Sato, Hiroko; Uchida, Toshihiko; Toyota, Kentaro; Kanno, Miyako; Hashimoto, Taeko; Watanabe, Masashi; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Tamiya, Gen; Aoki, Kuraaki; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi
Breastfeeding jaundice is a well-known phenomenon, but its pathogenesis is still unclear. Increased production of bilirubin, impaired hepatic uptake and metabolism of bilirubin, and increased enterohepatic circulation of bilirubin account for most cases of pathological neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. We previously reported that 211G>A (G71R) mutation of the UGT1A1 gene is prevalent in East Asians and is associated with the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Recently, significant association of G71R mutation with hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed neonates was reported. We enrolled 401 full-term Japanese infants, who were exclusively breast-fed without supplementation of formula before developing hyperbilirubinemia, and classified them into two groups based on the degree of maximal body weight loss during the neonatal period. We analyzed the sex, gestational age, delivery mode, body weight at birth, maximal body weight loss and genotypes of G71R and (TA)(7) polymorphic mutations of UGT1A1. Statistical analysis revealed that maximal body weight loss during the neonatal period is the only independent risk factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The effect of G71R mutation on neonatal hyperbilirubinemia is significant in neonates with 5% or greater maximal body weight loss and its influence increases in parallel with the degree of maximal body weight loss. Our study indicates that G71R mutation is a risk factor for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia only in infants with inadequate breastfeeding and suggests that adequate breastfeeding may overcome the genetic predisposing factor, G71R mutation, for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia.
Teh, L K; Hashim, H; Zakaria, Z A; Salleh, M Z
Genetic polymorphisms of uridine diphosphate glucuronyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) have been associated with a wide variation of responses among patients prescribed with irinotecan. Lack of this enzyme is known to be associated with a high incidence of severe toxicity. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of three different variants of UGT1A1 (UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27 and UGT1A1*28), which are associated with reduced enzyme activity and increased irinotecan toxicity, in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia (Malays, Chinese and Indians). A total of 306 healthy unrelated volunteers were screened for UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*27. Blood samples (5 ml) were obtained from each subject and DNA was extracted. PCR based methods were designed and validated for detection of UGT1A1*, UUGT1A1*27 and UUGT1A1*28. Direct DNA sequencing was performed to validate the results of randomly selected samples. Malays and Indian have two-fold higher frequency of homozygous of UGT1A1*28 (7TA/7TA) which was 8 and 8.8 per cent, respectively compared to the Chinese (4.9%). However, the distribution of UGT1A1*6 and UGT1A1*27 showed no significant differences among them. UGT1A1*27 which has not been detected in Caucasian and African American population, was found in the Malaysian Malays (3.33%) and Malaysian Chinese (2.0%). There was interethnic variability in the frequency of UGT1A1*28 in the Malaysian population. Our results suggest that genotyping of UUGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*27 need to be performed before patients are prescribed with irinotecan due to their high prevalence of allelic variant which could lead to adverse drug reaction.
Sato, Hiroko; Uchida, Toshihiko; Toyota, Kentaro; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Tamiya, Gen; Kanno, Miyako; Hashimoto, Taeko; Watanabe, Masashi; Aoki, Kuraaki; Hayasaka, Kiyoshi
Neonates have physiologically increased bilirubin production and immature bilirubin metabolism, and present hyperbilirubinemia in association with genetic and or epigenetic factors. We previously reported that maximal body weight loss (inadequate feeding) is an independent risk factor for the development of hyperbilirubinemia in breast-fed Japanese neonates, and the UGT1A1 211G>A genotype becomes a risk factor under conditions of inadequate feeding. We extended the study to the association of other genetic factors, the UGT1A1 (TA)7 and solute-carrier organic anion transporters (SLCOs) polymorphisms with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. We enrolled 401 full-term Japanese infants who were exclusively breastfeeding and classified them into two groups based on the degree of maximal body weight loss. We analyzed the clinical characteristics and UGT1A1 and SLCOs genotypes. Statistical analysis revealed that maximal body weight loss is the only independent risk factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. UGT1A1, SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 polymorphisms become risk factors in neonates showing 10% or greater body weight loss during the neonatal period. Inadequate feeding may increase the bilirubin burden and cause apparent hyperbilirubinemia in neonates, who have a polymorphic change in the genes involved in the transport and/or metabolism of bilirubin.
Petersen, Jesper Padkær
at identificere studiepopulationerne. Genotyper blev bestemt ud fra PKU kort i den Danske Neonatale Screenings Biobank. Resultater: Ingen association blev vist for UGT1A1*28 genotyper og ALL hos børn. Ingen association blev vist for UGT1A1*28 genotyper og ekstrem neonatal hyperbilirubinæmi. I den præterme kohorte...
Conclusion: Besides G6PD-deficiency screening, UGT1A1 genetic analysis, and especially the UGT1A1*6(c.211G>A, p.Arg71Gly polymorphism detection, may be taken into consideration for early diagnosis and treatment of severe hyperbilirubinemic newborns in southern China.
Full Text Available Abstract Over the past decade, the number of pharmacogenetic tests has increased considerably, allowing for the development of our knowledge of their clinical application. The uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 gene (UGT1A1 assay is an example of a pharmacogenetic test. Numerous variants have been found in UGT1A1, the main conjugating enzyme of bilirubin and drugs such as the anticancer drug irinotecan. Recently, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA recommended testing for the presence of UGT1A1*28, an allele correlated with decreased transcriptional activity, to predict patients at risk of irinotecan toxicity. The administration of other drugs -- such as inhibitors of the UGT1A1 enzyme -- can clinically mimic the *28 phenotype, whereas inducers of UGT1A1 can increase the glucuronidation rate of the enzyme. The *28 polymorphism is not present in all ethnicities at a similar frequency, which suggests that it is important to study different populations to determine the clinical relevance of testing for UGT1A1*28 and to identify other clinically relevant UGT1A1 variants. Environmental factors such as lifestyle can also affect UGT1A1 activity. This review is a critical analysis of studies on drugs that can be affected by the presence of UGT1A1*28, the distribution of this polymorphism around the globe, distinct variants that may be clinically significant in African and Asian populations and how lifestyle can affect treatment outcomes that depend on UGT1A1 activity.
Full Text Available Domestic guinea pig is a model animal for human disease research. Uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 (UGT1A1 is an important human disease-related gene. In this study, the complete coding sequence of domestic guinea pig gene UGT1A1 was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The open reading frame of the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene is 1602 bp in length and was found to encode a protein of 533 amino acids. Sequence analysis revealed that the UGT1A1 protein of domestic guinea pig shared high homology with the UGT1A1 proteins of degu (84%, damara mole-rat (84%, human (80%, northern white-cheeked gibbon (80%, Colobus angolensis palliatus (80% and golden snub-nosed monkey (79%. This gene contains five exons and four introns, as revealed by the computer-assisted analysis. The results also showed that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene had a close genetic relationship with the UGT1A1 gene of degu. The prediction of transmembrane helices showed that domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 might be a transmembrane protein. Expression profile analysis indicated that the domestic guinea pig UGT1A1 gene was differentially expressed in detected domestic guinea pig tissues. Our experiment laid a primary foundation for using the domestic guinea pig as a model animal to study the UGT1A1-related human diseases.
V Willrich, Maria Alice; Kaleta, Erin J; Bryant, Sandra C; Spears, Grant M; Train, Laura J; Peterson, Sandra E; Lennon, Vanda A; Kopecky, Stephen L; Baudhuin, Linnea M
The etiology of statin intolerance is hypothesized to be due to genetic variants that impact statin disposition and clearance. We sought to determine whether genetic variants were associated to statin intolerance. The studied cohort consisted of hyperlipidemic participants (n = 90) clinically diagnosed with statin intolerance by a cardiologist and matched controls without statin intolerance. Creatine kinase activity, lipid profiles and genetic analyses were performed on genes involved in statin metabolism and included UGT1A1 and UGT1A3 sequencing and targeted analyses of CYP3A4*22, CYP3A5*3, SLCO1B1*5 and *1b, ABCB1 c.3435C>T, ABCG2 c.421C>A and GATM rs9806699. Although lipids were higher in cases, genetic variant minor allele frequencies were similar between cases and controls, except for UGT1A1*28, which was less prevalent in cases than controls.
Full Text Available Belinostat is a hydroxamate class HDAC inhibitor that has demonstrated activity in peripheral T-cell lymphoma and is undergoing clinical trials for non-hematologic malignancies. We studied the pharmacokinetics of belinostat in hepatocellular carcinoma patients to determine the main pathway of metabolism of belinostat. The pharmacokinetics of belinostat in liver cancer patients were characterized by rapid plasma clearance of belinostat with extensive metabolism with more than 4-fold greater relative systemic exposure of major metabolite, belinostat glucuronide than that of belinostat. There was significant interindividual variability of belinostat glucuronidation. The major pathway of metabolism involves UGT1A1-mediated glucuronidation and a good correlation has been identified between belinostat glucuronide formation and glucuronidation of known UGT1A1 substrates. In addition, liver microsomes harboring UGT1A1*28 alleles have lower glucuronidation activity for belinostat compared to those with wildtype UGT1A1. The main metabolic pathway of belinostat is through glucuronidation mediated primarily by UGT1A1, a highly polymorphic enzyme. The clinical significance of this finding remains to be determined.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00321594.
Lawrence Soon-U Lee
Full Text Available Irinotecan toxicity correlates with UGT1A1 activity. We explored whether phenotyping UGT1A1 using a probe approach works better than current genotyping methods.Twenty-four Asian cancer patients received irinotecan as part of the FOLFIRI regimen. Subjects took raltegravir 400 mg orally and intravenous midazolam 1 mg. Pharmacokinetic analyses were performed using WinNonLin and NONMEM. Genomic DNA was isolated and screened for the known genetic variants in UGT1A1 and CYP3A4/5.SN-38G/SN-38 AUC ratio correlated well with Raltegravir glucuronide/ Raltegravir AUC ratio (r = 0.784 p<0.01. Midazolam clearance correlated well with irinotecan clearance (r = 0.563 p<0.01. SN-38 AUC correlated well with Log10Nadir Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC (r = -0.397 p<0.05. Significant correlation was found between nadir ANC and formation rate constant of raltegravir glucuronide (r = 0.598, P<0.005, but not UGT1A1 genotype.Raltegravir glucuronide formation is a good predictor of nadir ANC, and can predict neutropenia in East Asian patients. Prospective studies with dose adjustments should be done to develop raltegravir as a probe to optimize irinotecan therapy.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00808184.
Maeda, Hiromichi; Hazama, Shoichi; Shavkat, Abdiev; Okamoto, Ken; Oba, Koji; Sakamoto, Junichi; Takahashi, Kenichi; Oka, Masaki; Nakamura, Daisuke; Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Okayama, Naoko; Mishima, Hideyuki; Kobayashi, Michiya
Uridine-diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A (UGT1A) is a key enzyme involved in irinotecan metabolism, and polymorphisms in the UGT1A gene are associated with irinotecan-induced toxicity. The aim of this study was to elucidate the allele frequencies of UGT1A polymorphisms in healthy Uzbek volunteers, and to compare them with those of the Japanese population. A total of 97 healthy volunteers from Uzbekistan were enrolled and blood samples were collected from each participant. Genotyping analysis was performed by fragment size analysis for UGT1A1*28, direct sequencing for UGT1A7*3 and UGT1A9*22, and TaqMan assays for UGT1A1*93, UGT1A1*6, UGT1A1*27, UGT1A1*60, and UGT1A7*12. The frequencies of polymorphisms were compared with the Japanese population by using the data previously reported from our study group. When the Uzbek and Japanese populations were compared, heterozygotes or homozygotes for UGT1A1*28, UGT1A1*60, and UGT1A1*93 were significantly more frequent in the Uzbek population (P Japanese population (P Japanese population. A comprehensive study of the influence of UGT1A1 polymorphisms on the risk of irinotecan-induced toxicity is necessary for optimal use of irinotecan treatment.
Tsunedomi, Ryouichi; Hazama, Shoichi; Okayama, Naoko; Oka, Masaaki; Nagano, Hiroaki
Recent developments in the field of human genomics have greatly enhanced the potential for precision and personalized medicine. We have developed a novel DNA microarray, using a 3-mm square chip coated with diamond-like carbon to enhance the signal-to-background ratio, for use as an in vitro diagnostic tool in precision medicine. To verify the genotyping effectiveness of this newly developed DNA microarray we examined UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) polymorphisms in DNA extracted from patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. It is established that the polymorphisms of UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*6 are significantly associated with severe toxicity induced by the anti-cancer drug irinotecan. For each sample, the results obtained with the novel microarray platform were compared with those obtained using other, more established, methods, including direct sequencing and the Invader assay. The polymorphisms tested included a single nucleotide substitution (UGT1A1*6) and a TA-repeat polymorphism (UGT1A1*28), both of which were detected simultaneously and accurately using our method. Moreover, our method required 1.5-fold less time to assay and 20-fold less sample than those required by the Invader assay. In summary, our newly developed DNA microarray is more practical than established methods, and is at least as accurate; this will increase the efficiency of polymorphism detection prior to diagnosis and the commencement of treatment, and can feasibly be applied in precision medicine. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Science published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.
Full Text Available A retrospective case control study of breast-fed full-term infants was carried out to determine whether variants in Uridine Diphosphate Glucuronosyl Transferase 1A1 (UGT1A1 and Heme Oxygenase-1 (HMOX1 were associated with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Eight genetic variants of UGT1A1 and 3 genetic variants of HMOX1 were genotyped in 170 hyperbilirubinemic newborns and 779 controls. Five significant associations with breast-fed hyperbilirubinemia were detected after adjusting for gender, birth season, birth weight, delivery mode, gestational age and False Discovery Rate (FDR correction: the dominant effect of rs887829 (c-364t (Odds Ratio (OR: 0.55; 95% Confidence Interval (CI: 0.34-0.89; p = 0.014, the additive effect of (TAn repeat (OR: 0.59; 95%CI: 0.38-0.91; p = 0.017, the dominant effect of rs4148323 (Gly71Arg, G211A (OR: 2.02; 95%CI: 1.44-2.85; p = 5.0×10-5, the recessive effect of rs6717546 (g+914a (OR: 0.30; 95%CI: 0.11-0.83; p = 0.021 and rs6719561 (t+2558c (OR: 0.38; 95%CI: 0.20-0.75; p = 0.005. Neonates carrying the minor allele of rs887829 (TAn repeat had significantly lower peak bilirubin than wild types, while the minor allele carriers of rs4148323 had significantly higher peak bilirubin than wild types. No association was found in HMOX1. Our findings added to the understanding of the significance of UGT1A1 in association with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in East Asian population. Additional studies were required to investigate the mechanisms of the protective effects.
Full Text Available Objective(s: Mutations in the UGT1A1 gene are responsible for hyperbilirubinemia syndromes including Crigler-Najjar type 1 and 2 and Gilbert syndrome. In view of the genetic heterogeneity and involvement of large numbers of the disease causing mutations, the application of polymorphic markers in the UGTA1 gene could be useful in molecular diagnosis of the disease. Materials and Methods: In the present study, two polymorphic markers including rs4148326 and rs4124874 in the UGT1A1 gene region were characterized. The markers were selected using bioinformatics analysis of the UGT1A1 gene region and genotyped in 212 unrelated healthy individuals and 13 family trios in the Iranian population using Tetra-Primer ARMS PCR technique. The allele frequency and population status of the alleles were estimated using GENEPOP, FBAT, PowerMarker and Arlequin software. Results: The results indicated that in the case of rs4148326 marker, allele frequency for T and C allele was 66.04% and 33.96%, respectively. For rs4124874 marker, allele frequency for G and T alleles was 39.4% and 60.6%, respectively. The values of heterozygosity index for the markers examined were 64.1 for rs4148326 and 72.1 for rs4124874, respectively. The haplotype estimation analysis of the markers resulted in three informative haplotypes with frequencies ≥0.05. Moreover, the results suggested the presence of linkage disequilibrium between two markers. Conclusion: Altogether, the data suggested that rs4148326 and rs4124874 could be introduced as informative markers for molecular diagnosis of Crigler-Najjar type 1 and 2 and Gilbert syndrome in the Iranian population.
Full Text Available Present study was aimed to explore the effect of (TAn UGT1A1 gene promoter polymorphism on bilirubin metabolism, bilirubinaemia, predisposition to cholelithiasis and subsequent cholecystectomy, in Sickle-Cell Anemia (SCA and beta-Thalasemia major (bTH in Kuwaiti subjects compared to other population. This polymorphism was analyzed and correlated to total bilirubin and cholelithiasis in 270 age, gender, ethnically matched subjects (92 bTH, 116 SCA and 62 Controls using PCR, dHPLC, fragment analysis and direct sequencing. Four genotypes of UGT1A1 were detected in this study (TA6/6, TA6/7, TA6/8 and TA7/7. (TA6/8 was found only in four individuals; hence it was not included in the analysis. There was a statistically significant association of genotypes with serum total bilirubin levels in both bTH and SCA groups (p<0.001. Subjects with (TA7/7 had the highest total serum bilirubin level (178.7 ± 3.5 µmole/l. A significant association was observed between allele (TA7 and cholelithiasis development (p = 0.0001. The 40%, 67.5% and 100% of SCA with (TA6/6, (TA6/7 and (TA7/7 respectively developed cholelithiasis and were subsequently cholecystectomized. Our results confirm UGT1A1 (TA7 allele as one of the factors accounting for the hyperbilirubinemia and cholelithiasis observed in SCA and bTH.
Wang, Qi; Wang, Yadan; Li, Yong; Wen, Binyu; Dai, Zhong; Ma, Shuangcheng; Zhang, Yujie
The adverse effects of Polygonum (P.) multiflorum, including abnormal bilirubin metabolism, are a serious public health issue. As uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1) is the only enzyme responsible for bilirubin metabolism, we investigated the inhibitory effect of a P. multiflorum extract and 10 anthraquinone and dianthrone compounds on UGT1A1 in rat liver microsomes in vitro. The P. multiflorum extract exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on UGT1A1 activity (inhibition constant [K i ] = 0.3257 μM, 1422 μg of material/mL), followed by cis-emodin dianthrones (K i = 0.8630 μM), trans-emodin dianthrones (K i = 1.083 μM), emodin-8-O-glc (K i = 3.425 μM), and polygonumnolide C2 (K i = 4.291 μM). Analysis of the structure-activity relationships of these compounds suggested that the spatial orientation of the molecules and the presence of particular functional groups affect UGT1A1 inhibition. A mechanistic analysis showed that all the tested compounds docked into two of the nine active sites of UGT1A1 and suggested that hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds are important for the affinity of the tested compounds for UGT1A1; moreover, their interaction energies were generally in agreement with the K i values. These findings provide insight into adverse reactions to P. multiflorum and identify the pharmacophores involved in inhibition of UGT1A1.
Full Text Available Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (AR in adult patients is an exceptional malignancy. Management of AR is based on (neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining ifosfamide, vincristine, and actinomycin D and local curative-intent surgery/radiotherapy. In cases of relapsing AR, the combination of temozolomide/irinotecan is regarded as a possible option. Here we describe life-threatening long-lasting toxicity related to the 1st cycle of irinotecan-based chemotherapy in a 56-year-old woman suffering from locally advanced and metastatic head and neck AR. The patient experienced grade 4 vomiting and diarrheas resulting in acute functional renal failure, associated with grade 4 neutropenia complicated by severe septic shock. The hospital stay duration was 40 days. The analysis of the uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1 gene revealed homozygous UGT1A1 ⁎28 polymorphism with an associated homozygous mutation c.-3275T>G; the latter is associated with a decrease of about 80% of UGT1A1 transcription explaining this irinotecan induced toxicity. Physician must be aware of the potential hematological (mainly neutropenia and infectious disease and digestive (mainly diarrhea toxicities caused by irinotecan and especially when the patient presents a UGT1A1 ⁎28 homozygous allele. UGT1A genotyping performed before initiating treatment is useful to anticipate severe toxic reaction to irinotecan and improve the benefit/risk ratio of its use.
Kishi, Naoki; Takasuka, Akane; Kokawa, Yuki; Isobe, Takashi; Taguchi, Maho; Shigeyama, Masato; Murata, Mikio; Suno, Manabu; Hanioka, Nobumitsu
1. Raloxifene is an antiestrogen that has been marketed for the treatment of osteoporosis, and is metabolized into 6- and 4'-glucuronides by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes. In this study, the in vitro glucuronidation of raloxifene in humans and monkeys was examined using liver and intestinal microsomes and recombinant UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A9). 2. Although the K(m) and CL(int) values for the 6-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes were similar between humans and monkeys, and species differences in Vmax values (liver microsomes, humans > monkeys; intestinal microsomes, humans monkeys) were observed, no significant differences were noted in the K(m) or S50, Vmax and CL(int) or CLmax values for the 4'-glucuronidation of liver and intestinal microsomes between humans and monkeys. 3. The activities of 6-glucuronidation in recombinant UGT enzymes were UGT1A1 > UGT1A8 >UGT1A9 for humans, and UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 for monkeys. The activities of 4'-glucuronidation were UGT1A8 > UGT1A1 > UGT1A9 in humans and monkeys. 4. These results demonstrated that the profiles for the hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation of raloxifene by microsomes were moderately different between humans and monkeys.
Hirano, Atsushi; Ikemura, Kenji; Takahashi, Masaaki; Shibata, Masaaki; Amioka, Katsuo; Nomura, Toshiharu; Yokomaku, Yoshiyuki; Sugiura, Wataru
Raltegravir is metabolized by glucuronidation via UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 1A1 (UGT1A1). We analyzed the genotypes of UGT1A1 (*6, *27, and *28) and their contribution to plasma raltegravir concentrations in 56 Japanese HIV-1-infected patients in the National Hospital Organization Nagoya Medical Center of Japan. Among the 56 patients, the UGT1A1 genotype in two patients was *6 homozygote. Heterozygous variants were found in 13 patients for *6 and in 11 patients for *28, while all of the patients were found to carry wild-type sequences at the position corresponding to the *27 allele. Plasma raltegravir concentration of a male patient with *6 homozygote (0.53 μg/ml) was modestly higher than that of patients with wild type (0.12 μg/ml) or *6 heterozygote (0.16 μg/ml). Another female patient with the *6 homozygote had a low plasma raltegravir concentration (0.03 μg/ml). Patients heterozygous for the *6 or *28 allele did not display significantly different plasma raltegravir concentrations compared to patients homozygous for the respective wild-type allele. Thus, in the present study, we showed that heterozygous reduced-function *6 and *28 alleles appear to have no significant effect on plasma raltegravir concentrations in Japanese HIV-1-infected patients. However, variability in raltegravir concentration and small patient population precluded a correlation between UGT1A1*6 homozygosity and plasma raltegravir concentration. To clarify the contribution of UGT1A1*6 or *28 polymorphisms to plasma raltegravir concentrations, further investigations on larger subject populations are required.
Trdan Lušin, Tina; Roškar, Robert; Mrhar, Aleš
The endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA) is a frequently used chemical in the manufacture of consumer products. In humans, BPA is extensively metabolized to BPA glucuronide (BPAG) by different UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isoforms. The study has been performed with the intention to improve the accuracy of published physiologically based pharmacokinetic models and to improve regulatory risk assessments of BPA. In order to gain insight into intestine, kidney, liver, and lung glucuronidation of BPA, human microsomes of all tested organs were used. BPAG formation followed Michaelis–Menten kinetics in the intestine and kidney, but followed substrate inhibition kinetics in the liver. Human lung microsomes did not show glucuronidation activity towards BPA. While the liver intrinsic clearance was very high (857 mL min −1 kg body weight −1 ), the tissue intrinsic clearances for the kidney and intestine were less than 1% of liver intrinsic clearance. Since BPA is a UGT1A1 substrate, we postulated that the common UGT1A1*28 polymorphism influences BPA glucuronidation, and consequently, BPA detoxification. Hepatic tissue intrinsic clearances for UGT1A1*1/*1, UGT1A1*1/*28, and UGT1A1*28/*28 microsomes were 1113, 1075, and 284 mL min −1 kg body weight −1 , respectively. Prior to microsomal experiments, the bioproduction of BPAG and stable isotope-labeled BPAG (BPAG d16 ) was performed for the purpose of the reliable and accurate quantification of BPAG. In addition, a sensitive LC–MS/MS analytical method for the simultaneous determination of BPA and BPAG based on two stable isotope-labeled internal standards was developed and validated. In conclusion, our in vitro results show that the liver is the main site of BPA glucuronidation (K m 8.9 μM, V max 8.5 nmol min −1 mg −1 ) and BPA metabolism may be significantly influenced by a person's genotype (K m 10.0–13.1 μM, V max 3.4–16.2 nmol min −1 mg −1 ). This discovery may be an important fact for the
Full Text Available Introduction : Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Previous studies have reported an association between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of developing osteoporosis. However, the relationship between osteoporosis and genetic polymorphisms in Japanese women treated with BSO is not well understood. To improve the quality of life for post-BSO patients, it is important to determine the genetic factors that influence their risk for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gene variations of estrogen metabolism-related genes and osteoporosis in surgically menopausal patients, which may improve the quality of life for surgically menopausal patients. Material and methods : This study included 203 menopausal women treated with BSO because of gynecologic disorders. One hundred and twenty-six women with artificial (surgical menopause, who had undergone BSO in the premenopausal period, were compared with 77 women with natural menopause, who had undergone BSO in the postmenopausal period. The women were tested for bone mineral density to diagnose osteoporosis. Polymorphisms of estrogen receptor 1 ( ESR1 and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT genes UGT2B17 and UGT1A1 were analyzed, and their association with bone mass and osteoporosis was statistically evaluated. Results : No significant association was found between osteoporosis and polymorphisms in ESR1 , UGT2B17 , or UGT1A1 in both groups, suggesting that BSO might be a more significant physiological factor in influencing bone mass density compared to genetic variations. Conclusions : These results suggest that the ESR1 , UGT2B17 , and UGT1A1 polymorphisms are not genetic factors affecting osteoporosis in postmenopausal Japanese women.
Full Text Available Chien-Yu Lu,1,2 Yung-Sung Yeh,3–5 Ching-Wen Huang,5,6, Cheng-Jen Ma,4,5 Fang-Jung Yu,1,2 Jaw-Yuan Wang4–10 1Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, 3Department of Emergency Medicine, Kaohsiung Municipal Hsiao-Kang Hospital, 4Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, 5Division of Gastroenterology and General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 6Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, 7Cancer Center, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, 8Department of Genomic Medicine, 9Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; 10Center for Biomarkers and Biotech Drugs, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan Abstract: Here we report a case of metastatic colon cancer treated with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, and escalated doses of irinotecan (FOLFIRI combined with regorafenib in the fourth-line setting after uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1 genotyping analysis. A 66-year-old male was initially diagnosed with Union Internationale Contre le Cancer stage III descending colon cancer and underwent curative surgery. He received postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy; however, liver metastasis developed and a partial hepatectomy was performed thereafter. Unfortunately, pulmonary metastases and recurrent liver tumors were found despite a series of systemic treatments with multiple combinations of cytotoxic and biologic agents. Recently, a novel multikinase inhibitor, regorafenib, was approved for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer refractory to other therapeutic modalities. As further treatment, we combined regorafenib with FOLFIRI, which included dose escalations of irinotecan, after UGT1A1 genotyping analysis. The therapeutic results were promising, with the improvement in liver and pulmonary metastases being
Maria Susana Mallea-Gil
Full Text Available Pegvisomant (PEGv is a growth hormone receptor antagonist approved for the treatment of acromegaly; one of its documented adverse effects is reversible elevation of hepatic enzymes. We report a 39-year-old male acromegalic patient with a pituitary macroadenoma who underwent transsphenoidal surgery. The patient’s condition improved but GH and IGF-I levels did not normalize; as a consequence, we first administered dopamine agonists and then somatostatin receptor ligands (SRLs with poor response. PEGv 15 mg every other day was added to lanreotide 120 mg monthly. The patient developed a severe hepatitis five months after starting the combination therapy. Elevated ferritin, iron, and transferrin saturation suggested probable hepatitis due to haemochromatosis. We performed a liver biopsy which showed an acute cholestatic hepatitis consistent with toxic etiology. A heterozygous genotype UGT1A1⁎28 polymorphism associated with Gilbert’s syndrome was also found in this Argentine patient. The predominant clinical presentation resembled an acute cholestatic hepatitis associated with severe hemosiderosis, a different and new pattern of PEGv hepatotoxicity.
Templeton, Ian; Eichenbaum, Gary; Sane, Rucha; Zhou, Jin
New molecular entities (NMEs) are evaluated using a rigorous set of in vitro and in vivo studies to assess their safety and suitability for testing in humans. Regulatory health authorities require that therapeutic and supratherapeutic doses be administered, by the intended route of administration, to two nonclinical species prior to human testing (ICH Expert Working Group. The international conference on harmonization of technical requirements for registration of pharmaceuticals for human use (ICH); Multidisciplinary guidelines; Nonclinical safety studies (M3). http://www.ich.org/fileadmin/Public_Web_Site/ICH_Products/Guidelines/Multidisciplinary/M3_R2/Step4/M3_R2__Guideline.pdf , 2009). The purpose of these studies is to identify potential target organ toxicity and to determine if the effects are reversible. Liver is a potential site for toxicity caused by orally administered NMEs due to high exposure during first pass after oral administration. A range of clinical chemistry analytes are routinely measured in both nonclinical and clinical studies to evaluate and monitor for hepatotoxicity. While bilirubin itself circulates within a wide range of concentrations in many animal species and humans, without causing adverse effects and possibly providing benefits (Sedlak and Snyder. Pediatrics 113(6):1776-1782, 2004), bilirubin is one of the few readily monitored circulating biomarkers that can provide insight into liver function. Therefore, any changes in plasma or urine bilirubin levels must be carefully evaluated. Changes in bilirubin may occur as a result of adaptive nontoxic changes or severe toxicity. Examples of adaptive nontoxic changes in liver function, which may elevate direct (conjugated) and/or indirect (unconjugated) bilirubin above baseline levels, include reversible inhibition of UGT1A1-mediated bilirubin metabolism and OATP1B1-, OATP1B3-, or MRP2-mediated transport (Keogh. Adv Pharmacol 63:1-42, 2012). Alternatively, hepatocellular necrosis
Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Saji, Shigehira; Nomura, Shogo; Tanaka, Sunao; Ueno, Takayuki; Onoue, Masahide; Iwata, Hiroji; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Sasaki, Yasutsuna; Toi, Masakazu
S-1 and irinotecan combination is attractive for breast cancer refractory to anthracyclines and taxanes. Patients with advanced human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer previously treated with anthracyclines and taxanes were eligible. Patients with brain metastases and homozygous for UGT1A1 *6 or *28 or compound heterozygous (*6/*28) were excluded. A dose-escalation design was chosen for the phase I portion (level 1: irinotecan 80 mg/m 2 days 1-8 and S-1 80 mg/m 2 days 1-14 every 3 weeks; level 2: irinotecan 100 mg/m 2 and S-1 80 mg/m 2 ). Study objectives included determination of the recommended dose for phase II, response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and safety. Pharmacokinetics and CD34 + circulating endothelial cells (CECs) as pharmacodynamics were also analyzed. Thirty-seven patients were included. One patient at each level developed dose-limiting toxicities; therefore, level 2 was the recommended dose for phase II. Diarrhea was more common in patients possessing a *6 or *28 allele compared with wild-type homozygous patients (46% and 25%). Among 29 patients treated at level 2, PFS was longer for UGT1A1 wt/*6 and wt/*28 patients than for wt/wt patients (12 vs. 8 months, P = 0.06). PFS was significantly longer in patients with a larger-than-median SN-38 area under the curve (AUC) than in those with a smaller AUC (P = 0.039). There was an association between clinical benefit and reduction in baseline CD34 + CECs by S-1 (P = 0.047). The combination of irinotecan and S-1 is effective and warrants further investigation. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Das, Subhasish; Teja, K Charan; Mukherjee, Sandip; Seal, Soma; Sah, Rajesh Kumar; Duary, Buddhadeb; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar
Carlinoside is a unique compound well-known for its excellent curative potential in hepatitis. There is a substantial research gap regarding the medicinal use of carlinoside, as its concentrations are greatly variable (depending on locality). We cultivated Cajanus cajan using vermicompost as a major organic amendment at two locations (Sonitpur and Birbhum) with different soil types, but identical climate conditions. Sonitpur soils were richer in soil organic C (SOC), enzyme activation, and N/P content than Birbhum. However, vermi-treatment improved many soil properties (bulk density, water retention, pH, N/P/K, and enzyme activity) to narrow the locational gap in soil quality by 15-28%. We also recorded a many-fold increment in SOC storage capacities in both locations, which was significantly correlated with carlinoside, total phenol, and flavonoid contents in Cajanus leaves. This significantly up-regulated the carlinoside induced expression of the bilirubin-solubilizing UGT1A1enzyme in HepG2 cell and rat liver. Leaf extracts of vermicompost-aided plants could cure hepatitis in affected rat livers and in the HepG2 cell line. Accordingly, vermi-treatment is an effective route for the growth of Cajanus as a cash crop for biomedical applications and can produce a concurrent improvement in soil quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tsai, Ming-Shiun; Wang, Ying-Han; Lai, Yan-Yun; Tsou, Hsi-Kai; Liou, Gan-Guang; Ko, Jiunn-Liang; Wang, Sue-Hong
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose can induce acute liver injury (ALI) with significant morbidity and mortality. Propacetamol is an APAP prodrug, which is clinically bioequivalent to APAP. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of kaempferol on propacetamol-induced ALI and its underlying mechanism in mice. Kaempferol pretreatment (125 mg/kg) before propacetamol injection significantly decreased propacetamol-induced serum ALT and AST activities, and DNA fragmentation. Kaempferol administration also reduced propacetamol-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) formation partly through downregulation of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) expression, upregulation of UDP glucuronosyltransferase family 1 member A1 (UGT1A1) expression, restoration of the activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GPx and catalase toward normal, recovery of propacetamol-suppressed Nrf2 and GCLC expressions, and maintenance of normal glutathione level. Furthermore, kaempferol markedly attenuated APAP-induced serum TNF-α and IL-6 productions, downregulated APAP-induced phosphorylations of JNK and ERK, and decreased early hepatic apoptosis via decreasing Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and caspase 3 activation. Furthermore, administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and kaempferol significantly rescued more mice than a low dose of NAC only did when a lethal dose of propacetamol injected and therapized at a delayed time point. These data suggested that kaempferol protects the liver against propacetamol-induced injury through anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activities. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Using digital holographic cinematography, we quantify and compare the feeding behavior of free-swimming copepods, Acartia tonsa, on nutritional prey (Storeatula major to that occurring during exposure to toxic and non-toxic strains of Karenia brevis and Karlodinium veneficum. These two harmful algal species produce polyketide toxins with different modes of action and potency. We distinguish between two different beating modes of the copepod's feeding appendages-a "sampling beating" that has short durations (<100 ms and involves little fluid entrainment and a longer duration "grazing beating" that persists up to 1200 ms and generates feeding currents. The durations of both beating modes have log-normal distributions. Without prey, A. tonsa only samples the environment at low frequency. Upon introduction of non-toxic food, it increases its sampling time moderately and the grazing period substantially. On mono algal diets for either of the toxic dinoflagellates, sampling time fraction is high but the grazing is very limited. A. tonsa demonstrates aversion to both toxic algal species. In mixtures of S. major and the neurotoxin producing K. brevis, sampling and grazing diminish rapidly, presumably due to neurological effects of consuming brevetoxins while trying to feed on S. major. In contrast, on mixtures of cytotoxin producing K. veneficum, both behavioral modes persist, indicating that intake of karlotoxins does not immediately inhibit the copepod's grazing behavior. These findings add critical insight into how these algal toxins may influence the copepod's feeding behavior, and suggest how some harmful algal species may alter top-down control exerted by grazers like copepods.
Jones, Jennifer D; Kauffman, Matthew J.; Monteith, Kevin L.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Albeke, Shannon E.; Cross, Paul C.
Conservation of migration requires information on behavior and environmental determinants. The spatial distribution of forage resources, which migration exploits, often are altered and may have subtle, unintended consequences. Supplemental feeding is a common management practice, particularly for ungulates in North America and Europe, and carryover effects on behavior of this anthropogenic manipulation of forage are expected in theory, but have received limited empirical evaluation, particularly regarding effects on migration. We used global positioning system (GPS) data to evaluate the influence of winter feeding on migration behavior of 219 adult female elk (Cervus elaphus) from 18 fed ranges and 4 unfed ranges in western Wyoming. Principal component analysis revealed that the migratory behavior of fed and unfed elk differed in distance migrated, and the timing of arrival to, duration on, and departure from summer range. Fed elk migrated 19.2 km less, spent 11 more days on stopover sites, arrived to summer range 5 days later, resided on summer range 26 fewer days, and departed in the autumn 10 days earlier than unfed elk. Time-to-event models indicated that differences in migratory behavior between fed and unfed elk were caused by altered sensitivity to the environmental drivers of migration. In spring, unfed elk migrated following plant green-up closely, whereas fed elk departed the feedground but lingered on transitional range, thereby delaying their arrival to summer range. In autumn, fed elk were more responsive to low temperatures and precipitation events, causing earlier departure from summer range than unfed elk. Overall, supplemental feeding disconnected migration by fed elk from spring green-up and decreased time spent on summer range, thereby reducing access to quality forage. Our findings suggest that ungulate migration can be substantially altered by changes to the spatial distribution of resources, including those of anthropogenic origin, and that
Aberle, N.; Malzahn, A. M.; Grey, J.; Hillebrand, H.; Wiltshire, K. H.
This study aimed to identify differences in selectivity, foraging behaviour and complementary feeding of two benthic consumers (the isopod Idotea emarginata and the snail Hydrobia ulvae) using traditional cell counting as an indicator for algal biomass reduction and stable isotope labelling to detect differences in assimilation and digestion. We hypothesized that even when active feeding preferences of food components are not apparent, passive selectivity via mechanisms such as food assimilation and digestion can be of relevance. Algal biomass was reduced to a similar degree by the grazers independently from grazer and prey combinations without any indication for an active choice of food components. However, the isotope labelling approach indicated that passive selectivity can alter complementary feeding strategies, as we detected shifts in feeding preferences in relation to food quantity and competition. Thus, stable isotope labelling of food components opens up new perspectives in community ecology, allowing assessment of such complex mechanisms as passive selectivity, complementary feeding and competition.
Oklejewicz, M; Overkamp, GJF; Stirland, JA; Daan, S
The variation in spontaneous meal patterning was studied in three genotypes (tau +/+, tau +/- and tau -/-) of the Syrian hamster with an altered circadian period. Feeding activity was monitored continuously in 13 individuals from each genotype in constant dim light conditions. All three genotypes
The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has outlined the requirements in the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) that must be met before they will accept West Valley canistered vitrified waste forms for shipment to a federal depository. In this study the glass volatilization was studied using a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to evaluate the absence of free gases, free liquids, explosives, pyrophorics, combustibles, and organics in the waste form. The total carbon in the samples was analyzed using a carbon determinator, phase alteration by heat-treating samples for extended periods of time (45-day) at T g -10 degrees C and T g +10 degrees C (where T g is the glass transition temperature), and the presence of unreacted feed in glass by comparing x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns for glass and dried feed. The results of this study indicate that the West Valley vitrification process completely transforms the feed into glass. Also the TGA, XRD, and scanning transmission electron microscopy data indicates that there is no significant volatilization, redox reactions, and phase alterations in the waste form up to more than 200 degrees C above the T g . 7 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs
Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso
The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three studies on N. europaea were compared to achieve a
© 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three
Rahman, M.M.; Kadowaki, S.; Balcombe, S.R.; Wahab, M.A.
