors, as well as by affective or emotional states. The reinforcing and motivational aspects of food are closely tied to the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine by the mesolimbic system, which is stimulated by calorie-dense foods as well as by most other objects of desire. Therefore feeding behavior is regulated by homeostatic as well as non-homeostatic inputs from the hypothalamus and the mesolimbic region. Interestingly, these structures expresses several enzymes involved in the processing of triglyceride and fatty acid and the recent literature provide growing evidence that fatty acid metabolism within discrete brain regions can function as sensor of nutrient availability directly control the hedonic and the homeostatic aspect of feeding.

  17. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; Pparental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; PParental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giselia A P; Costa, Karla A O; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  19. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselia A.P. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. Source of data: A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. Synthesis of data: The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Conclusion: Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families.

  20. Timing of host feeding drives rhythms in parasite replication

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, Kimberley F.

    2018-02-26

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual replication is responsible for the severity of malaria and fuels transmission of the disease, yet, how parasite rhythms are driven remains a mystery. We perturbed feeding rhythms of hosts by 12 hours (i.e. diurnal feeding in nocturnal mice) to desynchronise the host’s peripheral oscillators from the central, light-entrained oscillator in the brain and their rhythmic outputs. We demonstrate that the rhythms of rodent malaria parasites in day-fed hosts become inverted relative to the rhythms of parasites in night-fed hosts. Our results reveal that the host’s peripheral rhythms (associated with the timing of feeding and metabolism), but not rhythms driven by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms resynchronise to the altered host feeding rhythms when food availability is shifted, which is not mediated through rhythms in the host immune system. Our observations suggest that parasites actively control their developmental rhythms. Finally, counter to expectation, the severity of disease symptoms expressed by hosts was not affected by desynchronisation of their central and peripheral rhythms. Our study at the intersection of disease ecology and chronobiology opens up a new

  1. Timing of host feeding drives rhythms in parasite replication

    KAUST Repository

    Prior, Kimberley F

    2017-12-07

    Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual replication is responsible for the severity of malaria and fuels transmission of the disease, yet, how parasite rhythms are driven remains a mystery. We perturbed feeding rhythms of hosts by 12 hours (i.e. diurnal feeding in nocturnal mice) to desynchronise the host\\'s peripheral oscillators from the central, light-entrained oscillator in the brain and their rhythmic outputs. We demonstrate that the rhythms of rodent malaria parasites in day-fed hosts become inverted relative to the rhythms of parasites in night-fed hosts. Our results reveal that the host\\'s peripheral rhythms (associated with the timing of feeding and metabolism), but not rhythms driven by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms resynchronise to the altered host feeding rhythms when food availability is shifted, which is not mediated through rhythms in the host immune system. Our observations suggest that parasites actively control their developmental rhythms. Finally, counter to expectation, the severity of disease symptoms expressed by hosts was not affected by desynchronisation of their central and peripheral rhythms. Our study at the intersection of disease ecology and chronobiology opens up a new

  2. Effect of Ochratoxin A on Body Weight, Feed Intake and Feed Conversion in Broiler Chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigamani Masilamani Sakthivelan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ochratoxin A (OA on the body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion was investigated in broiler chicken fed dietary levels of OA at 0, 1, and 2 ppm for 28 days from hatch. Feeding OA significantly reduced the growth rate of broiler chicken. The reduction was observed from the first week onwards in OA-treated groups. Feed consumption and feed conversion also showed a diminishing trend from the first week of feeding toxin. Its implication on the performance of broiler chicken is discussed.

  3. Breast-feeding does not protect against allergic sensitization in early childhood and allergy-associated disease at age 7 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans

    2015-01-01

    clinic at 7 years of age, strictly adhering to predefined algorithms. Associations between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and outcomes were analyzed by logistic regression. RESULTS: We found no significant association between duration of exclusive breast-feeding and development of sensitization......% CI, 0.82-1.14]; and OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.84-1.23], respectively). Adjusting for reverse causation by excluding children with eczema, wheeze, or a positive skin prick test response before ending exclusive breast-feeding did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breast-feeding does not affect...

  4. Factors influencing initiation of breast-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwo, E E; Dusdieker, L B; Booth, B M

    1983-04-01

    We used the critical incidence method to study factors motivating 33 primigravidas and 39 multigravidas to initiate breast-feeding of their infants. Women chose breast-feeding because they believed that it would provide protection to the infant against infection, establish maternal-infant bonding, was convenient, provided better nutrition than cow's milk formula, was emotionally satisfying, and was the natural way to feed infants. The decision to breast-feed was made well in advance of pregnancy by primigravidas and shortly before pregnancy by multigravidas. Friends who had successfully nursed infants were as influential as immediate family members in influencing our study subjects in their decision to breast-feed. Prenatal counseling, though important, may not be the optimal period for motivating women to breast-feed.

  5. Pediatric feeding and swallowing rehabilitation: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Harding, Celia; van Gerven, Marjo; Cockerill, Helen

    2017-05-16

    Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on supporting growth, nutrition and hydration, the development of feeding activities, and ensuring safe swallowing with the aim of preventing choking and aspiration pneumonia. Pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders can be divided into four groups: transient, developmental, chronic or progressive.This article provides an overview of the available literature about the rehabilitation of feeding and swallowing disorders in infants and children. Principles of motor control, motor learning and neuroplasticity are discussed for the four groups of children with feeding and swallowing disorders.

  6. Effects of milk flow on the physiological and behavioural responses to feeding in an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pados, Britt F; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley H; Park, Jinhee; Knafl, George J; Nix, Brant

    2017-01-01

    Infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome often experience difficulty with oral feeding, which contributes to growth failure, morbidity, and mortality. In response to feeding difficulty, clinicians often change the bottle nipple, and thus milk flow rate. Slow-flow nipples have been found to reduce the stress of feeding in other fragile infants, but no research has evaluated the responses of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome to alterations in milk flow. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological and behavioural responses of an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome to bottle feeding with either a slow-flow (Dr. Brown's Preemie) or a standard-flow (Dr. Brown's Level 2) nipple. A single infant was studied for three feedings: two slow-flow and one standard-flow. Oral feeding, whether with a slow-flow or a standard-flow nipple, was distressing for this infant. During slow-flow feeding, she experienced more coughing events, whereas during standard-flow she experienced more gagging. Disengagement and compelling disorganisation were most common during feeding 3, that is slow-flow, which occurred 2 days after surgical placement of a gastrostomy tube. Clinically significant changes in heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate were seen during all feedings. Heart rate was higher during standard-flow and respiratory rate was higher during slow-flow. Further research is needed to examine the responses of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome to oral feeding and to identify strategies that will support these fragile infants as they learn to feed. Future research should evaluate an even slower-flow nipple along with additional supportive feeding strategies.

  7. Effects of feeding frequency and voluntary salt intake on fluid and electrolyte regulation in athletic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, A; Dahlborn, K

    1999-05-01

    The effect of feeding frequency and voluntary sodium intake (VSI) on fluid shifts and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were studied at rest and after exercise in six athletic horses. The horses were fed twice a day (2TD) and six times a day (6TD) for 25 days for each protocol, according to a changeover design. VSI was measured by weighing each horse's salt block daily. Feeding 2TD or 6TD caused no major alterations in fluid shifts, but in the 2TD treatment there was a postprandial increase in plasma protein concentration and osmolality that lasted horses.

  8. Feeding Releases Endogenous Opioids in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-08-23

    The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding

  9. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  10. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    OpenAIRE

    Stella Magdalena; Natadiputri G H; Nailufar; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin), enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performan...

  11. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  12. Music alters visual perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Jolij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.

  13. Genetic Alterations in Glioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bralten, Linda B. C.; French, Pim J.

    2011-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of primary brain tumor and have a dismal prognosis. Understanding the genetic alterations that drive glioma formation and progression may help improve patient prognosis by identification of novel treatment targets. Recently, two major studies have performed in-depth mutation analysis of glioblastomas (the most common and aggressive subtype of glioma). This systematic approach revealed three major pathways that are affected in glioblastomas: The receptor tyrosine kinase signaling pathway, the TP53 pathway and the pRB pathway. Apart from frequent mutations in the IDH1/2 gene, much less is known about the causal genetic changes of grade II and III (anaplastic) gliomas. Exceptions include TP53 mutations and fusion genes involving the BRAF gene in astrocytic and pilocytic glioma subtypes, respectively. In this review, we provide an update on all common events involved in the initiation and/or progression across the different subtypes of glioma and provide future directions for research into the genetic changes

  14. Altered Perspectives: Immersive Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.

    2016-12-01

    Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.

  15. Laparoscopic insertion of the Moss feeding tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Hagan, K; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-12-01

    Placement of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of a surgeon's skill base. Surgical insertion of feeding tubes has been performed safely for many years with very few modifications. With the recent surge in interest and applicability of other laparoscopic procedures, it is well within the skills of the average laparoscopic surgeon to insert feeding tubes. We describe herein a simple technique for the insertion of the Moss feeding tube. The procedure described has a minimum of invasion, along with simplicity, safety, and accuracy.

  16. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  18. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  19. Feed pumps for a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzhebaev, Eh.E.; Zhukov, V.M.; Evtushenko, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Given is a brief description of results of designing and testing the PE850-65 and SPE1650-75 pilot feed pumps for 440 MWe pressurized water reactors and for 1000 MWe boiling water reactors. Described is a bench-mark facility for the SPE1650-75 pump with full-scale parameters. The adjustment results of the preconnected axial wheel of the 1PE1650-75 pump during the service life tests of a pilot pump have been given. Practical results on new methods of the preconnected axial wheel protection have been obtained. The design criteria developed provide for the long life time within the proven range of circular velocities. Confirmed is a possibility of carrying out advanced tests for estimating the cavitation destruction intensity using the vibration due to cavitation

  20. Feed and product for AVLIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    Today, fuel cycle organizations around the world, including British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) are undertaking the development of a new and demanding enrichment technology, customarily referred to by its American Acronym AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotope separation). Successful commercialization of the technology will threaten established fuel cycle activities and is likely to send shock waves throughout the world industry. The stakes are high for all involved in the civil nuclear industry: do the potential rewards match up? US Department of Energy (US DOE) is regarded as the organization most committed to the early commercialization of AVLIS technology and is aiming to deploy an initial commercial plant within 6 years. However, the timescale is of course subject to a satisfactory technical progress and, no less importantly, continued funding of the necessary development and construction activities. Coupled with the changes that will be needed at the enrichment plant interfaces, the implications for feed supply and product usage, it can be seen that the 1997 target deployment date is an ambitious one. Other organizations are also developing atomic laser enrichment routes, but for the post-2000 timeframe. US DOE's desire to push ahead with early AVLIS deployment has to be seen in this global context. The different feed and product material interface requirements could generate resistance to the use of AVLIS by customers and other fuel cycle companies. The BNFL/URENCO atomic vapor laser enrichment development program is able to profit from USDOE's experience by ensuring very early that it encompasses all fuel cycle aspects. A process is being developed that is optimized from yellowcake to ceramic UO 2 , rather than just the difficult enrichment process. This is far more likely, if it becomes economically competitive, to produce a good match with customer requirements and so reduce the commercial risks of such a decision

  1. Tropical herbivorous phasmids, but not litter snails, alter decomposition rates by modifying litter bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chelse M. Prather; Gary E. Belovsky; Sharon A. Cantrell; Grizelle González

    2018-01-01

    Consumers can alter decomposition rates through both feces and selective feeding in many ecosystems, but these combined effects have seldom been examined in tropical ecosystems. Members of the detrital food web (litter-feeders or microbivores) should presumably have greater effects on decomposition than herbivores, members of the green food web. Using litterbag...

  2. Modeling Protein Structures in Feed and Seed Tissues Using Novel Synchrotron-Based Analytical Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, P.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional 'wet' chemical analyses usually looks for a specific known component (such as protein) through homogenization and separation of the components of interest from the complex tissue matrix. Traditional 'wet' chemical analyses rely heavily on the use of harsh chemicals and derivatization, therefore altering the native feed protein structures and possibly generating artifacts. The objective of this study was to introduce a novel and non-destructive method to estimate protein structures in feed and seeds within intact tissues using advanced synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy (SFTIRM). The experiments were performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source in Brookhaven National Laboratory (US Dept. of Energy, NY). The results show that with synchrotron-based SFTIRM, we are able to localize relatively 'pure' protein without destructions of the feed and seed tissues and qualify protein internal structures in terms of the proportions and ratios of a-helix, β-sheet, random coil and β-turns on a relative basis using multi-peak modeling procedures. These protein structure profile (a-helix, β-sheet, etc.) may influence protein quality and availability in animals. Several examples of feed and seeds were provided. The implications of this study are that we can use this new method to compare internal protein structures between feeds and between seed verities. We can also use this method to detect heat-induced the structural changes of protein in feeds.

  3. Effects of low-density feeding on elk–fetus contact rates on Wyoming feedgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Tyler G.; Cross, Paul C.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Maichak, Eric J.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Henningsen, John C.; Creel, Scott

    2012-01-01

    High seroprevalance for Brucella abortus among elk on Wyoming feedgrounds suggests that supplemental feeding may influence parasite transmission and disease dynamics by altering the rate at which elk contact infectious materials in their environment. We used proximity loggers and video cameras to estimate rates of elk-to-fetus contact (the primary source of brucellosis transmission) during winter supplemental feeding. We compared contact rates during high-density and low-density (LD) feeding treatments that provided the same total amount of food distributed over different areas. Low-density feeding led to >70% reductions in total number of contacts and number of individuals contacting a fetus. Proximity loggers and video cameras provided similar estimates of elk–fetus contact rates. Elk contacted fetuses and random control points equally, suggesting that elk were not attracted to fetuses but encountered them incidentally while feeding. The modeled relationship between contact rate and disease prevalence is nonlinear and LD feeding may result in large reductions in brucellosis prevalence, but this depends on the amount of transmission that occurs on and off feedgrounds.

  4. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnington, Colin; Gaston, Kevin J; Evans, Karl L

    2014-01-01

    Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK) we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  5. Relative roles of grey squirrels, supplementary feeding, and habitat in shaping urban bird assemblages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Bonnington

    Full Text Available Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.

  6. Host feeding in insect parasitoids: why destructively feed upon a host that excretes an alternative?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, J.S.M.; Reijnen, T.M.; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Host feeding is the consumption of host tissue by the adult female parasitoid. We studied the function of destructive host feeding and its advantage over non-destructive feeding on host-derived honeydew in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). We allowed

  7. Effects of feeding un-extruded floating feed to African giant catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of feeding two types of un-extruded floating fish feeds (HM1 and HM2 –38% CP, produced manually using available feedstuffs) and a commercial imported fish feed (Coppens – 40% CP) on growth performance and body composition of Heterobranchus longifilis over 56 days. Commercial ...

  8. Microsporidiosis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) alters blood-feeding responses and DEET repellency in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Donald R; Xue, Rui-De; Rotstein, Margaret A; Becnel, James J

    2007-11-01

    Infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) reduced mean human host attraction and landing/probing rates in female mosquitoes by 53 and 62%, respectively, compared with rates in microsporidia-free females. Infection with E. aedis reduced the average weight of unfed female mosquitoes by 4%, caused them to imbibe 23% less blood, and to lay 30% fewer eggs than healthy females. In contrast, E. aedis-infected mosquitoes required 20% more time (>1 h) than healthy females to bite skin treated with 15% DEET. Statistically significant morbidity in E. aedis-infected females was indicated by reductions in host attraction and landing/probing responses, the mass of unfed and blood-engorged females, and fecundity, and by increased DEET repellency.

  9. Alteration of the Canine Small-Intestinal Lactic Acid Bacterium Microbiota by Feeding of Potential Probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, Titta J. K.; Rinkinen, Minna L.; Beasley, Shea S.; Saris, Per E. J.

    2006-01-01

    Five potentially probiotic canine fecal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LAB8, Lactobacillus salivarius LAB9, Weissella confusa LAB10, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LAB11, and Lactobacillus mucosae LAB12, were fed to five permanently fistulated beagles for 7 days. The survival of the strains and their potential effects on the indigenous intestinal LAB microbiota were monitored for 17 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated that the five fed LAB ...

  10. Feeding alters blood flow patterns in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findsen, Anders; Crossley, Dane A; Wang, Tobias

    2018-01-01

    The crocodilian cardiovascular design with a four-chambered heart and a left aorta that emerge from the right ventricle allows blood to be shunted away from the lungs, a right-to-left (R-L) shunt. The adaptive significance of this R-L shunt remains both poorly understood and controversial with particular debate on its putative role during digestion. Here we measure blood flow patterns in the right aorta (RAo), left aorta (LAo) and the coeliac artery (CoA) of undisturbed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) during fasting and throughout most of the digestive period. Digestion doubled blood flow in the RAo (10.1±0.9 to 20.7±1.5mlmin -1 kg -1 ), whereas LAo increased approximately 3-fold (3.8±0.6 to 12.2±2.1mlmin -1 kg -1 ). Blood flow in the CoA increased more than four-fold during digestion (3.0±0.6 to 13.3±1.6mlmin -1 kg -1 ). The rise in blood flows was achieved by a doubling of heart rate (18.5±3.3 to 37.8±3.6mlmin -1 kg -1 ). Maximal flows measured in all arteries and heart rate occurred in the first hour of the postprandial period and continued for the next 7h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The relationship between different measures of feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits in Duroc pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Jiao, S; Tiezzi, F; Knauer, M; Huang, Y; Gray, K A; Maltecca, C

    2017-08-01

    Utilization of feed in livestock species consists of a wide range of biological processes, and therefore, its efficiency can be expressed in various ways, including direct measurement, such as daily feed intake, as well as indicator measures, such as feeding behavior. Measuring feed efficiency is important to the swine industry, and its accuracy can be enhanced by using automated feeding systems, which record feed intake and associated feeding behavior of individual animals. Each automated feeder space is often shared among several pigs and therefore raises concerns about social interactions among pen mates with regard to feeding behavior. The study herein used a data set of 14,901 Duroc boars with individual records on feed intake, feeding behavior, and other off-test traits. These traits were modeled with and without the random spatial effect of Pen_Room, a concatenation of room and pen, or random social interaction among pen mates. The nonheritable spatial effect of common Pen-Room was observed for traits directly measuring feed intake and accounted for up to 13% of the total phenotypic variance in the average daily feeding rate. The social interaction effect explained larger proportions of phenotypic variation in all the traits studied, with the highest being 59% for ADFI in the group of feeding behaviors, 73% for residual feed intake (RFI; RFI4 and RFI6) in the feed efficiency traits, and 69% for intramuscular fat percentage in the off-test traits. After accounting for the social interaction effect, residual BW gain and RFI and BW gain (RIG) were found to have the heritability of 0.38 and 0.18, respectively, and had strong genetic correlations with growth and off-test traits. Feeding behavior traits were found to be moderately heritable, ranging from 0.14 (ADFI) to 0.52 (average daily occupation time), and some of them were strongly correlated with feed efficiency measures; for example, there was a genetic correlation of 0.88 between ADFI and RFI6. Our work

  12. 9 CFR 3.9 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.9 Section 3.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.9 Feeding. (a) Dogs and cats must be fed at least once each day...

  13. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.29 Section 3.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.29 Feeding. (a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be fed...

  14. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must be...

  15. Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.J.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Rijk, de T.C.; Jong, de J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed

  16. Postoperative Feeding Difficulties after Repair of Congenital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of these, 24 (37.5%) developed feeding difficulties in the immediate post operative period. The causes of the feeding difficulties were Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) 9, Recurrent diaphragmatic hernia 8, Adhesive intestinal obstruction 4, Poor intestinal motility 2, Campylobacter enteritis, 1, Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, 1.

  17. 9 CFR 3.105 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.105 Feeding. (a) The food for marine mammals must be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.105 Section 3.105 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  18. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ..., drug toxicity, drug residues, antimicrobial resistance, or other reasons may dictate that the use of a... relating to the distribution and use of VFD drugs and animal feeds containing such drugs. FDA is... existed for regulating the distribution of animal drugs, including drugs in animal feed: (1) Over-the...

  19. Diagnostics of the BIOMASS feed array prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey; Pontoppidan, Kennie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction algorithm is applied to the prototype feed array of the BIOMASS synthetic aperture radar, recently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in Denmark. Careful analysis of the measured feed array data has shown that the test support structure...

  20. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... cottonseeds, bagasse, wheaten bran, gluten feed and pet foods from South Africa were surveyed for .... However, there is no consistent rationale for setting ... feed and poultry growing mash) , eleven different raw ingredients that ..... containing culture material, deoxynivalenol-contaminated wheat, or their.

  1. Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balthrop, J.; Brand, B.; Cowie, R.A.; Danier, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Jonge, de L.H.; Jackson, F.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Piotrowski, C.

    2011-01-01

    Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the

  2. Exposure of livestock to GM feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria

    2018-01-01

    This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU

  3. Feeding Difficulties in Children with Esophageal Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Lisa; Rosen, Rachel

    2016-06-01

    The current available literature evaluating feeding difficulties in children with esophageal atresia was reviewed. The published literature was searched through PubMed using a pre-defined search strategy. Feeding difficulties are commonly encountered in children and adults with repaired esophageal atresia [EA]. The mechanism for abnormal feeding includes both esophageal and oropharyngeal dysphagia. Esophageal dysphagia is commonly reported in patients with EA and causes include dysmotility, anatomic lesions, esophageal outlet obstruction and esophageal inflammation. Endoscopic evaluation, esophageal manometry and esophograms can be useful studies to evaluate for causes of esophageal dysphagia. Oropharyngeal dysfunction and aspiration are also important mechanisms for feeding difficulties in patients with EA. These patients often present with respiratory symptoms. Videofluoroscopic swallow study, salivagram, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing and high-resolution manometry can all be helpful tools to identify aspiration. Once diagnosed, management goals include reduction of aspiration during swallowing, reducing full column reflux into the oropharynx and continuation of oral feeding to maintain skills. We review specific strategies which can be used to reduce aspiration of gastric contents, including thickening feeds, changing feeding schedule, switching formula, trialing transpyloric feeds and fundoplication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The evaluation of energy in fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haidar, Mahmoud

    2017-01-01

    New and alternative plant ingredients are increasingly incorporated in fish feed due to the scarcity of captured fish and increased fishmeal and fish oil prices. As a result, current fish feeds are characterized by a highly variable ingredients composition, leading to a similar variability in the

  5. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other

  6. Breast Feeding as a Family Planning Method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    had a field day promoting the virtues of bottle feeding and won many followers. .... tains a better mix of nutrients compared with cow's milk and formula feeds and is more .... International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk. Substitutes. 4. King FS.

  7. Feed Additives for Aquaculture and Aquarium Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Barata, Eduardo N.; Velez, Zélia

    2011-01-01

    The presente invention refers of feed additives for aquaculture and aquarium culture. These additives comprise the amino acid, 1-methyl-L-tryptophane, or its isomers with the objective of improving the attractiveness of feeds used in aquaculture and aquaria for fish, as well as other aquatic organisms, under culture conditions. Therefore, this invention has applications in the agriculture-food industry.

  8. Irradiation effect on animal feeds and feedstuffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu

    1983-10-01

    Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of γ-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)

  9. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    exposes infants to infections such as diarrhoea, despite information on its importance being given to mothers. ... feeding and these were educational level of the mother, knowledge on benefits of breast feeding and ... only attained primary school education. Only 3 (2%) respondents had attained college education while.

  10. Feeding of whole cottonseed on performance, carcass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of including different levels of whole cottonseed (WCS) in the finishing diet of lambs on their dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, kg feed/kg gain), carcass characteristics and small intestinal morphology. Twenty Zandi male lambs (29.8 ...

  11. Self mixing of fly larvae during feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkov, Olga; Johnson, Christopher; Hu, David

    How do we sustainably feed a growing world population? One solution of increasing interest is the use of black solider fly larvae, pea-sized grubs envisioned to transform hundreds of tons of food waste into a sustainable protein source. Although startups across the world are raising these larvae, a physical understanding of how they should be raised and fed remains missing. In this study, we present experiments measuring their feeding rate as a function of number of larvae. We show that larger groups of larvae have greater mixing which entrains hungry larvae around the food, increasing feeding rate. Feeding of larvae thus differs from feeding of cattle or other livestock which exhibit less self-mixing.

  12. TENDENCIES AND PECULIARITIES OF SHRIMP FEED PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIUDMYLA V. FIHURSKA

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture is food sector, which is growing rapidly in the last 25 years with annual growth rate 8,2 . One of the mostperspective branches of aquaculture is shrimp farming. The cost of feeds is up to 80% of the cost of shrimp breeding, so providingthe industry with high-quality feeds is the important goal of the feed industry in all over the world. The theoretical research was devotedto the task of compound shrimp feed production. In order to satisfy shrimp requirements, shrimp feeding systems were shown.Existing shrimp breeding systems are shown as different from the type of reservoirs (static / running water, indoor or outdoor, feedingmethods, and the species of grown shrimp. Features of the nutritional standards for freshwater and saltwater shrimps were analyzed.Nutrient requirements of shrimp have been changed through shrimp life-cycle. The shrimp life-cycle was shown.World leaders-producers of compound mixed feeds for shrimps were shown. The analysis of pellet size and nutritional valueof compound mixed feeds of crude protein content in prestart, starter, grower and finish periods of cultivation and in accordancewith the system of cultivation and feeding shrimp (intensive, extensive, semi-intensive is carried out. The requirements for the contentof main minerals, vitamins and restrictions to the content of crude fiber are given. Traditional ingredients are described. Bindersand preservatives, which are used for shrimp feeds, are shown and subscribed. In raw material the main problem is the need to ensurehigh protein content in the shrimp feed recipes. Because of many factors, fish meal quantity should be reduced in recipes. Becauseof its attractive amino acid content, availability and relatively affordable price, soybean meal and soy concentrates have receivedincreasing attention as substitutes for marine animal meals.The features of technological lines and processes of production of mixed feeds for shrimp are shown.Еhe advantages and

  13. Nutrition, feeding, and behavior of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, Santosh P; Tibbetts, Sean M

    2009-05-01

    Nutrition and feeding influence growth, reproduction, and health of fish and their response to physiologic and environmental stressors and pathogens. The basics of fish metabolism are similar to those of warm-blooded animals in that they involve food intake, digestion, absorption, and transport of nutrients to the various tissues. Fish, however, being the most primitive form of vertebrates, possess some distinguishing features which will be discussed. Unlike warm-blooded animals, which are homoeothermic, fish are poikilothermic, so their body temperature and metabolic rate depends on the water temperature and this has practical implications for the nutrition, feeding and health of fish. Several behavioral responses have been linked to methods of feeding, feeding habits, frequency of feeding, mechanisms of food detection, and food preferences. Fish are also unique among vertebrates in their ability to absorb minerals not only from their diets but also from water through their gills and skin.

  14. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING TIME ON FEED UTILIZATION BY SIAMESE CATFISH, Pangasius hypophthalmus JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Meilisza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Siamese catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus at juvenile stage is used as ornamental fish by fish hobbies because of their beautiful shape and movement. Feeding time is a part of feeding management to get the best and effective strategy on feed input. This study aimed to determine the growth of Siamese catfish juvenile by looking at the influence of feeding time on feed utilization. The average individual weight of juveniles used was ± 3.2 g stocked 15 fish per aquarium equipped with recirculation system. Two level factors in the factorial design consisted of 4 feeding times (at 8:00, at 12:00, at 16:00, and as control (8:00, 12:00, 16:00 and feeding level (45 g feed kg-1 fish, 90 g feed kg-1 fish. Interaction between feeding time and feeding level resulting eight types of treatments research, namely A (8/45, B (12/45, C (16/45, D (8:12:16/45, E (8:12:16/90, F (8/90, G (12/90, and H (16/90. The results showed that feeding time had significant effect on the specific growth rate, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratio and were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05. Besides feeding time control (treatments D and E, treatment C also showed the highest of specific growth rate (2.03%, protein efficiency ratio (1.46, and the lowest feed conversion ratio (1.85.

  15. Is tube feeding futile in advanced dementia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    It is controversial whether tube feeding in people with dementia improves nutritional status or prolongs survival. Guidelines published by several professional societies cite observational studies that have shown no benefit and conclude that tube feeding in patients with advanced dementia should be avoided. However, all studies on tube feeding in dementia have major methodological flaws that invalidate their findings. The present evidence is not sufficient to justify general guidelines. Patients with advanced dementia represent a very heterogeneous group, and evidence demonstrates that some patients with dementia benefit from tube feeding. However, presently available guidelines make a single recommendation against tube feeding for all patients. Clinicians, patients, and surrogates should be aware that the guidelines and prior commentary on this topic tend both to overestimate the strength of evidence for futility and to exaggerate the burdens of tube feeding. Shared decision making requires accurate information tailored to the individual patient's particular situation, not blanket guidelines based on flawed data. Lay Summary: Many doctors believe that tube feeding does not help people with advanced dementia. Scientific studies suggest that people with dementia who have feeding tubes do not live longer or gain weight compared with those who are carefully hand fed. However, these studies are not very helpful because of flaws in design, which are discussed in this article. Guidelines from professional societies make a blanket recommendation against feeding tubes for anyone with dementia, but an individual approach that takes each person's situation into account seems more appropriate. Patients and surrogates should be aware that the guidelines on this topic tend both to underestimate the benefit and exaggerate the burdens of tube feeding. PMID:27833208

  16. Earliest filter-feeding pterosaur from the Jurassic of China and ecological evolution of Pterodactyloidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chang-Fu; Gao, Ke-Qin; Yi, Hongyu; Xue, Jinzhuang; Li, Quanguo; Fox, Richard C

    2017-02-01

    Pterosaurs were a unique clade of flying reptiles that were contemporaries of dinosaurs in Mesozoic ecosystems. The Pterodactyloidea as the most species-diverse group of pterosaurs dominated the sky during Cretaceous time, but earlier phases of their evolution remain poorly known. Here, we describe a 160 Ma filter-feeding pterosaur from western Liaoning, China, representing the geologically oldest record of the Ctenochasmatidae, a group of exclusive filter feeders characterized by an elongated snout and numerous fine teeth. The new pterosaur took the lead of a major ecological transition in pterosaur evolution from fish-catching to filter-feeding adaptation, prior to the Tithonian (145-152 Ma) diversification of the Ctenochasmatidae. Our research shows that the rise of ctenochasmatid pterosaurs was followed by the burst of eco-morphological divergence of other pterodactyloid clades, which involved a wide range of feeding adaptations that considerably altered the terrestrial ecosystems of the Cretaceous world.

  17. Successful Feeding of Amblyomma coelebs (Acari: Ixodidae) Nymphs on Humans in Brazil: Skin Reactions to Parasitism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Marcos V; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, AndrÉ De A R; Csordas, Barbara G; SzabÓ, Matias P J; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host-parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  18. The influence of elevated feed stalls on feeding behaviour of lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Benz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The performance level of high yielding cows can only be guaranteed by high quality forage and high feed intake. An about 15–20 cm elevated and 160 cm long feed stall with rubber flooring doesn’t only offer undisturbed meals but also a yielding and dry standing surface. In a pilot stable with 130 dairy cows (German Simmental the feeding alley was subsequently equipped with elevated feed stalls. The results show that animals frequented the feeding barn less often while the duration of single meals prolonged. The specific behavioural changes differed depending on milk yield and number of lactation.

  19. 21 CFR 515.10 - Medicated feed mill license applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medicated feed mill license applications. 515.10... (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Applications § 515.10 Medicated feed mill license applications. (a) Medicated feed mill license applications (Forms FDA 3448) may...

  20. Material awareness on natural feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Natural breastfeeding is the only proper way to feed newborns and infants because it ensures their proper development. Breastfeeding enhances health and protects against the development of many diseases in childhood and adulthood. The primary benefits of breastfeeding include reduced incidences of infection in the respiratory system as well as a reduction in gastrointestinal and systemic infections. The benefits of breastfeeding also include decreased inflammation and improved immunity to disease in the infant. Further benefits of breastfeeding are reduced incidences of type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. objective. The aim of the study was to assess the degree of knowledge on maternal breastfeeding among current expecting mothers. materials and method. The study comprtisded 147 mothers hospitalized in the Gynecology-Obstetrics Hospital University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland, during late July – August 2012. results. For 139 (93.88% of the surveyed women, breastfeeding was a priority regarding the health of the child. Respondents most often used professional literature in order to gain knowledge about breastfeeding (63.27%. The least popular way of acquiring knowledge was through the media (27.21%. conclusions. Analysis of the collected material on the surveyed women showed that women have a diverse range of knowledge about breastfeeding. Currently, breastfeeding is required to be promoted and supported by midwives, paediatricians and other health professionals.

  1. Tread-water feeding of Bryde's whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Takashi; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Thongsukdee, Surasak; Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Sato, Katsufumi

    2017-11-06

    Many previous studies have shown that rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae), including the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), fin whale (B. physalus), sei whale (B. borealis), Bryde's whale (B. edeni), minke whale (B. acutorostrata), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), employ a strategy called lunge feeding to capture a large amount of krill and/or fish for nourishment [1]. Lunge feeding entails a high energetic cost due to the drag created by an open mouth at high speeds [1,2]. In the upper Gulf of Thailand, Bryde's whales, which feed on small fish species [3], predominantly anchovies, demonstrated a range of feeding behaviors such as oblique, vertical, and lateral lunging. Moreover, they displayed a novel head-lifting feeding behavior characterized by holding the vertical posture for several seconds with an open mouth at the water surface. This study describes the head-lifting feeding by Bryde's whales, which is distinct from the typical lunge feeding of rorqual whales. Whales showing this behavior were observed on 58 occasions, involving 31 whales and including eight adult-calf pairs. Whales caught their prey using a series of coordinated movements: (i) lifting the head above the water with a closed mouth, (ii) opening the mouth until the lower jaw contacted the sea surface, which created a current of water flowing into the mouth, (iii) holding their position for several seconds, (iv) waiting for the prey to enter the mouth, and (v) closing the mouth and engulfing the prey underwater (Figure 1A-F, Movie S1 in Supplemental Information published with this article online). When a whale kept its upper jaw above the sea surface, many anchovies in the targeted shoal appeared to lose orientation and flowed passively into the mouth of the whale by the current created by the lower mandible breaking the surface of the water. We measured the duration of feeding events when the whales had a wide-open mouth mostly above the sea surface. The mean and maximum feeding

  2. The benefits of authoritative feeding style: caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Heather; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hughes, Sheryl O; Morales, Miriam

    2005-04-01

    This research tested the associations between caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns among African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) caregivers and their preschool children. Participants were 231 caregivers (101 AA; 130 H) with children enrolled in Head Start. Caregivers completed questionnaires on authoritarian and authoritative feeding styles (Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire; CFSQ) and various aspects of children's food consumption patterns (availability of, feeding attempts for, and child's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses tested the unique contribution of feeding styles in predicting food consumption patterns. Authoritative feeding was positively associated whereas authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with the availability of fruit and vegetables. Authoritative feeding was also positively associated with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruit, and vegetables, and reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with child's vegetable consumption. All results remained significant after controlling for child's gender and body mass index (BMI), and caregiver's ethnicity, BMI, and level of education. Overall, results provide evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding and suggest that interventions to increase children's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables should be targeted toward increasing caregivers' authoritative feeding behaviors.

  3. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in poultry feeds and feed ingredients from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherazi, S T H; Shar, Z H; Sumbal, G A; Tan, Eddie T; Bhanger, M I; Kara, Huseyin; Nizamani, S M

    2015-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in complete poultry feeds (n=80) and poultry feed ingredients (n=286) from Pakistan. All samples were first analyzed by indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), samples with OTA concentrations above the European Union maximum regulatory limit (MRL, 100 μg/kg) were further confirmed by HPLC-FLD. Contamination frequency and mean OTA levels were 31% and 51 μg/kg in feed ingredients, and the corresponding values for complete feeds were 38% and 75 μg/kg. Ten samples of complete poultry feed and 19 samples of feed ingredients contained OTA at levels higher than the MRL. The results of the present study indicate that there is a strong need for a more intense monitoring programs for OTA in poultry feed.