We used customized fish tanks as model fish ponds to observe grazing, swimming, and conspecific social behavior of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) under variable food-resource conditions to assess alterations in feeding niche. Different food and feeding situations were created by using only pond water
Reed, J Hunter; Bonter, David N
Although the effects of bird feeding on avian species have been extensively examined, few studies evaluate the indirect effects of bird feeding on non-target taxa. Bird seed could provide direct nourishment to several mammalian species (e.g., Lagomorpha, Rodentia, and Cetartiodactyla), potentially altering their distribution and behavior with possible unintended consequences for some avian populations, particularly those not directly benefiting from the resource. To examine how bird feeders may influence the presence and behavior of mammals, we used camera traps to quantify differences in the distribution and richness of mammal species frequenting sites with bird feeders and control sites (lacking feeders) in Ithaca, New York, USA. We recorded 15,684 images capturing 12 mammal species with gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and raccoon (Procyon lotor) detected significantly more often at feeder sites than at control sites. Detections of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) marginally increased near feeders whereas detections of several carnivorous species were unrelated to the presence of bird feeders. We recorded larger gray squirrel and raccoon group sizes and greater mammal richness at feeder sites than at nearby control sites. We detected squirrels and raccoons less when snow covered the ground than on snow-free days. Ambient temperature was not a strong predictor of mammal detections. Camera trapping revealed strong, species-specific patterns in the timing of daily visitation to areas with feeders. Because many mammals depredate bird nests, the local increases in mammal richness and activity near bird feeders may create an ecological trap for avian species nesting in close proximity to supplemental feeding stations. © 2018 by the Ecological Society of America.
Jirásková, A.; Novotný, J.; Novotný, L.; Vodička, Pavel; Pardini, Barbara; Naccarati, Alessio; Schwertner, H. A.; Hubáček, J. A.; Punčochářová, L.; Šmerhovský, Z.; Vítek, L.
Roč. 131, č. 7 (2012), s. 1549-1555 ISSN 0020-7136 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/07/1430 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ME849; GA MŠk(CZ) 2B06155; GA MŠk(CZ) LH11030 Program:2B Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390703 Keywords : bilirubin * bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyl transferase * colorectal cancer Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.198, year: 2012
Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests that the circadian clock is closely associated with metabolic regulation. However, whether an impaired circadian clock is a direct cause of metabolic dysregulation such as body weight gain is not clearly understood. In this study, we demonstrate that body weight gain in mice is not significantly changed by restricting feeding period to daytime or nighttime. The expression of peripheral circadian clock genes was altered by feeding period restriction, while the expression of light-regulated hypothalamic circadian clock genes was unaffected by either a normal chow diet (NCD or a high-fat diet (HFD. In the liver, the expression pattern of circadian clock genes, including Bmal1, Clock, and Per2, was changed by different feeding period restrictions. Moreover, the expression of lipogenic genes, gluconeogenic genes, and fatty acid oxidation-related genes in the liver was also altered by feeding period restriction. Given that feeding period restriction does not affect body weight gain with a NCD or HFD, it is likely that the amount of food consumed might be a crucial factor in determining body weight. Collectively, these data suggest that feeding period restriction modulates the expression of peripheral circadian clock genes, which is uncoupled from light-sensitive hypothalamic circadian clock genes.
Rojas-Tirado, Paula Andrea; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Vadstein, Olav
Intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with its hyper-eutrophic water offer ideal conditions for bacterial growth, abundance and activity, potentially affecting fish and system performance. Feed composition and feed loading in particular will have significant impact on organic and inor......Intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) with its hyper-eutrophic water offer ideal conditions for bacterial growth, abundance and activity, potentially affecting fish and system performance. Feed composition and feed loading in particular will have significant impact on organic...
Schönhusen, U; Kuhla, S; Rudolph, P E; Zitnan, R; Albrecht, D; Huber, K; Voigt, J; Flöter, A; Hammon, H M; Metges, C C
This study was designed to investigate whether soy protein or soy protein supplemented with indispensable amino acids (AA) change the protein expression pattern and utilization of pre-cursors for RNA biosynthesis in jejunal mucosa in relation to casein and whether these changes affect mucosal cell growth. Kids were fed comparable diets based on cow;s milk, of which 50% of crude protein were replaced by either casein (CAS), soy protein (SP) or soy protein supplemented with indispensible AA (SPA) for 34 days (n = 4/group). Jejunal tissue was collected 5 h after adding a single dose of (15)N-RNA to the diet, in order to determine morphology, protein repertoire by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and RNA biosynthesis by isotope ratio-mass spectrometry. In mid-jejunum, morphological alterations induced by partial replacement of casein with soy protein were accompanied by changes in mucosal proteins related to generation of the cytoskeleton and in pathways for mucosal RNA biosynthesis, resulting in a smaller re-utilization of dietary RNA pre-cursors and in an increased activity of enzymes involved in nucleic acid breakdown. Soy protein supplemented with indispensible aminoacids tended to revise mucosal growth retardation with no impact on salvage of dietary RNA pre-cursors for mucosal RNA biosynthesis, but changes in cytoskeleton generation. Feeding soy protein with supplementation of indispensible AA does not ameliorate soy protein effects on mucosal morphology and RNA metabolism in the jejunum in a significant manner.
Atkinson, Carla L; Vaughn, Caryn C; Forshay, Kenneth J; Cooper, Joshua T
Nutrient cycling is a key process linking organisms in ecosystems. This is especially apparent in stream environments in which nutrients are taken up readily and cycled through the system in a downstream trajectory. Ecological stoichiometry predicts that biogeochemical cycles of different elements are interdependent because the organisms that drive these cycles require fixed ratios of nutrients. There is growing recognition that animals play an important role in biogeochemical cycling across ecosystems. In particular, dense aggregations of consumers can create biogeochemical hotspots in aquatic ecosystems via nutrient translocation. We predicted that filter-feeding freshwater mussels, which occur as speciose, high-biomass aggregates, would create biogeochemical hotspots in streams by altering nutrient limitation and algal dynamics. In a field study, we manipulated nitrogen and phosphorus using nutrient-diffusing substrates in areas with high and low mussel abundance, recorded algal growth and community composition, and determined in situ mussel excretion stoichiometry at 18 sites in three rivers (Kiamichi, Little, and Mountain Fork Rivers, south-central United States). Our results indicate that mussels greatly influence ecosystem processes by modifying the nutrients that limit primary productivity. Sites without mussels were N-limited with -26% higher relative abundances of N-fixing blue-green algae, while sites with high mussel densities were co-limited (N and P) and dominated by diatoms. These results corroborated the results of our excretion experiments; our path analysis indicated that mussel excretion has a strong influence on stream water column N:P. Due to the high N:P of mussel excretion, strict N-limitation was alleviated, and the system switched to being co-limited by both N and P. This shows that translocation of nutrients by mussel aggregations is important to nutrient dynamics and algal species composition in these rivers. Our study highlights the
Montoro, C; Ipharraguerre, I R; Bach, A
during the first 4 h after feeding and tended to prefer SF only after 6 h from feeding. Plasma glucose, insulin, and cholecystokinin concentrations were greater in FED than in FAS calves. Injection of naloxone decreased plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in NAL calves. Blocking opioid receptors reduced intake the first 2 h after naloxone injection in FED calves, altered oro-sensorial preferences, and reduced plasma GLP-1 concentration. In conclusion, the opioid peptide system may control short-term feed intake by modulating the oro-sensorial response triggered by feed consumption, especially when calves are fed ad libitum. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Siebers, Nina; Martius, Christopher; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Garcia, Marcos V B; Leinweber, Peter; Amelung, Wulf
The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS), non-cellulosic (NCPS), and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS). The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰) and δ15N (6.6‰) values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰), reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc) pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS) revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors.
Wright, B E; Vasselli, J R; Katovich, M J
We previously demonstrated that chronic dietary treatment with acarbose, an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, improves glucose homeostasis in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rat. In this study we evaluated the effects of 4 weeks of acarbose treatment on glucose homeostasis in STZ-diabetic rats for both meal-fed (three times daily) and ad libitum feeding conditions. Sprague Dawley male rats (n = 58) were started on a daily meal-feeding paradigm consisting of three 2-h feeding periods: 0700 to 0900 hours, 1300 to 1500 hours, and 1900 to 2100 hours. Following 2 weeks of adaptation, half of the animals were switched to ad libitum feeding. The feeding paradigm itself (meal fed versus ad lib.) affected neither body weight nor daily food intake. Twenty animals from each feeding group then received STZ (60 mg/kg i.v.), whereas control animals received vehicle injections only. Two days later, the diet of 10 STZ-treated animals from each paradigm was supplemented with acarbose (40 mg of BAY G 5421/100-g diet), and the groups were treated for 4 weeks. Untreated diabetic rats had lower body weight than vehicle-injected control rats at all time points after STZ treatment. Acarbose treatment delayed this effect on body weight. STZ treatment induced hyperphagia regardless of feeding paradigm, which was significantly attenuated by acarbose only for the first week of treatment. Untreated diabetic rats had fasting blood glucose values 4 times those of vehicle-injected controls in both the meal-fed and ad libitum-fed conditions. Acarbose significantly lowered fasting blood glucose in the treated STZ groups. Blood glucose was also assessed 0, 90, and 180 min following the start of a meal. The postprandial rise in blood glucose was significantly reduced in acarbose-treated meal-fed diabetic rats, to values not significantly different from those of vehicle-injected control rats. During the fourth week of treatment glycated hemoglobin levels were significantly higher in untreated
Liu, Zu-Chen; Xie, Yi-Lun; Chang, Chai-Ju; Su, Chia-Ming; Chen, Yu-Hui; Huang, San-Yuan; Walzem, Rosemary L; Chen, Shuen-Ei
Leukocytes are known to participate in ovarian activities in several species, but there is a surprising lack of information for the common chicken. Broiler hens consuming feed ad libitum (AL) exhibit a number of ovarian irregularities, but leukocyte functions are unstudied. In contrast to feed-restricted (R) hens, AL feeding for 7 wk significantly reduced egg production and clutch length while increasing pause length and atretic follicle numbers (P hens contained less progesterone, and follicle walls were thicker with loose fibrous morphology and had less collagenase-3-like gelatinolytic activity but more IL-1beta (P hen peripheral heterophils and monocytes (P hens. © 2014 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.
Haisma, H; Wells, JCK; Coward, WA; Duro, D; Victora, CG; Vonk, RJ; Wright, A; Visser, GH
Although it is widely accepted that energy expenditure in infants is a function of feeding pattern, the mechanism behind this is not well understood. The objectives of this observational study were as follows: 1) to compare minimal observable energy expenditure (MOEE) between 2 subgroups of
Qualls, Whitney A; Day, Jonathan F; Xue, Rui-De; Bowers, Doria F
Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) female mosquitoes infected systemically with Sindbis virus (SINV) took longer than uninfected mosquitoes to locate and fully engorge on blood. On days 7 and 14 postexposure, blood feeding took 1.3 and 1.5 times longer in mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection, respectively. SINV dissemination did not affect the average weight of unfed Ae. aegypti, but did result in a 10 and 12% increase in blood imbibed compared with mosquitoes without a positive SINV dissemination and non-SINV-exposed mosquitoes, respectively. Ae. aegypti mosquitoes with a disseminated SINV infection fed an average of 4 h sooner than uninfected mosquitoes when offered a bloodmeal contained inside a DEET (N,N-diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) saturated (30%) bovine sausage casing. Together, these results indicate that behavioral changes in mosquito host-seeking, blood feeding and sensitivity to DEET occurred in mosquitoes after SINV infection and dissemination.
Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Yu, Kaifan; Yu, Miao; Zhang, Chuanjian; Su, Yong; Zhu, Weiyun
In-feed antibiotics have been used to promote growth in piglets, but its impact on metabolomics profiles associated with host metabolism is largely unknown. In this study, to test the hypothesis that antibiotic treatment may affect metabolite composition both in the gut and host biofluids, metabolomics profiles were analyzed in antibiotic-treated piglets. Piglets were fed a corn-soy basal diet with or without in-feed antibiotics from postnatal day 7 to day 42. The serum biochemical parameters, metabolomics profiles of the serum, urine, and jejunal digesta, and indicators of microbial metabolism (short-chain fatty acids and biogenic amines) were analyzed. Compared to the control group, antibiotics treatment did not have significant effects on serum biochemical parameters except that it increased (P Antibiotics treatment increased the relative concentrations of metabolites involved in amino-acid metabolism in the serum, while decreased the relative concentrations of most amino acids in the jejunal content. Antibiotics reduced urinary 2-ketoisocaproate and hippurate. Furthermore, antibiotics decreased (P Antibiotics significantly affected the concentrations of biogenic amines, which are derived from microbial amino-acid metabolism. The three major amines, putrescine, cadaverine, and spermidine, were all increased (P antibiotics-treated piglets. These results identified the phenomena that in-feed antibiotics may have significant impact on the metabolomic markers of amino-acid metabolism in piglets.
Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.
Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (U.S.)
Miller, J.K.; Swanson, E.W.; Lyke, W.A.; Byrne, W.F.
Effects of feeding cottonseed meal and anion-exchange resin on iodine absorption and excretion by calves were investigated. Each additional amount of resin fed from 0.3 to 3.5 g/kg body weight further increased fecal excretion from single oral iodine-131 and intravenous iodine-125 doses. By feeding 3 to 10 g cottonseed meal/kg body weight, excretion of oral iodine-131 given daily was increased 7 to 94 percent in feces and reduced as much as 35 percent in urine, but plasma iodine-131 was not changed. Introducing 1 g resin/kg body weight daily into the diet increased fecal iodine-131 excretion three to five times that with cottonseed meal alone and reduced both plasma and urinary iodine-131. The same amount of resin fed daily had similar effects on excretion of iodine-131 injected subcutaneously each day. Although iodine depletion by a highly efficient iodine binder (resin) in the gastrointestinal tract is probable, iodine binding by a natural feed constituent (cottonseed meal) was relatively inefficient. (auth)
Corcoran, Mark J; Wetherbee, Bradley M; Shivji, Mahmood S; Potenski, Matthew D; Chapman, Demian D; Harvey, Guy M
Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS), Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (pfeeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing operations, and develop precautionary policies regarding proposed feeding sites.
Full Text Available The impact of termites on nutrient cycling and tropical soil formation depends on their feeding habits and related material transformation. The identification of food sources, however, is difficult, because they are variable and changed by termite activity and nest construction. Here, we related the sources and alteration of organic matter in nests from seven different termite genera and feeding habits in the Terra Firme rainforests to the properties of potential food sources soil, wood, and microepiphytes. Chemical analyses comprised isotopic composition of C and N, cellulosic (CPS, non-cellulosic (NCPS, and N-containing saccharides, and molecular composition screening using pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS. The isotopic analysis revealed higher soil δ13C (-27.4‰ and δ15N (6.6‰ values in nests of wood feeding Nasutitermes and Cornitermes than in wood samples (δ13C = -29.1‰, δ15N = 3.4‰, reflecting stable-isotope enrichment with organic matter alterations during or after nest construction. This result was confirmed by elevated NCPS:CPS ratios, indicating a preferential cellulose decomposition in the nests. High portions of muramic acid (MurAc pointed to the participation of bacteria in the transformation processes. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (MDS revealed increasing geophagy in the sequence Termes < Embiratermes < Anoplotermes and increasing xylophagy for Cornitermes < Nasutitermes., and that the nest material of Constrictotermes was similar to the microepiphytes sample, confirming the report that Constrictotermes belongs to the microepiphyte-feeders. We therewith document that nest chemistry of rainforest termites shows variations and evidence of modification by microbial processes, but nevertheless it primarily reflects the trophic niches of the constructors.
Mark J Corcoran
Full Text Available Southern stingrays, Dasyatis americana, have been provided supplemental food in ecotourism operations at Stingray City Sandbar (SCS, Grand Cayman since 1986, with this site becoming one of the world's most famous and heavily visited marine wildlife interaction venues. Given expansion of marine wildlife interactive tourism worldwide, there are questions about the effects of such activities on the focal species and their ecosystems. We used a combination of acoustic telemetry and tag-recapture efforts to test the hypothesis that human-sourced supplemental feeding has altered stingray activity patterns and habitat use at SCS relative to wild animals at control sites. Secondarily, we also qualitatively estimated the population size of stingrays supporting this major ecotourism venue. Tag-recapture data indicated that a population of at least 164 stingrays, over 80% female, utilized the small area at SCS for prolonged periods of time. Examination of comparative movements of mature female stingrays at SCS and control sites revealed strong differences between the two groups: The fed animals demonstrated a notable inversion of diel activity, being constantly active during the day with little movement at night compared to the nocturnally active wild stingrays; The fed stingrays utilized significantly (p<0.05 smaller 24 hour activity spaces compared to wild conspecifics, staying in close proximity to the ecotourism site; Fed stingrays showed a high degree of overlap in their core activity spaces compared to wild stingrays which were largely solitary in the spaces utilized (72% vs. 3% overlap respectively. Supplemental feeding has strikingly altered movement behavior and spatial distribution of the stingrays, and generated an atypically high density of animals at SCS which could have downstream fitness costs for individuals and potentially broader ecosystem effects. These findings should help environmental managers plan mitigating measures for existing
Tsushima, Hiromi; Yamada, Kazuyo; Miyazawa, Daisuke; Mori, Mayumi; Hashimoto, Yoko; Ohkubo, Takeshi; Hibino, Hidehiko; Okuyama, Harumi
We investigated whether body temperature (BT) regulatory mechanisms are influenced by dietary fatty acids (FA). Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet containing fish oil (HFD), soybean oil (HSD) or lard (HLD). At the 20-week intervention, the BT of the HSD and HLD groups were lower than that of the normal diet (ND) group in the light and dark periods. The intracerebroventricular injections of interleukin-1β and bombesin in the HSD group induced greater hyperthermia and weaker hypothermia, respectively, than in the ND group. The HSD differentially affected BT under both physiological and pharmacological conditions. In the hypothalamus, the ratio of n-6/n-3 FAs was higher in the HSD group compared with the ND group. DNA microarrays revealed increased expression of thyroid-stimulating hormone β-subunit, and decreased expression of several genes in the hypothalamus of the HSD group compared with the ND group. The HSD feeding increased several adipokine concentrations in the plasma. However, there were no adipokines or gene expressions that changed in only the HSD and HLD groups showing significant hypothermia under the physiological condition. These findings suggested that long-term HSD intake produces abnormal BT regulation. It is less likely that adipokines or proteins/peptides are involved in abnormal BT regulation under the physiological conditions after HSD feeding.
Jackson, Bryan T; Brewster, Carlyle C; Paulson, Sally L
The effects of La Crosse virus (LACV) infection on blood feeding behavior in Aedes triseriatus (Say) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) were investigated in the laboratory by measuring the size of the bloodmeal imbibed and the extent of refeeding by virus-infected and uninfected mosquitoes. LACV-infected Ae. triseriatus and Ae. albopictus took significantly less blood compared with uninfected mosquitoes. Twice as many virus-infected Ae. triseriatus mosquitoes refed compared with uninfected individuals (18 vs. 9%; P < 0.05); however, virus infection had no significant effect on the refeeding rate of Ae. albopictus. Reduction in bloodmeal size followed by an increased avidity for refeeding may lead to enhanced horizontal transmission of the LACV by its principal vector, Ae. triseriatus.
John J Worthington
Full Text Available Gastrointestinal infection is often associated with hypophagia and weight loss; however, the precise mechanisms governing these responses remain poorly defined. Furthermore, the possibility that alterations in feeding during infection may be beneficial to the host requires further study. We used the nematode Trichinella spiralis, which transiently inhabits the small intestine before migrating to skeletal muscle, as a biphasic model of infection to determine the cellular and molecular pathways controlling feeding during enteric and peripheral inflammation. Through the infection of genetically modified mice lacking cholecystokinin, Tumor necrosis factor α receptors and T and B-cells, we observed a biphasic hypophagic response to infection resulting from two separate immune-driven mechanisms. The enteroendocrine I-cell derived hormone cholecystokinin is an essential mediator of initial hypophagia and is induced by CD4+ T-cells during enteritis. In contrast, the second hypophagic response is extra-intestinal and due to the anorectic effects of TNFα during peripheral infection of the muscle. Moreover, via maintaining naive levels of the adipose secreted hormone leptin throughout infection we demonstrate a novel feedback loop in the immunoendocrine axis. Immune driven I-cell hyperplasia and resultant weight loss leads to a reduction in the inflammatory adipokine leptin, which in turn heightens protective immunity during infection. These results characterize specific immune mediated mechanisms which reduce feeding during intestinal or peripheral inflammation. Importantly, the molecular mediators of each phase are entirely separate. The data also introduce the first evidence that I-cell hyperplasia is an adaptively driven immune response that directly impinges on the outcome to infection.
Full Text Available Oil palm fronds (OPF, normally available all the year round, may provide a sustainable ruminant feed for livestock industry in tropical regions. A feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of feeding OPF on the rumen protozoal population, rumen fermentation and fatty acid profiles of rumen fluid in goats. Twentyfour five-month-old Kacang crossbred male goats were individually housed and fed for 100 d with concentrate diets supplemented with oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq. frond pellets. The treatments were: CON (100% concentrate, MOPF (75% concentrate + 25% OPF, w/w and HOPF (50% concentrate + 50% OPF, w/w. The diets were adjusted to be isocaloric. The pH of rumen fluid was in the order of HOPF (5.90>MOPF (5.74>CON (5.62. Both HOPF (17.75x104/mL and MOPF (17.13x104/mL had significantly (P<0.05 higher population of Entodinium sp. than CON (14.88x104/mL. Although populations of Holotrichs and total protozoa among the three groups did not show any significant difference (P>0.05, populations were in the numerical order of HOPF>MOPF>CON. The molar proportions of acetate were significantly higher (P<0.05 in HOPF animals compared to MOPF and CON. The altered status in the rumen environment due to supplementation of OPF in the diets resulted in the highest (P<0.05 amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA in the rumen of animals receiving HOPF and MOPF diet. These results were suggestive of a decreased biohydrogenation in the rumen, resulting in higher levels of UFA available for hindgut absorption, and hence their increased incorporation in the plasma and edible tissues of the HOPF animals.
Lingis, Melissa; Richards, Elaine; Perrone, Dana; Keller-Wood, Maureen
In ovine pregnancy, as in human pregnancy, hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal activity is chronically increased. These studies were designed to test the hypotheses that expression of serotonergic genes and responsiveness to serotonin are increased in pregnancy. We tested the stimulatory effect of an acute, intracerebroventricular injection of the serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine on plasma ACTH and cortisol in ewes during late pregnancy or postpartum. We also tested the effect of lower-dose, longer-term stimulation by intracerebroventricular infusion of fluoxetine in pregnant and nonpregnant ewes over 6 days. Overall, we found that the stimulatory effect of fluoxetine on ACTH and cortisol was not significantly different between late-gestation and nonpregnant ewes, although the effect of acute fluoxetine administration was inversely related to plasma progesterone concentrations. Also, there were no differences in hypothalamic expression of the glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors, corticotropin-releasing hormone, AVP, the serotonin reuptake transporter, or the serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] receptors 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) with pregnancy or fluoxetine treatment. However, chronic fluoxetine infusion reduced food intake in the nonpregnant, but not pregnant, ewes. Expression of proopiomelanocortin mRNA in the hypothalamus was reduced in pregnant compared with nonpregnant ewes. Our results indicate that pregnancy does not increase responsiveness of ACTH and cortisol to serotonergic stimulation but, rather, that progesterone reduces the ACTH response. In addition, we found a reduced ability of serotonin to inhibit feeding in the pregnant ewes, consistent with a reduction in anorexic mechanisms in the pregnant state.
Lutter, Michael; Khan, Michael Z; Satio, Kenji; Davis, Kevin C; Kidder, Ian J; McDaniel, Latisha; Darbro, Benjamin W; Pieper, Andrew A; Cui, Huxing
While eating disorders (EDs) are thought to result from a combination of environmental and psychological stressors superimposed on genetic vulnerability, the neurobiological basis of EDs remains incompletely understood. We recently reported that a rare missense mutation in the gene for the transcriptional repressor histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is associated with the risk of developing an ED in humans. To understand the biological consequences of this missense mutation, we created transgenic mice carrying this mutation by introducing the alanine to threonine mutation at position 778 of mouse Hdac4 (corresponding to position 786 of the human protein). Bioinformatic analysis to identify Hdac4-regulated genes was performed using available databases. Male mice heterozygous for HDAC4 A778T did not show any metabolic or behavioral differences. In contrast, female mice heterozygous for HDAC4 A778T display several ED-related feeding and behavioral deficits depending on housing condition. Individually housed HDAC4 A778T female mice exhibit reduced effortful responding for high-fat diet and compulsive grooming, whereas group-housed female mice display increased weight gain on high-fat diet, reduced behavioral despair, and increased anxiety-like behaviors. Bioinformatic analysis identifies mitochondrial biogenesis including synthesis of glutamate/gamma-aminobutyric acid as a potential transcriptional target of HDAC4 A778T activity relevant to the behavioral deficits identified in this new mouse model of disordered eating. The HDAC4 A778T mouse line is a novel model of ED-related behaviors and identifies mitochondrial biogenesis as a potential molecular pathway contributing to behavioral deficits. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fischer, Jessica; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Laforsch, Christian
Manned space missions, as for example to the planet Mars, are a current objective in space exploration. During such long-lasting missions, aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) could facilitate independence of resupply from Earth by regenerating the atmosphere, purifying water, producing food and processing waste. In such BLSS, microcrustaceans could, according to their natural role in aquatic ecosystems, link oxygen liberating, autotrophic algae and higher trophic levels, such as fish. However, organisms employed in BLSS will be exposed to high acceleration (hyper- g) during launch of spacecrafts as well as to microgravity (μ g) during space travel. It is thus essential that these organisms survive, perform and reproduce under altered gravity conditions. In this study we present the first data in this regard for the microcrustaceas Daphnia magna and Heterocypris incongruens. We found that after hyper- g exposure (centrifugation) approximately one third of the D. magna population died within one week (generally indicating that possible belated effects have to be considered when conducting and interpreting experiments during which hyper- g occurs). However, suchlike and even higher losses could be countervailed by the surviving daphnids' unaltered high reproductive capacity. Furthermore, we can show that foraging and feeding behavior of D. magna (drop tower) and H. incongruens (parabolic flights) are rarely altered in μ g. Our results thus indicate that both species are suitable candidates for BLSS utilized in space.
Nagaraja, T G; Taylor, M B; Harmon, D L; Boyer, J E
may be used to quantitate the relative efficacy of antimicrobial compounds to alter ruminal fermentation characteristics.
Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T
The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements.
Lazzarino, Gisela Paola; Andreoli, María Florencia; Rossetti, María Florencia; Stoker, Cora; Tschopp, María Virgina; Luque, Enrique Hugo; Ramos, Jorge Guillermo
We evaluated the effect of cafeteria diet (CAF) on the mRNA levels and DNA methylation state of feeding-related neuropeptides, and neurosteroidogenic enzymes in discrete hypothalamic nuclei. Besides, the expression of steroid hormone receptors was analyzed. Female rats fed with CAF from weaning increased their energy intake, body weight, and fat depots, but did not develop metabolic syndrome. The increase in energy intake was related to an orexigenic signal of paraventricular (PVN) and ventromedial (VMN) nuclei, given principally by upregulation of AgRP and NPY. This was mildly counteracted by the arcuate nucleus, with decreased AgRP expression and increased POMC and kisspeptin expression. CAF altered the transcription of neurosteroidogenic enzymes in PVN and VMN, and epigenetic mechanisms associated with differential promoter methylation were involved. The changes observed in the hypothalamic nuclei studied could add information about their differential role in food intake control and how their action is disrupted in obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gotthardt, Juliet D; Bello, Nicholas T
Alternate day, intermittent fasting (IMF) can be an effective weight loss strategy. However, the effects of IMF on eating behaviors are not well characterized. We investigated the acute and residual effects of IMF for weight loss on meal patterns in adult obese male C57BL/6 mice. After 8weeks of ad libitum high-fat diet to induce diet-induced obesity (DIO), mice were either continued on ad libitum high-fat diet (HFD) or placed on one of 5 diet strategies for weight loss: IMF of high-fat diet (IMF-HFD), pair-fed to IMF-HFD group (PF-HFD), ad libitum low-fat diet (LFD), IMF of low-fat diet (IMF-LFD), or pair-fed to IMF-LFD group (PF-LFD). After the 4-week diet period, all groups were refed the high-fat diet for 6weeks. By the end of the diet period, all 5 groups had lost weight compared with HFD group, but after 6weeks of HFD re-feeding all groups had similar body weights. On (Day 2) of the diet period, IMF-HFD had greater first meal size and faster eating rate compared with HFD. Also, first meal duration was greater in LFD and IMF-LFD compared with HFD. At the end of the diet period (Day 28), the intermittent fasting groups (IMF-HFD and IMF-LFD) had greater first meal sizes and faster first meal eating rate compared with their respective ad libitum fed groups on similar diets (HFD and LFD). Also, average meal duration was longer on Day 28 in the low-fat diet groups (LFD and IMF-LFD) compared with high-fat diet groups (HFD and IMF-HFD). After 6weeks of HFD re-feeding (Day 70), there were no differences in meal patterns in groups that had previously experienced intermittent fasting compared with ad libitum fed groups. These findings suggest that meal patterns are only transiently altered during alternate day intermittent fasting for weight loss in obese male mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhang, R Y; Jin, W; Feng, P F; Liu, J H; Mao, S Y
In the current intensive production system, ruminants are often fed high-grain (HG) diets. However, this feeding pattern often causes rumen metabolic disorders and may further trigger laminitis, the exact mechanism is not clear. This study investigated the effect of HG diet feeding on fermentative and microbial changes in the rumen and on the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the lamellar tissue. In all, 12 male goats were fed a hay diet (0% grain; n=6) or an HG diet (56.5% grain; n=6). On day 50 of treatment, samples of blood, rumen content, and lamellar tissue of hooves of goats were collected. The data showed that compared with the hay group, HG-fed goats had lower (Pdiet feeding altered the composition of rumen bacterial community, and correspondingly, the results suggested that their functions in the HG group were also altered. HG diet feeding increased (Pbacterial community, and lead to higher levels of LPS in the peripheral blood, and further activated the inflammatory response in lamellar tissues, which may progress to the level of laminar damage.
Yokota, Megumi; Hirasawa, Akira; Makita, Kazuya; Akahane, Tomoko; Sakai, Kensuke; Makabe, Takeshi; Horiba, Yuko; Yamagami, Wataru; Ogawa, Mariko; Iwata, Takashi; Yanamoto, Shigehisa; Deshimaru, Ryota; Banno, Kouji; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke
Introduction : Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Previous studies have reported an association between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of developing osteoporosis. However, the relationship between osteoporosis and genetic polymorphisms in Japanese women treated with BSO is not well understood. To improve the quality of life for post-BSO patients, it is important to determine the genetic factors that influence their risk for osteoporosis. The aim of th...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Larvae of the Western Corn Rootworm (WCR feeding on maize roots cause heavy economical losses in the US and in Europe. New or adapted pest management strategies urgently require a better understanding of the multitrophic interaction in the rhizosphere. This study aimed to investigate the effect of WCR root feeding on the microbial communities colonizing the maize rhizosphere. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a greenhouse experiment, maize lines KWS13, KWS14, KWS15 and MON88017 were grown in three different soil types in presence and in absence of WCR larvae. Bacterial and fungal community structures were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of the 16S rRNA gene and ITS fragments, PCR amplified from the total rhizosphere community DNA. DGGE bands with increased intensity were excised from the gel, cloned and sequenced in order to identify specific bacteria responding to WCR larval feeding. DGGE fingerprints showed that the soil type and the maize line influenced the fungal and bacterial communities inhabiting the maize rhizosphere. WCR larval feeding affected the rhiyosphere microbial populations in a soil type and maize line dependent manner. DGGE band sequencing revealed an increased abundance of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus in the rhizosphere of several maize lines in all soil types upon WCR larval feeding. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The effects of both rhizosphere and WCR larval feeding seemed to be stronger on bacterial communities than on fungi. Bacterial and fungal community shifts in response to larval feeding were most likely due to changes of root exudation patterns. The increased abundance of A. calcoaceticus suggested that phenolic compounds were released upon WCR wounding.
Speranza, E D; Colombo, M; Tatone, L M; Cappelletti, N; Migoya, M C; Colombo, J C
Muscle fatty acid profiles and PCB contents of the detritivorous species Prochilodus lineatus and its diet (stomach contents, settling particles and sediments) were analysed from reference and polluted areas of the Paraná-Rio de la Plata basin, to evaluate the alterations produced by opportunistic feeding on sewage discharges. Overall muscle fatty acid composition was dominated by saturated and monounsaturated 16 and 18 carbon (18 C-FA) components with reduced long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Compared to sediments, settling particles and stomach contents were enriched in lipids and had a similar fatty acid composition. Opportunistic feeding on sewage detritus at Buenos Aires resulted in enhanced PCB and triglyceride accumulation, with higher proportions of 18 C-FA and lower proportions of 16:1 and LC-PUFA compared to fish from northern pristine reaches of the basin. Mid-Paraná showed intermediate values reflecting mixing of the North stock with migrating Buenos Aires P. lineatus identified by their lipid and contaminant profile. According to multivariate analyses, this geographical variation of fatty acid composition was strongly influenced by PCB concentration. Prochilodus lineatus assimilates the energy subsidy of sewage inputs through enhanced lipogenesis with dominant 18 C-FA and significant amounts of valuable LC-PUFA. This lipid alteration facilitates the bioaccumulation of PCBs which in turn may reinforce the adipogenic effect of sewage feeding. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.
Dai, Lingpeng; Qian, Xiaowei; Nan, Xuyang; Zhang, Yejian
Cardiac glycosides from Nerium indicum showed potent molluscicide activity against Pomacea canaliculata (GAS), but the toxicological mechanism is still far less understood. Effects of sublethal treatments of cardiac glycosides on feeding rate, digestive enzymes and ultrastructural alterations of the hepatopancreas in GAS were evaluated in this study. Exposure of GAS to sublethal concentrations of cardiac glycosides resulted in a significant reduction of feeding rate of GAS. The amylase, cellulose and protease activity were increase significantly at the end of 24 h followed by significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure while lipase activity was not affected significantly at the end of 24 h followed by a significant inhibition after 48 h of exposure during experimental period. The main ultrastructural alterations of hepatopancreas observed in snails under cardiac glycosides treatment comprised disruption of nuclear membrane, increased vesiculation and dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum, and vacuolization and swelling of mitochondrial compared to the untreated GAS. These results, for the first time, provide systematic evidences showing that cardiac glycosides seriously impairs the hepatopancreas tissues of GAS, resulting in inhibition of digestive enzymes activity and feeding rate and cause GAS death in the end. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ayson, Felix G; de Jesus-Ayson, Evelyn Grace T; Takemura, Akihiro
Feeding time is a major synchronizer of many physiological rhythms in many organisms. Alteration in the nutritional status, specifically fasting, also affects the secretion rhythms of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). In this study, we investigated whether the expression patterns for the mRNAs of GH, prolactin (PRL) and somatolactin (SL) in the pituitary gland, and insulin-like growth factor I and II (IGF-I and IGF-II) in the liver of juvenile rabbitfish (Siganus guttatus) follow a rhythm according to feeding time and whether these hormone rhythms changes with starvation. Hormone mRNA levels were determined by real time PCR. The daily expression pattern for the mRNAs of GH, PRL and SL was not altered whether food was given in the morning (10:00 h) or in the afternoon (15:00 h). The daily GH mRNA expression pattern, however, was affected when food was not available for 3 days. In contrast, the daily expression pattern for IGF-I mRNA reaches its peak at roughly 5-6h after feeding. This pattern, however, was not observed with IGF-II mRNA. During 15-day starvation, GH mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly higher than the control fish starting on the 9th day of starvation until day 15. The levels returned to normal after re-feeding. In contrast to GH, PRL mRNA levels in starved fish were significantly lower than the control group starting on the 6th day of starvation until 3 days after re-feeding. SL mRNA levels were not significantly different between the control and starved group at anytime during the experiment. Both IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA levels in starved group were significantly higher than the control fish on the 3rd and 6th day of starvation. mRNA levels of both IGF-I and II in the starved fish decreased starting on the 9th day of starvation. While IGF-I mRNA levels in the starved group continued to decrease as starvation progressed, IGF-II mRNA levels were not significantly different from the control during the rest of the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In our 24-hour society, an increasing number of people are required to be awake and active at night. As a result, the circadian rhythm of feeding is seriously compromised. To mimic this, we subjected mice to restricted feeding (RF, a paradigm in which food availability is limited to short and unusual times of day. RF induces a food-anticipatory increase in the levels of the hunger hormone ghrelin. We aimed to investigate whether ghrelin triggers the changes in body weight and gastric emptying that occur during RF. Moreover, the effect of genetic deletion of the core clock gene Bmal1 on these physiological adaptations was studied. METHODS: Wild-type, ghrelin receptor knockout and Bmal1 knockout mice were fed ad libitum or put on RF with a normal or high-fat diet (HFD. Plasma ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Gastric contractility was studied in vitro in muscle strips and in vivo (13C breath test. Cytokine mRNA expression was quantified and infiltration of immune cells was assessed histologically. RESULTS: The food-anticipatory increase in plasma ghrelin levels induced by RF with normal chow was abolished in HFD-fed mice. During RF, body weight restoration was facilitated by ghrelin and Bmal1. RF altered cytokine mRNA expression levels and triggered contractility changes resulting in an accelerated gastric emptying, independent from ghrelin signaling. During RF with a HFD, Bmal1 enhanced neutrophil recruitment to the stomach, increased gastric IL-1α expression and promoted gastric contractility changes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating that ghrelin and Bmal1 regulate the extent of body weight restoration during RF, whereas Bmal1 controls the type of inflammatory infiltrate and contractility changes in the stomach. Disrupting the circadian rhythm of feeding induces a variety of diet-dependent metabolic, immune and gastrointestinal alterations, which may explain the higher prevalence of obesity and
Sarah I Martire
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. METHODS: Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. RESULTS: Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain.
Martire, Sarah I.; Holmes, Nathan; Westbrook, R. Fred; Morris, Margaret J.
Background Rats prefer energy-rich foods over chow and eat them to excess. The pattern of eating elicited by this diet is unknown. We used the behavioral satiety sequence to classify an eating bout as a meal or snack and compared the eating patterns of rats fed an energy rich cafeteria diet or chow. Methods Eight week old male Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to lab chow or an energy-rich cafeteria diet (plus chow) for 16 weeks. After 5, 10 and 15 weeks, home-cage overnight feeding behavior was recorded. Eating followed by grooming then resting or sleeping was classified as a meal; whereas eating not followed by the full sequence was classified as a snack. Numbers of meals and snacks, their duration, and waiting times between feeding bouts were compared between the two conditions. Results Cafeteria-fed rats ate more protein, fat and carbohydrate, consistently ingesting double the energy of chow-fed rats, and were significantly heavier by week 4. Cafeteria-fed rats tended to take multiple snacks between meals and ate fewer meals than chow-fed rats. They also ate more snacks at 5 weeks, were less effective at compensating for snacking by reducing meals, and the number of snacks in the majority of the cafeteria-fed rats was positively related to terminal body weights. Conclusions Exposure to a palatable diet had long-term effects on feeding patterns. Rats became overweight because they initially ate more frequently and ultimately ate more of foods with higher energy density. The early increased snacking in young cafeteria-fed rats may represent the establishment of eating habits that promote weight gain. PMID:23565243
Deshpande, Krutika T; Liu, Shinlan; McCracken, Jennifer M; Jiang, Lu; Gaw, Ta Ehpaw; Kaydo, Lindsey N; Richard, Zachary C; O'Neil, Maura F; Pritchard, Michele T
Wound healing consists of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and matrix synthesis and remodeling. Prolonged alcohol abuse can cause liver fibrosis due to deregulated matrix remodeling. Previous studies demonstrated that moderate ethanol feeding enhances liver fibrogenic markers and frank fibrosis independent of differences in CCl₄-induced liver injury. Our objective was to determine whether or not other phases of the hepatic wound healing response were affected by moderate ethanol after CCl₄ exposure. Mice were fed moderate ethanol (2% v/v) for two days and then were exposed to CCl₄ and euthanized 24-96 h later. Liver injury was not different between pair- and ethanol-fed mice; however, removal of necrotic tissue was delayed after CCl₄-induced liver injury in ethanol-fed mice. Inflammation, measured by TNFα mRNA and protein and hepatic Ly6c transcript accumulation, was reduced and associated with enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis after ethanol feeding. Hepatocytes entered the cell cycle equivalently in pair- and ethanol-fed mice after CCl₄ exposure, but hepatocyte proliferation was prolonged in livers from ethanol-fed mice. CCl₄-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was increased and matrix remodeling was prolonged in ethanol-fed mice compared to controls. Taken together, moderate ethanol affected each phase of the wound healing response to CCl₄. These data highlight previously unknown effects of moderate ethanol exposure on hepatic wound healing after acute hepatotoxicant exposure.