  4. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  5. The impact of deoxynivalenol on pigeon health : occurrence in feed, toxicokinetics and interaction with salmonellosis

    OpenAIRE

    Antonissen, Gunther; Haesendonck, Roel; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Verbrugghe, Elin; De Saeger, Sarah; Audenaert, Kris; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An

    2016-01-01

    Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-...

  6. Effects of feed consumption rate of beef cattle offered a diet supplemented with nitrate ad libitum or restrictively on potential toxicity of nitrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C; Araujo, R C; Koenig, K M; Beauchemin, K A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of feed consumption rate on potential toxicity, rumen fermentation, and eating behavior when beef heifers were fed a diet supplemented with nitrate (NI). Twelve ruminally cannulated heifers (827 ± 65.5 kg BW) were used in a randomized complete block design. The experiment consisted of 10-d adaptation, 8-d urea-feeding, and 3-d nitrate-feeding periods. All heifers were fed a diet supplemented with urea (UR) during the adaptation and urea-feeding periods, whereas the NI diet (1.09% NO in dietary DM) was fed during the nitrate-feeding period. After adaptation, heifers were randomly assigned to ad libitum or restrictive feeding (about 80% of ad libitum intake) for the urea- and nitrate-feeding periods. Ad libitum DMI decreased (14.1 vs. 15.1 kg/d; nitrate feeding changed the consumption pattern (a more even distribution of feed intake over the day). The increased feed consumption from 0 to 3 h after feeding the NI diet restrictively vs. ad libitum numerically decreased ( = 0.11) rumen pH and numerically or significantly increased ( = 0.01 to 0.28) rumen ammonia, NO, and NO; blood methemoglobin; and plasma NO and NO at 3 h. Regression analysis indicated that increased feed consumption (0 to 3 h) exponentially elevated ( nitrate-feeding period, the nitrate content of orts on d 2 and 3 was greater ( = 0.02) than that on d 1. In conclusion, the increased consumption rate of a diet supplemented with nitrate was an important factor influencing risk of nitrate toxicity based on blood methemoglobin and plasma NO. In addition, the pattern of daily feed consumption was altered by nitrate (creating a "nibbling" pattern of eating) in beef heifers.

  7. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  8. Recommended feeding regime and light climate in live feed cultures of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa Dana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Per Meyer; Steensbjerg Bjørbæk, Niels; Rayner, Thomas Allan

    2017-01-01

    (spiked feeding), in four equal pulses (pulsed feeding), and evenly over 24 h (continuous feeding). The feeding regimes were investigated at low food levels (~200 µg C L−1) and at full-saturated food levels (~1800 µg C L−1). As photoperiod may have an effect on feeding uptake and productivity, the present...

  9. Practical Recommendations on Supplemental Feeding Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of a national consensus document describing in detail modern approaches to feeding infants, pediatricians keep on giving most diverse recommendations on the time of supplemental feeding introduction. The article presents a brief historical review, as well the modern view on the issue of introduction of supplemental feeding to children. In the previous century, it was common both in Russia and most European countries to introduce supplemental feeding to children at the age of 2 or even 1.5 months. In 2002, the World Health Organization put forward an initiative in support of breastfeeding and recommended not to introduce supplemental feeding before the age of 6 months. A certain “golden mean” has apparently been achieved on the basis of results of studies and a longterm discussion among the specialists in feeding from different countries — all scientific communities and national recommendations of most countries define the optimal age for supplemental feeding introduction as “from 4 (completed months to 6 (completed months” with certain individual approach. 

  10. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford-13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades

  11. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  12. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  13. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  14. Effects of crude oil on the feeding behaviour of the zoanthid Palythoa variabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, A A

    1975-01-01

    Palythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898) has a well-coordinated, sterotyped feeding response similar to that described for other zoanthids. The feeding reaction can be elicited by the heterocyclic amino acid proline and by some of its analogs. The addition of an OH group (hydroxyproline) or of a glycyl group (prolylglycine) annuls the activity of the proline molecule. Substitutions (thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) or additions (glycylproline) to the amino group do not alter the effectivity of the activator. The size of the ring can be altered within certain limits (azetidine-2-carbocylic acid and pipecolic acid) without affecting the activity of the molecule. Feeding reactions culminating with ingestion can be elicited by Marine Diesel and Bunker-C oils. Exposure to oil affects the ability of polyps to discriminate between inert and chemically active particles for 3 to 5 days; responses to proline are not altered for at least 3 days following the exposure, but become slower and are present in fewer polyps after that period. Oil is retained in the coelenteron for several days following exposure and is periodically released in the form of timy droplets.

  15. Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindakshan, M.; Chaubey, R.C.; Chauhan, P.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1978-01-01

    Multigeneration feeding studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of an irradiated whole diet in Wistar rats. The parent and the four successive generations were fed on a nutritionally adequate test diet exposed to either 0.2 or 2.5Mrad gamma radiation and the effects, if any, on various parameters of animal health were assessed. In addition to an unirradiated test control, a historical control group fed on stock laboratory rations was also employed for comparison. The test diet consisted of various components including some of the basic ingredients of human diet in India. Exposure of the test diet to 0.2 or 2.5Mrad did not affect the food efficiency ratio and there were no significant differences in the growth rates of animals fed on unirradiated or irradiated diets. Reproductive performance of the rats fed on irradiated or unirradiated diets belonging to the parent, first, second or third generations were also comparable. Mortality rates and reproductive function in relation to age were also not altered due to feeding of irradiated whole diets. The haematological profile and the serum enzymes of the animals of all the generations fed irradiated diets were within normal limits. Though some differences were observed in the relative weights of some organs, these effects were limited to a particular generation, did not show any definite pattern and could not be related to the ingestion of irradiated diets. First-generation rats examined at 100-104 weeks for gross pathological manifestations including tumour incidence also did not indicate any significant differences among groups. (author)

  16. Chromium concentrations in ruminant feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, J W; Lloyd, K E; Krafka, K

    2017-05-01

    Chromium (Cr), in the form of Cr propionate, has been permitted for supplementation to cattle diets in the United States at levels up to 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM since 2009. Little is known regarding Cr concentrations naturally present in practical feed ingredients. The present study was conducted to determine Cr concentrations in feed ingredients commonly fed to ruminants. Feed ingredients were collected from dairy farms, feed mills, grain bins, and university research farms. Mean Cr concentrations in whole cereal grains ranged from 0.025 mg/kg of DM for oats to 0.041 mg/kg of DM for wheat. Grinding whole samples of corn, soybeans, and wheat through a stainless steel Wiley mill screen greatly increased analyzed Cr concentrations. Harvested forages had greater Cr concentrations than concentrates, and alfalfa hay or haylage had greater Cr concentrations than grass hay or corn silage. Chromium in alfalfa hay or haylage (n = 13) averaged 0.522 mg/kg of DM, with a range of 0.199 to 0.889 mg/kg of DM. Corn silage (n = 21) averaged 0.220 mg of Cr/kg of DM with a range of 0.105 to 0.441 mg of Cr/kg of DM. By-product feeds ranged from 0.040 mg of Cr/kg of DM for cottonseed hulls to 1.222 mg of Cr/kg of DM for beet pulp. Of the feed ingredients analyzed, feed grade phosphate sources had the greatest Cr concentration (135.0 mg/kg). Most ruminant feedstuffs and feed ingredients had less than 0.50 mg of Cr/kg of DM. Much of the analyzed total Cr in feed ingredients appears to be due to Cr contamination from soil or metal contact during harvesting, processing, or both. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Waste Feed Evaporation Physical Properties Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, W.E.

    2003-01-01

    This document describes the waste feed evaporator modeling work done in the Waste Feed Evaporation and Physical Properties Modeling test specification and in support of the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP) Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) project. A private database (ZEOLITE) was developed and used in this work in order to include the behavior of aluminosilicates such a NAS-gel in the OLI/ESP simulations, in addition to the development of the mathematical models. Mathematical models were developed that describe certain physical properties in the Hanford RPP-WTP waste feed evaporator process (FEP). In particular, models were developed for the feed stream to the first ultra-filtration step characterizing its heat capacity, thermal conductivity, and viscosity, as well as the density of the evaporator contents. The scope of the task was expanded to include the volume reduction factor across the waste feed evaporator (total evaporator feed volume/evaporator bottoms volume). All the physical properties were modeled as functions of the waste feed composition, temperature, and the high level waste recycle volumetric flow rate relative to that of the waste feed. The goal for the mathematical models was to predict the physical property to predicted simulation value. The simulation model approximating the FEP process used to develop the correlations was relatively complex, and not possible to duplicate within the scope of the bench scale evaporation experiments. Therefore, simulants were made of 13 design points (a subset of the points used in the model fits) using the compositions of the ultra-filtration feed streams as predicted by the simulation model. The chemistry and physical properties of the supernate (the modeled stream) as predicted by the simulation were compared with the analytical results of experimental simulant work as a method of validating the simulation software

  18. The use of inulin in poultry feeding: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucław, M

    2016-12-01

    Since the European Union enforced the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in 2006, the research has been focused on natural feed additives which would have a proven positive impact on both production and animal health. Inulin is both the most commonly used and the most effective probiotic additive. The mechanism of inulin interactions with the avian body is complex, multidirectional and not fully understood. Despite a number of unresolved issues, many authors have demonstrated the positive impact of inulin on the host organism. Dietary supplementation of poultry feeding with inulin contributes to the modulation of intestinal microbiota through favouring a quick proliferation of beneficial Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains and inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microbes. There are indications that inulin-provoked changes in the host gut microbiota in poultry may alter the structure and histomorphology of the intestinal mucosa and improve its absorption capacity in poultry. It has also been demonstrated that inulin may affect the immune system and the systemic metabolism of minerals and lipids. The reports on inulin effects on the body and performance of poultry are often contradictory, as the effectiveness of this prebiotic is strongly dependent on the type and dose used, and the duration of its administration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Golder, Helen M; Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Achieving optimal rumen function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. Key influences on optimal function include achieving good dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on other factors including chemical composition, rate of passage, degradation rate of the feed, availability of other substrates and cofactors, and individual animal variation. This article discusses carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the rumen, and provides practical means of evaluation of rations in the field. Conditions under which rumen function is suboptimal (ie, acidosis and bloat) are discussed, and methods for control examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrolyzed sugar in cattle feeding. [In Russian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, L K; Kurilov, N V; Mysnik, N D

    1978-01-01

    Hydrolyzed wood molasses (32% sugar) at 1 kg/day increased weight gains of bulls 14.6% in 86-day exports when given along with urea-containing granulated feed and straw. Rumen volatile fatty acids, feed digestibility, and N utilization were increased in bulls, and cow productivity was increased along with a 0.1 to 0.15% increase in milk fat content. Sulfite liquor at 400 g/day (4% of feed) also increased weight gains 13.9% in bulls.

  1. effects of different grain starches as feed binders for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    users

    KEY WORDS: Grain Starches; Feed Binder, AQUA-Feed, Pelletability Water ... in their incorporation in on farm aqua feed and thus. 19 ..... International Seminar on Advanced Extrusion. Technology in Food Application, Sao Paulo. Brazil pp.

  2. Animal proteins in feed : IAG ring rest 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Pinckaers, V.G.Z.; Vliege, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    A ring test was organized for the detection of animal proteins in animal feed by microscopy in the framework of the annual ring tests of the Inernational Association for Feeding stuff Analysis, Section Feeding stuff Microscopy.

  3. Exploitation of unconventional protein sources in the feed of weaner ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exploitation of unconventional protein sources in the feed of weaner rabbits ... as protein sources for feeding ruminants but rarely considered as feed for micro ... 26.88 g/100g DM in Centrosema pubescens and Moringa oleifera, respectively.

  4. Evaluation of various feeding programmes on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    compaq

    2016-12-08

    Dec 8, 2016 ... Abstract. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of various feeding ... broiler or layer diets, since these feeds are readily available and easy to purchase. ... Research was conducted on multiple-phase broiler feeding ...

  5. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feed intake levels on digestibility, feed intake, growth, feed efficiency and .... phosphorus and crude protein (N X 6.25) according to the methods of the .... supported by a parallel relationship between the ME content of .... dilution by saliva.

  6. Effects of feeding level and access to rooting material on behaviour of growing pigs in situations with reduced feeding space and delayed feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-two pigs, housed in groups of four, were allocated to either (1) ad libitum feeding with access to wood chip, (2) restrictive feeding with access to wood chip or (3) restrictive feeding without access to wood chip. The effects of feeding level (treatment 1 vs. 2) and access to wood chip......, but the level of manipulating floor in these pigs did not reach the level of manipulating wood chip among pigs on treatment 2. During normal days restrictively fed pigs spent less time feeding on a 24 h basis, but more time feeding during the first hour after feed allocation than ad libitum fed pigs. When...

  7. A Limited Survey of Aflatoxins in Poultry Feed and Feed Ingredients in Guyana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Morrison

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the presence of aflatoxins in finished poultry feed from manufacturing companies, feed ingredients, and poultry feed at the point of sale. Two collections were made. In the first collection, samples of the finished feed and feed ingredients were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For the second collection, all samples were analyzed by ELISA while a subset was analyzed by HPLC. Of the 27 samples of finished feed, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA and European Union Commission (EUC maximum tolerable limit of 20 µg/kg, while for the feed ingredients, three of the 30 samples of feed ingredients exceeded the limit. Of the 93 samples of finished feed purchased from retailers, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the maximum tolerable limit. This survey indicates that most of the samples were below the maximum regulatory limit and maintained quality up to the point of sale for 2015 and 2016. However, given that some samples were above the limit, there is a need to monitor the production and marketing chain to ensure that the quality of the finished feed is not compromised.

  8. Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter

    OpenAIRE

    Pfaff, Martin

    1989-01-01

    Gesundheit und Pflege im Alter : d. Gesundheitsreformgesetz (GRG) ; Möglichkeiten, Grenzen u. weitere Vorschläge / Martin Pfaff ; Klaus Deimer. - In: Expertengespräch "Pflege in der Familie". - Augsburg, 1989. - Getr. Zählung

  9. Responsive versus scheduled feeding in preterm infants (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2015-01-01

    Scheduled feeding of prescribed enteral volumes remains standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their feeding and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance parent experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud Objectives: To assess the effect of feeding pr...

  10. Effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, serum chemistry, and hematology of horses, and the efficacy of a polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, S L; Smith, T K; Swamy, H V L N

    2003-09-01

    The feeding of Fusarium mycotoxin-contaminated grains adversely affects the performance of swine and poultry. Very little information is available, however, on adverse effects associated with feeding these mycotoxin-contaminated grains on the performance of horses. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding a blend of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on feed intake, serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations, serum chemistry, and hematology of horses. A polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GM polymer) was also tested for efficacy in preventing Fusarium mycotoxicoses. Nine mature, nonexercising, light, mixed-breed mares were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments for 21 d. The horses were randomly reassigned and the experiment was subsequently replicated in time following a 14-d washout interval. Feed consumed each day was a combination of up to 2.8 kg of concentrates and 5 kg of mixed timothy/alfalfa hay. The concentrates fed included the following: 1) control, 2) blend of contaminated grains (36% contaminated wheat and 53% contaminated corn), and 3) blend of contaminated grains + 0.2% GM polymer. Diets containing contaminated grains averaged 15.0 ppm of deoxynivalenol, 0.8 ppm of 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 9.7 ppm of fusaric acid, and 2.0 ppm of zearalenone. Feed intake by all horses fed contaminated grains was reduced (P mycotoxins caused a decrease in feed intake and altered serum gamma glutamyltransferase activities. The supplementation of GM polymer prevented these mycotoxin-induced adverse effects.

  11. Recognition of familiar food activates feeding via an endocrine serotonin signal in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Bo-mi; Faumont, Serge; Lockery, Shawn; Avery, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Familiarity discrimination has a significant impact on the pattern of food intake across species. However, the mechanism by which the recognition memory controls feeding is unclear. Here, we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans forms a memory of particular foods after experience and displays behavioral plasticity, increasing the feeding response when they subsequently recognize the familiar food. We found that recognition of familiar food activates the pair of ADF chemosensory neurons, which subsequently increase serotonin release. The released serotonin activates the feeding response mainly by acting humorally and directly activates SER-7, a type 7 serotonin receptor, in MC motor neurons in the feeding organ. Our data suggest that worms sense the taste and/or smell of novel bacteria, which overrides the stimulatory effect of familiar bacteria on feeding by suppressing the activity of ADF or its upstream neurons. Our study provides insight into the mechanism by which familiarity discrimination alters behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00329.001 PMID:23390589

  12. Ontogenetic variations and feeding habits of a Neotropical annual fish from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the feeding biology of a population and its ontogenetic aspects can help in understanding the functioning of fish assemblages, essential to the conservation of the habitat biodiversity in which these species are found. Annual fishes complete their life cycle in temporary aquatic environments, existing in adult stage only for brief annual periods. Changes in the feeding habits between different size classes could indicate that a species belongs to different feeding groups in different growth phases. The aim of this work was to characterize the diet of Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa, 2002 in a temporary flooded area in the coastal plain of southern Brazil, taking into consideration possible alterations in feeding habits in different body size classes caused by ontogenetic changes, to explain the coexistence of these individuals in a short space of time. The diet analysis indicated that C. fulgens is a generalist, consuming small crustaceans and autochthonous insects. Intraspecific differences in diet were determined when compared between nine classes of standard length. Adults fed mainly on autochthonous insects, and juveniles ingested mostly crustaceans, with the population being separated into two trophic groups: invertivores and invertivores with a tendency towards zooplanktivory. It is possible to conclude that the ontogenetic changes in the diet of C. fulgens are related to morphological restrictions due to the size of the individuals, since feeding competitive relations are probably not so evident.

  13. Interdemic variation in the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri: correlations among hypoxia, morphology, and feeding performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaack, S.; Chapman, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive change in one character may affect associated, but functionally unrelated, characters in adaptive or nonadaptive ways. For example, adaptive change in gill size (i.e., larger gills in hypoxic habitats) may alter adjacent feeding structures and therefore have indirect effects on feeding behavior. This study examines whether differences in total gill filament length among populations of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri correlate with variation in trophic structures and feeding performance. Morphological measurements revealed larger total gill filament length in populations from low-oxygen habitats. Differences in external and internal morphology of the trophic apparatus correlated with those found in gills and suggest a reduction in food capture and processing ability in fish with larger respiratory apparatus. In paired feeding trials on a novel prey type, large-gilled fish spent more time feeding than small-gilled fish of the same body size without ingesting more food. This suggests less efficient food uptake in large-gilled fish from hypoxic habitats. We suggest that variation in gill size facilitates the broad habitat distribution of B. neumayeri but may limit the success of phenotypes crossing physicochemical gradients. (author)

  14. 60 ASSESSMENT OF FEEDING BEHAVIOUR OF BABOONS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    results indicate high diversity and abundance of food items for baboons in the study area. A total of 16 food plants, ... Keywords: Feeding behavior, baboon, food items, nutritive value, Hong hills ..... Noy-Meir, I. (1973) Desert ecosystems:.

  15. How to Build an RSS 20 Feed

    CERN Document Server

    Woodman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The little orange feed icons are everywhere on the web. From search engines to shopping sites to blogs, Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0) has become one of the hottest web technologies going. RSS 2.0 is a powerful - yet surprisingly easy - way to distributing timely content to a web-based audience. This Short Cut will give you the hands-on knowledge you need to build an RSS 2.0 feed. Along the way you'll learn not only the mechanics of building a feed, but industry-accepted best practices for creating feeds that perform well in various situations. Are you ready? Roll up your sleeves, c

  16. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo; Kittler, J.; van den Broek, Egon; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number

  17. EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FEEDING FREQUENCIES ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT FEEDING FREQUENCIES ON GROWTH .... using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and ... SGR = Specific Growth Rate, FCR = Food Conversion Ratio, K = Condition Factor and SR = Survival Rate.

  18. MITS Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem: operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    This procedure details the steps required to provide continuous feed flow and withdrawal of process product and waste flows in support of thruput operation in the cascade or its elements. It particularly requires operator attention to safety considerations

  19. Approaching a feed-in tariff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roepcke, Ina

    2013-05-01

    New incentive programmes could mean that the Italian solar thermal market will see renewed growth. But instead of the planned feed-in tariff, the incentives will first come in the form of a grant scheme.

  20. Microbiota in fermented feed and swine gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen

    2018-04-01

    Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.

  1. Breast Feeding as a Family Planning Method

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    women who are breast feeding is variable and in 2-10% of the women conception ... postpartum amenorrhoea is related to the working status of the mother. In urban .... paid maternity leave for all Government employees every three years.

  2. Advanced Illness: Feeding Tubes and Ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example), that are easier to swallow, and by avoiding thin liquids and things that require chewing. Some ... feeding tubes actually extend life in end-stage Alzheimer's disease. For many, this is a quality of ...

  3. Temporal feeding pattern may influence reproduction efficiency, the example of breeding mares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Benhajali

    Full Text Available Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares, night and day for the "continuous feeding" group (CF mares. The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets. Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002 and more fertility (p = 0.024 in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares. Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding.

  4. Influence of Infant Feeding Type on Gut Microbiome Development in Hospitalized Preterm Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Xiaomei; Judge, Michelle; Xu, Wanli; Diallo, Ana; Janton, Susan; Brownell, Elizabeth A.; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg

    2016-01-01

    Background Premature infants have a high risk for dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Mother’s own breastmilk (MOM) has been found to favorably alter gut microbiome composition in infants born at term. Evidence about the influence of feeding type on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants is limited. Objective The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of feeding types on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Methods Thirty-three stable preterm infants were recruited at birth and followed-up for the first 30 days of life. Daily feeding information was used to classify infants into six groups (mother’s own milk [MOM], human donated milk [HDM], formula, MOM+HDM, MOM+Formula, and HDM+forumla) during postnatal days 0–10, 11–20, and 21–30 after birth. Stool samples were collected daily. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene. Exploratory data analysis was conducted with a focus on temporal changes of microbial patterns and diversities among infants from different feeding cohorts. Prediction of gut microbial diversity from feeding type was estimated using linear mixed models. Results Preterm infants fed MOM (at least 70% of the total diet) had highest abundance of Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, and Bacillales compared to infants in other feeding groups, whereas infants fed primarily human donor milk or formula had a high abundance of Enterobacteriales compared to infants fed MOM. After controlling for gender, postnatal age, weight and birth gestational age, the diversity of gut microbiome increased over time and was constantly higher in infants fed MOM relative to infants with other feeding types (p breast milk benefits gut microbiome development of preterm infants, including balanced microbial community pattern and increased microbial diversity in early life. PMID:28252573

  5. Treeline proximity alters an alpine plant-herbivore interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illerbrun, Kurt; Roland, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Rising treeline threatens the size and contiguity of alpine meadows worldwide. As trees encroach into previously open habitat, the movement and population dynamics of above-treeline alpine species may be disrupted. This process is well documented in studies of the Rocky Mountain apollo butterfly (Parnassius smintheus). However, subtler consequences of treeline rise remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine whether treeline proximity affects feeding behaviour of P. smintheus larvae, due to altered habitat affecting the distribution and availability of their host plant, lance-leaved stonecrop (Sedum lanceolatum). Understanding differential larval exploitation of food resources in relation to the treeline is an important step in predicting the consequences of continued treeline rise. Parnassius smintheus larvae feed more intensively on S. lanceolatum away from the treeline despite the relative paucity of hosts in these areas, and despite higher fitness penalties associated with the plant's herbivory-induced chemical defenses. Sedum lanceolatum growing near the treeline is less attractive, and therefore represents a less significant resource for P. smintheus larvae than its abundance might imply. If treeline rise continues, we suggest that this pattern of altered resource exploitation may represent a mechanism by which larvae are adversely affected even while adult movement among and within meadows appears sufficient for maintaining population health, and total host availability seems ample.

  6. A vegetable oil feeding history affects digestibility and intestinal fatty acid uptake in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, Inge; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Olsen, Rolf-Erik; Sundell, Kristina S

    2009-04-01

    Future expansion of aquaculture relies on the use of alternatives to fish oil in fish feed. This study examined to what extent the nature of the feed oil affects intestinal lipid uptake properties in rainbow trout. The fish were fed a diet containing fish (FO), rapeseed (RO) or linseed (LO) oil for 8 weeks after which absorptive properties were assessed. Differences in digestibility due to feed oil history were measured using diet FO with an indigestible marker. Intestinal integrity, paracellular permeability, in vitro transepithelial fatty acid transport (3H-18:3n-3 and 14C-16:0) and their incorporation into intestinal epithelia were compared using Ussing chambers. Feed oil history did not affect the triacylglycerol/phosphatidylcholine ratio (TAG/PC) of the newly synthesized lipids in the segments. The lower TAG/PC ratio with 16:0 (2:1) than with 18:3 (10:1) showed the preferential incorporation of 16:0 into polar lipids. The FO-feeding history decreased permeability and increased transepithelial resistance of the intestinal segments. Transepithelial passage rates of 18:3n-3 were higher when pre-fed LO compared to RO or FO. Similarly, pre-feeding LO increased apparent lipid and fatty acid digestibilities compared to RO or FO. These results demonstrate that the absorptive intestinal functions in fish can be altered by the feed oil history and that the effect remains after a return to a standard fish oil diet.

  7. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-04-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of Society for

  8. Multimodal Signal Integration for Feeding Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basiri, Marcus L; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-04-21

    Feeding is arguably one of the most well-conserved and important adaptive behaviors across all species. In this issue of Cell, Yapici et al. use a novel real-time feeding assay in Drosophila flies to identify a neural circuit that integrates gustatory input and hunger state to modulate food ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fish for Feed vs Fish for Food

    OpenAIRE

    Allan, Geoff L.

    2004-01-01

    Aquaculture is the fastest-growing food producing industry sector in the world. Demand for feed ingredients, particularly for preferred protein sources such as fishmeal, fish oil and ‘trash fish’, has also increased, raising questions about sustainability and uses of fish for aquaculture feeds or directly as human food. Approximately 30 million metric tonnes (MMT) of fish from capture fisheries are used each year to produce fishmeal and fish oil. The species used are not usually consumed dire...

  10. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  11. Effect of feeding silkworm on growth performance and feed efficiency of snakehead (Channa striata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmani, U.; Lono

    2018-04-01

    The snakehead, Chana striata is a carnivorous freshwater fish and widely distributed in Asia. High demand of this fish has been triggering many aquaculturist to culture C. stiata. Feed was the important factor for fish growth. Silkworm has high protein content, low fat and can be used as natural feed for finfish. This study investigate the silkworm feed in C. striata. The treatment of this research were A (100 % pellet); B (100 % silkworm); C (combination of 75 % pellet and 25 % silkworm); D (combination of 50 % pellet and 50 % silkworm); and E (combination of 25 % pellet and 75 % silkworm). The variables measured in this study were relatif growth, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate. The result show that silkworm gave the high growth performance, feed efficiency and survival rate of the snakehead (Channa striata) compared with the control.

  12. Why healthcare workers give prelacteal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuse, R M; Obinya, E A

    2002-08-01

    Because prelacteal feeds can adversely affect breastfeeding, UNICEF/WHO discourage their use unless medically indicated. The study was carried out to determine the proportion of healthcare workers who routinely give prelacteal feeds, and their reasons for doing so; further, to determine whether any differences exist between medically and non-medically trained healthcare workers in their administration of prelacteal feeds. Survey. Primary, secondary and tertiary health facilities in Kaduna township Nigeria. Of 1100 healthcare workers sampled, 747 (68%) responded. Of these 80% had received medical training, 20% had not. Use of a pretested validated questionnaire. Large proportions of both medical and non-medically trained healthcare workers stated they routinely give prelacteal feeds (doctors, 68.2%; nurses, 70.2%; and non-medical, 73.6%). However their reasons for doing so differed significantly (P=0.00001). Nurses gave mainly for perceived breast milk insufficiency, doctors for prevention of dehydration, hypoglycaemia and neonatal jaundice and non-medical staff to prepare the gastrointestinal tract for digestion and to quench thirst. Most healthcare workers (medical and non-medical) routinely and unnecessarily give prelacteal feeds. Therefore training and retraining programmes in lactation management are necessary and must include non-medical staff. These programmes, while emphasizing the danger of giving prelacteal feeds, must deal with the misconceptions of each group. Deliberate efforts have to be made to incorporate clinical training in breastfeeding in curricula of Schools of Medicine and Nursing.

  13. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  14. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Soheil Ghaemmaghami; Mehrdad Modirsaneii; Alireza Khosravi; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

    2016-01-01

     Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi.Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e....

  15. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  16. Diet alters performance and transcription patterns in Oedaleus asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae) grasshoppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; Whitman, Douglas W; Ma, Jingchuan; McNeill, Mark Richard; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-01-01

    We reared Oedaleus asiaticus grasshoppers under four different single-plant diets to examine the relationships among diet, performance, stress, and transcription patterns. Grasshoppers fed only Artemisia frigida (Asteraceae) were stressed, as indicated by their lower growth, size, development, and survival, in comparison to grasshoppers fed on any of three grasses, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Leymus chinensis, or Stipa krylovii (all Poaceae). We then used transcriptome analysis to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus were altered by feeding on these diets. Nymphs fed A. frigida had the largest variation in gene expression profiles with a total of 299 genes significantly up- or down-regulated compared to those feeding on the three grasses: down-regulated genes included those involved in cuticle biosynthesis, DNA replication, biosynthesis and metabolism of nutrition. The up-regulated genes included stress-resistant and detoxifying enzymes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis also showed that feeding on A. frigida could down-regulate biosynthesis and metabolism related pathways, and up-regulate stress-resistant and detoxification terms and pathways. Our results show that diet significantly altered gene-expression, and that unfavorable, stressful diets induce more transcriptional changes than favorable diets. Altered gene-expression represents phenotypic plasticity, and many such changes appear to be evolved, adaptive responses. The ease and regularity by which individuals shift phenotypes via altered transcription suggests that populations consist not of similar, fixed phenotypes, but of a collection of ever-changing, divergent phenotypes.

  17. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2015-10-13

    Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth, duration of hospital stay, and parental satisfaction. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 9, 2015), MEDLINE (1966 to September 2015), EMBASE (1980 to September 2015), and CINAHL (1982 to September 2015), conference proceedings, previous reviews, and trial registries. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs that compared a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis versus feeding at scheduled intervals. Two review authors assessed trial eligibility and risk of bias and undertook data extraction independently. We analysed the treatment effects in the individual trials and reported the risk ratio and risk difference for dichotomous data and mean difference (MD) for continuous data, with respective 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We used a fixed-effect model in meta-analyses and explored the potential causes of heterogeneity in sensitivity analyses. We found nine eligible RCTs including 593 infants in total. These trials compared responsive with scheduled interval regimens in preterm infants in the transition phase from intragastric tube to oral feeding. The trials were generally small and contained various methodological weaknesses including lack of blinding and incomplete assessment of all randomised participants. Meta-analyses, although limited by data quality and availability, suggest that responsive feeding

  18. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Anne Lene; Lande, Britt; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding during the first year of life among Norwegian infants. Design Data on breast-feeding practices were collected by a semi-quantitative FFQ. Setting In 2006?2007 about 3000 infants were invited to participate in a population-based prospective cohort study in Norway. Subjects A total of 1490 mothers/infants participated at both 6 and 12 months of age. Results Exclusive breast-feeding at 4 months was associat...

  19. Rheological Studies on Pretreated Feed and Melter Feed from AW-101 and AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R; Swoboda, Robert G

    2001-01-01

    Rheological and physical properties testing were conducted on actual AN-107 and AW-101 pretreated feed samples prior to the addition of glass formers. Analyses were repeated following the addition of glass formers. The AN-107 and AW-101 pretreated feeds were tested at the target sodium values of nominally 6, 8, and 10 M. The AW-101 melter feeds were tested at these same concentrations, while the AN-107 melter feeds were tested at 5, 6, and 8 M with respect to sodium. These data on actual waste are required to validate and qualify results obtained with simulants

  20. Changes in radiosensitivity of male sex hormones in rats maintained on kelthane contaminated feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abughadeer, A.R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Alteration of sex hormones levels in male rats after whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy) has been studied. The hormonal response of irradiated rats fed on experimental feed contaminated with organo chlorine insecticide 'kelthane' (200 mg/kg body weight) for different time intervals (3,6 and 12 weeks), has been also investigated. Investigations included measurements of testes/body weight ratio; Testosterone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in serum and testes homogenate of treated rats. The data indicate that whole body gamma irradiation causes significant alteration in all tested parameters except for the testosterone level. Normal rats fed on 'kelthane' contaminated feed, showed significant alteration in all tested parameters, which increased with the prolongation of 'kelthane' exposure period. Double treatment of 'kelthane' and irradiation resulted in more pronounced alterations. It can be concluded that the male sex hormones in rats fed on 'kelthane', were more sensitive to whole body gamma irradiation. Moreover, male sex hormones have shown reliable reliable dose/effect relationship for either radiation or pesticide internal contamination. This suggests their possible use as markers in early diagnosis of radiation exposure and pesticides toxication syndromes. 3 tabs

  1. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    amount of 1% over the live weight + 10% of intake. The results of the first phase of the research, for steers supplemented in pasture, showed good acceptability and consumption in the three levels of substitution, with an average of 3.0 kg of concentrate per head. No rejection was observed for consumption of the mixture, as well as any physiological negative / change and clinical levels tested The pine cone (strobilus without the pine nuts (seeds was obtained as a residue of genetically improved seed collection. Likely source of tannins and fiber, dried and triturated pine cones can contribute to lower production costs due to the substitution of an ingredient in feed formulation, as an aid in control of internal parasites and also in the possible mitigation of methane gas production, resulting from digestion of ruminants, one of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. The potential use of pine cone as an ingredient in replacement of roughage and concentrate in the diet of ruminants qualifies as a new source of revenue in pine forestry activity, since no such product currently has no commercial value timber and its accumulation along the dried leaves among the trees, increase the risk of forest fires. Finally, these technological and social innovations result in remarkable potential to leverage Regional Programs Sustainable Development.

  2. On the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.

    1982-01-01

    The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined

  3. The effect of a self-efficacy-based educational programme on maternal breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow

    2016-05-01

    breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in the change in BSES-SF mean scores between the mothers who received SEBEP and those who did not receive SEBEP at two weeks post partum. The exclusive breast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of cereals for animal feed technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological process of cereals production used in the production of feed stuff, which includes the following basic steps: grain moistening; binning of moistened grain for redistribution of moisture in the bulk of kernel; steaming of moistened grain; rolling of steamed grain; drying and cooling of flakes – is developed. In the production of flakes from scoured barley and oat grain before feeding to the rolling line film removal from the grain of these crops and the separation of the husks is carried out by one the existing methods: the method of grinding, followed by sifting and eventilation of films from tail fractions or a method of peeling on special machines with a separation of films. Wet-heat treatment of grain, followed by rolling helps to improve taste and palatability of feed, improves the nutritional value of carbohydrate and protein complexes, reduces the exertion of the body to digest food nutrients, allows to inactivate antinutritional substances and free the grain from the pathogenic and other microorganisms. In the duration of rolling process splitting of complex carbohydrates occurs, starch loses its original structure and is easier exposed to enzymes. The dried and cooled flakes have satisfactory flowability, do not set up. Humidity of flakes is not more than 14%, the temperature is not more than 10 °C above the ambient temperature, bulk density is 350–400 kg/m3. Developed set of equipment allows producing cereal flakes, the use of which in feed stuff and rations of young cattle and pigs increases the productivity of animals by 15–20% while reducing feed costs by 12–15%. Cereal flakes are used in the manufacture of complete feed for piglets (pigs at the age of 10 to 60 days, feed concentrates for pigs under the age of 4 months, the calves under the age of 115 days, high-producing cows, sporting and trained horses and lactating mares.