Krutika T. Deshpande
Full Text Available Wound healing consists of three overlapping phases: inflammation, proliferation, and matrix synthesis and remodeling. Prolonged alcohol abuse can cause liver fibrosis due to deregulated matrix remodeling. Previous studies demonstrated that moderate ethanol feeding enhances liver fibrogenic markers and frank fibrosis independent of differences in CCl4-induced liver injury. Our objective was to determine whether or not other phases of the hepatic wound healing response were affected by moderate ethanol after CCl4 exposure. Mice were fed moderate ethanol (2% v/v for two days and then were exposed to CCl4 and euthanized 24–96 h later. Liver injury was not different between pair- and ethanol-fed mice; however, removal of necrotic tissue was delayed after CCl4-induced liver injury in ethanol-fed mice. Inflammation, measured by TNFα mRNA and protein and hepatic Ly6c transcript accumulation, was reduced and associated with enhanced hepatocyte apoptosis after ethanol feeding. Hepatocytes entered the cell cycle equivalently in pair- and ethanol-fed mice after CCl4 exposure, but hepatocyte proliferation was prolonged in livers from ethanol-fed mice. CCl4-induced hepatic stellate cell activation was increased and matrix remodeling was prolonged in ethanol-fed mice compared to controls. Taken together, moderate ethanol affected each phase of the wound healing response to CCl4. These data highlight previously unknown effects of moderate ethanol exposure on hepatic wound healing after acute hepatotoxicant exposure.
Prichard, David; Ou, George; Galorport, Cherry; Enns, Robert
During capsule endoscopy (CE) studies, the complete examination rate (CER) can be increased by prolonging capsule battery life or reducing gastric transit time (GTT) and/or small bowel transit time (SBTT). However, despite enhanced battery life, 10% of studies remain incomplete. Previously studied interventions to reduce SBTT and enhance CER have produced conflicting results. We hypothesize that this may be a consequence of an insufficiently potent stimulus of small bowel motility. To examine whether potent stimulation of the cephalic response of digestion during small bowel CE reduces GTT and/or SBTT and thus increases the CER. A single-blind randomized trial was performed to evaluate the effect of bacon sham feeding on GTT, SBTT and CER. Baseline characteristics were similar between 63 sham fed patients and 59 controls. The median GTT was 17 min (9-65) in the bacon group and 25 min (14-55) in the control group. The median SBTT was 199 min (119-316) and 222 min (151-287), respectively. Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated no significant difference between groups for GTT (rate ratio 1.03, 95% CI 0.71-1.51, P = 0.87) or SBTT (rate ratio 1.02, 95% CI 0.70-1.49, P = 0.93). Although the taste of bacon was considered favorably by 72% of participants, taste did not correlate with GTT (ρ = 0.03, P = 0.83) or SBTT (ρ = - 0.115, P = 0.33). The CER was 91 and 95% in the bacon and control groups, respectively (P = 0.35). Bacon sham feeding has no effect on GTT, SBTT or CER and cannot be recommended in clinical practice.
Christian Eseigbe Imafidon
Full Text Available Aim: To determine the effects of polyphenol-rich extract of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina (PEVA on the feeding pattern of rats that were exposed to cadmium (Cd toxicity. Materials and Methods: Thirty male Wistar rats, weighing 160-180 g, were divided into 6 groups of 5 rats each as follows; Group 1 received distilled water orally (0.2 ml/100 g, daily, throughout the period of study. Group 2 received Cd alone (in the form of CdSO4 at 5 mg/kg/day via intraperitoneal route for 5 consecutive days. Group 3 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 and thereafter left untreated for a period of 4-week. After the oral lethal dose of PEVA was determined, Groups 4, 5, and 6 were pre-treated with Cd as Group 2 after which they received graded doses of PEVA at 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg/day (0.2 ml/100 g, respectively via oral route for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected for some plasma biochemical assays while urine samples were collected using metabolic cages. Results: PEVA administration significantly increased (P < 0.05 the body weight and feeding patterns that were significantly reduced (P < 0.05 by Cd toxicity. PEVA also significantly reinstated the plasma antioxidant status, as well as glucose and urine volume of the rats toward control values (P < 0.05. Conclusion: PEVA can be an herbal alternative in the treatment or management of subjects manifesting alterations in feeding pattern and urine volume that is Cd-induced. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 284-292
Brittany V Martin-Murphy
Full Text Available Current estimates suggest that over one-third of the adult population has metabolic syndrome and three-fourths of the obese population has non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Inflammation in metabolic tissues has emerged as a universal feature of obesity and its co-morbidities, including NAFLD. Natural Killer T (NKT cells are a subset of innate immune cells that abundantly reside within the liver and are readily activated by lipid antigens. There is general consensus that NKT cells are pivotal regulators of inflammation; however, disagreement exists as to whether NKT cells exert pathogenic or suppressive functions in obesity. Here we demonstrate that CD1d(-/- mice, which lack NKT cells, were more susceptible to weight gain and fatty liver following high fat diet (HFD feeding. Compared with their WT counterparts, CD1d(-/- mice displayed increased adiposity and greater induction of inflammatory genes in the liver suggestive of the precursors of NAFLD. Calorimetry studies revealed a significant increase in food intake and trends toward decreased metabolic rate and activity in CD1d(-/- mice compared with WT mice. Based on these findings, our results suggest that NKT cells play a regulatory role that helps to prevent diet-induced obesity and metabolic dysfunction and may play an important role in mechanisms governing cross-talk between metabolism and the immune system to regulate energy balance and liver health.
Poppitt, Sally D; Shin, Hyun Sang; McGill, Anne-Thea; Budgett, Stephanie C; Lo, Kim; Pahl, Malcolm; Duxfield, Janice; Lane, Mark; Ingram, John R
Background: Activation of the ileal brake through the delivery of nutrients into the distal small intestine to promote satiety and suppress food intake provides a new target for weight loss. Evidence is limited, with support from naso-ileal lipid infusion studies. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate whether glucose infused into the duodenum and ileum differentially alters appetite response, food intake, and secretion of satiety-related gastrointestinal peptides. Design: Fourteen healthy male participants were randomly assigned to a blinded 4-treatment crossover, with each treatment of single-day duration. On the day before the intervention (day 0), a 380-cm multilumen tube (1.75-mm diameter) with independent port access to the duodenum and ileum was inserted, and position was confirmed by X-ray. Subsequently (days 1-4), a standardized breakfast meal was followed midmorning by a 90-min infusion of isotonic glucose (15 g, 235 kJ) or saline to the duodenum or ileum. Appetite ratings were assessed with the use of visual analog scales (VASs), blood samples collected, and ad libitum energy intake (EI) measured at lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner. Results: Thirteen participants completed the 4 infusion days. There was a significant effect of nutrient infused and site (treatment × time, P lunch compared with glucose-to-duodenum [-22%, -988 ± 379 kJ (mean ± SEM), Tukey's post hoc, P small intestine elicits different outcomes. Glucose infusion to the ileum increased GLP-1 and PYY secretion, suppressed aspects of VAS-rated appetite, and decreased ad libitum EI at a subsequent meal. Although glucose to the duodenum also suppressed appetite ratings, eating behavior was not altered. This trial was registered at www.anzctr.org.au as ACTRN12612000429853. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.
Blanton, Cynthia; He, Zhengcheng; Gottschall-Pass, Katherine T; Sweeney, Marva I
Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8) of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON); 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB); 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO); or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO). Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites), and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid). Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046), with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035). Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220), again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185). Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (pblueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric acid.
Cho, Clara E; Pannia, Emanuela; Huot, Pedro S P; Sánchez-Hernández, Diana; Kubant, Ruslan; Dodington, David W; Ward, Wendy E; Bazinet, Richard P; Anderson, G Harvey
High multivitamin (HV, tenfold AIN-93G) gestational diets fed to Wistar rats increase food intake, obesity, and characteristics of metabolic syndrome in the offspring. We hypothesized that methyl vitamins, and specifically folate, in the HV gestational diet contribute to the obesogenic phenotypes consistent with their epigenetic effects on hypothalamic food intake regulatory mechanisms. Male offspring of dams fed the AIN-93G diet with high methyl vitamins (HMethyl; tenfold folate, vitamins B12, and B6) (Study 1) and HV with recommended folate (HVRF) (Study 2) were compared with those from HV and recommended vitamin (RV) fed dams. All offspring were weaned to a high fat diet for 8 wks. HMethyl diet, similar to HV, and compared to RV, resulted in higher food intake, body weight, and metabolic disturbances. Removing folate additions to the HV diet in HVRF offspring normalized the obesogenic phenotype. Methyl vitamins, and folate in HV diets, altered hypothalamic gene expression toward increased food intake concurrent with DNA methylation and leptin and insulin receptor signaling dysfunction. Methyl vitamins in HV gestational diets contribute to obesogenic phenotypes and epigenetic alterations in the hypothalamic feeding pathways in the offspring. Folate alone accounts for many of these effects. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available Previously we showed that feeding polyphenol-rich wild blueberries to hypertensive rats lowered systolic blood pressure. Since probiotic bacteria produce bioactive metabolites from berry polyphenols that enhance the health benefits of berry consumption, we hypothesized that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet would augment the anti-hypertensive effects of blueberry consumption. Groups (n = 8 of male spontaneously hypertensive rats were fed one of four AIN '93G-based diets for 8 weeks: Control (CON; 3% freeze-dried wild blueberry (BB; 1% probiotic bacteria (PRO; or 3% BB + 1% PRO (BB+PRO. Blood pressure was measured at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 by the tail-cuff method, and urine was collected at weeks 4 and 8 to determine markers of oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes, nitric oxide synthesis (nitrites, and polyphenol metabolism (hippuric acid. Data were analyzed using mixed models ANOVA with repeated measures. Diet had a significant main effect on diastolic blood pressure (p = 0.046, with significantly lower measurements in the BB- vs. CON-fed rats (p = 0.035. Systolic blood pressure showed a similar but less pronounced response to diet (p = 0.220, again with the largest difference between the BB and CON groups. Absolute increase in blood pressure between weeks 0 and 8 tended to be smaller in the BB and PRO vs. CON and BB+PRO groups (systolic increase, p = 0.074; diastolic increase, p = 0.185. Diet had a significant main effect on hippuric acid excretion (p<0.0001, with 2- and ~1.5-fold higher levels at weeks 4 and 8, respectively, in the BB and BB+PRO vs. PRO and CON groups. Diet did not have a significant main effect on F2-isoprostane (p = 0.159 or nitrite excretion (p = 0.670. Our findings show that adding probiotics to a blueberry-enriched diet does not enhance and actually may impair the anti-hypertensive effect of blueberry consumption. However, probiotic bacteria are not interfering with blueberry polyphenol metabolism into hippuric
Miest, Joanna J; Arndt, Carmen; Adamek, Mikolaj; Steinhagen, Dieter; Reusch, Thorsten B H
Reflecting the natural biology of mass spawning fish aquaculture production of fish larvae is often hampered by high and unpredictable mortality rates. The present study aimed to enhance larval performance and immunity via the oral administration of an immunomodulator, β-glucan (MacroGard(®)) in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) were incubated with or without yeast β-1,3/1,6-glucan in form of MacroGard(®) at a concentration of 0.5 g/L. Rotifers were fed to first feeding turbot larvae once a day. From day 13 dph onwards all tanks were additionally fed untreated Artemia sp. nauplii (1 nauplius ml/L). Daily mortality was monitored and larvae were sampled at 11 and 24 dph for expression of 30 genes, microbiota analysis, trypsin activity and size measurements. Along with the feeding of β-glucan daily mortality was significantly reduced by ca. 15% and an alteration of the larval microbiota was observed. At 11 dph gene expression of trypsin and chymotrypsin was elevated in the MacroGard(®) fed fish, which resulted in heightened tryptic enzyme activity. No effect on genes encoding antioxidative proteins was observed, whilst the immune response was clearly modulated by β-glucan. At 11 dph complement component c3 was elevated whilst cytokines, antimicrobial peptides, toll like receptor 3 and heat shock protein 70 were not affected. At the later time point (24 dph) an anti-inflammatory effect in form of a down-regulation of hsp 70, tnf-α and il-1β was observed. We conclude that the administration of MacroGard(®) induced an immunomodulatory response and could be used as an effective measure to increase survival in rearing of turbot. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ong, Z. Y.; Muhlhausler, B. S.
Individuals exposed to high-fat, high-sugar diets before birth have an increased risk of obesity in later life. Recent studies have shown that these offspring exhibit increased preference for fat, leading to suggestions that perinatal exposure to high-fat, high-sugar foods results in permanent changes within the central reward system that increase the subsequent drive to overconsume palatable foods. The present study has determined the effect of a maternal “junk-food” diet on the expression of key components of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring of rat dams at 6 wk and 3 mo of age. We show that offspring of junk-food-fed (JF) dams exhibit higher fat intake from weaning until at least 3 mo of age (males: 16±0.6 vs. 11±0.8 g/kg/d; females: 19±1.3 vs. 13±0.4 g/kg/d; Pjunk-food intake in postnatal life.—Ong, Z. Y., Muhlhausler, B. S. Maternal “junk-food” feeding of rat dams alters food choices and development of the mesolimbic reward pathway in the offspring. PMID:21427213
Persistence of blood changes associated with alteration of the dietary electrolyte balance in commercial pigs after feed withdrawal, transportation, and lairage, and the effects on performance and carcass quality.
Edwards, L N; Engle, T E; Paradis, M A; Correa, J A; Anderson, D B
Increasing dietary electrolyte balance (dEB) has previously been shown to reduce the incidence of nonambulatory and noninjured swine, improve meat quality, and reduce the incidence of gastric ulcers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dEB under commercial conditions. Due to the variability in feed withdrawal, transport, and lairage conditions in the swine industry, it was necessary to determine first the persistence of blood changes during the marketing process after alteration of dEB. Sixteen pens of 8 crossbred barrows were assigned to a low (121 mEq/kg) or high (375 mEq/kg) dEB diet, calculated as Na(+) + K(+) - Cl(-), to determine the persistence of blood changes associated with the alteration of dEB. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed NRC (1998) requirements for energy, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Dietary treatments were provided for ad libitum intake for 3 d before slaughter. Before transport, animals were fasted in the barn for approximately 10 h. After fasting, animals were shipped to the packing plant, rested for 8 h, and subsequently slaughtered. Initial and final BW of the animals were obtained. Blood was sampled at baseline (2 d before administration of diets), before feed withdrawal (0 h), after feed withdrawal (10 h), and at exsanguination (20 h). Consumption of the high dEB diet for 3 d resulted in an increase in blood TCO(2) (P = 0.001), HCO(3)(-) (P = 0.001), and base excess (P = 0.0003) and a decrease in Cl(-) (P = 0.0002) and anion gap (P = 0.01). These differences, however, were not maintained for any of the blood components after the 10-h feed withdrawal (P > 0.22). Increasing dEB had no adverse effects (P > 0.18) on growth performance, meat quality, or carcass yield and did not decrease pars esophageal ulcer scores. This study demonstrated that the effect of dEB on blood components was not maintained after a 10-h feed withdrawal. Therefore, it is likely that the ability of the animal to withstand any increased
Braun, L; Coffey, M J; Puskás, F; Kardon, T; Nagy, G; Conley, A A; Burchell, B; Mandl, J
The co-ordinated induction of several hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes is a common feature in the regulation of drug biotransformation under normal and pathological conditions. In the present study the activity and expression of bilirubin UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT1A1) were investigated in livers of BioBreeding/Worcester diabetic, fasted and acetone-treated rats. Bilirubin glucuronidation was stimulated by all three treatments; this was correlated with an increase in the UGT1A1 protein concentration in hepatic microsomes. Transcriptional induction of UGT1A1 was also observed in diabetes and starvation but not with acetone treatment, which apparently caused translational stabilization of the enzyme protein. The hormonal/metabolic alterations in diabetes and starvation might be a model for postnatal development. The sudden interruption of maternal glucose supply signals the enhanced expression of UGT1A1, giving a novel explanation for the physiological induction of bilirubin glucuronidation in newborn infants. PMID:9841869
Golde, L.M.G. van; Pieterson, W.A.; Deenen, L.L.M. van
The present paper describes, as a function of time, the qualitative and quantitative alterations in the molecular species pattern of rat liver lecithin which are observed when corn oil is fed to essential fatty acid-deficient rats. One of the most important changes observed was a very rapid
Junk-food enhances conditioned food cup approach to a previously established food cue, but does not alter cue potentiated feeding; implications for the effects of palatable diets on incentive motivation.
Derman, Rifka C; Ferrario, Carrie R
Efforts to stem the global rise in obesity have been minimally effective, perhaps in part because our understanding of the psychological and behavioral drivers of obesity is limited. It is well established that stimuli that are paired with palatable foods can powerfully influence food-seeking and feeding behaviors. However, how consumption of sugary, fatty "junk-foods" affects these motivational responses to food cues is poorly understood. Here, we determined the effects of short- and long-term "junk-food" consumption on the expression of cue potentiated feeding and conditioned food cup approach to Pavlovian conditioned stimuli (CS). Further, to determine the degree to which effects of "junk-food" were selective to Pavlovian motivational processes, we varied the predictive validity of the CS by including training groups conditioned with unique CS-US contingencies ranging from -1.0 to +1.0. "Junk-food" did not enhance cue potentiated feeding in any group, but expression of this potentiation effect varied with the CS-US contingency independent of diet. In contrast, "junk-food" consistently enhanced conditioned approach to the food cup; this effect was dependent on the previously established CS-US contingency. That is, consumption of "junk-food" following training enhanced approach to the food cup only in response to CSs with previously positive CS-US contingencies. This was accompanied by reduced motivation for the US itself. Together these data show that "junk-food" consumption selectively enhances incentive motivational responses to previously established food CSs, without altering cue potentiated feeding induced by these same CSs, and in the absence of enhanced motivation for food itself. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Carder, E G; Weiss, W P
The first few weeks after parturition is marked by low, but increasing feed intake and sharply increasing milk production by dairy cows. Because of low intake, the nutrient density of the diet may need to be higher during this period to support increasing milk yields. We hypothesized that feeding higher levels of metabolizable protein (MP) or a protein supplement with rumen-protected lysine and methionine during the immediate postpartum period would increase yields of milk and milk components. Fifty-six Holstein cows (21 primiparous and 35 multiparous) starting at 3 d in milk were used in a randomized block design. In phase 1 (3 through 23 d in milk), cows were fed 1 of 3 diets that differed in supply of MP and AA profile. At 23 d in milk, all cows were moved to a common freestall pen and fed the control diet used in phase 1 for an additional 63 d (phase 2). Diets were formulated using the National Research Council model and were control [16.5% crude protein (CP), 10.9% rumen-degradable protein (RDP), and 5.6% rumen-undegradable protein (RUP)], high MP (HMP; 18.5% CP, 11.6% RDP, 6.9% RUP), and AA (MPAA; 17.5% CP, 10.5% RDP, 7.0% RUP 29.7). The MPAA diet included a proprietary spray-dried blood meal product (Perdue Agribusiness, Salisbury, MD) and contained a model-estimated 7.2 and 2.6% of digestible lysine and methionine (% of MP). The HMP and control diets contained 6.3 and 6.7% digestible lysine and both had 1.8% digestible methionine. In phase 1, diet did not affect milk yield (33.6, 34.7, and 33.2 kg for control, HMP, and MPAA, respectively), dry matter intake (17.8, 18.0, and 18.5 kg/d for control, HMP, and MPAA), or milk protein yield (1.07 kg/d). Feeding additional protein (HMP or MPAA) increased both the concentration and yield of milk fat, and milk protein concentration was greater (3.30 vs. 3.17%) for MPAA compared with the HMP diet. Energy-corrected milk was greater (38.4 and 38.6 vs. 35.3 kg/d, respectively) for MPAA and HP than for the control. Cows
Miyaji, M; Nonaka, K
We evaluated the effects of different methods of conserving the total mixed ration (TMR) and processing hulled rice (Oryza sativa L.) on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, lactation performance, and nitrogen utilization in dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (126 ± 19 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The experimental diets used fresh TMR and ensiled TMR containing either dry-rolled (DR) hulled rice or steam-flaked (SF) hulled rice. The fresh TMR was prepared every morning. The ensiled TMR was prepared by baling fresh TMR and then sealing it with a bale wrapper; this was stored outdoors at 10 to 30°C for >4 mo. The method of grain processing did not affect the dry matter (DM) intake. The DM intake tended to be greater for ensiled TMR than for fresh TMR. Apparent total-tract DM digestibility and milk yield were increased by feeding ensiled TMR instead of fresh TMR and by replacing DR with SF. An interaction effect between the TMR conservation method and the grain processing method was detected for DM digestibility and milk yield; replacing DR with SF increased the DM digestibility and milk yield in cows fed fresh TMR, but this did not affect the cows fed ensiled TMR. The milk fat and lactose contents did not differ among dietary treatments. The milk protein concentration was higher for the cows fed SF processed hulled rice than those fed DR, but it was not influenced by the TMR conservation method. The ruminal total volatile fatty acid concentration was higher for the cows fed ensiled TMR compared with those fed fresh TMR, but it was not affected by the grain processing method. The molar proportion of acetate was decreased and propionate was increased by feeding ensiled TMR instead of fresh TMR and by replacing DR with SF. The concentrations of rumen ammonia N and plasma urea N were higher for the cows fed ensiled TMR than fresh TMR and were lower for SF than DR
Gagné, Jean-François; Montminy, Valerie; Belanger, Patrick; Journault, Kim; Gaucher, Genevieve; Guillemette, Chantal
7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38) is the pharmacologically active metabolite of irinotecan, in addition to being responsible for severe toxicity. Glucuronidation is the main metabolic pathway of SN-38 and has been shown to protect against irinotecan-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether common polymorphic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) affects SN-38 glucuronidation. First, kinetic characterization of SN-38-glucuronide (SN-38-G) formation was assessed for all known human UGT1A and UGT2B overexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. To assess the relative activity of UGT isoenzymes for SN-38, rates of formation of SN-38-G were monitored by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and normalized by level of UGT cellular expression. Determination of intrinsic clearances predicts that hepatic UGT1A1 and UGT1A9 and the extrahepatic UGT1A7 are major components in SN-38-G formation, whereas a minor role is suggested for UGT1A6, UGT1A8, and UGT1A10. In support of the involvement of UGT1A9, a strong coefficient of correlation was observed in the glucuronidation of SN-38 and a substrate, mainly glucuronidate, by UGT1A9 (flavopiridol) by human liver microsomes (coefficient of correlation, 0.905; p = 0.002). In vitro functional experiments revealed a negative impact of the UGT1A1 allelic variants. Residual activities of 49, 7, 8, and 11% were observed for UGT1A1*6 (G(71)R), UGT1A1*27 (P(229)Q), UGT1A1*35 (L(233)R), and UGT1A1*7 (Y(486)D), respectively. Common variants of UGT1A7, UGT1A7*3 (N(129)K;R(131)K;W(208)R), and UGT1A7*4 (W(208)R), displayed residual activities of 41 and 28% compared with the UGT1A7*1 allele. Taken together, these data provide the evidence that molecular determinants of irinotecan response may include the UGT1A polymorphisms studied herein and common genetic variants of the hepatic UGT1A9 isoenzyme yet to be described.
Full Text Available 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, commonly known as statins, are the medical treatment of choice for hypercholesterolemia. In addition to lowering serum-cholesterol levels, statins appear to promote pleiotropic effects that are independent of changes in serum cholesterol. In this study, we investigated the effects of low-dose fluvastatin on antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, total nitrite/nitrate levels, and vascular reactivity in 2% cholesterol-fed rabbits. This diet did not generate any fatty streak lesions on carotid artery wall. However, SOD activity significantly increased with cholesterol feeding whereas the catalase activities decreased. The levels of nitrite/nitrate, stable products of NO degradation, diminished. Moreover, dietary cholesterol reduced vascular responses to acetylcholine, but contractions to serotonin were augmented. Fluvastatin treatment abrogated the cholesterol-induced increase in SOD, increased the levels of nitric oxide metabolites in tissue, and restored both the impaired vascular responses to acetylcholine and the augmented contractile responses to serotonin without affecting plasma-cholesterol levels. Phenylephrine contractions and nitroglycerine vasodilatations did not change in all groups. This study indicated that fluvastatin treatment performed early enough to improve impaired vascular responses may delay cardiovascular complications associated with several cardiovascular diseases.
Sebastián D Calligaris
Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Hypercaloric diet ingestion and sedentary lifestyle result in obesity. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of clinical features secondary to obesity, considered as a pre-diabetic condition and recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. To better understand the relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease as well as for the development of novel therapeutic strategies, animal models that reproduce the etiology, course and outcomes of these pathologies are required. The aim of this work was to characterize the long-term effects of high-fat diet-induced obesity on the mice cardiovascular system, in order to make available a new animal model for diabetic cardiomyopathy. METHODS/RESULTS: Male C57BL/6 mice were fed with a standardized high-fat diet (obese or regular diet (normal for 16 months. Metabolic syndrome was evaluated testing plasma glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, and glucose tolerance. Arterial pressure was measured using a sphygmomanometer (non invasive method and by hemodynamic parameters (invasive method. Cardiac anatomy was described based on echocardiography and histological studies. Cardiac function was assessed by cardiac catheterization under a stress test. Cardiac remodelling and metabolic biomarkers were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblotting. As of month eight, the obese mice were overweight, hyperglycaemic, insulin resistant, hyperinsulinemic and hypercholesterolemic. At month 16, they also presented normal arterial pressure but altered vascular reactivity (vasoconstriction, and cardiac contractility reserve reduction, heart mass increase, cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and heart metabolic compensations. By contrast, the normal mice remained healthy throughout the study. CONCLUSIONS: Mice fed with a high-fat diet for prolonged time recapitulates the etiology, course and outcomes of the early phases of human diabetic cardiomyopathy.
Gómez-Ruiz, Ana; Milagro, Fermín I; Campión, Javier; Martínez, J Alfredo; de Miguel, Carlos
The effect of food intake on caveolin expression in relation to insulin signalling was studied in skeletal muscle and adipocytes from retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose tissue, comparing fasted (F) to not fasted (NF) rats that had been fed a control or high-fat (HF) diet for 72 days. Serum glucose was analysed enzymatically and insulin and leptin by ELISA. Caveolins and insulin signalling intermediaries (IR, IRS-1 and 2 and GLUT4) were determined by RT-PCR and western blotting. Caveolin and IR phosphorylation was measured by immunoprecipitation. Data were analysed with Mann-Whitney U test. High-fat fed animals showed metabolic alterations and developed obesity and insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle, food intake (NF) induced activation of IR and increased expression of IRS-2 in control animals with normal metabolic response. HF animals became overweight, hyperglycaemic, hyperinsulinemic, hyperleptinemic and showed insulin resistance. In skeletal muscle of these animals, food intake (NF) also induced IRS-2 expression together with IR, although this was not active. Caveolin 3 expression in this tissue was increased by food intake (NF) in animals fed either diet. In RP adipocytes of control animals, food intake (NF) decreased IR and IRS-2 expression but increased that of GLUT4. A similar but less intense response was found in SC adipocytes. Food intake (NF) did not change caveolin expression in RP adipocytes with either diet, but in SC adipocytes of HF animals a reduction was observed. Food intake (NF) decreased caveolin-1 phosphorylation in RP but increased it in SC adipocytes of control animals, whereas it increased caveolin-2 phosphorylation in both types of adipocytes independently of the diet. Animals fed a control-diet show a normal response to food intake (NF), with activation of the insulin signalling pathway but without appreciable changes in caveolin expression, except a small increase of caveolin-3 in muscle. Animals fed a high-fat diet
Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H.
Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. - Highlights: • Breast-feeding can be a factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. • UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 is the sole bilirubin-metabolizing enzyme. • Extrahepatic UGT1A1 plays an important role in bilirubin metabolism. • We discuss the potential mechanism of breast milk-induced neonatal jaundice.
Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H
Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic circulation have been associated with breast milk-induced jaundice (BMJ), deficiency in UGT1A1 expression is a known cause of BMJ. It is currently believed that unconjugated bilirubin is metabolized mainly in the liver. However, recent findings support the concept that extrahepatic tissues, such as small intestine and skin, contribute to bilirubin glucuronidation during the neonatal period. We will review the recent advances made towards understanding biological and molecular events impacting BMJ, especially regarding the role of extrahepatic UGT1A1 expression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via the nose, ... portion of the small intestine Naso – nose NG – Nasogastric Tube -ostomy – new opening Percutaneous – through the skin PEJ – ...
Ralston, S L
Problems related to feeding behavior in horses fall into three main categories: underconsumption, overconsumption, and abnormal consumption. Anorexia may be caused by a variety of diseases and overcome by removing the underlying causes (pain, fever), and physical or chemical stimulation of appetite. "Hypophagia" may be caused by poor dentition, disease, or stress. Again, removal of the cause or stimulation by physical or chemical means may improve intakes. Acute and chronic overconsumption of feeds are reflections of the normal controls (or lack thereof) of feeding in the horse. The only reliable prevention is to limit access to feeds. Abnormal eating behaviors such as pica or coprophagy are usually caused by a dietary imbalance or boredom. Coprophagey, however, is a normal behavior in young foals. Drinking disorders are rare, the only common one being the avoidance of "strange" water. Masking water at home with specific flavors such as peppermint or vinegar may encourage the horse to drink water from other sources to which the "home" flavor has been added.
with fishing nets. Fish were identified and authenticated at the Fishery section,. Department of Biological Sciences,. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria ..... salmon.Aquaculture, 89: 301-314. GABRIEL, U. U., AKINROTIMI, O. A.,. BEKIBELE, D. O., ONUNKWO, D. N. and ANYANWU, P. E. (2007). Locally produced fish feed ...
Wang, Lixin; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Yuan, Pu-Qing; Stengel, Andreas; Taché, Yvette
Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals. Under fed conditions, compared to WT, CRF-OE mice have increased adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weight, plasma corticosterone, leptin and insulin, and hypothalamic leptin receptor and decreased plasma acyl ghrelin. Compared to male, female WT mice have lower body and perigonadal fat and plasma leptin but higher adrenal glands weights. CRF-OE mice lost these sex differences except for the adrenals. Male CRF-OE and WT mice did not differ in hypothalamic expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC), while female CRF-OE compared to female WT and male CRF-OE had higher NPY mRNA levels. After fasting, female WT mice lost more body weight and ate more food than male WT, while CRF-OE mice had reduced body weight loss and inhibited food intake without sex difference. In male WT mice, fasting reduced plasma insulin and leptin and increased acyl ghrelin and corticosterone while female WT showed only a rise in corticosterone. In CRF-OE mice, fasting reduced insulin while leptin, acyl ghrelin and corticosterone were unchanged with no sex difference. Fasting blood glucose was higher in CRF-OE with female > male. In WT mice, fasting increased hypothalamic NPY expression in both sexes and decreased POMC only in males, while in CRF-OE mice, NPY did not change, and POMC decreased in males and increased in females. These data indicate that CRF-OE mice have abnormal basal and fasting
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This report contains the proceedings of a second workshop in Washington DC December 8-9, 1983 on the alteration of smectites intended for use as buffer materials in the long-term containment of nuclear wastes. It includes extended summaries of all presentations and a transcript of the detailed scientific discussion. The discussions centered on three main questions: What is the prerequisite for and what is the precise mechanism by which smectite clays may be altered to illite. What are likly sources of potassium with respect to the KBS project. Is it likely that the conversion of smectite to illite will be of importance in the 10 5 to the 10 6 year time frame. The workshop was convened to review considerations and conclusions in connection to these questions and also to broaden the discussion to consider the use of smectite clays as buffer materials for similar applications in different geographical and geological settings. SKBF/KBS technical report 83-03 contains the proceedings from the first workshop on these matters that was held at the State University of New York, Buffalo May 26-27, 1982. (Author)
Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.
... baby separately. Likewise, some babies might show a preference for individual feedings. Try different approaches or a ... Brodsky D, et al. Breastfeeding and the premature infant. In: Primary Care of the Premature Infant. Philadelphia, ...
Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor
Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather
Alterações no padrão alimentar de adolescentes com adequação pôndero-estatural e elevado percentual de gordura corporal Alterations in the feeding patterns of adolescents with weight-height adequacy and high body fat percentage
Valéria Cristina Ribeiro Vieira
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o padrão alimentar de adolescentes com adequação pôndero-estatural e elevado percentual de gordura corporal (%GC. MÉTODOS: realizou-se um estudo transversal com 99 adolescentes, sendo 70% do sexo feminino. Utilizou-se o índice de massa corporal para diagnosticar adequação pôndero-estatural, segundo a World Health Organization. Obteve-se o %GC pelo somatório das pregas cutâneas, conforme Durnin e Rahaman, considerando elevados os valores >25% (sexo feminino e >20% (masculino. Aplicou-se um questionário para investigação do hábito alimentar. RESULTADOS: a mediana de refeições diárias era quatro. O jantar era a refeição mais omitida, entretanto, a maioria o substituía por lanche. Omissão do jantar e realização do lanche da tarde foram mais freqüentes entre as adolescentes (p OBJECTIVES: alterations in the feeding patterns of adolescents as related to weight-height adequacy and high body fat percentage (%BF. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out with 99 adolescents, 70% females. The body mass index was applied to diagnose weight-height adequacy, according to the cut-off point established by the World Health Organization. %BF was obtained by the sum of skinfolds, according to Durnin and Rahaman, considering the values >25% (females and >20% (males high. A questionnaire was applied to investigate the feeding pattern. RESULTS: the median of daily meals was four. Dinner was the most skipped main meal, however, the majority replaced it by a snack. Skipping dinner and having a snack in the afternoon were more common among girls (p <0.01. About 11% skipped breakfast. In the last years, meal frequency and food intake, except for vegetables, were reduced by the majority. On weekends, about 81% and 31% of the adolescents, respectively, modified the fat and sugar class and the vegetable class intake, consuming more sweets, fat foods and less vegetables. The most rejected food class consisted of vegetable
... feed News from the RSNA Annual Meeting Violent Video Games Alter Brain Function in Young Men At A ... functional MRI, researchers have found that playing violent video games for one week causes changes in brain function. ...
Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.
Coulthard, E. James
An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.
Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane
The widespread use of genomic information in dairy cattle breeding programs has opend up the possibility to select for novel traits, especially for traits that are traditionally difficult to record in a progeny testing scheme. Feed intake and efficiency is such a difficult to measure trait...
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Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...
Fujiwara, Ryoichi; Maruo, Yoshihiro; Chen, Shujuan; Tukey, Robert H.
Newborns commonly develop physiological hyperbilirubinemia (also known as jaundice). With increased bilirubin levels being observed in breast-fed infants, breast-feeding has been recognized as a contributing factor for the development of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. Bilirubin undergoes selective metabolism by UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1 and becomes a water soluble glucuronide. Although several factors such as gestational age, dehydration and weight loss, and increased enterohepatic ...
... tube feeding; PEG tube care; Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding ... pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...
Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.
Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions
Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J
Dairy cattle commonly sort total mixed rations, a behavior that influences individual nutrient intake and reduces the nutritive value of the ration left in the bunk across the day. Typical patterns of feed sorting in lactating dairy cows, against longer forage particles, result in greater intake of highly-fermentable carbohydrates and lesser intake of effective fiber than intended, and are associated with reduced rumen pH and altered milk composition. To understand the reason for this behavior and reduce it on-farm, numerous studies have explored the influences of ration characteristics, feeding strategies, and management factors on the expression of feed sorting. In mature cows and young calves, feed sorting is influenced by forage inclusion rate, particle size, and dry matter content. Feeding strategies that increase the time available to manipulate feed-including decreased feeding frequency and increased feeding level-may result in increased feed sorting. The extent of feed sorting is also influenced by a variety of herd-level factors, but variability between individuals in the extent of feed sorting suggests that this behavior may be subject to additional factors, including previous experience and internal state. The development of feed sorting in young calves has been explored in several recent studies, suggesting that early opportunities to sort feed, as provided by access to mixed diets, may encourage the early onset of this behavior and help it persist beyond weaning. Evidence also supports the role of feedback mechanisms that influence this behavior at the individual level. In calves and adult cows, selective consumption of higher-energy ration components may be linked to energy demands, as influenced by the availability of supplemental feed or changing metabolic status. Further, considerable evidence suggests that cattle will adjust patterns of feed sorting in favor of physically effective fiber to attenuate low rumen pH, providing evidence for the role
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Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...
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Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J
bunk in the 2h following feed delivery (40.6 vs. 25.9 min/d). Heifers previously fed the TDR were displaced from the feed bunk more frequently than heifers previously fed the TMR (23.0 vs. 13.1 times/d), particularly during the 2-h period following feed delivery. Fecal scores were lower (more fluid in consistency) for heifers originally fed the TDR (3.2 vs. 3.7). The continued difference in feed bunk competition suggests that heifers previously fed the TDR had learned these patterns in the past, retaining them even when switched to an unfamiliar ration. Furthermore, lower fecal scores for heifers previously fed the TDR suggest altered rumen fermentation, possibly because of altered diurnal consumption patterns. These results show that feeding a TMR to replacement dairy heifers from a young age promotes a more even diurnal feeding pattern, minimizes feed bunk competition, and promotes a more solid fecal consistency. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Feeding requires the integration of homeostatic drives with emotional states relevant to food procurement in potentially hostile environments. The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH regulates feeding and anxiety, but how these are controlled in a concerted manner remains unclear. Using pharmacogenetic, optogenetic, and calcium imaging approaches with a battery of behavioral assays, we demonstrate that VMH steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1 neurons constitute a nutritionally sensitive switch, modulating the competing motivations of feeding and avoidance of potentially dangerous environments. Acute alteration of SF1 neuronal activity alters food intake via changes in appetite and feeding-related behaviors, including locomotion, exploration, anxiety, and valence. In turn, intrinsic SF1 neuron activity is low during feeding and increases with both feeding termination and stress. Our findings identify SF1 neurons as a key part of the neurocircuitry that controls both feeding and related affective states, giving potential insights into the relationship between disordered eating and stress-associated psychological disorders in humans.
Feb 9, 2016 ... During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form .... these trials (Lewis et al., 2007) the researchers monitored the effects of feed allocation and feed form on the time taken to ..... This phenomenon has been reported many ...
Prolactin has a multiplicity of actions, but it is of particular importance in gestating and lactating animals. In sows, it is involved in the control of mammary development and also holds essential roles in the lactogenic and galactopoietic processes. Furthermore, low circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with the agalactia syndrome. The crucial role of prolactin makes it important to understand the various factors that can alter its secretion. Regulation of prolactin secretion is largely under the negative control of dopamine, and dopamine agonists consistently decrease prolactin concentrations in sows. On the other hand, injections of dopamine antagonists can enhance circulating prolactin concentrations. Besides pharmacologic agents, many other factors can also alter prolactin concentrations in sows. The use of Chinese-derived breeds, for instance, leads to increased prolactin concentrations in lactating sows compared with standard European white breeds. Numerous husbandry and feeding practices also have a potential impact on prolactin concentrations in sows. Factors, such as provision of nest-building material prepartum, housing at farrowing, high ambient temperature, stress, transient weaning, exogenous thyrotropin-releasing factor, exogenous growth hormone-releasing factor, nursing frequency, prolonged photoperiod, fasting, increased protein and/or energy intake, altered energy sources, feeding high-fiber diets, sorghum ergot or plant extracts, were all studied with respect to their prolactinemic properties. Although some of these practices do indeed affect circulating prolactin concentrations, none leads to changes as drastic as those brought about by dopamine agonists or antagonists. It appears that the numerous factors regulating prolactin concentrations in sows are still not fully elucidated, and that studies to develop novel applicable ways of increasing prolactin concentrations in sows are warranted. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published
Purpose: To control the dissolved oxygen concentration in water of a condensate feeding system to a desired level. Constitution: Coolant is fed to a nuclear reactor through a route from the steam exit of the reactor and by way of turbine, turbine condensator, condensate pump, condensate desalinator, feedwater heater and feed pump. Steam extraction lines are branched from the turbines, and pipeways are further branched from the steam extraction lines for feeding steam by way of extraction steam injection valves to steam-water mixers disposed on the upstream of the feedwater heater. On the downstream of the feedwater heater, is provided a dissolved oxygen concentration meter, the indication value of which controls the opening degree of the steam injection valves which, in turn, controls the opening degree of the steam feed valves for the feedwater heater to adjust the amount for the injection steams. Accordingly, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water of the condensate feeding system can be controlled by the inclusion of steams with high dissolved oxygen concentration into the feedwater system from the turbine steam extraction lines by way of the mixers. (Furukawa, Y.)
The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...
Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang
originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect......Organic waste from fish production is conventionally measured as BOD5 (biological oxygen demand measured during 5 days) and COD (chemical oxygen demand (includes BOD5)). Organic waste is of particular concern for several reasons. The easily degradable part (BOD5) may have an immediate, negative......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...
Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.
Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.
Breithaupt, Diemar R.
Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).
Evans, Sharon; Daly, Anne; Ashmore, Catherine; Gokmen-Ozel, Hulya; Dileva, Rosemary; Dumbleton, Belinda; Chahal, Satnam; Macdonald, Anita
This prospective, observational study examined the accuracy of modular feed preparation for children with complex medical conditions requiring specialist feeds. Participants who regularly prepare special feeds at home were observed preparing two feeds with equivalent nutrient composition: a 2-ingredient (2-IF) and 6-ingredient feed (6-IF) under research-conditions, and 8 weeks later under home-conditions. The same feeds (2-IF and 6-IF) prepared by a trained feed-maker served as controls. Biochemical analysis of nutrient content was performed as an objective measure of feed preparation accuracy. 52 participants were studied: one patient and 51 caregivers. Biochemical nutrient analysis was inaccurate for both feeds including control-feeds but was better for the 2-IF. Both feeds were lower in fat than the expected calculation but more so in the 6-IF than the 2-IF (median: 34% vs 84% of calculated research-condition values and 66% vs 90% home-conditions; pfeeds there was equipment inaccuracy, poor ingredient emulsification and ingredient residue left in mixing/measuring containers. Fewer errors occurred with powdered than liquid ingredients. Many errors associated with special feed production are difficult to control. Carers of children with complex medical conditions require improved preparation equipment and techniques and the development of premeasured or combined ingredient preparations to maximise feed accuracy and minimise clinical risk.
Gharib, Ahmed M; Stern, Eric J; Sherbin, Vandy L; Rohrmann, Charles A
Preview The authors' experience in a radiology department suggested to them that there is a wide range of beliefs among practitioners regarding proper placement of nasogastric and feeding tubes. Improper positioning can cause serious problems, as they explain. Indications for different tube positions, complications of incorrect tube placement, and directions for proper positioning are discussed and illustrated.
Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.
Zanten, van H.H.E.
Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.
Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely
Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...
The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…
Zanten, van H.H.E.
Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.
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Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.
In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the
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Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J
The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly
Boekhoudt, L.; Roelofs, T. J.M.; de Jong, J. W.; de Leeuw, A. E.; Luijendijk, M. C.M.; Wolterink-Donselaar, I. G.; van der Plasse, G.; Adan, R. A.H.
Background:Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced
Boekhoudt, L.; Roelofs, T. J. M.; de Jong, J. W.; de Leeuw, A. E.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; Wolterink-Donselaar, I. G.; van der Plasse, G.; Adan, R. A. H.
BACKGROUND: Dopamine (DA) signalling in the brain is necessary for feeding behaviour, and alterations in the DA system have been linked to obesity. However, the precise role of DA in the control of food intake remains debated. On the one hand, food reward and motivation are associated with enhanced
Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...
During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...
A group of slow-growingLandrace and a group of fast-growingLarge White boars were used to study their patterns of feed intake, growth rate and feed utilization. The pigswere fed ad libitum on a high-energydiet of a high protein content and quality. The data show no difference in mean daily feed intakes between the two.
Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali
Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by-products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.
Acheampong, Ama; Kelly, Kathleen; Shields-Johnson, Maria; Hajovsky, Julie; Wainwright, Marcy; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo
In "Aplysia," noxious stimuli induce sensitization of defensive responses. However, it remains largely unknown whether such stimuli also alter nondefensive behaviors. In this study, we examined the effects of noxious stimuli on feeding. Strong electric shocks, capable of inducing sensitization, also led to the suppression of feeding. The use of…
Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita
The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the adverti...
Ozuna, J; Friel, P
The primary purpose of the present study was to determine if altering the timing of phenytoin administration in relation to delivery of tube feedings increased serum phenytoin levels. Stopping tube feedings for two hours before and two hours after administration is a procedure that nurses could employ independently for better patient care. However, this adds an extra procedure to the nurse's already busy routine. It also requires the nurse to adjust either the tube feeding flow rate or bolus amount in order to deliver the same amount of calories per day. Based on this study, it appears that this intervention procedure is not effective for the patient and is time-consuming for the nurse. Instead, the focus for increasing phenytoin serum levels in patients receiving tube feedings should probably be on increasing the dosage.
effic1encv 111 quail clucks fed experimental diet when compared 10 those fed with commercial chick mash It may be pos,1bk 10 use ten111te Js pms1ble replacemem lor fo,h111cal 111 quail chicks· diet. Further studies "111 ... 1982). Many migratory insectivorous birds as well as anteaters, Pangolins and ant Bears feed ...
Zanten, van, H.H.E.
Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is an RSS Feed of Food Safety information that’s produced in real-time by the CDC. This RSS feed is the integration of two other XML feeds, one from the USDA's...
Slocum, C; Arko, M; Di Fiore, J; Martin, R J; Hibbs, A M
A common clinical impression is that both gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and cardiorespiratory events increase after feeding in preterm infants. We aimed to measure objectively the effects of feeding on GER, apnea, bradycardia and desaturations. We conducted a retrospective review of premature infants with a gestational age of 23 to 37 weeks at birth and a post-conceptional age of 34 to 48 weeks, who were referred for multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII), pH probe and 12-h apnea evaluation. Cardiorespiratory and GER event rates during pre- and post-feeding intervals were compared. Thirty-six infants met the inclusion criteria. More GER events occurred after a feed than before (P=0.012). After feeds, reflux was less acidic and higher in the esophagus (Papnea, bradycardia and desaturations were not altered by infant feeding. Apnea of >5 s occurred at a median frequency of 0 (range 0 to 3) events per hour before a feed and 0 (0 to 2) events per hour after a feed (P=0.61). The frequency, height and pH of GER are significantly altered by feedings in preterm infants. However, the common clinical impression that apnea, bradycardia and desaturations are more prevalent after feeding is not supported.
The development of new/different management and feeding strategies to stimulate gut development and health in newly-weaned pigs, in order to improve growth performance while minimizing the use of antimicrobial compounds such as antibiotic growth promotants (AGP) and heavy mineral compounds, is essential for the long-term sustainability of the pig industry. Factors including the sub-optimal intake of nutrients and energy, inappropriate microbiota biomass and (or) balance, immature and compromised immune function, and psychosomatic factors caused by weaning can compromise both the efficiency of digestion and absorption and intestinal barrier function through mucosal damage and alteration of tight junction integrity. As a consequence, pigs at weaning are highly susceptible to pathogenic enteric conditions such as post-weaning diarrhea that may be caused by serotypes of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Many dietary components, e.g., protein, fiber, feed additives and minerals, are known to influence microbial growth in the gastrointestinal tract that in turn can impact upon pig growth and health, although the relationships between these are sometimes not necessarily apparent or obvious. In a world climate of increased scrutiny over the use of antibiotics per se in pig production, certain feed additives are seen as alternatives/replacements to antibiotics, and have evolved in some cases to have important roles in everyday commercial pig nutrition. Nevertheless and in general, there remains inconsistency and variability in the efficacy of some feed additives and in cases of severe disease outbreaks, for example, therapeutic antibiotics and/or heavy minerals such as zinc oxide (ZnO) are generally relied upon. If feed ingredients and (or) feed additives are to be used with greater regularity and reliability, then it is necessary to better understand the mechanisms whereby antibiotics and minerals such as ZnO influence animal physiology, in conjunction with the use of
Borsa, J.; Guenter, B.
Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as a vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it would directly offset the cost of treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. The results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed. 10 refs, 8 tabs
... not: (1) Use animal drugs, including hormones, to promote growth; (2) Provide feed supplements or...; (5) Feed mammalian or poultry slaughter by-products to mammals or poultry; or (6) Use feed, feed...
Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.
a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... parents may perceive the animality of bovine colostrum, and the background information obtained in piglets, as a threat to the infants' connection to their biological parents as well as the larger human collective. Our study argues that the ‘species flexibility’ of premature beings profoundly shapes...
Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.
Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B
In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.
Coulaud, Romain; Geffard, Olivier; Vigneron, Amandine; Quéau, Hervé; François, Adeline; Chaumot, Arnaud
The in situ feeding bioassay in Gammarus fossarum is recognized as a reliable tool for monitoring the toxicity of freshwater contamination. However, whether recorded feeding inhibitions can potentially provoke population-level adverse outcomes remains an open question. In the present study, the authors present an experimental study in G. fossarum, which contributes to the quantitative description of the links between feeding inhibitions and impacts on female reproductive performance. The authors studied the impacts of food deprivation on reproductive endpoints (i.e., fecundity, fertility, molt cycle) during 2 successive molting cycles. Among the main results, the authors found that food deprivation triggered a slowdown of the molting process and a reduction in fertility but no alteration to embryonic development. These reproductive impairments appeared for feeding inhibition values usually recorded in monitoring programs of environmental pollution. Using a population model translating Gammarus life-history, the authors predicted that the observed reproductive alterations predict a strong degradation of population dynamics. The present study underlines the importance of feeding inhibition in population-level risk assessment and discusses how establishing upscaling schemes based on quantitative mechanistic links between impacts at different levels of biological organization can be applied in environmental monitoring to propose an ecotoxicological assessment of water quality, which would be sensitive, specific, and ecologically relevant. © 2015 SETAC.
Halbach, Nicky S J; Smeets, Eric E J; Bierau, Jörgen; Keularts, Irene M L W; Plasqui, Guy; Julu, Peter O O; Engerström, Ingegerd Witt; Bakker, Jaap A.; Curfs, Leopold M G
Despite their good appetite, many females with Rett syndrome (RTT) meet the criteria for moderate to severe malnutrition. Although feeding difficulties may play a part in this, other constitutional factors such as altered metabolic processes are suspected. Irregular breathing is a common clinical
Sørensen, Mette; Gong, Yangyang; Bjarnason, Fridrik; Vasanth, Ghana K; Dahle, Dalia; Huntley, Mark; Kiron, Viswanath
Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups) were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group). The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the control group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon.
Full Text Available Defatted microalgal biomass derived from biorefinery can be potential feed ingredients for carnivorous fish. The present study investigated the growth, feed intake:gain and health parameters in Atlantic salmon fed for 84 days with defatted Nannochloropsis oceania as a fishmeal replacer. Fish fed feeds containing the algal biomass (at 10 and 20% inclusion, alga groups were compared with groups that consumed alga-devoid feeds (control group. The fish that received 20% alga tended to have reduced weight gain and specific growth rate. Condition factor, feed conversion ratio and feed intake of this fish group were significantly different when compared with the control group. Hepatosomatic and viscerosomatic indices, whole body and fillet proximate composition were not affected by the dietary treatments. Digestibility of dry matter, protein, lipid, ash and energy, as well as retention of lipid and energy of the fish that received feed with 20% alga meal were also significantly different from those of the control group. Serum superoxide dismutase activity of the 10% alga-fed fish was significantly higher compared with the control fish. Although alga feeding did not cause any distal intestinal inflammation, the intestinal proteins that were altered upon feeding 20% algal meal might be pointing to systemic physiological disturbances. In conclusion, feeds with 20% alga had a negative effect on feed intake, FCR, lipid and energy retention and health of the fish. The defatted Nannochloropsis oceania can be used at modest inclusion levels, around 10%, without negative effects on the performance of Atlantic salmon.
Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul
OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that enteral feeding can be given without stimulating pancreatic trypsin secretion provided it is delivered into the mid-distal jejunum. The mechanism may involve activation of the ileal brake mechanism....
Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.
as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network.......Various effects of coupling between crossed-dipole antennas are analyzed and by using an arbitrary feeding network some generality is preserved. With one cross excited and another cross acting as a parasitic loaded antenna, coupling losses and gain and polarization losses are presented...
Titelman, J.; Hansson, L.J.
We quantified feeding rates of field caught Aurelia aurita feeding on yolk sac cod (Gadus morhua) larvae in a series of incubation experiments. A short-time (similar to 1 h) functional response experiment with a wide range of prey concentrations (0.5-16 prey l(-1)supercript stop, initial concentr......We quantified feeding rates of field caught Aurelia aurita feeding on yolk sac cod (Gadus morhua) larvae in a series of incubation experiments. A short-time (similar to 1 h) functional response experiment with a wide range of prey concentrations (0.5-16 prey l(-1)supercript stop, initial...... of prey captured by A. aurita during 2.5 h of feeding at extremely high prey concentration (> 200 prey l(-1)). Clearance rate in darkness scaled with jellyfish diameter to a power of similar to 1.7 for jellyfish 3.9-9.5 cm in diameter. The jellyfish did not alter their umbrella pulse frequency in response...... to presence of fish larvae. There were no significant differences between A. aurita feeding rates in light and darkness for yolk sac prey ages 0-7 days (at 7.5 degrees C). Although prey vision and escape abilities of fish may develop rapidly during early larval ontogeny, these factors apparently have little...
Balakrishnan, S; Hussein, H B
The incidence of breastfeeding is investigated in relation to duration of breastfeeding without supplementation and the age when solids were first introduced in the infant's diet. The study also evaluates the awareness of the mothers of the benefits of breast milk. 461 mothers were interviewed in May 1976 by 3 doctors including the author. 95% (438) were found to breastfeed their babies at least once or twice a day. However, only 18% (86) of the mothers were fully breastfeeding up to 3 months and 9% (45) were breastfeeding without added solids up to 6 months. A disappointing finding was the introduction of solid foods by 78% (351) of the mothers before the end of the 3rd month; of these, 117 or 25% have introduced the solids as early as the 1st 6 months. Only 5% (23) were artificially feeding their infants. 86% (399) agreed that breast milk was the best milk for their children but only 277 (59%) agreed that infection occurs less frequently in breastfed than bottlefed children. 65% (302) were aware that solids should be introduced after 6 months to the infant's diet. Only 48% (222) were aware that a well-balanced diet is essential for an adequate supply of breast milk. Although 50% (232) reported that they were advised by nurses or bidans to breastfeed their children, only 37% (172) were given instructions on the technique of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding programs launched by the Ministry of Health should promote breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months duration and discourage early complement feeding and introduction of solids to infants less than 6 months of age.
Review of dry season feeds and feeding as a threat to sustainable production of ruminant animal production in Nigeria. The concept of dry season nutrition and challenges posed on ruminant production such as reduction in general performance of animal, increased susceptibility to diseases, reduction in palatability and ...
Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.
Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed .... Bank interest rate. TL. = Test length. VC. = Veterinary costs. The following assumptions were made to simulate the profit value and to create a comparable basis for statistical analyses:.
Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien
We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati...
Aug 3, 2004 ... unfit bottle feeds with direct access to electricity was significantly higher than that for the group that prepared fit bottle feeds (41% v. 23%; p = 0.040, χ2. = 3.702). Furthermore, a significantly higher proportion of households in the unfit group had access to an electric stove for cooking purposes (32% v.
Objective: To determine the relationship between breast feeding, bottle feeding pattern and caries experience in young children. Methods: Children aged 6 months – 5 years from 3 randomly selected local governments in Lagos State were examined intraorally. Structured questionnaire were administered to the mothers to ...
Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...
Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of peripheral insulin treatment on appetite in chicks. Six-d-age chicks with ad libitum feeding or fasting for 3 h before injection received a subcutaneous injection of 0, 1, 3, 5, 10, or 20 IU of insulin or vehicle (saline. The results showed peripheral insulin treatment (1 to 20 IU did not alter significantly the feed intake in chicks under either ad libitum feeding or fasting conditions within 4 h (p>0.05. Compared with the control, plasma glucose concentration was significantly decreased after insulin treatment of 3, 5, 10, and 20 IU for 4 h in chicks with ad libitum feeding (p0.05. All results suggest peripheral administration of insulin has no effect on appetite in chicks.
Jeong Am Ryu
Full Text Available Small-bore flexible feeding tubes decrease the risk of ulceration of the nose, pharynx, and stomach compared with large-bore and more rigid tubes. However, small-bore feeding tubes have more respiratory system complications, such as pneumothorax, hydropneumothorax, bronchopleural fistula, and pneumonia, which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is important to confirm the correct position of feeding tubes. Chest X-ray is the gold standard to detect tracheal malpositioning of the feeding tube. We present three cases in which intubated patients exhibited an altered mental state. An assistant guide wire was used at the insertion of small-bore feeding tubes. These conditions are thought to be potential risk factors for tracheobronchial malpositioning of feeding tubes.
Manoogian, Emily N C; Panda, Satchidananda
Circadian rhythms optimize physiology and health by temporally coordinating cellular function, tissue function, and behavior. These endogenous rhythms dampen with age and thus compromise temporal coordination. Feeding-fasting patterns are an external cue that profoundly influence the robustness of daily biological rhythms. Erratic eating patterns can disrupt the temporal coordination of metabolism and physiology leading to chronic diseases that are also characteristic of aging. However, sustaining a robust feeding-fasting cycle, even without altering nutrition quality or quantity, can prevent or reverse these chronic diseases in experimental models. In humans, epidemiological studies have shown erratic eating patterns increase the risk of disease, whereas sustained feeding-fasting cycles, or prolonged overnight fasting, is correlated with protection from breast cancer. Therefore, optimizing the timing of external cues with defined eating patterns can sustain a robust circadian clock, which may prevent disease and improve prognosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Food intake is necessary for survival, and natural reward circuitry has evolved to help ensure that animals ingest sufficient food to maintain development, growth, and survival. Drugs of abuse, including alcohol, co-opt the natural reward circuitry in the brain, and this is a major factor in the reinforcement of drug behaviors leading to addiction. At the junction of these two aspects of reward are alterations in feeding behavior due to alcohol consumption. In particular, developmental alcohol exposure (DAE results in a collection of physical and neurobehavioral disorders collectively referred to as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD. The deleterious effects of DAE include intellectual disabilities and other neurobehavioral changes, including altered feeding behaviors. Here we use Drosophila melanogaster as a genetic model organism to study the effects of DAE on feeding behavior and the expression and function of Neuropeptide F. We show that addition of a defined concentration of ethanol to food leads to reduced feeding at all stages of development. Further, genetic conditions that reduce or eliminate NPF signaling combine with ethanol exposure to further reduce feeding, and the distribution of NPF is altered in the brains of ethanol-supplemented larvae. Most strikingly, we find that the vast majority of flies with a null mutation in the NPF receptor die early in larval development when reared in ethanol, and provide evidence that this lethality is due to voluntary starvation. Collectively, we find a critical role for NPF signaling in protecting against altered feeding behavior induced by developmental ethanol exposure.
Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul
.5 g protein/kg ideal body weight/d. Plasma gut peptide responses were monitored in 15 subjects. RESULTS: In comparison with basal fasting trypsin secretion rates (mean = 134 [standard error = 22] U/h), duodenal feeding with the polymeric and elemental formulae stimulated trypsin secretion (mean = 408...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double...... [standard error = 51] U/h; P standard error = 34] U/h) and mid-distal jejunal (mean = 119 [standard error = 16] U/h) did not. Stimulation was associated with an increase in plasma cholecystokinin, whereas distal jejunal feeding resulted in an increase...
Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita
The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854
Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte
Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were...... applied in the analysis.Results:There were marked differences in mothers' health concerns in early and in later phases of complementary feeding. In the early phase, feeding a child healthy food was an unquestioned and self-evident practice. The child's food was a specific category, separated from the rest....... Contested and partly contradictory practices resulted, including conscious acceptance of some intake of sugar and unhealthy fats. Perceived relevance of nutritional guidelines on complementary feeding was high in the early phase but declined later.Conclusion:Mothers' concerns and practices in the feeding...
Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France
addressed these issues. There are several emerging research areas that are likely to provide a better understanding of how complementary feeding influences growth, development, and health. These include the effect of the young child's diet on body composition, gastrointestinal microbiota, and environmental......The complementary feeding period (6-24 months) is a window of opportunity for preventing stunting, wasting, overweight, and obesity and for improving long-term development and health. Because WHO published its guiding principles for complementary feeding in 2003, new knowledge and evidence have...... been generated in the area of child feeding. The aim of this paper is to highlight some of the emerging issues in complementary feeding and potential implications on the guidelines revision. Evidence on the effect of the quality and quantity of protein and fat intake on child growth during...
Full Text Available Although the domestication process has altered the feeding behavior of dogs, some breeds still demonstrate a remarkable ability to gorge, and will eat exceptionally large quantities of food whenever it is available. Lesions in the ventromedial hypothalamus increase appetite and lead to obesity, suggesting that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in feeding. Focusing on the autonomic activities closely involved in food intake, we investigated sympathetic activities before and after feeding in dogs. The subjects were 56 healthy dogs of 21 different breeds (29 males and 27 females. Based on feeding habits, the 56 dogs were divided into three groups: Fast (n = 19, Slow (n = 24 and Leftover (n = 13. The feeding speed and the amount of food per mouthful of the Fast dogs were significantly greater than those of the Slow and the Leftover dogs. The plasma norepinephrine level in dogs of the Fast group was significantly increased after feeding, while those in the Slow and Leftover groups were significantly decreased after feeding, compared with the pre-feeding concentrations. The low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability is a good indicator of sympathetic activity and was also significantly higher in the Fast group than in the other groups. Delayed feeding using automatic feeding equipment decreased the plasma norepinephrine concentration and low frequency/high frequency ratio observed after feeding in dogs of the Fast group. In conclusion, dogs eating rapidly with less chewing, which indicates increased sympathetic activity during feeding, may benefit from delayed feeding. The slow eating may activate the parasympathetic nervous system after feeding, which could enhance the activity of the digestive system.
Ohtani, Nobuyo; Okamoto, Yuta; Tateishi, Kanako; Uchiyama, Hidehiko; Ohta, Mitsuaki
Although the domestication process has altered the feeding behavior of dogs, some breeds still demonstrate a remarkable ability to gorge, and will eat exceptionally large quantities of food whenever it is available. Lesions in the ventromedial hypothalamus increase appetite and lead to obesity, suggesting that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in feeding. Focusing on the autonomic activities closely involved in food intake, we investigated sympathetic activities before and after feeding in dogs. The subjects were 56 healthy dogs of 21 different breeds (29 males and 27 females). Based on feeding habits, the 56 dogs were divided into three groups: Fast (n = 19), Slow (n = 24) and Leftover (n = 13). The feeding speed and the amount of food per mouthful of the Fast dogs were significantly greater than those of the Slow and the Leftover dogs. The plasma norepinephrine level in dogs of the Fast group was significantly increased after feeding, while those in the Slow and Leftover groups were significantly decreased after feeding, compared with the pre-feeding concentrations. The low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability is a good indicator of sympathetic activity and was also significantly higher in the Fast group than in the other groups. Delayed feeding using automatic feeding equipment decreased the plasma norepinephrine concentration and low frequency/high frequency ratio observed after feeding in dogs of the Fast group. In conclusion, dogs eating rapidly with less chewing, which indicates increased sympathetic activity during feeding, may benefit from delayed feeding. The slow eating may activate the parasympathetic nervous system after feeding, which could enhance the activity of the digestive system.
Ohtani, Nobuyo; Okamoto, Yuta; Tateishi, Kanako; Uchiyama, Hidehiko; Ohta, Mitsuaki
Although the domestication process has altered the feeding behavior of dogs, some breeds still demonstrate a remarkable ability to gorge, and will eat exceptionally large quantities of food whenever it is available. Lesions in the ventromedial hypothalamus increase appetite and lead to obesity, suggesting that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in feeding. Focusing on the autonomic activities closely involved in food intake, we investigated sympathetic activities before and after feeding in dogs. The subjects were 56 healthy dogs of 21 different breeds (29 males and 27 females). Based on feeding habits, the 56 dogs were divided into three groups: Fast (n = 19), Slow (n = 24) and Leftover (n = 13). The feeding speed and the amount of food per mouthful of the Fast dogs were significantly greater than those of the Slow and the Leftover dogs. The plasma norepinephrine level in dogs of the Fast group was significantly increased after feeding, while those in the Slow and Leftover groups were significantly decreased after feeding, compared with the pre-feeding concentrations. The low frequency/high frequency ratio of heart rate variability is a good indicator of sympathetic activity and was also significantly higher in the Fast group than in the other groups. Delayed feeding using automatic feeding equipment decreased the plasma norepinephrine concentration and low frequency/high frequency ratio observed after feeding in dogs of the Fast group. In conclusion, dogs eating rapidly with less chewing, which indicates increased sympathetic activity during feeding, may benefit from delayed feeding. The slow eating may activate the parasympathetic nervous system after feeding, which could enhance the activity of the digestive system. PMID:26569112
Two significant events that have taken place this year in the field of radiation protection are reported. New SI units have been proposed (and effectively adopted), and the ICRP has revised its recommendations. Changes of emphasis in the latest recommendations (ICRP Publication 26) imply an altered radiation protection philosophy, in particular the relation of dose limits to estimates of average risk, an altered view of the critical organ approach and a new attitude to genetic dose to the population. (author)
Herman, Eliot M; Schmidt, Monica A
Aquaculture is the most rapidly growing segment of global animal production that now surpasses wild-capture fisheries production and is continuing to grow 10% annually. Sustainable aquaculture needs to diminish, and progressively eliminate, its dependence on fishmeal-sourced feed from over-harvested fisheries. Sustainable aquafeed sources will need to be primarily of plant-origin. Soybean is currently the primary global vegetable-origin protein source for aquaculture. Direct exchange of soybean meal for fishmeal in aquafeed has resulted in reduced growth rates due in part to soybean's anti-nutritional proteins. To produce soybeans for use in aquaculture feeds a new conventional line has been bred termed Triple Null by stacking null alleles for the feed-relevant proteins Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, lectin, and P34 allergen. Triple Null is now being further enhanced as a platform to build additional transgene traits for vaccines, altered protein composition, and to produce high levels of β-carotene an intrinsic orange-colored aquafeed marker to distinguish the seeds from commodity beans and as the metabolic feedstock precursor of highly valued astaxanthin.
Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.
No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)
Full Text Available The article deals with the concept of food programming according to which the type of nourishment of an infant programs peculiarities of his metabolism all along his entire future life, and as a consequence, predisposition to certain diseases and characteristics of their run. The work gives an estimate of the hazards and consequences of improper infant feeding and explains the advantages of the breast feeding. The authors present modern information on preparation of baby milk formulas.Key words: infants, health, feeding, adapted milk formulas, nucleotides, long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, oligosaccharides.
Bender, W; Smith, M
This article discusses the unequal distribution of food within and among countries of the world, poverty as the main cause of hunger, the patterns of population growth, and future prospects. The evidence reveals the potential for reaching limits of agricultural expansion. Widespread environmental destruction suggests that agricultural lands are declining. Current production patterns may not be sustainable. "Population growth is the single largest determinant of future needs." Farmers of the world's poorest regions must produce food to meet the needs of a doubled population by 2050. The 1996 World Food Summit urged that agricultural policies emphasize environmentally sustainable production methods and a wider variety of crops that would include sorghum and millet. In the early 1990s, 40% of Africa's population was food-energy deficient. Africa has some of the highest population growth rates. Fertility stands at about 6 children/woman. Even with reduced fertility, the African population is expected to double to 22% of world population by 2050. The East Asian population, which is dominated by China, is expected to reach 2.2 billion by 2050. South Asia includes some of the poorest and most densely populated countries; its population is expected to reach 2.2-3.3 billion by 2050. 43% of the malnourished population during 1990-92 lived in sub-Saharan Africa, 22% lived in South Asia, 16% lived in East and Southeast Asia, 15% lived in Latin America and the Caribbean, and 12% lived in the Near East and North Africa. The proportions of underweight children included 58% in South Asia, 30% in sub-Saharan Africa, 25% in the Near East and North Africa, 24% in East and Southeast Asia, and 12% in Latin America and the Caribbean. If everyone adopted a vegetarian diet and no food were wasted, there would be enough food to feed 10 billion people. Malnourishment has the harshest effects on children, rural populations, the growing urban poor, and victims of natural disasters.
In this report the various elements of the safety and nutritional assessment procedure for genetically modified (GM) plant derived food and feed are discussed, in particular the potential and limitations of animal feeding trials for the safety and nutritional testing of whole GM food and feed. The general principles for the risk assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed are followed, as described in the EFSA guidance document of the EFSA Scientific Panel on Genetically Modified Organisms. In Section 1 the mandate, scope and general principles for risk assessment of GM plant derived food and feed are discussed. Products under consideration are food and feed derived from GM plants, such as maize, soybeans, oilseed rape and cotton, modified through the introduction of one or more genes coding for agronomic input traits like herbicide tolerance and/or insect resistance. Furthermore GM plant derived food and feed, which have been obtained through extensive genetic modifications targeted at specific alterations of metabolic pathways leading to improved nutritional and/or health characteristics, such as rice containing beta-carotene, soybeans with enhanced oleic acid content, or tomato with increased concentration of flavonoids, are considered. The safety assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed follows a comparative approach, i.e. the food and feed are compared with their non-GM counterparts in order to identify intended and unintended (unexpected) differences which subsequently are assessed with respect to their potential impact on the environment, safety for humans and animals, and nutritional quality. Key elements of the assessment procedure are the molecular, compositional, phenotypic and agronomic analysis in order to identify similarities and differences between the GM plant and its near isogenic counterpart. The safety assessment is focussed on (i) the presence and characteristics of newly expressed proteins and other new constituents and possible
Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia
Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate...... amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude...
This task examines the potential of the treated waste feed blends to form sodium-aluminum silicate precipitates when evaporated using the zeolite database. To investigate the behavior of the blended pretreated waste feed, an OLI Environmental Simulation Package Software (OLI ESP) model of the treated low activity waste (LAW) evaporator was built. A range of waste feed compositions representative of Envelope A, B, and C were then fed into the OLI model to predict various physical and chemical properties of the evaporator concentrates. Additional runs with treated LAW evaporator were performed to compare chemical and physical property model predictions and experimental results for small-scale radioactive tests of the treated feed evaporation process
Lewis, Gary K.; Less, Richard M.
A device for increasing the uniformity of solids within a solids fabrication system, such as a direct light fabrication (DLF) system in which gas entrained powders are passed through the focal point of a moving high-power light which fuses the particles in the powder to a surface being built up in layers. The invention provides a feed through interface wherein gas entrained powders input from stationary input lines are coupled to a rotating head of the fabrication system. The invention eliminates the need to provide additional slack in the feed lines to accommodate head rotation, and therefore reduces feed line bending movements which induce non-uniform feeding of gas entrained powder to a rotating head.
Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.
Sánchez Zaplana, Isabel; Maestre González, Elena
Aging is characterized by an increase in relative population of 65 years and older, and can say that, in our country, it is a phenomenon demographic, political, social and health. Several studies have shown that the nutritional status of the general population and the elderly, in particular, is a valid indicator to predict longevity and quality of life of this group of people. The World Health Organization (who) pointed out that the elderly population is a group nutritionally very vulnerable as a result of anatomical and physiological changes associated with aging. Between 35-40 of the elderly has some kind of altered nutrition or malnutrition: protein or protein-energy malnutrition, selective deficiency of vitamins and minerals, inadequate water intake, obesity, etc. The best way to promote the quality of life and prevent disease is a proper diet, also called healthy eating, adapted to the special circumstances which older persons may present without forgetting gastronomy is not incompatible with health. In this article, some tips are also available for preparing and cooking food, as well as culinary strategies to introduce them in the daily menu.
Chen, S T
Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.
Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218
Ohtani, Nobuyo; Okamoto, Yuta; Tateishi, Kanako; Uchiyama, Hidehiko; Ohta, Mitsuaki
Although the domestication process has altered the feeding behavior of dogs, some breeds still demonstrate a remarkable ability to gorge, and will eat exceptionally large quantities of food whenever it is available. Lesions in the ventromedial hypothalamus increase appetite and lead to obesity, suggesting that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in feeding. Focusing on the autonomic activities closely involved in food intake, we investigated sympathetic activities before and ...
Grote, Veit; Theurich, Melissa
This article will summarize recent progress in research in the area of complementary feeding as it relates to childhood obesity. Newly emerged findings demonstrate how research on contributing factors has shifted. Examining nutrient and caloric intakes alone has failed to answer the critical question, 'Why are some children obese, whereas others are not?' Recent research explores parental attitudes, beliefs and parental feeding styles as contributing factors. Studies examining the impact of specific macronutrients on obesity risk may have partially uncovered a link between consistently high protein intakes during infancy and an elevated obesity risk, at least until the second year of life. However, this relationship was not evident in all studies evaluated in a systematic review this year. Childhood obesity is not linked to any specific types of foods or food groups during the complementary feeding period. Adherence to dietary guidelines is associated with increased lean body mass, but not BMI or fat mass. Complementary feeding practices, socioeconomic and other family dynamics at least partially explain obesity risk. As young infants are dependent on adults for nourishment, parental attitudes and beliefs about infant nutrition and actual feeding practices directly influence infant nutritional status. Early nutrition interventions to prevent obesity should take nutrition belief systems, parental feeding styles, socioeconomic and educational status, among other characteristics into consideration.
Full Text Available The concept of alterity constitutes an important issue in anthropological research and, therefore, in the study of musical practices, as well. Without it, we could hardly understand other kinds of music situated in different spaces and time from the observer. In order to effectively approach these musical practices, we have to develop strategies to help us reduce as much as possible that which distorts the vision of the other. However, beyond the strictly epistemological and methodological issues, the study of music cannot ignore the ethical question related to the manner in which Western thought has understood and treated the other: through a hierarchical and stereotypical type of thinking based on the condition of otherness. Throughout the article, different alterity procedures are presented and discussed, such as synecdochization, exoticization, undervaluation, overvaluation, misunderstanding and exclusion. Taking these different alterity strategies into account may help us to better understand how the musical other is constructed, used and ultimately instrumentalized.
Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.
Milićević Dragan R.; Sinovec Zlatan J.; Saičić Snežana S.; Vuković Dubravka Ž.
The effect of ochratoxin A in feed for pigs, and the incidence of its residue in liver and kidney were investigated. The samples were taken from farms and corresponding slaughterhouse in different areas of Serbia. The criteria for OTA residue examination in the mentioned tissues were macroscopic alterations in kidneys, that is a marked kidney ischemia. 14 feed samples, 12 kidney samples and 12 liver samples in total were examined. The average OTA concentration in feed was 25,24 g/kg (0,0-85 g...
Laurberg, P.; Andersen, S.; Knudsen, N.
of their breastfed children. Second, iodine in dairy products provides a considerable part of iodine intake in many populations. Thiocyanate from rapeseed feeding of cows decreases milk iodine content, probably by competitive inhibition of NIS in the mammary gland. Alterations in feeding of dairy cows may alter...... the iodine content of consumer milk, and this may influence the risk of thyroid diseases in the population. Thiocyanate inhibition of iodine transport into milk may also be operative in humans with a high thiocyanate intake. This could further impair iodine status in breastfed children in low-iodine intake...
Soucek, David John
Sodium sulfate is a ubiquitous salt that reaches toxic concentrations due to mining and other industrial activities, yet is currently unregulated at the Federal level in the United States. Previous studies have documented reduced growth of clams downstream of sulfate-dominated effluents, altered bioenergetics in filter-feeding invertebrates, and interactions between sulfate and other toxicants. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if sodium sulfate affects the bioenergetics of the filter-feeding, freshwater bivalve, Corbicula fluminea, and the mechanism by which the effects are elicited. In addition to measuring effects on feeding, respiration and growth rates, I evaluated the relative sensitivity of a green algae consumed by clams to determine if top-down or bottom-up effects might be exhibited under field conditions. This study demonstrated that sodium sulfate had no effect on basal metabolic rates, but significantly reduced the feeding, post-feeding metabolic, and growth rates of C. fluminea. The proposed mechanism for these impacts is that filtering rates are reduced upon exposure, resulting in reduced food consumption and therefore, preventing increased metabolic rates normally associated with post-feeding specific dynamic action (SDA). In the field, these effects may cause changes in whole stream respiration rates and organic matter dynamics, as well as alter uptake rates of other food-associated contaminants like selenium, the toxicity of which is known to be antagonized by sulfate, in filter-feeding bivalves.
This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would alter the metabolic response following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4+/-0.1 kg BW) were housed individually with ad libitum access to feed and water. Pigs were...
Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.
Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome- In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery. In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer
Donaldson, Mark; Goodchild, Jason H
Despite advances in the study of birth defects related to drug exposures during pregnancy, medication use during pregnancy still causes anxiety and misunderstanding among both members of the public and health care professionals. This may result in a woman's unknowingly taking a medication that may harm the fetus or cause a birth defect or discontinuing medications necessary for treating chronic conditions. Using medications while breast-feeding also represents a challenge for patients and prescribers. Many mothers are told they must stop breast-feeding or "pump and discard" their breast milk if they are taking certain medications; however, in many cases, this advice-based on what may be limited education on the part of the health care provider about breast-feeding and medication use-may be incorrect. The authors review the current evidence regarding drugs that may be safe for pregnant or breast-feeding patients and medications that such patients should avoid. When considering prescribing in pregnancy, the dentist must weigh the risk to the fetus versus the benefit to the mother, and the appropriate conclusion should reflect current evidence. In some cases medication dosing should be avoided or altered; however, there are times when it is unnecessary to stop the use of medications. Breast-feeding also represents a clinical challenge, the risks and benefits of which need to be understood by both the patient and practitioner before any medication is administered. Dentists should be familiar with the risks and benefits for pregnant or breast-feeding patients posed by five types of medications: analgesics and anti-inflammatories, antibiotics, local anesthetics, sedatives and emergency medications.
Food utilization by three arboreal squirrels was studied with regard to feeding habits and efficiency, food preferences and chemical analyses of the food. Food selected in the field by the two forest subspecies the Ngoye red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus ornatus and the Tonga red squirrel, P. p. tongensis are listed.
fertilizer/manure application and supplementation of poor forages with nutrient supplements as means of ameliorating the adverse ... sustainable production of ruminant animal products (wool, milk, meat, meat, hide and skin) and by-products (blood meal, bone ..... Possibilities of using bananas for the feeding of ruminants in ...
Each group was further divided into three replicates of eight birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Birds were fed mash and pellets and restricted at 0, 10, 20 and 30% levels of feed restriction. Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were ...
Mar 24, 2015 ... decrease in the nutrient intake by ewes. Supplementary ... suckled lambs when pastures decline in quality and quantity or when the growth potential of lambs is not being met with ... Mutton Merino ewes and creep feed for suckling lambs grazing wheat stubble during the dry summer period. Item. Content.
Gao, Pengfei; Ma, Chen; Sun, Zheng; Wang, Lifeng; Huang, Shi; Su, Xiaoquan; Xu, Jian; Zhang, Heping
Reducing antibiotics overuse in animal agriculture is one key in combat against the spread of antibiotic resistance. Probiotics are a potential replacement of antibiotics in animal feed; however, it is not clear whether and how probiotics and antibiotics differ in impact on physiology and microbial ecology of host animals. Host phenotype and fecal microbiota of broilers with either antibiotics or probiotics as feed additive were simultaneously sampled at four time points from birth to slaughter and then compared. Probiotic feeding resulted in a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR) and induced the highest level of immunity response, suggesting greater economic benefits in broiler farming. Probiotic use but not antibiotic use recapitulated the characteristics of age-dependent development of gut microbiota in the control group. The maturation of intestinal microbiota was greatly accelerated by probiotic feeding, yet significantly retarded and eventually delayed by antibiotic feeding. LP-8 stimulated the growth of many intestinal Lactobacillus spp. and led to an altered bacterial correlation network where Lactobacillus spp. are negatively correlated with 14 genera and positively linked with none, yet from the start antibiotic feeding featured a less-organized network where such inter-genera interactions were fewer and weaker. Consistently, microbiota-encoded functions as revealed by metagenome sequencing were highly distinct between the two groups. Thus, "intestinal microbiota maturation index" was proposed to quantitatively compare impact of feed additives on animal microecology. Our results reveal a tremendous potential of probiotics as antibiotics' substitute in poultry farming.