  5. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  6. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7-10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus species may be considered as a human public health hazard.

  7. Effect of chicken genotype on growth performance and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of chicken genotype on the growth performance, feed intake and feed efficiency of the progenies resulting from pure, straight and reciprocal cross of Giriraja (Gr) and Alpha chickens. Data obtained on body weight, body length, breast girth, keel length, feed intake and feed ...

  8. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted with...

  9. Novel feeding strategies for Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS2155 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dual behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose feed as function of the dilution rate near the critical specific growth rate (ì=0.25) is a bottleneck in industrial production, hence the need for more efficient feeding strategies. In this work novel feeding strategies have been generated and evaluated. For each feeding ...

  10. 21 CFR 573.380 - Ethoxyquin in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.380 Ethoxyquin in animal feeds. Ethoxyquin (1,2-dihydro-6-ethoxy-2,2,4... oxidation of carotene, xanthophylls, and vitamins A and E in animal feed and fish food and, (2) as an aid in...

  11. Reaction of some rumen micro flora to different supplementary feeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ruminant animals lack enzymes to break down fibrous feeds but they harbor microorganisms capable of degrading their feeds. Rumen microbes are affected by feed substrates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate rumen microbial changes as the function of varying supplementary feeds. Two protein supplements ...

  12. Formulation, production and evaluation of floating catfish feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial was carried out to compare the performance of catfish fed with four experimental diets; a reference foreign diet (Multifeed) and three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic locally formulated diets with different palm oil contents (1, 2 and 3 liters) coded as Feed 1, Feed 2, Feed 3 and Feed 4 respectively. The growth trial ...

  13. Mechanisms for Nitrogen Oxide Formation during Ensiling of Dairy Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feed plants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued use...

  14. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselia A.P. Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. Source of data: A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. Synthesis of data: The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Conclusion: Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families. Resumo: Objetivo: Chamar a atenção para a importância da interação entre cuidador e criança durante a alimentação e a influência do estilo de parentalidade na formação do hábito alimentar. Fontes dos dados: Foi realizada busca na base de dados PubMed e Scopus de artigos abordando a alimentação responsiva, tendo sido selecionados aqueles julgados mais relevantes pelos autores. Síntese dos dados: O modo de alimentar as crianças é decisivo na formação do h

  15. Genetic parameters and expected responses to selection for components of feed efficiency in a Duroc pig line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan P; Ragab, Mohamed; Quintanilla, Raquel; Rothschild, Max F; Piles, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    : see text] without altering performance, was 2.5% higher when the model assumed animal-specific needs than when the traditional definition of [Formula: see text] was considered. Expected response in overall efficiency, by reducing [Formula: see text] without altering performance, is slightly better with a model that assumes animal-specific needs instead of batch-specific needs to correct [Formula: see text]. The relatively small difference between the traditional [Formula: see text] model and our model is due to random intercepts (unspecific use of feed) accounting for the majority of variability in [Formula: see text]. Overall, a model that accounts for animal-specific needs for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is statistically superior and allows for the possibility to act differentially on [Formula: see text] components.

  16. Feeding outcomes in infants after supraglottoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustaquio, Marcia; Lee, Erika Nevin; Digoy, G Paul

    2011-11-01

    Review the impact of bilateral supraglottoplasty on feeding and compare the risk of postoperative feeding difficulties between infants with and without additional comorbidities. Case series with chart review. Children's hospital. The medical records of all patients between birth and 12 months of age treated for laryngomalacia with bilateral supraglottoplasty by a single surgeon (GPD) between December 2005 and September 2009 and followed for a minimum of 1 month were reviewed. Infants with significant comorbidities were evaluated separately. Nutritional intake before and after surgery, as well as speech and language pathology reports, was reviewed to qualify any feeding difficulties. Age at the time of surgery, additional surgical interventions, medical comorbidities, and length of follow-up were also noted during chart review. Of 81 infants who underwent bilateral supraglottoplasty, 75 were eligible for this review. In the cohort of infants without comorbidities, 46 of 48 (96%) had no change or an improvement in their oral intake after surgery. Of the 2 patients with initial worsening of feeding, all resumed oral intake within 2 months. In the group of patients with additional medical comorbidities, 22% required further interventions such as nasogastric tube, dietary modification, or gastrostomy tube placement. Supraglottoplasty in infants has a low incidence of persistent postoperative dysphagia. Infants with additional comorbidities are at a higher risk of feeding difficulty than otherwise healthy infants.

  17. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  18. Mycotoxins in poultry feed in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, M U; Al-Mutairi, M; Beg, K R; Al-Mazeedi, H M; Ali, L N; Saeed, T

    2006-05-01

    A survey was conducted at a poultry feed production unit in Kuwait for mycotoxin contamination in the samples of yellow maize, soybean meal, wheat bran used as raw material and the poultry feed prepared for broiler starter, broiler finisher, and layer mash. Individual aflatoxins were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity column purification. Repeated analysis revealed average aflatoxin concentration in maize at 0.27 ppb (range 0 to 1.69 ppb), soybean meal at 0.20 ppb (range 0 to 1.27 ppb), wheat bran at 0.15 ppb (range 0 to 1.07 ppb), prepared poultry feed for broiler starter at 0.48 ppb (range 0 to 3.26 ppb), broiler finisher at 0.39 ppb (range 0 to 1.05 ppb), and layer mash at 0.21 ppb (range 0 to 1.30 ppb). Other mycotoxins (ochratoxin, fumonisin, deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone), were detected by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The average levels of ochratoxin A ranged from 4.6 to 9.6 ppb, fumonisin from 1.4 to 3.2 ppm, DON from 0.17 to 0.29 ppm, and zearalenone from 46.4 to 67.6 ppb in various commodities and prepared feed samples. The study revealed the coexistence of determined mycotoxins, although their concentrations in general were found to be lower than the permissible levels, wherever defined, for the poultry feed.

  19. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R

    2001-06-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  20. Parental feeding practices and children's weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jane; Carnell, Susan

    2007-04-01

    Global increases in childhood obesity rates demand that we tackle the problem from many directions. One promising avenue is to explore the impact of parental feeding practices, particularly those related to parental control over children's intake. In this paper, we review studies of parent feeding and child adiposity covering a range of research methodologies (case-control studies, high risk studies, cross-sectional community studies and longitudinal cohort studies). We also present results from a cross-sectional community study of pre-schoolers (n = 439) and a longitudinal study of twins from ages of 4 to 7 years (n = 3175 pairs). We conclude that parents are more likely to encourage leaner than heavier children to eat, but relationships between adiposity and other parental feeding strategies are unclear. We suggest that future research should: (i) explore the impact of a comprehensive range of authoritative and authoritarian parental feeding behaviours, preferably using the same validated scales consistently across studies; (ii) test the generalisation of existing findings to diverse socio-economic and ethnic groups and (iii) utilise experimental, prospective and genetic methodologies to explore the causal relationships between parental feeding and child weight. We describe current projects in our own group that are designed to take forward these recommendations.

  1. Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent distillation columns: identifying optimal feed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.O. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.

  2. The performance of broilers on a feed depends on the feed protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds were initially offered one of two feeds with widely different protein to energy ratios until they reached a pre-defined liveweight, after which they were given one of two feed protein contents in Experiment 1 and four in Experiment 2. Their performance was monitored until a second pre-defined liveweight was reached, ...

  3. Stable isotope-labelled feed nutrients to assess nutrient-specific feed passage kinetics in ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Dijkstra, J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of digesta passage kinetics in ruminants is essential to predict nutrient supply to the animal in relation to optimal animal performance, environmental pollution and animal health. Fractional passage rates (FPR) of feed are widely used in modern feed evaluation systems and mechanistic

  4. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.; Canibe, N.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond...

  5. Quantification of Feeding Effects of Spot Feeding Ductile Iron Castings made in Vertically Parted Moulds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Sällström, J.

    In vertically parted molds it is traditionally difficult to feed heavy sections that cannot be reached by traditional side/top feeders or other conventional methods. This project aims at quantifying the effects of using molded-in ram-up spot feeders as a means of feeding isolated sections in cast...

  6. The performance of broilers on a feed depends on the feed protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    liveweight, after which they were given one of two feed protein contents in ... Their performance was monitored until a second pre-defined liveweight was .... procedure ensured that all feeds contained the same amino acid balance. ... Keeping birds to 2500 g liveweight in cages led to some problems with leg weakness.

  7. GABA-Mediated Inactivation of Medial Prefrontal and Agranular Insular Cortex in the Rat: Contrasting Effects on Hunger- and Palatability-Driven Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Brian A; Spencer, Robert C; Sadeghian, Ken; Mena, Jesus D

    2016-03-01

    A microanalysis of hunger-driven and palatability-driven feeding was carried out after muscimol-mediated inactivation of two frontal regions in rats, the agranular/dysgranular insular cortex (AIC) and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Food and water intake, feeding microstructure, and general motor activity were measured under two motivational conditions: food-deprived rats given standard chow or ad libitum-fed rats given a palatable chocolate shake. Muscimol infusions into the AIC diminished intake, total feeding duration, and average feeding bout duration for the palatable-food condition only but failed to alter exploratory-like behavior (ambulation or rearing). In contrast, intra-vmPFC muscimol infusions did not alter the overall intake of chow or chocolate shake. However, these infusions markedly increased mean feeding bout duration for both food types and produced a modest but significant reduction of exploratory-like behavior. The lengthening of feeding-bout duration and reduction in rearing were mimicked by intra-vmPFC blockade of AMPA-type but not NMDA-type glutamate receptors. Neither water consumption nor the microstructure of water drinking was affected by inactivation of either site. These results indicate a regional heterogeneity in frontal control of feeding behavior. Neural processing in AIC supports palatability-driven feeding but is not necessary for intake of a standard food under a food-restriction condition, whereas ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and AMPA signaling therein, modulates the duration of individual feeding bouts regardless of motivational context. Results are discussed in the context of regionally heterogeneous frontal modulation of two distinct components of feeding behavior: reward valuation based upon taste perception (AIC) vs switching between ingestive and non-ingestive (eg, exploratory-like) behavioral repertoires (vmPFC).

  8. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  9. The Artificial Milk Feeding or Breast Feeding: Context Dependant Practices. Brazil, 1960-1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suely Teresinha Schmidt Passos de Amorim

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the discourse analysis on breast feeding from 1960 through 1988 in Brazil, on articles published in famous women magazines. The focus of the study is the History area, mainly the Feeding History, with an interdisciplinary approach. The initial period – 1960 – is linked with the end of Juscelino Kubitschek’s Government, when the economy, guided by the industrial sector, had grown in relative and absolute terms. The final period – 1988 – characterizes the Brazilian Norm of Suckling Feeding Business approval, which restricted the milk powder marketing. The change on discourses enunciates was very evident. During the period the artificial breast feeding was stimulated, the discourse main enunciate was the women’s condition, women’s valorization and their right of freedom. With the re-encouragement to the women breast feeding the discourses were totally on this usage defense, minimizing women’s daily difficulties.

  10. A model for the description of feeding regulation by mesozooplankton under different conditions of temperature and prey nutritional status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acheampong, Emmanuel; Acheampong, Emmanuel; Hense, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystem modelling studies that consider mesozooplankton feeding regulation have primarily focused on the impact of prey nutritional status and temperature separately, despite experimental evidence for strong links between these two factors. Here, we propose a method based on optimal feeding...... behaviour of individual mesozooplankton that can be used to derive acclimative food ingestion, assimilation, and respiration under different temperature and food conditions. In the model, animals first evaluate the nutritional value of prey organisms based on their temperature-specific demand for energy...... support and extend conclusions previously obtained for mesozooplankton and indicate that ocean warming could alter the role of Acartia spp. in planktonic food webs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V....

  11. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes eGräff

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD.

  12. Epigenetic Alterations in Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Mut, Jose V; Gräff, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the major cause of dementia in Western societies. It progresses asymptomatically during decades before being belatedly diagnosed when therapeutic strategies have become unviable. Although several genetic alterations have been associated with AD, the vast majority of AD cases do not show strong genetic underpinnings and are thus considered a consequence of non-genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms allow for the integration of long-lasting non-genetic inputs on specific genetic backgrounds, and recently, a growing number of epigenetic alterations in AD have been described. For instance, an accumulation of dysregulated epigenetic mechanisms in aging, the predominant risk factor of AD, might facilitate the onset of the disease. Likewise, mutations in several enzymes of the epigenetic machinery have been associated with neurodegenerative processes that are altered in AD such as impaired learning and memory formation. Genome-wide and locus-specific epigenetic alterations have also been reported, and several epigenetically dysregulated genes validated by independent groups. From these studies, a picture emerges of AD as being associated with DNA hypermethylation and histone deacetylation, suggesting a general repressed chromatin state and epigenetically reduced plasticity in AD. Here we review these recent findings and discuss several technical and methodological considerations that are imperative for their correct interpretation. We also pay particular focus on potential implementations and theoretical frameworks that we expect will help to better direct future studies aimed to unravel the epigenetic participation in AD.

  13. Systemic dystrophic alterations of skeleton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.

    1984-01-01

    A roentgenologic picture of dystrophic alterations of bones following hard, acute and chronic infections diseases, distinct disorders of vitanium balance, diseases of endocrine system, disorder of metabolism and diet, long-term exogenous intoxications including medicinal is given. Distinct dystrophic disorders are characterized both by quantitative and qualitative deviations in physiological change of bones

  14. Digital media and altered states

    OpenAIRE

    Ressel, James

    2014-01-01

    This article is a reflection on whether technology has altered our perception of the spaces surrounding us and those we make, how we express ourselves and how we interact with our experiences. The reflection is based on a brief examination of the history of Northampton Chronicle & Echo as a print newspaper, its digital manifestation and human creative expression in the digital world.

  15. Extending the validity of the Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Elena; Mallan, Kimberley M.; Daniels, Lynne A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Feeding practices are commonly examined as potentially modifiable determinants of children?s eating behaviours and weight status. Although a variety of questionnaires exist to assess different feeding aspects, many lack thorough reliability and validity testing. The Feeding Practices and Structure Questionnaire (FPSQ) is a tool designed to measure early feeding practices related to non-responsive feeding and structure of the meal environment. Face validity, factorial validity, inte...

  16. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. Ionizing...

  17. Carry-over of veterinary drugs from medicated to non-medicated feeds in commercial feed manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Egmond, van H.J.; Deckers, E.R.; Herbes, R.; Hooglught, J.; Olde Heuvel, E.; Jong, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary

  18. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials – trend analysis of monitoring results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adamse, Paulien; Fels, van der Ine; Jong, de Jacob

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring programme and from representatives of the feed industry during the period 2007–13

  19. 21 CFR 510.305 - Maintenance of copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new animal drugs. 510.305 Section 510... copies of approved medicated feed mill licenses to manufacture animal feed bearing or containing new... medicated feed mill license (Form FDA 3448) on the premises of the manufacturing establishment; and (b...

  20. Physiological Responses, Growth Rate and Blood Metabolites Under Feed Restriction and Thermal Exposure in Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Hooda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the cumulative effect of thermal stress and feed restriction in kids. Twelve kids of Alpine x Beetle cross were divided into two groups. Group 1 served as control and group 2 was put on restricted feeding and exposed at 40, 42 and 44oC. Body weights of both groups were similar before thermal exposure and feed restriction. Body weight of group 1 increased significantly and were higher than group 2 throughout the experiment. Body weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were comparable in both groups after removal of thermal stress and switching over to ad libitum feeding (42-63 days. Body weights of group 2 remained lower than group 1, the losses in body weights of group 2 could not be compensated and there was approximately 25% loss in body weight at the end of experiment. Physiological responses of group 2 were significantly lower before exposure to high temperature but increased significantly after exposure at temperature 40, 42 and 44oC and the increase was in commensurate with the increase in exposure temperature. Blood glucose, total protein, albumin and serum enzymes decreased significantly on exposure at higher temperature and differences were higher in feed restricted group. T3, T4 and cortisol concentration were similar in both groups before feed restriction and thermal stress. T3, T4 concentration decreased while cortisol concentration increased significantly after exposure to high temperature. Variations in plasma enzymes, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT were not significant before feed restriction and thermal stress. The activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase decreased whereas that of SGOT and SGPT increased significantly on exposure at temperature 40oC and subsequent changes at temperature 42 and 44oC were not significant. The study indicated that animals of group 2 experienced more stress as observed by significant alteration in body

  1. Modelling glass alteration in an altered argillaceous environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bildstein, O.; Trotignon, L.; Pozo, C.; Jullien, M.

    2007-01-01

    The long term behaviour of materials such as glass, steel and clay has been investigated in the context of deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. The interactions between vitrified wastes, canister corrosion products (CPs) and clay are studied using a modified version of the reaction-transport code Crunch, especially looking at pH changes and possible cementation at the interface with the clayey materials. These perturbations may indeed affect the lifetime of glass matrix in deep repositories, e.g., high pH enhances the rate of glass alteration. This work focuses on the argillite of Bure. The calculations were performed at 323 K with a glass alteration rate switching from a high initial rate to a residual rate according to the sorption capacity of CPs. The time at which this sorption capacity is saturated is crucial to the system in terms of wastes package lifetime. The results show that the glass alteration imposes a high pH value at the interface with CPs and clay: up to a value of 9.2, compared to 7.3 which is the initial pH value in the argillite. Experimental data show that the rate of glass alteration is much higher in such pH conditions. For a R7T7-type glass, the rate is about five times higher at pH 9 than at pH 7. This pH perturbation migrates through the clayey domain as a result of the migration of mobile elements such as boron and sodium, and despite the existence of strong pH buffers in the argillite. The cementation of porosity at the interface between glass and clay is predicted by the model due to the massive precipitation of iron corrosion products and glass alteration products. At this point of the evolution of the system, the pH starts to decrease and the alteration rate of the glass could be significantly reduced. This porosity clogging effect is difficult to confirm by experiments especially since existing data on short term experiments tend to show a pervasive precipitation of silica in the domain instead of a localized precipitation

  2. Feeding proteins to livestock: Global land use and food vs. feed competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manceron Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition between direct consumption of plant production and the feeding of livestock is key to global food availability. This is because livestock consume edible commodities that could be available for (food insecure populations but also because it diverts arable land from food production. The share of total plant production redirected towards feeding livestock is (roughly known but estimations of land surfaces virtually occupied by livestock production are scarce. In this study, following up on the Agrimonde Terra** project, we estimate areas devoted to the feeding livestock. First, we estimate the protein composition of an averaged feed basket at the global scale in 2005 and detail the evolution of the protein-source feed component during the period 1961–2009. We focus on protein-rich crops such as oil crops and show its proportion in the global livestock diets has tripled since 1960, though only accounting for about one fourth of total proteins. Then, we estimate land virtually occupied by crop feed at the global scale using a set of straightforward hypotheses. Our estimates suggest that, although livestock and feed production has continuously increased and despite uncertainties in available data, competition for land between feed and food uses has decreased over the last two decades. The share of areas cultivated for feed requirements decreased from about 50% in the 1970s to 37% nowadays. This trend is attributable to the increase of crop yields and to a decrease of the share of cereals in livestock diets to the benefit of oilseeds by-products. However, estimating the share of total areas used for feed is complicated by the significant role played by by-products.

  3. Evaluation of PCDD/Fs characterization in animal feed and feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, MeeKyung; Kim, Sooyeon; Yun, Seon Jong; Kwon, Jin-Wook; Son, Seong-Wan

    2007-09-01

    Safety control of feed and feed additives is necessary to have safe food of animal origin. Based on media reports, nine incidents regarding dioxins and/or PCBs contaminations occurred worldwide during the last decade. Korea is a country which imports feed and feed additives. In this study, various kinds of feed and feed additives were analyzed to monitor the contamination level of dioxins. The level of PCDD/Fs in fish oil was the highest with a concentration of 23.33ngkg(-1), which is equivalent to a toxicological concentration of 4.68ngWHO-TEQ/kg. Feed from animals origin such as chicken meal, animal fat, fish meal, fish oil, and shell powder showed relatively higher concentrations of PCDD/Fs. Feed from plants origin, minerals, and additives ranged from non-detects for bit pulp and ethoxyquin to 8.28ngkg(-1) for dl-methionine. From a toxicological point of view, the highest concentration in vitamins was 0.08ngWHO-TEQ/kg among the feed additives. 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the dominant congener in samples of fish oil, fish meal, and shell powder. Animal fat showed that the pattern of PCDD/Fs depends on the sources of contamination. A sample of animal fat showed 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDF and the other sample showed 1,2,3,4,7,8-HxCDD as a primary congener. Generally, low levels of PCDDs were detected in feed additives. Patterns of PCDD/Fs in choline chloride were different with that in choline chloride from an incident in Europe in 2000.

  4. Incubation temperature alters thermal preference and response to heat stress of broiler chickens along the rearing phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morita, V.S.; Almeida, V.R.; Matos Junior, J.B.; Vicentini, T.I.; Brand, van den H.; Boleli, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a

  5. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  6. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to control a non-linear, multivariable, noisy process using trained neural networks. The basis for the method is a trained neural network controller acting as the inverse process model. A training method for obtaining such an inverse process model is applied....... A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...

  7. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies

    1998-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  8. Utilization of irradiated sludge for fish feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harsojo; Syamsu, Suwirma; Subagyo, Lydia Andini

    1994-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the use of irradiated sludge pellet for fish feed, namely pellet A consisting of irradiated sludge and shrimp waste (1:3); pellet B consisting of irradiated sludge and commercial pellet (1:2). Pellet C, which is a commercial fish feed, was used as control. Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was used in this experiment. The feed pellet with a dose of 5% of total body weight was given 3 times per day. The results of the experiments showed that based on food conversion for the relative growth of the catfishes, and heavy metal content, pellet A was the best. No contamination of Salmonella or Shigella bacteria was detected in each pellet. (author). 8 refs, 3 tabs, 1 fig

  9. The influence of supplemented Curcuma in feed formulation to improve growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, M. M.; Zubaidah, M.; Arief, M.; Prayogo

    2018-04-01

    Catfish (Clarias sp.) is very potential to be developed as a food fish. The use of the feed additive in feed intended to improve the health, productivity and compliance with animal nutrition. Feed additive is to use ginger are derived from nature.The purpose of this study was to determine the potential increase in feed formulation. The Curcuma effect on growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.). The method used experimental methods and design complete random with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The parameters examined in this study aregrowth rate and efficiency feed.The research showed that the ANOVA markedly dissimilar ( Padditive on formulations feed.

  10. Fetal and neonatal programming of postnatal growth and feed efficiency in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Ju; Wang, Binggen; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic regulation of protein expression and functions include chromatin remodeling; DNA methylation (occurring at the 5´-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides); and histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination). Like maternal malnutrition, undernutrition during the neonatal period also reduces growth performance and feed efficiency (weight gain:feed intake; also known as weight-gain efficiency) in postweaning pigs by 5-10%, thereby increasing the days necessary to reach the market body-weight. Supplementing functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) and vitamins (e.g., folate) play a key role in activating the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and regulating the provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients are beneficial for the dietary treatment of metabolic disorders in offspring with intrauterine growth restriction or neonatal malnutrition. The mechanism-based strategies hold great promise for the improvement of the efficiency of pork production and the sustainability of the global swine industry.

  11. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  12. Laparoscopic feeding jejunostomy: also a simple technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrink, M H; Foster, J; Rosemurgy, A S; Carey, L C

    1992-01-01

    Placement of feeding tubes is a common procedure for general surgeons. While the advent of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy has changed and improved surgical practice, this technique is contraindicated in many circumstances. In some patients placement of feeding tubes in the stomach may be contraindicated due to the risks of aspiration, gastric paresis, or gastric dysmotility. We describe a technique of laparoscopic jejunostomy tube placement which is easy and effective. It is noteworthy that this method may be used in patients who have had previous abdominal operations, and it has the added advantage of a direct peritoneal view of the viscera. We suggest that qualified laparoscopic surgeons learn the technique of laparoscopic jejunostomy.

  13. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  14. Comparison of infant-feeding practices in two health subdistricts with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-14

    May 14, 2014 ... replacement feeding and mixed feeding rates, as well as the age at which ... infant-feeding options, such as inappropriate replacement feeding and mixed ... and socio-demographic information, and the other infant-feeding.

  15. Ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding versus scheduled interval feeding for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Felicia M; Tosh, Karen; McGuire, William

    2010-02-17

    Scheduled interval feeding of prescribed enteral volumes is current standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (ad libitum or demand/semi demand) rather than at scheduled intervals might help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth rates and the time to hospital discharge. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to Oct 2009), EMBASE (1980 to Oct 2009), CINAHL (1982 to Oct 2009), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (including cluster randomised trials) that compared a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding at scheduled intervals. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found eight randomised controlled trials that compared ad libitum or demand/semi-demand regimens with scheduled interval regimes in preterm infants in the transition phase from intragastric tube to oral feeding. The trials were generally small and of variable methodological quality. The duration of the intervention and the duration of data collection and follow-up in most of the trials was not likely to have allowed detection of measurable effects on growth. Three trials reported that feeding preterm infants using an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding regimen allowed earlier discharge from hospital (by about two to four days) but other trials did not confirm this

  16. Activity-Based Anorexia Alters the Expression of BDNF Transcripts in the Mesocorticolimbic Reward Circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Emily V; Klenotich, Stephanie J; McMurray, Matthew S; Dulawa, Stephanie C

    2016-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex eating disorder with severe dysregulation of appetitive behavior. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm is an animal model in which rodents exposed to both running wheels and scheduled feeding develop aspects of AN including paradoxical hypophagia, dramatic weight loss, and hyperactivity, while animals exposed to only one condition maintain normal body weight. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent modulator of neuronal plasticity, is reduced in the serum of AN patients, and is a known regulator of feeding and weight maintenance. We assessed the effects of scheduled feeding, running wheel access, or both on the expression of BDNF transcripts within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. We also assessed the expression of neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) to explore the specificity of effects on BDNF within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Scheduled feeding increased the levels of both transcripts in the hippocampus (HPC), increased NCAM1 mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and decreased BDNF mRNA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, wheel running increased BDNF mRNA expression in the VTA. No changes in either transcript were observed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, no changes in either transcript were induced by the combined scheduled feeding and wheel access condition. These data indicate that scheduled feeding or wheel running alter BDNF and NCAM1 expression levels in specific regions of the mesocorticolimbic pathway. These findings contribute to our current knowledge of the molecular alterations induced by ABA and may help elucidate possible mechanisms of AN pathology.

  17. Metabolic adaptations to short-term every-other-day feeding in long-living Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene

    2013-09-01

    Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long living Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long living and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity. © 2013.

  18. Feeding response of Ips paraconfusus to phloem and phloem metabolites of Heterobasidion annosum-inoculated ponderosa pine, Pinus ponderosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNee, William R; Bonello, Pierluigi; Storer, Andrew J; Wood, David L; Gordon, Thomas R

    2003-05-01

    In studies of feeding by the bark beetle, Ips paraconfusus, two pine stilbenes (pinosylvin and pinosylvin methyl ether), ferulic acid glucoside, and enantiomers of the four most common sugars present in ponderosa pine phloem (sucrose, glucose, fructose, and raffinose) did not stimulate or reduce male feeding when assayed on wet alpha-cellulose with or without stimulatory phloem extractives present. When allowed to feed on wet alpha-cellulose containing sequential extracts (hexane, methanol, and water) of ponderosa pine phloem, methanol and water extractives stimulated feeding, but hexane extractives did not. Males confined in wet alpha-cellulose containing aqueous or organic extracts of culture broths derived from phloem tissue and containing the root pathogen. Heterobasidion annosum, ingested less substrate than beetles confined to control preparations. In an assay using logs from uninoculated ponderosa pines, the mean lengths of phloem in the digestive tracts increased as time spent feeding increased. Males confined to the phloem of basal logs cut from ponderosa pines artificially inoculated with H. annosum ingested significantly less phloem than beetles in logs cut from trees that were (combined) mock-inoculated or uninoculated and did not contain the pathogen. However, individual pathogen-containing treatments were not significantly different from uninoculated controls. It was concluded that altered feeding rates are not a major factor which may explain why diseased ponderosa pines are colonized by I. paraconfusus.

  19. Significant improvement of intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) after traditional Chinese medicine feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z B; Gatesoupe, F-J; Li, T T; Wang, X H; Zhang, Q Q; Feng, D Y; Feng, Y Q; Chen, H; Li, A H

    2018-03-01

    Increasing attention has been attracted to intestinal microbiota, due to interactions with nutrition, metabolism and immune defence of the host. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) feed additives have been applied in aquaculture to improve fish health, but the interaction with fish gut microbiota is still poorly understood. This study aimed to explore the effect of adding TCM in feed on the intestinal microbiota of gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). Bacterial communities of 16 fish intestinal contents and one water sample were characterized by high-throughput sequencing and analysis of the V4-V5 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The results showed that the composition and structure of the bacterial community were significantly altered by the TCM feeding. Some phyla increased markedly (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, etc.), while Fusobacteria were significantly reduced. Concurrently, the richness and diversity of the taxonomic units increased, and the microbiota composition of TCM-treated fish was more homogeneous among individuals. At the genus level, the addition of TCM tended to reduce the incidence of potential pathogens (Aeromonas, Acinetobacter and Shewanella), while stimulating the emergence of some potential probiotics (Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Bacillus and Pseudomonas). These data suggested that the feed additive could regulate the fish intestinal microbiota by reinforcing the microbial balance. This study may provide useful information for further application of TCM for diseases prevention and stress management in aquaculture. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV =8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each fourheads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattlewas given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1%and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hoursand was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. Theresults showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P<0.01and daily BWGain (P<0.05, but the effect was not found (P>0.05 on DMI, length time for eating(196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time(37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This researchshowed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and ruminationcompared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  1. Pathological Responses of White Leghorn Breeder Hens Kept on Ochratoxin A Contaminated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor-ul-Hassan, M. Zargham Khan*, Ahrar Khan and Ijaz Javed1

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are among the most important environmental contaminants. In the present study, ochratoxin A (OTA was produced by propagation of Aspergillus ochraceus and fed to breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. Group A served as control, while groups B, C, D, E, F and G were fed OTA at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg feed, respectively for 3 weeks. Clinical signs, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and egg mass production were recorded on daily basis, while body weight was recorded on weekly basis. Lesions on visceral organs and serum biochemical parameters were determined. Significant decrease in feed intake, body weight and egg mass production was found in the OTA treated groups compared to control (P<0.05. Among different groups, diarrhea, unthriftiness, water intake and depression increased with increase in dietary OTA levels. Enlargement and hemorrhages on liver and kidney were more severe in birds fed higher dietary OTA levels. Serum ALT, urea, creatinine and total protein levels were significantly higher in OTA treated groups. It was concluded that production performance, pathological alterations and serum biochemical changes determined became more severe with increase in dietary levels of OTA.

  2. Feeding cells induced by phytoparasitic nematodes require γ-tubulin ring complex for microtubule reorganization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Youssef Banora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Reorganization of the microtubule network is important for the fast isodiametric expansion of giant-feeding cells induced by root-knot nematodes. The efficiency of microtubule reorganization depends on the nucleation of new microtubules, their elongation rate and activity of microtubule severing factors. New microtubules in plants are nucleated by cytoplasmic or microtubule-bound γ-tubulin ring complexes. Here we investigate the requirement of γ-tubulin complexes for giant feeding cells development using the interaction between Arabidopsis and Meloidogyne spp. as a model system. Immunocytochemical analyses demonstrate that γ-tubulin localizes to both cortical cytoplasm and mitotic microtubule arrays of the giant cells where it can associate with microtubules. The transcripts of two Arabidopsis γ-tubulin (TUBG1 and TUBG2 and two γ-tubulin complex proteins genes (GCP3 and GCP4 are upregulated in galls. Electron microscopy demonstrates association of GCP3 and γ-tubulin as part of a complex in the cytoplasm of giant cells. Knockout of either or both γ-tubulin genes results in the gene dose-dependent alteration of the morphology of feeding site and failure of nematode life cycle completion. We conclude that the γ-tubulin complex is essential for the control of microtubular network remodelling in the course of initiation and development of giant-feeding cells, and for the successful reproduction of nematodes in their plant hosts.

  3. NEUROANATOMICAL ASSOCIATION OF HYPOTHALAMIC HSD2-CONTAINING NEURONS WITH ERα, CATECHOLAMINES, OR OXYTOCIN: IMPLICATIONS FOR FEEDING?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maegan L. Askew

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study used immunohistochemical methods to investigate the possibility that hypothalamic neurons that contain 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2 are involved in the control of feeding by rats via neuroanatomical associations with the α subtype of estrogen receptor (ERα, catecholamines, and/or oxytocin. An aggregate of HSD2-containing neurons is located laterally in the hypothalamus, and the numbers of these neurons were greatly increased by estradiol treatment in ovariectomized rats compared to numbers in male rats and in ovariectomized rats that were not given estradiol. However, HSD2-containing neurons were anatomically segregated from ERα-containing neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus and the Arcuate Nucleus. There was an absence of oxytocin-immunolabeled fibers in the area of HSD2-labeled neurons. Taken together, these findings provide no support for direct associations between hypothalamic HSD2 and ERα or oxytocin neurons in the control of feeding. In contrast, there was catecholamine-fiber labeling in the area of HSD2-labeled neurons, and these fibers occasionally were in close apposition to HSD2-labeled neurons. Therefore, we cannot rule out interactions between HSD2 and catecholamines in the control of feeding; however, given the relative sparseness of the appositions, any such interaction would appear to be modest. Thus, these studies do not conclusively identify a neuroanatomical substrate by which HSD2-containing neurons in the hypothalamus may alter feeding, and leave the functional role of hypothalamic HSD2-containing neurons subject to further investigation.

  4. Feeding style of adolescent mothers and complementary feeding practice of their infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Adriana Oliveira da COSTA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate feeding styles of adolescent mothers and complementary feeding practices of their infants. Methods A cross-sectional study comparing a group of dyads of 50 adolescent mothers (ages 15 to 19 with 62 adult mothers (ages 24 to 44 and their infants (9 to 24 months was performed. All mothers and infants were assisted by three basic health family units in the city of Recife, Brazil. Data were collected through a structured interview on socioeconomic conditions, maternal styles of feeding the child, and evaluation of infant feeding practices. The food styles were classified as responsive, authoritative, and passive, according to the adapted form of Carvalhaes, Perosa and Silveira of 2009. The frequency of food intake was calculated for six food groups (1. Bread and cereals; 2. Fruits and vegetables; 3. Meat, eggs, and beans; 4. Milk and dairy products; 5. Sugars, sweets, and fats; 6. Industrialized food. Children’s anthropometry and body mass index by age were classified into Z-score according to the World Health Organization Standard Curves, 2006. Results Adolescent mothers began complementary feeding more frequently before the seventh month (.=0,02, presented less responsive (.=0.04 and more authoritarian feeding styles (.=0.01, and their children received more foods with sugars, oils, and fats (.=0.02, and less meat, eggs, and beans (.=0.06 than the children of adult mothers. Conclusion Adolescent mothers adopt less responsive eating styles and offer more inadequate complementary feeding for their infants.

  5. Treatment of animal feeds with ionizing radiation. V: Petition and clearance for radicidized poultry feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, E.; Lapidot, M.

    1978-01-01

    The experience obtained in Israel regarding procedures for petitioning and granting clearance for irradiated food is briefly reviewed. The Israel Ministry of Health deliberated on the approach to be taken towards irradiated farm animal feed, since feed is normally dealt with under Ministry of Agriculture Plant Protection Division Regulations. A similar situation existed in Canada, where the Feed and Fertilizer Section, Plant Products Division, granted clearance of radicidized poultry feed. However, since the meat of farm animals raised on radicidized feed is to be consumed by humans, and is thus included in the definition of food in the Public Health (Rules as to Food) Ordinance, the Ministry of Health finally decided that it would require a regular petition. The petition to clear irradiated poultry feed is described in detail. It is based on local studies as well as on the detailed material prepared by the Canadian authorities in their petition and the clearance. The petition was submitted in October 1972 and clearance was obtained in July 1973. The implementation of the legislative requirements in the forthcoming pilot scale test, aimed at radicidization of 300 tons of poultry feed, is considered in detail. (author)

  6. Short communication: Associations between feed push-up frequency, feeding and lying behavior, and milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2017-03-01

    .1 percentage points for every 10% increase in sorting against long particles and was not associated with lying behavior or other cow-level factors. Milk protein content decreased by 0.03 percentage points for every hour decrease in lying time and by 0.04 percentage points for every 10% increase in sorting against long particles. These results suggest that sorting against long ration particles may negatively affect milk composition. Additionally, we did not find that altering feed push-up frequency affected feed sorting or cow standing and lying patterns. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. FEEDING DIFFICULTIES IN PRESCHOOL CHILDREN, PREVIOUS FEEDING PRACTICES, AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Hélcio de Sousa; Aguiar, Renata Cunha de; Lira, Débora Teixeira Jales de; Sales, Mônica Úrsula Figuerêdo; Nóbrega, Nathalia Ávila do Nascimento

    2018-01-01

    To identify the prevalence of feeding difficulties in preschoolers, its association with epidemiological factors and previous eating habits, and repercussion on nutritional status. Cross-sectional study with a questionnaire given to the mothers of 301 children aged 2-6 years enrolled in public and private kindergartens in Natal, Northeast Brazil, conducted in 2014-2015. Feeding difficulty was assessed according to Kerzner's criteria, resulting in the profiles "highly selective intake", "active child with small appetite", "fear of feeding", and "child with psychological disorder or neglected". Association with the following independent variables was analyzed by logistic regression: breastfeeding time, age of cows' milk and complementary feeding introduction, age range, family income, type of school, mothers' profile (responsive or nonresponsive), and body mass index (BMI). Feeding difficulty was found in 37.2% of cases, with predominance of "highly selective intake" (25.4%). It was not associated with infancy feeding practices, family income or type of school. There were no differences between the BMI Z score means for the groups with and without feeding difficulty (1.0±1.5 SD and 1.1±1.4 SD, respectively). The five-to-six age range had more occurrences (OR 1.8; 95%CI 1.1-2.9). Children of responsive mothers were less likely to have feeding difficulties (OR 0.4; 95%CI 0.2-0.8). Feeding difficulties were very frequent. Nutritional status was not impacted by it, and infancy eating habits were not associated with it. Responsive mothers' profile is a protective factor against eating difficulties and reinforces the importance of behavioral factors and mother-child interaction.

  8. Refining low protein modular feeds for children on low protein tube feeds with organic acidaemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, A; Evans, S; Ashmore, C; Chahal, S; Santra, S; MacDonald, A

    2017-12-01

    Children with inherited metabolic disorders (IMD) who are dependent on tube feeding and require a protein restriction are commonly fed by 'modular tube feeds' consisting of several ingredients. A longitudinal, prospective two-phase study, conducted over 18 months assessed the long-term efficacy of a pre-measured protein-free composite feed. This was specifically designed to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children (aged over 1 year) with organic acidaemias on low protein enteral feeds and to be used as a supplement with an enteral feeding protein source. All non-protein individual feed ingredients were replaced with one protein-free composite feed supplying fat, carbohydrate, and micronutrients. Thirteen subjects, median age 7.4y (3-15.5y), all nutritionally tube dependent (supplying nutritional intake: ≥ 90%, n = 12; 75%, n = 1), and diagnosed with organic acidaemias (Propionic acidaemia, n = 6; Vitamin B 12 non-responsive methyl malonic acidaemia, n = 4; Isovaleric acidaemia, n = 2; Glutaric aciduria type1, n = 1); were studied. Nutritional intake, biochemistry and anthropometry were monitored at week - 8, 0, 12, 26 and 79. Energy intake remained unchanged, providing 76% of estimated energy requirements. Dietary intakes of vitamins, minerals and essential fatty acids significantly increased from week 0 to week 79, but sodium, potassium, magnesium, decosahexanoic acid and fibre did not meet suggested requirements. Plasma zinc, selenium, haemoglobin and MCV significantly improved, and growth remained satisfactory. Natural protein intake met WHO/FAO/UNU 2007 recommendations. A protein-free composite feed formulated to meet the non-protein nutritional requirements of children aged over 1 year improved nutritional intake, biochemical nutritional status, and simplified enteral tube feeding regimens in children with organic acidaemias.

  9. Survival period after tube feeding in bedridden older patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Yoichi; Nakagawa-Satoh, Takuma; Ohrui, Takashi; Fujii, Masahiko; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Hidetada

    2012-04-01

    We prospectively studied survival periods after tube feeding. Participants were 163 bedridden older patients suffering from dysphagia. A wide range of survival periods after tube feeding were observed within half a year without tube feeding after being bedridden. After this initial period, survival periods after tube feeding were limited to approximately half a year. Survival periods after tube feeding were positively proportional to the length of time patients were free from pneumonia after tube feeding. After tube feeding, patients died from pneumonia within half a year, and the frequency of pneumonia was 3.1 ± 2.7 times (mean ± SD) before death. Survival periods after tube feeding for less than 1 year were primarily determined by being bedridden for more than half a year without tube feeding and once pneumonia occurred; patients who were tube fed did not survive for more than half a year. © 2012 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Paul M.; Faller, Kenneth M.; Bauer, Edward J.

    2001-08-21

    A compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor includes a waste material feed assembly having a hopper, a supply tube and a compression tube. Each of the supply and compression tubes includes feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends. A feed-discharge valve assembly is located between the feed-outlet end of the compression tube and the reactor. A feed auger-screw extends axially in the supply tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. A compression auger-screw extends axially in the compression tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. The compression tube is sloped downwardly towards the reactor to drain fluid from the waste material to the reactor and is oriented at generally right angle to the supply tube such that the feed-outlet end of the supply tube is adjacent to the feed-inlet end of the compression tube. A programmable logic controller is provided for controlling the rotational speed of the feed and compression auger-screws for selectively varying the compression of the waste material and for overcoming jamming conditions within either the supply tube or the compression tube.

  11. Chemosensory alterations and cancer therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartoshuk, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems

  12. 9 CFR 3.54 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.54 Section 3.54 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment and Transportation of Rabbits Animal...

  13. Feeding and eating disorders in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant-Waugh, Rachel

    2013-11-01

    The past few years have seen a steep increase in journal articles relating to feeding and eating disorders in children, making a succinct overview timely. The relevance of this review is enhanced by the recent publication of revised feeding and eating disorder diagnostic criteria in DSM-5. These have significant implications for younger patients, in particular through the inclusion of the new diagnostic category Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID). It is likely that this will encourage increased research interest in this field. Recent publications included in this article cover a broad range of topics relevant to childhood feeding and eating disorders, to include: presentation, diagnosis and classification; epidemiology; risk factors; assessment measures; treatment, prognosis and outcome. The area of feeding and eating disorders in children remains relatively under-researched, with significant gaps in knowledge about epidemiology, course and prognosis as well as a limited evidence base for treatment. However, important and promising avenues are increasingly being explored. In relation to clinical practice, there is now a much better recognition of these disorders and a greater awareness of their complexity, severity and potential impact in both the short and the longer term if not appropriately managed.

  14. Feeding value of triticale for broiler chickens

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Edi Widodo

    2015-03-16

    Mar 16, 2015 ... ... to the other diets. Birds on all the triticale diets except Canobolas achieved better growth than ... Prior to transfer, feed intake and body weight were recorded. The rearing conditions for ..... Asian J. Bio. Sci. 4, 90-95. Minitab ...

  15. Blog feed search with a post index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2011-01-01

    User generated content forms an important domain for mining knowledge. In this paper, we address the task of blog feed search: to find blogs that are principally devoted to a given topic, as opposed to blogs that merely happen to mention the topic in passing. The large number of blogs makes the

  16. 9 CFR 3.129 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.129 Section 3.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...

  17. MITS Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem: operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    This procedure details the steps involved in establishing closed loop flows, providing UF 6 vapor to the FEED header of the Sampling Subsystem and returning it through the PRODUCT and TAILS headers via the F and W recycle valves. It is essentially a Startup Procedure

  18. Nutritional status, complementary feeding practices and feasible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-03

    Feb 3, 2012 ... often coincides with decreased breast milk consumption,7 increased ... discussions were held with adults to determine perceived understanding, .... underweight), and < -3 (severely underweight). .... did not eat enough food to give them energy to produce milk to feed .... for treatment when they are sick.

  19. Caprine in utero learning and feed neophobia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vu Hai, P.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental driven changes in meat goat production systems in Vietnam require the use of new feedstuffs in the diets for goats. The introduction of novel feedstuffs to young goats is often associated with a reduced feed intake, daily gain and welfare. The work presented here investigated different

  20. Feeding performance of king Mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J

    2015-08-01

    Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of the complementary feeding practices between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to compare the complementary feeding practices between mothers with twins and mothers with singletons. Methods: mother-infant pairs (50 mother-twin pairs and 50 mother-singleton pairs) with children aged 6 to 23 months were recruited from two public health clinics and communities in Tema ...

  2. Feeding stimulants for the colorado beetle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritter, F.J.

    1967-01-01

    Potato leaf extract was fractionated and the fractions obtained were tested for their activity as feeding stimulants for Colorado beetle larvae. Also leaves and leaf extracts of different kinds of plants, as well as a number of known pure compounds and mixtures of them, were tested for this

  3. Economics of low nitrogen feeding strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.; Pineiro, C.; Hoek, Van der K.W.; Oenema, O.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock retains typically between 10 and 40 % of the protein-nitrogen in the animal feed in milk, egg and/or meat, depending also on animal productivity and management. The remaining 60–90 % of the nitrogen (N) is excreted in urine and faeces, and contributes to the emissions of ammonia (NH3) and

  4. Ethical Challenges in Infant Feeding Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Binns

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Infants have a complex set of nutrient requirements to meet the demands of their high metabolic rate, growth, and immunological and cognitive development. Infant nutrition lays the foundation for health throughout life. While infant feeding research is essential, it must be conducted to the highest ethical standards. The objective of this paper is to discuss the implications of developments in infant nutrition for the ethics of infant feeding research and the implications for obtaining informed consent. A search was undertaken of the papers in the medical literature using the PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Knowledge, Proquest, and CINAHL databases. From a total of 9303 papers identified, the full text of 87 articles that contained discussion of issues in consent in infant feeding trials were obtained and read and after further screening 42 papers were included in the results and discussion. Recent developments in infant nutrition of significance to ethics assessment include the improved survival of low birth weight infants, increasing evidence of the value of breastfeeding and evidence of the lifelong importance of infant feeding and development in the first 1000 days of life in chronic disease epidemiology. Informed consent is a difficult issue, but should always include information on the value of preserving breastfeeding options. Project monitoring should be cognisant of the long term implications of growth rates and early life nutrition.

  5. Forcible feeding in English prisons. 1910.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dock, Lavinia L

    2014-11-01

    Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives for more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times. This month's article, from the March 1910 issue, addresses the force-feeding of female political prisoners in Great Britain. It was written by nurse and social activist Lavinia Dock, a cofounder of the Nurses Associated Alumnae (which later became the American Nurses Association) and the International Council of Nurses and a contributing editor to AJN. Dock wrote, "Among the prisoners thus cruelly treated have been several nurses." She shared physicians' outrage that the Home Office ordered the force-feeding but tried to place responsibility for the practice entirely on prison physicians. More than a century later, the force-feeding of political prisoners continues to raise ethical and legal issues within the nursing and medical communities (see "Ethical Issues for Nurses in Force-Feeding Guantánamo Bay Detainees" in this issue).

  6. SELECTED INDIGENOUS WILD FRUITS INFLUENCE ON FEEDING ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-01-12

    Jan 12, 2015 ... afternoon routine feeding. Data were collected on fruit choice to determine fruits preference; time spent to remove or break the fruits pericarp; and the position of the animal while ... of others irrespective of their nutritional quality. Time spent to remove or ... may exert selection pressures on fruit characteristics ...

  7. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., disposed of, or in any way handled so as to enter fresh fruit channels; (3) The quantity does not exceed 1...

  8. Sanitation & Safety for Child Feeding Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.

    In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…

  9. Nebraska family practitioners' infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, K G; Walburn, J

    1987-01-01

    The authors conducted an anonymous survey of 220 Nebraska family and general practitioners' attitudes and practice recommendations for infant feeding. Most practitioners' attitudes reflect published American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines regarding using commercial formula for bottle-feeding babies rather than evaporated milk-based formulations. Ninety-two per cent agreed with recommendations relating to the need for fluoride supplementation when fluoride was unavailable in the water supply and 93% agreed that whole cow's milk was inappropriate in the infant's first year. Another 68% felt similarly about evaporated milk formulas. However, 32% of board certified and 53% of nonboard certified physicians continue to believe that early solid foods will reduce night waking. In 80% of the cases, practice recommendations disagreed with AAP guidelines by prescribing vitamin supplements for bottle-feeding babies receiving proprietary infant formulas. Additionally, two-thirds of the practitioners recommended unnecessary water complements and 62% suggested formula supplementation for breastfeeding babies. Solid foods and whole cow's milk for both breastfeeding and bottle-feeding babies often were recommended earlier than the second half of the first year.

  10. Feeding assistive robotics, imaginaries and care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2018-01-01

    The media and political/managerial levels focus on the opportunities to re-perform Denmark through digitization. Feeding assistive robotics is a welfare technology, relevant to citizens with low or no function in their arms. Despite national dissemination strategies, it proves difficult to recruit...

  11. MITS Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem: operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    This document details procedures for the operation of the MITS (Machine Interface Test System) Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem (F and W). Included are fill with UF 6 , establishment of recycle and thruput flows, shutdown, UF 6 makeup, dump to supply container, Cascade dump to F and W, and lights cold trap dump, all normal procedures, plus an alternate procedure for trapping light gases

  12. MITS Feed and Withdrawal Subsystem: operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.

    1980-01-01

    This procedure details the steps involved in filling two of the four MITS (Machine Interface Test System) Feed and Withdrawal subsystem main traps and the Sample/Inventory Make-up Pipette with uranium hexafluoride from the ''AS RECEIVED'' UF 6 supply

  13. Biodiverse food solutions to enhance complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robertson, Aileen; Parlesak, Alexandr; Greiner, Ted

    2016-01-01

    In her recent editorial, Dr. de Pee (2015) states there are two main ways to provide additional nutrients during complementary feeding: fortification and supplementation. She illustrates some problems associated with these ‘solutions’, including lack of compliance. Rather than conclude that lipid...

  14. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS STATEMENT OF POLICY UNDER THE...

  15. Market for ethanol feed joint products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzmark, D.; Gould, B.

    1979-10-01

    This report presents results of econometric estimations and mathematical simulations of markets for joint feed products of motor ethanol. The major issues considered are the nature of current market price relationships, effects on prices, including feed substitutes prices, and effects of demands for increased use of distillers' grains and gluten meal. The econometric section shows that soybean meal was by far the dominant force in the pricing of the two products. However, neither one could be adequately explained without the inclusion of corn in the estimating equations. Later research shows that this was due to the importance of both feeds for metabolizable energy as well as for protein in livestock diets. Current ration formulations would require some discounting of the value of the protein content of the two feeds. Careful siting of the ethanol facilities, and flexible design of the plants so that a maximum number of products may be extracted from the feedstock, seem necessary. Finally, the analysis indicates that substitution in animal diets of these joint products for the corn or milo used originally requires that additional energy be supplied to the animal by some type of forage crop. This implies that additional land may be required for energy production, for such marginal crops as hay and alfalfa, rather than for row crops.

  16. School Feeding Programmes: Myth and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Beryl

    1984-01-01

    A review of research showed that school feeding programs (SFP) in elementary schools of developing nations do have a positive impact on student enrollment and school attendance. However, research studies examining the impact of SFP's on academic performance were inconclusive. Research findings are used to make recommendations for SFP design. (RM)

  17. Hydrodynamics of suction feeding in fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    1983-01-01

    1. Suction feeding is the dominant way to obtain food in teleosts. Its high demands on structures due to the required velocities and forces leads to the expectation that a biophysical analysis will aid to reveal the adaptive significance of head and body structures related to this

  18. Consistent feeding positions of great tit parents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lessells, C.M.; Poelman, E.H.; Mateman, A.C.; Cassey, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    When parent birds arrive at the nest to provision their young, their position on the nest rim may influence which chick or chicks are fed. As a result, the consistency of feeding positions of the individual parents, and the difference in position between the parents, may affect how equitably food is

  19. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  20. Business plan Feed Factory Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a poultry feed factory, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Tete Province, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers come from other

  1. Feeding behaviour of salp Thalia democratica (Thaliacea)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Madhupratap, M.

    The salp Thalia democratica was found to feed on Chaetoceros sp. continuously during the entire experimental period of 24 hours. The rate of consumption (0.09-0.16% animal sup(-1) h sup(-1)), however, did not differ significantly. Faecal output also...

  2. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negrato Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d bad taste; e oral candidiasis f increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h coated tongue; i halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b periodontal disease; c white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d caries; e delayed healing of wounds; f greater tendency to infections; g lichen planus; h mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  3. Buccal alterations in diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrato, Carlos Antonio; Tarzia, Olinda

    2010-01-15

    Long standing hyperglycaemia besides damaging the kidneys, eyes, nerves, blood vessels, heart, can also impair the function of the salivary glands leading to a reduction in the salivary flow. When salivary flow decreases, as a consequence of an acute hyperglycaemia, many buccal or oral alterations can occur such as: a) increased concentration of mucin and glucose; b) impaired production and/or action of many antimicrobial factors; c) absence of a metalloprotein called gustin, that contains zinc and is responsible for the constant maturation of taste papillae; d) bad taste; e) oral candidiasis f) increased cells exfoliation after contact, because of poor lubrication; g) increased proliferation of pathogenic microorganisms; h) coated tongue; i) halitosis; and many others may occur as a consequence of chronic hyperglycaemia: a) tongue alterations, generally a burning mouth; b) periodontal disease; c) white spots due to demineralization in the teeth; d) caries; e) delayed healing of wounds; f) greater tendency to infections; g) lichen planus; h) mucosa ulcerations. Buccal alterations found in diabetic patients, although not specific of this disease, have its incidence and progression increased when an inadequate glycaemic control is present.

  4. Feeding behaviour of helicoverpa armigera HBN (LEP. noctuidae) on tomatoes in greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saour, G.; Causse, R.

    1998-01-01

    The feeding behaviour of larvae of Helicoverpa arminegera was studied on tomato plants grown in a greenhouse using 32P -labelled caterpillars. When first larvae emerged from eggs deposited onto usual egg-laying sites, they fed on leaves, occasionally onto Inflorescence, and some burrowed into fruit when they reached the third instars. During the fourth and fifth instar, they fed alternately on leaves and fruit, and occasionally on stems. Toward the end of their development, the caterpillars went through a searching phase to look for a shelter for metamorphosis. This typical sequence could be altered and become more complex in relation with the emerging site of the caterpillars. Green fruits of tomato are usually damaged by larvae of at least 7-8 day old which made several entry holes. These entries were not usually followed by feeding, but they nevertheless damaged an average of 2 ± 0.75 fruits. (author). 13 refs., 4 figs

  5. Integrated circuits and molecular components for stress and feeding: implications for eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardaway, J A; Crowley, N A; Bulik, C M; Kash, T L

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorders are complex brain disorders that afflict millions of individuals worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is not fully understood, but a growing body of literature suggests that stress and anxiety may play a critical role in their development. As our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to disease in clinical populations like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder continue to grow, neuroscientists are using animal models to understand the neurobiology of stress and feeding. We hypothesize that eating disorder clinical phenotypes may result from stress-induced maladaptive alterations in neural circuits that regulate feeding, and that these circuits can be neurochemically isolated using animal model of eating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. Article Commentary: The Influence of Early Infant-Feeding Practices on the Intestinal Microbiome and Body Composition in Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aifric O'Sullivan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite many years of widespread international recommendations to support exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, common hospital feeding and birthing practices do not coincide with the necessary steps to support exclusive breastfeeding. These common hospital practices can lead to the infant receiving formula in the first weeks of life despite mothers’ dedication to exclusively breastfeed. Consequently, these practices play a role in the alarmingly high rate of formula-feeding worldwide. Formula-feeding has been shown to alter the infant gut microbiome in favor of proinflammatory taxa and increase gut permeability and bacterial load. Furthermore, several studies have found that formula-feeding increases the risk of obesity in later childhood. While research has demonstrated differences in the intestinal microbiome and body growth between exclusively breast versus formula-fed infants, very little is known about the effects of introducing formula to breastfed infants either briefly or long term on these outcomes. Understanding the relationships between mixed-feeding practices and infant health outcomes is complicated by the lack of clarity in the definition of mixed-feeding as well as the terminology used to describe this type of feeding in the literature. In this commentary, we highlight the need for hospitals to embrace the 10 steps of the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative developed by UNICEF and the WHO for successful breastfeeding. We present a paucity of studies that have focused on the effects of introducing formula to breastfed infants on the gut microbiome, gut health, growth, and body composition. We make the case for the need to conduct well-designed studies on mixed-feeding before we can truly answer the question: how does brief or long-term use of formula influence the health benefits of exclusive breastfeeding?

  7. Melter feed viscosity during conversion to glass: Comparison between low-activity waste and high-level waste feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Tongan [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Chun, Jaehun [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Dixon, Derek R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Kim, Dongsang [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Bonham, Charles C. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; VanderVeer, Bradley J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Rodriguez, Carmen P. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Weese, Brigitte L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington; Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland Washington; Hrma, Pavel [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington

    2017-12-07

    During nuclear waste vitrification, a melter feed (generally a slurry-like mixture of a nuclear waste and various glass forming and modifying additives) is charged into the melter where undissolved refractory constituents are suspended together with evolved gas bubbles from complex reactions. Knowledge of flow properties of various reacting melter feeds is necessary to understand their unique feed-to-glass conversion processes occurring within a floating layer of melter feed called a cold cap. The viscosity of two low-activity waste (LAW) melter feeds were studied during heating and correlated with volume fractions of undissolved solid phase and gas phase. In contrast to the high-level waste (HLW) melter feed, the effects of undissolved solid and gas phases play comparable roles and are required to represent the viscosity of LAW melter feeds. This study can help bring physical insights to feed viscosity of reacting melter feeds with different compositions and foaming behavior in nuclear waste vitrification.

  8. Parent feeding behavior and child appetite: associations depend on feeding style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Susan; Benson, Leora; Driggin, Elissa; Kolbe, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Eating behavior traits measured in early life predict eating behavior and weight trajectories later in development, and may be associated with certain parental feeding behaviors. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between a range of feeding behaviors, and preschoolers' appetitive traits. Four hundred thirty-nine parents of UK 3-5 year olds completed scales measuring authoritarian vs. authoritative forms of limiting (Restriction vs. Monitoring) and promoting (Pressuring vs. Prompting) intake, as well as Emotional and Instrumental Feeding. Parents also completed scales measuring child Food responsiveness and Satiety responsiveness. Child BMI z-scores were calculated based on measured heights and weights. Parental Restriction was significantly associated with greater child Food responsiveness (p authoritarian vs. authoritative), as well as the type of feeding behavior measured. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The performance of broilers on a feed depends on the feed protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    liveweight, after which they were given one of two feed protein contents in Experiment ... killed for carcass analysis. .... Gains of the chemical components were ... Table2 Main effects and interactions between genotype, sex and first and second ...

  10. The influence of microplastics and halogenated contaminants in feed on toxicokinetics and gene expression in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Rainieri, Sandra; Rasmussen, Rie Romme

    2018-01-01

    When microplastics pollute fish habitats, it may be ingested by fish, thereby contaminating fish with sorbed contaminants. The present study investigates how combinations of halogenated contaminants and microplastics associated with feed are able to alter toxicokinetics in European seabass...... and affect the fish. Microplastic particles (2%) were added to the feed either with sorbed contaminants or as a mixture of clean microplastics and chemical contaminants, and compared to feed containing contaminants without microplastics. For the contaminated microplastic diet, the accumulation...... days of exposure indicate that microplastics might indeed exacerbate the toxic effects (liver metabolism, immune system, oxidative stress) of some chemical contaminants sorbed to microplastics. Seabass quickly metabolised BDE99 to BDE47 by debromination, probably mediated by deiodinase enzymes...

  11. [Animal feeding and feed legislation after the detection of the first indigenous BSE cases in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphues, J

    2002-08-01

    In Great Britain, even the earliest tangible signs indicating the epidemiologic significance of meat and bone meal in the spreading of BSE soon gave rise to increasingly rigorous legislative measures regulating animal feedstuffs. In 1994 a ban on the feeding of animal proteins to ruminants was implemented throughout the entire EU. But until the first BSE cases were actually confirmed in locally raised cattle (November 2000), feeding practice and legislation more or less in Germany remained unaffected by the efforts undertaken in Great Britain. This situation was suddenly changed on 1 December, 2000, when the so-called "Verfütterungsverbot" was put into effect, a law which drastically extended bans regarding the feedstuffs (including fishmeal and animal fats) as well as the species concerned (all animals used in food production). In 2001 the "contamination" phenomenon (ingredients of animal origin were detected in mixed feeds) became a vital issue for the feed industry; through the media, the subject "feedstuff safety" gained a previously unseen level of public awareness. Those circles concerned with mixed feed production and animal husbandry were increasingly confronted with the consequences of the "Verfütterungsverbot" (availability and pricing of substitute ingredients; the demand for amino acids and inorganic sources of phosphorus; problems finding adequate substitutes for animal fats; poor digestibility of alternative components such as indigenous legumes or vegetable fats in calf diets; lower utilization rate of original phosphorus in mixed feeds with negative consequences for skeletal development). With the conditional approval of fishmeal (except in feeds for ruminants) the situation has eased again to a certain degree; on the EU level there are increasing signals pointing toward a political intention to reinstate the utilization of by-products of slaughtered animals qualified for human consumption (with the exception of fallen/dead animals and specific

  12. Lunge feeding in early marine reptiles and fast evolution of marine tetrapod feeding guilds

    OpenAIRE

    Motani, R; Chen, XH; Jiang, DY; Cheng, L; Tintori, A; Rieppel, O

    2015-01-01

    Traditional wisdom holds that biotic recovery from the end-Permian extinction was slow and gradual, and was not complete until the Middle Triassic. Here, we report that the evolution of marine predator feeding guilds, and their trophic structure, proceeded faster. Marine reptile lineages with unique feeding adaptations emerged during the Early Triassic (about 248 million years ago), including the enigmatic Hupehsuchus that possessed an unusually slender mandible. A new specimen of this genus ...

  13. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; P<0·001) and more likely to smoke (18 v. 8 %; P=0·004). The first food was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  14. 'The midwives aren't allowed to tell you': perceived infant feeding policy restrictions in a formula feeding culture - the Feeding Your Baby Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagan, Briege M; Symon, Andrew; Dalzell, Janet; Whitford, Heather

    2014-03-01

    to explore the expectations and experiences of postnatal mothers in relation to infant feeding, and to identify how care could be improved. this study used a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design. Data were collected through one to one in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Tayside area of Eastern Scotland. seven focus group interviews (n=38 participants) and 40 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with mothers with a range of infant feeding experiences i.e. exclusively breast fed; started breast feeding but changed to formula milk before 16 weeks; exclusively formula fed; or who concurrently breast and formula fed their infant. a principal theme of 'Mixed and missing messages' emerged, incorporating 'Conflicting advice', 'Information gaps' and 'Pressure to breast feed' with a secondary theme of 'Emotional costs'. Several problems were identified with how women were given information, how infant feeding discussions were held, and the type of support available after the infant is born. there was a strong perception that some midwives are not 'allowed' to discuss or provide information on formula feeding, and the women reported feeling pressurised to breast feed. Current interpretation of guidance from the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative may be restricting antenatal discussions about infant feeding. The combination of this partial preparation antenatally and postnatal support that was often inconsistent seems to incur a counter-productive emotional cost. at strategic, policy and practice levels the infant feeding message needs to change to encourage a more woman-centred focus including discussions about the realities of all types of infant feeding. It is important that health providers continue to promote and support breast feeding; and that effective services are provided to women who wish to breast feed to help them to do so. However provision of information about all aspects of feeding is needed as well as support for women who do not

  15. Metabolic state alters economic decision making under risk in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkael Symmonds

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans.We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively.We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that this sensitivity in human risk-preference to current metabolic state has

  16. [Feeding disorders in infancy: feeding interaction concept in diagnosis and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keren, M; Tyano, S

    1998-09-01

    In infancy clinical manifestations of psychological distress are mainly somatic. Feeding disorders are one of the most common and nonspecific manifestations of different kinds of disturbed parent-child relationships. These disturbances may have their origins in the baby's constitution and physical status, in the parent's personality structure, or both, as has been conceptualized in the transactional model of normal and abnormal development. Among the daily interactions a baby has with parents, feeding has special inherent impact on the early parent-child relationship because of its psychological meanings. Therefore, feeding disorders, with or without failure to thrive, often reflect various disorders of infancy, still not well recognized in the medical community, such as regulatory disorders, attachment disorders, depression of infancy, disorders of separation-individuation, and post-traumatic eating disorder. 3 clinical cases are brought to increase awareness of psychological distress in the infant, and of feeding disorders as 1 of its manifestations. Each illustrates a different kind of feeding disorder in terms of etiology and pathogenesis. Through these cases we emphasize the need for a multi-disciplinary, integrative approach in diagnosis and treatment. Our conceptual background is based both on the transactional model of development (infant and parental factors impact on each other) in a very dynamic paradigm, and on psychodynamic premises. Intrapsychic conflicts and past representations impact heavily on the parenting characteristics. We emphasize the psychological significance of disturbed feeding interactions, with or without failure to thrive.

  17. The crisis in infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, A

    1978-01-01

    This article maintains that the dramatic decline in breast-feeding in low-income countries is extracting a substantial cost, both in infant health and in outright economic loss. From the 6th to 12th month of life, breast-feeding can supply up to 3/4 of a child's protein needs. The breast-fed child has received about 375 liters of breast milk by age 2. The nutritional equivalent in cow's milk would cost about $65; in packaged dried milk formulas, close to $140. Yet in the few developing countries where surveys of breast-feeding have been conducted over the years, the common pattern is one of significant decline, with greatest decline in urban areas. As communication techniques become more effective in developing countries, urban life styles will have increasing influence on rural societies. Estimates show that losses in breast milk can produce losses in the billions of dollars to developing countries. In terms of national development, lactation has another major economic asset: its link to family planning as a major form of contraception. One investigation reports that the incidence of pregnancy in the 1st 9 months after childbirth of nonnursing mothers was twice that of mothers who breast-fed, including those who simultaneously used other foods. Just as breast milk can be the major source of nutrition, the failure to provide breast milk is a major cause of infant malnutrition and mortality. Poor parents often dilute milk formulas to extend their supply; many cannot read labels and instructions; and hygienic needs often cannot be met by the parents. Breast-fed babies are more resistant to a host of diseases. The costs and obstacles of designing campaigns to encourage breast-feeding in developing countries may be less imposing than those of alternate nutrition intervention programs designed to achieve the same ends. Such a campaign calls for: 1) attracting the public's attention to the benefits of breast-feeding and the dangers of foregoing it through the media

  18. The effect of starvation and re-feeding on mitochondrial potential in the midgut of Neocaridina davidi (Crustacea, Malacostraca.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Włodarczyk

    Full Text Available The midgut in the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi (previously named N. heteropoda (Crustacea, Malacostraca is composed of a tube-shaped intestine and a large hepatopancreas that is formed by numerous blind-ended tubules. The precise structure and ultrastructure of these regions were presented in our previous papers, while here we focused on the ultrastructural changes that occurred in the midgut epithelial cells (D-cells in the intestine, B- and F- cells in the hepatopancreas after long-term starvation and re-feeding. We used transmission electron microscopy, light and confocal microscopes and flow cytometry to describe all of the changes that occurred due to the stressor with special emphasis on mitochondrial alterations. A quantitative assessment of cells with depolarized mitochondria helped us to establish whether there is a relationship between starvation, re-feeding and the inactivation/activation of mitochondria. The results of our studies showed that in the freshwater shrimp N. davidi that were analyzed, long-term starvation activates the degeneration of epithelial cells at the ultrastructural level and causes an increase of cells with depolarized (non-active mitochondria. The process of re-feeding leads to the gradual regeneration of the cytoplasm of the midgut epithelial cells; however, these changes were observed at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, re-feeding causes the regeneration of mitochondrial ultrastructure. Therefore, we can state that the increase in the number of cells with polarized mitochondria occurs slowly and does not depend on ultrastructural alterations.

  19. The effect of starvation and re-feeding on mitochondrial potential in the midgut of Neocaridina davidi (Crustacea, Malacostraca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Agnieszka; Sonakowska, Lidia; Kamińska, Karolina; Marchewka, Angelika; Wilczek, Grażyna; Wilczek, Piotr; Student, Sebastian; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena

    2017-01-01

    The midgut in the freshwater shrimp Neocaridina davidi (previously named N. heteropoda) (Crustacea, Malacostraca) is composed of a tube-shaped intestine and a large hepatopancreas that is formed by numerous blind-ended tubules. The precise structure and ultrastructure of these regions were presented in our previous papers, while here we focused on the ultrastructural changes that occurred in the midgut epithelial cells (D-cells in the intestine, B- and F- cells in the hepatopancreas) after long-term starvation and re-feeding. We used transmission electron microscopy, light and confocal microscopes and flow cytometry to describe all of the changes that occurred due to the stressor with special emphasis on mitochondrial alterations. A quantitative assessment of cells with depolarized mitochondria helped us to establish whether there is a relationship between starvation, re-feeding and the inactivation/activation of mitochondria. The results of our studies showed that in the freshwater shrimp N. davidi that were analyzed, long-term starvation activates the degeneration of epithelial cells at the ultrastructural level and causes an increase of cells with depolarized (non-active) mitochondria. The process of re-feeding leads to the gradual regeneration of the cytoplasm of the midgut epithelial cells; however, these changes were observed at the ultrastructural level. Additionally, re-feeding causes the regeneration of mitochondrial ultrastructure. Therefore, we can state that the increase in the number of cells with polarized mitochondria occurs slowly and does not depend on ultrastructural alterations.

  20. Determination of the retention time of feed in rumen using Sc-46 tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadai, E.A. de; Castro, F.B. de; Barros Ferraz, E.S. de; Machado, P.F.; Nascimento Filho, V.F. do; Pessenda, L.C.R.; Sao Paulo Univ., Piracicaba

    1988-01-01

    The retention time of fibrous feed materials in rumen is of prime importance by providing parameters to evaluate its nutritional value. Some existing marker methods have been presenting serious problems such as physico-chemical alterations of feedstuff during the treatment and also marker migration in rumen conditions. In this study, the rare-earth element Scandium-46 has been applied to marking sugarcane bagasse physically processed. The data showed no significant migration of marker to liquid phase. The retention time in the rumen fistulated cow was 23.06 hours. Correlation coefficient of elapsed time after marking with logarithm of specific activity of ruminal content was 0.9986**. (author) [pt