Dórea, José G
Neonates and nursing infants are special with regard to immune development and vulnerability to infectious diseases. Although breast-feeding is essential to modulate and prime immune defenses, vaccines (an interventional prophylaxis) are crucial to prevent and control infectious diseases. During nursing, the type of feeding influences infants' natural defenses (including gut colonization) and their response to vaccines, both through cell-mediated immunity and specific antibody production. Given the variety and combination of vaccine components (antigens and excipients, preservative thimerosal, and aluminum adjuvants) and route of administration, there is a need to examine the role of infant feeding practices in intended and nonintended outcomes of vaccination. Maternal factors related to milk constituents (nutrients and pollutants) and feeding practices can affect response to vaccines. Collectively, studies that compared type of feeding (or used breast-feeding-adjusted statistical models) showed significant influence on some vaccines taken during infancy. Nurslings deprived of the full benefit of breast-feeding could have altered immune responses affecting vaccine outcome. In the absence of studies elucidating neurodevelopment (including excitoxicity) and immunotoxicity issues, vaccination practices should promote and support breast-feeding. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Phromkunthong, W; Nuntapong, N; Boonyaratpalin, M; Kiron, V
Unscrupulous inclusion of melamine in fish feeds can be harmful to fish and may be hazardous to human health. An eight-week feeding trial examined the effects of melamine (inclusion levels; 5-30 g kg⁻¹ feed) on the growth performance, feed efficiency, histopathological changes and melamine residues in sex-reversed red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) × O.mossambicus (Peters). Fish which received melamine-containing feeds grew less, utilized feeds less efficiently and performed poorly, besides exhibiting defects such as fin erosion, anorexia, sluggish swimming behaviour, paling/darkening of skin and low survival. Melamine concentration in the fish reflected its inclusion level in the feeds, and the content was higher in the viscera than in the fish fillet or whole fish. Histopathological alterations were evident in the kidney, liver and gills of fish subjected to melamine treatment - the severity of lesions corresponded to its dosage. Enlargement of renal tubules was observed in the kidney of fish fed with ≥10 g melamine kg⁻¹ feed, although, crystals were not deposited. Fish subjected to melamine insult had more prominent lesions in liver than in kidney. Toxic effects on the gills manifested as epithelial hyperplasia of the primary and secondary lamellae. The anomalies were severe at higher intake levels of melamine. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Shields-Johnson, Maria E; Hernandez, John S; Torno, Cody; Adams, Katherine M; Wainwright, Marcy L; Mozzachiodi, Riccardo
In Aplysia, repeated trials of aversive stimuli produce long-term sensitization (LTS) of defensive reflexes and suppression of feeding. Whereas the cellular underpinnings of LTS have been characterized, the mechanisms of feeding suppression remained unknown. Here, we report that LTS training induced a long-term decrease in the excitability of B51 (a decision-making neuron in the feeding circuit) that recovered at a time point in which LTS is no longer observed (72 h post-treatment). These findings indicate B51 as a locus of plasticity underlying feeding suppression. Finally, treatment with serotonin to induce LTS failed to alter feeding and B51 excitability, suggesting that serotonin does not mediate the effects of LTS training on the feeding circuit.
Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)
During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.
In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital
feeding, social behaviour and temperature preferences of A. atra on Gunfire Hill, Grahams- town, in the eastern ... of A. atra in terms of food, social grouping and temperature preferences to provide information on their ..... The bright-red interior of the mouth is also displayed, and bobbing movements of the head and fore ...
Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia
Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate...
production and reproduction parameters in ram lambs, under intensive and extensive feeding regimes. J.P.C. Greyling* and G.J. Taylor. Department of Animal Science, University of the Orange Free State, PO. Box 339, Bloemfontein,. 9300, South Africa. Received revised 1 July 1999; accepted 28 July 1999. Forty Dorper ...
Girault, Elodie M.; Yi, Chun-Xia; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, Andries
In this chapter, we give an overview of the current status of the role of orexins in feeding and energy homeostasis. Orexins, also known as hypocretins, initially were discovered in 1998 as hypothalamic regulators of food intake. A little later, their far more important function as regulators of
Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene
International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to confirm whether feeding influences the resting breathing rate and to observe possible alterations in blood gas and pH levels produced by feeding in unanesthetized sloths (Bradypus variegatus. Five adult male sloths (4.1 ± 0.6 kg were placed daily in an experimental chair for a period of at least 4 h for sitting adaptation. Five measurements were made for each sloth. However, the sloths one, two and five were studied once and the sloths three and four were studied twice. Breathing rate was determined with an impedance meter and the output signal was digitized. Arterial blood samples were collected for blood gas analysis with a BGE electrolytes analyzer and adjusted for the animal's body temperature and hemoglobin content. The data are reported as mean ± SD and were collected during the resting period (8:00-10:00 h and during the feeding period (16:00-18:00 h. The mean breathing rate increased during mastication of ymbahuba leaves (rest: 5.0 ± 1, feeding: 10 ± 1 bpm. No significant alterations were observed in arterial pH (rest: 7.42 ± 0.05, feeding: 7.45 ± 0.03, PCO2 (rest: 35.2 ± 5.3, feeding: 33.3 ± 4.4 mmHg or PO2 (rest: 77.5 ± 8.2, feeding: 78.4 ± 5.2 mmHg levels. These results indicate that in unanesthetized sloths 1 feeding evokes an increase in breathing rate without a significant change in arterial pH, PCO2 or PO2 levels, and 2 the increase in breathing rate produced by feeding probably is due to the act of mastication.
Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Kipper, M; Hauschild, L; Rivest, J
The feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs reared under precision feeding strategies was studied in 35 barrows and 35 females (average initial BW of 30.4 ± 2.2 kg) over 84 d. Five different feeding programs were evaluated, namely a conventional 3-phase program in which pigs were fed with a constant blend of diet A (high nutrient density) and diet B (low nutrient density) and 4 daily phase-feeding programs in which pigs were fed daily with a blend meeting 110, 100, 90, or 80% of the individual Lys requirements. Electronic feeder systems automatically recorded the visits to the feeder, the time of the meals, and the amount of feed consumed per meal. The trial lasted 84 d and the database contained 59,701 feeder visits. The recorded database was used to calculate the number of meals per day, feeding time per meal (min), intervals between meals (min), feed intake per meal (g), and feed consumption rate (feed intake divided by feeding time per meal, expressed in g/min) of each animal. The feeding pattern was predominantly diurnal (73% of the feeder visits). Number of meals, duration of meals, time between meals, feed consumed per meal, and feed consumption rate were not affected by the feeding programs. The females ingested 19% less feed per meal and had a 6% lower feed consumption rate in comparison with the barrows ( feeding behavior was not correlated with diet composition. However, feed efficiency was negatively correlated with amount of feed consumed per meal ( = -0.38, feed consumption rate ( = -0.44, Feed consumption rate was also negatively correlated with protein efficiency ( = -0.44, feed consumption rate and number of meals per day are the variables related most closely to pig production performance results. Current results indicate that using precision feeding as an approach to reduce Lys intake does not interfere with the feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.
Locasale Jason W
Full Text Available Abstract Cancer cells have different metabolic requirements from their normal counterparts. Understanding the consequences of this differential metabolism requires a detailed understanding of glucose metabolism and its relation to energy production in cancer cells. A recent study in BMC Systems Biology by Vasquez et al. developed a mathematical model to assess some features of this altered metabolism. Here, we take a broader look at the regulation of energy metabolism in cancer cells, considering their anabolic as well as catabolic needs. See research article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1752-0509/4/58/
Simas, Monica Mattos dos Santos
The purpose of this work was to study the control of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in broiler feed by gamma radiation. Feed samples were treated with gamma radiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) and contaminated with aflatoxins or fumonisins. Performance, hematological and biochemical results indicated that a 5 kGy dose was effective on the control of the deleterious effects caused by mycotoxins on broilers. No significant alterations were observed on the feed chemical composition. Irradiated samples presented lower fungal contamination than those not irradiated. We did not detect alterations on aflatoxin or fumonisin content of feed samples after irradiation. AFLP results demonstrated that Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides did not present any correlation between groups, toxin production and irradiation dose. We can conclude that the dose of 5 kGy is indicated for treatment of broiler feed. Despite the fact that it does not change the mycotoxin levels found in the samples, this dose significantly reduces the fungal microbiota and modifies the feed digestibility, increasing the final weight of broiler chickens. (author)
Two superimposed early hydrothermal alterations have been recognized in the Proterozoic Saraya leucogranite. Successively are described a major dequartzification leading to an episyenite infilled with carbonaceous matter and sulfate during an interruption of the system, succeeded by a mobilization of U and other elements during an albitization. A dolomite filling up followed by a silicopotassic feed-back alteration, close down the system [fr
Sharp, William G.; Jaquess, David L.; Bogard, Jennifer D.; Morton, Jane F.
This case study describes inter-disciplinary treatment of chronic food refusal and tube dependency in a 2-year-old female with a pediatric feeding disorder. Evidence-based behavioral components--including escape extinction (EE), differential reinforcement of alterative mealtime behavior (DRA), and stimulus fading--were introduced sequentially as…
As a result of this study, in ovo feeding of CHO increased CWTP without altering hatchability traits. Hatched chicks from eggs injected with 250 mg CHO/egg had a higher liver glycogen content and glycogen index than those of the control treatments. The high incubation temperature reduced chick weight, hatching time, liver ...
The objectives of this study were to determine whether feeding thermally processed peroxidized soybean oil (SO) induces markers of oxidative stress and alters antioxidant status in pig tissue, blood, and urine. Fifty-six barrows (25.3 ± 3.3 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to dietary treatments...
Markad V Kamath
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Distension and electrical stimuli in the esophagus alter heart rate variability (HRV consistent with activation of vagal afferent and efferent pathways. Sham feeding stimulates gastric acid secretion by means of vagal efferent pathways. It is not known, however, whether activation of vagal efferent pathways is organ- or stimulus-specific.
Michaela P Trudeau
Full Text Available Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV, Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV, and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days for PEDV (P < 0.06 as compared with all other ingredients. High delta values (P < 0.001 were observed in soybean meal for PDCoV (42.04 days and TGEV (42.00 days. There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01 and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02. There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01. In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients.
Trudeau, Michaela P; Verma, Harsha; Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E; Shurson, Gerald C; Goyal, Sagar M
Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV), and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample) into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days) for PEDV (P TGEV (42.00 days). There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01) and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02). There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients.
This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach
O' TOOLE, S.M.
This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.
The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...
Maria Gabriella Gentile
Full Text Available Severe undernutrition nearly always leads to marked changes in body spaces (e.g., alterations of intra-extracellular water and in body masses and composition (e.g., overall and compartmental stores of phosphate, potassium, and magnesium. In patients with severe undernutrition it is almost always necessary to use oral nutrition support and/or artificial nutrition, besides ordinary food; enteral nutrition should be a preferred route of feeding if there is a functional accessible gastrointestinal tract. Refeeding of severely malnourished patients represents two very complex and conflicting tasks: (1 to avoid “refeeding syndrome” caused by a too fast correction of malnutrition; (2 to avoid “underfeeding” caused by a too cautious rate of refeeding. The aim of this paper is to discuss the modality of refeeding severely underfed patients and to present our experience with the use of enteral tube feeding for gradual correction of very severe undernutrition whilst avoiding refeeding syndrome, in 10 patients aged 22 ± 11.4 years and with mean initial body mass index (BMI of 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2. The mean BMI increased from 11.2 ± 0.7 kg/m2 to 17.3 ± 1.6 kg/m2 and the mean body weight from 27.9 ± 3.3 to 43.0 ± 5.7 kg after 90 days of intensive in-patient treatment (p < 0.0001. Caloric intake levels were established after measuring resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry, and nutritional support was performed with enteral feeding. Vitamins, phosphate, and potassium supplements were administered during refeeding. All patients achieved a significant modification of BMI; none developed refeeding syndrome. In conclusion, our findings show that, even in cases of extreme undernutrition, enteral feeding may be a well-tolerated way of feeding.
Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175
Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders
It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....
Jul 4, 2008 ... Mycotoxin contamination of feeds results in economic loss and transmission of toxins in the food chain. Animal feeds, the raw ingredients used in their manufacture, namely, maize, wheat, sunflower seeds, cottonseeds, bagasse, wheaten bran, gluten feed and pet foods from South Africa were surveyed for.
Onrust, J.; Piersma, T.
Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are important prey for many birds. Based on theirown feeding ecology, earthworms can be separated into two ecotypes: the detritivoresthat feed on organic material and the geophages that feed on soil particlesand organic matter. Detritivores collect their food on the surface
Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.
Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with
Fetissov, Sergueï O
Feeding is an instinctive behavior accompanied by rewarding feeling of pleasure during obtaining and ingesting food, corresponding to the preparatory and consummatory phases of motivated behavior, respectively. Perception of this emotional state together with alternating feelings of hunger and satiety drives the feeding behavior. Because alterations of feeding behavior including either overeating or anorexia may lead to obesity and cachexia, respectively, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms of regulation of feeding pleasure may help to develop new therapies of these diseases. The dopamine (DA) system of the mesolimbic projections plays a key role in behavioral reward in general and is also involved in regulating feeding-associated pleasure in the forebrain including the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). It suggests that this DA system can be selectively activated by factors specific to different types of motivated behavior including hunger- and satiety- related hormones. Indeed, central administrations of either orexigenic ghrelin or anorexigenic α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) increase DA release in the NAc. However, DA has also been shown to inhibit food intake when injected into the LHA, historically known as a « hunger center », indicating DA functional involvement in regulation of both appetite and feeding pleasure. Although both NAc and LHA contain neurons expressing melanocortin receptors, only the LHA receives the α-MSH containing nerve terminals from the α-MSH producing neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, the main relay of the peripheral hunger and satiety signals to the brain. A recent study showed that α-MSH in the LHA enhances satiety and inhibits feeding pleasure while potently stimulating DA release in this area during both preparatory and consummatory phases of feeding. It suggests that altered signaling by α-MSH to the DA system in the LHA may be involved in the pathophysiology of
Eric Haydt Castello Branco Van Cleef
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% crude glycerin in Nellore cattle diets and its effects on feeding behavior parameters. It were used 30 animals with 277.7kg BW and 18 months old, which were kept in feedlot in individual pens during 103 days (21 adaptation and 82 data collection. The animals were assigned (initial weight in blocks and submitted to the following treatments: G0; G7.5; G15; G22.5; and G30, corresponding to control group, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin in the diet dry matter, respectively. The feeding behavior (feeding, idle, ruminating, number of chews, feeding efficiency and ruminating efficiency were evaluated for three days. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design, analyzing contrasts and observing the significance of linear, quadratic and control treatment × glycerin treatments effects. The inclusion up to 30% crude glycerin in diets of Nellore cattle altered the feeding efficiency, expressed in g NDF h-1, the ruminating efficiency relative to NDF, the time and number of chews per ruminal bolus, facilitating the feed ingestion and directly influencing the time spent on feeding.
Jochum, Malte; Barnes, Andrew D; Ott, David; Lang, Birgit; Klarner, Bernhard; Farajallah, Achmad; Scheu, Stefan; Brose, Ulrich
Living organisms are constrained by both resource quantity and quality. Ecological stoichiometry offers important insights into how the elemental composition of resources affects their consumers. If resource quality decreases, consumers can respond by shifting their body stoichiometry, avoiding low-quality resources, or up-regulating feeding rates to maintain the supply of required elements while excreting excess carbon (i.e., compensatory feeding). We analyzed multitrophic consumer body stoichiometry, biomass, and feeding rates along a resource-quality gradient in the litter of tropical forest and rubber and oil-palm plantations. Specifically, we calculated macroinvertebrate feeding rates based on consumer metabolic demand and assimilation efficiency. Using linear mixed effects models, we assessed resource-quality effects on macroinvertebrate detritivore and predator communities. We did not detect shifts in consumer body stoichiometry or decreases in consumer biomass in response to declining resource quality, as indicated by increasing carbon-to-nitrogen ratios. However, across trophic levels, we found a strong indication of decreasing resource quality leading to increased consumer feeding rates through altered assimilation efficiency and community body size structure. Our study reveals the influence of resource quality on multitrophic consumer feeding rates and suggests compensatory feeding to be more common across consumer trophic levels than was formerly known.
van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin
in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male......Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...
Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.
Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D
Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; Pparental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; PParental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shipman, J. S.; Webley, P. W.
Immersive environments provide an exciting experiential technology to visualize the natural world. Given the increasing accessibility of 360o cameras and virtual reality headsets we are now able to visualize artistic principles and scientific concepts in a fully immersive environment. The technology has become popular for photographers as well as designers, industry, educational groups, and museums. Here we show a sci-art perspective on the use of optics and light in the capture and manipulation of 360o images and video of geologic phenomena and cultural heritage sites in Alaska, England, and France. Additionally, we will generate intentionally altered perspectives to lend a surrealistic quality to the landscapes. Locations include the Catacombs of Paris, the Palace of Versailles, and the Northern Lights over Fairbanks, Alaska. Some 360o view cameras now use small portable dual lens technology extending beyond the 180o fish eye lens previously used, providing better coverage and image quality. Virtual reality headsets range in level of sophistication and cost, with the most affordable versions using smart phones and Google Cardboard viewers. The equipment used in this presentation includes a Ricoh Theta S spherical imaging camera. Here we will demonstrate the use of 360o imaging with attendees being able to be part of the immersive environment and experience our locations as if they were visiting themselves.
Jolij, Jacob; Meurs, Maaike
Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory) and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual perception is not a passive process: in order to efficiently process visual input, the brain actively uses previous knowledge (e.g., memory and expectations about what the world should look like. However, perception is not only influenced by previous knowledge. Especially the perception of emotional stimuli is influenced by the emotional state of the observer. In other words, how we perceive the world does not only depend on what we know of the world, but also by how we feel. In this study, we further investigated the relation between mood and perception. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We let observers do a difficult stimulus detection task, in which they had to detect schematic happy and sad faces embedded in noise. Mood was manipulated by means of music. We found that observers were more accurate in detecting faces congruent with their mood, corroborating earlier research. However, in trials in which no actual face was presented, observers made a significant number of false alarms. The content of these false alarms, or illusory percepts, was strongly influenced by the observers' mood. CONCLUSIONS: As illusory percepts are believed to reflect the content of internal representations that are employed by the brain during top-down processing of visual input, we conclude that top-down modulation of visual processing is not purely predictive in nature: mood, in this case manipulated by music, may also directly alter the way we perceive the world.
Full Text Available The modern abundance of energy-rich foods combined with a shift to more sedentary lifestyles has led to a thermodynamic imbalance in which excessive caloric intake and reduced energy expenditure account for the prevalence of obesity. In particular, exposure to lipid-rich diet is thought to promote metabolic alteration in peripheral tissue associated with obesity-related diseases. The regulation of energy balance depends on the ability of the brain to provide an adaptive response to change in circulating factors of hunger and satiety. The hypothalamus is particularly regarded as key integrative structure but, aside from hypothalamic-mediated homeostatic control, feeding behavior is also modulated by sensory inputs, such as tastes and odors, as well as by affective or emotional states. The reinforcing and motivational aspects of food are closely tied to the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine by the mesolimbic system, which is stimulated by calorie-dense foods as well as by most other objects of desire. Therefore feeding behavior is regulated by homeostatic as well as non-homeostatic inputs from the hypothalamus and the mesolimbic region. Interestingly, these structures expresses several enzymes involved in the processing of triglyceride and fatty acid and the recent literature provide growing evidence that fatty acid metabolism within discrete brain regions can function as sensor of nutrient availability directly control the hedonic and the homeostatic aspect of feeding.
Qin, Chuanjie; Gong, Quan; Wen, Zhengyong; Zou, Yuanchao; Yuan, Dengyue; Shao, Ting; Li, Huatao
Pelteobagrus vachellii, an important freshwater fish in China, shows predominantly nocturnal behavior. To better understand the growth and molecular mechanisms underlying altered feeding times in this species, we studied the growth and liver transcriptome of P. vachellii with shifted feeding times. In this study, a 9-week growth trial was conducted on male P. vachellii (mean weight±S.E.=1.05±0.36g) with commercial feed. Two triplicate groups of fish were fed either at 0800 (day group, control) or at 2000 (night group) with the same amount of feed. After nine weeks, a significant increase in growth was observed in the night group, demonstrated by the specific growth rate (SGR). Using high-throughput RNA-seq, 70,793,844 and 67,930,610 paired-end clean reads were obtained from six cDNA libraries of P. vachellii liver, and 60,069 unigenes were assembled. Gene expression comparison revealed that 122 genes were significantly up-regulated and 59 genes were significantly down-regulated in the night group. Gene pathway and GO enrichment analyses revealed metabolic responses of genes and gene networks related to protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism and rhythms. This study indicates that an alternative feeding time can improve growth and create metabolic alterations in the liver of P. vachellii. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Giselia A.P. Silva
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. Source of data: A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. Synthesis of data: The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Conclusion: Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families.
Scahill, Carly J; Graham, Eric M; Atz, Andrew M; Bradley, Scott M; Kavarana, Minoo N; Zyblewski, Sinai C
The potential for necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates requiring cardiac surgery has contributed largely to wide feeding practice variations and a hesitation to initiate enteral feeding during the preoperative period, specifically those patients with hypoplastic left heart syndrome. A retrospective chart review of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery at a single institution between July 2011 and July 2013 was performed. The primary objective of this study was to determine if preoperative feeding was associated with NEC in neonates requiring cardiac surgery. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between preoperative feeding and NEC. Secondary outcomes including growth failure, total ventilator days, total length of stay, and tube-assisted feeds at discharge were analyzed. One hundred thirty consecutive neonates who required cardiac surgery were included in the analysis. Preoperative feeding occurred in 61% (n = 79). The overall prevalence of NEC was 9% (12/130), including three neonates with surgical NEC. There was no difference in the prevalence of NEC between the preoperative feeding and nil per os (NPO) groups. Preoperative NPO status was associated with longer ventilator-dependent days ( P = .01) but was not associated with worsened growth failure, longer length of stay, or increased prevalence of tube-assisted feeds at discharge. In this study cohort, preoperative feeding was associated with a low prevalence of NEC. Larger prospective studies evaluating the safety and benefits of preoperative feeding in cardiac neonates are warranted.
Silva, Giselia A P; Costa, Karla A O; Giugliani, Elsa R J
To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.
Chelse M. Prather; Gary E. Belovsky; Sharon A. Cantrell; Grizelle González
Consumers can alter decomposition rates through both feces and selective feeding in many ecosystems, but these combined effects have seldom been examined in tropical ecosystems. Members of the detrital food web (litter-feeders or microbivores) should presumably have greater effects on decomposition than herbivores, members of the green food web. Using litterbag...
Håberg, M; Matheson, I
Postpartum blues occurs in 50-80% of women. A few percent of the cases are classified as serious postpartum depression, requiring antidepressant treatment. There is a growing understanding that women should continue to breast-feed in this situation. Data concerning the transfer of antidepressants into breast milk has been researched. Calculations of the infant relative dose via breast milk were done for the drugs concerned. Few antidepressants have been studied at steady state conditions in nursing mothers. Nortriptyline and amitriptyline have minimal relative doses and can be used when breast-feeding. Doxepine should be avoided, as should lithium, which has a significant transfer. Among the serotonine-reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine has been well studied in breast milk. Since fluoxetine has a long half life and a high transfer, sertraline and possibly paroxetine are better alternatives, but the latter has not yet been studied in repeated doses. Moclobemide also lacks data from multiple dose studies, but extrapolation to steady state indicates that the relative dose is small. More observational studies should be carried out in infants breast-fed by mothers using antidepressants. In the meantime, doctors prescribing antidepressant drugs to nursing mothers should see that the infants are monitored for side effects.
Prior, Kimberley F
Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual replication is responsible for the severity of malaria and fuels transmission of the disease, yet, how parasite rhythms are driven remains a mystery. We perturbed feeding rhythms of hosts by 12 hours (i.e. diurnal feeding in nocturnal mice) to desynchronise the host\\'s peripheral oscillators from the central, light-entrained oscillator in the brain and their rhythmic outputs. We demonstrate that the rhythms of rodent malaria parasites in day-fed hosts become inverted relative to the rhythms of parasites in night-fed hosts. Our results reveal that the host\\'s peripheral rhythms (associated with the timing of feeding and metabolism), but not rhythms driven by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms resynchronise to the altered host feeding rhythms when food availability is shifted, which is not mediated through rhythms in the host immune system. Our observations suggest that parasites actively control their developmental rhythms. Finally, counter to expectation, the severity of disease symptoms expressed by hosts was not affected by desynchronisation of their central and peripheral rhythms. Our study at the intersection of disease ecology and chronobiology opens up a new
Prior, Kimberley F.
Circadian rhythms enable organisms to synchronise the processes underpinning survival and reproduction to anticipate daily changes in the external environment. Recent work shows that daily (circadian) rhythms also enable parasites to maximise fitness in the context of ecological interactions with their hosts. Because parasite rhythms matter for their fitness, understanding how they are regulated could lead to innovative ways to reduce the severity and spread of diseases. Here, we examine how host circadian rhythms influence rhythms in the asexual replication of malaria parasites. Asexual replication is responsible for the severity of malaria and fuels transmission of the disease, yet, how parasite rhythms are driven remains a mystery. We perturbed feeding rhythms of hosts by 12 hours (i.e. diurnal feeding in nocturnal mice) to desynchronise the host’s peripheral oscillators from the central, light-entrained oscillator in the brain and their rhythmic outputs. We demonstrate that the rhythms of rodent malaria parasites in day-fed hosts become inverted relative to the rhythms of parasites in night-fed hosts. Our results reveal that the host’s peripheral rhythms (associated with the timing of feeding and metabolism), but not rhythms driven by the central, light-entrained circadian oscillator in the brain, determine the timing (phase) of parasite rhythms. Further investigation reveals that parasite rhythms correlate closely with blood glucose rhythms. In addition, we show that parasite rhythms resynchronise to the altered host feeding rhythms when food availability is shifted, which is not mediated through rhythms in the host immune system. Our observations suggest that parasites actively control their developmental rhythms. Finally, counter to expectation, the severity of disease symptoms expressed by hosts was not affected by desynchronisation of their central and peripheral rhythms. Our study at the intersection of disease ecology and chronobiology opens up a new
Pados, Britt F; Thoyre, Suzanne M; Estrem, Hayley H; Park, Jinhee; Knafl, George J; Nix, Brant
Infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome often experience difficulty with oral feeding, which contributes to growth failure, morbidity, and mortality. In response to feeding difficulty, clinicians often change the bottle nipple, and thus milk flow rate. Slow-flow nipples have been found to reduce the stress of feeding in other fragile infants, but no research has evaluated the responses of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome to alterations in milk flow. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological and behavioural responses of an infant with hypoplastic left heart syndrome to bottle feeding with either a slow-flow (Dr. Brown's Preemie) or a standard-flow (Dr. Brown's Level 2) nipple. A single infant was studied for three feedings: two slow-flow and one standard-flow. Oral feeding, whether with a slow-flow or a standard-flow nipple, was distressing for this infant. During slow-flow feeding, she experienced more coughing events, whereas during standard-flow she experienced more gagging. Disengagement and compelling disorganisation were most common during feeding 3, that is slow-flow, which occurred 2 days after surgical placement of a gastrostomy tube. Clinically significant changes in heart rate, oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate were seen during all feedings. Heart rate was higher during standard-flow and respiratory rate was higher during slow-flow. Further research is needed to examine the responses of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome to oral feeding and to identify strategies that will support these fragile infants as they learn to feed. Future research should evaluate an even slower-flow nipple along with additional supportive feeding strategies.
Jansson, A; Dahlborn, K
The effect of feeding frequency and voluntary sodium intake (VSI) on fluid shifts and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) were studied at rest and after exercise in six athletic horses. The horses were fed twice a day (2TD) and six times a day (6TD) for 25 days for each protocol, according to a changeover design. VSI was measured by weighing each horse's salt block daily. Feeding 2TD or 6TD caused no major alterations in fluid shifts, but in the 2TD treatment there was a postprandial increase in plasma protein concentration and osmolality that lasted horses.
Sigamani Masilamani Sakthivelan
Full Text Available The effect of ochratoxin A (OA on the body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion was investigated in broiler chicken fed dietary levels of OA at 0, 1, and 2 ppm for 28 days from hatch. Feeding OA significantly reduced the growth rate of broiler chicken. The reduction was observed from the first week onwards in OA-treated groups. Feed consumption and feed conversion also showed a diminishing trend from the first week of feeding toxin. Its implication on the performance of broiler chicken is discussed.
DANIELA ELIZA MARIN
Full Text Available Deoxynivalenol (DON is a mycotoxin produced by different species of Fusarium genus that may contaminate feed and food. In the present study we investigated the effect of low levels of DON on the modulation of performance, hemodynamic parameters, cellular and humoral immune response in weaned pigs. Histological alterations in different organ tissues were also analyzed. Our results showed that a short in vivo exposure (14 days of weanling piglets to 0; 0.5; 1.5 mg/day of DON significantly induced a dose dependent increase of cellular immune response (lymphocytes proliferation and leucocytes numbers. The 0.5 and 1.5 mg/day of DON modulated also the humoral immune response by increasing the immunoglobulin A synthesis with 7.32 % and 37.98 % and by decreasing that of immunoglubulin G with 11.15 % and 36.87 %, respectively when compared with the control. DON produced also alterations in the hemodynamic parameters of intoxicated piglets; the activity of lactate dehydrogenase significantly increased while the activity of L-glutamate, alkaline phosphatase, urea and creatinine significantly decreased. Both doses of the toxin induced microscopic alterations of the internal organ structure. By contrast, ingestion of the contaminated material had no effect on the performance (weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency, organ weights, and total serum concentration of cholesterol, calcium, sodium and potassium. Taken together these results suggest that even when present at low level DON can affect blood parameters, humoral and cellular immune response in weaned piglets with a significant importance for the swine health.
Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.
Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)
Norman, Francesca F.; L?pez-V?lez, Rogelio
Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal stud...
Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri
The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding
Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M
Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.
Aizawa, Madoka; Mizuno, Katsumi; Tamura, Masanori
The aim of the present study was to compare orofacial motion and mouth angle during breast-feeding and bottle feeding in normal infants. Thirteen normal infants were enrolled in the study, and feeding sessions were recorded using a digital video camera at 4 or 5 days following birth. The analysis was successfully performed for 12 infants during both breast-feeding and bottle feeding. Markers were placed at the lateral angle of the eye, the tip of the jaw, and the throat region. Jaw and throat region movements were calculated using the direct linear transformation method. The angle of the mouth was also measured. Throat region movement was significantly larger than jaw movement in both breast-feeding (eye-throat region changes: 1.51 +/- 0.37 mm, eye-jaw changes: 0.91 +/- 0.31 mm, P jaw changes: 1.77 +/- 0.33 mm, P Jaw and throat region movements were significantly smaller during breast-feeding than those during bottle feeding (P breast-feeding is larger than that during bottle feeding (P jaw movement. Jaw and throat region movements during bottle feeding differ from those during breast-feeding. This partly results from the difference in the angle of the mouth during feeding.
Redstone, Fran; West, Joyce F
Children with cerebral palsy and other neurodisabilities often have decreased postural control that exacerbates their feeding/swallowing disorders. Correct postural alignment is important in the normal feeding/swallowing process. In the child with cerebral palsy, the alignment and stability of the oral structures for feeding/swallowing may be compromised by abnormal muscle tone and movement patterns. Effective oral functioning for feeding begins with attaining better head stability to improve jaw control. Head control is influenced by trunk alignment, which depends upon the stability of the pelvic area. Techniques such as therapeutic seating and oral control can enhance postural alignment and improve oral functioning for the safe intake of food.
Kukes, S.G.; Hawley, G.R.
This patent describes how metals contained in a hydrocarbon containing feed stream are removed by contacting the hydrocarbon containing feed stream under suitable demetallization conditions with hydrogen and a catalyst composition comprising zirconium phosphate, cobalt phosphate and iron phosphate. The life and activity of the catalyst composition may be increased by introducing a decomposable metal compound selected from the group consisting of the metals of Group V-B, Group VI-B, Group VII-B and Group VIII of the Periodic Table into the hydrocarbon containing feed stream prior to contacting the hydrocarbon containing feed stream with the catalyst composition
Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G
Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
DANIELA ELIZA MARIN; IONELIA TARANU; CRISTINA TABUC; G. STEFAN; ANCA DINISCHIOTU; GINA MANDA; GABRIELA DUMITRESCU
Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a mycotoxin produced by different species of Fusarium genus that may contaminate feed and food. In the present study we investigated the effect of low levels of DON on the modulation of performance, hemodynamic parameters, cellular and humoral immune response in weaned pigs. Histological alterations in different organ tissues were also analyzed. Our results showed that a short in vivo exposure (14 days) of weanling piglets to 0; 0.5; 1.5 mg/day of DON significantly ind...
Full Text Available Non-native species are frequently considered to influence urban assemblages. The grey squirrel Sciurus carolinensis is one such species that is widespread in the UK and is starting to spread across Europe; it predates birds' nests and can compete with birds for supplementary food. Using distance sampling across the urbanisation intensity gradient in Sheffield (UK we test whether urban grey squirrels influence avian species richness and density through nest predation and competition for supplementary food sources. We also assess how urban bird assemblages respond to supplementary feeding. We find that grey squirrels slightly reduced the abundance of breeding bird species most sensitive to squirrel nest predation by reducing the beneficial impact of woodland cover. There was no evidence that grey squirrel presence altered relationships between supplementary feeding and avian assemblage structure. This may be because, somewhat surprisingly, supplementary feeding was not associated with the richness or density of wintering bird assemblages. These associations were positive during the summer, supporting advocacy to feed birds during the breeding season and not just winter, but explanatory capacity was limited. The amount of green space and its quality, assessed as canopy cover, had a stronger influence on avian species richness and population size than the presence of grey squirrels and supplementary feeding stations. Urban bird populations are thus more likely to benefit from investment in improving the availability of high quality habitats than controlling squirrel populations or increased investment in supplementary feeding.
Creech, Tyler G.; Cross, Paul C.; Scurlock, Brandon M.; Maichak, Eric J.; Rogerson, Jared D.; Henningsen, John C.; Creel, Scott
High seroprevalance for Brucella abortus among elk on Wyoming feedgrounds suggests that supplemental feeding may influence parasite transmission and disease dynamics by altering the rate at which elk contact infectious materials in their environment. We used proximity loggers and video cameras to estimate rates of elk-to-fetus contact (the primary source of brucellosis transmission) during winter supplemental feeding. We compared contact rates during high-density and low-density (LD) feeding treatments that provided the same total amount of food distributed over different areas. Low-density feeding led to >70% reductions in total number of contacts and number of individuals contacting a fetus. Proximity loggers and video cameras provided similar estimates of elk–fetus contact rates. Elk contacted fetuses and random control points equally, suggesting that elk were not attracted to fetuses but encountered them incidentally while feeding. The modeled relationship between contact rate and disease prevalence is nonlinear and LD feeding may result in large reductions in brucellosis prevalence, but this depends on the amount of transmission that occurs on and off feedgrounds.
Kavanagh, Katherine F; Cohen, Roberta J; Heinig, M Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G
Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth measured before (at 1 to 2 months) and after (4 to 5 months) the intervention. Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Sacramento, California. 836 caregivers of young infants were screened; 214 were eligible, and 104 agreed to participate. Intervention subjects received education promoting awareness of satiety cues and discouraging bottles containing more than 6 ounces before 4 months of age; intervention and control groups received education regarding introduction and feeding of solid food after 4 months of age. Formula intake (mL/24 hours) and weight gain (g/week). Differences between groups evaluated using 2-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Sixty-one subjects completed baseline records, 44 attended class, and 38 completed the study. Despite a positive response to the educational intervention, there was no change in bottle-feeding behaviors (formula intake at 4 to 5 months was more than 1100 mL/day in both groups). Infant growth in the intervention group was greater than in the control group (P intervention improved knowledge of the key messages, but further research is needed to understand barriers to modifying bottle-feeding behaviors.
Barnard, Donald R; Xue, Rui-De; Rotstein, Margaret A; Becnel, James J
Infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) with Edhazardia aedis (Microsporidia: Culicosporidae) reduced mean human host attraction and landing/probing rates in female mosquitoes by 53 and 62%, respectively, compared with rates in microsporidia-free females. Infection with E. aedis reduced the average weight of unfed female mosquitoes by 4%, caused them to imbibe 23% less blood, and to lay 30% fewer eggs than healthy females. In contrast, E. aedis-infected mosquitoes required 20% more time (>1 h) than healthy females to bite skin treated with 15% DEET. Statistically significant morbidity in E. aedis-infected females was indicated by reductions in host attraction and landing/probing responses, the mass of unfed and blood-engorged females, and fecundity, and by increased DEET repellency.
Manninen, Titta J. K.; Rinkinen, Minna L.; Beasley, Shea S.; Saris, Per E. J.
Five potentially probiotic canine fecal lactic acid bacterium (LAB) strains, Lactobacillus fermentum LAB8, Lactobacillus salivarius LAB9, Weissella confusa LAB10, Lactobacillus rhamnosus LAB11, and Lactobacillus mucosae LAB12, were fed to five permanently fistulated beagles for 7 days. The survival of the strains and their potential effects on the indigenous intestinal LAB microbiota were monitored for 17 days. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) demonstrated that the five fed LAB ...
Khudr, Mouhammad Shadi; Buzhdygan, Oksana Y; Petermann, Jana S; Wurst, Susanne
Fear of predation has been shown to affect prey fitness and behaviour, however, to date little is known about the underlying genetics of responses to predator-associated risk. In an effort to fill this gap we exposed four naïve clones of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), maintained on the model crop Brassica oleracea, to different types of cues from aphid lion (Chrysoperla carnea). The respective predation risks, we termed Fear Factors, were either lethal (consumption by predator), or non-lethal (non-consumptive predator-associated cues: plant-tethered predator cadavers and homogenised shoot-sprayed or soil-infused blends of predator remains). Our results show that the non-lethal risk cues differentially impeded prey reproductive success that varied by clone, suggesting genotype-specific response to fear of predation. Furthermore, whether plants were perceived as being safe or risky influenced prey responses as avoidance behaviour in prey depended on clone type. Our findings highlight that intra-specific genetic variation underlies prey responses to consumptive and non-consumptive effects of predation. This allows selection to act on anti-predator responses to fear of predation that may ramify and influence higher trophic levels in model agroecosystems.
Findsen, Anders; Crossley, Dane A; Wang, Tobias
The crocodilian cardiovascular design with a four-chambered heart and a left aorta that emerge from the right ventricle allows blood to be shunted away from the lungs, a right-to-left (R-L) shunt. The adaptive significance of this R-L shunt remains both poorly understood and controversial with particular debate on its putative role during digestion. Here we measure blood flow patterns in the right aorta (RAo), left aorta (LAo) and the coeliac artery (CoA) of undisturbed American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) during fasting and throughout most of the digestive period. Digestion doubled blood flow in the RAo (10.1±0.9 to 20.7±1.5mlmin -1 kg -1 ), whereas LAo increased approximately 3-fold (3.8±0.6 to 12.2±2.1mlmin -1 kg -1 ). Blood flow in the CoA increased more than four-fold during digestion (3.0±0.6 to 13.3±1.6mlmin -1 kg -1 ). The rise in blood flows was achieved by a doubling of heart rate (18.5±3.3 to 37.8±3.6mlmin -1 kg -1 ). Maximal flows measured in all arteries and heart rate occurred in the first hour of the postprandial period and continued for the next 7h. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.
Berlin, Kristoffer S; Davies, W Hobart; Silverman, Alan H; Rudolph, Colin D
Develop a questionnaire to assess family-based feeding strategies, strengths, and mealtime structure for use with children with feeding problems; validate this new instrument with caregivers of young children from the community and a specialty feeding-clinic; and examine preliminary evidence for reliability and validity. Community caregivers (n = 702) and caregivers seeking services at a pediatric feeding specialty clinic (n = 288) completed the Feeding Strategies Questionnaire (FSQ). A smaller portion of these families also completed an established feeding measure. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to develop and validate the FSQ factor structure that resulted in six scales: Mealtime Structure, Consistent Mealtime Schedule, Child Control of Intake, Parent Control of Intake, Between Meal Grazing and Encourages Clean Plate. Evidence of reliability and validity was obtained. It appears the FSQ can aid the assessment of feeding strategies relevant to the prevention or treatment of pediatric feeding difficulties.
Benjasuwantep, Banchaun; Chaithirayanon, Suthida; Eiamudomkan, Monchutha
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demo...
Kim, Yoo Chul; Kang, Tae Woong; Lee, Jin Oh [Korea Cancer Center Hospital of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
Cancer of stomach, colon and liver are a group of the most common cancer in Korea. However, results with current therapeutic modalities are still unsatisfactory. The intensive efforts have been made to understand basic pathogenesis and to find better therapeutic tools for the treatment of this miserable disease. We studied the alteration of tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes in hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea. We found that alteration of Rb gene, APC were 33 %, 13 % respectively. But alterations of oncogenes such as myc, ras and mdm2 were rarely found. Our results suggests that HBV may act as oncogenic role in hepatocarcinogenesis instead of oncogenes. 6 figs, 2 tabs. (Author).
Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob
This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring programme and from representatives of the feed industry during the period 2007-13 were used. Data covered a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in the Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML) set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90th percentile concentrations of each of these elements were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae, as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (1) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (2) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed (lower ML). Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programmes, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.
Orogastric tube feeding, using either continuous or intermittent bolus delivery, is commonly used in infants unable to feed orally. To compare the impact of different feeding strategies on visceral tissue protein synthesis, neonatal pigs (5–7 day old) received a balanced formula orally either by int...
Koski, Marja; Boutorh, Julia; De La Rocha, Christina L.
Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of ...
Korver, S.; Eekelen, van E.A.M.; Vos, H.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.
Feed intake and feed efficiency are of importance in cattle breeding programmes. A divergent selection experiment on feed intake was carried out during three generations. Young performance-tested bulls were selected on high or low dry matter roughage intake. The effective phenotypic selection
This study investigated the effects of feeding two types of un-extruded floating fish feeds (HM1 and HM2 –38% CP, produced manually using available feedstuffs) and a commercial imported fish feed (Coppens – 40% CP) on growth performance and body composition of Heterobranchus longifilis over 56 days. Commercial ...
Burger, J.S.M.; Reijnen, T.M.; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.
Host feeding is the consumption of host tissue by the adult female parasitoid. We studied the function of destructive host feeding and its advantage over non-destructive feeding on host-derived honeydew in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). We allowed
Lo, Kenneth; Cheung, Calvin; Lee, Albert; Tam, Wilson W S; Keung, Vera
Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy food intake
Full Text Available Childhood obesity is a global public health issue, including in the Chinese setting, and its prevalence has increased dramatically throughout the last decade. Since the origins of childhood obesity may lie in the pre-school period, factors relating to very young children's food consumption should be investigated. Parental influence, including feeding style, is the major determinant of childhood dietary behaviour through altering food provision and social environment. However, the applicability of previous research on parental feeding styles was limited by small sample size. To evaluate the influence of parental feeding styles on children's dietary patterns, a cross-sectional study was conducted among 4553 pre-schoolers in Hong Kong. Information was obtained about dietary intake and how regularly they had breakfast, using previous health surveillance surveys taken among primary school students. Parental feeding styles were assessed by a validated Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire and categorized into 'instrumental feeding', 'emotional feeding', 'prompting and encouragement to eat' and 'control over eating'. Multivariable analysis was performed, adjusted for demographic information. Instrumental and/or emotional feeding was found to relate to inadequate consumption of fruit, vegetables and breakfast, and positively correlated with intake of high-energy-density food. Encouragement on eating was associated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables, dairy products and breakfast. Control over eating correlated with more frequent consumption of fruits, vegetables and breakfast, and less consumption of dairy products and high-energy-density food. The present study has provided evidence on the associations between parental feeding styles and dietary patterns of Hong Kong pre-school children from a reasonably large population. Parents should avoid instrumental and emotional feeding, and implement control and encouragement to promote healthy
exposes infants to infections such as diarrhoea, despite information on its importance being given to mothers. ... feeding and these were educational level of the mother, knowledge on benefits of breast feeding and ... only attained primary school education. Only 3 (2%) respondents had attained college education while.
Nadal, Anna; Giacomo, De Marzia; Einspanier, Ralf; Kleter, Gijs; Kok, Esther; McFarland, Sarah; Onori, Roberta; Paris, Alain; Toldrà, Mònica; Dijk, van Jeroen; Wal, Jean Michel; Pla, Maria
This review explores the possibilities to determine livestock consumption of genetically modified (GM) feeds/ingredients including detection of genetically modified organism (GMO)-related DNA or proteins in animal samples, and the documentary system that is in place for GM feeds under EU
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of including different levels of whole cottonseed (WCS) in the finishing diet of lambs on their dry matter intake (DMI), live weight gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR, kg feed/kg gain), carcass characteristics and small intestinal morphology. Twenty Zandi male lambs (29.8 ...
... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.105 Feeding. (a) The food for marine mammals must be... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.105 Section 3.105 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...
Engel-Hoek, L. van den; Harding, C.; Gerven, M.H.J.C van; Cockerill, H.
Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on
The major obstacles in this respect is the unavailability of quality feed for the different fish production systems (Adebayo and Popoola, 2008; Ndimele et al., 2011; Shoko et al., 2011a). This problem has driven most fish famers into making their own feeds, by using some locally available food materials like maize (Zea maysL.) ...
Morawska, Alina; Laws, Rachel; Moretto, Nicole; Daniels, Lynne
Early parenting is critical to effective attachment and a range of positive developmental outcomes for children. Feeding is a key task of early parenting and increasing evidence indicates that early feeding practices are important for the development of self-regulation of intake and food preferences which in turn are predictors of later obesity…
Introduction and Aims. Poultry feed continues to be a significant expense in poultry production as the cost of corn and soybean meals remain elevated. Alternative meals are under investigation to reduce production costs while maintaining high feed conversion rates and body weight gain. Two promising...
Of these, 24 (37.5%) developed feeding difficulties in the immediate post operative period. The causes of the feeding difficulties were Gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) 9, Recurrent diaphragmatic hernia 8, Adhesive intestinal obstruction 4, Poor intestinal motility 2, Campylobacter enteritis, 1, Hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, 1.
ABSTRACT. Background: Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF), the best feeding practice for infants aged from birth to six (6) months has faced challenges of adherence, exposes infants to infections such as diarrhoea, despite information on its importance being given to mothers. The main objective of this study was to establish ...
Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey; Pontoppidan, Kennie Nybo
The 3D reconstruction algorithm is applied to the prototype feed array of the BIOMASS synthetic aperture radar, recently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in Denmark. Careful analysis of the measured feed array data has shown that the test support structure...
... STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Dogs and Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.9 Feeding. (a) Dogs and cats must be fed at least once each day... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.9 Section 3.9 Animals and...
Phenolic compounds have generated significant interest recently as feed additives that can impart bioactive characteristics such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal properties to a feed formulation [1-2]. Such natural compounds may offer some preventive benefit to the routine administra...
Balthrop, J.; Brand, B.; Cowie, R.A.; Danier, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Jonge, de L.H.; Jackson, F.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Piotrowski, C.
Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the
Aiming to secure the safety of animal feeds and develop the new resources, the effect of γ-irradiation on disinfection and the changes in components were investigated. Salmonellae and coliforms contaminating in animal feeds and feedstuffs were eliminated by 0.5 -- 0.6 Mrad and 0.5 -- 0.8 Mrad, and osmophilic moulds were sterilized by 0.7 -- 0.75 Mrad. From these results, it is concluded that the dose for disinfection of animal feeds is 0.8 Mrad. The main components were hardly changed by irradiation up to 5 Mrad, and the component changes in irradiated samples could be suppressed during storage while the components in unirradiated samples were markedly changed with the growth of osmophilic moulds. Histamine and lysinoalanine, which may cause the feed poisoning, were never accumulated in feedstuffs by irradiation. The nutritional value of chick feeds was not changed by 1.0 Mrad irradiation. From these results, it is considered that no problem for wholesomeness of animal feeds occurs by irradiation. Therefore, the irradiation is effective for disinfection and keeping the nutritional value of animal feeds during storage. Irradiation promotes the recovery of proteins in the wastewater by coagulation of proteins and improves the property of coagulants due to the degradation of polysaccharides. These results indicate that irradiation is effective to develop the new resources for animal feeds. (author)
... veterinarian's order and professional supervision. Therefore, the ADAA created a new category of products... veterinarian in the course of the veterinarian's professional practice. In the Federal Register of December 8... for use in animal feed only if these medicated feeds are administered under a veterinarian's order and...
New and alternative plant ingredients are increasingly incorporated in fish feed due to the scarcity of captured fish and increased fishmeal and fish oil prices. As a result, current fish feeds are characterized by a highly variable ingredients composition, leading to a similar variability in the
Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders
It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....
Garcia, Marcos V; Matias, Jaqueline; Aguirre, AndrÉ De A R; Csordas, Barbara G; SzabÓ, Matias P J; Andreotti, Renato
Identifying the tick species that successfully feed on humans would increase knowledge of the epidemiology of several tick-borne diseases. These species salivate into the host, increasing the risk of pathogen transmission. However, there is a lack of data in the literature regarding the ticks that prefer to feed on humans. Herein, we describe the successful feeding of Amblyomma coelebs Neumann nymphs on two of the authors after accidental tick bites occurred during field surveys in two preserved areas of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. One of the host-parasite interactions was closely monitored, and the tick development, gross host skin alterations, and related sensations are presented. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.
Bickell, S L; Revell, D K; Toovey, A F; Vercoe, P E
The patterns of feed intake when animals are allowed ad libitum access to feed in a respiration chamber is not known, nor are the potential effects of the artificial environment of chambers on voluntary feed intake. The objectives of the study were to describe the pattern of hourly feed intake of sheep when fed for ad libitum intake in respiration chambers and determine the repeatability of this pattern and the correlation between feed intake and methane production calculated at hourly intervals. Daily and hourly measurements of methane production and feed intake of 47 Merino wethers were measured in respiration chambers twice, 4 wk apart. We found that hourly feed intake of sheep with ad libitum access to feed in respiration chambers showed a repeatable pattern over the 2 measurement periods (r = 0.89, P sheep ate continuously throughout the 23 h period, but most of the eating occurred during the first 8 h in the respiration chambers. There was a significant linear correlation (r = 0.22) between hourly feed intake and hourly methane production (P sheep had 15 to 25% lower feed intake in the respiration chambers compared with their feed intake during the previous week in the animal house pens. In addition, daily feed intake in the respiration chamber was not correlated with feed intake in any of the 7 d before entering the chamber (P > 0.05). Future methane research may consider using feed intake and changes in intake levels as a quantitative indicator of habituation to the methane measurement procedure and environment, which, given the tight association between feed intake and methane production, will be crucial in providing accurate values for methane production.
Full Text Available Introduction: Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC No 183/2005. The study was carried out in Sweden, a country where Salmonella infections in food-producing animals from feed have largely been eliminated. Methods: On the initiative and leadership of the competent authority, the different steps of feed production associated with control of Salmonella contamination were identified. Representatives for the major feed producers operating in the Swedish market then independently estimated the annual mean costs during the years 2009 and 2010. The feed producers had no known incentives to underestimate the costs. Results and discussion: The total cost for achieving a Salmonella-safe compound feed, when such a control is established, was estimated at 1.8–2.3 € per tonne of feed. Of that cost, 25% relates to the prevention of Salmonella contaminated high-risk vegetable feed materials (mainly soybean meal and rapeseed meal from entering feed mills, and 75% for measures within the feed mills. Based on the feed formulations applied, those costs in relation to the farmers’ 2012 price for compound feed were almost equal for broilers and dairy cows (0.7%. Due to less use of protein concentrate to fatten pigs, the costs were lower (0.6%. These limited costs suggest that previous recommendations to enforce a Salmonella-negative policy for animal feed are realistic and economically feasible to prevent a dissemination of the pathogen to animal herds, their environment, and potentially to human food products.
Norman, Francesca F; López-Vélez, Rogelio
Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered.
Popkin, B M; Adair, L; Akin, J S; Black, R; Briscoe, J; Flieger, W
This study used a unique longitudinal survey of more than 3000 mother-infant pairs observed from pregnancy through infancy. The sample is representative of infants from the Cebu region of the Philippines. The sequencing of breast-feeding and diarrheal morbidity events was carefully examined in a longitudinal analysis which allowed for the examination of age-specific effects of feeding patterns. Because the work controlled for a wide range of environmental causes of diarrhea, the results can be generalized to other populations with some confidence. The addition to the breast-milk diet of even water, teas, and other nonnutritive liquids doubled or tripled the likelihood of diarrhea. Supplementation of breast-feeding with additional nutritive foods or liquids further increased significantly the risk of diarrhea; most benefits of breast-feeding alone or in combination with nutritive foods/liquids became small during the second half of infancy. Benefits of breast-feeding were slightly greater in urban environments.
Full Text Available The performance level of high yielding cows can only be guaranteed by high quality forage and high feed intake. An about 15–20 cm elevated and 160 cm long feed stall with rubber flooring doesn’t only offer undisturbed meals but also a yielding and dry standing surface. In a pilot stable with 130 dairy cows (German Simmental the feeding alley was subsequently equipped with elevated feed stalls. The results show that animals frequented the feeding barn less often while the duration of single meals prolonged. The specific behavioural changes differed depending on milk yield and number of lactation.
Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn; Gislum, René
Feed value in form of FEsv (Feed unit / kg dry matter, for piglets) and FEso (Feed unit / kg dry matter, for sows), EDOM (Enzyme Degradable Organic Matter) and EDOMi (Enzyme Degradable Organic Matter, Ileum) is used in the feed evaluation system for pigs. Analysis of feed value have highlighted t...
The pigs were randomly allocated to three feeding regimens, a controlled single feeding, ad libitum single feeding and ad libitum group feeding, with six animals per ad libitum group. This resulted in 96 pigs in six treatments with six replicates. The diets were high (HF) and low (LF) nutrient dense feeds, where the LF was ...
... boiler. (c) Feed water regulators, heaters, and grease extractors. (1) Where feed water regulators, tubular feed water heaters, and grease extractors are installed, an alternate means of operation with... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted with...
Antonissen, Gunther; Haesendonck, Roel; Devreese, Mathias; Broekaert, Nathan; Verbrugghe, Elin; De Saeger, Sarah; Audenaert, Kris; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank; Ducatelle, Richard; Croubels, Siska; Martel, An
Seed-based pigeon diets could be expected to result in exposure of pigeons to mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON). Ingestion of low to moderate contamination levels of DON may impair intestinal health, immune function and/or pathogen fitness, resulting in altered host-pathogen interactions and thus different outcome of infections. Here we demonstrate that DON was one of the most frequently detected mycotoxins in seed-based racing pigeons feed, contaminating 5 out of 10 samples (range 177-...
Kula, R.; Melter, M.; Kunkel, J.; D?rfler, C.; Alikadic, S.; Knoppke, B.; Zant, R.
Acute renal failure can be caused by calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), due to arteriolopathy and altered tubular function. Within this context, we present the case of a 14-month-old liver transplant recipient who suffered an acute polyuric renal failure during a short episode of hypercaloric feeding. In our case, CNI-induced distal RTA led to nephrocalcinosis and therefore to secondary nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. The diet with high renal solute load consequently resulted in an acute polyuric...
Patrick, Heather; Nicklas, Theresa A; Hughes, Sheryl O; Morales, Miriam
This research tested the associations between caregiver feeding styles and children's food consumption patterns among African-American (AA) and Hispanic (H) caregivers and their preschool children. Participants were 231 caregivers (101 AA; 130 H) with children enrolled in Head Start. Caregivers completed questionnaires on authoritarian and authoritative feeding styles (Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire; CFSQ) and various aspects of children's food consumption patterns (availability of, feeding attempts for, and child's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables). Simultaneous multiple regression analyses tested the unique contribution of feeding styles in predicting food consumption patterns. Authoritative feeding was positively associated whereas authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with the availability of fruit and vegetables. Authoritative feeding was also positively associated with attempts to get the child to eat dairy, fruit, and vegetables, and reported child consumption of dairy and vegetables. Authoritarian feeding was negatively associated with child's vegetable consumption. All results remained significant after controlling for child's gender and body mass index (BMI), and caregiver's ethnicity, BMI, and level of education. Overall, results provide evidence for the benefits of authoritative feeding and suggest that interventions to increase children's consumption of dairy, fruit, and vegetables should be targeted toward increasing caregivers' authoritative feeding behaviors.
Iwata, Takashi; Akamatsu, Tomonari; Thongsukdee, Surasak; Cherdsukjai, Phaothep; Adulyanukosol, Kanjana; Sato, Katsufumi
Many previous studies have shown that rorqual whales (Balaenopteridae), including the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus), fin whale (B. physalus), sei whale (B. borealis), Bryde's whale (B. edeni), minke whale (B. acutorostrata), and humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), employ a strategy called lunge feeding to capture a large amount of krill and/or fish for nourishment . Lunge feeding entails a high energetic cost due to the drag created by an open mouth at high speeds [1,2]. In the upper Gulf of Thailand, Bryde's whales, which feed on small fish species , predominantly anchovies, demonstrated a range of feeding behaviors such as oblique, vertical, and lateral lunging. Moreover, they displayed a novel head-lifting feeding behavior characterized by holding the vertical posture for several seconds with an open mouth at the water surface. This study describes the head-lifting feeding by Bryde's whales, which is distinct from the typical lunge feeding of rorqual whales. Whales showing this behavior were observed on 58 occasions, involving 31 whales and including eight adult-calf pairs. Whales caught their prey using a series of coordinated movements: (i) lifting the head above the water with a closed mouth, (ii) opening the mouth until the lower jaw contacted the sea surface, which created a current of water flowing into the mouth, (iii) holding their position for several seconds, (iv) waiting for the prey to enter the mouth, and (v) closing the mouth and engulfing the prey underwater (Figure 1A-F, Movie S1 in Supplemental Information published with this article online). When a whale kept its upper jaw above the sea surface, many anchovies in the targeted shoal appeared to lose orientation and flowed passively into the mouth of the whale by the current created by the lower mandible breaking the surface of the water. We measured the duration of feeding events when the whales had a wide-open mouth mostly above the sea surface. The mean and maximum feeding
Full Text Available introduction. Natural breastfeeding is the only proper way to feed newborns and infants because it ensures their proper development. Breastfeeding enhances health and protects against the development of many diseases in childhood and adulthood. The primary benefits of breastfeeding include reduced incidences of infection in the respiratory system as well as a reduction in gastrointestinal and systemic infections. The benefits of breastfeeding also include decreased inflammation and improved immunity to disease in the infant. Further benefits of breastfeeding are reduced incidences of type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. objective. The aim of the study was to assess the degree of knowledge on maternal breastfeeding among current expecting mothers. materials and method. The study comprtisded 147 mothers hospitalized in the Gynecology-Obstetrics Hospital University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland, during late July – August 2012. results. For 139 (93.88% of the surveyed women, breastfeeding was a priority regarding the health of the child. Respondents most often used professional literature in order to gain knowledge about breastfeeding (63.27%. The least popular way of acquiring knowledge was through the media (27.21%. conclusions. Analysis of the collected material on the surveyed women showed that women have a diverse range of knowledge about breastfeeding. Currently, breastfeeding is required to be promoted and supported by midwives, paediatricians and other health professionals.
Casas Patiño, Donovan; Rodríguez Torres, Alejandra; Jarillo Soto, Edgar C
Feeding is not an isolated concept; it is linked to biological, psychological, cultural, political and economic determinants. Physiologically the meeting of the biological need is very important, but when a group is subjected to a diet that only satisfies hunger and does not provide for nutrients, chronic deficient nutritional stages appear that impact social welfare and health. In this paper, we present three instances of nutritional problems that affect the Mexican population: child malnourishment, obesity and food security. This article exposes some of its social determinants and public policies that address them considering the collective health and its sociology, in the context of social inequality. We highlight the need for public policies that consider social inclusion, for the collective food security, and not merely the pursuit of satisfying hunger, but also to have an accessible, nutritious, and varied diet to prevent alterations in the health of the people.
Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the use of feed yeast preparations in feeding of sturgeon species (Acipenserinae. Findings. The review of scientific works demonstrated that feed yeast in the feeding of sturgeons have been used as a source of vitamins and complete protein, the nutritional value of which is significantly higher than in the proteins of plant origin and are similar to the proteins of animal origin. In addition, a unit of yeast protein mass is significantly lower than in the feeds of animal origin. Moreover, based on the content of B group vitamins, feed yeast produced from the grain-potato spent wash exceed fish meal and meat-and-bone meal. The article highlights the peculiarities of the technological process of the production of different feed yeast species, amino acid and fatty acid composition of their preparations, basic physical and chemical parameters of their composition. The examples of feed yeast formulas for sturgeon species based on feed yeast preparations are presented. It was shown that sturgeon species, especially on early stages of their ontogenesis, could effectively use the feed yeast nucleotides. Thus, the latters can be an effective substitute of live zooplanktonic organisms. While the production of some feed yeast preparations (paprin, eprin was stopped in 1990s due to a number of social-economic reasons, the works on the creation of their full analogues was continued later. Currently, the trends of the development of world aquaculture anticipates the return to the use of yeast in fish feeding. Therefore, the interest of the agrarians of Ukraine in yeast lately increased and their use in agricultural sector increased by 2-2.5 times. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of feeding of sturgeon species, because the data about the use of yeast as sources of complete protein in fish feeds is important in a constant search for the
Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C
Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during
Reimer, A A
Palythoa variabilis (Duerden 1898) has a well-coordinated, sterotyped feeding response similar to that described for other zoanthids. The feeding reaction can be elicited by the heterocyclic amino acid proline and by some of its analogs. The addition of an OH group (hydroxyproline) or of a glycyl group (prolylglycine) annuls the activity of the proline molecule. Substitutions (thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid) or additions (glycylproline) to the amino group do not alter the effectivity of the activator. The size of the ring can be altered within certain limits (azetidine-2-carbocylic acid and pipecolic acid) without affecting the activity of the molecule. Feeding reactions culminating with ingestion can be elicited by Marine Diesel and Bunker-C oils. Exposure to oil affects the ability of polyps to discriminate between inert and chemically active particles for 3 to 5 days; responses to proline are not altered for at least 3 days following the exposure, but become slower and are present in fewer polyps after that period. Oil is retained in the coelenteron for several days following exposure and is periodically released in the form of timy droplets.
Aravindakshan, M.; Chaubey, R.C.; Chauhan, P.S.; Sundaram, K.
Multigeneration feeding studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of an irradiated whole diet in Wistar rats. The parent and the four successive generations were fed on a nutritionally adequate test diet exposed to either 0.2 or 2.5Mrad gamma radiation and the effects, if any, on various parameters of animal health were assessed. In addition to an unirradiated test control, a historical control group fed on stock laboratory rations was also employed for comparison. The test diet consisted of various components including some of the basic ingredients of human diet in India. Exposure of the test diet to 0.2 or 2.5Mrad did not affect the food efficiency ratio and there were no significant differences in the growth rates of animals fed on unirradiated or irradiated diets. Reproductive performance of the rats fed on irradiated or unirradiated diets belonging to the parent, first, second or third generations were also comparable. Mortality rates and reproductive function in relation to age were also not altered due to feeding of irradiated whole diets. The haematological profile and the serum enzymes of the animals of all the generations fed irradiated diets were within normal limits. Though some differences were observed in the relative weights of some organs, these effects were limited to a particular generation, did not show any definite pattern and could not be related to the ingestion of irradiated diets. First-generation rats examined at 100-104 weeks for gross pathological manifestations including tumour incidence also did not indicate any significant differences among groups. (author)
Raj, Arun; Praveen, K V; Varghese, Sheeba; Mukkadan, J K; Joseph, P K
This work was undertaken to study whether consumption of alcoholic beverage mixed with soft drinks could reduce the metabolic effect caused by ethanol. When 24 hr fasted rats were intragastrically fed rum (with 40% ethanol) diluted (1:1) with water, 3.0 ml (0.5 g ethanol) per 100 g body weight and sacrificed 12 hr later in fasting condition, exhibited higher levels of triacyl glycerol, glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum, higher levels of total cholesterol, triacyl glycerol and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in both liver and kidneys, and lower levels of serum albumin. When fasted rats were fed 3.0 ml soft drink (0.31 mg caffeine), they showed increased levels of triacyl glycerol, glucose, ALT and ALP in the serum, TBARS in liver and kidneys, triacyl glycerol and total cholesterol in kidneys and lower levels of serum albumin. Soft drink feeding did not reduce serum total cholesterol but reduced HDL levels. Also soft drink did not alter liver lipids. When a mixture of 1.5 ml diluted rum (0.25 g ethanol) and 1.5 ml soft drink (0.154 mg caffeine) were fed to the fasted rats, the serum parameters increased similar to rats fed rum only except that total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were unaltered. TBARS in kidneys and liver were also increased but triacyl glycerol levels were not altered. Thus feeding ethanol with soft drink does not reduce the metabolic effects of ethanol but it will prevent ethanol induced serum HDL cholesterol rise.
Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.
The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades.
Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.
The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades
Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.
The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)
Falibene, Agustina; Rössler, Wolfgang; Josens, Roxana
Feeding behaviour is a complex functional system that relies on external signals and the physiological state of the animal. This is also the case in ants as they vary their feeding behaviour according to food characteristics, environmental conditions and - as they are social insects - to the colony's requirements. The biogenic amine serotonin (5-HT) was shown to be involved in the control and modulation of many actions and processes related to feeding in both vertebrates and invertebrates. In this study, we investigated whether 5-HT affects nectar feeding in ants by analysing its effect on the sucking-pump activity. Furthermore, we studied 5-HT association with tissues and neuronal ganglia involved in feeding regulation. Our results show that 5-HT promotes a dose-dependent depression of sucrose feeding in Camponotus mus ants. Orally administered 5-HT diminished the intake rate by mainly decreasing the volume of solution taken per pump contraction, without modifying the sucrose acceptance threshold. Immunohistochemical studies all along the alimentary canal revealed 5-HT-like immunoreactive processes on the foregut (oesophagus, crop and proventriculus), while the midgut and hindgut lacked 5-HT innervation. Although the frontal and suboesophageal ganglia contained 5-HT immunoreactive cell bodies, serotonergic innervation in the sucking-pump muscles was absent. The results are discussed in the frame of a role of 5-HT in feeding control in ants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Since the European Union enforced the ban on antibiotic growth promoters in 2006, the research has been focused on natural feed additives which would have a proven positive impact on both production and animal health. Inulin is both the most commonly used and the most effective probiotic additive. The mechanism of inulin interactions with the avian body is complex, multidirectional and not fully understood. Despite a number of unresolved issues, many authors have demonstrated the positive impact of inulin on the host organism. Dietary supplementation of poultry feeding with inulin contributes to the modulation of intestinal microbiota through favouring a quick proliferation of beneficial Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains and inhibiting the growth of pathogenic microbes. There are indications that inulin-provoked changes in the host gut microbiota in poultry may alter the structure and histomorphology of the intestinal mucosa and improve its absorption capacity in poultry. It has also been demonstrated that inulin may affect the immune system and the systemic metabolism of minerals and lipids. The reports on inulin effects on the body and performance of poultry are often contradictory, as the effectiveness of this prebiotic is strongly dependent on the type and dose used, and the duration of its administration. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Uranga, Romina María; Millán, Carola; Barahona, María José; Recabal, Antonia; Salgado, Magdiel; Martinez, Fernando; Ordenes, Patricio; Elizondo-Vega, Roberto; Sepúlveda, Fernando; Uribe, Elena; García-Robles, María de Los Ángeles
Glucokinase (GK), the hexokinase involved in glucosensing in pancreatic β-cells, is also expressed in arcuate nucleus (AN) neurons and hypothalamic tanycytes, the cells that surround the basal third ventricle (3V). Several lines of evidence suggest that tanycytes may be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis. Tanycytes have extended cell processes that contact the feeding-regulating neurons in the AN, particularly, agouti-related protein (AgRP), neuropeptide Y (NPY), cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. In this study, we developed an adenovirus expressing GK shRNA to inhibit GK expression in vivo. When injected into the 3V of rats, this adenovirus preferentially transduced tanycytes. qRT-PCR and Western blot assays confirmed GK mRNA and protein levels were lower in GK knockdown animals compared to the controls. In response to an intracerebroventricular glucose injection, the mRNA levels of anorexigenic POMC and CART and orexigenic AgRP and NPY neuropeptides were altered in GK knockdown animals. Similarly, food intake, meal duration, frequency of eating events and the cumulative eating time were increased, whereas the intervals between meals were decreased in GK knockdown rats, suggesting a decrease in satiety. Thus, GK expression in the ventricular cells appears to play an important role in feeding behavior.
Huang, Xunbing; Whitman, Douglas W; Ma, Jingchuan; McNeill, Mark Richard; Zhang, Zehua
We reared Oedaleus asiaticus grasshoppers under four different single-plant diets to examine the relationships among diet, performance, stress, and transcription patterns. Grasshoppers fed only Artemisia frigida (Asteraceae) were stressed, as indicated by their lower growth, size, development, and survival, in comparison to grasshoppers fed on any of three grasses, Cleistogenes squarrosa, Leymus chinensis, or Stipa krylovii (all Poaceae). We then used transcriptome analysis to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus were altered by feeding on these diets. Nymphs fed A. frigida had the largest variation in gene expression profiles with a total of 299 genes significantly up- or down-regulated compared to those feeding on the three grasses: down-regulated genes included those involved in cuticle biosynthesis, DNA replication, biosynthesis and metabolism of nutrition. The up-regulated genes included stress-resistant and detoxifying enzymes. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis also showed that feeding on A. frigida could down-regulate biosynthesis and metabolism related pathways, and up-regulate stress-resistant and detoxification terms and pathways. Our results show that diet significantly altered gene-expression, and that unfavorable, stressful diets induce more transcriptional changes than favorable diets. Altered gene-expression represents phenotypic plasticity, and many such changes appear to be evolved, adaptive responses. The ease and regularity by which individuals shift phenotypes via altered transcription suggests that populations consist not of similar, fixed phenotypes, but of a collection of ever-changing, divergent phenotypes.
Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age appropriate - children 6 months to 2 years; Babies - feeding ... Shaikhkhalil A, Groleau V, Wendel D, Stallings VA. Feeding healthy infants, children, and adolescents. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. ...
immunisation and deworming consultations is likely to encourage beneficial complementary feeding practices in Uganda. Keywords: child age, complementary feeding, deworming, immunisation, Uganda Demographic and Health Survey. Introduction. Complementary feeding is essential if children are to grow and develop ...
Sykes, P.W.; Kale, H.W.
The Everglade Kite (Rostrhamus sociabilis plumbeus) of Florida has been called snail hawk or snail kite because it was thought to feed exclusively on the soft parts of the freshwater apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) (Nicholson 1926, Howell 1932, Bent 1937, Snyder and Snyder 1969). Furthermore, the other three subspecies of this wide-ranging Neotropical raptor (Friedmann 1950) are known to feed only on species within the genus Pomacea (Haverschmidt 1962, 1970; Brown and Amadon 1968). We report here two different instances of kites feeding on nonsnail prey in Florida
. A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...
Ginzburg, M.A.; Kinoshenko, Yu.T.
The notions ''normal'' and ''pathologically altered pulmonary pattern'' are specified. A grouping of lung pattern alterations based on morphopathogenetic features is provided: blood and lymphatic vascular alterations, changes in the bronchi, lung stroma, and combined alterations. Radiologic appearance of the altered pulmonary pattern is classified in keeping with the basic principles of an X-ray shade examination. The terms, such as ''enriching'', ''strengthening'', ''deformation'', etc., used for describing the pathologically altered pulmonary pattern are defined
Donna M. Morrison
Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the presence of aflatoxins in finished poultry feed from manufacturing companies, feed ingredients, and poultry feed at the point of sale. Two collections were made. In the first collection, samples of the finished feed and feed ingredients were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. For the second collection, all samples were analyzed by ELISA while a subset was analyzed by HPLC. Of the 27 samples of finished feed, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA and European Union Commission (EUC maximum tolerable limit of 20 µg/kg, while for the feed ingredients, three of the 30 samples of feed ingredients exceeded the limit. Of the 93 samples of finished feed purchased from retailers, five samples had aflatoxin concentrations greater than the maximum tolerable limit. This survey indicates that most of the samples were below the maximum regulatory limit and maintained quality up to the point of sale for 2015 and 2016. However, given that some samples were above the limit, there is a need to monitor the production and marketing chain to ensure that the quality of the finished feed is not compromised.
Tatiana S. Dias
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the feeding biology of a population and its ontogenetic aspects can help in understanding the functioning of fish assemblages, essential to the conservation of the habitat biodiversity in which these species are found. Annual fishes complete their life cycle in temporary aquatic environments, existing in adult stage only for brief annual periods. Changes in the feeding habits between different size classes could indicate that a species belongs to different feeding groups in different growth phases. The aim of this work was to characterize the diet of Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa, 2002 in a temporary flooded area in the coastal plain of southern Brazil, taking into consideration possible alterations in feeding habits in different body size classes caused by ontogenetic changes, to explain the coexistence of these individuals in a short space of time. The diet analysis indicated that C. fulgens is a generalist, consuming small crustaceans and autochthonous insects. Intraspecific differences in diet were determined when compared between nine classes of standard length. Adults fed mainly on autochthonous insects, and juveniles ingested mostly crustaceans, with the population being separated into two trophic groups: invertivores and invertivores with a tendency towards zooplanktivory. It is possible to conclude that the ontogenetic changes in the diet of C. fulgens are related to morphological restrictions due to the size of the individuals, since feeding competitive relations are probably not so evident.
Song, Bo-Mi; Faumont, Serge; Lockery, Shawn; Avery, Leon
Familiarity discrimination has a significant impact on the pattern of food intake across species. However, the mechanism by which the recognition memory controls feeding is unclear. Here, we show that the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans forms a memory of particular foods after experience and displays behavioral plasticity, increasing the feeding response when they subsequently recognize the familiar food. We found that recognition of familiar food activates the pair of ADF chemosensory neurons, which subsequently increase serotonin release. The released serotonin activates the feeding response mainly by acting humorally and directly activates SER-7, a type 7 serotonin receptor, in MC motor neurons in the feeding organ. Our data suggest that worms sense the taste and/or smell of novel bacteria, which overrides the stimulatory effect of familiar bacteria on feeding by suppressing the activity of ADF or its upstream neurons. Our study provides insight into the mechanism by which familiarity discrimination alters behavior.DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00329.001.
Fagundes, N S; Pereira, R; Bortoluzzi, C; Rafael, J M; Napty, G S; Barbosa, J G M; Sciencia, M C M; Menten, J F M
Sorghum grain can be used to replace corn in broiler diets. However, the effects related to an abrupt change between these grains are not yet clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance and intestinal health of broilers fed diets containing corn and/or sorghum during different periods of rearing. To accomplish this aim, 2100 male chicks were fed the following experimental diets: C100% (corn-based diet); S100% (sorghum-based diet); C:S50% (diet based on corn and sorghum 1:1); PC-S (corn-based diet in the pre-starter phase and sorghum-based diet in subsequent phases); and PS-C (sorghum-based diet in the pre-starter phase and corn-based diet in subsequent phases). The study was conducted with two simultaneous trials in a randomized block design as follows: a performance trial up to 40 days occurred in floor pens (n = 8), and the metabolism trial occurred in cages (n = 10). Performance, jejunal morphometry, number of goblet cells, apparent metabolizable energy (AME), apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen (AMEn) and the coefficient of apparent metabolizability of dry matter (CMDM) of the diets, and the intestinal microbiota of small intestine and caeca at 10 and 21 days of age (16S gene sequencing) were evaluated. The different experimental diets did not affect performance, jejunal epithelium, AME, AMEn or CMDM. However, the experimental diets altered the percentages of the genera Clostridium, Weissella, Bacillus and Alkaliphilus in the small intestine. In addition, the genera Lactobacillus and Desulfotomaculum in the caeca were altered. The age also affected the microbiota of the intestinal segments. In conclusion, feeding sorghum in place of corn as well as the grain change after the pre-starter phase does not alter broiler performance. However, sorghum alters the intestinal microbiota, resulting in a lower percentage of Clostridium and a higher percentage of Lactobacillus in the small intestine and caeca, respectively. Journal of
Wilson, Alex C. C.; Sternberg, Leonel da S. L.; Hurley, Katherine B.
Plant sap-feeding insects and blood-feeding parasites are frequently depleted in 15N relative to their diet. Unfortunately, most fluid-feeder/host nitrogen stable-isotope studies simply report stable-isotope signatures, but few attempt to elucidate the mechanism of isotopic trophic depletion. Here we address this deficit by investigating the nitrogen stable-isotope dynamics of a fluid-feeding herbivore-host plant system: the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, feeding on multiple brassicaceous host plants. M. persicae was consistently more than 6‰ depleted in 15N relative to their hosts, although aphid colonized plants were 1.5‰ to 2.0‰ enriched in 15N relative to uncolonized control plants. Isotopic depletion of aphids relative to hosts was strongly related to host nitrogen content. We tested whether the concomitant aphid 15N depletion and host 15N enrichment was coupled by isotopic mass balance and determined that aphid 15N depletion and host 15N enrichment are uncoupled processes. We hypothesized that colonized plants would have higher nitrate reductase activity than uncolonized plants because previous studies had demonstrated that high nitrate reductase activity under substrate-limiting conditions can result in increased plant δ15N values. Consistent with our hypothesis, nitrate reductase activity in colonized plants was twice that of uncolonized plants. This study offers two important insights that are likely applicable to understanding nitrogen dynamics in fluid-feeder/host systems. First, isotopic separation of aphid and host depends on nitrogen availability. Second, aphid colonization alters host nitrogen metabolism and subsequently host nitrogen stable-isotope signature. Notably, this work establishes a metabolic framework for future hypothesis-driven studies focused on aphid manipulation of host nitrogen metabolism. PMID:21646532
Full Text Available Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares, night and day for the "continuous feeding" group (CF mares. The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets. Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002 and more fertility (p = 0.024 in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares. Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding.
Cong, Xiaomei; Judge, Michelle; Xu, Wanli; Diallo, Ana; Janton, Susan; Brownell, Elizabeth A; Maas, Kendra; Graf, Joerg
Premature infants have a high risk for dysbiosis of the gut microbiome. Mother's own milk (MOM) has been found to favorably alter gut microbiome composition in infants born at term. Evidence about the influence of feeding type on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of feeding types on gut microbial colonization of preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Thirty-three stable preterm infants were recruited at birth and followed up for the first 30 days of life. Daily feeding information was used to classify infants into six groups (MOM, human donor milk [HDM], Formula, MOM + HDM, MOM + Formula, and HDM + Formula) during postnatal days 0-10, 11-20, and 21-30. Stool samples were collected daily. DNA extracted from stool was used to sequence the 16S rRNA gene. Exploratory data analysis was conducted with a focus on temporal changes of microbial patterns and diversities among infants from different feeding cohorts. Prediction of gut microbial diversity from feeding type was estimated using linear mixed models. Preterm infants fed MOM (at least 70% of the total diet) had highest abundance of Clostridiales, Lactobacillales, and Bacillales compared to infants in other feeding groups, whereas infants fed primarily HDM or formula had a high abundance of Enterobacteriales compared to infants fed MOM. After controlling for gender, postnatal age, weight, and birth gestational age, the diversity of gut microbiome increased over time and was constantly higher in infants fed MOM relative to infants with other feeding types (p gut microbiome development of preterm infants, including balanced microbial community pattern and increased microbial diversity in early life.
Ryuda, Masasuke; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Matsumoto, Hitoshi; Oda, Yasunori; Tanimura, Teiichi; Hayakawa, Yoichi
Feeding activities of animals, including insects, are influenced by various signals from the external environment, internal energy status, and physiological conditions. Full understanding of how such signals are integrated to regulate feeding activities has, however, been hampered by a lack of knowledge about the genes involved. Here, we identified an anorexic Drosophila melanogaster mutant (GS1189) in which the expression of a newly identified gene, Anorexia (Anox), is mutated. In Drosophila larvae, Anox encodes an acyl-CoA binding protein with an ankyrin repeat domain that is expressed in the cephalic chemosensory organs and various neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Loss of its expression or disturbance of neural transmission in Anox-expressing cells decreased feeding activity. Conversely, overexpression of Anox in the CNS increased food intake. We further found that Anox regulates expression of the insulin receptor gene (dInR); overexpression and knockdown of Anox in the CNS, respectively, elevated and repressed dInR expression, which altered larval feeding activity in parallel with Anox expression levels. Anox mutant adults also showed significant repression of sugar-induced nerve responses and feeding potencies. Although Anox expression levels did not depend on the fasting and feeding states cycle, stressors such as high temperature and desiccation significantly repressed its expression levels. These results strongly suggest that Anox is essential for gustatory sensation and food intake of Drosophila through regulation of the insulin signaling activity that is directly regulated by internal nutrition status. Therefore, the mutant strain lacking Anox expression cannot enhance feeding potencies even under starvation.
Black, Maureen M; Hurley, Kristen M
Responsive feeding is a derivative of responsive parenting that has been applied to infant and young child feeding. With a theoretical basis in the reciprocal interactions between parents and children, responsive feeding is particularly relevant during complementary feeding as young children progress from an exclusively milk-based liquid diet to the family diet and self-feeding. The period of complementary feeding includes multiple developmental changes that may threaten a successful transition and lead to growth and feeding problems. In spite of high rates of global childhood underweight, stunting, overweight, and obesity, and the inclusion of responsive feeding in the World Health Organization's Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, there have been few intervention trials of responsive feeding. The aim of this chapter is to examine how parents and young children navigate the progression in feeding, with an emphasis on complementary feeding, and to address the following topics: (1) navigating the progression of feeding development, (2) provision of responsive feeding, (3) preventing or resolving growth and feeding problems, (4) responsive feeding research, and (5) strategies to promote healthy mealtime interactions. To advance responsive feeding research and practice, clarity is needed in both measurement and intervention strategies, guided by the reciprocity between parent and child interactions inherent in the theoretical basis of responsive feeding. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
Zhang, Lizhen; Ma, Dihong; Yang, Mengmeng; Hu, Qingsong
In order to solve the feeding problem in shrimp aquaculture which is high labor intensity, low automation and non-uniform feed distribution, a 360° moveable and uniform feeding system was proposed. The feeding system uses turbine worm mechanism to realize the quantitative feeding, and the turbine is conveying plate which can adjust the conveying speed according to catamaran’s cruise speed. Casting plate can achieve 360° uniform cast feed. A catamaran is used as carrier platform for feeding machine, and BeiDou satellite positioning system installed on the catamaran helps to automatic cruise. So the moveable and uniform of shrimp pond feeding can be realized in this way.
... are here Home Advanced Illness: Feeding Tubes and Ventilators Order this publication Printer-friendly version Introduction Families ... a Family Meeting for additional help. Pneumonia and Ventilators One of the other choices a patient or ...
Wang, Cheng; Shi, Changyou; Zhang, Yu; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Wang, Yizhen
Development of alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in swine production requires a better understanding of their impacts on the gut microbiota. Supplementing fermented feed (FF) in swine diets as a novel nutritional strategy to reduce the use of AGP and feed price, can positively affect the porcine gut microbiota, thereby improving pig productivities. Previous studies have noted the potential effects of FF on the shift in benefit of the swine microbiota in different regions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). The positive influences of FF on swine gut microbiota may be due to the beneficial effects of both pre- and probiotics. Necessarily, some methods should be adopted to properly ferment and evaluate the feed and avoid undesired problems. In this mini-review, we mainly discuss the microbiota in both fermented feed and swine gut and how FF influences swine gut microbiota.
Magalhães, Carolina Peixoto; de Freitas, Manuela Figueiroa Lyra; Nogueira, Maria Inês; Campina, Renata Cristinny de Farias; Takase, Luiz Fernando; de Souza, Sandra Lopes; de Castro, Raul Manhães
The appearance, the odor, and the flavor of foods, all send messages to the encephalic area of the brain. The hypothalamus, in particular, plays a key role in the mechanisms that control the feeding behavior. These signals modulate the expression and the action of anorexigenic or orexigenic substances that influence feeding behavior. The serotonergic system of neurotransmission consists of neurons that produce and liberate serotonin as well as the serotonin-specific receptor. It has been proven that some serotonergic drugs are effective in modulating the mechanisms of control of feeding behavior. Obesity and its associated illnesses have become significant public health problems. Some drugs that manipulate the serotonergic systems have been demonstrated to be effective interventions in the treatment of obesity. The complex interplay between serotonin and its receptors, and the resultant effects on feeding behavior have become of great interest in the scientific community.
The little orange feed icons are everywhere on the web. From search engines to shopping sites to blogs, Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0) has become one of the hottest web technologies going. RSS 2.0 is a powerful - yet surprisingly easy - way to distributing timely content to a web-based audience. This Short Cut will give you the hands-on knowledge you need to build an RSS 2.0 feed. Along the way you'll learn not only the mechanics of building a feed, but industry-accepted best practices for creating feeds that perform well in various situations. Are you ready? Roll up your sleeves, c
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...
Morton, Alison; Wolfe, Susan
Enteral tube feeding is routinely used in many cystic fibrosis centres when oral dietary and supplement intake has failed to achieve an adequate nutritional status. The use of this method of feeding is assessed on an individual basis taking into consideration the patients age and clinical status. To examine the evidence that in people with cystic fibrosis, supplemental enteral tube feeding improves nutritional status, respiratory function, and quality of life without significant adverse effects. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. We also contacted the companies that market enteral feeds and reviewed their databases.Date of the most recent search of the Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register: 13 February 2015.Date of the most recent hand search of PubMed and conference abstract books: 13 February 2015. All randomised controlled trials comparing supplemental enteral tube feeding for one month or longer with no specific intervention in people with cystic fibrosis. The searches identified 38 trials; however, none were eligible for inclusion in this review. There are no trials included in this review. Supplemental enteral tube feeding is widely used throughout the world to improve nutritional status in people with cystic fibrosis. The methods mostly used, nasogastric or gastrostomy feeding, are expensive and may have a negative effect on self-esteem and body image. Reported use of enteral tube feeding suggests that it results in nutritional and respiratory improvement; but, efficacy has not been fully assessed by randomised controlled trials. It is acknowledged, however, that performing a randomised controlled trial would be difficult due to the ethics of withholding an intervention in a group of patients whose nutritional status necessitates it.
Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J
Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. © 2014 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., on behalf of Society for
Basiri, Marcus L; Stuber, Garret D
Feeding is arguably one of the most well-conserved and important adaptive behaviors across all species. In this issue of Cell, Yapici et al. use a novel real-time feeding assay in Drosophila flies to identify a neural circuit that integrates gustatory input and hunger state to modulate food ingestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Savilahti, Erkki; Saarinen, Kristiina M
Infant feeding practices, particularly the type of milk feeding, have been associated with the development of type 1 diabetes. We studied the relationship between early infant feeding (during the first year of life) and diabetes in a large population-based cohort. In 1994-1995, 6,209 healthy full-term newborns participated in a study examining the effect of supplementary feeding, on development of allergy to cow's milk, in maternity hospitals. All supplements in the maternity hospitals were known. Mothers recorded the feeding of infants prospectively at home. In August 2006, from a nationwide diabetes registry, 45 children from our cohort were listed as having type 1 diabetes. The distribution of cases was similar in the randomized feeding groups: 9/1,789 in the group that received adapted cow's milk-based formula; 12/1,737 in those who received extensively hydrolyzed formula; 16/1,859 in those who received banked human milk; and 8 among those 824 exclusively breast-fed in the hospital. When children who had received cow's milk-based formula in the maternity hospital were compared with those without such exposure, less number of children in the former group had diabetes by age 8 (P = 0.026), but by the end of the follow-up (11.5 years) the difference disappeared (P = 0.16). Length of breast-feeding and introduction of cereals and other solid foods were similar among those developing type 1 diabetes and those remaining healthy, while early regular daily feeding with cow's milk-based formula tended to associate with lower risk for type 1 diabetes (OR 0.66; 95% confidence interval 0.38-1.13; P = 0.08). In an extended, secondary analysis of a population-based cohort, very early exposure to cow's milk is not a risk factor for type 1 diabetes; it may in fact diminish its appearance before age 8.
Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar
Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.
Ciocon, J O
Tube feedings are utilized in elderly patients with acute and chronic problems. Inadequate oral intake with malnutrition, comatose state, neurologic disorders with severe dysphagia, extensive burns, massive gastrointestinal resection, and oropharyngeal and upper gastrointestinal malignancies are the commonly encountered conditions requiring tube alimentation. Dysphagia with frequent aspiration is the most common indication for use of tube feedings in the elderly. Nasogastric tube is preferred for short-term feeding, while gastrostomy or jejunostomy is indicated for long-term or permanent nutritional support. Nutritional assessment should be done initially and on a regular basis. Specific formulas are available to calculate height, weight, and caloric needs of bedbound elderly patients. Various enteral feeding formulas are available for a specific clinical condition and are preferably administered by continuous drip using a pump. Parenteral nutrition is also indicated for certain situations in which enteral feeding cannot meet the patient's nutritional requirement, and in particular situations where enteral feeding is contraindicated and not feasible. Optimal patient care is dependent on adequate nutritional support.
Cox, Daniel T C; Gaston, Kevin J
At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.
Alteration of sex hormones levels in male rats after whole body gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy) has been studied. The hormonal response of irradiated rats fed on experimental feed contaminated with organo chlorine insecticide 'kelthane' (200 mg/kg body weight) for different time intervals (3,6 and 12 weeks), has been also investigated. Investigations included measurements of testes/body weight ratio; Testosterone; Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH); luteinizing hormone (LH) and prolactin levels in serum and testes homogenate of treated rats. The data indicate that whole body gamma irradiation causes significant alteration in all tested parameters except for the testosterone level. Normal rats fed on 'kelthane' contaminated feed, showed significant alteration in all tested parameters, which increased with the prolongation of 'kelthane' exposure period. Double treatment of 'kelthane' and irradiation resulted in more pronounced alterations. It can be concluded that the male sex hormones in rats fed on 'kelthane', were more sensitive to whole body gamma irradiation. Moreover, male sex hormones have shown reliable reliable dose/effect relationship for either radiation or pesticide internal contamination. This suggests their possible use as markers in early diagnosis of radiation exposure and pesticides toxication syndromes. 3 tabs
Tarrant, R C
The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.
Zedgenidze, G.A.; Kishkovskij, A.N.; Elashov, Yu.G.
A roentgenologic picture of dystrophic alterations of bones following hard, acute and chronic infections diseases, distinct disorders of vitanium balance, diseases of endocrine system, disorder of metabolism and diet, long-term exogenous intoxications including medicinal is given. Distinct dystrophic disorders are characterized both by quantitative and qualitative deviations in physiological change of bones
In education, art has often been perceived as entertainment and decoration and is the first subject to go when there are budget cuts or test-score pressures. Drawing on Emmanuel Lévinas's idea of the primacy of radical alterity that breaks the totality of our being, enables self-transformation and ethics, and ensures community as a totality…
Robert Peary's alleged 1909 sledge-achievement of the North Pole is critically examined for credibility and consistency, with respect to terrestrial magnetism, solar-altitude, drift, and written & eyewitness testimony. Several alterations of the record are detected, and the dubiousness of navigation without determining longitude is emphasized.
Bredt, Paul R; Swoboda, Robert G
Rheological and physical properties testing were conducted on actual AN-107 and AW-101 pretreated feed samples prior to the addition of glass formers. Analyses were repeated following the addition of glass formers. The AN-107 and AW-101 pretreated feeds were tested at the target sodium values of nominally 6, 8, and 10 M. The AW-101 melter feeds were tested at these same concentrations, while the AN-107 melter feeds were tested at 5, 6, and 8 M with respect to sodium. These data on actual waste are required to validate and qualify results obtained with simulants
Agus Oman Sudrajat
Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe influence of feed shape and protein resource of artificial feed on the growth and survival rate of sand goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Blkr., fry were evaluated in this experiment. This experiment purposed to determine growth rate, survival rate, feeding efficiency, protein retention, lypid retention and look for the suitable artificial feed for sand goby. This experiment was carried out at the Laboratory of Aquaculture System and Technology, Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Bogor Agricultural University in Bogor. Factorial design was used in this experiment with two factors: feed shape and protein resource. There were two kinds of feed shape: dry pellet and moist pellet. Protein resource consisted: fish, squid, and shrimp. The sand goby juveniles were kept in aquarium 60x30x40 cm was filled 40 litre of aerated. The fish were fed of 7% (dry weight based of body weight in three time of feeding (10:00, 14:00, 18:00 WIB, 30, 30, 40% total feed/day respectively. The amount of feed was adjusted every 7 days with sampling. The juveniles feeding with shrimp-moist showed better survival rate, growth rate, feeding efficiency, protein retention, lypid retention than those fed shrimp-dry, squid-dry, squid-moist, fish-dry, and fish-moist. Dry pellet and moist pellet can be used for sand goby feeding. The artificial feed for sand goby juvenile suggested contain attractant and had highly water stability. Shrimp and squid can be used as main protein resources in artificial feed for sand goby. Key Word : Feeding, artificial feed, sand goby, Oxyeleotris marmorata, fry. ABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh bentuk pakan dan sumber protein dari pakan buatan terhadap pertumbuhan dan kelangsungan hidup ikan betutu, Oxyeleotris marmorata (Blkr.. Rancangan faktorial dengan 2 faktor, bentuk pakan (pelet basah dan pelet kering dan sumber protein (ikan, cumi dan udang digunakan dalam penelitian ini
Kristiansen, Anne Lene; Lande, Britt; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Andersen, Lene Frost
Objective To identify factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding during the first year of life among Norwegian infants. Design Data on breast-feeding practices were collected by a semi-quantitative FFQ. Setting In 2006?2007 about 3000 infants were invited to participate in a population-based prospective cohort study in Norway. Subjects A total of 1490 mothers/infants participated at both 6 and 12 months of age. Results Exclusive breast-feeding at 4 months was associat...
Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul
Seventy-two pigs, housed in groups of four, were allocated to either (1) ad libitum feeding with access to wood chip, (2) restrictive feeding with access to wood chip or (3) restrictive feeding without access to wood chip. The effects of feeding level (treatment 1 vs. 2) and access to wood chip...... (treatment 2 vs. 3) were investigated in a normal situation, a competitive situation (reduced feeder space) and a conflict situation (delayed feeding). During normal days the pigs without access to wood chip manipulated the floor more, both on a 24 h basis and during the first hour after feed allocation......, but the level of manipulating floor in these pigs did not reach the level of manipulating wood chip among pigs on treatment 2. During normal days restrictively fed pigs spent less time feeding on a 24 h basis, but more time feeding during the first hour after feed allocation than ad libitum fed pigs. When...
Simão, J.; Silva, Z. C. G.
Siliceous rocks are widely used as dimension stone but the last decades have registered an increase rate of their alteration when exposed to polluted environments. Anorthosites were treated by acidified solutions of HCl, HN03 and H2S04 simulating acid rain and the response was recorded through different experiments such as on the surface of the polished rock and on the surface of uncovered thin sections. The main components, plagioclase and olivine, both responded in similar ways to each acid...
Morita, V.S.; Almeida, V.R.; Matos Junior, J.B.; Vicentini, T.I.; Brand, van den H.; Boleli, I.C.
The current study aimed to investigate whether embryonic temperature manipulation may alter thermal preference throughout the rearing phase of broiler chickens and how this manipulation may affect response to thermal challenge, metabolism, growth rate and feed intake rate. Eggs were exposed to a
João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini
amount of 1% over the live weight + 10% of intake. The results of the first phase of the research, for steers supplemented in pasture, showed good acceptability and consumption in the three levels of substitution, with an average of 3.0 kg of concentrate per head. No rejection was observed for consumption of the mixture, as well as any physiological negative / change and clinical levels tested The pine cone (strobilus without the pine nuts (seeds was obtained as a residue of genetically improved seed collection. Likely source of tannins and fiber, dried and triturated pine cones can contribute to lower production costs due to the substitution of an ingredient in feed formulation, as an aid in control of internal parasites and also in the possible mitigation of methane gas production, resulting from digestion of ruminants, one of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. The potential use of pine cone as an ingredient in replacement of roughage and concentrate in the diet of ruminants qualifies as a new source of revenue in pine forestry activity, since no such product currently has no commercial value timber and its accumulation along the dried leaves among the trees, increase the risk of forest fires. Finally, these technological and social innovations result in remarkable potential to leverage Regional Programs Sustainable Development.
Jelding-Dannemand, Ea; Malby Schoos, Ann-Marie; Bisgaard, Hans
BACKGROUND: Extended breast-feeding is recommended for newborn children at risk of allergy-associated diseases, but the evidence of a protective effect on sensitization and these diseases remains elusive. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the duration of exclusive...... breast-feeding on the development of sensitization in preschool children. METHODS: Information on breast-feeding was gathered by interviews involving 335 children aged 1, 6, and 12 months from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort born to mothers with a history......% CI, 0.82-1.14]; and OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 0.84-1.23], respectively). Adjusting for reverse causation by excluding children with eczema, wheeze, or a positive skin prick test response before ending exclusive breast-feeding did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Exclusive breast-feeding does not affect...
Portella, A K; Silveira, P P; Diehl, L A; Crema, L M; Clemente, Z; Peres, W; Costa, G; Scorza, C; Quillfeldt, J A; Dalmaz, C
In our previous studies, we reported that neonatally handled rats have an increased ingestion of sweet food but are resistant to the damaging effects of a chronic exposure to a highly palatable diet. Accumbal serotonin (5-HT) is important for feeding behavior and plays a role in the vulnerability to diet-induced obesity. Therefore, our hypotheses were (1) 5-HT turnover in the nucleus accumbens is altered in neonatally handled animals and plays a role in their differential feeding behavior and (2) if this is so, a chronic pharmacological treatment affecting 5-HT reuptake (chronic imipramine) would be able to revert the behavioral findings. Litters were divided into nonhandled and handled (10 min/day, Days 1-10 after birth). In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that a decreased 5-HT metabolism in the nucleus accumbens was observed in adult handled animals. In Experiment 2, the two previous groups were subdivided and assigned to receive imipramine diluted in water or water alone. After 30 days of treatment, we evaluated their weight gain and feeding behavior. Handled rats weighed less than nonhandled rats, and all imipramine-treated rats showed a reduction in weight gain after 60 days of treatment. Imipramine reverted the increased sweet food consumption seen in neonatally handled rats. We conclude that serotonin is involved in the altered feeding behavior of neonatally handled rats, and this protocol is an important tool for studying the mechanisms by which early life events have a long-term impact on feeding preferences.
Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow
breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in the change in BSES-SF mean scores between the mothers who received SEBEP and those who did not receive SEBEP at two weeks post partum. The exclusive breast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thiex, N; Richardson, C R
Accurate determination of the moisture (water) content in individual feed ingredients and mixed feeds is critical throughout the feed industry. Most analytical methods used to determine apparent water content of feedstuffs are empirical, estimating water by evaporation and loss of weight on drying (oven drying methods). These methods differ greatly in effectiveness, resulting in bias. Bias associated with measuring the water content of feedstuffs is a concern not only because of the lack of confidence in the moisture value itself, but also because moisture determinations affect accurate quantification and expression of other nutrient values. Methods for determining moisture in feeds have frequently been borrowed from the cereal, forage, or other applications without validating the extension of the method. Methods such as Karl Fischer titration measure water by direct comparison to a calibration standard for water and can be used as reference methods for the evaluation of empirical methods. The objective of this paper is to review methods for determining moisture, review comparisons among moisture methods for various feedstuffs, make recommendations for a reference method, and make general recommendations toward improving the results of moisture testing. The need to evaluate and improve moisture methods and standardize practices in laboratories is evident from this study. It also is evident that the methods appropriate for a specific feed ingredient or feed should not be extended to all feeds without proper validation to the new matrices. Part of the validation for empirical methods should be comparison to Karl Fischer or other the direct methods. It also is recommended that the results obtained using oven methods not be termed "moisture;" rather, they should be termed "loss on drying," and the drying conditions should become part of the term.
A. N. Ostrikov
Full Text Available The technological process of cereals production used in the production of feed stuff, which includes the following basic steps: grain moistening; binning of moistened grain for redistribution of moisture in the bulk of kernel; steaming of moistened grain; rolling of steamed grain; drying and cooling of flakes – is developed. In the production of flakes from scoured barley and oat grain before feeding to the rolling line film removal from the grain of these crops and the separation of the husks is carried out by one the existing methods: the method of grinding, followed by sifting and eventilation of films from tail fractions or a method of peeling on special machines with a separation of films. Wet-heat treatment of grain, followed by rolling helps to improve taste and palatability of feed, improves the nutritional value of carbohydrate and protein complexes, reduces the exertion of the body to digest food nutrients, allows to inactivate antinutritional substances and free the grain from the pathogenic and other microorganisms. In the duration of rolling process splitting of complex carbohydrates occurs, starch loses its original structure and is easier exposed to enzymes. The dried and cooled flakes have satisfactory flowability, do not set up. Humidity of flakes is not more than 14%, the temperature is not more than 10 °C above the ambient temperature, bulk density is 350–400 kg/m3. Developed set of equipment allows producing cereal flakes, the use of which in feed stuff and rations of young cattle and pigs increases the productivity of animals by 15–20% while reducing feed costs by 12–15%. Cereal flakes are used in the manufacture of complete feed for piglets (pigs at the age of 10 to 60 days, feed concentrates for pigs under the age of 4 months, the calves under the age of 115 days, high-producing cows, sporting and trained horses and lactating mares.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria parasite infectivity to mosquitoes has been measured in a variety of ways and setting, includind direct feeds of and/or membrane feeding blood collected from randomly selected or gametocytemic volunteers. Anopheles gambiae s.l is the main vector responsible of Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Bancoumana and represents about 90% of the laboratory findings, whereas Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium ovale together represent only 10%. Materials and methods Between August 1996 and December 1998, direct and membrane feeding methods were compared for the infectivity of children and adolescent gametocyte carriers to anopheline mosquitoes in the village of Bancoumana in Mali. Gametocyte carriers were recruited twice a month through a screening of members of 30 families using Giemsa-stained thick blood smears. F1 generation mosquitoes issued from individual female wild mosquitoes from Bancoumana were reared in a controlled insectary conditions and fed 5% sugar solution in the laboratory in Bamako, until the feeding day when they are starved 12 hours before the feeding experiment. These F1 generation mosquitoes were divided in two groups, one group fed directly on gametocyte carriers and the other fed using membrane feeding method. Results Results from 372 Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte carriers showed that children aged 4–9 years were more infectious than adolescents (p = 0.039, especially during the rainy season. Data from 35 carriers showed that mosquitoes which were used for direct feeding were about 1.5 times more likely to feed (p Conclusion Although intensity of infectivity was lower for membrane feeding, it could be a surrogate to direct feeding for evaluating transmission-blocking activity of candidate malaria vaccines. An optimization of the method for future trials would involve using about three-times more mosquitoes than would be used for direct feeding.
Wright, Charlotte M; Smith, Kathryn H; Morrison, Jill
Enteral feeding is vital for sick infants, but the transition to normal diet may be difficult. The authors describe a feeding team which provides multidisciplinary management of 'hard to wean' children within a large children's hospital, using reduction of feed volume to stimulate hunger, combined with psychological input to improve mealtime interactions and relieve parental anxiety. To assess the impact of feed reduction on growth and identify factors associated with successful feed cessation. Clinical and anthropometric data retrieved from case notes and clinic database for all 41 children referred for feed withdrawal over a 5-year period. The children were aged median 4.0 (range 0.7-15) years when first seen; 27 (66%) were male and before reduction they received a median of 3766 (range 1987-9728) kJ daily from enteral feeds. Parents were often extremely anxious about weight loss and needed considerable support to make feed reductions. After follow-up for median (range) 1.7 (0.4-5.4) years, 32 (78%) were on solely normal diet, seven were still enterally fed and two were reliant on oral supplement drinks. Those referred after age 5 years were more likely to still be on artificial feeds (OR 7.4 (1.3-42); p=0.025) or to have taken more than a year to stop (OR 6.9 (1.1-43); p=0.04). Feed reduction was commonly followed by a decline in body mass index, but this was not associated with slow growth. A majority of children eventually ceased feeds successfully, but slow and failed weaning is more likely after age 5 years.
Ruminant animals lack enzymes to break down fibrous feeds but they harbor microorganisms capable of degrading their feeds. Rumen microbes are affected by feed substrates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate rumen microbial changes as the function of varying supplementary feeds. Two protein supplements ...
The dual behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose feed as function of the dilution rate near the critical specific growth rate (ì=0.25) is a bottleneck in industrial production, hence the need for more efficient feeding strategies. In this work novel feeding strategies have been generated and evaluated. For each feeding ...
Among families who have young children, feeding concerns are quite common (Brazelton, 1992). Feeding concerns can include, but are not limited to, inappropriate mealtime behaviors, lack of self-feeding, food selectivity, and food refusal (Kerwin, 1999). Given the complex nature of assessment of and intervention for feeding concerns in young…
This trial was carried out to compare the performance of catfish fed with four experimental diets; a reference foreign diet (Multifeed) and three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic locally formulated diets with different palm oil contents (1, 2 and 3 liters) coded as Feed 1, Feed 2, Feed 3 and Feed 4 respectively. The growth trial ...
Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel
of plant-based protein in the diets was relatively high (68% of protein). Growth performance (SGR, FCR) was not different between the feed types. Fish in each system - and thereby the system itself - were fed 500 g feed/day. After 8 weeks on the same commercial feed type, test feed was administered...
Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feed plants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued use...
Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce the cost of feeding costs in beef cattle production and thereby improve profitability. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic (co)variances to compare residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) with growth, reproductive and profitability traits ...
This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of chicken genotype on the growth performance, feed intake and feed efficiency of the progenies resulting from pure, straight and reciprocal cross of Giriraja (Gr) and Alpha chickens. Data obtained on body weight, body length, breast girth, keel length, feed intake and feed ...
Ho, Emily V; Klenotich, Stephanie J; McMurray, Matthew S; Dulawa, Stephanie C
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a complex eating disorder with severe dysregulation of appetitive behavior. The activity-based anorexia (ABA) paradigm is an animal model in which rodents exposed to both running wheels and scheduled feeding develop aspects of AN including paradoxical hypophagia, dramatic weight loss, and hyperactivity, while animals exposed to only one condition maintain normal body weight. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an activity-dependent modulator of neuronal plasticity, is reduced in the serum of AN patients, and is a known regulator of feeding and weight maintenance. We assessed the effects of scheduled feeding, running wheel access, or both on the expression of BDNF transcripts within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. We also assessed the expression of neuronal cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) to explore the specificity of effects on BDNF within the mesocorticolimbic pathway. Scheduled feeding increased the levels of both transcripts in the hippocampus (HPC), increased NCAM1 mRNA expression in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), and decreased BDNF mRNA levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In addition, wheel running increased BDNF mRNA expression in the VTA. No changes in either transcript were observed in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Furthermore, no changes in either transcript were induced by the combined scheduled feeding and wheel access condition. These data indicate that scheduled feeding or wheel running alter BDNF and NCAM1 expression levels in specific regions of the mesocorticolimbic pathway. These findings contribute to our current knowledge of the molecular alterations induced by ABA and may help elucidate possible mechanisms of AN pathology.
Taste and olfaction provide sensory information and sensory pleasure. Cancer therapies affect both. Chemotherapy has not been shown to produce dramatic losses of taste or smell, but systematic studies on various chemotherapeutic agents and types of cancer are lacking. Radiation therapy does produce clear losses of both taste and smell. Both chemotherapy and radiation therapy alter the pleasure produced by taste and smell through the formation of conditioned aversions. That is, foods consumed in proximity with the nausea of therapy come to be unpleasant. The impact of conditioned aversions can be diminished by providing a scapegoat food just before therapy. Alterations in foods may be beneficial to the cancer patient. Increasing the concentrations of flavor ingredients can compensate for sensory losses, and providing pureed foods that retain the cognitive integrity of a meal can benefit the patient who has chewing or swallowing problems
M. L.O. Maia
Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.
Omasaki, S.K.; Janssen, K.; Besson, M.; Komen, H.
The aim of the study was to derive the economic value (s) (EVs) of growth rate, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and uniformity for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A smallholder production system where fish are cultured in earthen ponds and oxygen is a limiting factor for
Bret Harvey; Steve Railsback
Drift-feeding models are essential components of broader models that link stream habitat to salmonid populations and community dynamics. But is an additional feeding mode needed for understanding and predicting salmonid population responses to streamflow and other environmental factors? We addressed this question by applying two versions of the individual-based model...
Kar, Soumya K.
This thesis presents FeedOmics approach as a toolkit, to evaluate (novel) protein containing feed ingredients of different origin considering both their nutritional and functional value in terms of their capacity to support or modify nutrient supply, the animal’s physiology, tissue development
Birds were initially offered one of two feeds with widely different protein to energy ratios until they reached a pre-defined liveweight, after which they were given one of two feed protein contents in Experiment 1 and four in Experiment 2. Their performance was monitored until a second pre-defined liveweight was reached, ...
Jiang, Weiwei; Zhang, Jie; Lv, Xiaofeng; Xu, Xiaoqun; Geng, Qiming; Tang, Weibing
The stoma of intermediate position enterostomy (IPE) often leads to high output, which is related to electrolyte abnormalities, and prolongs patient recovery post-operatively. The continuous nasogastric tube feeding method has the advantage of reducing the risk of feeding intolerance, and improves nutrient absorption. In the current study, we review our experience with continuous tube feeding and compare the clinical outcomes with intermittent oral feeding in patients with an IPE post-operatively. This was a retrospective review of 118 infants with IPEs in our hospital. The infants were categorized into two groups (intermittent oral feeding [OF] group [n=68 infants, 1-14 days of age] and continuous tube feeding [TF] group [n=50 infants, 1-14 days of age]). Differences in stool volume, daily intravenous fluid infusion, weight gain, nutrition indices, and post-operative complications were reviewed. The stool volume and intravenous fluid infusion in the TF group were less than the OF group from week 2. The weight gain was higher in the TF group than the OF group from week 3. The pre-albumin and retinol binding protein levels were significantly higher in the TF group than the OF group in weeks 3-4 post-operatively. The incidence of cholestasis and waterelectrolyte disturbances in the TF group was significantly lower than the OF group, and the incidence of intestinal obstruction was lower than the control group, but the differences were not significant. Continuous tube feeding had better clinical outcomes than intermittent oral feeding in IPE patients.
Chiang, R Gary; Chiang, Jennifer A
The blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus, has been raised in the laboratory for close to 100 years. Various feeding techniques have been employed ranging from the use of warm-blooded hosts, to the use of previously collected blood offered through artificial membranes. This study compared the fecundity in mated and unmated females fed rabbit blood directly from the shaved belly of a rabbit to that of females fed defibrinated rabbit blood through an artificial membrane. These results confirm previous reports that this insect's feeding efficacy is reduced using an artificial membrane. It also demonstrates for the first time that the fecundity index, which measures the efficiency of turning the blood meal into eggs, is significantly reduced. We suggest that the natural feeding on a warm-blooded host may provide cues that have the short-term effect of enhancing the act of feeding and the long-term effect of increasing egg production efficiency. Until an artificial feeding method that does not interfere with feeding and fecundity is devised, experiments on reproduction in R. prolixus warrant the use of a warm-blooded host to emulate feeding in its natural setting.
Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Alferink, S.J.J.; Giebels, R.M.M.; Gerrits, W.J.J.
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF) and feeding level (FL) on protein and energy metabolism in adapted, heavy preruminant calves. It was hypothesized that an increased FF would increase protein utilization by an improved synchrony between the supply of
Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Sällström, J.
In vertically parted molds it is traditionally difficult to feed heavy sections that cannot be reached by traditional side/top feeders or other conventional methods. This project aims at quantifying the effects of using molded-in ram-up spot feeders as a means of feeding isolated sections in cast...
the three highest dietary protein treatments. All birds made fat at 880 g and 1000 g, by giving them a low protein feed, had a much reduced fat content in their subsequent gain, provided that the protein content of the feed used was sufficiently high, indicating that they were making use of the excessive lipid reserves as an ...
McKean, Elissa B; Kasparian, Nadine A; Batra, Shweta; Sholler, Gary F; Winlaw, David S; Dalby-Payne, Jacqueline
Aim The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and potential correlates of feeding difficulties in infants who underwent cardiac surgery in the neonatal period and to investigate resource utilisation by infants with feeding difficulties. All neonates who underwent their first cardiac surgery at the Heart Centre for Children, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, between January and December, 2009 were included. Demographic, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected via electronic medical records. For the purpose of this study, feeding difficulty was defined as the requirement for ongoing tube feeding at the time of discharge home or transfer to another hospital. Out of a total of 79 neonates, 24 (30%) were discharged home or transferred to another hospital with a feeding tube. Feeding difficulties were associated with the presence of a genetic syndrome (pdifficulties had significantly more reviews by speech pathologists (M=5.9, SD=7.9), dieticians (M=5.9, SD=5.4), and cardiac clinical nurse consultants (M=1.2, SD=1.4) compared with those without feeding difficulties. This study identified factors that can be used in the early recognition of infant feeding difficulties, to help guide the direction of limited health resources, as well as being focal points for future research and clinical practice improvement.
Dindo T. Ani
Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.
Wardle, Jane; Carnell, Susan
Global increases in childhood obesity rates demand that we tackle the problem from many directions. One promising avenue is to explore the impact of parental feeding practices, particularly those related to parental control over children's intake. In this paper, we review studies of parent feeding and child adiposity covering a range of research methodologies (case-control studies, high risk studies, cross-sectional community studies and longitudinal cohort studies). We also present results from a cross-sectional community study of pre-schoolers (n = 439) and a longitudinal study of twins from ages of 4 to 7 years (n = 3175 pairs). We conclude that parents are more likely to encourage leaner than heavier children to eat, but relationships between adiposity and other parental feeding strategies are unclear. We suggest that future research should: (i) explore the impact of a comprehensive range of authoritative and authoritarian parental feeding behaviours, preferably using the same validated scales consistently across studies; (ii) test the generalisation of existing findings to diverse socio-economic and ethnic groups and (iii) utilise experimental, prospective and genetic methodologies to explore the causal relationships between parental feeding and child weight. We describe current projects in our own group that are designed to take forward these recommendations.
Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R
The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.
Full Text Available The experiment used 240 Landrace pigs assigned to 3 groups. The control group received ground dry feed; group 1 received wet feed 1/1, while group 2 received pelleted feed. The compound feeds were assayed with the Weende method. Compared to the control group, the 60 kg weight was reached three days later by the animals with wet feeding and four days earlier by the animals receiving pelleted feed. At the wet feeding, the average daily gain was 484 g, near control group (p ≤ 0.05 and the feed conversion ratio was 8.9% lower. Wet feeding is an economic alternative for pig feeding during heir first fattening stage, improving the local microclimate by the generation of less powders.
Suely Teresinha Schmidt Passos de Amorim
Full Text Available The aim of this study was the discourse analysis on breast feeding from 1960 through 1988 in Brazil, on articles published in famous women magazines. The focus of the study is the History area, mainly the Feeding History, with an interdisciplinary approach. The initial period – 1960 – is linked with the end of Juscelino Kubitschek’s Government, when the economy, guided by the industrial sector, had grown in relative and absolute terms. The final period – 1988 – characterizes the Brazilian Norm of Suckling Feeding Business approval, which restricted the milk powder marketing. The change on discourses enunciates was very evident. During the period the artificial breast feeding was stimulated, the discourse main enunciate was the women’s condition, women’s valorization and their right of freedom. With the re-encouragement to the women breast feeding the discourses were totally on this usage defense, minimizing women’s daily difficulties.
Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Egmond, van H.J.; Deckers, E.R.; Herbes, R.; Hooglught, J.; Olde Heuvel, E.; Jong, de J.
Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary
The Bachelor's Thesis deals the breast-feeding in term of difficulties, that can be found by mothers during a period of lactation. The Theoretical Part is discussing importance of the breast-feeding for a child, a mother and society and it includes instructions for the successful breast-feeding. There are especially mentioned the most frequent difficulties of the breast-feeding, prevention and finding solution of these difficulties. The consulting servise for the breast-feeding are mentioned,...
Nishii, Naohito; Takasu, Masaki; Ohba, Yasunori; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Kitoh, Katsuya; Ohtsuka, Yoshihiko; Honjo, Tsutomu; Saito, Masayuki; Kitagawa, Hitoshi
To investigate effects of short- and long- term administration of glucocorticoids, feeding status, and serum concentrations of insulin and cortisol on plasma leptin concentrations in dogs. 20 nonobese dogs. For experiment 1, plasma leptin concentrations and serum concentrations of insulin and cortisol were monitored for 24 hours in 4 dogs administered dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg, IV) or saline (0.9% NaCl) solution for fed and nonfed conditions. For experiment 2, 11 dogs were administered prednisolone (1 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 56 days [7 dogs] and 2 mg/kg, PO, q 24 h for 28 days [4 dogs]) and 5 dogs served as control dogs. Plasma leptin and serum insulin concentrations were monitored weekly. For experiment 1, dexamethasone injection with the fed condition drastically increased plasma leptin concentrations. Furthermore, injection of saline solution with the fed condition increased plasma leptin concentrations. These increases in plasma leptin concentrations correlated with increases in serum insulin concentrations. Dexamethasone injection with the nonfed condition increased plasma leptin concentrations slightly but continuously. Injection of saline solution with the nonfed condition did not alter plasma leptin concentrations. For experiment 2, prednisolone administration at either dosage and duration did not alter plasma leptin concentrations in any dogs. Dexamethasone injection and feeding increased plasma leptin concentrations in dogs. In addition, dexamethasone administration enhanced the effect of feeding on increases in plasma leptin concentrations. Daily oral administration of prednisolone (1 or 2 mg/kg) did not affect plasma leptin concentrations in dogs.
Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Ju; Wang, Binggen; Wu, Guoyao
Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic regulation of protein expression and functions include chromatin remodeling; DNA methylation (occurring at the 5´-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides); and histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination). Like maternal malnutrition, undernutrition during the neonatal period also reduces growth performance and feed efficiency (weight gain:feed intake; also known as weight-gain efficiency) in postweaning pigs by 5-10%, thereby increasing the days necessary to reach the market body-weight. Supplementing functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) and vitamins (e.g., folate) play a key role in activating the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and regulating the provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients are beneficial for the dietary treatment of metabolic disorders in offspring with intrauterine growth restriction or neonatal malnutrition. The mechanism-based strategies hold great promise for the improvement of the efficiency of pork production and the sustainability of the global swine industry.
Full Text Available Competition between direct consumption of plant production and the feeding of livestock is key to global food availability. This is because livestock consume edible commodities that could be available for (food insecure populations but also because it diverts arable land from food production. The share of total plant production redirected towards feeding livestock is (roughly known but estimations of land surfaces virtually occupied by livestock production are scarce. In this study, following up on the Agrimonde Terra** project, we estimate areas devoted to the feeding livestock. First, we estimate the protein composition of an averaged feed basket at the global scale in 2005 and detail the evolution of the protein-source feed component during the period 1961–2009. We focus on protein-rich crops such as oil crops and show its proportion in the global livestock diets has tripled since 1960, though only accounting for about one fourth of total proteins. Then, we estimate land virtually occupied by crop feed at the global scale using a set of straightforward hypotheses. Our estimates suggest that, although livestock and feed production has continuously increased and despite uncertainties in available data, competition for land between feed and food uses has decreased over the last two decades. The share of areas cultivated for feed requirements decreased from about 50% in the 1970s to 37% nowadays. This trend is attributable to the increase of crop yields and to a decrease of the share of cereals in livestock diets to the benefit of oilseeds by-products. However, estimating the share of total areas used for feed is complicated by the significant role played by by-products.
Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Markham, Laura; Kreipe, Richard E; Walsh, B Timothy
To review the literature related to the current DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria for feeding disorder of infancy or early childhood; pica; rumination disorder; and other childhood presentations that are characterized by avoidance of food or restricted food intake, with the purpose of informing options for DSM-V. Articles were identified by computerized and manual searches and reviewed to evaluate the evidence supporting possible options for revision of criteria. The study of childhood feeding and eating disturbances has been hampered by inconsistencies in classification and use of terminology. Greater clarity around subtypes of feeding and eating problems in children would benefit clinicians and patients alike. A number of suggestions supported by existing evidence are made that provide clearer descriptions of subtypes to improve clinical utility and to promote research.
Chen, P. Y. P.; Hahn, E. J.
To improve the damping capability of squeeze film dampers, oil hole feed rather than circumferential groove feed is a practical proposition. However, circular orbit response can no longer be assumed, significantly complicating the design analysis. This paper details a feasible transient solution procedure for such dampers, with particular emphasis on the additional difficulties due to the introduction of oil holes. It is shown how a cosine power series solution may be utilized to evaluate the oil hole pressure contributions, enabling appropriate tabular data to be compiled. The solution procedure is shown to be applicable even in the presence of flow restrictors, albeit at the expense of introducing an iteration at each time step. Though not of primary interest, the procedure is also applicable to dynamically loaded journal bearings with oil hole feed.
Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik
The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...
Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Biering-Sørensen, Fin
the temporality of the helper as a necessary condition. A particular meal draws on the experiences from all previous meals and is a significant forerunner of future meals. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: Nurses and other health care professionals working within settings where people with hcSCI are admitted right...... needing assisted feeding, but has the temporality of the helper as a necessary condition. A particular meal draws on the experiences from all previous meals and is a significant forerunner of future meals. CONCLUSIONS: Sensitive cooperation implies genuine acquaintance and sincere concern for the person...... after the injury have a responsibility to be meticulous when cooperating with the patients during assisted feeding. They create the basis for later cooperation with the personal assistants. Professionals working in institutions must assume that people with hcSCI are vulnerable and that assisted feeding...
Cade, David E; Friedlaender, Ari S; Calambokidis, John; Goldbogen, Jeremy A
Rorqual whales exhibit an extreme lunge filter-feeding strategy characterized by acceleration to high speed and engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water [1-4]. Although tagging studies have quantified the kinematics of lunge feeding, the timing of engulfment relative to body acceleration has been modeled conflictingly because it could never be directly measured [5-7]. The temporal coordination of these processes has a major impact on the hydrodynamics and energetics of this high-cost feeding strategy [5-9]. If engulfment and body acceleration are temporally distinct, the overall cost of this dynamic feeding event would be minimized. However, greater temporal overlap of these two phases would theoretically result in higher drag and greater energetic costs. To address this discrepancy, we used animal-borne synchronized video and 3D movement sensors to quantify the kinematics of both the skull and body during feeding events. Krill-feeding blue and humpback whales exhibited temporally distinct acceleration and engulfment phases, with humpback whales reaching maximum gape earlier than blue whales. In these whales, engulfment coincided largely with body deceleration; however, humpback whales pursuing more agile fish demonstrated highly variable coordination of skull and body kinematics in the context of complex prey-herding techniques. These data suggest that rorquals modulate the coordination of acceleration and engulfment to optimize foraging efficiency by minimizing locomotor costs and maximizing prey capture. Moreover, this newfound kinematic diversity observed among rorquals indicates that the energetic efficiency of foraging is driven both by the whale's engulfment capacity and the comparative locomotor capabilities of predator and prey. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buccini, Gabriela dos Santos; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama
To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding). Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as "baby friendly", required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.
Gabriela dos Santos Buccini
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.
Lu, Shaohua; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Xueli; Song, Danyang; Bai, Rune; Shi, Yan; Gu, Qinsheng; Kuo, Yen-Wen; Falk, Bryce W; Yan, Fengming
It is known that plant viruses can change the performance of their vectors. However, there have been no reports on whether or how a semipersistent plant virus manipulates the feeding behaviors of its whitefly vectors. Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) (genus Crinivirus , family Closteroviridae ) is an emergent plant virus in many Asian countries and is transmitted specifically by B and Q biotypes of tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), in a semipersistent manner. In the present study, we used electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique to investigate the effect of CCYV on the feeding behaviors of B. tabaci . The results showed that CCYV altered feeding behaviors of both biotypes and sexes of B. tabaci with different degrees. CCYV had stronger effects on feeding behaviors of Q biotype than those of B biotype, by increasing duration of phloem salivation and sap ingestion, and could differentially manipulate feeding behaviors of males and females in both biotype whiteflies, with more phloem ingestion in Q biotype males and more non-phloem probing in B biotype males than their respective females. With regard to feeding behaviors related to virus transmission, these results indicated that, when carrying CCYV, B. tabaci Q biotype plays more roles than B biotype, and males make greater contribution than females.
Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene
Restrictive dietary interventions exert significant beneficial physiological effects in terms of aging and age-related disease in many species. Every other day feeding (EOD) has been utilized in aging research and shown to mimic many of the positive outcomes consequent with dietary restriction. This study employed long living Ames dwarf mice subjected to EOD feeding to examine the adaptations of the oxidative phosphorylation and antioxidative defense systems to this feeding regimen. Every other day feeding lowered liver glutathione (GSH) concentrations in dwarf and wild type (WT) mice but altered GSH biosynthesis and degradation in WT mice only. The activities of liver OXPHOS enzymes and corresponding proteins declined in WT mice fed EOD while in dwarf animals, the levels were maintained or increased with this feeding regimen. Antioxidative enzymes were differentially affected depending on the tissue, whether proliferative or post-mitotic. Gene expression of components of liver methionine metabolism remained elevated in dwarf mice when compared to WT mice as previously reported however, enzymes responsible for recycling homocysteine to methionine were elevated in both genotypes in response to EOD feeding. The data suggest that the differences in anabolic hormone levels likely affect the sensitivity of long living and control mice to this dietary regimen, with dwarf mice exhibiting fewer responses in comparison to WT mice. These results provide further evidence that dwarf mice may be better protected against metabolic and environmental perturbations which may in turn, contribute to their extended longevity. © 2013.
The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system
Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W
A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.
McCormick, Felicia M; Tosh, Karen; McGuire, William
Scheduled interval feeding of prescribed enteral volumes is current standard practice for preterm infants. However, feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (ad libitum or demand/semi demand) rather than at scheduled intervals might help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge. To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding prescribed volumes at scheduled intervals on growth rates and the time to hospital discharge. We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group. This included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2009), MEDLINE (1966 to Oct 2009), EMBASE (1980 to Oct 2009), CINAHL (1982 to Oct 2009), conference proceedings, and previous reviews. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials (including cluster randomised trials) that compared a policy of feeding preterm infants on an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand basis versus feeding at scheduled intervals. We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group with separate evaluation of trial quality and data extraction by two review authors. We found eight randomised controlled trials that compared ad libitum or demand/semi-demand regimens with scheduled interval regimes in preterm infants in the transition phase from intragastric tube to oral feeding. The trials were generally small and of variable methodological quality. The duration of the intervention and the duration of data collection and follow-up in most of the trials was not likely to have allowed detection of measurable effects on growth. Three trials reported that feeding preterm infants using an ad libitum or demand/semi-demand feeding regimen allowed earlier discharge from hospital (by about two to four days) but other trials did not confirm this
Stenman, Lotta K; Holma, Reetta; Korpela, Riitta
To investigate whether high-fat-feeding is associated with increased intestinal permeability via alterations in bile acid metabolism. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed on a high-fat (n = 26) or low-fat diet (n = 24) for 15 wk. Intestinal permeability was measured from duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon in an Ussing chamber system using 4 kDa FITC-labeled dextran as an indicator. Fecal bile acids were analyzed with gas chromatography. Segments of jejunum and colon were analyzed for the expression of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Intestinal permeability was significantly increased by high-fat feeding in jejunum (median 0.334 for control vs 0.393 for high-fat, P = 0.03) and colon (0.335 for control vs 0.433 for high-fat, P = 0.01), but not in duodenum or ileum. The concentration of nearly all identified bile acids was significantly increased by high-fat feeding (P acid (UDCA) in all bile acids was decreased (1.4% ± 0.1% in high-fat vs 2.8% ± 0.3% in controls, P fat feeding also increased jejunal FXR expression, as well as TNF expression along the intestine, especially in the colon. High-fat-feeding increased intestinal permeability, perhaps by a mechanism related to bile acid metabolism, namely a decreased proportion of fecal UDCA and increased FXR expression.
Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV =8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each fourheads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattlewas given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1%and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hoursand was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. Theresults showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P<0.01and daily BWGain (P<0.05, but the effect was not found (P>0.05 on DMI, length time for eating(196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time(37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This researchshowed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and ruminationcompared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.
Pineda, Roberta; Luong, Anhthi; Ryckman, Justin; Smith, Joan
Mothers are often advised not to use pacifiers until breastfeeding has been well-established. This study determined the infant and social factors that were related to pacifier use during the first few days of life and whether it led to alterations in feeding performance. We enroled 51 full-term infants and their mothers at Barnes-Jewish Hospital in urban St. Louis, USA, in 2015. Before they were discharged the mothers completed a questionnaire, and infant feeding was assessed using a standardised assessment. There were 24 (47%) infants who used a pacifier during the first few days of life and seven (29%) of these were exclusively breastfed. Pacifier use was less common among mothers who exclusively breastfed (p = 0.04). Pacifier use was more common among mothers whose income was less than 25 000 US dollars (p = 0.02), who were single (p = 0.002) and who did not have a college education (p = 0.03). No associations between pacifier use and feeding performance were observed. While lower socioeconomic status was related to pacifier use, feeding performance in the first few days of life was no different between those infants who did and did not use pacifiers after a full-term birth. ©2018 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Although the increasing concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 accelerates the accumulation of carbohydrates and increases the biomass and yield of C3 crop plants, it also reduces their nitrogen status. The consequent changes in primary and secondary metabolites affect the palatability of host plants and the feeding of herbivorous insects. Aphids are phloem feeders and are considered the only feeding guild that positively responds to elevated CO2. In this review, we consider how elevated CO2 modifies host defenses, nutrients, and water-use efficiency by altering concentrations of the phytohormones jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, ethylene, and abscisic acid. We will describe how these elevated CO2-induced changes in defenses, nutrients, and water status facilitate specific stages of aphid feeding, including penetration, phloem-feeding, and xylem absorption. We conclude that a better understanding of the effects of elevated CO2 on aphids and on aphid damage to crop plants will require research on the molecular aspects of the interaction between plant and aphid but also research on aphid interactions with their intra- and inter-specific competitors and with their natural enemies.
Milićević Dragan R.
Full Text Available The effect of ochratoxin A in feed for pigs, and the incidence of its residue in liver and kidney were investigated. The samples were taken from farms and corresponding slaughterhouse in different areas of Serbia. The criteria for OTA residue examination in the mentioned tissues were macroscopic alterations in kidneys, that is a marked kidney ischemia. 14 feed samples, 12 kidney samples and 12 liver samples in total were examined. The average OTA concentration in feed was 25,24 g/kg (0,0-85 g/kg. The presence of the OTA residue was found in all of examined tissues samples. The average OTA concentration in kidneys was 2,37 g/kg (1,0-8,2 g/kg, in liver was 2,66 g/kg (1,2-5,5 g/kg. The experiment showed that the average OTA concentration in feed of farm A in contrast to farm B was significantly low (p < 0,05, in liver was significantly lower (p < 0,01, while in kidneys was not significantly low (p < 0,05. The correlation between these three findings was postulated and discussed.
Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV = 8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each four heads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattle was given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1% and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hours and was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. The results showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P0.05 on DMI, length time for eating (196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time (37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This research showed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and rumination compared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.
Maegan L. Askew
Full Text Available This study used immunohistochemical methods to investigate the possibility that hypothalamic neurons that contain 11-β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (HSD2 are involved in the control of feeding by rats via neuroanatomical associations with the α subtype of estrogen receptor (ERα, catecholamines, and/or oxytocin. An aggregate of HSD2-containing neurons is located laterally in the hypothalamus, and the numbers of these neurons were greatly increased by estradiol treatment in ovariectomized rats compared to numbers in male rats and in ovariectomized rats that were not given estradiol. However, HSD2-containing neurons were anatomically segregated from ERα-containing neurons in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus and the Arcuate Nucleus. There was an absence of oxytocin-immunolabeled fibers in the area of HSD2-labeled neurons. Taken together, these findings provide no support for direct associations between hypothalamic HSD2 and ERα or oxytocin neurons in the control of feeding. In contrast, there was catecholamine-fiber labeling in the area of HSD2-labeled neurons, and these fibers occasionally were in close apposition to HSD2-labeled neurons. Therefore, we cannot rule out interactions between HSD2 and catecholamines in the control of feeding; however, given the relative sparseness of the appositions, any such interaction would appear to be modest. Thus, these studies do not conclusively identify a neuroanatomical substrate by which HSD2-containing neurons in the hypothalamus may alter feeding, and leave the functional role of hypothalamic HSD2-containing neurons subject to further investigation.
Zahoor-ul-Hassan, M. Zargham Khan*, Ahrar Khan and Ijaz Javed1
Full Text Available Mycotoxins are among the most important environmental contaminants. In the present study, ochratoxin A (OTA was produced by propagation of Aspergillus ochraceus and fed to breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. Group A served as control, while groups B, C, D, E, F and G were fed OTA at 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg feed, respectively for 3 weeks. Clinical signs, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and egg mass production were recorded on daily basis, while body weight was recorded on weekly basis. Lesions on visceral organs and serum biochemical parameters were determined. Significant decrease in feed intake, body weight and egg mass production was found in the OTA treated groups compared to control (P<0.05. Among different groups, diarrhea, unthriftiness, water intake and depression increased with increase in dietary OTA levels. Enlargement and hemorrhages on liver and kidney were more severe in birds fed higher dietary OTA levels. Serum ALT, urea, creatinine and total protein levels were significantly higher in OTA treated groups. It was concluded that production performance, pathological alterations and serum biochemical changes determined became more severe with increase in dietary levels of OTA.
Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven R.; Burt, Adam O.; Martin, Adam K.; Martinez, Armando; Seixal, Joao F.; Mauro, Stephanie
The design of an in-space iodine-vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system is described. The solid-iodine propellant tank has unique issues associated with the microgravity environment, requiring a solution where the iodine is maintained in intimate thermal contact with the heated tank walls. The flow control valves required alterations from earlier iterations to survive for extended periods of time in the corrosive iodine-vapor environment. Materials have been selected for the entire feed system that can chemically resist the iodine vapor, with the design now featuring Hastelloy or Inconel for almost all the wetted components. An integrated iodine feed system/Hall thruster demonstration unit was fabricated and tested, with all control being handled by an onboard electronics card specifically designed to operate the feed system. Structural analysis shows that the feed system can survive launch loads after the implementation of some minor reinforcement. Flow modeling, while still requiring significant additional validation, is presented to show its potential in capturing the behavior of components in this low-flow, low-pressure system.
Full Text Available Animals' attitudes to risk are profoundly influenced by metabolic state (hunger and baseline energy stores. Specifically, animals often express a preference for risky (more variable food sources when below a metabolic reference point (hungry, and safe (less variable food sources when sated. Circulating hormones report the status of energy reserves and acute nutrient intake to widespread targets in the central nervous system that regulate feeding behaviour, including brain regions strongly implicated in risk and reward based decision-making in humans. Despite this, physiological influences per se have not been considered previously to influence economic decisions in humans. We hypothesised that baseline metabolic reserves and alterations in metabolic state would systematically modulate decision-making and financial risk-taking in humans.We used a controlled feeding manipulation and assayed decision-making preferences across different metabolic states following a meal. To elicit risk-preference, we presented a sequence of 200 paired lotteries, subjects' task being to select their preferred option from each pair. We also measured prandial suppression of circulating acyl-ghrelin (a centrally-acting orexigenic hormone signalling acute nutrient intake, and circulating leptin levels (providing an assay of energy reserves. We show both immediate and delayed effects on risky decision-making following a meal, and that these changes correlate with an individual's baseline leptin and changes in acyl-ghrelin levels respectively.We show that human risk preferences are exquisitely sensitive to current metabolic state, in a direction consistent with ecological models of feeding behaviour but not predicted by normative economic theory. These substantive effects of state changes on economic decisions perhaps reflect shared evolutionarily conserved neurobiological mechanisms. We suggest that this sensitivity in human risk-preference to current metabolic state has
Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.
A variety of mineralogical and geochemical indicators for aqueous alteration on Mars have been identified by a combination of surface and orbital robotic missions, telescopic observations, characterization of Martian meteorites, and laboratory and terrestrial analog studies. Acid sulfate alteration has been identified at all three landing sites visited by NASA rover missions (Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity). Spirit landed in Gusev crater in 2004 and discovered Fe-sulfates and materials that have been extensively leached by acid sulfate solutions. Opportunity landing on the plains of Meridiani Planum also in 2004 where the rover encountered large abundances of jarosite and hematite in sedimentary rocks. Curiosity landed in Gale crater in 2012 and has characterized fluvial, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments. Jarosite and hematite were discovered in some of the lacustrine sediments. The high elemental abundance of sulfur in surface materials is obvious evidence that sulfate has played a major role in aqueous processes at all landing sites on Mars. The sulfate-rich outcrop at Meridiani Planum has an SO3 content of up to 25 wt.%. The interiors of rocks and outcrops on the Columbia Hills within Gusev crater have up to 8 wt.% SO3. Soils at both sites generally have between 5 to 14 wt.% SO3, and several soils in Gusev crater contain around 30 wt.% SO3. After normalization of major element compositions to a SO3-free basis, the bulk compositions of these materials are basaltic, with a few exceptions in Gusev crater and in lacustrine mudstones in Gale crater. These observations suggest that materials encountered by the rovers were derived from basaltic precursors by acid sulfate alteration under nearly isochemical conditions (i.e., minimal leaching). There are several cases, however, where acid sulfate alteration minerals (jarosite and hematite) formed in open hydrologic systems, e.g., in Gale crater lacustrine mudstones. Several hypotheses have been suggested for the
Lohia, Neha; Udipi, Shobha A
Infant and child feeding index (ICFI) an age-specific index, can be used to assess child feeding practices. We used the ICFI to assess feeding practices for urban slum children and the association between ICFI and child nutritional status. 446 children aged 6 to 24 months from urban slums of Mumbai, India were studied. We used the 24-hour diet recall to study dietary diversity and a food frequency questionnaire for consumption of food groups during the preceding week. ICFI was computed using five components, namely, breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity score (DDS), food group frequency score (FGFS) and feeding frequency scores (FFS). Weight, height and Mid-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) were measured, and z scores were calculated. Association between ICFI scores and nutritional status was examined. The mean total ICFI score for all was 5.9 ± 1.9. Among the five components, FGFS and FFS differed between children 12 months and by breast feeding status. In contrast, there were no differences vis-à-vis dietary diversity scores (DDS), breast feeding, and use of bottle. Non-breastfed children had significantly higher DDS scores than did breastfed children. The mean feeding frequency score (FFS) for children children >12 months of age. Mother's age and child's age were significant determinants of ICFI. Multivariate analysis indicated that ICFI was significantly associated with Length-for-Age z scores (LAZ) and BMI-for-Age z scores (BAZ). Sensitivity of ICFI was lower than its specificity. The results of the present study confirmed that the ICFI can be used to collect information on key components of young child feeding practices and be incorporated into public-health programmes. Further, it could be used to determine the influence of complementary feeding practices on nutritional status of children.
Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.
Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups of breeds will be divided into two feed efficiency groups depending on their feed efficiency status which......-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology...
Williams, Paul M.; Faller, Kenneth M.; Bauer, Edward J.
A compression device for feeding a waste material to a reactor includes a waste material feed assembly having a hopper, a supply tube and a compression tube. Each of the supply and compression tubes includes feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends. A feed-discharge valve assembly is located between the feed-outlet end of the compression tube and the reactor. A feed auger-screw extends axially in the supply tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. A compression auger-screw extends axially in the compression tube between the feed-inlet and feed-outlet ends thereof. The compression tube is sloped downwardly towards the reactor to drain fluid from the waste material to the reactor and is oriented at generally right angle to the supply tube such that the feed-outlet end of the supply tube is adjacent to the feed-inlet end of the compression tube. A programmable logic controller is provided for controlling the rotational speed of the feed and compression auger-screws for selectively varying the compression of the waste material and for overcoming jamming conditions within either the supply tube or the compression tube.
... Methamphetamine Alters Brain Structures, Impairs Mental Flexibility Email Facebook Twitter March 20, 2014 A new study adds to the copious existing evidence that chronic exposure to addictive drugs alters the brain in ways that make ...
Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Mark, Thomas; Jensen, Just
The objective of this study was to develop random regression models and estimate covariance functions for daily feed intake (DFI) in Danish Duroc pigs. A total of 476201 DFI records were available on 6542 Duroc boars between 70 to 160 days of age. The data originated from the National test station......-year-season, permanent, and animal genetic effects. The functional form was based on Legendre polynomials. A total of 64 models for random regressions were initially ranked by BIC to identify the approximate order for the Legendre polynomials using AI-REML. The parsimonious model included Legendre polynomials of 2nd....... Eigenvalues of the genetic covariance function showed that 33% of genetic variability was explained by the individual genetic curve of the pigs. This proportion was covered by linear (27%) and quadratic (6%) coefficients. Genetic eigenfunctions revealed that altering the shape of the feed intake curve...
Hardaway, J A; Crowley, N A; Bulik, C M; Kash, T L
Eating disorders are complex brain disorders that afflict millions of individuals worldwide. The etiology of these diseases is not fully understood, but a growing body of literature suggests that stress and anxiety may play a critical role in their development. As our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to disease in clinical populations like anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder continue to grow, neuroscientists are using animal models to understand the neurobiology of stress and feeding. We hypothesize that eating disorder clinical phenotypes may result from stress-induced maladaptive alterations in neural circuits that regulate feeding, and that these circuits can be neurochemically isolated using animal model of eating disorders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... anticipates handling and the destination point of each lot of fruit and receives from the committee a special...
substrate. Coetzee (1982) agrees that G. aestuarius filter feeds throughout most of its length range but suggests that the larger prey items are actively caught. This study attempts to define the numerical importance of individual prey items from a riverine environment and to assess the degree of morphological adaptation in G.
Jul 4, 2008 ... Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds. Phakamile T. Mngadi1, Roshini Govinden2, and Bharti Odhav1*. 1Department of Biotechnology, M.L. Sultan Campus, Durban University of Technology, P.O. Box 1334, Durban 4000,. South Africa. 2Medical Research Council, PO Box 70380, Over port 4091, ...
Reintam Blaser, Annika; Starkopf, Liis; Deane, Adam M
BACKGROUND & AIMS: While feeding intolerance (FI) is clinically important in the critically ill it is inconsistently defined. By evaluating definitions of FI based on relationships between symptoms and signs of gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction and mortality the objective was to define FI using...
Dock, Lavinia L
Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives for more than a century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times. This month's article, from the March 1910 issue, addresses the force-feeding of female political prisoners in Great Britain. It was written by nurse and social activist Lavinia Dock, a cofounder of the Nurses Associated Alumnae (which later became the American Nurses Association) and the International Council of Nurses and a contributing editor to AJN. Dock wrote, "Among the prisoners thus cruelly treated have been several nurses." She shared physicians' outrage that the Home Office ordered the force-feeding but tried to place responsibility for the practice entirely on prison physicians. More than a century later, the force-feeding of political prisoners continues to raise ethical and legal issues within the nursing and medical communities (see "Ethical Issues for Nurses in Force-Feeding Guantánamo Bay Detainees" in this issue).
The aim of this study was to compare the complementary feeding practices between mothers with twins and mothers with singletons. Methods: mother-infant pairs (50 mother-twin pairs and 50 mother-singleton pairs) with children aged 6 to 23 months were recruited from two public health clinics and communities in Tema ...
... Warmblooded Animals Other Than Dogs, Cats, Rabbits, Hamsters, Guinea Pigs, Nonhuman Primates, and Marine... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.129 Section 3.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL...
... (ADAA) (Pub. L. 104-250) to facilitate the approval and marketing of new animal drugs and medicated... enacted the ADAA to facilitate the approval and marketing of new animal drugs and medicated feeds. As part...) and its Principles of Veterinary Medical Ethics,\\1\\ which acts as a unifying standard for all...
Schwarz, Steven M.
This article describes an approach to evaluating and managing feeding disorders in children with developmental disabilities and examines effects of these management strategies on growth and clinical outcomes. A structured approach is stressed and a diagnostic and treatment algorithm is presented. Use with 79 children found that diagnostic-specific…
Tamburello, D.; Dimenna, Richard; Lee, Si
The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 32 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, with the supernate surface at a minimum height of approximately 74.4 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer with a flow rate of 110 gpm. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank toward the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results shows that, for the minimum tank liquid level of 105 inches above the tank bottom (which corresponds to a liquid depth of 74.4 inches above the sludge layer), the evaporator feed pump will contain less than 0.1 wt% sludge solids in the discharge stream, which is an order of magnitude less than the 1.0 wt% undissolved solids (UDS) loading criteria to feed the evaporator. Lower liquid levels with respect to the sludge layer will result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased plunging jet velocity from the downcomer disturbing the sludge layer
Tamburello, D; Si Lee, S; Richard Dimenna, R
The transfer of liquid salt solution from Tank 26 to an evaporator is to be accomplished by activating the evaporator feed pump, located approximately 72 inches above the sludge layer, while simultaneously turning on the downcomer. Previously, activation of the evaporator feed pump was an isolated event without any other components running at the same time. An analysis of the dissolved solution transfer has been performed using computational fluid dynamics methods to determine the amount of entrained sludge solids pumped out of the tank to the evaporator with the downcomer turned on. The analysis results showed that, for the maximum and minimum supernate levels in Tank 26 (252.5 and 72 inches above the sludge layer, respectively), the evaporator feed pump will entrain between 0.05 and 0.1 wt% sludge solids weight fraction into the eductor, respectively. Lower tank liquid levels, with respect to the sludge layer, result in higher amounts of sludge entrainment due to the increased velocity of the plunging jets from the downcomer and evaporator feed pump bypass as well as decreased dissipation depth
Vuuren, van A.M.; Pineiro, C.; Hoek, Van der K.W.; Oenema, O.
Livestock retains typically between 10 and 40 % of the protein-nitrogen in the animal feed in milk, egg and/or meat, depending also on animal productivity and management. The remaining 60–90 % of the nitrogen (N) is excreted in urine and faeces, and contributes to the emissions of ammonia (NH3) and
Nair, S.R.S.; Achuthankutty, C.T.; Bhattathiri, P.M.A.; Madhupratap, M.
The salp Thalia democratica was found to feed on Chaetoceros sp. continuously during the entire experimental period of 24 hours. The rate of consumption (0.09-0.16% animal sup(-1) h sup(-1)), however, did not differ significantly. Faecal output also...
Florida State Dept. of Health and Rehabilitative Services, Tallahassee.
In the interest of promoting good health, sanitation, and safety practices in the operation of child feeding programs, this bulletin discusses practices in personal grooming and wearing apparel; the purchasing, storage, handling, and serving of food; sanitizing equipment and utensils; procedures to follow in case of a food poisoning outbreak; some…
Lutter, C K
To describe growth patterns of young children in Latin America and the Caribbean, the types of nationally representative data available on complementary feeding practices and complementary feeding practices. Data on growth, timing of introduction of liquids and foods, and complementary feeding practices were abstracted from nationally representative surveys. The high prevalence of stunting relative to the low prevalence of underweight is striking, with the "average" child in the region, with the exception of the Haitian child, short and chubby. The focus of the demographic and health surveys continues to be on undernutrition with only one question, intake of sugary foods, related foods that may have consequences for adult health. The United States has more comprehensive information; Mexico has information on beverage consumption and Brazil on soft drink and biscuit or snack consumption. In 14 of 19 countries, fewer than half of infants are exclusively breastfed for the first 6 months of life, indicating an early introduction of liquids and complementary foods. Among the 5 countries with data on the intake of sugary foods, intake in the previous 24 h among children 6-23 months of age ranged from 14% to 79%. The absence of data to characterize complementary feeding diets as they relate to risk of overweight and chronic diseases in the Region of the Americas calls attention to the need to improve data collection frameworks and methods to address this important gap in knowledge. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.
and 12-18 months of age, the daily nutrient intakes were 88%, 121% and 94% for energy; 33%, 52% and 59% for iron and 30%, 33% and 38% for calcium, respectively. Fortification of complementary foods is necessary to meet infants' needs for iron and calcium. Keywords: Complementary feeding, infants, iron, Zambia.
Rayfield, Emily J
It has been suggested that the large theropod dinosaur Tyrannosaurus rex was capable of producing extremely powerful bite forces and resisting multi-directional loading generated during feeding. Contrary to this suggestion is the observation that the cranium is composed of often loosely articulated facial bones, although these bones may have performed a shock-absorption role. The structural analysis technique finite element analysis (FEA) is employed here to investigate the functional morphology and cranial mechanics of the T. rex skull. In particular, I test whether the skull is optimized for the resistance of large bi-directional feeding loads, whether mobile joints are adapted for the localized resistance of feeding-induced stress and strain, and whether mobile joints act to weaken or strengthen the skull overall. The results demonstrate that the cranium is equally adapted to resist biting or tearing forces and therefore the 'puncture-pull' feeding hypothesis is well supported. Finite-element-generated stress-strain patterns are consistent with T. rex cranial morphology: the maxilla-jugal suture provides a tensile shock-absorbing function that reduces localized tension yet 'weakens' the skull overall. Furthermore, peak compressive and shear stresses localize in the nasals rather than the fronto-parietal region as seen in Allosaurus, offering a reason why robusticity is commonplace in tyrannosaurid nasals. Copyright 2004 The Royal Society
Villiers et al., 1993). Table 1 Number of ewes and lambs used, supplement consumed by lambs, average daily gain (ADG), weaning weight of lambs and pasture height of Italian ryegrass during two seasons. Treatments. Control (no creep feed) Forward creep. Amount supplemented (g/day). 100. 250. Ad lib. Season 1:.
Vu Hai, P.
Environmental driven changes in meat goat production systems in Vietnam require the use of new feedstuffs in the diets for goats. The introduction of novel feedstuffs to young goats is often associated with a reduced feed intake, daily gain and welfare. The work presented here investigated different
Nekitsing, C.; Madrelle, J.; Barends, C.; Graaf, de C.; Parrott, H.; Morgan, S.; Weenen, H.; Hetherington, M.M.
Introduction: The aim of this study was to validate a novel tool developed to measure liking and wanting in infants during the weaning period. The Feeding Infants: Behaviour and Facial Expression Coding System (FIBFECS; Hetherington et al., in press) is an evidence based video coding tool,
Ferguson, Amber R; Huber, Daniel R; Lajeunesse, Marc J; Motta, Philip J
Feeding performance is an organism's ability to capture and handle prey. Although bite force is a commonly used metric of feeding performance, other factors such as bite pressure and strike speed are also likely to affect prey capture. Therefore, this study investigated static bite force, dynamic speeds, and predator and prey forces resulting from ram strikes, as well as bite pressure of the king mackerel, Scomberomorus cavalla, in order to examine their relative contributions to overall feeding performance. Theoretical posterior bite force ranged from 14.0-318.7 N. Ram speed, recorded with a rod and reel incorporated with a line counter and video camera, ranged from 3.3-15.8B L/s. Impact forces on the prey ranged from 0.1-1.9 N. Bite pressure, estimated using theoretical bite forces at three gape angles and tooth cross-sectional areas, ranged from 1.7-56.9 MPa. Mass-specific bite force for king mackerel is relatively low in comparison with other bony fishes and sharks, with relatively little impact force applied to the prey during the strike. This suggests that king mackerel rely on high velocity chases and high bite pressure generated via sharp, laterally compressed teeth to maximize feeding performance. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Scientific Committee on Animal Nutrition
The Statement reacts to the EFSA "Information request on the use of hemp-derived products as animal feed, the transfer of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC, and related compounds) from hemp in food products and on the maximum tolerable levels of those compounds in humans’ food“.
Comparison of the structure of the feeding appendages of these two marine mysid species allows dietary inferences supplementing data derived from gut content analyses. Both species occur in abundance in the surf zone off sandy beaches where they contribute significantly to energy transfer through the food web.
Jan 12, 2015 ... Key Words: Olive baboons, Conservation, Feeding behaviour, Wild fruits. Introducion. Effective management of animals inside. Zoological gardens and similar environment requires considerable knowledge of the interaction between them and their environment. One of the animal that is of global interests ...
... time digesting cow's milk. Do not feed your baby any solid food until 4 to 6 months old. Your baby ... away or by not opening their mouth. Your baby begins showing interest in food when others are eating. When to Call the ...
feed reduces the meat production of sheep. Agroforestry offers the potential for better herd management, ... species are available year-round and can supply valuable nutrition during this period. The project will test different species of woody forage crops for nutritional content, sheep preference, and sheep growth rates, and ...
The past few years have seen a steep increase in journal articles relating to feeding and eating disorders in children, making a succinct overview timely. The relevance of this review is enhanced by the recent publication of revised feeding and eating disorder diagnostic criteria in DSM-5. These have significant implications for younger patients, in particular through the inclusion of the new diagnostic category Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID). It is likely that this will encourage increased research interest in this field. Recent publications included in this article cover a broad range of topics relevant to childhood feeding and eating disorders, to include: presentation, diagnosis and classification; epidemiology; risk factors; assessment measures; treatment, prognosis and outcome. The area of feeding and eating disorders in children remains relatively under-researched, with significant gaps in knowledge about epidemiology, course and prognosis as well as a limited evidence base for treatment. However, important and promising avenues are increasingly being explored. In relation to clinical practice, there is now a much better recognition of these disorders and a greater awareness of their complexity, severity and potential impact in both the short and the longer term if not appropriately managed.
Lessells, C.M.; Poelman, E.H.; Mateman, A.C.; Cassey, Ph.
When parent birds arrive at the nest to provision their young, their position on the nest rim may influence which chick or chicks are fed. As a result, the consistency of feeding positions of the individual parents, and the difference in position between the parents, may affect how equitably food is
... can I start giving my baby water? Print en español Preguntas frecuentes sobre la alimentación con fórmula: Cómo comenzar la alimentación con sólidos y leche Whether you've decided to formula feed your ...
Diet elucidation: Supplementary inferences from mysid feeding appendage morphology. P. Webb* and T.H. Wooldridge. Institute of Coastal Research and Department of Zoology, University of Port Elizabeth, P.O. Box 1600, Port Elizabeth,. 6000 Republic of South Africa. Received 9 August 1988; accepted 24 October 1988.
Fisheries is an important food production sub-sector, providing almost 20% of the world's protein supply; however, the trend in fish production from capture fisheries has reached its limits due to overfishing. A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of two locally formulated feeds as possible replacements for an ...
Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.
This business plan focuses on the establishment of a poultry feed factory, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Tete Province, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers come from other
Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel
This chapter summarizes recent years’ studies on zoobenthic filter feeding in the sea. General principles are extracted based on experiments and mathematical modeling, mainly from own studies in shallow temperate Danish waters, in order to present primary characteristics of the sophisticated inte...
A review of research showed that school feeding programs (SFP) in elementary schools of developing nations do have a positive impact on student enrollment and school attendance. However, research studies examining the impact of SFP's on academic performance were inconclusive. Research findings are used to make recommendations for SFP design. (RM)
Apr 22, 1981 ... was found in the utilization of the white and black rhino- ceros. They have a naked substrate, few tick species that are utilized, large and open nostrils and are tolerant. Wound feeding was not taken into consideration because of the absence of filariid infested skin lesions in white rhinoceros (Schultz & Kluge ...
Hertzmark, D.; Gould, B.
This report presents results of econometric estimations and mathematical simulations of markets for joint feed products of motor ethanol. The major issues considered are the nature of current market price relationships, effects on prices, including feed substitutes prices, and effects of demands for increased use of distillers' grains and gluten meal. The econometric section shows that soybean meal was by far the dominant force in the pricing of the two products. However, neither one could be adequately explained without the inclusion of corn in the estimating equations. Later research shows that this was due to the importance of both feeds for metabolizable energy as well as for protein in livestock diets. Current ration formulations would require some discounting of the value of the protein content of the two feeds. Careful siting of the ethanol facilities, and flexible design of the plants so that a maximum number of products may be extracted from the feedstock, seem necessary. Finally, the analysis indicates that substitution in animal diets of these joint products for the corn or milo used originally requires that additional energy be supplied to the animal by some type of forage crop. This implies that additional land may be required for energy production, for such marginal crops as hay and alfalfa, rather than for row crops.
Gibbons, J.W.; Sharitz, R.R.
The studies summarized emphasize that heated effluents may function to enrich or to stress an ecosystem, depending upon the biological feature examined. However, the potential for negative impact on aquatic environments must not be underestimated. The ultimate consequences of the sometimes drastic alteration of behavior patterns and life-history phenomena in the surviving inhabitants of thermal areas have yet to be assessed. The relatively short time span of thermal field studies has not allowed thorough understanding of the biological chain reactions that may take place as physiological and genetic adjustments are made. Ensuing changes in species interactions, practically uninvestigated at this time, may create heretofore unsuspected ecosystem changes. Man's challenge for the future is to gain a more thorough comprehension of thermal ecology and to determine how waste heat may be used as an energy subsidy rather than a stress to aquatic systems. These and subsequent studies may assist in understanding how natural ecosystems respond to temperature elevation and will lead to the development of concepts and principles pertaining to thermally altered environmental systems. (U.S.)
Voigt, Robin M; Forsyth, Christopher B; Green, Stefan J; Mutlu, Ece; Engen, Phillip; Vitaterna, Martha H; Turek, Fred W; Keshavarzian, Ali
Intestinal dysbiosis and circadian rhythm disruption are associated with similar diseases including obesity, metabolic syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite the overlap, the potential relationship between circadian disorganization and dysbiosis is unknown; thus, in the present study, a model of chronic circadian disruption was used to determine the impact on the intestinal microbiome. Male C57BL/6J mice underwent once weekly phase reversals of the light:dark cycle (i.e., circadian rhythm disrupted mice) to determine the impact of circadian rhythm disruption on the intestinal microbiome and were fed either standard chow or a high-fat, high-sugar diet to determine how diet influences circadian disruption-induced effects on the microbiome. Weekly phase reversals of the light:dark (LD) cycle did not alter the microbiome in mice fed standard chow; however, mice fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet in conjunction with phase shifts in the light:dark cycle had significantly altered microbiota. While it is yet to be established if some of the adverse effects associated with circadian disorganization in humans (e.g., shift workers, travelers moving across time zones, and in individuals with social jet lag) are mediated by dysbiosis, the current study demonstrates that circadian disorganization can impact the intestinal microbiota which may have implications for inflammatory diseases.
Stewart, Jamie; Dempster, Robert; Allen, Robin; Miller-Tate, Holly; Dickson, Gabrielle; Fichtner, Samantha; Principe, Alex J; Fonseca, Rachel; Nicholson, Lisa; Cua, Clifford L
Improved weight gain during the interstage (IS) period has been shown to improve overall outcomes in patients with single ventricle physiology (SVP). This emphasis on nutrition may have untoward effects, such as increasing anxiety/stress levels in caregivers, who are already known to be at risk for increased anxiety/stress levels. The goal of this study was to evaluate anxiety/stress levels of caregivers as it pertains to feeding during the IS period and to determine if certain characteristics were associated with higher anxiety/stress scores. Caregivers of children with SVP who completed the IS period, defined as the time between the first and second cardiac surgeries, were recruited. Baseline demographics were obtained. Anxiety/stress levels were measured via eight questions using a 0- to 10-point scale. Correlations were performed between demographic variables and anxiety/stress level scores. Fifty-six surveys were completed (39 males, 27 females) on 43 children. Fourteen children required tube feeds during the IS period. There were significant correlations between anxiety/stress scores and caregiver's gender, caregiver's age, caregiver's level of education, percent of time a caregiver spent feeding the child, if caregivers were taking medications for anxiety, and if the child was seen in the emergency room during the IS period. There were no correlation of anxiety/stress scores with caregiver's race, child's underlying cardiac diagnosis, age of child, route of feeding during the IS period, birth order of the child or number of children in the family, relationship status, or distance from the hospital. In general, caregivers of children with SVP experience anxiety/stress during the IS period specifically due to feeding concerns. Certain intrinsic and extrinsic characteristics were associated with higher anxiety/stress levels. Future studies are needed to determine how to minimize anxiety/stress levels during this stressful time period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals