WorldWideScience

Sample records for feed water heaters

  1. Evaluation of Tube Wall Thickness of Feed Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchikura, Takahisa; Morisaki, Koichi; Hamada, Seiichi

    With regard to the high pressure (HP) feed water heater of thermal power plant at Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) sites, inspection of feed water (FW) tubes wall thickness are conducted whenever required such that frequent tube leak occurs. As a standard inspection methodology, FW heater is disassembled during planned outage, tube wall thickness is measured by the ultrasonic pulse techique (UT), then plugs are installed at the both ends of FW tube if its measured wall thickness is found below calculated threshold. However, the root causes of wall thinning of FW tube are various such as erosion and corrosion, based on wall thinning condition, the above threshold is not applied but utilizing the other technically well-grounded evaluation method is sometimes more rational. Therefore, TEPCO classified wall-thinning condition based on inspection data and established technically well-grounded and rational evaluation methodologies of FW tube wall thickness to suite each wall thinning condition. Moreover, with recent improvement of inspection technique, technology enabled faster, larger amount, and more accurate data acquisition, TEPCO has developed the systematized evaluation methodology that can transact data acquisition and evaluation simultaneously. This article introduces the logic of evaluation methods and examined algorithms to make them systematized.

  2. Feed-water heaters alternative design comparison; Comparacion de disenos alternativos de calentadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres Toledano, Gerardo [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    A procedure is presented for the alternative design comparison of feed water heaters, based in the failure records of damaged tubes during operation. The procedure is used for cases in which non-continuous or random inspections are made to the feed-water heaters. [Espanol] Se presenta un procedimiento para comparar disenos alternativos de calentadores, basandose en los registros de fallas de los tubos rotos acumuladas durante su operacion. El procedimiento se emplea para casos en los que se realizan inspecciones a los calentadores no continuas, ya sea periodicas o al azar.

  3. Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Yuill

    2008-06-30

    The following document is the final report for DE-FC26-05NT42327: Development of an Accurate Feed-Forward Temperature Control Tankless Water Heater. This work was carried out under a cooperative agreement from the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, with additional funding from Keltech, Inc. The objective of the project was to improve the temperature control performance of an electric tankless water heater (TWH). The reason for doing this is to minimize or eliminate one of the barriers to wider adoption of the TWH. TWH use less energy than typical (storage) water heaters because of the elimination of standby losses, so wider adoption will lead to reduced energy consumption. The project was carried out by Building Solutions, Inc. (BSI), a small business based in Omaha, Nebraska. BSI partnered with Keltech, Inc., a manufacturer of electric tankless water heaters based in Delton, Michigan. Additional work was carried out by the University of Nebraska and Mike Coward. A background study revealed several advantages and disadvantages to TWH. Besides using less energy than storage heaters, TWH provide an endless supply of hot water, have a longer life, use less floor space, can be used at point-of-use, and are suitable as boosters to enable alternative water heating technologies, such as solar or heat-pump water heaters. Their disadvantages are their higher cost, large instantaneous power requirement, and poor temperature control. A test method was developed to quantify performance under a representative range of disturbances to flow rate and inlet temperature. A device capable of conducting this test was designed and built. Some heaters currently on the market were tested, and were found to perform quite poorly. A new controller was designed using model predictive control (MPC). This control method required an accurate dynamic model to be created and required significant tuning to the controller before good control was achieved. The MPC

  4. THERMODYNAMICAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PRESSURE FEED WATER HEATER IN STEAM PROPULSION SYSTEM DURING EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poljak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays diesel engines prevail as ship propulsion. However, steam propulsion is still primary drive for LNG carriers. In the presented paper high-pressure feed water heater was analyzed, as one of the essential components in LNG carrier steam propulsion system. Measurements of all operating parameters (fluid streams at the analyzed heat exchanger inlets and outlets were performed. Change of the operating parameters was measured at different steam system loads, not at full load as usual. Through these measurements was enabled the insight into the behaviour of the heat exchanger operating parameters during the whole exploitation. The numerical analysis was performed, based on the measured data. The changes in energy and exergy efficiency of the heat exchanger were analyzed. Energetic and exergetic power inputs and outputs were also calculated, which enabled an insight into the change of energetic and exergetic power losses of the heat exchanger at different steam system loads. Change in energetic and exergetic power losses and operating parameters, which have the strongest influence on the high-pressure feed water heater losses, were described. Analyzed heat exchanger was compared with similar heat exchangers in the base loaded conventional steam power plants. From the conducted analysis, it is concluded that the adjustment and control modes of these high-pressure heat exchangers are equal, regardless of whether they were mounted in the base loaded conventional steam power plants or marine steam systems, while their operating parameters and behaviour patterns differ greatly.

  5. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet p...

  7. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  8. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Steam Power Plant with Double Reheat and Feed Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Rashidi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A steam cycle with double reheat and turbine extraction is presented. Six heaters are used, three of them at high pressure and the other three at low pressure with deaerator. The first and second law analysis for the cycle and optimization of the thermal and exergy efficiencies are investigated. An exergy analysis is performed to guide the thermodynamic improvement for this cycle. The exergy and irreversibility analyses of each component of the cycle are determined. Effects of turbine inlet pressure, boiler exit steam temperature, and condenser pressure on the first and second laws' efficiencies are investigated. Also the best turbine extraction pressure on the first law efficiency is obtained. The results show that the biggest exergy loss occurs in the boiler followed by the turbine. The results also show that the overall thermal efficiency and the second law efficiency decrease as the condenser pressure increases for any fixed outlet boiler temperature, however, they increase as the boiler temperature increases for any condenser pressure. Furthermore, the best values of extraction pressure from high, intermediate, and low pressure turbine which give the maximum first law efficiencies are obtained based on the required heat load corresponding to each exit boiler temperature.

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16, 2015....

  10. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120...

  11. 46 CFR 182.320 - Water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 182.320 Section 182.320 Shipping COAST...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Auxiliary Machinery § 182.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the...), except that an electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than...

  12. Model based control and optimization of a feed-water heater train; Modellbaserad reglering och optimering av en foervaermarekedja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velut, Stephane; Raaberg, Martin; Wendel, Hans (Grontmij AB (SE))

    2007-12-15

    Thermal power plants are complex processes in which many variables must be monitored and controlled in real-time for a safe and economic operation. The complex interactions between actuators and controlled variables as well as the load dependent dynamics make the design and tuning of all controllers a challenging task. A mathematical model of the process that describes critical characteristics such as dynamics, interactions, and nonlinearities might greatly facilitate the task of the control engineer. Such controllers can be designed in a rather systematic way to achieve good performance in terms of response time and robustness. This enables the operator to run the process closer to its limits while minimizing damage risks. The goal of the project was threefold. The first objective was to describe the available methods to compute process models directly from experimental data and illustrate how those models can be used for control design. The second objective was to apply some of the fore mentioned methods on a specific process, namely a feed water heater train to control the level in each preheater. The third objective was to analyze how the level in each preheater affects the thermal efficiency of the plant and derive adequate set-points for the model-based controllers. The project started at the end of the production season, which resulted in a tight schedule for the planning and the realization of experiments. Informative data could however be collected and models could be derived for some specific loads. Unfortunately the effect of the changes in the level set point could not be verified because of the limited length of the experiments. The project results can be summarized as follows: The way the condensate level should be chosen in every preheater has been formulated as a simple optimization problem that aims as maximizing the thermal efficiency of the plant. Even though the model used in the optimization was simple, the results were pretty intuitive. The

  13. Solar water heater design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Package describes commercial domestic-hot-water heater with roof or rack mounted solar collectors. System is adjustable to pre-existing gas or electric hot-water house units. Design package includes drawings, description of automatic control logic, evaluation measurements, possible design variations, list of materials and installation tools, and trouble-shooting guide and manual.

  14. Shared savings gets realtor new water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullin, R.

    1983-08-08

    The Grenadier Realty Co. of New York is financing four energy-efficient water heaters for apartment buildings with a shared savings arrangement. The arrangement allows Grenadier to avoid front-end costs, which were paid by Independent Water Heaters Inc. in exchange for a decreasing share of the savings. Grenadier will own the heaters when the five-year contract expires. By allowing a shutdown of boilers during the summer months, the heaters will further increase energy savings. (DCK)

  15. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  16. Strategy Guideline. Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-09

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  17. Strategy Guideline: Proper Water Heater Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Staller, J. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Zhang, Y. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This Strategy Guideline on proper water heater selection was developed by the Building America team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation to provide step-by-step procedures for evaluating preferred cost-effective options for energy efficient water heater alternatives based on local utility rates, climate, and anticipated loads.

  18. Solar Water-Heater Design Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Information on a solar domestic-hot water heater is contained in 146 page design package. System consists of solar collector, storage tanks, automatic control circuitry and auxiliary heater. Data-acquisition equipment at sites monitors day-by-day performance. Includes performance specifications, schematics, solar-collector drawings and drawings of control parts.

  19. Intelligent annunciator for solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao

    2009-07-01

    The solar water heater has advantages of low cost, no pollution, safety, energy conservation and is very suitable for users in rural area. But many now used solar water heater has no alarm device resulting water and resource wasting because of forgetting to turn off the valve after water sailing upstream. To overcome this defect, an intelligent annunciator for solar water heater installed at the end of the return pipe is presented and designed in order to remind the user. Firstly, the advantages and disadvantages of automatic and manual sailing upstream are compared concluding that manual sailing upstream is more trustiness. Then an annunciator for solar water heater is studied and ameliorated. Its principle, parameters index and functions are introduced. The annunciator uses CD4069 chip as the core circuit with very little assistant circuit. It can provide sound and light alarm at the same time. This annunciator for solar water heater water is very simple in production, low cost, the use of safe and convenient. The annunciator is applicable to all solar power products, including various types of early installation of solar power water heaters and water tanks without changing their structures. It can meet family and industrial environmental applications.

  20. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  1. The equivalent enthalpy drop theory calculation of the ejector heaters applied for low-pressure feed water heater system of thermal power unit%引射式加热器替代低压回热系统等效焓降分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳; 冉景煜

    2011-01-01

    There is much exergy loss in low-pressure feed water heater system of the thermal unit.The thermo-economic characters by the equivalent enthalpy drop method while the low-pressure heater was replaced with the ejector heater.At the same time,the thermo-economic characters formulas for the different factors were also gotten.Based on these results,the thermo-economic changing features were analyzed for the low pressure heaters replaced with the ejector heaters of the N600-165/535/535 units,and the results were compared with the normal heat balance method.The results show that the ejector heaters can reduce the exergy loss efficiently,and the thermo-economic effects is the best for replacing the all low-pressure heaters with the ejector heaters,and its efficiency can be increased by 0.263%.The given equations of this paper can be used for analyzing the thermal economic effects.%火电机组低压回热系统中的面式加热器普遍存在较大损。应用等效焓降方法,深入分析采用引射式加热器替代面式低压加热器下机组热经济性的变化,并得到各个变化因素的数学计算式。在此基础上,对N600-165/535/535型机组低压回热系统进行实例计算,并与常规热平衡法计算进行了比较,结果表明:引射式加热器替代面式低压加热器,可以有效减小损,替代全部四级面式低压加热器,可使机组经济性提升最大,达0.263%;文中分析推导得出的计算表达式可用于机组热经济性分析计算。

  2. Measure Guideline. Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, A. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    This measure guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters.

  3. Solar water heater for NASA's Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. Daniel

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of using a solar water heater for NASA's Space Station is investigated using computer codes developed to model the Space Station configuration, orbit, and heating systems. Numerous orbit variations, system options, and geometries for the collector were analyzed. Results show that a solar water heater, which would provide 100 percent of the design heating load and would not impose a significant impact on the Space Station overall design is feasible. A heat pipe or pumped fluid radial plate collector of about 10-sq m, placed on top of the habitat module was found to be well suited for satisfying water demand of the Space Station. Due to the relatively small area required by a radial plate, a concentrator is unnecessary. The system would use only 7 to 10 percent as much electricity as an electric water-heating system.

  4. Water heaters subject to new regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Alan

    2014-06-01

    On 26 September 2015 the Ecodesign and Energy Labelling Directives for water heaters (Lot 2) come into force, meaning that water-heating products sold in the UK and other countries in the European Economic Area will need to meet minimum energy performance criteria in order to be legally placed on the market, and will require an energy label. Here Alan Clarke, technical support manager at Heatrae Sadia, explains more.

  5. Improving the Gas Instantaneous Water Heaters Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Kloub

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a study of a theoretical and practical investigation of the gas Instantaneous (Tankless water Heaters performance. The results allow us to obtain realistic values of the control system in the various capacities gaseous flowing water heaters. The objective of this work is to study the operation of the plans in the field of controlling and checking low capacity gaseous flowing water in order to choose the proper plan of the logical values and measures for these equipments that may be used in industrial conditions. Also results of the work proved to be accurate. A design of the control system was made. The results of the practical experiment of the control system were similar to the arithmetic results.

  6. AWSWAH - the heat pipe solar water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.

    1986-01-01

    An all weather heat pipe solar water heater (AWSWAH) comprising a collector of 4 m/sup 2/ (43 ft/sup 2/) and a low profile water tank of 160 liters (42 gal.) was developed. A single heat pipe consisting of 30 risers and two manifolds in the evaporator and a spiral condenser was incorporated into the AWSWAH. Condensate metering was done by synthetic fiber wicks. The AWSWAH was tested alongside two conventional solar water heaters of identical dimensions, an open loop system and a closed loop system. It was found that the AWSWAH was an average of 50% more effective than the open system in the temperature range 30-90 /sup 0/C (86-194 /sup 0/F). The closed loop system was the least efficient of the three systems.

  7. Analysis Approach to Improve Star Rating Of Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Dabhade

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electric Water Heaters are widely used all over the world that can be categorized in two types i.e. Instant Water Heaters & Storage type Water Heaters. The energy consumption for 6 liter water heaters is much higher in the storage type of water heater. As energy is an important factor for economic development of country, therefore there is need to save the energy which implies the focus to use Storage type Water Heaters. In 6 Liter water heater, Existing model converting from 4 star rating to 5 star rating by thermal analysis & insulation. After the theoretical calculation of thickness of glass wool is the practical testing of product with BEE norms & got results for 5 Star Calculation. Finally we are doing the thermal analysis for theoretical & practical verification of the product

  8. Field Monitoring Protocol: Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Earle, L.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.; Wilson, E.; Hancock, E.

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  9. Field Monitoring Protocol. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Earle, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hancock, C. E. [Mountain Energy Partnership, Longmont, CO (United States)

    2013-02-01

    This document provides a standard field monitoring protocol for evaluating the installed performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in residential buildings. The report is organized to be consistent with the chronology of field test planning and execution. Research questions are identified first, followed by a discussion of analysis methods, and then the details of measuring the required information are laid out. A field validation of the protocol at a house near the NREL campus is included for reference.

  10. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads.

  11. Measure Guideline: Transitioning to a Tankless Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brozyna, K.; Rapport, A.

    2012-09-01

    This Measure Guideline provides information to help residential builders and retrofitters with the design, specification, selection, implementation, installation, and maintenance issues of transitioning from tank-type water heaters to tankless water heaters. The report compares the differences between tankless and tank-type water heaters, highlighting the energy savings that can be realized by adopting tankless water heaters over tank-type water heaters. Selection criteria and risks discussed include unit sizing and location, water distribution system, plumbing line length and diameter, water quality, electrical backup, and code issues. Cost and performance data are provided for various types of tankless and tank-type water heaters, both natural gas fired and electric. Also considered are interactions between the tankless water heater and other functional elements of a house, such as cold water supply and low-flow devices. Operating costs and energy use of water distribution systems for single- and two-story houses are provided, along with discussion of the various types of distribution systems that can be used with tankless water heaters. Finally, details to prepare for proper installation of a tankless water heater are described.

  12. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... also questionable whether thermal efficiency is an appropriate metric for smaller storage water heaters... that the test procedure for residential water heaters utilized the thermal efficiency and standby loss..., particularly for heat pump water heaters and gas instantaneous water heaters. 3. Revised Thermal Efficiency...

  13. The Industrial Design of Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萌萌

    2014-01-01

    The design was inspired by the understanding to the fine life understanding of life, relaxed requirement and under-standing of fashion. Each link of easy life present in the water heater design. The principle of"artappliances, life"brand phi-losophy, refined and understated elegance is the core essence, is also the brand logo. In the"draw the fine life inspiration, the core brand design language create eternal artistic quality", every product tothe interpretation of home life art trend, to embody the elegant life style annotation and experience, committed to the urban elites to create exquisitelife style.

  14. Our Environment in Hot Water: Comparing Water Heaters, A Life Cycle Approach Comparing Tank and Tankless Water Heaters in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Alison; McMahon, James; Masanet, Eric; Lutz, Jim

    2008-08-13

    Residential water heating is a large source of energy use in California homes. This project took a life cycle approach to comparing tank and tankless water heaters in Northern and Southern California. Information about the life cycle phases was calculated using the European Union's Methodology study for EcoDesign of Energy-using Products (MEEUP) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Life Cycle Inventory (NREL LCI) database. In a unit-to-unit comparison, it was found that tankless water heaters would lessen impacts of water heating by reducing annual energy use by 2800 MJ/year (16% compared to tank), and reducing global warming emissions by 175 kg CO2 eqv./year (18% reduction). Overall, the production and combustion of natural gas in the use phase had the largest impact. Total waste, VOCs, PAHs, particulate matter, and heavy-metals-to-air categories were also affected relatively strongly by manufacturing processes. It was estimated that tankless water heater users would have to use 10 more gallons of hot water a day (an increased usage of approximately 20%) to have the same impact as tank water heaters. The project results suggest that if a higher percentage of Californians used tankless water heaters, environmental impacts caused by water heating would be smaller.

  15. 10 CFR 431.102 - Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot water supply boilers, and unfired hot water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... attached. Thermal efficiency for an instantaneous water heater, a storage water heater or a hot water... the amount of energy consumed by the water heater as measured during the thermal efficiency test... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial water heaters, hot...

  16. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation; Weitzel, E. [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation

    2017-03-03

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  17. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-11-22

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  18. Multifamily Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16 month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Water Heaters (V3.1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Water Heaters that are effective April 16, 2015....

  20. New Home Buyer Solar Water Heater Trade-Off Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symmetrics Marketing Corporation

    1999-08-18

    This report details the results of a research conducted in 1998 and 1999 and outlines a marketing deployment plan designed for businesses interested in marketing solar water heaters in the new home industry.

  1. Comparative Study and Design of Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Sainath,Y.krishna, Mohd Salahuddin, Mohammed Siddique Ahmed, Md Ismail, Syed Rahman,Mohammed Noman, Mohd Khaleel Ullah, Faraz Ur Rehman Azhar, Mohd Moizuddin,Mohd Riyaz Uddin.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A solar water heater design is made from the plastic bottles of thumps up & plastic pipe(p.v.c run up by the centre of each solar heater in a row of bottles, these bottles act as glazing & hold reflectors made from the black paint. Solar water heaters are made of two basic parts: a solar collector that gathers radiant energy and a storage tank for the hot water inside. These systems are used to heat water for swimming pools, as well as for domestic cooking and cleaning needs. A system in which the sun’s heat is gathered by a solar collector and used to increase the temperature of a heat-transfer fluid , which flows through the pipes in the collector; the heat contained in this fluid then is conveyed and transferred to the water to be heated. Solar water heaters use the solar energy from the sun to generate heat (not electricity which can then be used to heat water for showering, space heating, industrial processes or even solar cooling. However, the research shows that the electric water spends about the 25% of its home energy costs on heating water. If we make a water heater without the collector then we can save a lot of money solar water heater do not polluted if one investing on SWH avoids carbon dioxide nitrogen oxide and sulphur dioxide and the other air pollution wastes and the utility generates power on your bum fuel to heat your household water when SWH replaces the an electric water heater. This electric displaced over 20 years replaced more than 50 tones avoided c02 emissions alone co2 traps heat in the upper most atmosphere thus, contributing to the ‘Green House Effect

  2. Heat Pump Water Heaters and American Homes: A Good Fit?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Meyers, Steve; Letschert, Virginie

    2010-05-14

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are over twice as energy-efficient as conventional electric resistance water heaters, with the potential to save substantial amounts of electricity. Drawing on analysis conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy's recently-concluded rulemaking on amended standards for water heaters, this paper evaluates key issues that will determine how well, and to what extent, this technology will fit in American homes. The key issues include: 1) equipment cost of HPWHs; 2) cooling of the indoor environment by HPWHs; 3) size and air flow requirements of HPWHs; 4) performance of HPWH under different climate conditions and varying hot water use patterns; and 5) operating cost savings under different electricity prices and hot water use. The paper presents the results of a life-cycle cost analysis of the adoption of HPWHs in a representative sample of American homes, as well as national impact analysis for different market share scenarios. Assuming equipment costs that would result from high production volume, the results show that HPWHs can be cost effective in all regions for most single family homes, especially when the water heater is not installed in a conditioned space. HPWHs are not cost effective for most manufactured home and multi-family installations, due to lower average hot water use and the water heater in the majority of cases being installed in conditioned space, where cooling of the indoor environment and size and air flow requirements of HPWHs increase installation costs.

  3. Engineering solutions for polymer composites solar water heaters production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, S. E.; Arsatov, A. V.; Oshchepkov, M. Yu.

    2016-06-01

    Analysis of engineering solutions aimed at a considerable decrease of solar water heaters cost via the use of polymer composites in heaters construction and solar collector and heat storage integration into a single device representing an integrated unit results are considered. Possibilities of creating solar water heaters of only three components and changing welding, soldering, mechanical treatment, and assembly of a complicate construction for large components molding of polymer composites and their gluing are demonstrated. Materials of unit components and engineering solutions for their manufacturing are analyzed with consideration for construction requirements of solar water heaters. Optimal materials are fiber glass and carbon-filled plastics based on hot-cure thermosets, and an optimal molding technology is hot molding. It is necessary to manufacture the absorbing panel as corrugated and to use a special paint as its selective coating. Parameters of the unit have been optimized by calculation. Developed two-dimensional numerical model of the unit demonstrates good agreement with the experiment. Optimal ratio of daily load to receiving surface area of a solar water heater operating on a clear summer day in the midland of Russia is 130‒150 L/m2. Storage tank volume and load schedule have a slight effect on solar water heater output. A thermal insulation layer of 35‒40 mm is sufficient to provide an efficient thermal insulation of the back and side walls. An experimental model layout representing a solar water heater prototype of a prime cost of 70‒90/(m2 receiving surface) has been developed for a manufacturing volume of no less than 5000 pieces per year.

  4. Performance of Thermosyphon Solar Water Heaters in Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsong-Sheng Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available More than a single thermosyphon solar water heater may be employed in applications when considerable hot water consumption is required. In this experimental investigation, eight typical Taiwanese solar water heaters were connected in series. Degree of temperature stratification and thermosyphon flow rate in a horizontal tank were evaluated. The system was tested under no-load, intermittent and continuous load conditions. Results showed that there was stratification in tanks under the no-load condition. Temperature stratification also redeveloped after the draw-off. Analysis of thermal performance of the system was conducted for each condition.

  5. Water inflow into boreholes during the Stripa heater experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, P.H.; Rachiele, R.; Remer, J.S.; Carlsson, H.

    1981-04-01

    During the operation of three in-situ heater experiments at Stripa, Sweden, groundwater flowed into many of the instrumentation and heater boreholes. These flows were recovered and measured routinely. The records of water inflow indicate two origins: inflow attributed to local hydrological pressure gradients, and water migration from cracks closing under the rapidly increasing, thermal-induced stress changes. The latter component appeared as a main pulse that occurred when the heaters were turned on, and lasted about 30 to 40 days, steadily declining over the next several months, and decreasing sharply when heater power was decreased or stopped. The magnitude of the total inflow per hole ranged over more than five decades, from 0.1 to over 10,000 liters over the 500 to 600 day time periods. When plotted against the logarithm of total volume, the frequency distribution displays a normal curve dependence with a mean of approximately 10 liters. Of this amount, 1 to 2 liters of flow into 38-mm-diam boreholes accompanied an increase in applied heat load. These amounts are compatible with rock porosities of a fraction of one percent. Inflow into the 3.6 and 5.0 kW heater holes peaked within 3 to 6 days after heater turn on, then declined to zero inflow, with no further inflow measured for the remainder of the experiments. In the heater holes of the time-scaled experiment, which operated at 1.125 kW or less, the initial pulse of inflow took much longer to decay, and 7 of 8 heater holes continued to flow throughout the experiment. The packing off and isolation of a borehole some 40 m distant in the ventilation drift dramatically increased the inflow into the heater holes in one of the three heater experiments. This demonstrated the existence of permeable flow paths among a number of boreholes. The records of water inflow demonstrate the need for a thorough understanding of the nature of fluid flow and storage in fractured crystalline rock.

  6. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... discretion, this direct measurement procedure is optional for vented heaters without thermal stack dampers... efficiency is calculated for vented heaters with manual controls and thermal dampers. For all other vented... Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of...

  7. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... of the pool heater as: E OUT = BOH Where: BOH = as defined in 5.2 of this appendix E t = thermal... defined in 5.3 of this appendix 5.4.3 Calculate the pool heater integrated thermal efficiency (TE I ) (in... Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters (Standby Mode and Off Mode)...

  8. Development of heat pipes for solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akyurt, M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerous heat pipes were designed, manufactured, and filled on a specially developed filling rig. Each heat pipe was incorporated into a prototype solar water heater developed for this purpose, and was tested under actual insolation conditions. An extensive testing program lasting for more than a year revealed that the heat pipes perform satisfactorily as heat transfer elements in solar water heaters. A special heat pipe featuring a compact and effective condenser configuration was also tested. It was observed to likewise exhibit isothermal behavior and hence promised potential for large scale solar applications.

  9. Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the 1/2 inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  10. Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, Christine [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the 1/2 inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  11. Solar water heaters in China: A new day dawning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Jingyi; Mol, A.P.J.; Lu, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Solar thermal utilization, especially the application of solar water heater technology, has developed rapidly in China in recent decades. Manufacturing and marketing developments have been especially strong in provinces such as Zhejiang, Shandong and Jiangsu. This paper takes Zhejiang, a relatively

  12. Demand Response Performance of GE Hybrid Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Parker, Graham B.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-07-01

    This report describes a project to evaluate and document the DR performance of HPWH as compared to ERWH for two primary types of DR events: peak curtailments and balancing reserves. The experiments were conducted with GE second-generation “Brillion”-enabled GeoSpring hybrid water heaters in the PNNL Lab Homes, with one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Standard” electric resistance mode to represent the baseline and one GE GeoSpring water heater operating in “Heat Pump” mode to provide the comparison to heat pump-only demand response. It is expected that “Hybrid” DR performance, which would engage both the heat pump and electric elements, could be interpolated from these two experimental extremes. Signals were sent simultaneously to the two water heaters in the side-by-side PNNL Lab Homes under highly controlled, simulated occupancy conditions. This report presents the results of the evaluation, which documents the demand-response capability of the GE GeoSpring HPWH for peak load reduction and regulation services. The sections describe the experimental protocol and test apparatus used to collect data, present the baselining procedure, discuss the results of the simulated DR events for the HPWH and ERWH, and synthesize key conclusions based on the collected data.

  13. Thermomechanics of the granular bed T-joint water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teplitskii, Yu. S.; Belonovich, D. G.

    2012-11-01

    On the basis of the heat transfer model taking into account the radiative transport the temperature distribution and the resistance of the water heater with a granular packing having two independent air inlets have been investigated. The generalized dependence for calculating the resistance of the granular bed has been obtained.

  14. an automatic safety control for immersion water heater

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    heater in the Nigerian market in its current form is depicted ... the comparator used is an open collector type. It is instructive to take a close look at the operation of the Schmitt trigger. The equivalent .... additional advantage of keeping the water.

  15. Evaluation of the Demand Response Performance of Electric Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widder, Sarah H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pratt, Richard M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chassin, Forrest S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    The purpose of this project is to verify or refute many of the concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large tank HPWHs to perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. perform DR by measuring the performance of HPWHs compared to ERWHs in providing DR services. This project was divided into three phases. Phase 1 consisted of week-long laboratory experiments designed to demonstrate technical feasibility of individual large-tank HPWHs in providing DR services compared to large-tank ERWHs. In Phase 2, the individual behaviors of the water heaters were then extrapolated to a population by first calibrating readily available water heater models developed in GridLAB-D simulation software to experimental results obtained in Phase 1. These models were used to simulate a population of water heaters and generate annual load profiles to assess the impacts on system-level power and residential load curves. Such population modeling allows for the inherent and permanent load reduction accomplished by the more efficient HPWHs to be considered, in addition to the temporal DR services the water heater can provide by switching ON or OFF as needed by utilities. The economic and emissions impacts of using large-tank water heaters in DR programs are then analyzed from the utility and consumer perspective, based on National Impacts Analysis in Phase 3. Phase 1 is discussed in this report. Details on Phases 2 and 3 can be found in the companion report (Cooke et al. 2014).

  16. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  17. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  18. Recovery Act: Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, William P. [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States); Buescher, Tom [Emerson Electric Co., St. Louis, MO (United States)

    2014-04-30

    The objective of Emerson's Water Heater ZigBee Open Standard Wireless Controller is to support the DOE's AARA priority for Clean, Secure Energy by designing a water heater control that levels out residential and small business peak electricity demand through thermal energy storage in the water heater tank.

  19. Thermal injuries caused by ignition of volatile substances by gas water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutan, R L; Desai, M H; Herndon, D N

    1993-01-01

    Based on the cumulative data of this tertiary care facility over the past 25 years, one out of every 70 pediatric patients admitted to our institution sustained their injuries during an explosive event instigated by the ignition of volatile substances from gas water heaters. The majority of injuries related to gas water heaters can be prevented by decreasing the temperature setpoint of the heater, by protecting the heater element itself, and by elevating the water heater to 18 inches above the floor. The first two issues have been adequately addressed; however, gas-fueled water heaters continue to be installed at floor level. Current national guidelines are too rigid and do not adequately address water-heater installation in private residences. Although general prevention campaigns target appropriate storage of volatile substances, they rarely address the explosive potential of gas water heaters in combination with combustible fumes.

  20. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norfolk, CT (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publically available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(TM), A.O. Smith Voltex(R), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(R) 300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  1. Field Performance of Heat Pump Water Heaters in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-08-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) are finally entering the mainstream residential water heater market. Potential catalysts are increased consumer demand for higher energy efficiency electric water heating and a new Federal water heating standard that effectively mandates use of HPWHs for electric storage water heaters with nominal capacities greater than 55 gallons. When compared to electric resistance water heating, the energy and cost savings potential of HPWHs is tremendous. Converting all electric resistance water heaters to HPWHs could save American consumers 7.8 billion dollars annually ($182 per household) in water heating operating costs and cut annual residential source energy consumption for water heating by 0.70 quads. Steven Winter Associates, Inc. embarked on one of the first in situ studies of these newly released HPWH products through a partnership with two sponsoring electric utility companies, National Grid and NSTAR, and one sponsoring energy efficiency service program administrator, Cape Light Compact. Recent laboratory studies have measured performance of HPWHs under various operating conditions, but publicly available field studies have not been as available. This evaluation attempts to provide publicly available field data on new HPWHs by monitoring the performance of three recently released products (General Electric GeoSpring(tm), A.O. Smith Voltex(r), and Stiebel Eltron Accelera(r)300). Fourteen HPWHs were installed in Massachusetts and Rhode Island and monitored for over a year. Of the 14 units, ten were General Electric models (50 gallon units), two were Stiebel Eltron models (80 gallon units), and two were A.O. Smith models (one 60-gallon and one 80-gallon unit).

  2. Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2016-07-31

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  3. Constant delivery temperature solar water heater - an integrated approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, S. [C.A.S. Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India); Kumar, N. [D.C.E. Muzaffarpur Institute of Technology, Bihar (India)

    1997-05-01

    An integrated model of a constant delivery temperature solar water heat-cum-active regenerative distillation system has been developed. The water used for the regenerative effect in the distiller of the proposed system is subsequently fed to the basin-cum-storage tank of the still through the heat exchanger (connected to the collector). The model varies the water mass flow rate in order to maintain a constant outlet temperature. With minor modifications in the solar water heater, the extra energy stored in the water mass due to non-utilization of capacity and/or non-linear utilization of capacity can be efficiently utilized for distillation purposes. In this process, the latent heat of vaporization is used for preheating the inlet water supply to the heat exchanger. The effect of insulation on maintaining the hot water temperature and distillate output is also presented. (Author)

  4. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, R.; Walters, R.; Dwiantoro, D.

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida. The housing units had their gas-fired tank type water heaters replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  5. Assessing the Energy Savings of Tankless Water Heater Retrofits in Public Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ries, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team; Walters, R. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team; Dwiantoro, D. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Building Energy Efficient Housing for America (BEEHA)Team

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the methodology, analysis, and findings from a case study of a 110 unit retrofit of gas tankless water heaters in a hot/humid climate in Alachua County, Florida.The gas-fired tank type water heaters in the housing units were replaced with gas-fired tankless water heaters as part of a federal program that targeted reduced energy use in public housing.

  6. High Efficiency R-744 Commercial Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbel, Dr. Stefan W.; Petersen, Michael

    2013-04-25

    The project investigated the development and improvement process of a R744 (CO2) commercial heat pump water heater (HPWH) package of approximately 35 kW. The improvement process covered all main components of the system. More specific the heat exchangers (Internal heat exchanger, Evaporator, Gas cooler) as well as the expansion device and the compressor were investigated. In addition, a comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint was made in order to compare performance as well as package size reduction potential.

  7. Heat Pump Water Heater Durabliltiy Testing - Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, VAND.

    2004-05-29

    Ten heat pump water heaters (HPWH) were placed in an environmentally controlled test facility and run through a durability test program of approximately 7300 duty cycles (actual cycles accumulated ranged from 6640 to 8324 for the ten units). Five of the units were upgraded integral types (HPWH mounted on storage tank, no pump) from the same manufacturer as those tested in our first durability program in 2001 (Baxter and Linkous, 2002). The other five were ''add-on'' type units (HPWH with circulation pump plumbed to a separate storage tank) from another manufacturer. This durability test was designed to represent approximately 7-10 years of normal operation to meet the hot water needs of a residence. The integral units operated without incident apart from two control board failures. Both of these were caused by inadvertent exposure to very hot and humid (>135 F dry bulb and >120 F dew point) conditions that occurred due to a test loop failure. It is not likely that any residential water heater would be installed where such conditions were expected so these failures are not considered a long-term reliability concern. Two of the integral HPWHs featured a condensate management system (CMS) option that effectively eliminated any need for an evaporator condensate drain, but imposed significant efficiency penalties when operating in high humidity ambient conditions. The add-on units experienced no operational failures (breakdowns with loss of hot water production) during the course of the testing. However, their control systems exhibited some performance degradation under the high temperature, high humidity test conditions--HPWHs would shut off with tank water temperatures 15-20 F lower than when operating under moderate ambient conditions. One unit developed a refrigerant leak during the test program and lost about 50% of its charge resulting in reduced efficiency. Efficiency measurements on all the integral units and four of the add-on units showed

  8. Analysis of thermal stresses in horizontal delivery water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilan, A. V.; Plotnikov, P. N.

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of thermal stresses in tubes and a compensator, taking into account water heating in each heater bunch and temperature at which its mounting is implemented, and of stresses on pressure is presented. The 3D-model of the horizontal delivery water heater of PSG-4900-0.3-1.14 type is used. The tube plate is represented as the 3D-body with 6863 holes with offset center of the perforated area, the steam space shell is represented as a cylindrical casing, the bottoms of water chambers are considered as elliptical casings, the four-lens compensator is represented in the form of toroidal casings, and the tubes are considered as beams operating in tensile-compression and bending in two planes. Calculations were carried out for different temperatures of superheated steam and a steam space shell, respectively, as well as designs with compensator and without it. Various temperature values of the tubes on the passes were calculated and set. The studies were carried out taking into account nonaxis-symmetrical spacing the tube plate and compensator deformation. The calculation results of tensile-compression stresses in the tubes are presented. Furthermore, the central tubes experience compressive stresses, whose maximal values take place on the border between the tubes of the fourth and of the first passes. For its decrease, it is recommended to increase the distance between the tubes of these passes. The tension stresses in the peripheral tubes are the maximal stresses. To reduce the stresses and, therefore, increase service life of the delivery water heater at using wet or superheated (not more than by 30-50°C) steam in it (the larger value refers to the brass tubes and the water pressure of 1.6-2.5 MPa), it is necessary to recommend the noncompensatory design at using the steam superheated by more than 30-50°C (at Ural Turbine Works, it is the turbines of T-250/300-23.5 and T-113/145-12.4 types with intermediate superheating) and to recommend the installation of the

  9. 10 CFR 431.106 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial water heaters and hot...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Instantaneous Water Heaters and Hot Water Supply Boilers* Thermal Efficiency ANSI Z21.10.3-1998, § 2.9** A. For... Instantaneous Water Heaters and Hot Water Supply Boilers* Thermal Efficiency ANSI Z21.10.3-1998, § 2.9** (2) Oil...) Assume that the thermal efficiency (Et) of electric water heaters with immersed heating elements is...

  10. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    High-performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  11. Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbauer, Ben [NorthernSTAR, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    2017-03-28

    High performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  12. THE HEAT AND FLUID FLOW ANALYSIS FOR WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Nan Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the heat transfer and fluid flow are studied for the water heater of RV cars, in which the hot water is heated by the combustion energy of liquefied petroleum gases. Three types of combustion tubes are performed in this investigation, which are circular tube, elliptic tube and elliptic tube with screwed wire inserted. The heat transfer performances of numerical simulation results are compared with those of the experimental works; they are in good trend agreement. The elliptic combustion tube performs better than the circular one, which indicates the average 7% energy saving for the elliptic combustion tube and 12% energy saving for the elliptic combustion tube with screwed wire under static heating.

  13. CFD Study of Fluid Flow in an All-glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Ning; Fan, Jianhua; Li, Yumin

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: The all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater is one of the most widely used solar thermal technologies. The aim of the paper is to investigate fluid flow in the solar water heater by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The investigation was carried out with a focus...

  14. Demonstration of a heat pump water heater. Volume 3. Design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloane, B.D.; Krise, R.C.; Kent, D.D.

    1979-12-01

    Work performed during the pilot run manufacturing and laboratory testing stages of a heat pump water heater for residential installations is described. A general description of the heat pump water heater is provided, as are detailed discussions of individual components. Also included is a description of the pilot run manufacturing facility and experience, laboratory operations, and laboratory test data.

  15. Analysis of Large- Capacity Water Heaters in Electric Thermal Storage Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Alan L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Winiarski, David W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Carmichael, Robert T. [Cadeo Group, Washington D. C. (United States); Mayhorn, Ebony T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fisher, Andrew R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-17

    This report documents a national impact analysis of large tank heat pump water heaters (HPWH) in electric thermal storage (ETS) programs and conveys the findings related to concerns raised by utilities regarding the ability of large-tank heat pump water heaters to provide electric thermal storage services.

  16. Tankless water heaters fill the bill at fast-food restaurants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-01

    This article explains why Kentucky Fried Chicken has installed a PH-24 water heater. The tankless water heater meets the restaurant's criteria for space spacing, flow rates, certification and availability, and money saving efficiency. This article describes the system and its advantages.

  17. Solar hot water systems for the southeastern United States: principles and construction of breadbox water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1983-02-01

    The use of solar energy to provide hot water is among the easier solar technologies for homeowners to utilize. In the Southeastern United States, because of the mild climate and abundant sunshine, solar energy can be harnessed to provide a household's hot water needs during the non-freezing weather period mid-April and mid-October. This workbook contains detailed plans for building breadbox solar water heaters that can provide up to 65% of your hot water needs during warm weather. If fuel costs continue to rise, the annual savings obtained from a solar water heater will grow dramatically. The designs in this workbook use readily available materials and the construction costs are low. Although these designs may not be as efficient as some commercially available systems, most of a household's hot water needs can be met with them. The description of the breadbox water heater and other types of solar systems will help you make an informed decision between constructing a solar water heater or purchasing one. This workbook is intended for use in the southeastern United States and the designs may not be suitable for use in colder climates.

  18. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning...

  19. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in US new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; CHAN, Peter

    2010-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  20. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2010-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  1. RESEARCH ON PROBLEMS OCCURED IN HP FEED-WATER HEATERS AT A THERMAL POWER PLANT AND RESOLVING METHOD%高压加热器存在问题研究及解决方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓玲

    2001-01-01

    通过对某电厂整套引进的320 MW汽轮发电机组高压加热器不能正常投运原因的分析研究,提出了解决的方法。对其他机组的改造有一定的参考价值。%The problems occured in HP heaters of a completely imported 320 MW steam turbine-generator set are studied and analyzed,and resolving method has been proposed,having definite reference value for retrofitting other generating sets.

  2. An efficient water flow control approach for water heaters in direct load control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belov, Alexander; Meratnia, Nirvana; Zwaag, van der Berend Jan; Havinga, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Tank water heaters (WHs) are present in a prevailing number of European households. Serving as energy buffers WHs have come under the spotlight of various direct load control (DLC) programs over the last few decades. Although DLC has proven to be an efficient measure towards daily peak demand shavin

  3. Energetic Performances Study of an Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Helal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although that the interest attributed to the solar energy remains relatively limited, we attend today to the conception of several installations using the sun as energy source among which we quote the solar water heater. Approach: A study of energetic performances was taken on an integrated collector/storage solar water heater made in the National School of Engineers of Gabes. This water heater is equipped with a concentration system containing a reflector composed of three parabolic branches favorating a better absorption of solar radiance. Results: The comparison between this system and two other systems of solar water heater, composed of a storage ball with asymmetrical CPC and symmetrical CPC, showed important energetic performances despite the simplicity and the little cost of the collector. Conclusion: Several improvements are necessary to increase the direct flow whilst decrease the thermal losses and therefore make the system simpler to be installed on the building roof.

  4. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  5. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  6. PREDICTION OF OPTIMUM ANGLE OF SOLAR WATER HEATER FOR COIMBATORE LOCATION

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sekar; DR M. SAKTHIVEL; O. MANIYARASU; N.ALAGU MURUGAN

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate ways to enhance the performance of solar water heater system to encourage many households using it. The integrated collector storage is the type of solar water heater that has retained its existence for well over a century. The flat absorber plate integrated collector storage type is a relatively recent addition. Being effective, low cost and simple to manufacture, their importance has been further enhanced by the recent upsurge in efforts to effe...

  7. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  8. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM)

    OpenAIRE

    Miqdam T. Chaichan; Hussein A. Kazem

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temp...

  9. A novel domestic electric water heater model for a multi-objective demand side management program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paull, Liam; Li, Howard; Chang, Liuchen [University of New Brunswick, Department of Electrical Engineering, Fredericton, NB (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    This paper presents a novel domestic hot water heater model to be used in a multi-objective demand side management program. The model incorporates both the thermal losses and the water usage to determine the temperature of the water in the tank. Water heater loads are extracted from household load data and then used to determine the household water usage patterns. The benefits of the model are: (1) the on/off state of the water heater and temperature of the water in the tank can be accurately predicted, and (2) it enables the development of water usage profiles so that users can be classified based on usage behaviour. As a result, the amount of ancillary services and peak shaving that can be achieved are accurately predictable and can be maximized without adversely affecting users. (author)

  10. Artificial Neural Networks-Based Software for Measuring Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijian; Liu, Kejun; Li, Hao; Zhang, Xinyu; Jin, Guangya; Cheng, Kewei

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, conventional measurement requires expensive detection devices and undergoes a series of complicated procedures. To simplify the measurement and reduce the cost, software based on artificial neural networks for measuring heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters was developed. Using multilayer feed-forward neural networks with back-propagation algorithm, we developed and tested our program on the basis of 915 measured samples of water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. This artificial neural networks-based software program automatically obtained accurate heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient using simply "portable test instruments" acquired parameters, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, angle between tubes and ground and final temperature. Our results show that this software (on both personal computer and Android platforms) is efficient and convenient to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient due to it slow root mean square errors in prediction. The software now can be downloaded from http://t.cn/RLPKF08.

  11. Experimental studies on PCM filled Flat Plate Solar Water Heater without and with Fresnel lens glazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sivakumar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Flat Plate Solar Water Heater (FPSWH is commonly used to harvest solar energy. Solar concentration techniques help to achieve higher temperatures of energy. The aim of this article is to compare the performance of a Fresnel lens glazed Flat Plate Solar Water Heater with Phase Change Material (PCM with that provided with an ordinary glazing. The effect of solar concentration using Fresnel lens on energy storage in PCM and heat gained by water are studied and compared with that having an ordinary glazing. Experiments showed 47% improvements in the heat gained by water.

  12. PREDICTION OF OPTIMUM ANGLE OF SOLAR WATER HEATER FOR COIMBATORE LOCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. SEKAR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate ways to enhance the performance of solar water heater system to encourage many households using it. The integrated collector storage is the type of solar water heater that has retained its existence for well over a century. The flat absorber plate integrated collector storage type is a relatively recent addition. Being effective, low cost and simple to manufacture, their importance has been further enhanced by the recent upsurge in efforts to effectively tap renewable energy resources. Having different inclinations based on latitude, the design of flat plate heaters can benefit from extensive amount of research on the topic of natural convection in inclined cavities. The thermal performance of the heater is recorded experimentally at angles 0°–30° from horizontal, in 10° intervals. It was found that for any given constant value of heat flux, the performance of the heater is a strong function of the angle of inclination. The optimum configuration of the heater for Coimbatore location is also evaluated.

  13. Building America Case Study: Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Schirber, B. Schoenbauer

    2017-06-01

    High-performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high-performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high-performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high-efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands.

  14. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel, C. Backman

    2017-06-01

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements.

  15. Preliminary Modeling, Testing, and Analysis of a Gas Tankless Water Heater: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, J.; Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Rudd, A.

    2008-05-01

    Today's gas tankless water heaters offer significant energy savings over conventional gas storage tank water heaters, but savings depends on the draw pattern. A one-node model incorporating heat exchanger mass is used to address this and other issues. Key model parameters are determined from least-squares regression on short-term data, including burner efficiency, thermal capacitance, and thermal loss coefficient. The calibrated model agrees with data to ~5% on Qgas, with temperature RMS deviation of ~4..deg..C. Efficiency with a standard realistic draw is 71%, compared to 81% predicted from standard energy-factors. Adding a small tank controlled by the tankless heater solves issues of oscillations with solar pre-heat, low-flow and hot-water-delay issues. Future work includes model refinements and developing optimal data protocols for model parameter extraction.

  16. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 3, Water heaters, pool heaters, direct heating equipment, and mobile home furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This is Volume 3 in a series of documents on energy efficiency of consumer products. This volume discusses energy efficiency of water heaters. Water heaters are defined by NAECA as products that utilize oil, gas, or electricity to heat potable water for use outside the heater upon demand. These are major appliances, which use a large portion (18% on average) of total energy consumed per household (1). They differ from most other appliances in that they are usually installed in obscure locations as part of the plumbing and are ignored until they fail. Residential water heaters are capable of heating water up to 180{degrees}F, although the setpoints are usually set lower.

  17. 16 CFR Appendix D2 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Electric D2 Appendix D2 to... PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. D2 Appendix D2 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Electric Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  18. One-year assessment of a solar space/water heater--Clinton, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    Unit called "System 4" integrated into space-heating and hot-water systems of dormitory satisfied 32 percent of building heat load. System 4 includes flat-plate air collectors, circulation blowers, rock storage bed with heat exchanger, two hot water tanks, and auxiliary heaters. Report describes performance of system and subsystems, operating-energy requirements and savings, and performance parameters.

  19. 16 CFR Appendix D3 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Oil D3 Appendix D3 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Water Heaters—Oil Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of Estimated...

  20. 16 CFR Appendix D5 to Part 305 - Water Heaters-Heat Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Water Heaters-Heat Pump D5 Appendix D5 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE... Appendix D5 to Part 305—Water Heaters—Heat Pump Range Information CAPACITY FIRST HOUR RATING Range of...

  1. Experimental comparison of alternative convection suppression arrangements for concentrating integral collector storage solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, M.; McGarrigle, P.; Eames, P.C. [Ulster Univ., School of the Built Environment, Newtownabbey, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Norton, B. [Dublin Inst. of Technology, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-02-01

    An experimental investigation of an inverted absorber integrated collector storage solar water heater mounted in the tertiary cavity of a compound parabolic concentrator with a secondary cylindrical reflector has been performed under simulated solar conditions. The solar water heaters performance was determined with the aperture parallel to the simulator for a range of transparent baffles positioned at different locations within the collector cavity. Results indicate that glass baffles located at the upper portion of the exit aperture of the CPC can reduce thermal losses through convection suppression without significantly increasing optical losses. (Author)

  2. Building America Case Study: Simple Retrofit High-Efficiency Natural Gas Water Heater Field Test, Minneapolis, Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-12

    High performance water heaters are typically more time consuming and costly to install in retrofit applications, making high performance water heaters difficult to justify economically. However, recent advancements in high performance water heaters have targeted the retrofit market, simplifying installations and reducing costs. Four high efficiency natural gas water heaters designed specifically for retrofit applications were installed in single-family homes along with detailed monitoring systems to characterize their savings potential, their installed efficiencies, and their ability to meet household demands. The water heaters tested for this project were designed to improve the cost-effectiveness and increase market penetration of high efficiency water heaters in the residential retrofit market. The retrofit high efficiency water heaters achieved their goal of reducing costs, maintaining savings potential and installed efficiency of other high efficiency water heaters, and meeting the necessary capacity in order to improve cost-effectiveness. However, the improvements were not sufficient to achieve simple paybacks of less than ten years for the incremental cost compared to a minimum efficiency heater. Significant changes would be necessary to reduce the simple payback to six years or less. Annual energy savings in the range of $200 would also reduce paybacks to less than six years. These energy savings would require either significantly higher fuel costs (greater than $1.50 per therm) or very high usage (around 120 gallons per day). For current incremental costs, the water heater efficiency would need to be similar to that of a heat pump water heater to deliver a six year payback.

  3. Performance analysis of air——water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZeShao; TAO WenQuan; ZHU YanWen; HU Peng

    2012-01-01

    A new air-water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery is proposed.The heat pump system can heat water by using a single air source,a single water source,or air-water dual sources.The water is first pre-heated by waste hot water,then heated by the heat pump.Waste heat is recovered by first preheating the cold water and as water source of the heat pump.According to the correlated formulas of the coefficient of performance of air-source heat pump and water-source heat pump,and the gain coefficient of heat recovery-preheater,the formulas for the coefficient of performance of heat pump in six operating modes are obtained by using the dimensionless correspondence analysis method.The system characteristics of heat absorption and release associated with the heat recovery-preheater are analyzed at different working conditions.The developed approaches can provide reference for the optimization of the operating modes and parameters.The results of analysis and experiments show that the coefficient of performance of the device can reach 4-5.5 in winter,twice as much as air source heat pump water heater.The utilization of waste heat in the proposed system is higher than that in the system which only uses waste water to preheating or as heat source.Thus,the effect of energy saving of the new system is obvious.On the other hand,the dimensionless correspondence analysis method is introduced to performance analysis of the heat pump,which also has theoretical significance and practical value.

  4. Building America Case Study: Assessment of a Hybrid Retrofit Gas Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-19

    This project completed a modeling evaluation of a hybrid gas water heater that combines a reduced capacity tankless unit with a downsized storage tank. This product would meet a significant market need by providing a higher efficiency gas water heater solution for retrofit applications while maintaining compatibility with the half-inch gas lines and standard B vents found in most homes. The TRNSYS simulation tool was used to model a base case 0.60 EF atmospheric gas storage water, a 0.82 EF non-condensing gas tankless water heater, an existing (high capacity) hybrid unit on the market, and an alternative hybrid unit with lower storage volume and reduced gas input requirements. Simulations were completed under a 'peak day' sizing scenario with 183 gpd hot water loads in a Minnesota winter climate case. Full-year simulations were then completed in three climates (ranging from Phoenix to Minneapolis) for three hot water load scenarios (36, 57, and 96 gpd). Model projections indicate that the alternative hybrid offers an average 4.5% efficiency improvement relative to the 0.60 EF gas storage unit across all scenarios modeled. The alternative hybrid water heater evaluated does show promise, but the current low cost of natural gas across much of the country and the relatively small incremental efficiency improvement poses challenges in initially building a market demand for the product.

  5. An International Survey of Electric Storage Tank Water Heater Efficiency and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Alissa; Lutz, James; McNeil, Michael A.; Covary, Theo

    2013-11-13

    Water heating is a main consumer of energy in households, especially in temperate and cold climates. In South Africa, where hot water is typically provided by electric resistance storage tank water heaters (geysers), water heating energy consumption exceeds cooking, refrigeration, and lighting to be the most consumptive single electric appliance in the home. A recent analysis for the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) performed by the authors estimated that standing losses from electric geysers contributed over 1,000 kWh to the annual electricity bill for South African households that used them. In order to reduce this burden, the South African government is currently pursuing a programme of Energy Efficiency Standards and Labelling (EES&L) for electric appliances, including geysers. In addition, Eskom has a history of promoting heat pump water heaters (HPWH) through incentive programs, which can further reduce energy consumption. This paper provides a survey of international electric storage water heater test procedures and efficiency metrics which can serve as a reference for comparison with proposed geyser standards and ratings in South Africa. Additionally it provides a sample of efficiency technologies employed to improve the efficiency of electric storage water heaters, and outlines programs to promote adoption of improved efficiency. Finally, it surveys current programs used to promote HPWH and considers the potential for this technology to address peak demand more effectively than reduction of standby losses alone

  6. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  7. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  8. Water loss from the skin of term and preterm infants nursed under a radiant heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjartansson, S; Arsan, S; Hammarlund, K; Sjörs, G; Sedin, G

    1995-02-01

    The rate of evaporation from the skin (g/m2/h) was measured in 12 full-term and 16 preterm infants (gestational age 25-34 wk) both during incubator care and when nursed under a radiant heater. The method for evaporation rate measurement is noninvasive and based on determination of the water vapor pressure gradient close to the skin surface. Measurements were first made with the infant nursed in an incubator with a controlled environment with respect to humidity, temperature, and air velocity. The measurements in the term infants were performed at an ambient relative humidity (RH) of 50%, and in the preterm infants first at 50% and subsequently at 30-40%. Evaporation rate was then measured with the infant nursed under a radiant heater. In term infants, mean evaporation rate was 3.3 g/m2/h during incubator care (RH 50%) and 4.4 g/m2/h during care under the radiant heater. In preterm infants, the corresponding values were 15.5 g/m2/h in the incubator at RH 50%, 16.7 g/m2/h at RH 30-40%, and 17.9 g/m2/h under the radiant heater. It is concluded that the evaporative water loss from the skin depends on the ambient water vapor pressure, irrespective of whether the infant is nursed in an incubator or under a radiant heater. The higher rate of evaporation during care under a radiant heater is due to the lower ambient water vapor pressure and not to any direct effect of the nonionizing radiation on the skin.

  9. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  10. Rate of heat transfer in polypropylene tubes in solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razavi, J.; Mahmoodi, M. [Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Riazi, M.R. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    2003-06-01

    A heat transfer rate was determined for polypropylene tubes in solar water heaters for the Reynolds number range 800-5600. Experiments were conducted in ambient temperatures of 34 to 37 {sup o}C. Data were correlated in the form of Nusselt numbers as: Nu=0.0015 Re{sup 0.75}Pr{sup 1/3} with correlation coefficient of 0.95. Such data can be used to predict heat transfer rates in a polypropylene solar heater in Tehran where the experiments were performed. An application of the results is shown in an example. (author)

  11. Laboratory Evaluation of Gas-Fired Tankless and Storage Water Heater Approaches to Combination Water and Space Heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, T. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Homebuilders are exploring more cost-effective combined space and water heating systems (combo systems) with major water heater manufacturers that are offering pre-engineered forced air space heating combo systems. In this project, unlike standardized tests, laboratory tests were conducted that subjected condensing tankless and storage water heater based combo systems to realistic, coincidental space and domestic hot water loads and found that the tankless combo system maintained more stable DHW and space heating temperatures than the storage combo system, among other key findings.

  12. A figure of merit for selective absorbers in flat plate solar water heaters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roberts, DE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We derive from first principles an analytical expression for a figure of merit (FM) for a selective solar absorber in a single glazed flat plate water heater. We first show that the efficiency of a collector with an absorber with absorptance α...

  13. 78 FR 7394 - Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Notification of Proposed Production Activity; GE Appliances; Subzone 29C (Electric Water Heaters), Louisville, KY GE Appliances, operator of Subzone 29C, submitted a notification of proposed production activity for its facility in Louisville, Kentucky. The notification conforming to the...

  14. Measure Guideline. Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Owens, Douglas [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs

  15. Local Adaptive Control of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Water Heaters for Real-time Grid Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    , such as electric vehicles, electric water heaters (EWHs) etc. An adaptive control using only local measurements for the EWHs and PVs is proposed in this study to alleviate OV as well as UV issues. The adaptive control is designed such that it monitors the voltage at the point of connection and adjusts active...

  16. Increasing reliability of system water heaters for steam-turbine installations at the design stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brezgin, V. I.; Brodov, Yu. M.; Brezgin, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    A system for designing water heaters of steam-turbine installations based on uniting standards, reference information, and some numerical procedures with design procedures via wide use of parameterization is considered. The developed design system is based on extensive application of modern information technologies.

  17. Acceptability of the integral solar water heater by householders in the low income urban community

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Basson, FA

    1984-01-01

    Full Text Available A research and demonstration project on the use and performance of low cost integral solar water heaters in urban low-income dwellings was carried out in 1982/83. The project involved technical and socio-economic components. This report summarises...

  18. Guidebook for the Development of a Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Action for Solar Water Heaters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselip, James Arthur; Lütken, Søren E.; Sharma, Sudhir

    This guidebook provides an introduction to designing government-led interventions to scale up investment in solar water heater (SWH) markets, showing how these interventions can be packaged as Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAS). Reflecting the changing balance in global greenhouse...

  19. Development of High Efficiency Carbon Dioxide Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael PETERSEN; Chad D. BOWERS; Stefan ELBEL; Pega HRNJAK

    2012-07-01

    Although heat pump water heaters are today widely accepted in both Japan and Europe, where energy costs are high and government incentives for their use exist, acceptance of such products in the US has been limited. While this trend is slowly changing with the introduction of heat pump water heaters into the residential market, but acceptance remains low in the commercial sector. The objective of the presented work is the development of a high efficiency R744 heat pump water heater for commercial applications with effective utilization of the cooling capability for air conditioning and/or refrigeration. The ultimate goal is to achieve total system COP of up to 8. This unit will be targeted at commercial use where some cooling load is typically needed year round, such as restaurants, hotels, nursing homes, and hospitals. This paper presents the performance results from the development of four R744 commercial heat pump water heater packages of approximately 35 kW and comparison to a commercially available baseline R134a unit of the same capacity and footprint. In addition, the influences of an internal heat exchanger and an enhanced evaporator on the system performance are described and recommendations are made for further improvements of the R744 system.

  20. Static Characteristics of Absorption Chiller-Heater Supplying Cold and Hot Water Simultaneously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Irie, Tomoyoshi

    Absorption chiller-heaters which can supply both chilled water and hot water at the same time, are used for cooling and heating air conditioning systems. In this paper, we classified absorption cold and hot water generating cycles and control methods, studied these absorption cycles by cycle simulation. In economizer cycle, condensed refrigerant which heats hot water is transported to cooling cycle and used effectively for cooling chilled water, Concerning with transported condensed refrigerant, there are two methods, all condensed refrigerant or required refrigerant for cooling are transported to cooling cycle, and required refrigerant method is better for energy saving. Adding improvement of solution control to this economizer cycle, simultaneous cold and hot water supplying chiller-heaters have good characteristics of energy saving in the all region.

  1. Research and development of a high efficiency gas-fired water heater. Volume 2. Task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasilakis, A.D.; Pearson, J.F.; Gerstmann, J.

    1980-01-01

    Design and development of a cost-effective high efficiency gas-fired water heater to attain a service efficiency of 70% (including the effect of exfiltration) and a service efficiency of 78% (excluding exfiltration) for a 75 GPD draw at a 90/sup 0/F temperature rise, with a stored water to conditioned air temperature difference of 80/sup 0/F, are described in detail. Based on concept evaluation, a non-powered natural draft water heater was chosen as the most cost-effective design to develop. The projected installed cost is $374 compared to $200 for a conventional unit. When the project water heater is compared to a conventional unit, it has a payback of 3.7 years and life cycle savings of $350 to the consumer. A prototype water heater was designed, constructed, and tested. When operated with sealed combustion, the unit has a service efficiency of 66.4% (including the effect of exfiltration) below a burner input of 32,000 Btu/h. In the open combustion configuration, the unit operated at a measured efficiency of 66.4% Btu/h (excluding exfiltration). This compares with a service efficiency of 51.3% for a conventional water heater and 61% for a conventional high efficiency unit capable of meeting ASHRAE 90-75. Operational tests showed the unit performed well with no evidence of stacking or hot spots. It met or exceeded all capacity or usage tests specified in the program test plan and met all emission goals. Future work will concentrate on designing, building, and testing pre-production units. It is anticipated that both sealed combustion and open draft models will be pursued.

  2. Effect of Installation of Solar Collector on Performance of Balcony Split Type Solar Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Ji

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of surface orientation and slope of solar collectors on solar radiation collection of balcony split type solar water heaters for six cities in China were analyzed by employing software TRNSYS. The surface azimuth had greater effect on solar radiation collection in high latitude regions. For deviation of the surface slope angle within ±20° around the optimized angle, the variation of the total annual collecting solar radiation was less than 5%. However, with deviation of 70° to 90°, the variation was up to 20%. The effects of water cycle mode, reverse slope placement of solar collector, and water tank installation height on system efficiency were experimentally studied. The thermal efficiencies of solar water heater with single row horizontal arrangement all-glass evacuated tubular collector were higher than those with vertical arrangement at the fixed surface slope angle of 90°. Compared with solar water heaters with flat-plate collector under natural circulation, the system thermal efficiency was raised up to 63% under forced circulation. For collector at reverse slope placement, the temperature-based water stratification in water tank deteriorated, and thus the thermal efficiency became low. For improving the system efficiency, an appropriate installation height of the water tank was suggested.

  3. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, M. Seitzler

    2017-06-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners.

  4. Temperature distributions in trapezoidal built in storage solar water heaters with/without phase change materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarhan, Sefa; Yardim, M. Hakan [Department of Farm Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey); Sari, Ahmet [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Gaziosmanpasa University, Tasliciftlik Yerleskesi, 60240 Tokat (Turkey)

    2006-09-15

    Built in storage solar water heaters (BSSWHs) have been recognized for their more compact constructions and faster solar gain than conventional solar water heaters, however, their water temperatures quickly go down during the cooling period. A trapezoidal BSSWH without PCM storage unit was used as the control heater (reference) to investigate the effect of two differently configured PCM storage units on the temperature distributions in water tanks. In the first design, myristic acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as an absorbing plate. In the second design, lauric acid was filled into the PCM storage tank, which also served as a baffle plate. The water temperature changes were followed by five thermocouples placed evenly and longitudinally into each of the three BSSWHs. The effects of the PCMs on the water temperature distributions depended on the configuration of the PCM storage unit and the longitudinal position in the water tanks. The use of lauric acid lowered the values of the peak temperatures by 15% compared to the control heater at the upper portion of the water tanks because of the low melting temperature of lauric acid, but it did not have any consistent effect on the retention of the water temperatures during the cooling period. The ability of the myristic acid storage unit to retain the water temperatures got more remarkable, especially at the middle portion of the water tank. The myristic acid storage increased the dip temperatures by approximately 8.8% compared to the control heater. In conclusion, lauric acid storage can be used to stabilize the water temperature during the day time, while the myristic acid storage unit can be used as a thermal barrier against heat loss during the night time because of its relatively high melting temperature and low heat conduction coefficient in its solid phase. The experimental results have also indicated that the thermal characteristics of the PCM and the configuration of the PCM storage

  5. Measure Guideline: Heat Pump Water Heaters in New and Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Puttagunta, S.; Owens, D.

    2012-02-01

    This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) promise to significantly reduce energy consumption for domestic hot water (DHW) over standard electric resistance water heaters (ERWHs). While ERWHs perform with energy factors (EFs) around 0.9, new HPWHs boast EFs upwards of 2.0. High energy factors in HPWHs are achieved by combining a vapor compression system, which extracts heat from the surrounding air at high efficiencies, with electric resistance element(s), which are better suited to meet large hot water demands. Swapping ERWHs with HPWHs could result in roughly 50% reduction in water heating energy consumption for 35.6% of all U.S. households. This Building America Measure Guideline is intended for builders, contractors, homeowners, and policy-makers. While HPWHs promise to significantly reduce energy use for DHW, proper installation, selection, and maintenance of HPWHs is required to ensure high operating efficiency and reliability. This document is intended to explore the issues surrounding HPWHs to ensure that homeowners and contractors have the tools needed to appropriately and efficiently install HPWHs. Section 1 of this guideline provides a brief description of HPWHs and their operation. Section 2 highlights the cost and energy savings of HPWHs as well as the variables that affect HPWH performance, reliability, and efficiency. Section 3 gives guidelines for proper installation and maintenance of HPWHs, selection criteria for locating HPWHs, and highlights of important differences between ERWH and HPWH installations. Throughout this document, CARB has included results from the evaluation of 14 heat pump water heaters (including three recently released HPWH

  6. Modeling of a split type air conditioner with integrated water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Techarungpaisan, P.; Theerakulpisut, S.; Priprem, S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, 123 Mittrapab Rd., Muang, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2007-04-15

    This paper presents a steady state simulation model to predict the performance of a small split type air conditioner with integrated water heater. The mathematical model consists of submodels of system components such as evaporator, condenser, compressor, capillary tube, receiver and water heater. These submodels were built based on fundamental principles of heat transfer, thermodynamics, fluid mechanics, empirical relationships and manufacturer's data as necessary. The model was coded into a simulation program and used to predict system parameters of interest such as hot water temperature, condenser exit air temperature, evaporator exit air temperature, mass flow rate of refrigerant, heat rejection in the condenser and cooling capacity of the system. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from an experimental rig built for validating the mathematical model. It was found that the experimental and simulation results are in good agreement. (author)

  7. Energy Efficiency Modelling of Residential Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Toan Tran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater is one of the most energy efficient technologies for heating water for household use. The present work proposes a simplified model of coefficient of performance and examines its predictive capability. The model is based on polynomial functions where the variables are temperatures and the coefficients are derived from the Australian standard test data, using regression technics. The model enables to estimate the coefficient of performance of the same heat pump water heater under other test standards (i.e. US, Japanese, European and Korean standards. The resulting estimations over a heat-up phase and a full test cycle including a draw off pattern are in close agreement with the measured data. Thus the model allows manufacturers to avoid the need to carry out physical tests for some standards and to reduce product cost. The limitations of the methodology proposed are also discussed.

  8. Experimental Investigation of a Natural Circulation Solar Domestic Water Heater Performance under Standard Consumption Rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Taherian, H.; Ganji, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports experimental studies on the performance of a natural circulation solar water heater considering the weather condition of a city in north of Iran. The tests are done on clear and partly cloudy days. The variations of storage tank temperature due to consumption from the tank, daily...... consumption influence on the solar water heater efficiency, and on the input temperature of the collector are studied and the delivered daily useful energy has been obtained. The results show that by withdrawing from storage tank, the system as well as its collector efficiency will increase. Considering...... the value of the coefficient FRUL and τα, which are obtained experimentally as 6.03 and 0.83 respectively, average. monthly total load that is covered by this solar water heating system is estimated....

  9. A high turndown, ultra low emission low swirl burner for natural gas, on-demand water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cheng, Robert K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Therkelsen, Peter L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-13

    Previous research has shown that on-demand water heaters are, on average, approximately 37% more efficient than storage water heaters. However, approximately 98% of water heaters in the U.S. use storage water heaters while the remaining 2% are on-demand. A major market barrier to deployment of on-demand water heaters is their high retail cost, which is due in part to their reliance on multi-stage burner banks that require complex electronic controls. This project aims to research and develop a cost-effective, efficient, ultra-low emission burner for next generation natural gas on-demand water heaters in residential and commercial buildings. To meet these requirements, researchers at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are adapting and testing the low-swirl burner (LSB) technology for commercially available on-demand water heaters. In this report, a low-swirl burner is researched, developed, and evaluated to meet targeted on-demand water heater performance metrics. Performance metrics for a new LSB design are identified by characterizing performance of current on-demand water heaters using published literature and technical specifications, and through experimental evaluations that measure fuel consumption and emissions output over a range of operating conditions. Next, target metrics and design criteria for the LSB are used to create six 3D printed prototypes for preliminary investigations. Prototype designs that proved the most promising were fabricated out of metal and tested further to evaluate the LSB’s full performance potential. After conducting a full performance evaluation on two designs, we found that one LSB design is capable of meeting or exceeding almost all the target performance metrics for on-demand water heaters. Specifically, this LSB demonstrated flame stability when operating from 4.07 kBTU/hr up to 204 kBTU/hr (50:1 turndown), compliance with SCAQMD Rule 1146.2 (14 ng/J or 20 ppm NOX @ 3% O2), and lower CO emissions than state

  10. Building America Top Innovations 2012: Tankless Gas Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2013-01-01

    This Building America Top Innovations profile describes Building America field testing that shed light on how real-world water usage affects energy saving estimates of high-efficiency water heating systems.

  11. Impact on Water Heater Performance of Heating Methods that Promote Tank Temperature Stratification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL; BushPE, John D [Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

    2016-01-01

    During heating of a water heater tank, the vertical temperature stratification of the water can be increased or decreased, depending on the method of heating. Methods that increase stratification during heating include (1) removing cold water from the tank bottom, heating it, and re-introducing it to the tank top at relatively low flow rate, (2) using a heat exchanger wrapped around the tank, through which heating fluid (with finite specific heat) flows from top to bottom, and (3) using an immersed heat element that is relatively high in the tank. Using such methods allows for improved heat pump water heater (HPWH) cycle efficiencies when the heat pump can take advantage of the lower temperatures that exist lower in the tank, and accommodate the resulting glide. Transcritical cycles are especially well-suited to capitalize on this opportunity, and other HPWH configurations (that have been proposed elsewhere) may benefit as well. This work provides several stratification categories of heat pump water heater tank configurations relevant to their stratification potential. To illustrate key differences among categories, it also compiles available experimental data for (a) single pass pumped flow, (b) multi-pass pumped flow, and (c) top-down wrapped tank with transcritical refrigerant.

  12. Experimental Study of Thermoelectric Heat Pump Water Heater with Exhaust Heat Recovery from Kitchens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhong-bing; ZHANG Ling; YANG Zhang; XU Ming; HAN Tian-he

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of thermoelectric heat pump water heater for kitchens exhaust heat recovery was pre-sented,and its performances were investigated under different operating voltages.The experiment results show that the coefficient of performance decreases and the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides be-comes larger with the increase of the operating voltage,but the heating time becomes short.The higher the temperature of water,the greater the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides,leading to a smaller eoeffieient of performance.Under an exhaust temperature of 36℃,the coefficient of performance decreases from 1.66 tO 1.22 when the temperature of water increases from 28℃to 46℃with operating voltage 16 V.Performance tests illustrate that,compared with the conventional electrical water heaters,the new kind of ther-moelectric heat pump water heater is more coefficient.

  13. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other

  14. Application of a Linear Input/Output Model to Tankless Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher T.; Schoenbauer, B.

    2011-12-31

    In this study, the applicability of a linear input/output model to gas-fired, tankless water heaters has been evaluated. This simple model assumes that the relationship between input and output, averaged over both active draw and idle periods, is linear. This approach is being applied to boilers in other studies and offers the potential to make a small number of simple measurements to obtain the model parameters. These parameters can then be used to predict performance under complex load patterns. Both condensing and non-condensing water heaters have been tested under a very wide range of load conditions. It is shown that this approach can be used to reproduce performance metrics, such as the energy factor, and can be used to evaluate the impacts of alternative draw patterns and conditions.

  15. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology Assessment Based on Laboratory Research and Energy Simulation Models: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudon, K.; Sparn, B.; Christensen, D.; Maguire, J.

    2012-02-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. Laboratory results demonstrate the efficiency of this technology under most of the conditions tested and show that differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the individual units. These results were used to understand current model limitations, and then to bracket the energy savings potential for HPWH technology in various US climate regions. Simulation results show that HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in many climate zones when compared to other types of water heaters (up to 64%, including impact on HVAC systems).

  16. Assessment of the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Gaidajis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to life cycle thinking, the environmental burden deriving from different life cycle stages of a product or a system, such as manufacturing, transportation, maintenance and landfilling should be taken into consideration while assessing its environmental performance. In that aspect, the environmental impacts deriving from the life cycle of a typical solar water heater (SWH in Greece are analyzed and assessed with the application of relative life cycle assessment (LCA software in this study. In order to examine various impact categories such as global warming, ozone layer depletion, ecotoxicity and so forth, the IMPACT2002+ method is applied. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle stages, processes and materials that significantly affect the system under examination and to provide a discussion regarding the environmental friendliness of solar water heaters.

  17. Effect of Installation of Solar Collector on Performance of Balcony Split Type Solar Water Heaters

    OpenAIRE

    Xu Ji; Ming Li; Weidong Lin; Tufeng Zheng; Yunfeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    The influences of surface orientation and slope of solar collectors on solar radiation collection of balcony split type solar water heaters for six cities in China were analyzed by employing software TRNSYS. The surface azimuth had greater effect on solar radiation collection in high latitude regions. For deviation of the surface slope angle within ±20° around the optimized angle, the variation of the total annual collecting solar radiation was less than 5%. However, with deviation of 70° to ...

  18. Water solar distiller productivity enhancement using concentrating solar water heater and phase change material (PCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miqdam T. Chaichan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates usage of thermal energy storage extracted from concentrating solar heater for water distillation. Paraffin wax selected as a suitable phase change material, and it was used for storing thermal energy in two different insulated treasurers. The paraffin wax is receiving hot water from concentrating solar dish. This solar energy stored in PCM as latent heat energy. Solar energy stored in a day time with a large quantity, and some heat retrieved for later use. Water’s temperature measured in a definite interval of time. Four cases were studied: using water as storage material with and without solar tracker. Also, PCM was as thermal storage material with and without solar tracker.The system working time was increased to about 5 h with sun tracker by concentrating dish and adding PCM to the system. The system concentrating efficiency, heating efficiency, and system productivity, has increased by about 64.07%, 112.87%, and 307.54%, respectively. The system working time increased to 3 h when PCM added without sun tracker. Also, the system concentrating efficiency increased by about 50.47%, and the system heating efficiency increased by about 41.63%. Moreover, the system productivity increased by about 180%.

  19. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  20. Thermal performance of solar water heater system in Yemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulla Aziz, G.M.; Mukbel, M.A. (Aden Univ., (Yemen, Republic of). Faculty of Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    A thermosyphonic solar water heating system was designed and fabricated from available materials. The risers of galvanized iron are fixed to an aluminium absorber plate by using an Omiga-in and Omiga-out technique. The collector absorber has an aperture area of 127 cm x 91 cm and is connected to a storage tank with 124 l capacity. The system was then tested under the climatical conditions of Aden city. The performance of characteristics of the system, under 'nondrawn off' and ''drawoff'' hot water conditions, are experimentally determined and then compared with the theoretical results. The results are quite satisfactory. The maximum efficiency reached 79%, with mean storage tank temperature of 60[sup o]C. (author)

  1. 进料蒸汽加热器的设计优化%Design and Optimization of Feed Steam Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭强; 王汝军; 宋风莲; 李超

    2016-01-01

    HTRI software is used to design and optimize a steam feed heater. The effect of baffle spacing and cutting rate on the heater, and the difference between saturated steam and superheated steam in thermal resistance distribution and heat transfer coefficient are studied from process and equipment aspect. Univariate analysis shows that this heater has the best performance when the cutting rate is 40% and the baffle spacing is 350 mm. The calculation indicates that: when baffle spacing increases, the shell-side heat transfer coefficient and total heat transfer coefficient decreases; when cutting rate increases, shell-side heat transfer coeffi-cient and total heat transfer coefficient increases firstly and then decreases.Compared with the superheated steam,saturated steam brings larger total heat transfer coefficient and design mar-gin,and makes production operation easier to control.%利用HTRI软件对某进料蒸汽加热器进行了设计优化。采用单变量分析的方法,从工艺和结构两个方面,考察了折流板间距和切割率对加热器的影响,以及饱和蒸汽和过热蒸汽在热阻分布和传热系数等方面的差异,最终发现切割率为40%、折流板间距350 mm时进料蒸汽加热器性能最优。计算结果表明:随着折流板间距的提高,壳侧传热系数和总传热系数逐渐减小;随着折流板切割率的增大,壳侧传热系数及总传热系数均先增大后减小;与过热蒸汽相比,饱和蒸汽可以增大总传热系数,提高加热器设计裕量,并使生产操作更易于控制。

  2. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... 46,000 65 Table II.3--Current Federal Energy Conservation Standards for Pool Heaters Thermal efficiency as of Product class January 1, 1990 Gas-Fired Pool Heater Thermal Efficiency = 78% ] 2. History of... Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75, No....

  3. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2016-07-05

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, and methods of managing refrigerant charge. Various embodiments remove idle refrigerant from a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat by opening a refrigerant recovery valve and delivering the idle refrigerant from the heat exchanger to an inlet port on the compressor. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled by controlling how much refrigerant is drawn from the heat exchanger, by letting some refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and various components can be interconnected with refrigerant conduit. Some embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to the heat exchanger and drive liquid refrigerant out prior to isolating the heat exchanger.

  4. Reliable, Economic, Efficient CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater for North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radcliff, Thomas D; Sienel, Tobias; Huff, Hans-Joachim; Thompson, Adrian; Sadegh, Payman; Olsommer, Benoit; Park, Young

    2006-12-31

    Adoption of heat pump water heating technology for commercial hot water could save up to 0.4 quads of energy and 5 million metric tons of CO2 production annually in North America, but industry perception is that this technology does not offer adequate performance or reliability and comes at too high of a cost. Development and demonstration of a CO2 heat pump water heater is proposed to reduce these barriers to adoption. Three major themes are addressed: market analysis to understand barriers to adoption, use of advanced reliability models to design optimum qualification test plans, and field testing of two phases of water heater prototypes. Market experts claim that beyond good performance, market adoption requires 'drop and forget' system reliability and a six month payback of first costs. Performance, reliability and cost targets are determined and reliability models are developed to evaluate the minimum testing required to meet reliability targets. Three phase 1 prototypes are designed and installed in the field. Based on results from these trials a product specification is developed and a second phase of five field trial units are built and installed. These eight units accumulate 11 unit-years of service including 15,650 hours and 25,242 cycles of compressor operation. Performance targets can be met. An availability of 60% is achieved and the capability to achieve >90% is demonstrated, but overall reliability is below target, with an average of 3.6 failures/unit-year on the phase 2 demonstration. Most reliability issues are shown to be common to new HVAC products, giving high confidence in mature product reliability, but the need for further work to minimize leaks and ensure reliability of the electronic expansion valve is clear. First cost is projected to be above target, leading to an expectation of 8-24 month payback when substituted for an electric water heater. Despite not meeting all targets, arguments are made that an industry leader could

  5. Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

    2013-08-01

    Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

  6. Scheduling of Domestic Water Heater Power Demand for Maximizing PV Self-Consumption Using Model Predictive Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sossan, Fabrizio; Kosek, Anna Magdalena; Martinenas, Sergejus

    2013-01-01

    to predict the future temperature of the water and it manages its state (on and off) according to the forecasted PV production, which are computed starting from forecast of the solar irradiance. Simulations for the proof of concept and for validating the proposed control strategy are proposed. Results......This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) strategy for maximizing photo-voltaic (PV) selfconsumption in a household context exploiting the flexible demand of an electric water heater. The predictive controller uses a water heater model and forecast of the hot Water consumption in order...... of the control approach are compared with a traditional thermostatic controller using historical measurements of a 10 kW PV installation. Economic results based on the Italian self consumption tariffs are also reported. The model of the water heater complex is a mixed grey and white box and its parameters have...

  7. Impact of Ducting on Heat Pump Water Heater Space Conditioning Energy Use and Comfort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Petersen, Joseph M.; Parker, Graham B.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2014-07-21

    Increasing penetration of heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) in the residential sector will offer an important opportunity for energy savings, with a theoretical energy savings of up to 63% per water heater and up to 11% of residential energy use (EIA 2009). However, significant barriers must be overcome before this technology will reach widespread adoption in the Pacific Northwest region and nationwide. One significant barrier noted by the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) is the possible interaction with the homes’ space conditioning system for units installed in conditioned spaces. Such complex interactions may decrease the magnitude of whole-house savings available from HPWH installed in the conditioned space in cold climates and could lead to comfort concerns (Larson et al. 2011; Kresta 2012). Modeling studies indicate that the installation location of HPWHs can significantly impact their performance and the resultant whole-house energy savings (Larson et al. 2012; Maguire et al. 2013). However, field data are not currently available to validate these results. This field evaluation of two GE GeoSpring HPWHs in the PNNL Lab Homes is designed to measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of a GE GeoSpring HPWH configured with exhaust ducting compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods; and measure the performance and impact on the Lab Home HVAC system of the GeoSpring HPWH with both supply and exhaust air ducting as compared to an unducted GeoSpring HPWH during heating and cooling season periods. Important metrics evaluated in these experiments include water heater energy use, HVAC energy use, whole house energy use, interior temperatures (as a proxy for thermal comfort), and cost impacts. This technical report presents results from the PNNL Lab Homes experiment.

  8. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Francisco, A. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States); Roberts, S. G. [Southface Energy Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas.

  9. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, Arvind; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, resp

  10. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, resp

  11. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiwari, A.; Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S.; Sodha, M.S.; Anwar, S.I.

    2009-01-01

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank,

  12. Solar water heaters. A review of systems research and design innovation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norton, Brian [Dublin Institute of Technology (Ireland). Dublin Energy Lab.

    2011-07-01

    Solar water heating can be considered to be an established mature technology. The achievement of this status is the outcome of over a century of system development that culminated with a flourish of innovation in the last thirty years. Drivers for research and development have been achieving economic viability by devising systems that, for specific applications in particular climate contexts produced more hot water per unit cost. Reductions in both initial capital and installation costs have been achieved as well as in those associated with subsequent operation and maintenance. Research on solar water heating is discussed with the emphasis on overall systems though some key aspects of component development are also outlined. A comprehensive taxonomy is presented of the generic types of solar water heater that have emerged and their features, characteristics and performance are discussed. (orig.)

  13. 77 FR 74559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... descriptors (i.e., thermal efficiency and pool heater heating seasonal efficiency), as well as seasonal energy... thermal efficiency metric for pool heaters, but did not propose an integrated annual fuel utilization... states that for pool heaters, the descriptor shall be thermal efficiency. (42 U.S.C....

  14. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... descriptors (i.e., thermal efficiency and pool heater heating seasonal efficiency), as well as seasonal energy... ``efficiency descriptor,'' EPCA specifies that for pool heaters, the efficiency descriptor shall be ``thermal efficiency.'' (42 U.S.C. 6291(22)(E)) Further, EPCA defines the ``thermal efficiency of pool heaters'' as...

  15. Performance of polypropylene and steel tubes in solar water heaters with natural circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riazi, M.R. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Chemical Engineering Dept.; Razavi, J. [Sharif Univ. of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1997-02-01

    Performance of solar water heaters in thermosyphonic flow with polypropylene and steel tubes was studied experimentally. An experimental apparatus consisting of 36 south-facing parallel tubes was designed and built especially for this study. Experiments were performed at Sharif University of Technology in Tehran during July--August 1994 from 0900 to 1700, when the ambient temperature varied from 29 to 36 C. Overall, 30 experiments were conducted for both types of tubes. At first, it was found that the best collector slope for both types of tubes was 36{degree} and it is independent of tube type. Generally, it was found that polypropylene tubes under similar conditions can increase water temperature by 10 C more than steel tubes. Based on the results shown in this study, use of polypropylene tubes in solar water heating systems is recommended.

  16. Theoretical and experimental study of solar water heater with internal exchanger using thermosiphon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koffi, P.M.E.; Andoh, H.Y.; Gbaha, P. [Laboratoire d' Energies Nouvelles et Renouvelables, Institut National Polytechnique Felix Houphoeuet-Boigny, B.P. 1526 Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast); Toure, S. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Cocody, 22 B.P. 582, Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast); Ado, G. [Laboratoire des Procedes, Industriels de Syntheses de l' Environnement et de l' Energie Nouvelle, INP-HB 22, B.P. 1093 Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast)

    2008-08-15

    This study presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the thermal performance of a solar water heater prototype with an internal exchanger using a thermosiphon system. The heat exchanger made of a rolled copper tube is placed diagonally in the storage tank so that the hot fluid crosses a significant mass of stored water. The results focus mainly on the levels of the heat fluxes, temperatures recorded, mass flow rate and efficiency of the collector. During the main insulation period, one obtains satisfactory qualitative and quantitative agreement between the experimental and theoretical results of mass flow rate and temperatures. Those indicate heat fluxes whose peak reaches 989 W/m{sup 2}, collector outlet water temperature levels of more than 85.5 C and a collector thermal effectiveness around 58%. (author)

  17. Relationship between Organic Carbon and Opportunistic Pathogens in Simulated Glass Water Heaters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krista Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Controlling organic carbon levels in municipal water has been hypothesized to limit downstream growth of bacteria and opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing (OPPPs. Here, the relationships between influent organic carbon (0–15,000 µg ozonated fulvic acid /L and the number of total bacteria [16S rRNA genes and heterotrophic plate counts (HPCs] and a wide range of OPPPs (gene copy numbers of Acanthamoeba polyphaga, Vermamoeba vermiformis, Legionella pneumophila, and Mycobacterium avium were examined in the bulk water of 120-mL simulated glass water heaters (SGWHs. The SGWHs were operated at 32–37 °C, which is representative of conditions encountered at the bottom of electric water heaters, with water changes of 80% three times per week to simulate low use. This design presented advantages of controlled and replicated (triplicate conditions and avoided other potential limitations to OPPP growth in order to isolate the variable of organic carbon. Over seventeen months, strong correlations were observed between total organic carbon (TOC and both 16S rRNA gene copy numbers and HPC counts (avg. R2 > 0.89. Although M. avium gene copies were occasionally correlated with TOC (avg. R2 = 0.82 to 0.97, for 2 out of 4 time points and over a limited TOC range (0–1000 µg/L, no other correlations were identified between other OPPPs and added TOC. These results suggest that reducing organic carbon in distributed water is not adequate as a sole strategy for controlling OPPPs, although it may have promise in conjunction with other approaches.

  18. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  19. Movement and evaporation of water droplets under conditions typical for heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, R. S.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2016-09-01

    The macroscopic regularities and integrated characteristics of the motion and evaporation of sprayed water droplets in the field of high-temperature (1100 K) combustion products under the conditions typical for water heaters of contact type (economizers) were studied using a cross-correlation complex working on the basis of panoramic optical methods (particle image velocimetry, particle tracking velocimetry, shadow photography) and high-speed (105 fps) Phantom video cameras. High-speed video recording devices with specialized software were used for continuously monitoring the motion and evaporation of droplets. Titanium dioxide nanopowder tracer particles were introduced to determine the rate of high-temperature gases. The characteristic distances covered by water droplets before their full retardation in the counter-flow of high-temperature combustion products were determined. The integrated dependences were obtained, and the main characteristics of evaporation were determined, which allow one to predict the intensity of the phase transformations of droplets (with sizes of 0.05-0.5 mm) and the distances covered by them before they completely turn in the opposite direction under the conditions corresponding to the heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters: the vapor-droplet rate 1-5 m/s, gas flow rate 0.5-2 m/s, and gas temperature ~1100 K. Approximating expressions were derived to predict the characteristics of the processes. The performance of the economizers under study can be significantly increased by using the obtained experimental dependences, the corresponding approximating expressions, and the resulting conclusions. Conditions were determined under which the influence of phase transformations on retardation exceeds the contribution of the counter-motion and active retardation and evaporation of water droplets occur in the heat-exchange chambers of contact water heaters of typical sizes.

  20. Research and development of a heat-pump water heater. Volume 2. R and D task reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunning, R.L.; Amthor, F.R.; Doyle, E.J.

    1978-08-01

    The heat pump water heater is a device that works much like a window air conditioner except that heat from the home is pumped into a water tank rather than to the outdoors. The objective established for the device is to operate with a Coefficient of Performance (COP) of 3 or, an input of one unit of electric energy would create three units of heat energy in the form of hot water. With such a COP, the device would use only one-third the energy and at one-third the cost of a standard resistance water heater. This Volume 2 contains the final reports of the three major tasks performed in Phase I. In Task 2, a market study identifies the future market and selects an initial target market and channel of distribution, all based on an analysis of the parameters affecting feasibility of the device and the factors that will affect its market acceptance. In the Task 3 report, the results of a design and test program to arrive at final designs of heat pumps for both new water heaters and for retrofitting existing water heaters are presented. In the Task 4 report, a plan for an extensive field demonstration involving use in actual homes is presented. Volume 1 contains a final summary report of the information in Volume 2.

  1. In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content ({le}40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details.

  2. In-situ tuff water migration/heater experiment: experimental plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnstone, J.K.

    1980-08-01

    Tuffs on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) are currently under investigation as a potential isolation medium for heat-producing nuclear wastes. The National Academy of Sciences has concurred in our identification of the potentially large water content ({le}40 vol %) of tuffs as one of the important issues affecting their suitability for a repository. This Experimental Plan describes an in-situ experiment intended as an initial assessment of water generation/migration in response to a thermal input. The experiment will be conducted in the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff in Tunnel U12g (G-Tunnel) located in the north-central region of the NTS. While the Grouse Canyon Welded Tuff is not a potential repository medium, it has physical, thermal, and mechanical properties very similar to those tuffs currently under consideration and is accessible at depth (400 m below the surface) in an existing facility. Other goals of the experiment are to support computer-code and instrumentation development, and to measure in-situ thermal properties. The experimental array consists of a central electrical heater, 1.2 m long x 10.2 cm diameter, surrounded by three holes for measuring water-migration behavior, two holes for measuring temperature profiles, one hole for measuring thermally induced stress in the rock, and one hole perpendicular to the heater to measure displacement with a laser. This Experimental Plan describes the experimental objectives, the technical issues, the site, the experimental array, thermal and thermomechanical modeling results, the instrumentation, the data-acquisition system, posttest characterization, and the organizational details.

  3. Thermal modeling of a combined system of photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) solar water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubey, Swapnil; Tiwari, G.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, an integrated combined system of a photovoltaic (glass-glass) thermal (PV/T) solar water heater of capacity 200 l has been designed and tested in outdoor condition for composite climate of New Delhi. An analytical expression for characteristic equation for photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) flat plate collector has been derived for different condition as a function of design and climatic parameters. The testing of collector and system were carried out during February-April, 2007. It is observed that the photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) flat plate collector partially covered with PV module gives better thermal and average cell efficiency which is in accordance with the results reported by earlier researchers. (author)

  4. Numerical and experimental study on heat pump water heater with PCM for thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jian-You; Zhu, Dong-Sheng [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Academy of Chemistry and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2008-07-01

    An air source heat pump water heater with phase change material (PCM) for thermal storage was designed to take advantage of off-peak electrical energy. The heat transfer model of PCM was based upon a pure conduction formulation. Quasi-steady state method was used to calculate the temperature distribution and phase front location of PCM during thermal storage process. Temperature and thermal resistance iteration approach has been developed for the analysis of temperature variation of heat transfer fluid (HTF) and phase front location of PCM during thermal release process. To test the physical validity of the calculational results, experimental studies about storing heat and releasing heat of PCM were carried. Comparison between the calculational results and the experimental data shows good agreement. Graphical results including system pressure and input power of heat pump, time-wise variation of stored and released thermal energy of PCM were presented and discussed. (author)

  5. An experimental investigation with artificial sunlight of a solar hot-water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, F. F.

    1976-01-01

    Thermal performance measurements were made of a commercial solar hot water heater in a solar simulator to determine basic performance characteristics of a traditional type of flat plate collector, with and without side reflectors (to increase the solar flux). Information on each of the following was obtained; (1) the effect of flow and incidence angle on the efficiency of a flat plate collector (but only without side reflectors); (2) transient performance under flow and nonflow conditions; (3) the effectiveness of reflectors to increase collector efficiency for a zero radiation angle at fluid temperatures required for solar air conditioning; and (4) the limits of applicability of a collector efficiency correlation based on the Hottel Whillier equation.

  6. Theoretical heating coefficient of a heat pump water heater with heat recovery applied in household bathing room

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOUGuangxiao; WANGHanqing; GUWeili; KOUJianguo

    2003-01-01

    Presents the components and flow diagram of a heat pump water heater with heat reclaim applied In household bathing room, analyzes its characteristics from thermodynamical principle, calculates its theoretical heating coefficient under different operating conditions. The result shows that the maximum value of its heating coefficient is 12.9 under a typical operating condition.

  7. Experimental validation of dynamic simulation of the flat plate collector in a closed thermosyphon solar water heater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taherian, H.; Kolaei, Alireza Rezania; Sadeghi, S.;

    2011-01-01

    This work studies the dynamic simulation of thermosyphon solar water heater collector considering the weather conditions of a city in north of Iran. The simulation was done for clear and partly cloudy days. The useful energy, the efficiency diagrams, the inlet and the outlet of collector, center...

  8. Analysis of solar water heater with parabolic dish concentrator and conical absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, G.; Kumar, P.; Anwar, M.; Mohanraj, T.

    2017-06-01

    This research focuses on developing novel technique for a solar water heating system. The novel solar system comprises a parabolic dish concentrator, conical absorber and water heater. In this system, the conical absorber tube directly absorbs solar radiation from the sun and the parabolic dish concentrator reflects the solar radiations towards the conical absorber tube from all directions, therefore both radiations would significantly improve the thermal collector efficiency. The working fluid water is stored at the bottom of the absorber tubes. The absorber tubes get heated and increases the temperature of the working fluid inside of the absorber tube and causes the working fluid to partially evaporate. The partially vaporized working fluid moves in the upward direction due to buoyancy effect and enters the heat exchanger. When fresh water passes through the heat exchanger, temperature of the vapour decreases through heat exchange. This leads to condensation of the vapour and forms liquid phase. The working fluid returns to the bottom of the collector absorber tube by gravity. Hence, this will continue as a cyclic process inside the system. The proposed investigation shows an improvement of collector efficiency, enhanced heat transfer and a quality water heating system.

  9. Assessing Consumer Values and the Supply-Chain Market for the Integrated Water Heater/Dehumidifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2005-01-11

    This paper presents a case study of the potential market for the dual-service residential integrated water heater/dehumidifier (WHD). Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which this integrated appliance might penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to assess market readiness as well as factor preferred product attributes into the design to drive consumer demand for this product. This study also supports analysis for prototype design. A full market analysis for potential commercialization should be conducted after prototype development. The integrated WHD is essentially a heat-pump water heater (HPWH) with components and controls that allow dedicated dehumidification. Adequate residential humidity control is a growing issue for newly constructed residential homes, which are insulated so well that mechanical ventilation may be necessary to meet fresh air requirements. Leveraging its successful experience with the energy-efficient design improvement for the residential HPWH, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL's) Engineering Science and Technology Division's (ESTD's) Building Equipment Group designed a water-heating appliance that combines HPWH efficiency with dedicated dehumidification. This integrated appliance could be a low-cost solution for dehumidification and efficient electric water heating. ORNL is partnering with Western Carolina University, Asheville-Buncombe Technical Community College, American Carolina Stamping Company, and Clemson University to develop this appliance and assess its market potential. For practical purposes, consumers are indifferent to how water is heated but are very interested in product attributes such as initial first cost

  10. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  11. Experimental analysis of distinct design of a batch solar water heater with integrated collector storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Jaji

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a new design of batch solar water heater has been studied. In this system, the collector and storage were installed in one unit. Unlike the conventional design consisting of small diameter water tubes, it has a single large diameter drum which serves the dual purpose of absorber tube and storage tank. In principle it is a compound parabolic collector. The drum is sized to have a storage capacity of 100 liter to serve a family of four persons. The tests were carried out with a single glass cover and two glass covers. The tests were repeated for several days. Performance analysis of the collector has revealed that it has maximum mean daily efficiency with two glass covers as high as 37.2%. The maximum water temperature in the storage tank of 60°C has been achieved for a clear day operation at an average solar beam radiation level of 680 W/m2 and ambient temperature of 32°C. To judge the operating characteristics and to synchronize utility pattern of the collector, the different parameters such as efficiency, mean plate temperature and mass flow rate has been investigated.

  12. Numerical analysis of using hybrid photovoltaic-thermal solar water heater in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammadi Sarduei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Electrical performance of solar cells decreases with increasing cell temperature, basically because of growth of the internal charge carrier recombination rates, caused by increased carrier concentrations. Hybrid Photovoltaic/thermal (PVT systems produce electrical and thermal energy simultaneously. PVT solar collectors convert the heat generated in the solar cells to low temperature useful heat energy and so they provide a lower working temperature for solar cells which subsequently leads to a higher electrical efficiency. Recently, in Iran, the reforming government policy in subsidy and increasing fossil fuels price led to growing an interest in use of renewable energies for residual and industrial applications. In spite of this, the PV power generator investment is not economically feasible, so far. Hybrid PVT devices are well known as an alternative method to improve energy performance and therefore economic feasibility of the conventional PV systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a PVT solar water heater in four different cities of Iran using TRNSYS program. Materials and Methods The designed PVT solar water system consists of two separate water flow circuits namely closed cycle and open circuit. The closed cycle circuit was comprised of a solar PVT collector (with nominal power of 880 W and area of 5.6 m2, a heat exchanger in the tank (with volume of 300 L, a pump and connecting pipes. The water stream in the collector absorbs the heat accumulated in the solar cells and delivers it to the water in the tank though the heat exchanger. An on/off controller system was used to activate the pump when the collector outlet temperature was higher than that of the tank in the closed cycle circuit. The water in the open circuit, comes from city water at low temperature, enters in the lower part of the storage tank where the heat transfer occurs between the two separate circuits. An auxiliary heater, connected

  13. Dimensioning of a solar water heater made from PET bottles; Dimensionamento de um aquecedor solar de agua feito com garrafas PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertoleti, Pedro Henrique Fonseca; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis

    2008-07-01

    This document show the solar water heater made of PET bottles, a simple-construction solar water heater that try to give us two important solutions, water heating using solar energy and reutilization of the PET bottles left in the nature. Also, it will be showed how to do the dimensioning of it. Based on the showed dimensioning a application / software is developed and after that simulations are made using the application to provide how is the economy if it's used this kind of solar water heater and their environmental contribution by reutilization of the PET bottles abandoned in the nature. For example, in a common home the economy is about 45% of the electricity bill considering that the warmed water is used just to take a shower. So, the conclusion is: the solar water heater made by PET bottles is a very relevant equipment to the use of the solar energy, to useful applications and environmental contribution. (author)

  14. Modelling of an ICS solar water heater using artificial neural networks and TRNSYS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souliotis, M.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. [Physics Department, University of Patras, Patras 26504, ACHAIA (Greece); Kalogirou, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Engineering, Cyprus University of Technology, P.O. Box 50329, Limassol 3603 (Cyprus)

    2009-05-15

    A study, in which a suitable artificial neural network (ANN) and TRNSYS are combined in order to predict the performance of an Integrated Collector Storage (ICS) prototype, is presented. Experimental data that have been collected from outdoor tests of an ICS solar water heater with cylindrical water storage tank inside a CPC reflector trough were used to train the ANN. The ANN is then used through the Excel interface (Type 62) in TRNSYS to model the annual performance of the system by running the model with the values of a typical meteorological year for Athens, Greece. In this way the specific capabilities of both approaches are combined, i.e., use of the radiation processing and modelling power of TRNSYS together with the 'black box' modelling approach of ANNs. The details of the calculation steps of both methods that aim to perform an accurate prediction of the system performance are presented and it is shown that this new method can be used effectively for such predictions. (author)

  15. Development and application of engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Xiufeng; Feng Shiyu; Hu Wei; Zheng Feifei [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Xi' an (China); Wang Huiyu; Luo Cong [Yangzhou Sunleada Co, Ltd, Yangzhou (China); Wang Jianguo; Fan Guiyou [TongLing Real Estate Co. Ltd, TongLing (China)

    2008-07-01

    An engineering-scale solar water heater system assisted by heat pump was developed based on a modularized structure. The subunits of modularized system include vacuum solar energy collectors, air source heat pump, heat storage and supplying system and control panel. All devices could be controlled and monitored centrally. Energy source of this system was composed of solar energy (70%), air thermal energy (20%) and electric power (10%). The system has advantages of high average annual comprehensive energy efficiency and elementary energy utilization efficiency. The product can be employed in central heat water supplying project with a capacity of more than 6 ton, in such facilities as residential districts, hotels, restaurants, dormitories, bathing centers and so on. The economical efficiency is better as the scale is bigger. The project has been supported by innovation funds of Science and Technology of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), being applied in a residential district successfully as a demonstration project of renewable and new energy by Chinese Ministry of Construction. (orig.)

  16. West Village Community: Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B.; Backman, C.; Hoeschele, M.; German, A.

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. The project when complete will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community's impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  17. West Village Community. Quality Management Processes and Preliminary Heat Pump Water Heater Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Backman, C. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2012-11-01

    West Village, a multi-use project underway at the University of California Davis, represents a ground-breaking sustainable community incorporating energy efficiency measures and on-site renewable generation to achieve community-level Zero Net Energy (ZNE) goals. When complete, the project will provide housing for students, faculty, and staff with a vision to minimize the community’s impact on energy use by reducing building energy use, providing on-site generation, and encouraging alternative forms of transportation. This focus of this research is on the 192 student apartments that were completed in 2011 under Phase I of the West Village multi-year project. The numerous aggressive energy efficiency measures implemented result in estimated source energy savings of 37% over the B10 Benchmark. There are two primary objectives of this research. The first is to evaluate performance and efficiency of the central heat pump water heaters as a strategy to provide efficient electric water heating for net-zero all-electric buildings and where natural gas is not available on site. In addition, effectiveness of the quality assurance and quality control processes implemented to ensure proper system commissioning and to meet program participation requirements is evaluated. Recommendations for improvements that could improve successful implementation for large-scale, high performance communities are identified.

  18. Comparative Experimental Analysis of the Thermal Performance of Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heater Systems With and Without a Mini-Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC Reflector(C < 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehong Su

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Evacuated tube solar water heater systems are widely used in China due to their high thermal efficiency, simple construction requirements, and low manufacturing costs. CPC evacuated tube solar water heaters with a geometrical concentration ratio C of less than one are rare. A comparison of the experimental rig of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector was set up, with a series of experiments done in Hefei (31°53'N, 117°15'E, China. The first and second laws of thermodynamics were used to analyze and contrast their thermal performance. The water in the tank was heated from 26.9 to 55, 65, 75, 85, and 95 °C. Two types of solar water heater systems were used, and the data gathered for two days were compared. The results show that when attaining low temperature water, the evacuated tube solar water heater system without a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the system with a mini-CPC reflector, including the average and immediate values. On the other hand, when attaining high temperature water, the system with a mini-CPC reflector has higher thermal and exergy efficiencies than the other one. The comparison presents the advantages of evacuated tube solar water heater systems with and without a mini-CPC reflector, which can be offered as a reference when choosing which solar water system to use for actual applications.

  19. Design of high-pressure direct contact heater for promising power supply units: Experimental substantiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somova, E. V.; Shvarts, A. L.; Turkin, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    The results of experimental studies of superheated steam condensation on feed water jets in a highpressure, direct-contact heat exchanger are presented. Direct contact feed water heater (DCFWH) can be used in a dual-flow diagram of a steam-power unit with ultrasupercritical steam parameters (35 MPa, 700/720°C). The direct contact feed water heater is included in the flow diagram of the II circuit in a promising power unit; it provides feed water heating to 340°C in all maintenance and emergency operation modes of the unit. The reliability of the high-pressure direct contact heater operation in this flow diagram is of major importance in relation to the danger of lead solidification in the tube space of the steam generator. Technical requirements to the design of the high-pressure direct contact heater for increasing the heat exchange efficiency are formulated based on the results of earlier studies with steam-water mixture as the heating medium. The results of studies of superheated steam condensation on jets presented in this study testify that feed water is additionally heated to the required temperature at the output of the installation. The influence of initial feed water parameters (outflow velocity and temperature) on the jet heating length is elucidated. The numerical approximation of the experimental data for determination of the jet heating length in the nominal and partial power unit loads is obtained. The results of the calculations are used to simplify the design of the water-supplying element for the direct contact feed water heater. The proposed design of direct contact feed water heater is characterized by simplicity and low metal intensity, which provides the installation reliability at the considered pressure level due to the minimum number of structural elements.

  20. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-08

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  1. Building America Case Study: Multifamily Central Heat Pump Water Heaters, Davis, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, E. Weitzel

    2017-03-01

    Although heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have gained significant attention in recent years as a high efficiency electric water heating solution for single family homes, central HPWHs for commercial or multi-family applications are not as well documented in terms of measured performance and cost effectiveness. To evaluate this technology, the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team monitored the performance of a 10.5 ton central HPWH installed on a student apartment building at the West Village Zero Net Energy Community in Davis, California. Monitoring data collected over a 16-month period were then used to validate a TRNSYS simulation model. The TRNSYS model was then used to project performance in different climates using local electric rates. Results of the study indicate that after some initial commissioning issues, the HPWH operated reliably with an annual average efficiency of 2.12 (Coefficient of Performance). The observed efficiency was lower than the unit's rated efficiency, primarily due to the fact that the system rarely operated under steady-state conditions. Changes in the system configuration, storage tank sizing, and control settings would likely improve the observed field efficiency. Modeling results suggest significant energy savings relative to electric storage water heating systems (typical annual efficiencies around 0.90) providing for typical simple paybacks of six to ten years without any incentives. The economics versus gas water heating are currently much more challenging given the current low natural gas prices in much of the country. Increased market size for this technology would benefit cost effectiveness and spur greater technology innovation.

  2. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patel, Viral K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mandel, Bracha T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

  3. Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, M. L. [Southface Energy Inst., Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, A.; Roberts, S. G.

    2016-05-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  4. Commercialization of air conditioning heat pump/water heater. Final technical report, Volume 2: Appendix A through E

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-30

    This is the final technical report on a commercialization project for an air conditioning heat pump water heater. The objective of the project was to produce a saleable system which would be economically competitive with natural gas and cost effective with regard to initial cost versus annual operating costs. The development and commercialization of the system is described. Compiled data included in numerous figures, tables and graphs.

  5. Novel Method for Measuring the Heat Collection Rate and Heat Loss Coefficient of Water-in-Glass Evacuated Tube Solar Water Heaters Based on Artificial Neural Networks and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The determinations of heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient are crucial for the evaluation of in service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters. However, the direct determination requires complex detection devices and a series of standard experiments, which also wastes too much time and manpower. To address this problem, we propose machine learning models including artificial neural networks (ANNs and support vector machines (SVM to predict the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient without a direct determination. Parameters that can be easily obtained by “portable test instruments” were set as independent variables, including tube length, number of tubes, tube center distance, heat water mass in tank, collector area, final temperature and angle between tubes and ground, while the heat collection rate and heat loss coefficient determined by the detection device were set as dependent variables respectively. Nine hundred fifteen samples from in-service water-in-glass evacuated tube solar water heaters were used for training and testing the models. Results show that the multilayer feed-forward neural network (MLFN with 3 nodes is the best model for the prediction of heat collection rate and the general regression neural network (GRNN is the best model for the prediction of heat loss coefficient due to their low root mean square (RMS errors, short training times, and high prediction accuracies (under the tolerances of 30%, 20%, and 10%, respectively.

  6. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-15

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored. May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored.

  7. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report. Part I, Lab/Field Performance Evaluation and Accelerated Life Testing of a Hybrid Electric Heat Pump Water Heater (HPWH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Murphy, Richard W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Linkous, Randall Lee [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    DOE has supported efforts for many years with the objective of getting a water heater that uses heat pump technology (aka a heat pump water heater or HPWH) successfully on the residential equipment market. The most recent previous effort (1999-2002) produced a product that performed very well in ORNL-led accelerated durability and field tests. The commercial partner for this effort, Enviromaster International (EMI), introduced the product to the market under the trade name Watter$aver in 2002 but ceased production in 2005 due to low sales. A combination of high sales price and lack of any significant infrastructure for service after the sale were the principal reasons for the failure of this effort. What was needed for market success was a commercial partner with the manufacturing and market distribution capability necessary to allow economies of scale to lead to a viable unit price together with a strong customer service infrastructure. General Electric certainly meets these requirements, and knowing of ORNL s expertise in this area, approached ORNL with the proposal to partner in a CRADA to produce a high efficiency electric water heater. A CRADA with GE was initiated early in Fiscal Year, 2008. GE initially named its product the Hybrid Electric Water Heater (HEWH).

  8. Effect of heat recovery water heater system on the performance of residential split air conditioner using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Thalal; Amri, I.; Herisiswanto; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This This paper presents the performance of residential split air conditioner (RSAC) using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22) as the effect on the use of heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). In this study, RSAC was modified with addition of dummy condenser (trombone coil type) as heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). This HRWHS is installed between a compressor and a condenser by absorbing a part of condenser waste heat. The results show that RSAC with HRWHS is adequate to generate hot water with the temperature range about 46.58˚C - 48.81˚C when compared to without HRWHS and the use of dummy condenser does not give significant effect to the split air conditioner performance. When the use of HRWHS, the refrigerant charge has increase about 19.05%, the compressor power consumption has slightly increase about 1.42% where cooling capacity almost the same with slightly different about 0.39%. The condenser heat rejection is lower about 2.68% and the COP has slightly increased about 1.05% when compared to without HRWHS. The use of HRWHS provide free hot water, it means there is energy saving for heating water without negative impact to the system performance of RSAC.

  9. COMBINED UNCOVERED SHEET-AND-TUBE PVT-COLLECTOR SYSTEM WITH BUILT-IN STORAGE WATER HEATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and investigation of a simple combined uncovered sheet-and-tube photo-voltaic-thermal (PVT collector system. The PVT-collector system consists of a support, standard PV module (1.22x0.305m, area=0.37m2, fill factor=0.75, sheet-and-tube water collector and storage tank-heater. The collector was fixed under PV module. Inclination angle of the PVT-collector to the horizontal plane was 45 degree. The storage tank-heater played double role i.e. for storage of hot water and for water heating. The PVT-collector system could work in the fixed and tracking modes of operation. During investigations of PVT-collector in natural conditions, solar irradiance, voltage and current of PV module, ambient temperature and water temperature in storage tank were measured. Average thermal and electrical powers of the PVT-collector system at the tracking mode of operation observed were 39W and 21W, with efficiencies of 15% and 8% respectively at the input power of 260W. The maximum temperature of the water obtained was 42oC. The system was observed efficient for low-temperature applications. The PVT-collector system may be used as a prototype for design of PVT-collector system for domestic application, teaching aid and for demonstration purposes.

  10. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equiment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaowei Wang; Zhenyan Liu [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical and Power Engineering; Yuan Li; Keke Zhao; Zhigang Wang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd. (China)

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users. (author)

  11. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shaowei [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: wswtop@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu Zhenyan [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li Yuan [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Zhao Keke [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Wang Zhigang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users.

  12. TOWARDS A UTAUT-BASED MODEL FOR THE INTENTION TO USE SOLAR WATER HEATERS BY LIBYAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the most fundamental features to ensure the success of a new technology introduction is citizen acceptance. Based on a unified model, called the Unified Theory of Adoption and Use of Technology (UTAUT, this paper provides new insights into predicting adoption and identifying of the factors that may prompt people to accept and use of Solar Water Heaters as a concrete step toward using Renewable Energy Resources, and offer guidelines for energy saving for the Libyan government and that will contribute to the economy of the country.

  13. PERFORMANCE DETERIORATION OF THERMOSIPHON SOLAR FLAT PLATE WATER HEATER DUE TO SCALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    arunachala umesh chandavar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available 0 0 1 340 1943 International Islamic University 16 4 2279 14.0 Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} The performance of Flat plate Solar Water Heater deteriorates within five to twelve years of their installation due to factors related to manufacturing, operating conditions, lack of maintenance etc. Especially, problem due to scaling is significant as it is based on quality of water used. The remaining factors are system dependent and could be overcome by quality production. Software is developed by incorporating Hottel Whillier Bliss (H-W-B equation to ascertain the effect of scaling on system efficiency in case of thermosiphon system. In case of clean thermosiphon system, the instantaneous efficiency calculated at 1000 W/m2 radiation is 72 % and it drops to 46 % for 3.7 mm scale thickness. The mass flow rate is reduced by 90 % for 3.7 mm scale thickness. Whereas, the average temperature drop of water in the tank is not critical due to considerable heat content in water under severe scaled condition.  But practically in case of major scale growth, some of the risers are likely to get blocked completely which leads to negligible temperature rise in the tank. ABSTRAK: Prestasi plat rata pemanas air suria merosot selepas lima hingga dua belas tahun  pemasangannya disebabkan faktor-faktor yang berkaitan dengan pembuatannya, cara kendaliannya, kurangnya penyelenggaraan dan sebagainya.  Terutama sekali, masalah disebabkan scaling (tembunan endapan mineral perlu diambil berat kerana ianya bergantung kepada kualiti air yang digunakan. Faktor-faktor selebihya bersandarkan sistem dan ia

  14. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J. [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K. [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M. [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  15. Retrofitting Domestic Hot Water Heaters for Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses in a Cold Climate: A Theoretical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Karlsson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the biggest obstacles to economic profitability of solar water heating systems is the investment cost. Retrofitting existing domestic hot water heaters when a new solar hot water system is installed can reduce both the installation and material costs. In this study, retrofitting existing water heaters for solar water heating systems in Swedish single-family houses was theoretically investigated using the TRNSYS software. Four simulation models using forced circulation flow with different system configurations and control strategies were simulated and analysed in the study. A comparison with a standard solar thermal system was also presented based on the annual solar fraction. The simulation results indicate that the retrofitting configuration achieving the highest annual performance consists of a system where the existing tank is used as storage for the solar heat and a smaller tank with a heater is added in series to make sure that the required outlet temperature can be met. An external heat exchanger is used between the collector circuit and the existing tank. For this retrofitted system an annual solar fraction of 50.5% was achieved. A conventional solar thermal system using a standard solar tank achieves a comparable performance for the same total storage volume, collector area and reference conditions.

  16. Experimental study on depth of paraffin wax over floating absorber plate in built-in storage solar water heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Sivakumar

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to study the effect of depth of phase change material over the absorber surface of an integrated collector-storage type flat plate solar water heater. Flat plate solar water heaters are extensively used all over the world to utilize the natural source of solar energy. In order to utilize the solar energy during off-sunshine hours, it is inevitable to store and retain solar thermal energy as long as possible. Here, phase change material is not used for heat storage, but to minimize losses during day and night time only. The depth of phase change material over a fixed depth of water in a solar thermal collector is an important geometric parameter that influences the maximum temperature rise during peak solar irradiation and hence the losses. From the results of the studies for different masses of paraffin wax phase change material layers, the optimum depth corresponding to the maximum heat gain till evening is found to be 2 mm, and the heat retention till the next day morning is found to be 4 mm.

  17. 1000 solar water heaters in the newly built area Woudhuis in Apeldoorn, Netherlands. 1000 zonneboilers in een nieuwbouwwijk Woudhuis, Apeldoorn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croonen, M.J.E. (PGEM Energiemaatschappij voor Gelderland en Flevoland, Arnhem (Netherlands)); Van der Leun, C.J. (Ecofys, Utrecht (Netherlands))

    1993-07-01

    In the end of 1990 a large scale solar boiler project was initiated for the title area. The aim of the project is to gain experience in project planning of the implementation of solar water heaters in newly built areas and to investigate to what extent this could contribute to a cost reduction of the solar boilers. The target was a total of 1,000 solar boilers in the Woudhuis area, in which 1,700 houses will be built in the period 1993-1995. A cost reduction of 10-20% is estimated. Descriptions of the project, the Woudhuis area and the planning method are given. It is expected that the installation of 1,000 solar water heaters and the estimated cost reduction will be realized. The Woudhuis project will be a part of the European Community research program THERMIE and provided much knowledge on how to plan such a project in newly built areas. It also has very positive effects on other similar follow-up projects. 2 figs.

  18. 电热水器的原理与检修%Principle and Maintenance About the Electric Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭占苗

    2011-01-01

    详细分析储水式电热水嚣的电路原理,以鲁斌牌QZD-1型热水器为饲介绍电热水器的电源电路,水位显示电路,防止干烧电路和防止漏电电路.重点介绍水位显示电路和防止干烧电路,水位显示电路主要以ICl(MC4069)反相器为核心,可以检测注水到莱一位置;防止干烧电路主要以IC2(LM339)比较器为棱心,实现当水箱水位低于2/6位置时断电.最后,就该电热水器可能出现的故障,给出针对故障进行检修的方法,为初学电热水器设计与检修者提供参考.%In this article,the author mainly analyzed circuit of storage-type electric water heater. Furthermore, detailed analysis about the water heater named Lu Bin QZD-1 were introduced , including power circuit, level display circuit, prevention of dry circuit and preventing leakage circuit. Especially, the last two parts of the circuit were very important. IC1 (MCA069) comparator is core component of level display circuit, which can detect the position of water in the liner; simultaneously, IC2(LM339) is considered as a key device of prevention of dry circuit ,which could cut off the power if the water level is lower than 2/6 location in the water tank. Finally, the author proposed appropriate methods of examination and repairs for possible faults of the storage-type electric water heater, which can provide reference to beginners who learn design and maintenance.

  19. Technical support document: Energy efficiency standards for consumer products: Room air conditioners, water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, kitchen ranges and ovens, pool heaters, fluorescent lamp ballasts and television sets. Volume 1, Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (P.L. 94-163), as amended, establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. DOE is currently considering amending standards for seven types of products: water heaters, direct heating equipment, mobile home furnaces, pool heaters, room air conditioners, kitchen ranges and ovens (including microwave ovens), and fluorescent light ballasts and is considering establishing standards for television sets. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data, and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of the proposed standards. This volume presents a general description of the analytic approach, including the structure of the major models.

  20. Shabbes burn, a burn that occurs solely among Jewish orthodox children; due to accidental shower from overhead water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoufani, A; Golan, J

    2003-02-01

    From January 1990 to January 2000, 35 children were treated in our department for Shabbes burn, a unique scald burn that occurred mainly among orthodox Jews during the Sabbath. A retrospective review was conducted to determine the extent of the problem, to understand the burn mechanism and to suggest a prevention program. A shower of hot water from the Sabbath heater is the cause of this burn. Among the Shabbes burn cases, 27 patients were female (77%) and 17 children (48%) were between 3 and 6 years old. It is suggested that this is a common burn that occurs among orthodox Jewish families and affects mainly females. Education programs using the media directed to the Jewish orthodox population have been conducted, this combined with redesigned of the heater, have reduced significantly the incidence of the burn as seen in our institute. However, even though efforts have been supported widely, there remains a need for educational and governmental regulations on a national level. This could aid orthodox Jews not only in Israel but globally, as well.

  1. Exergy Analysis of Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater%二氧化碳热泵热水器的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱开鼎; 陈海峰; 窦丹; 李九良

    2011-01-01

    In this paper,the operating principle of Carbon Dioxide Heat Pump Water Heater is explained;by constructing the exergy model and providing the initial conditions,an exergy analysis of working process of carbon dioxide heat pump water heater is made;which results in the ratio of exergy consumption from different part of the heater,and indicates the method of improving the ratio of utilizing the exergy.%介绍了二氧化碳热泵热水器的工作原理,通过建立模型,给出初始条件,对二氧化碳热泵热水器的工作过程进行了分析,得出了各部分所占的消耗比重,指出了提高利用率的方法。

  2. Experimental studies of operating characteristics of a downhole electric heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simkin, E.M.; Sergeev, A.I.; Sheinman, A.B.

    1967-06-01

    A new type of electric downhole heater for deparaffinization and heating of formations in oil wells is described. The heater is a hollow hermetic cylinder, which contains an electrode insulated from the body of the heater. The cylinder contains a predetemined volume of water of fixed electrical resistance. Resistance of this water is adjusted by addition of salt. A cable supplying the electrode with electric current also ground the heater by body. The current passes through the water, heats it, and produces steam. The steam heats up the hermetically sealed body of the heater, and heat flows to the well fluid around the heater. A schematic diagram of the heater is shown. Thermal output of the heater depends on current supplied, dimension of heater and components, resistance and volume of water in heater, and other parameters. All these factors are correlated with heat output by a series of graphs and equations.

  3. Assessment of global environmental impacts by utilizing methodology of LCA on solar water heater for dwellings; LCA shuho ni yoru taiyonetsu onsuiki no kankyo fuka hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamoshida, J. [Shibaura Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Asai, S. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    CO2 emission was quantified through the life cycle of a solar water heater to assess its environment impact. Although LCA (life cycle assessment) originally sums up I/O of all materials and energy through the whole life cycle of a product to examine environment impact, this assessment was carried out for only CO2. Calculation of CO2 emission assumed a natural circulating solar water heater of 200 l in effective hot water capacity, 2.78m{sup 2} in effective collecting area, and 0.5 in average annual collecting efficiency of total solar radiation, and an auxiliary city gas heat source for compensating insufficient heat quantity. The total CO2 emission in the life cycle of a solar water heater was obtained from an industrial association table assuming the life cycles of 10 and 20 years. CO2 emission was estimated to be 5407.1kg-CO2 and 10665.2kg-CO2 for 10 and 20 years, respectively. CO2 emission due to city gas was largest in the total CO2 emission in the life cycle. As a result, for reduction of CO2 emission due to a solar water heater, improvement of equipment efficiency was most important. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkanshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S.; Mizuno, T. [Yazaki Resources Co. Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For the purpose of satisfying demands for qualitative improvement on tapwater temperature and pressure, an indirect-type solar water heater using solar cells, in which a closed type hot water storage tank connected directly to the water supply is integrated with a solar collector, was examined for its characteristics and performance. The heat collecting medium is a water solution of polypropylene glycol, which circulates through the solar collector pump, cistern, solar collector, and heat exchanger (hot water storage tank). The results of the test are summarized below. When comparison is made between the two solar collector pump control methods, the solar cells direct connection method and the differential thermo method utilizing temperature difference between the solar collector and the hot water storage tank, they are alike in collecting heat on clear days, but on cloudy days the latter collects 5% more than the former. In winter, when the heat exchanger heat transfer area is 0.4m{sup 2} large, a further increase in the area improves but a little the heat collecting efficiency. An increase in the medium flow rate and temperature, or in the Reynolds number, enhances the heat collecting efficiency. 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.B.; Smetana, F.O.

    1977-03-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using insolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in insolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  6. An economic and performance design study of solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. B.; Smetana, F. O.

    1977-01-01

    The performance and estimated material costs for several solar preheaters for domestic hot water heaters using isolation levels present in North Carolina are presented. The effects of monthly variations in isolation and the direction of incident radiation are included. Demand is assumed at 13 gallons (49.2 liters) per day per person. The study shows that a closed circulation system with 82 gallons (310 liters) of preheated storage and 53.4 cu ft (4.94 cu m) of collector surface with single cover can be expected to cost about $800 and to repay it capital cost and interest (at 8%) in 5.2 years, assuming present electric rates increase at 5% per year.

  7. Passively operated spool valve for drain-down freeze protection of thermosyphon water heaters. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-04-30

    The work done to extend the existing drain-down valve technology to provide passive drain-down freeze protection for thermosyphon-based solar water heaters is described. The basic design of the existing valve model is that of a spool valve, employing a cylindrical spool which moves axially in a mating cartridge to open and close o-rings at the two operating extremes (drain and operate) to perform the valving function. Three passive actuators to drive the basic valving mechanism were designed, fabricated, and tested. Two piping configurations used to integrate the spool valve with the thermosyphon system are described, as are the passive actuators. The three actuator designs are: photovoltaic driven, refrigerant-based bellows, and heat motor cable-drive designs. Costs are compared for the alternative actuator designs, and operating characteristics were examined for the thermosyphon system, including field tests. The market for the valve for thermosyphon systems is then assessed. (LEW)

  8. Saving cost in solar water heaters by means of integration of the solar equipment in an existing hot water circulation loop; Kosteneinsparungen bei solaren Warmwasseranlagen durch Einbindung in die Warmwasserzirkulation. Vorstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitzmann, B.

    2001-07-01

    The implementation of solar water heaters in hot-water circulations for apartment buildings was examined. Models as well as investigations at 6 water supply systems in existing buildings show technically and economically opportunities for the proposed installation. Beside a reduction of the solar-piping length the proposed system shows higher opportunities for using existing hot water storage devices for solar energy storage. This is because of the energy transfer at the hot water storage devices from the existing in- and outlets instead of a heat exchanger. Today the proposed installation can be already classified as economic useful if the investment for piping and additional hot water storage device can be reduced in comparison to conventional solar water heaters. Further optimisation can be seen in the simple installation of the solar water heater to improve the economic efficiency of the proposed system. (author)

  9. 住宅太阳热水器的技术经济性分析%TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF RESIDENTIAL SOLAR WATER HEATERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓明; 罗清海; 解晓蕾; 王衍金; 刘泽华

    2011-01-01

    以福州地区典型气象年逐时气象数据为基础,对平板型太阳热水器的热性能进行逐时模拟.利用综合能源价格法,分析集热器面积对太阳热水器经济性的影响,并比较各类热水器的技术经济性.在当前能源价格体系下,集热器面积为8.5m时,系统的年平均太阳能保证率最大(为67.72%);集热器面积为4m时,综合能源价格现值最小(为0.283$/kWh),此时系统的年平均太阳能保证率为62.65%.%Based on hourly meteorological data of typical meteorological years in Fuzhou, the thermal performance of flat plate solar water heater has been hourly simulated. By synthetic energy price, the effect of collector area on the economy of solar water heater was analyzed; also the economic comparisons of various types of water heaters were discussed. Under the current energy price system, the maximum annual average solar fraction of 67.72% was obtained when the collector area is 8.5m2; the minimum present value of synthetic energy price of 0.283 ¥/kWh was obtained when the collector area is 4m2, with the annual average solar fraction of 62.25 %. With the increase of energy price, the economic superiority of solar water heater is more significant. The simulation and analysis results have important reference value for optimizing the design of solar water heater and guiding the technical progress of water heateis.

  10. Exergy analysis of integrated photovoltaic thermal solar water heater under constant flow rate and constant collection temperature modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arvind [Department of Design, Production and Management, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Dubey, Swapnil; Sandhu, G.S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Sodha, M.S. [Department of Education and Physics, Lucknow University, Lucknow 226007 (India); Anwar, S.I. [Indian Institute of Sugar-cane Research, Lucknow, U.P. (India)

    2009-12-15

    In this communication, an analytical expression for the water temperature of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar (IPVTS) water heater under constant flow rate hot water withdrawal has been obtained. Analysis is based on basic energy balance for hybrid flat plate collector and storage tank, respectively, in the terms of design and climatic parameters. Further, an analysis has also been extended for hot water withdrawal at constant collection temperature. Numerical computations have been carried out for the design and climatic parameters of the system used by Huang et al. [Huang BJ, Lin TH, Hung WC, Sun FS. Performance evaluation of solar photovoltaic/thermal systems. Sol Energy 2001; 70(5): 443-8]. It is observed that the daily overall thermal efficiency of IPVTS system increases with increase constant flow rate and decrease with increase of constant collection temperature. The exergy analysis of IPVTS system has also been carried out. It is further to be noted that the overall exergy and thermal efficiency of an integrated photovoltaic thermal solar system (IPVTS) is maximum at the hot water withdrawal flow rate of 0.006 kg/s. The hourly net electrical power available from the system has also been evaluated. (author)

  11. A Generalized and Simple Numerical Model to Compute the Feed Water Preheating System for Steam Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Opriș

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A general and simple numerical model is presented to calculate the uncontrolled steam flows extracted from a turbine to preheat the feed-water of a steam generator. For a user-defined technological scheme, a set of clear rules is given to complete the elements of the augmented matrix of the linear system that solves the problem. The model avoids writing of the heat balance equations for each heat exchanger. The steam extractions to the heaters are determined as related to the flow rate at the condenser. A numerical example is given to show the results.

  12. Situation of China's solar water heater industry, related national standards, testing and the Golden Sun certification program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; H.Druck; H.Muller-Steinhagen

    2008-01-01

    China is the largest solar water heater producer and market in the world. Despite the fast growth and an installed capacity that accounts for the majority of the global gross, China's per capita solar hot water capacity is still very low, implying a huge margin of market potential; and the recognition of the industry in the global market is handicapped by the scattered scale of production and inconsistent product quality. To ensure continued growth of China's solar water heating (SWH) industry, Chinese Government has established a series of national SWH standards, three national testing centers, and a certification program to lay the foundation for the development of the Golden Sun product labeling system. China General Certification Center (CGC) developed the Golden Sun product certification and labeling system on a pass/fail basis evaluating with established criteria. The system was designed to help manufacturers acclimate to explicit consistent requirements and to identify and fix the deficiencies in the design and execution of the program itself. Timely revision and integration of the national standards are recommended to accommodate the test procedures and requirements to new technologies and the evolving SWH market. Strict implementation of the Golden Sun certification and labeling system are suggested to avail improving the quality control and forging internationally reputable brands of Chinese solar water heating products.

  13. Self-construction of a solar water heater; Calentador solar de agua de auto-construccion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz Herrera, Alvaro E.; Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A. [Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    In this work a flat receiver of self construction is shown with relatively low cost and easy manufacture, but with a thermal efficiency superior to 40% for applications at temperatures less than 60 degrees Celsius, that allows satisfying international standards in this respect. The heater has been matter of study in open courses distributed in the Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) oriented to that the participants construct their own system, in addition to its installation and tests. The obtained results have been excellent. The massive use of efficient solar receivers of self-construction can truly help to the decreasing of the gas discharges of greenhouse effect. [Spanish] En este trabajo se presenta un captador plano de auto construccion con relativamente bajo costo y facil manufactura, pero con un rendimiento termico superior a 40% para aplicaciones a temperatura menos de 60 grados centigrados que le permite satisfacer estandares internacionales a este respecto. El calentador ha sido materia de estudio en cursos abiertos impartidos en la Universidad Autonoma de la Ciudad de Mexico (UACM) orientados a que los participantes construyan su propio sistema, ademas de su instalacion y pruebas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido excelentes. El uso masivo de captadores solares eficientes de autoconstruccion puede en verdad coadyuvar a la disminucion de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero.

  14. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... for tank wells or tank hose and shall be maintained in a manner that allows the unobstructed flow...

  15. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O. [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S.; Mihalik, M. [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  16. Microbial induced corrosion (MIC) on DHP copper by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and Bacillus megaterium strains in media simulating heater waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumelzu, E.; Cabezas, C.; Schoebitz, R.; Ugarte, R.; Rodriguez, E.D.; Rios, J. [Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

    2003-01-01

    The complexity and diversity of microbial populations in water heating systems of steam generators make it necessary to study the magnitude of the metabolic activity of bacteria and biofilm development that may lead to degradation of metal components through microbial induced corrosion (MIC). Electrolytes simulating the conditions found in heater water networks were used to induce biofilm formation on DHP copper coupons by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSMZ and Bacillus megaterium C10, a commercial strain and an isolate from these waters, respectively. In order to enhance their action, industrial waters enriched with the minimum nutrient content such as sodium lactate and sodium sulphite for the DSMZ strain and glucose, proteose peptone and starch for the C10 strain were employed. Biofilm formation was studied under controlled temperature, time, shaking, pH and concentrations of the media used in this study. Then, the samples were electrochemically tested in an artificial solution of sea water as control medium, based on the hypothesis that the action of an aggressive biofilm/electrolyte medium generates damaged and non-damaged areas on the metal surface, and assuming that the sea water trial can detect the latter. Hence, a higher anodic current was associated with a lower degradation of the metal surface by the action of one of the media under study. All these trials were performed along with bacterial count, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Furthermore, it was possible to identify under which conditions MIC on DHP copper occurred and complex mechanisms from retention of cations to diffusion processes at the biofilm/tested media interface level were proposed. Surface corrosion by MIC took place on DHP copper; therefore, greater control on the treatment of industrial waters is highly desirable. (author)

  17. Experimental study of a novel CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater%CPC热管真空管式热水器实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁静娟; 朱跃钊; 陈海军; 王银峰; 郭丹丹; 蒋金柱; 廖传华

    2012-01-01

    研制了一种CPC(复合抛物面聚焦)热管真空管式太阳能热水器.该热水器在普通玻璃真空管热水器的基础上耦合热管技术,并增加了CPC聚光板.对该热水器与全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器进行了热性能对比实验研究.结果表明,在300 W/m2~800 W/m2日照条件下,该新型热水器单位面积集热功率最高可达610 W/m2;平均集热效率约为80%,比全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器的瞬时效率高10%~20%;导热介质的最高温度达到103℃.证明增加CPC聚光板及运用导热油可有效提高集热品位,利用热管技术可解决严寒地区的抗冻问题,所以,CPC热管真空管式太阳能热水器将具有较广阔的市场前景.%A novel CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater was developed combined with heat pipe and CPC light gathering tabula on the basis of all-glass evacuated tube solar water heater. Comparative thermal performance tests on two different types of solar water heaters were carried out. A CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater and an all -glass evacuated tube solar water heater were installed in parallel and tested at the same working conditions. The results show that, the maximum heat collecting power of this solar water heater can reach 610 W/m2 during solar radiation ranging from 300W/m2~800W/m2. Average heat collecting efficiency of this solar water heater can be improved effectively by using CPC, to 80%, which is 10%-20% higher than the all-glass vacuum solar water heater. The highest temperature of heat conducting oil in the vacuum tube can reach 1031. It proved that CPC light gathering tabula and the heat conducting oil is beneficial to improve the collector grade, and heat pipes can overcome the problem of the tube broken during working at subzero temperature. Therefore, the CPC heat pipe coupled vacuum tube solar water heater will have a bright prospect of application.

  18. Desempenho de um aquecedor de água a biogás Performance of a water heater by biogas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio M. da Silva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos foram desenvolvidos para dimensionar e adaptar o injetor do queimador principal de um aquecedor de água tipo acumulação de 75 L. O diâmetro do injetor foi redimensionado em função da pressão de serviço de 100 mm H2O e poder calorífico inferior do biogás de 21.600 kJ m-3 n, garantindo a manutenção da potência calorífica do equipamento de 20.900 kJ h-1. Os resultados demonstraram que o queimador adaptado operou com biogás adequadamente, com chama estável. A eficiência média do aquecedor foi de 68%, para ganho térmico de 36,7 ºC, correspondendo à temperatura final da água igual a 62,7 ºC, sendo consumido 0,796 m³n de biogás, aquecendo 75 L de água em 72 minutos.Studies had been developed to project and to adapt the injector of the main burner of water heater accumulated type of 75 L. The diameter of the injector was project in function of the pressure of service of 100 mm H2O and inferior calorific power of biogas of 21,600 kJ m-3 n, having guaranteed the maintenance of the calorific power of the equipment of 20,900 of kJ h-1 .The results had demonstrated that the adapted burner to operate with biogas operated adequately with a steady flame. The average efficiency of the heater was of 68%, for a thermal profit of 36.7 ºC, corresponding the final temperature of the water of 62.7 ºC being consumed 0.796 m³ n of biogas, heating 75 L of water in 72 minutes.

  19. Forced-circulation solar water heater using a solar battery; Taiyo denchi wo mochiita kyosei junkahshiki taiyonetsu onsuiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asai, S.; Mizuno, T. [Yazaki Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Optimal operation control was discussed on a forced-circulation solar water heater using solar cells not only as the power supply of a heat collecting pump, but also for controlling operation of the heat collecting pump. With this system, when the amount of power generated by solar cells reaches a sufficient level for operating the heat collecting pump, the heat collecting pump starts operation, wherein the heat collecting medium circulates in the system. The discussion was given by using simulation based on experimental expressions such as the relation expression between insolation and heat collecting medium flow rate as derived from the result of the system`s heat collecting performance test. As a result, the following conclusions were obtained: optimal insolation for activating the discussed system is from 50 to 100 W/m {sup 2}, and the heat collected within this range is within -1.5% of the collected heat amount at an optimum value; optimal activating insolation for the case of 1000 to 2000 W/m {sup 2} with low daily cumulative insolation is from 0 to 50 W/m {sup 2}, whereas the optimal activating insolation amount increases as the daily cumulative insolation amount increases; and the optimal activating insolation amount increases as water to be supplied requires higher temperature. 1 ref., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  1. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  2. Determination of inorganic compounds in drinking water on the basis of house water heater scale, part 1: Determination of heavy metals and uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of scale originated from drinking water on the house water heater, showed that scale is basically calcium carbonate that crystallizes hexagonally in the form of calcite. Scale taken as a sample from different spots in Belgrade – upper town of Zemun (sample 1 and Pančevo (sample 2 showed different configuration although it came from the same waterworks. That indicates either that the water flowing through waterworks pipes in different parts of the city is not the same or the waterworks net is not the same (age, maintaining, etc. All the elements which are dominant in drinking water (Ca, Mg, K, and Na, and which could be found in water by natural processes, are by their content far below the values regulated by law. The analysis also showed the presence of many metals: Ti, Pb, Zn, Cu Li, Sr, Cd, and Cr in the first sample, which are not found in the scale taken near Pančevo. The results obtained by calculating the mass concentration in drinking water on the basis of scale content, showed that both waters belonged to the category of low mineral waters. Contents of inorganic substances in these waters (117.85 mg/dm3 for sample 1 or 80.83 mg/dm3 for sample 2 are twice lower than the values predicted by the legislation. Gammaspectrometric analysis indicates the presence of radioactive elements – uranium and strontium which can influence human health.

  3. European Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Chris [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    High efficiency gas-burning hot water heating takes advantage of a condensing heat exchanger to deliver improved combustion efficiency over a standard non-condensing configuration. The water heating is always lower than the gas heating value. In contrast, Gas Absorption Heat Pump (GAHP) hot water heating combines the efficiency of gas burning with the performance increase from a heat pump to offer significant gas energy savings. An ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system can maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. In this work, a GAHP commercial water heating system was compared to a condensing gas storage system for a range of locations and climate zones across Europe. The thermodynamic performance map of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system was used in a building energy modeling software that could also incorporate the changing ambient air temperature and water mains temperature for a specific location, as well as a full-service restaurant water draw pattern.

  4. Technology advancement of the static feed water electrolysis process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    A program to advance the technology of oxygen- and hydrogen-generating subsystems based on water electrolysis was studied. Major emphasis was placed on static feed water electrolysis, a concept characterized by low power consumption and high intrinsic reliability. The static feed based oxygen generation subsystem consists basically of three subassemblies: (1) a combined water electrolysis and product gas dehumidifier module; (2) a product gas pressure controller and; (3) a cyclically filled water feed tank. Development activities were completed at the subsystem as well as at the component level. An extensive test program including single cell, subsystem and integrated system testing was completed with the required test support accessories designed, fabricated, and assembled. Mini-product assurance activities were included throughout all phases of program activities. An extensive number of supporting technology studies were conducted to advance the technology base of the static feed water electrolysis process and to resolve problems.

  5. WHY IS CHINA THE WORLD’S LEADER OF SOLAR WATER HEATER PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable energy programs in developing countries face many challenges. The purpose of this research is to examine why China has been successful as the world’s leader of Solar Water Heater (SWH production and consumption. The study is based on field work in China in the past two years in areas where SWHs are widely used. The results may help provide a better understanding of the main drivers for the rapid growth of renewable and sustainable energy and develop associated policies. The research is based on data from current reports on SWH production and consumption in China and field investigations in Chinese cities and rural areas where SWHs are widely used. The findings are limited by the availability of data and the varied physical and cultural conditions in China. The research finds that several factors may have contributed to China’s leadership in this area: governmental policies, innovations in technology, low costs of labor, low interest rates, government incentives, a large market, a new installation, shortage of electricity and social acceptance. China’s SWH production and consumption is mainly due to economic incentives and cultural appeal instead of consumer environmental concerns. The Chinese SWH experience confirms earlier findings that low levels of development should not prevent countries from having effective environmental institutions and policies. In addition to technological innovations, policies for renewable and sustainable energy need to pay more attention to economic, political and cultural factors.

  6. Hourly use profiles for solar domestic hot water heaters in the National Solar Data Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barvir, E. J.; Doak, L. G.; Waterman, R. E.; Gervasio, C.

    Daily hot water rates of consumption and the Hourly Profiles of Daily Hot Water Consumption for single and multiple family dwellings are provided in this paper. These new statistics obtained from the National Solar Data Network (NSDN) are significantly different from the statistics currently being used in TRNSYS, SOLCOST and F-Chart. The NSDN statistics suggest that both the daily demand and hourly use profiles used in performance models should be revised.

  7. The sun as hot water source. Answers to questions on the solar water heater; Le soleil source d'eau chaude. Les reponses a vos questions sur le chauffe-eau solaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This guide answers to the main questions concerning a water heating system for domestic use. It aims to help the people who want to buy a solar water heater, to better estimate the advantages and the limits, in providing information on the operating and the use. (A.L.B.)

  8. Solar air heaters and their applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.

    1977-01-01

    The solar air heater appears to be the most logical choice, as far as the ultimate application of heating air to maintain a comfortable environment is concerned. One disadvantage of solar air heaters is the need for handling larger volumes of air than liquids due to the low density of air as a working substance. Another disadvantage is the low thermal capacity of air. In cases where thermal storage is needed, water is superior to air. Design variations of solar air heaters are discussed along with the calculation of the efficiency of a flat plate solar air heater, the performance of various collector types, and the applications of solar air heaters. Attention is given to collectors with nonporous absorber plates, collectors with porous absorbers, the performance of flat plate collectors with finned absorbers, a wire mesh absorber, and an overlapped glass plate air heater.

  9. Study of the distribution of the absorbed solar radiation on the performance of a CPC-type ICS water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souliotis, M.; Tripanagnostopoulos, Y. [Physics Department, University of Patras, 26504 Patras (Greece)

    2008-05-15

    An Integrated Collector Storage (ICS) solar water heater was designed, constructed and studied with an emphasis on its optical and thermal performance. The ICS system consists of one cylindrical horizontal tank properly mounted in a stationary symmetrical Compound Parabolic Concentrating (CPC) reflector trough. The main objective was the design and the construction of a low cost solar system with improved thermal performance based on the exploitation of the non-uniform distribution of the absorbed solar radiation on the cylindrical storage tank surface. A ray-tracing model was developed to gauge the distribution of the incoming solar radiation on the absorber surface and the results were compared with those from a theoretical optical model based on the average number of reflections. The variation of the optical efficiency as function of the incident angle of the incoming solar radiation along with its dependence on the month during annual operation of ICS system is presented. The ICS device was experimentally tested outdoors during a whole year in order to correlate the observed temperature rise and stratification of the stored water with the non-uniform distribution of the absorbed solar radiation. The results show that the upper part of the tank surface collects the larger fraction of the total absorbed solar radiation for all incident angles throughout the year. This is found to have a significant effect on the overall thermal performance of the ICS unit. In addition, the presented results can be considered important for the design and the operation of ICS systems consisting of cylindrical tank and CPC reflectors. (author)

  10. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  11. Solar Energy in China: Development Trends for Solar Water Heaters and Photovoltaics in the Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William; Wang, Zhongying

    2006-01-01

    China is the world's largest market for solar water heating systems, installing 13 million square meters of new systems in 2004, mostly in large cities. Municipal authorities, however, are sensitive to quality and visual impact issues created by this technology deployment. Therefore, there is currently a trend toward developing building integrated…

  12. Improved Design of the Crude Oil Heater with Water Jacket%水套加热炉的改进设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于庆波; 秦勤; 杨宗山; 周洪敏

    2000-01-01

    采用蓄热式燃烧技术对原有的水套加热炉进行了改进设计。改进后的蓄热式水套加热炉,运行热效率可达80%以上,与原有加热炉相比,具有自动化程度高,节能效果显著的特点。%he design of crude oil heater with water jacket is improved by use of regenerative combustion technoloy. The improved heater can be operated with the thermal efficiency of more than 80% ,high automation and obvious energy-saving compared with traditional ones.

  13. An analysis on Free Convection Cooling of a 3×3 Heater Array in Rectangular Enclosure using Cu-EG-Water Nanofluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimanyu Purusothaman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the study of natural convection cooling of a discrete heater array in Cu-EG-water nanofluid filled rectangular enclosure. A 3 × 3 array of non-protruding heat sources is embedded on one of the vertical walls of the enclosure while the top horizontal and opposite vertical walls are assumed to be isothermally cold. The remaining portions in which the heaters are mounted and all other walls are insulated. The above setup is modeled into a system of partial differential equations which are solved numerically using finite volume method based on the Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure Linked Equation (SIMPLE algorithm and power law scheme. The wide range of parameters for computation are the aspect ratio of the enclosure, the mixture proportion of Ethylene glycol-water, the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticle along with two different thermal conductivity models. It is observed that the proper choice of the computation parameters and thermal conductivity models could be able to maximize the heat transfer rate from the heater array. Also, the results obtained in this study will provide new guidelines in the field of electronic equipment cooling.

  14. 49 CFR 393.77 - Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... all hot water and steam heater systems shall be specifically designed and constructed for that purpose... when used for heating the cargo of tank motor vehicles. (3) Heaters permitting fuel leakage. Any type... air, heated or to be heated, from the engine compartment or from direct contact with any portion...

  15. Use of reactor effluent water as steam plant boiler feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clukey, H.V.

    1953-12-08

    The radiological aspects of a proposal to recover some of the heat now wasted in cooling water from the Hanford reactors by using the hot water as boiler feed for the steam plants in the 100 Areas are evaluated. The radioactive material in the hot effluent water will contaminate the boiler feed water system, cause additional radiation exposure of personnel, and increase the cost of maintenance and radiation protection, but very little radioactive material will be carried over into the steam system. At present steam loads, this proposal is economically attractive; other proposals being considered may nullify any savings from this one. 21 refs., 1 fig., 10 tabs.

  16. 基于STC89C52的红外遥控智能太阳能热水器控制系统%An Infrared Remote Intelligent Control System for Solar Water Heater Based on STC89C52

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽丽; 赵建平

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of solar energy water heater existed in current solar water heater, such as complex circuit, high cost, protection function, easy to occur pipeline cracking due to freezing, easy to cause fire due to heater-belt, and complicated operation, this paper designs an infrared remote control system for solar water heater, the system chooses STC89C52 as main central processor to control temperature and water level, and uses ADC0832 for dual channel A/D chip, externally connecting clock chip DS1302 and relay executive circuit. And some measures, such as automatic water-feeding, automatic emptying, infrared remote control, are adopted to solve the current problems. The experiment proves the feasibility of the system.%针对现在的太阳能热水器普遍存在如:电路复杂、成本较高、不具有防护功能、易引起管道冻裂、伴热带容易引起火灾、操作繁琐等的问题,文章设计了红外遥控太阳能控制系统,系统选用STC89C52作为系统主要中心处理器进行温度和水位的控制,采用ADC0832为双通道A/D芯片,外接DS1302时钟芯片和继电器执行电路。采用自动上水、自动排空、红外遥控等解决了目前存在的问题,实验证明此系统方案准确可行。

  17. PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF PARABOLIC SOLAR COLLECTOR WATER HEATER SYSTEM FITTED WITH NAIL TWISTED TAPES ABSORBER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. SYED JAFAR

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the experimental heat transfer, friction loss and thermal performance data for water flowing through the absorber tube fitted with two different twisted tape configurations in parabolic trough collector (PTC are presented. In the present work, a relative experimental study is carried out to investigate the performance of a PTC influenced by heat transfer through fluidabsorber wall mixing mechanism. The major findings of this experiment show that heat transport enhancement in the nail twisted tape collector perform significantly better than plain twisted tapes and also show that the smallest twisted tape ratio enhances the system performance remarkably maximizing the collector efficiency. The results suggest that the twisted tape and nail twisted tape would be a better option for high thermal energy collection in laminar region of the PTC system.

  18. Bounding Limitations in the Practical Design of Adsorption Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL; Gluesenkamp, Kyle R [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    The boundary temperatures for any sorption-based technology can be estimated on the basis of Trouton s hypothesis that isosteres, extrapolated to infinite pressure (or analogously to infinite temperature) meet at a single point. In this paper we discuss the consequences of this hypothesis for many sorption devices that are thermally operated, suitable for exploiting renewable energy resources, or making better use of high or low level thermal energy. Trouton s hypothesis is independent of the working fluids making it particularly useful to both liquid-vapor and solid-vapor systems. We exemplify the use of the derived boundary temperatures derived from Trouton s hypothesis to important processes such as ice making, space cooling in hot climates, deep freezing, and residential hot water production. The boundary temperatures help determine which sorption or solar heating technology may be better suited to serve the given application, or whether it is beyond the scope of sorption systems.

  19. Double-diffusive natural convection of Cu-water nanofluid in a window shaped cavity containing multiple obstacles with a heater on bottom wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Raju; Parvin, Salma; Khan, Md. Abdul Hakim

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, natural convective heat and mass transfer and fluid flow inside a window shaped cavity filled with Cu-water nanofluid and containing multiple obstacles with a finite size heater placed in its horizontal wall is numerically investigated. Sinusoidal temperature distribution is maintained by the heater. The left and right inclined walls of the cavity are maintained at a relatively low temperature while the vertical walls are insulated. The governing equations are transformed to the dimensionless form and solved numerically using Galerkin weighted residual technique of finite element method. The influence of pertinent parameters such as thermal Rayleigh number, location of the heater and solid volume fraction of nanoparticles on the heat and mass transfer and fluid flow is studied. The results are obtained in terms of streamlines, isotherms, isoconcentrations, average Sherwood number and average Nueeslt number for the considered parameters and it is observed that the flow pattern, temperature and concentration fields are affected by the variation of the mentioned parameters.

  20. Influence of feed ingredients on water quality parameters in RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    Although feed by far is providing the major input to RAS, relatively little is published about the correlation between feed composition and the resulting water quality in such systems. In a set-up with 6 identical RAS, each consisting of a fish tank (0.5 m3), a swirl separator, a submerged...... had impact on water quality in the systems as well as on matter removed by the swirl separators. In the RAS water, phosphorous (Ptot and Pdiss) concentrations were reduced by guar gum. Organic matter content (CODdiss) in the water was also reduced. Corresponding to this, more dry matter, more COD...... to the systems for 49 consecutive days. Each week, 24h-water samples (1 sample/hour) were collected from each system. The sludge collected in the swirl separator that day was also collected. Water and sludge were subsequently analysed for nitrogen, phosphorous and organic matter content. Inclusion of guar gum...

  1. Performance of facade balcony type solar water heaters%立面阳台式太阳能热水器的性能特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明; 郑土逢; 季旭; 魏生贤

    2011-01-01

    This paper experimentally studied the thermal performances of the flat-plate solar water heater and the all-glass vacuum tube solar water heater. The effects of the placement of the collector (southern facade horizontal row and vertical row), and the circulation type (natural circulation and forced circulation) on the system thermal performance and the tank stratification were achieved. The results showed that for the southern facade balcony-style all-glass vacuum tube solar water heaters, the water circulation was faster when the collector was placed horizontally, and the thermal efficiency increased by 12%. For the southern facade balcony flat-plate type solar water heater, when the system run under natural circulation, whether the collector was placed horizontally or vertically, liquid circulation is not smooth, and the thermal efficiency of the system was less than 30%. Forced circulation could effectively improve the circulation. The average inlet and outlet temperatures kept stable, and the system efficiency was 63% approximately when the system run under forced circulation.%以阳台平板太阳能热水器和全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器为对象,研究太阳能集热器南立面横排和竖排放置,自然循环和强制循环对系统热性能和水箱分层的影响.结果表明,对于立面阳台式全玻璃真空管太阳能热水器,集热器横排放置比竖排放置系统循环快,热效率提高12%.对于立面阳台式平板太阳能热水器,自然循环时无论是横排放置还是竖排放置,液体循环不流畅,系统热效率均小于30%;采用强制循环能有效改善循环状况,平均进出口温差稳定,系统热效率约为63%.

  2. Design of a unit to produce hot distilled water for the same power consumption as a water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambenek, R. A.; Nuccio, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    Unit recovers 97% of water contained in pretreated waste water. Some factors are: cleansing agent prevents fouling of heat transfer surface by highly concentrated waste; absence of dynamic seals reduces required purge gas flow rate; and recycle loop maintains constant flushing process to carry cleansing agent across evaporation surface.

  3. Cost effectiveness analysis for the substitution of the electrical shower to gas water heaters; Estudo de viabilidade para substituicao do chuveiro eletrico por aquecedores a gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bermann, Celio [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Inst. de Eletrotecnica e Energia]. E-mail: cbermann@iee.usp.br; Monteiro, Jorge Venancio de Freitas [Companhia de Gas de Sao Paulo (COMGAS), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: venanciocomgas@uol.com.br

    2000-07-01

    The hydropower natural resources for generation of electrical energy at the south part of Brazil has been extinguished at the last years and as a consequence large investments should be made in order to attend the electrical energy demand at this part of country. These paper purposes a comparison between the use gas water heater and the traditional electrical shower largely applied at the Brazilian residences. It will be focused not only the consumer point of view but also the construction enterprise position as well as the advantages for the overall country due to this substitution. (author)

  4. Development of an Ultra-Low-Cost Solar Water Heater: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-12-487

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-02-17

    NREL and RhoTech will collaborate to bring long-lived, ultra-low-cost, high-performance solar water heaters (SWH) to market readiness. An existing RhoTech design uses seam-welded polymer thin films to make an unglazed thermosiphon, and this design will be modified to improve durability through ultraviolet and overheat protection, and to improve performance by adding a glazing to the collector. Two generations of the new glazed systems will be tested in the field, resulting in a robust market-ready SWH design that can be installed for under $1,000 without rebates.

  5. Development of Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater Performance Test Rig%空气源热泵热水器性能测试系统实验台的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘笑笑; 丁强

    2015-01-01

    为了满足空气源热泵热水器性能测试的需要,基于对空气源热泵热水器原理、工作特点、热工测试技术、工业控制技术、上位机编写技术等基础,严格参照空气源热泵热水器的相关国家标准设计了一套空气源热泵热水器性能测试系统。该系统不仅能自动计算出被测空气源热泵热水器的性能参数,且具有良好的人机交互界面、可操作性强、性能可靠等优点。%In order to meet the needs of the air source heat pump water heater performance test,according to the work-ing principle of the air source heat pump water heater,working characteristics,thermal testing technology,industrial control technology,computer technology and other related technology,strictly according to the air source heat pump water heater national standards to design a set of water heater performance of air source heat pump test system,it can calculate the performance parameters of the tested air source heat pump water heater automatical y.

  6. Energy Efficient Shower Bath-gas Water Heater With Heat Recovery%燃气热水器淋浴节能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文赋

    2000-01-01

    Shower bath is a main factor in domestic hot water consumption. An energy efficient strategy—a gas water heater shower bath with heat recovery is presented. Based on detailed analysis of the various indices, it is concluded that the system is able to recover up 40% of the heat energy while the water heater capacity requirement is decreased and the comfort within the bath space is improved.%针对淋浴是生活热水的主要消耗对象,提出了一种“燃气热水器-淋浴房”的节能型淋浴系统.通过对淋浴时各种参数指标的分析比较,证明这种系统可以有效地回收热量,并因此降低淋浴时对热水器的需用功率,同时可以使淋浴环境的舒适性能得到更佳保障.

  7. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  8. An alternative process to treat boiler feed water for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirgis, Adel; Ghosh, Jyoti P; Achari, Gopal; Langford, Cooper H; Banerjee, Daliya

    2012-09-01

    A bench-scale process to treat boiler feed water for reuse in steam generation was developed. Industrial water samples from a steam-assisted gravity drainage plant in northern Alberta, Canada, were obtained and samples characterized. The technology, which consists of coagulation-settling to remove oil/grease and particulates followed by an advanced oxidative treatment, led to clean water samples with negligible organic carbon. Coagulation followed by settling removed most particulates and some insoluble organics. The advanced oxidative treatment removed any remaining color in the samples, decreased the organic content to near-zero, and provided water ready for reuse.

  9. 二氧化碳家用热泵热水器试验研究%Experimental study on CO2 house-hold heat pump water heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李廷勋; 王冬; 钟家淞; 黄逊青

    2013-01-01

    CO2 is one of the research focuses in the refrigeration field due to its environmental protection and unique thermodynamic properties. The hermetical CO2 compressor for house-hold appliance is a big challenge because of its high pressure. In order to verify the superiority of CO2 application in the heat pump water heater and test the operation law of the system, a new CO2 heat pump water heater prototype with hermetical compressor developed in China was tested. Keeping the inlet water 15-50 ℃ and the outlet hot water 65-90 ℃ ,the key characters such as the heating capacity, COP and the exhaust temperature with different evaporating temperature, inlet and outlet water temperature, and exhaust pressure were measured. The results show that the CO2 heat pump water heater can steadily provide hot water above 90℃, having obvious advantages in heating at high temperature. The system can still run smoothly when the evaporation temperature is - 20 ℃, showing better advantages in heating at low temperature.%CO2因为环保及独特的热力学优势,一直是制冷空调领域的研究热点,然而由于其工作压力较高,用于家用热泵热水器的全封闭式CO2压缩机开发较困难.为了验证CO2在热泵热水器上应用的优势以及研究其系统的运行规律,以国产全封闭式CO2压缩机为基础,设计并搭建了空气源CO2热泵热水器测试系统,在进水温度15-50℃,出水温度65-90℃范围内,测试了不同进、出水温度、不同蒸发温度以及不同排气压力条件下,热泵系统的制热量、COP以及排气温度等关键特征,发现CO2能够稳定提供90℃以上热水,在高温制热上优势明显.同时,即使在蒸发温度为-20℃,系统仍然能够平稳运行,表现出较好的低温运行优势.

  10. Transparent electric convection heater

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid, A.; Luck, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    An optically transparent electrically heated convection heater for use as a space heater in homes, offices, shops. Typically, said convection heater consists of a transparent layer 1 upon which is deposited a layer of a transparent electrically conductive material 2 such as indium-tin-oxide, electrodes 3 and 3a are formed on opposite edges of the transparent electrically conductive layer 2 and electrical wires 4 and 4a are connected to the electrodes. The transparent electrically conductive l...

  11. The Electronic Thermostatic Water Heater Technology Research and Testing%电子恒温热水器技术研究与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本文基于目前国内电热水器市场背景和需求,通过电子恒温热水器技术研究与试验过程,较详细地介绍了电子恒温热水器设计目标、总体结构、装配工艺、工作原理、主要功能、控制面板操作指引,以及性能检验方法和检验结果,为推进项目实施做好了先期技术准备工作。%Summary: Based on the background and demands of the domestic electric water heater market at pres-ent, with electronic thermostatic water heater technology research and testing process, in detail the article in-troduces the design objectives, overall structure, the assembly process, the working theory, the main func-tion, control panel operating instructions, and performance test methods and test results, and it has done the early preparatory work to promote the implementation of the project.

  12. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  13. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  14. 基于4P理论的太阳能热水器农村市场营销策略分析%Analysis on Solar Water Heaters Marketing Strategy of the Rural Based on the 4P Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建成

    2011-01-01

    As a green product,there is a huge market opportunity for solar water heaters in the countryside.This paper analyzes the rural market potential of solar water heaters,combined with McKinsey 4P marketing theory,and proposes marketing strategy of developing the rural market for the solar water heater business.%作为一种绿色环保产品,太阳能热水器在农村市场存在巨大的商机。文章分析了太阳能热水器的农村市场潜力,并结合麦肯锡的营销4P理论,从产品、价格、促销和渠道四个方面提出了太阳能热水器企业开拓农村市场的营销策略。

  15. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  16. 40 CFR 159.178 - Information on pesticides in or on food, feed or water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... food, feed or water. 159.178 Section 159.178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.../Benefit Information § 159.178 Information on pesticides in or on food, feed or water. (a) Food and feed. Information must be submitted if it shows that the pesticide is present in or on food or feed at a level in...

  17. Substitution of wheat bran by corn gluten feed without steep water in cats feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia Geraldi Ferreira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat bran (WB by corn gluten feed without steep water (CGF in cats feeds regarding the nutritional value of the diet, stool characteristics, time of food passage through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT, intestinal gas production and concentrations of short chain fatty acids (SCFA in blood and faeces. Twenty eight cats were distributed in a randomized block design with four treatments (0, 2.6, 5.3 or 8.0% CGF, based on dry matter, substituting for WB and seven replicates. Substitution of WB by CGF decreased (P0.05 the digestibility of other nutrients and apparent metabolizable energy. There was also no effect (P>0.05 on faeces moisture, faecal pH and score, food transit time in the GIT, intestinal gas area and SCFA concentrations in faeces, while blood concentrations of propionate were influenced differently by the different feeds and sampling times (P<0.05. Thus replacement of up to 8% of WB by CGF may be done safely in cats feed.

  18. Thermal storage heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokes, K.H.; Broadbent, J.T.

    1991-02-27

    A storage heater, providing heat by radiation, comprises an internal circuit for the passage of heated air. The heater comprises: a heat storage core, comprising heat storage rods heated by resistance wiring, and an air space around the rods, the air space forming an inner pathway of circuit; heat insulation around the core; and outer pathways adjacent outer walls of the heater. A damper is arranged at the top of the inner and outer pathways to control the communication between. The damper may be movably supported on a support part by robust bi-metallic strips wound with heater wires to control the bending of the strips. The storage heater may be supplied in kit form for the purchaser to assemble and to this end the heat storage rods may comprise particulate material poured into tubes, or liftable core units. Further heat insulation may be selectively positioned in the outer pathways to provide an even heat distribution. (author).

  19. Water for wood products versus nature, food or feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, Joep; Booij, Martijn; Hoekstra, Arjen

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a central interlinked role in the 2030 Agenda on Sustainable Development. The Agenda aims at an increased share of renewable energy in the global energy mix (target 7.2) and restoration and sustainable management of forests (targets 6.6, 15.1 & 15.2). Forests also play a key role in the hydrological cycle accounting for the largest water flux from land to atmosphere. However, we do not know which part of this is used for the production of wood products such as lumber, pulp and paper, firewood or biofuel. SDG target 6.4 calls for increased water-use efficiency across all sectors and requires understanding the competing demands for water and the potential conflicts between wood production and other purposes like food (SDG 2). To reach the SDGs we need to understand the interlinkages between the SDGs and know how much water is used in the forestry sector. We provide the first estimate of global water use in the forestry sector, using the water footprint (WF) as indicator and distinguishing between consumption of green water (precipitation) and blue water (groundwater through capillary rise). We estimate forest evaporation at a high spatial resolution level and attribute total water consumption to the various forest products, including ecosystem services. Global water consumption for wood production increased by 34% over 50 years to 290x109 m3/y in 2001-2010. Wood has a higher economic water productivity (EWP, US/m3) than common food or feed crops like wheat, maize and sugar beet, and bio-ethanol from wood has a small WF per unit of energy compared to first-generation bio-ethanol from these three crops. Counterintuitively, extensive wood production has a smaller WF and hence a higher EWP than intensive wood production. The reason is that extensively exploited forests host relatively more value next to wood production in the form of other ecosystem services. Recycling of wood products could effectively reduce the WF of the forestry sector, thereby leaving

  20. Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vulpen, R. van [KemaPower Generation, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    1998-12-31

    During a regular inspection of the Boiler Auxiliaries at one of the Dutch Electricity Production Companies serious cracks were found in the cover and casings of the feed water circulation pumps in two units after 108.000 and 122.000 hours of boiler operation. Kema Laboratories carried out Failure analyses on boat samples at the cracked areas. Corrosion fatigue cracking was found on the inner side of the GS-24CrNiMo325 casing. Shop Weld repairs were carried out using a newly developed mechanized Plasma Welding Technique. The repaired feed water circulation pumps showed no problems alter several years of operation. The costs of repair were substantially lower than the costs of replacement. (orig.) 3 refs.

  1. Regional Climate Zone Modeling of a Commercial Absorption Heat Pump Hot Water Heater Part 1: Southern and South Central Climate Zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geoghegan, Patrick J [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Keinath, Christopher M. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City; Garrabrant, Michael A. [Stone Mountain Technologies, Inc., Johnson City

    2016-01-01

    Commercial hot water heating accounts for approximately 0.78 Quads of primary energy use with 0.44 Quads of this amount from natural gas fired heaters. An ammonia-water based commercial absorption system, if fully deployed, could achieve a high level of savings, much higher than would be possible by conversion to the high efficiency nonheat-pump gas fired alternatives. In comparison with air source electric heat pumps, the absorption system is able to maintain higher coefficients of performance in colder climates. The ammonia-water system also has the advantage of zero Ozone Depletion Potential and low Global Warming Potential. A thermodynamic model of a single effect ammonia-water absorption system for commercial space and water heating was developed, and its performance was investigated for a range of ambient and return water temperatures. This allowed for the development of a performance map which was then used in a building energy modeling software. Modeling of two commercial water heating systems was performed; one using an absorption heat pump and another using a condensing gas storage system. The energy and financial savings were investigated for a range of locations and climate zones in the southern and south central United States. A follow up paper will analyze northern and north/central regions. Results showed that the system using an absorption heat pump offers significant savings.

  2. Near-surface heater experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, L.D.; Cuderman, J.F.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Lappin, A.

    1978-12-31

    Full-scale near-surface heater experiments are presently being conducted by Sandia Laboratories in the Conasauga Formation at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and in the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purposes of these experiments are: (1) to determine if argillaceous media can withstand thermal loads characteristic of high level waste; (2) to provide data for improvement of themomechanical modeling of argillaceous rocks; (3) to identify instrumentation development needed for further in situ testing; and (4) to identify unexpected general types of behavior, if any. The basic instrumentation of these tests consists of a heater in a central hole, surrounded by arrays of holes containing various instrumentation. Temperatures, thermal profiles, vertical displacements, volatile pressurization, and changes in in situ stresses are measured in each experiment as a function of time, and compared with pretest modeling results. Results to date, though in general agreement with modeling results assuming conductive heat transfer within the rock, indicate that the presence of even small amounts of water can drastically affect heat transfer within the heater hole itself, and that small amounts of upward convection of water may be occurring in the higher temperature areas of the Conasauga experiments.

  3. Explosives tester with heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Eckels, Joel [Livermore, CA; Nunes, Peter J [Danville, CA; Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Whipple, Richard E [Livermore, CA; Carter, J Chance [Livermore, CA; Reynolds, John G [San Ramon, CA

    2010-08-10

    An inspection tester system for testing for explosives. The tester includes a body and a swab unit adapted to be removeably connected to the body. At least one reagent holder and dispenser is operatively connected to the body. The reagent holder and dispenser contains an explosives detecting reagent and is positioned to deliver the explosives detecting reagent to the swab unit. A heater is operatively connected to the body and the swab unit is adapted to be operatively connected to the heater.

  4. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of ammonium formate as an acidifying agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food...

  5. Controller of heat pump water heater based on WinCE%基于WinCE的热泵热水机控制器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宇明; 姜周曙; 黄国辉; 徐平

    2011-01-01

    针对目前市场上大型热泵热水机控制器价格高、硬件模块多及远程监控性能不足等问题,研制了一种基于ARM9和WinCE操作系统的热泵热水机控制器.以S3C2410A和STM32F103VC为硬件平台核心,设计了人机交互单元和数据采集控制单元;以嵌入式Windows CE 5.0为操作系统,利用EVC开发应用软件,并重点阐述了系统结构、各主要模块的硬件电路及工作原理和应用程序的设计方法及编程要点.实际应用结果表明,该控制系统操作简便、功能完善、性能稳定,控制精度达到了使用要求.%Aiming at high cost,more hardware modules and the poor performance of remote monitoring of large heat pump water heater controller in the current market,a new heat pump water heater controller based on ARM9 and WinCE operating system was developed. Human-computer interaction,data acquisition and control unit were designed,taking S3C2410A and STM32F103VC as the cores of hardware platform. Application software was developed using EVC under Windows CE 5.0 embedded operating system. And the overall structure of the controller, the working principle of main modules and the method of applications design and programming essentials were elaborated. Practical application result indicates that the control system is easy for operation,has perfect function and stable in performance,and the control precision meets the requirements of needs.

  6. Coaxial Electric Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalov, Dmitry; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute

    2008-01-01

    Coaxial electric heaters have been conceived for use in highly sensitive instruments in which there are requirements for compact heaters but stray magnetic fields associated with heater electric currents would adversely affect operation. Such instruments include atomic clocks and magnetometers that utilize heated atomic-sample cells, wherein stray magnetic fields at picotesla levels could introduce systematic errors into instrument readings. A coaxial electric heater is essentially an axisymmetric coaxial cable, the outer conductor of which is deliberately made highly electrically resistive so that it can serve as a heating element. As in the cases of other axisymmetric coaxial cables, the equal magnitude electric currents flowing in opposite directions along the inner and outer conductors give rise to zero net magnetic field outside the outer conductor. Hence, a coaxial electric heater can be placed near an atomic-sample cell or other sensitive device. A coaxial electric heater can be fabricated from an insulated copper wire, the copper core of which serves as the inner conductor. For example, in one approach, the insulated wire is dipped in a colloidal graphite emulsion, then the emulsion-coated wire is dried to form a thin, uniform, highly electrically resistive film that serves as the outer conductor. Then the film is coated with a protective layer of high-temperature epoxy except at the end to be electrically connected to the power supply. Next, the insulation is stripped from the wire at that end. Finally, electrical leads from the heater power supply are attached to the exposed portions of the wire and the resistive film. The resistance of the graphite film can be tailored via its thickness. Alternatively, the film can be made from an electrically conductive paint, other than a colloidal graphite emulsion, chosen to impart the desired resistance. Yet another alternative is to tailor the resistance of a graphite film by exploiting the fact that its resistance

  7. 关于燃气热水器在高海拔地区使用的试验分析%Test Analysis on the Gas Water Heater Used in High Altitude Locality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李罗标; 潘泽林

    2015-01-01

    海拔高度对燃气热水器运行存在重要的影响,结合高原实地试验统计数据分析了燃气热水器在高原地区的热负荷、热效率、燃烧烟气、排烟温度等方面的变化及影响因素。%Altitude has important effect on the operation of gas water heater. Combined with the statistical data from the tests in plateau, this paper analyzes the changes and influence factors of heat load, heat efficiency, combustion smoke, exhaust smoke temperature and other related aspects of gas water heater in high altitude locality.

  8. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Appliance Repair. Course: Heater-Type Appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziller, T.

    One of two individualized courses included in an appliance repair curriculum (see CE 027 767), this course covers minor and major heater-type appliances. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Irons, (2) Roasters, (3) Space Heaters, (4) Water Heaters, (5) Electric Ranges, and (6) Gas Ranges. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience…

  9. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals do not correctly describe... Part 573 Animal feeds, Food additives. Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act...

  10. CO2热泵热水器的实验室评估%Laboratory Assessment of CO2 Heat Pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周子成

    2015-01-01

    本文叙述一台带有室外热交换器的变速CO2热泵热水器的实验室测定结果。测试包括在室外环境温度为-8.3℃至35℃下进行的标准24小时和第1小时的额定等级试验的热泵效率;室外机的噪声水平测定;和对输送水量测定以及室外机组在10℃环境条件下运行时的高效率淋浴水量测定。%This paper describes the results of a CO 2 Heat pump water heaters test with an outdoor heat exchang-er.The project conducted lab tests of a variable -speed, CO2 refrigerant HPWH with the heat exchanger located in the outdoor unit.The testing plan included observing heat pump efficiency at a range of outdoor ambient temperatures from -8.3℃to 35℃; conducting the standard 24-hour and 1-hour rating tests; measuring outdoor unit noise levels; and quantifying the number of efficient showers delivered with the outdoor unit operating at 10℃ ambient conditions.

  11. 空气能热泵热水机不锈钢内胆焊接工艺优化研究%Optimization of Stainless Steel Tank Welding Procedure in Air-source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树清; 余文鹏

    2015-01-01

    The stainless steel tank in air-source heat pump water heater was an container which bear pressure and heat. It is the key component of the air-source heat pump water heater and suffered sever environment at working condition. Welding joint corrosion is the Achilles' heel of stainless tank service life at existing welding procedure. This condition restricted air-source heat pump water heater putting into use and popularize widely. Optimization of stainless steel tank welding procedure in air-source heat pump water heater has been applied several aspect and enhance the service life obviously.%空气能热泵热水器保温水箱的不锈钢内胆是一个承压承热的容器,是热水机产品的关键构件,其工作环境较为恶劣。在现有的焊接工艺条件下,不锈钢内胆的各个焊缝处的腐蚀失效是整个水箱寿命的短板,严重影响了空气能热泵热水机这种新型的节能减排产品的使用和发展。因此对空气能热泵热水机的焊接工艺作了几个方面的优化调整,使得不锈钢内胆的使用寿命得到了较大幅度的提高,取得了良好的效果。

  12. 10 CFR Appendix E to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Water Heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... develop a thermal or mechanical seal to minimize the recirculation of water due to thermal convection... from calibrated thermocouple wire taken from a single spool. Extension wires to the recording...

  13. Water Footprint and Impact of Water Consumption for Food, Feed, Fuel Crops Production in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir H. Gheewala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of food, feed and biofuels demands promises to increase pressure on water competition and stress, particularly for Thailand, which has a large agricultural base. This study assesses the water footprint of ten staple crops grown in different regions across the country and evaluates the impact of crop water use in different regions/watersheds by the water stress index and the indication of water deprivation potential. The ten crops include major rice, second rice, maize, soybean, mungbean, peanut, cassava, sugarcane, pineapple and oil palm. The water stress index of the 25 major watersheds in Thailand has been evaluated. The results show that there are high variations of crop water requirements grown in different regions due to many factors. However, based on the current cropping systems, the Northeastern region has the highest water requirement for both green water (or rain water and blue water (or irrigation water. Rice (paddy farming requires the highest amount of irrigation water, i.e., around 10,489 million m3/year followed by the maize, sugarcane, oil palm and cassava. Major rice cultivation induces the highest water deprivation, i.e., 1862 million m3H2Oeq/year; followed by sugarcane, second rice and cassava. The watersheds that have high risk on water competition due to increase in production of the ten crops considered are the Mun, Chi and Chao Phraya watersheds. The main contribution is from the second rice cultivation. Recommendations have been proposed for sustainable crops production in the future.

  14. The Fuzzy-PID Control Method for Temperature of Gas-fired Water Heater Based on Dahllin Algorithm%基于大林算法的燃气热水器温度Fuzzy-PID控制方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜福银

    2012-01-01

    Based on the mathematical model of gas-fired water heater temperature control system, proposed using Dahlin algorithm and Fuzzy-PID controllers to handle the pure delay inertial link of gas-fired water heater temperature control system. Through the detailed design process of Dahlin Fuzzy-PID controller and the example simulations of the gas-fired water heater temperature control system, the control method proposed in this paper has better robust property and higher susceptibility, which is foundation for more study.%在燃气热水器温度控制的数学模型基础上,提出利用大林算法来处理燃气热水器温度控制系统纯滞后的惯性环节,利用Fuzzy-PID算法实现给定燃气流量的控制.通过对大林控制器的详细设计过程和对燃气热水器温度控制系统的实例仿真可以看出,该控制方法具有良好的鲁棒性和较高的灵敏度,这为以后进一步研究奠定了基础.

  15. Design for solar-tracking dual-axis water heater of wall hanging type%一种基于墙体安装的双轴跟踪太阳能热水器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈金荣; 熊志刚

    2011-01-01

    针对普通太阳能热水器一般只能安装屋顶、新型平板太阳能热水器固定安装有效采光面积的余弦效应导致太阳能利用效率偏低等问题,提出了一种基于墙体壁挂式安装、全自动跟踪太阳能热水器的设计方案,以适应各种楼层用户的使用,且能在较小的面积获得较大的太阳能能量.对基于安装方式的跟踪原理、系统的整体设计、安全性设计做了全面详细的介绍.在实验论证的基础上,得出该设计方案有效地提高了太阳能的利用效率的结论.%It proposes a new design of wall hanging automatic solar-tracking water heater since ordinary solar water heater could only be installed on the roof and the efficiency of utilizing solar energy for new flat-panel solar water heater is low because of cosine effect of light area caused by fixed installation and so on.While the new designed heater to be hanged on wall can receive more solar energy in a smaller area, that is suitable for households at all floors.The tracking principles ,system design,and design for safety has been expounded based on mounting means.The design based on testing experiment has been approved to enhance the utilizing efficiency of solar energy effectively.

  16. Numerical simulation and experimental research on aeroacoustics of steam-water j et mixing heater%喷管式汽水混合加热器气动噪声数值模拟与实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苟湘; 夏冰; 连晶红; 尹业彬

    2016-01-01

    热交换器是供热系统乃至动力系统中常见的重要设备之一,其中汽水混合加热器是一种直接将蒸汽与水混合以加热水的热交换装置。利用宽频噪声源模型对喷管式汽水混合加热器进行气动噪声数值模拟,获得了加热器的声场分布。在相同工况下实验测量了加热器表面噪声声压级,模拟值与实验值相比,误差为4.6%,说明宽频噪声源模型在模拟混合加热器表面噪声声压级方面有较好的精度,对喷管式汽水混合加热器的降噪改进设计具有重要的参考价值。%Heat exchanger is one of the common and important equipment of heating systems and power systems.Steam-water mixing heater is a kind of heat transfer equipment,which heats water by directly mixing water and steam.The broadband noise source model was applied to numerically simulate the aeroacoustics of j et pipe steam-water mixing heater in this paper and accoustic field distribution was obtained.The surface accoustic pressure level of the heater was also measured experimentally under the same conditions.The error of the numerical predictions compared to the measurments is within 4.6%.It reveals that broadband noise source model has the better accuracy in respect of simulating the surface sound pressure level of mixing heater,which has an important reference value for improving the design of noise reduction of the j et pipe steam-water mixing heater.

  17. Research on a Household Dual Heat Source Heat Pump Water Heater with Preheater Based on ASPEN PLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover shower wastewater heat and thus improve the total coefficient of performance (COP of the system, and it has no electric auxiliary heating device, which is favorable to improve the security of the system operation. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS, widely used in the design and optimization of thermodynamic systems, was used to simulate various cases of system use and to analyze the impact of the preheater on the system. The average COP value of a system with preheater is 6.588 and without preheater it is 4.677. Based on the optimization and analysis, under the standard conditions of air at 25 °C, relative humidity of 70%, wastewater at 35 °C, wastewater flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, tap water at 15 °C, and condenser outlet water temperature at 50 °C, the theoretical COP of the system can reach 9.784 at an evaporating temperature of 14.96 °C, condensing temperature of 48.74 °C, and preheated water temperature of 27.19 °C.

  18. Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F.; Armstrong, P.R.

    1980-06-01

    A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.

  19. Feed water distribution pipe replacement at Loviisa NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savolainen, S.; Elsing, B. [Imatran Voima Loviisa NPP (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy operates two WWER-440 reactors. Unit 1 has been operating since 1977 and unit 2 since 1981. First damages of feed water distribution (FWD) pipe were observed in 1989. The FWD-pipe T-connection had suffered from severe erosion corrosion damages. Similar damages have been been found also in other WWER-440 type NPPs. In 1989 the nozzles of the steam generator YB11 were inspected. No signs of the damages or signs of erosion were detected. The first damaged nozzles were found in 1992 in steam generators of both units. In 1992 it was started studying different possibilities to either repair or replace the damaged FWD-pipes. Due to the difficult conditions for repairing the damaged nozzles it was decided to study different FWD-pipe constructions. In 1991 two new feedwater distributors had been implemented at Dukovany NPP designed by Vitckovice company. Additionally OKB Gidropress had presented their design for new collector. In spring 1994 all the six steam generators of Rovno NPP unit 1 were replaced with FWD-pipes designed by OKB Gidropress. After the implementation an experimental program with the new systems was carried out. Due to the successful experiments at Rovno NPP Unit 1 it was decided to implement `Gidropress solution` during 1994 refueling outage into the steam generator YB52 at Loviisa 2. The object of this paper is to discuss the new FWD-pipe and its effects on the plant safety during normal and accident conditions. (orig.).

  20. Membrane fouling mechanism transition in relation to feed water composition

    KAUST Repository

    Myat, Darli Theint

    2014-12-01

    The impact of secondary effluent wastewater from the Eastern Treatment Plant (ETP), Melbourne, Australia, before and after ion exchange (IX) treatment and polyaluminium chlorohydrate (PACl) coagulation, on hydrophobic polypropylene (PP) and hydrophilic polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane fouling was studied. Laboratory fouling tests were operated over 3-5 days with regular, intermittent backwash. During the filtration with PP membranes, organic rejection data indicated that humic adsorption on hydrophobic PP membrane occurred during the first 24h of filtration and contributed to fouling for both raw wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters. However, after the first 24h of filtration the contribution of humic substances to fouling diminished and biopolymers that contribute to cake layer development became more prominent in their contribution to the fouling rate. For PVDF membranes, the per cent removal of humic substances from both raw wastewater and pre-treated wastewaters was very small as indicated by no change in UV254 from the feed to the permeate over the filtration period, even during the early stages of filtration. This suggested that the hydrophobic PP membrane adsorbed humic substances while the hydrophilic PVDF membrane did not. The highest mass of biopolymer removal by each PVDF membrane was from ETP water followed by PACl and IX treated water respectively. This was possibly due to differences in the backwashing efficiency linked to the filter cake contributed by biopolymers. Hydraulic backwashing was more effective during the later stages of filtration for the ETP water compared to IX and PACl treated waters, indicating that the filter cake contributed by ETP biopolymers was more extensively removed by hydraulic backwashing. It was proposed that humic substances may act to stabilise biopolymers in solution and that removing humics substances by coagulation or IX results in greater adhesive forces between the biopolymers and membrane/filter cake

  1. A New Type of Complex System of Solar Energy Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater%一种新型的太阳能——空气源复合热泵热水器系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军军

    2011-01-01

    基于太阳能热利用技术、空气源热泵热水器理论,介绍了一种将太阳能与空气源相结合的双热源热泵热水器系统。该系统可充分利用太阳能加热生活用热水,辅以空气源热泵来满足太阳辐射照度不足时的用热水需求,同时用太阳能辅助加热来解决低温环境下空气源热泵运行工况恶劣的问题。系统充分利用了低品位的太阳能,保证稳定性,又可提高夏季阴雨天气、过渡季节及冬季太阳能热水器的热水温度,对于节约能源和环境保护具有重要意义。%Based on the technology of solar thermal and the theory of air-source heat pump water heater, a combined water heater system about solar and air source heat pump was introduced. The system Could make full use of solar energy to heat domestic hot water, combined with air-source heat pump to meet the shortage of solar irradiance when the hot water demand, and the auxiliary heating with solar energy to solve the problems of air source heat pump operating conditions in low temperature. The system took full use of the low-grade solar energy, and stability could be assured. And it could improve the temperature of the water in solar water heaters in rainy summers, transition seasons and winters. The system had significance for energy conservation and environmental protection.

  2. Commercial Integrated Heat Pump with Thermal Storage --Demonstrate Greater than 50% Average Annual Energy Savings, Compared with Baseline Heat Pump and Water Heater (Go/No-Go) FY16 4th Quarter Milestone Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Baxter, Van D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rice, C. Keith [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abu-Heiba, Ahmad [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    For this study, we authored a new air source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) model in EnergyPlus, and conducted building energy simulations to demonstrate greater than 50% average energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, based on the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We also assessed water heating energy saving potentials using ASIHP versus gas heating, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising.

  3. Design of Control System of Parallel Solar Assisted Heat Pump Water Heater%并联式太阳能热泵热水器控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建成; 吴永明; 苗文凭

    2012-01-01

    阐述了并联式太阳热泵热水器是最易受推广使用的太阳能热泵热水器类型;针对23目前并联式太阳能热泵热水器存在的集成化控制问题,分析了并联式太阳热泵热水器控制系统的控制要求,采用水位、温差与时间相结合的控制方法,以ATmega48单片机为核心,研究了控制系统的工作原理、硬件结构及控制数据流程;系统能够根据天气、水温等不同情况自动选择太阳能机组或空气能热泵机组来制取热水,并且具有主要设备的故障自诊断功能、压缩机延时保护功能及智能化霜功能,提高了该热水器的稳定性和低温制热效率;测试结果表明:使用该集成系统后,系统平均能源利用率提高了约23%.%Among all the solar assisted heat pump water heater, the paralle type is the most easily promoted. According to the integrated problem that exists in the control of the parallel solar assisted heat pump water heater, on the basis of analyzing requirements of the control system of the parallel solar assisted heat pump water heater, the control method associating with water-level, difference in temperature and time is applied. The realization principle, hardware structure and controlling data flow of the control system are studied based on AT-mega48. The system can select automatically solar-energy or air-energy heat -pump to make hot water according to weather and water temperature. Combined with the functions of fault self -diagnosis for key facilities, delay protection for compressor and automatically defrosting, the control system can improve the stability and thermal efficiency of the water heater under the low temperature. The results show that 23%of the average energy efficiency have been improved by using the integrated control system.

  4. 分体承压阳台壁挂式太阳热水器的热性能分析%Thermal performance of solar water heater hanged on balcony wall with separate pressure bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁祥; 高文峰; 刘滔; 林文贤

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an analysis has been conducted on an indirect forced circulation solar water heater which is hanged on the balcony wall with separate pressure bearing, a mathematical model was established for this heater, and experiments and calculations have been carried out to obtain the useful heat, daily average thermal efficiency, transient thermal efficiency, heat loss coefficient of the heater, etc., under clear day conditions in winter in Kunming, China. The results show that the thermal performance of such a solar heater is superior, it meets the requirements of the national standards and the residential water usage, and is suitable for utilization integrated with buildings; Solar radiation is the most profound parameter to dictate the thermal performance of the heater; The insulation performance of the storage tank with separate pressure bearing is superior. Nevertheless, the results also demonstrate that further studies are needed to explore in-depth the temperature stratification in the heat storage tank.%通过对在昆明地区搭建的一种间接式强制循环分体承压阳台壁挂式平板型太阳热水器的分析,建立了热水器系统的数学模型,并对冬季晴天天气情况下的得热量、平均日效率、瞬时效率、贮热水箱热损系数、系统平均热损因数等热水器热性能参数进行了多天测试和分析.结果表明,这种太阳热水器的热性能良好,符合家庭生活用水的要求,适合与建筑进行一体化设计;太阳辐照量是影响太阳热水器热性能最显著的因素;分体承压立式贮热水箱的保温性能良好,但还需继续对这种贮热水箱的温度分层情况作进一步研究.

  5. Substrate heater for the growth of epitaxial silicon films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Matthew; Varhue, Walter; Adams, Edward; Lavoie, Mark

    1999-03-01

    The single wafer processing of epitaxial Si films requires that special attention be paid to the design of the substrate heater assembly. This document describes the evolution and testing of an in situ heater used to deposit epitaxial Si films at temperatures as high as 700 °C. One problem encountered was the production of excessive levels of ultraviolet radiation which contributed to the desorption of water vapor from the vacuum chamber walls during the in situ cleaning process. A second problem involved the formation of a molybdenum containing film that poisoned epitaxial growth. A final proven in situ heater design is presented which avoids these problems.

  6. Erosion-Corrosion Behavior of Power Plant Pipe Caused by Hot Feed Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Sungho; Lee, Jinwon; Kim, Taewon [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    In this study, we tried to define the erosion-corrosion behavior together with the resulting effects on a pipe that is a part of a feed water circulation system according to the pipe size and hot feed water environment. An erosion corrosion analysis was performed through the Hayduk and Minas model based on the chemical reaction between iron and oxygen, an essential corrosive factor. The erosion-corrosion rate against the pipe diameter and feed water temperature was then evaluated by means of finite element analysis using Abacus. As shown in the results, the feed water temperature was the main factor influencing the erosion-corrosion rate; in particular, it was expected that the thickness of 316 stainless steel would decrease by 2.59 {mu}m every year in a hot water environment at 290 .deg. C.

  7. Effect of water flow rate and feed training on "pacamã" (Siluriforme: Pseudopimelodidae juvenile production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K. Luz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different water flow rates and feed training on the production of "pacamã" Lophiosilurus alexandri juveniles were evaluated. In the first experiment, nine day post-hatch larvae (n= 2,400 were stocked at a density of 5 larvae/L. Different water flow (F rates were tested: F1 = 180; F2 = 600; F3 = 1,300; and F4 = 2,600mL/min. Artemia nauplii were offered as food during the first 15 days of active feeding. In the second experiment for feed training, 720 juveniles (total length of 22.2mm were stocked at a density of 1.5 juveniles/L. A water flow rate similar to F1 was used. The use of extruded dry diet was tested, and feed training was done with and without other enhanced flavors (Artemia nauplii or Scott emulsion. The water flow rates did not influence the survival or growth of L. alexandri. Cannibalism occurred during feed training. The worst survival, specific growth rate and high mortality were found with the use of extruded dry diet, while similar values were registered with the different feed training diets used. Reduced water flow rate can be used to lower water consumption during larviculture and feed training of L. alexandri.

  8. 基于微热管阵列的平板太阳能热水器的性能试验%Performance experiments for flat plate solar water heater based on micro heat pipe array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓月超; 全贞花; 赵耀华; 王林成; 叶三宝

    2013-01-01

      为了检验一种新型平板太阳能热水器的性能,该文对其核心部件—基于微热管阵列的集热器及其组成的热水器进行了热性能试验.集热器热性能测试结果表明,微热管阵列平板太阳能集热器瞬时效率的斜率为4.7,截距为0.80,分别优于国家标准要求值11.0%和22.3%.在满足测试要求的天气情况下,对微热管阵列平板太阳能热水器进行的多次热性能测试结果表明,热水器的日有效得热量均高于国家标准要求值,日平均集热效率均高于60%.同时,该热水器具有承压能力强、无炸裂、轻巧、成本低、无需焊接、抗冻性能好、易于建筑一体化等优势.基于微热管阵列的平板太阳能热水器由于性能优异,并能克服现有太阳能热水器的缺点,具有广阔的应用前景.%A novel flat plate solar water heater based on the micro heat pipe array (MHPA) was invented, and the experiments were carried out on the MHPA heat collector and water heater to test their thermal performance. Owing to its distinctive structure, the MHPA has good heat transfer ability, high reliability, high compressive strength and low cost. The structure and character of the novel collector with MHPA as the high-efficiency heat transfer element are as follows. First, the contact surface between the absorber and the MHPA is so large that the heat resistance is smaller than the traditional one, thus its thermal transfer capability is greatly improved. Second, the condenser section of the MHPA is connected closely to the heat exchanger with dry type. The heat pipes do not contact with water, which precludes scaling and leakage in the collector. Third, the MHPA uses low freezing points of the refrigerants, which makes the collector more suitable for extremely cold areas. Fourth, the MHPA is made of aluminum instead of copper, which could reduce the fabrication cost significantly. Fifth, the unique heat exchanger could exclude water easily

  9. Low Cost Solar Water Heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William Bostic

    2005-12-16

    This project was directed by NREL to pursue development of an all polymer solar thermal collector. The proposed design utilized a dual sheet thermoform process to coincidentally form the absorber as well as the containment structure to support the glazing. It utilized ventilation to overcome stagnation degradation of the polymer materials.

  10. Design of Thermal Performance Test Facility for Domestic Solar Energy Water Heater%家用太阳能热水器热性能测试台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘业凤; 张斌; 赵惠麟

    2015-01-01

    The development of thermal performance test facility for domestic solar water heater is introduced .This test board consists of power cabinet ,water treatment equipment and six testing beds .This facility can test the energy efficiency grades of domestic solar energy water heaters according to the national standard GB26969‐2011 Domestic Solar Water Heating Systems Minimum Allowable Values and Energy Ef ficiency .Experimental results show that the test facility can meet the requirements of the above standard .%介绍了家用太阳能热水器热性能测试台的设计方法。该测试台由动力柜、水处理设备和6个工位构成。该测试台可按照国家标准GB26969-2011《家用太阳能热水系统能效限定值及能效等级》对家用太阳能热水器进行能效等级测试。实验结果证明,该测试台满足上述测试标准的要求。

  11. 直热式热泵热水器冷凝器结构优化试验研究%Experimental Research on Structure Optimization of Condenser of Directly-heated Type Heat-pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛瑞萍

    2015-01-01

    搭建了空气源热泵热水器试验台。在标准工况下,分别比较了普通套管式冷凝器,3套管式冷凝器和板式冷凝器对热泵系统运行性能的影响。结果表明,板式换热器在热泵热水器系统中换热性能大大优于另外两种常规换热器,其性能系数达到4.1,比使用其他两种冷凝器性能系数提高20%左右。试验结果为如何提高热泵热水器性能提供了依据。%The air source heat pump water heater test rig was set up. Under the standard operating conditions, the influence of the ordinary casing type condenser, the 3 tube condenser and the plate condenser on the operating perfor-mance of the heat pump system are compared. The results show that the plate heat exchanger in heat pump water heater system in heat transfer performance is much better than other two conventional heat exchangers. Its coefficient of per-formance reached 4.1, which higher than the performance coefficient of other two condensers increased by about 20%. The experimental results provided the basis for improving the performance of the heat pump water heater.

  12. Subsurface heaters with low sulfidation rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, Randy Carl; Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-12-10

    A system for heating a hydrocarbon containing formation includes a heater having an elongated ferromagnetic metal heater section. The heater is located in an opening in a formation. The heater section is configured to heat the hydrocarbon containing formation. The exposed ferromagnetic metal has a sulfidation rate that goes down with increasing temperature of the heater, when the heater is in a selected temperature range.

  13. Analysis of Leak and Plugging Condition for Feedwater Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hansul; Kang, Yeon Kwan; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seok Yoon; Oh, Seung Hwan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Tube damage in feedwater heater occurs from damaged pressure boundary, inflow of foreign substances, erosion and corrosion. Once a heat tube is damaged, the water jet from the damaged spot is spread out to surrounding tubes. Since a feedwater heater is operated under 2-phase flow condition and has physically complicated structure, it cannot be approached on shell side. Therefore, test and inspection to check tube degradation is relatively difficult. Even though tube leak does not affect surrounding tubes, it obviously affects efficiency of turbine cycle and reduces economic feasibility in the long run. For this reason, systematic management is required on thermal performance for feedwater heaters. In this paper, PEPSE (Performance Evaluation of Power System Efficiency), one of the generic-purpose power plant simulation program, was used to construct a heat balance model for turbine cycle. The model was used to analyze the effect of change in key variables related to thermal performance of feedwater heater on turbine cycle, thereby preparing a thermal performance management strategy for feedwater heaters. Study was conducted on 6 units that represent each reactor type among domestic nuclear power plants (NPPs) in operation, but this paper described the results of high pressure feedwater heaters in a Korean standard NPP, which shows high possibility of tube damage due to large shell-tube pressure difference. In this paper, the heat balance models for turbine cycle were constructed as a part of effort to develop the thermal performance management system for feedwater heaters in NPPs.

  14. Hydrological and Water Quality Characteristics of Rivers Feeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    into Small Earth Dams for Rural Water Supply: A Case Study of ... Commission on Large Dams (ICOLD) in 1985 and the World Commission on Dams ..... network of water monitoring stations, typical sulphate levels in fresh water are in the.

  15. R32用于泳池热泵热水器的性能实验探究%Research on the Performance of R32 in Heat Pump Water Heaters for Swimming Pool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

      本文对R22、R410A和R32用于泳池热泵热水器中的性能进行了理论分析和实验验证。结果表明,在相同的工况下,R32在热泵热水器中作为R22的替代物制热能力提高约9.4%,水循环一次循环出水温度提高0.3℃。 R32在热泵热水器领域的应用具有十分广阔的前景。%This paper provides theoretical calculations and experiments to test the performances of R32, R410A and R22 in heat pump water heaters. The results show that under the same working condition, the heat-ing capacity of R32 is about 9. 4% higher than that of R22;temperature rise of water circle in R32 prototype in-creases 0. 3℃ than that of R22. In a word, R32 is a promising alternative to R22 in heat pump water heater.

  16. Acoustically invisible feeding blue whales in Northern Icelandic waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akamatsu, Tomonari; Rasmussen, Marianne Helene; Iversen, Maria

    2014-08-01

    Fixed passive acoustic monitoring can be used for long-term recording of vocalizing cetaceans. Both presence monitoring and animal density estimation requires the call rates and sound source levels of vocalizations produced by single animals. In this study, blue whale calls were recorded using acoustic bio-logging systems in Skjálfandi Bay off Húsavík, Northeast Iceland, in June 2012. An accelerometer was attached to individual whales to monitor diving behavior. During 21 h recording two individuals, 8 h 45 min and 13 h 2 min, respectively, 105 and 104 lunge feeding events and four calls were recorded. All recorded calls were down-sweep calls ranging from 105 to 48 Hz. The sound duration was 1-2 s. The source level was estimated to be between 158 and 169 dB re 1μPa rms, assuming spherical sound propagation from the possible sound source location to the tag. The observed sound production rates and source levels of individual blue whales during feeding were extremely small compared with those observed previously in breeding grounds. The feeding whales were nearly acoustically invisible. The function of calls during feeding remains unknown.

  17. The feasibilities to use circulation water as feed water of the paper chemicals; Kiertovesien kaeyttoemahdollisuudet kemikaalien syoettoevesinae - MPKT 07

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manner, H.; Ryoesoe, K.; Harju, E.; Viik, H.; Toeyry, M. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Technology

    1998-12-31

    A lot of water is needed for dilution and feed of the paper chemicals. Usually only fresh water is used for this purpose. In this project the use of fresh water was investigated at seven paper machines. The amount of fresh water used for the dilution of chemicals was 0,45-2,6 m{sup 3}/t paper. Most of this part of the fresh water is needed for dilution and feed of the retention aid and the starch. Neutral size and fixing agents need a lot of water, as well. Different kinds of dissolved and colloidal substances in dilution water can interfere the function of paper chemicals. It could be clearly seen that anionic substances in feed water of the cationic polyelectrolytes are very detrimental. Also some salts can be detrimental for instance in dilution water of polyelectrolytes or AKD-size. These contaminants can also lead to depositions in supply equipments. For this reason it is very important to remove or at least minimize the amount of anionic polyelectrolytes and for instance Ca{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} ions from the feed water of the paper chemicals. This can be done by using membrane filtration. The fresh water can be replaced by membrane filtered circulation water but some loss of efficiency of polyelectrolytes or AKD-size can, however, be seen. As the feed water of the bentonite circulation water can instead be used without any harmful effect. The nanofiltered circulation water seem to be fairly as useful as fresh water for dilution of paper chemicals. (orig.)

  18. Alternative for Summer Use of Solar Air Heaters in Existing Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio L. González-González

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Among solar thermal technologies for indoor heating, solar air heaters (SAH are appealing for implementation on existing buildings due to their simplicity, fewer risks related to the working fluid, and possible independence from the building structure. However, existing research work mainly focuses on winter use and still fails in providing effective solutions for yearly operation, which would enhance their interest. With the aim of analysing an alternative summer use, this work firstly characterises a double channel-single pass solar air collector through experimentation. From the obtained results, modelling and simulation tasks have been conducted to evaluate the possibilities of using hot air, provided by the SAH, while operating under summer conditions within a closed loop, to feed an air-to-water heat exchanger for domestic hot water (DHW production. The system is studied through simulation under two different configurations for a case study in Valladolid (Spain, during the period from May to September for different airflows in the closed loop. Results show that daily savings can vary from 27% to 85% among the different operating conditions; a configuration where make-up water is fed to the heat exchanger being preferable, with a dedicated water tank for the solar heated water storage of the minimum possible volume. The more favourable results for the harshest months highlight the interest of extending the use of the solar air heaters to the summer period.

  19. 不同结构的平板式阳台壁挂太阳能热水系统性能分析%Performance analysis of balcony hanging flat panel solar water heaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高立峰; 孙艺霞; 张敏; 何茂涛; 杨荣昆

    2012-01-01

    We perform comparative tests for vertical and horizontal flow solar collectors. We further calculate and comparatively analyze the heat performance of these two water heaters. Results show that the horizontal flat panel solar water heater is superior to the vertical one in instantaneous efficiency, average daily efficiency, daily useful energy and warming performance.%针对竖直式和水平式两种流道结构的集热器进行对比试验,根据相关参数对两种热水系统的热性能进行了计算和对比分析,结果表明水平式流道的平板热水系统在瞬时效率、El平均效率、El有用得热量和升温性能4个方面均优于竖直式流道的平板太阳能热水系统。

  20. Correct selection and technology points of maintaining environmentally friendly and efficient solar water heater insulation%正确选用及维护环保型高效保温太阳能热水器的技术要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昭键; 林成刚; 陆俊行

    2013-01-01

    我国在国际上太阳能热水器使用量最大,这对太阳能光热产业的发展有重要的促进作用。文章结合新开发的环保型高效保温太阳能热水器的特点,对太阳能热水器选购、安装、使用、维护的技术性探讨具有较大的社会意义。%China uses the largest solar water heater in the world. It has an important role in promoting solar thermal industry. In combination with newly developed environmentally and efficient solar water heater insulation characteristics, it has important social significance to do the research for the solar water heater purchase, installation, use, maintenance technical.

  1. Thermal behavior of a porous electric heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naji, M.; Al-Nimr, M.A. [Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid (Jordan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2002-03-01

    The performance of a proposed porous electric heater is investigated. The porous heater exchanges heat with the working fluid through its large volumetric surface area. As a result, it produces lower surface temperature as compared with the conventional heater for the same imposed heating power. Two mathematical models are presented to describe the thermal behavior of both heaters. Axial diffusion is included in the governing equation of the solid conventional heater. The predictions of both models are compared at different operating conditions where it is found that porous heaters have much better thermal performance than the conventional heaters. (author)

  2. The effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, J A; Wright, H; Vizcarra, A

    2012-09-01

    Five-week-old turkeys were used to evaluate the effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake and animal behavior. In experiment 1, females were reared using normal feeding and lighting management recommended by the industry. At 5 wk of age (d 0 of experiment 1), birds (n = 40) were individually caged (0.65 × 0.4 × 0.4 m) with free access to feed and water. Feed and water intake were measured 3 times a day (0800, 1200, and 1700 h) by recording the weight of feed or water offered minus any unconsumed feed or water remaining. After 3 d of adaptation to the cages (d 3), birds were stratified by BW and feed consumption and randomly assigned to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatment. Starting on d 3, turkeys were given intravenous (iv) injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma obtained from pigs that were previously actively immunized against ghrelin or iv injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma, obtained from nonimmunized pigs (control). In experiment 2, the 2 highest doses (i.e., 4.0 and 8.0 mL; n = 4/treatment) were repeated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement as described in experiment 1. A laptop computer with a built-in color camera and appropriate software was used to record birds for 9 consecutive hours, starting 4 h before treatments were applied. Video clips were saved and a human observer watched and annotated bird behavior associated with feeding, drinking, and standing. Passively immunized birds increased feed consumption (P = 0.04) compared with control animals. Water intake was not affected by treatments. There was a tendency for immunized birds to increase the number of pecks per hour and the amount of time devoted for feeding. Our data suggest that in turkeys, the effect of immunization against ghrelin on feed intake is the opposite of that observed in mammalian species.

  3. Heater head for stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corey, John A.

    1985-07-09

    A monolithic heater head assembly which augments cast fins with ceramic inserts which narrow the flow of combustion gas and obtains high thermal effectiveness with the assembly including an improved flange design which gives greater durability and reduced conduction loss.

  4. Experimental Study on Performances of Heat Pump Water Heater Based on Heat Recovery of Domestic Wastewater%生活浊水热泵热水器性能的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敏东; 金苏敏

    2011-01-01

    针对目前生活、洗浴热水的需求不断上涨以及生活洗浴热水废水热存在巨大浪费的现状,介绍了一套新型的回收废水热的热泵热水器及其主要的设备构成.通过对该试验机组进行相关的试验研究,得到组合分离式热管蒸发器废热回收热量与污水质量流量、污水进口温度的变化关系;热泵平均制热量与污水质量流量、污水进口温度变化关系;压缩机吸排气压力及其功率随出热水温度的变化曲线;出热水温度与时间的变化曲线;系统能效比随出热水温度的变化,其平均能效比达到了3.01.与传统的电热水器、燃气热水器以及电辅助加热的热水器产品相比更节能环保.%In order to solve the present situation of unceasing demand for hot water and severe loss of quantity of heat from wastewater, a new type of heat pump water heater was developed based on heat recovery of domestic wastewater. In this paper, the relation curves of waste heat recovery of combined separate heat pipe evaporator, average heating capacity of heat pump, power of compressor, suction and discharge pressure of compressor, outlet temperature of hot water, and energy efficiency ratio of system are investigated experimentally. The average EER of system reaches 3.01, which shows that this type of heat pump water heater is more energy-efficient compared with traditional electric and gas water heater.

  5. Feeding Ecology of Humpback Whales in Continental Shelf Waters near Cordell Bank, California

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    Daytime feeding behavior of humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in Gulf of the Farallones, California, and adjacent waters was observed during autumn of 1988 to 1990. Bodega Canyon, Cordell Bank, and the Farallon Islands were the primary sites of feeding activity. Fecal samples of whales and zooplankton tows contained euphausiids exclusively, dominated by Thysanoessa spinifera (79%), with lesser amounts of Euphausia pacifica (14%), Nyctiphanes simplex (4%), and Nematoscelis difficilis (3...

  6. Statistical Modeling of Controllable Heat Pump Water Heaters Considering Customers' Convenience and Uncertainty and its Application to Frequency Control in Power System with a Large Penetration of Renewable Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Gunjikake, Yasutoshi; Yokoyama, Akihiko; Tada, Yasuyuki

    Nowadays, electric power systems confront many problems, such as environmental issues, aging infrastructures, energy security, and quality of electricity supply. The smart grid is a new concept of a better future grid, which enables us to solve the mentioned problems with Information and Communication Technology (ICT). In this research, a number of Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs), one of the energy efficient-use customer equipment, and Battery Energy Storage System (BESS) are considered as controllable equipment for the frequency control. The utilization of customer equipment such as HPWH for power system control is one of the key elements in the concept of Ubiquitous Power Grid, which was proposed by our research group as a smart grid in Japanese context. The frequency control using a number of HPWHs with thermal storage of hot water tank is evaluated. Moreover, a novel statistical modeling of controllable HPWHs taking into account customers' convenience and uncertainty is proposed.

  7. Consumptive water use to feed humanity - curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an 'environmental flow' in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions - representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities - the paper exemplifies; 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  8. 环保型高效保温太阳能热水器主要部件的设计%The design of Major component of Environmentally Efficient insulation solar water heaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昭键; 谢刚; 陆俊行

    2013-01-01

    人们专注于太阳能热水器集热管的高效集热及保温技术的开发,而易忽视储水及送水过程中尤其是储水箱热的损失以及保温层加工中氟利昂问题和报废后聚氨酯保温层“白色污染”的处理。文章针对目前这些问题以及南方地处亚热带和阴天、雷雨气候较多的问题,介绍了环保型高效保温太阳能热水器的集热管、储水箱等主要部件的筛选设计,以及据此设计制造的整机实验效果。%People focus on solar water heater collector tube solar collector efficiency and insulation technology development, Obviousness ignored during storage and bottled water, especially hot water tank insulation layer processing losses and problems and scrapped Freon polyurethane insulation layer of"white pollution"processing. This article is aiming at these problems and the southern subtropical and cloudy, thunderstorm climate. This paper introduces environmentally friendly and efficient insulation collector tube solar water heater, storage tanks and other major components of the screening design, as well as the design and manufacture of the machine accordingly experimental effect.

  9. Exploring a water/energy trade-off in regional sourcing of livestock feed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Martin C; Keoleian, Gregory A

    2011-12-15

    Feed production constitutes a major portion of the energy and water resource inputs in modern livestock production. Schemes to reduce these inputs may include local sourcing of animal feed. However, in water stressed regions where irrigation of feed crops is necessary, a trade-off between local sourcing (with high water stress) and transport from less water stressed regions can occur. We demonstrate this trade-off in the U.S. by combining state-level irrigation water use and pumping energy demand from USDA surveys with fertilizer and transportation energy demands for producing major feed crops (corn grain, soybean, alfalfa hay, corn silage) in each state and delivering them to two hypothetical dairy farms located in Kersey, CO and Rosendale, WI. A back-up technology approach is employed to express freshwater resource depletion in units of energy, allowing direct comparison with other energy resource demands. Corn grain, soybean, and alfalfa hay delivered to CO demonstrate a clear trade-off between transportation energy (proportional to the distance between CO and the production state) and water stress. On the other hand, transportation burdens dominate for corn silage, making local production most attractive, even in water stressed regions. All crops delivered to WI (a region of low water stress and minimal irrigation) are dominated by transportation burdens, making local production preferable, but this is clearly not a universal principal, as other cases show. This paper quantitatively elucidates the water-energy trade-off in sourcing feed for livestock and the method is expected to be applicable in managing supply chain logistics of other farm commodities.

  10. Retrofitting Conventional Electric Domestic Hot Water Heaters to Solar Water Heating Systems in Single-Family Houses—Model Validation and Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis R. Bernardo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available System cost reductions and development of standardised plug-and-function systems are some of the most important goals for solar heating technology development. Retrofitting hot water boilers in single-family houses when installing solar collectors has the potential to significantly reduce both material and installation costs. In this study, the TRNSYS simulation models of the retrofitting solar thermal system were validated against measurements. Results show that the validated models are in good agreement with measurements. On an annual basis a deviation of 2.5% out of 1099 kWh was obtained between the auxiliary energy from results and from the simulation model for a complete system. Using the validated model a system optimization was carried out with respect to control strategies for auxiliary heating, heat losses and volume of auxiliary storage. A sensitivity analysis was carried out regarding different volumes of retrofitted hot water boiler, DHW profiles and climates. It was estimated that, with adequate improvements, extended annual solar fractions of 60%, 78% and 81% can be achieved for Lund (Sweden, Lisbon (Portugal and Lusaka (Zambia, respectively. The correspondent collector area was 6, 4 and 3 m2, respectively. The studied retrofitted system achieves a comparable performance with conventional solar thermal systems with the potential to reduce the investment cost.

  11. Oil sands process-affected water impairs feeding by Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lari, Ebrahim; Steinkey, Dylan; Morandi, Garrett; Rasmussen, Joseph B; Giesy, John P; Pyle, Greg G

    2017-05-01

    Growth in extraction of bitumen from oil sands has raised concerns about influences of this industry on surrounding environments. Water clearance rate (a surrogate of feeding rate by Daphnia magna) in water containing D. magna exposed to oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) and its principal components, dissolved component (DC) and suspended particulate matter (SPM), was reduced to 72, 29, and 59% of controls, respectively. This study also examined several possible mechanisms for the observed changes algal cell density (i.e., feeding rate). There was no change in the digestive enzymes trypsin or amylase when D. magna were exposed to DC or SPM; however, exposure to total OSPW reduced trypsin activity. Mandible rolling or post-abdominal rejections, which are indicators of feeding and palatability of food, were not affected by any exposures to OSPW. Beating of thoracic limbs, which provides water flow toward the feeding groove, was reduced by exposure to SPM or total OSPW. Peristaltic activity was reduced by exposure to DC, which then might result in reduced digestion time in D. magna exposed to DC, SPM or whole OSPW. All treatments caused an increase in numbers of intact algae cells in the hindgut and excreted material. These results suggest that both DC and SPM affect feeding of D. magna by impairing actions of the digestive system, but most probably not by reducing rates of ingestion.

  12. Experimental Study on the Transient Thermal Performance of A Heat Pump Water Heater with Dehumidify Function%具除湿功能的空气源热泵热水器动态性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭辉平

    2009-01-01

    A new type Heat Pump Water Heater with dehumidify function built by us were introduced. Many experiments under different application models were carried out. The experimental results indicated that the system could be established to satisfy with not only hot water supply but also dehumidification requirements simultaneously under the related national standards. When it was operated as a dehumidifier, its dehumidification capacity could achieve 1.2kg/h, which was the limit of nation standard GB/T 19411-2003. Moreover, the system operated as heat water heater was tested under two surrounding conditions, one was dry bulb temperature 20℃/ wet bulb was 15℃, and another is dry bulb temperature 25℃/ wet bulb 20℃. The results showed its coefficient of performance (COP) was 3.33 and 3.60 respectively. The device was estimated to cost just 26% of electric heater when they supply the same thermal energy, so it has the unique superiority in the energy conservation and function%介绍了设计的具有除湿功能的热泵热水器,通过焓差试验室对该系统的多种运行模式进行了试验研究.试验研究的结果表明:该系统在运行独立除湿模式时,其除湿性能可达到国家标准要求的性能指标(1.60kg/h·kW).在两种测试工况下(工况1:室外环境干球温度为20℃、湿球温度为15℃;工况2: 室外环境干球温度为25℃、湿球温度为20℃)运行独立供热模式,其系统COP分别可达到3.33、3.60.该装置相较于传统电热水器,在节能与功能方面均具有独特的优势.

  13. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-02-22

    Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP). This study was conducted to determine feed water productivity (FWP) and LWP in the MCL system. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP. Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity (WP) were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land (GL) analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL. These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most. A linear relationship between the proportion of CR in livestock feed and FWP was evident, but the relationship with LWP was not likely linear. As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of

  14. 蓄能型太阳能热泵热水器性能系数的分析%Coefficient of performance of solar heat pump water heater with energy storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴薇; 卫梁彦; 程清; 王玲珑

    2011-01-01

    To solve the problem that solar heat pump water heater was prone to be affected by weather, a novel water heater integrated with collection, storage and evaporation was proposed. The principle, characteristics, operating modes and structure of the collector-storage-evaporator system were investigated. Using phase change material of decanoic acid to store solar radiation in sunny days as low-temperature source, hot water was produced at night or in continuous rainy days. Thermal efficiency of heat pump system was increased significantly, and the operating unstableness of the heat pump system caused by interval solar energy was also solved. Experiments under different conditions and operating modes in spring were conducted, and the coefficient of performance ( COP) of the system was analyzed. The results indicate that COP of this novel solar heat pump water heater with energy storage is higher than that of ordinary solar heat pump water heater at the same weather condition. The average COP of this system is 7. 56 with maximum of 8. 9 for average solar radiation of 592 W·m-2. COP can also reach 6.4 even at night, which means that weather has slight influence on COP.%针对太阳能热泵热水器受天气变化影响的问题,提出了一种新型的集热-蓄能-蒸发一体化太阳能热泵热水器,给出了系统的原理、特点、运行模式和集热-蓄能-蒸发器的结构形式,以癸酸为相变材料储存晴天的太阳辐射能,作为热泵在夜间和连续阴雨天时的低温热源制得热水,提高了热泵的制热效率,解决了太阳能间歇性所造成的系统运行不稳定的问题.进行了春季不同工况、不同工作模式的试验,分析了系统的性能系数COP,得出该系统的平均COP为7.56.太阳辐射强度均值为592 W·m-2的天气条件下,COP可达8.9;即使在夜间,COP仍能达到6.4,均高于相同天气条件下普通太阳能热泵热水器的COP,该系统的COP受天气变化影响较小.

  15. Design of water feeding system for IASCC irradiation tests at JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Masaru; Nabeya, Hideaki; Mori, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    In relation to the aging of light water reactors (LWRs), the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) has been regarded as a significant and urgent issue for the reliability of in-core components and materials of LWRs, and the irradiation research is now under schedule. It is essential for IASCC studies to irradiated materials under well-controlled conditions simulating LWR in-core environment. Therefore, a new water feeding system to supply high temperature water into irradiation capsules in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) has been designed and will be installed in near future. This report describes the specification and performance of the water feeding system that is designed to supply high temperature water to simulate BWR conditions in irradiation capsules. This design work was performed in the fiscal year 1999. (author)

  16. 真空管式太阳热水器得热量的实验研究%Experimental study of heat gained of evacuated tube solar water heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭超; 秦朝葵; 马飞; 杨贤潮

    2011-01-01

    The thermal performance of one evacuated tube solar water heater was tested, and the energy equation has been obtained by the least-squares fitting method. The error and sensitivity analysis has been done to provide guidance for the design of experiment.%对某型号真空管式太阳热水器进行多天的热性能测试,采用最小二乘法拟合出太阳热水系统能量方程系数,求出该型号太阳热水器的能量方程,同时进行误差和敏感性分析,指导试验设计.

  17. 欧盟空气源热泵(静态)热水器生态设计测试研究%Study of the Test about Ecodesign of Air Source Heat Pump (Static) Water Heater in European Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马洁丹; 臧松彦

    2015-01-01

    本文结合法规EU No.812/2013、 EU No.814/2013和标准EN 16147:2011对空气源热泵热水器的ERP测试方法和要求进行分析和总结,并提出测试过程中的各个注意事项,以便读者更好了解新法规对热泵能效的测试要求。%This paper analyzed and summarized the ERP test of Air source heat pump water heater, with the code of EU No.812/2013, EU No.814/2013 and the standard of EN 16147: 2011, and brought forward notice of the test, for the reader knowing more about the energy efficiency test of heat pump.

  18. How do groups of red imported fire ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) feed on a droplet of sugar water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cai; Chen, Xuan; Hooper-Bùi, Linda M; Strecker, Rachel; Wen, Yu-Zhen; Qin, Wen-Quan; Ma, Tao; Sun, Zhao-Hui; Chen, Xiao-Yang; Wen, Xiu-Jun

    2016-12-28

    Many previous studies have focused on the foraging behaviors and strategies of the red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren on solid food or granular bait; little attention has been paid to how liquid sugar is fed upon. In the present study, behavioral responses of S. invicta to 25% sucrose water droplets were observed. Five foraging patterns were identified in S. invicta colonies under laboratory conditions: (i) no feeding, no sucrose water feeding was observed; (ii) surround feeding, ants surrounded and fed along the edge of the sucrose droplet; (iii) stacked feeding, ants stacked and fed along the edge of the sucrose droplet; (iv) droplet-break feeding, ants broke the liquid droplet and sucked sucrose water that spread on surface of the substance or soil particles previously transported by ants; and (v) cover feeding, whole surface of the sucrose droplet was covered by layers of feeding ants. This is the first time cover feeding in S. invicta has been reported, which obviously requires more ants compared to the other patterns. In addition, individual ants were tracked in videos under laboratory conditions, and behavioral repertoires that led to stacking, covering and droplet-breaking were identified and described. The field investigation showed that surround feeding was most frequently performed by S. invicta foragers; however, cover feeding was not observed under field conditions during this study. Both laboratory and field studies showed colony-level variations in sugar-water feeding. © 2016 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. P controller with partial feed forward compensation and decoupling control for the steam generator water level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Cheng, E-mail: liuch_2004@stu.xjtu.edu.c [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Zhao Fuyu; Hu Ping; Hou Suxia; Li Chong [School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper, a P controller with partial feed forward compensation and decoupling control for the steam generator water level is presented. While taking the steam flowrate as a disturbance to water level, the controller design can be completed in three stages. (1) Main circuit controller is designed without regard to disturbance. Since the transfer function of the steam generator model contains integrate element and differential element, the proportional (P) controller can selected as main circuit controller instead of PID controller for steam generator water level. (2) Partial feed forward compensation is introduced to remove the disturbance from the steam flowrate. If disregarding the differential element, the partial feed forward compensation's designing turns to be very simple. Partial feed forward compensation coefficient is set as reciprocal of P controller gain. (3) The coupling effects between the water level regulating and steam flowrate disturbance can be decreased by model reference decoupling control. The proposed methodology shows satisfactory transient responses, disturbance rejection and robustness.

  20. Operation and Management of Water-jacket Heater in Yulin and Zizhou Gas Field%榆林和子洲气田水套加热炉的运行与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青; 田喜军; 韩东兴; 高亮; 常霞

    2016-01-01

    榆林气田南区和子洲气田使用的水套加热炉在运行过程中,逐渐暴露出腐蚀结垢严重、进加热炉单井管线布局不合理和燃烧系统缺少熄火保护等问题,造成加热炉壁厚减薄甚至穿孔、热效率降低以及安全隐患突出.针对上述问题,通过现场调研、分析日常管理漏洞,采用腐蚀监测、试剂防腐、安装隔氧除尘装置和电子除垢仪等措施,降低了加热炉在各层的腐蚀速率,使其低于国家行业标准(0.076 mm/a);对加热炉定期清洗除垢以及合理调整进加热炉单井管线,提高了加热炉的能效,可节约燃料气5%~15%;在加热炉燃烧系统中增设熄火联锁保护,预计可将炉膛熄火引发的安全事故发生概率从10-3/a降低至10-5/a,降低加热炉的运行风险.%The water-jacket heaters installed in Yulin and Zizhou gas field have the problem of serious corrosion and scaling, unreasonable pipelines arrangement, lack of flameout pro-tection, which results in thinner wall and even perforations, lower energy efficiency, and high security risks. To solve the above problems, effective measures have been taken based on the field investigation and management analysis. By using methods of corrosion monitor-ing,corrosion inhibitor injection,oxygen isolators and electronic scalers installation,corro-sion rates of the heaters have reduced under national industry standard (0.076 mm/a). To enhance the heaters energy efficiency, regular chemical cleaning and gas pipelines rearrange-ment have been taken,which can save fuel gas of 5%~15%. Moreover,through flameout in-terlock protection installation, the contingency occurrence probability caused by flameout can be reduced from 10-3/a to 10-5/a.

  1. Quench Heater Studies for the LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Rodríguez-Mateos, F

    2001-01-01

    About 2000 LHC (CERN's Large Hadron Collider) superconducting magnets will be protected with quench heaters against development of excessive voltage and overheating after a resistive transition. The quench heater strips are powered by capacitor bank discharge power supplies. The strips are made of stainless steel partially plated with copper to reduce their resistance and to allow for the connection of quench heaters in series. The strips are embedded in between two polyimide foils. The initial power density and the current decay time determine the quench heater effectiveness. Since only one type of heater power supply will be available, the copper plating cycle is adapted for the various magnet types to keep the resistance of the heater circuit constant. Different quench heater designs have been tested on various prototype magnets to optimise the copper-plating cycle and the electric insulation of the heater strip. This paper summarises the experimental results and computations that allowed to finalise the h...

  2. The performance of porous electric heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Nimr, M.A.; Naji, M.

    2003-03-01

    The performance of a proposed porous electric heater is investigated. The porous heater exchanges heat with the working fluid through its large volumetric surface area. As a result, it produces lower surface temperature as compared with the conventional heater for the same imposed heating power. Two mathematical models are presented to describe the thermal behavior of both heaters and the predictions of both models are compared at different operating conditions. (author)

  3. 14 CFR 27.833 - Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heaters. 27.833 Section 27.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Heaters. Each combustion heater must be approved. Fire Protection ...

  4. 14 CFR 29.833 - Heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Heaters. 29.833 Section 29.833 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Heaters. Each combustion heater must be approved. Fire Protection ...

  5. VALUE CHAIN ANALYSIS FOR LIVESTOCK FEED PRODUCTION USING SALINE IRRIGATION DRAINAGE WATER IN TURKMENISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanley JOHNSON

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation return flows increase the salt concentrations of receiving water bodies and cause water logging which affect agricultural productivity in Turkmenistan. Flooding irrigation drainage water using on natural pastures has also had adverse effects on the long-term productivity of desert ranges. This study examines the economics of halophytes as feed for sheep using saline irrigation water from drainage collector systems on a representative farm. Cost-benefit and rate of return analyses show that the project is economically feasible for reused water with 1400 mg/l mineralization levels or less. At higher mineral concentrations in water, or in more saline soils, bioremediation through halophyte fodder production can be profitably implemented if new market incentives exist. Value chain analysis is applied to evaluate alternative incentive systems for sheep operations based on saline water irrigated halophyte fodder production.

  6. Heater-Integrated Cantilevers for Nano-Samples Thermogravimetric Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Toffoli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The design and characteristics of a micro-system for thermogravimetric analysis (TGA in which heater, temperature sensor and mass sensor are integrated into a single device are presented. The system consists of a suspended cantilever that incorporates a microfabricated resistor, used as both heater and thermometer. A three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to define the structure parameters. TGA sensors were fabricated by standard microlithographic techniques and tested using milli-Q water and polyurethane microcapsule. The results demonstrated that our approach provides a faster and more sensitive TGA with respect to commercial systems.

  7. Circadian serum concentrations of tylosin in broilers after feed or water medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilia, G; Aguilera, R; Cortés-Cuevas, A; Rosario, C; Sumano, H

    2008-09-01

    1. Because tylosin is a time-dependent antibacterial agent, and because feeding and drinking of broilers decreases in late afternoon and ceases in the dark, it was hypothesised that serum concentrations of this drug are greatly reduced during the dark period. 2. The trial was carried out in a commercial poultry house, under standard broiler husbandry conditions, with food and water withdrawn from 22:00 until 07:00 h next morning and exposed to a natural light cycle of 13L:11D. 3. Broilers were given tylosin tartrate, in either feed or water, for 5 d as follows: 100, 200 and 300 ppm in feed, equivalent to 12.6, 25.2 and 37.8 mg/kg/d, respectively; and 200 and 400 mg/l in drinking water, equivalent to 51 to 102 mg/kg/d, respectively. 4. At 07:00 h on d 4, and for the next 40 h, hourly serum samples were obtained and analysed for tylosin by means of a microbiological assay. 5. Day vs night concentrations of tylosin expressed as area under the curve (AUC) in all groups revealed greater values during the day. The highest AUC and AUC(24)/minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio were obtained in the group medicated with 400 mg/l and the corresponding lowest values were found in the group medicated with 100 ppm in feed. 6. In conclusion, tylosin did not reach therapeutic serum concentrations during the dark period, at all dose rates tested when administered in feed or water. A sustained release form of this drug is needed to solve this inadequacy of tylosin medication in broilers.

  8. Keeping momentum with a mouthful of water: behavior and kinematics of humpback whale lunge feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Malene; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter T

    2012-11-01

    Rorqual baleen whales lunge feed by engulfment of tons of prey-laden water in a large and expandable buccal pouch. According to prior interpretations, feeding rorquals are brought to a near-halt at the end of each lunge by drag forces primarily generated by the open mouth. Accelerating the body from a standstill is energetically costly and is purported to be the key factor determining oxygen consumption in lunge-feeding rorquals, explaining the shorter dive times than expected given their sizes. Here, we use multi-sensor archival tags (DTAGs) sampling at high rates in a fine-scale kinematic study of lunge feeding to examine the sequence of events within lunges and how energy may be expended and conserved in the process of prey capture. Analysis of 479 lunges from five humpback whales reveals that the whales accelerate as they acquire prey, opening their gape in synchrony with strong fluke strokes. The high forward speed (mean depth rate: 2.0±0.32 m s(-1)) during engulfment serves both to corral active prey and to expand the ventral margin of the buccal pouch and so maximize the engulfed water volume. Deceleration begins after mouth opening when the pouch nears full expansion and momentum starts to be transferred to the engulfed water. Lunge-feeding humpback whales time fluke strokes throughout the lunge to impart momentum to the engulfed water mass and so avoid a near or complete stop, but instead continue to glide at ~1-1.5 m s(-1) after the lunge has ended. Subsequent filtration and prey handling appear to take an average of 46 s and are performed in parallel with re-positioning for the next lunge.

  9. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  10. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  11. Failure Analysis of Water Box of NPP High Pressure Heater%核电站高压加热器水室隔板穿孔原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高俊; 张维; 刘忠; 张忠伟; 刘春波; 郑玉贵

    2012-01-01

    某核电站在运行8年以后,高压加热器水室隔板发生腐蚀穿孔.本文从失效有关的因素如水室结构、水室用材料和水化学等入手,分析了发生穿孔的原因,同时采用有限元方法分析流体相关因素,得出发生失效的原因是流动加速腐蚀.%After 8 years operation, a clapboard in water box of high pressure heater experienced perforation corrosion in a nuclear power plant. The structure, water chemistry and material of the water box are analyzed so that to trace out the mechanism of corrosion failure. In the meanwhile, the finite element method is used to ascertain the factors influencing corrosion failure. At last, the reason for failure is given, which is flow accelerated corrosion.

  12. Chemical treatment of animal feed and water for the control of Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Andrew D; Allen, Vivien M; Davies, Robert H

    2010-01-01

    The control of Salmonella in animal feedstuffs is important, principally to protect the human food chain from contamination by Salmonella derived from infected animals. The transmission of Salmonella from animal feeds to animals, and onward to human food products, has been convincingly documented. This is especially important for chicken breeding and laying flocks and pigs, in view of the consequences of recent or imminent control legislation in the European Union. Animal feed ingredients, particularly animal and plant-derived protein meals, are frequently contaminated with Salmonella either from source or from processing plant, and recontamination in compounding mills is an additional problem. Several complementary strategies have been used to control this feed contamination, and these include a range of chemical treatments. The principal agents used are as follows: organic acids and their salts, formaldehyde, and bacterial membrane disruptors such as terpenes and essential oils. Experimental agents include chlorate compounds. Many products use blends of agents from the same or different chemical groups to achieve synergistic or combination effects. The present review draws upon published and company data to describe the various modes of action and efficacies of different chemical agents delivered in feed or in drinking water against Salmonella occurring in feed or in livestock environments. Reasons for the failure of protection are explored, along with problems in usage such as corrosion and reduced palatability. Given the wide array of products available with contrasting modes of action, the need for standardized tests of efficacy is also discussed.

  13. [Effect of water temperature, stocking density and feeding cycle on growth of juvenile Poecilobdella manillensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo-xing; Liu, Fei; Guo, Qiao-sheng; Shi, Hong-zhuan; Li, Meng-meng; Lu, Yu-xi

    2015-03-01

    The effect of water temperature, stocking density and feeding cycle on the growth of Poecilobdella manillensis juvenile was conducted P. manillensis was conducted respectively under different conditions: water temperatures(18, 22, 26, 30,34, 38 degrees C and CT), stocking density (75, 125, 200, 275, 350 individual/L) and feeding cycle(2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16 d). After 30 days, survival rate, weight gain rate, specific growth rate were measured. There was a significant correlation between water temperature and specific growth rate (γ = -0.066x2 + 3.543 1x -38.09, R2 = 0.837 9). Based on the regression equation, the specific growth rate of P. manillensis achieved the maximum (9.461 4) at 26.84 degrees C. And the most optimal water temperature was 26-30 degrees C. Meanwhile, the survival rates of P. manillensis was 0 at 38 degrees C in 3 d. There was significant negative correlation between density and specific growth rate (γ = -0.005 7x + 9.197 3, R2 = 0.998 3) and between feeding cycle and specific growth rate (γ = -0.468 2x + 10.574, R2 = 0.998 8).

  14. Meeting the challenges of on-host and off-host water balance in blood-feeding arthropods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Joshua B.; Denlinger, David L.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we describe water balance requirements of blood-feeding arthropods, particularly contrasting dehydration tolerance during the unfed, off-host state and the challenges of excess water that accompany receipt of the bloodmeal. Most basic water balance characteristics during the off-host stage are applicable to other terrestrial arthropods, as well. A well-coordinated suite of responses enable arthropods to conserve water resources, enhance their desiccation tolerance, and increase their water supplies by employing a diverse array of molecular, structural and behavioral responses. Water loss rates during the off-host phase are particularly useful for generating a scheme to classify vectors according to their habitat requirements for water, thus providing a convenient tool with potential predictive power for defining suitable current and future vector habitats. Blood feeding elicits an entirely different set of challenges as the vector responds to overhydration by quickly increasing its rate of cuticular water loss and elevating the rate of diuresis to void excess water and condense the bloodmeal. Immature stages that feed on blood normally have a net increase in water content at the end of a blood-feeding cycle, but in adults the water content reverts to the prefeeding level when the cycle is completed. Common themes are evident in diverse arthropods that feed on blood, particularly the physiological mechanisms used to respond to the sudden influx of water as well as the mechanisms used to counter water shortfalls that are encountered during the nonfeeding, off-host state. PMID:20206630

  15. Spatial Variability and Uncertainty of Water Use Impacts from U.S. Feed and Milk Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Andrew D; Asselin-Balençon, Anne C; Heller, Martin; Lessard, Lindsay; Vionnet, Samuel; Jolliet, Olivier

    2017-02-21

    This paper addresses water use impacts of agriculture, developing a spatially explicit approach tracing the location of water use and water scarcity related to feed production, transport, and livestock, tracking uncertainties and illustrating the approach with a case study on dairy production in the United States. This approach was developed as a step to bring spatially variable production and impacts into a process-based life cycle assessment (LCA) context. As water resources and demands are spatially variable, it is critical to take into account the location of activities to properly understand the impacts of water use, accounting for each of the main feeds for milk production. At the crop production level, the example of corn grain shows that 59% of water stress associated with corn grain production in the United States is located in Nebraska, a state with moderate water stress and moderate corn production (11%). At the level of milk production, four watersheds account for 78% of the national water stress impact, as these areas have high milk production and relatively high water stress; it is the production of local silage and hay crops that drives water consumption in these areas. By considering uncertainty in both inventory data and impact characterization factors, we demonstrate that spatial variability may be larger than uncertainty, and that not systematically accounting for the two can lead to artificially high uncertainty. Using a nonspatial approach in a spatially variable setting can result in a significant underestimation or overestimation of water impacts. The approach demonstrated here could be applied to other spatially variable processes.

  16. Influence of Water Activated by Far infrared Porous Ceramics on Nitrogen Absorption in the Pig Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Junping; Liu, Jie; Liang, Jinsheng; Zhang, Hongchen; Ding, Yan

    2016-04-01

    Under modern and, intensive feeding livestock and poultry density has increased, and brought a deterioration of the farm environment. The livestock and their excrement generate harmful gases such as ammonia, etc. which restricted the sustainable development and improvement of production efficiency of animal husbandry. In this paper, a new kind of far infrared porous ceramics was prepared to activate, the animal drinking water. The activated water and common water were then supplied to pigs, and the fresh pig feces of experimental group and:control group were collected on a regular basis. The residual protein content in feces was tested by Kjeldahl nitrogen method to study the influence law of the porous ceramics on absorbing nitrogen element in animal feces. The results showed that compared with the control group, the protein content in the experimental group decreased on average by 39.2%. The activated drinking water was conducive to the absorption of nitrogen in pig feed. The clusters of water molecules became smaller under the action of the porous ceramics. Hence, they were easy to pass through the water protein channel on the cell membrane for speeding up the metabolism.

  17. Simultaneous removal of water and BTEX from feed gas for a cryogenic plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.; Lee, S.; Evans, M.; Chen, R.

    1999-07-01

    The removal of water and benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) from the feed gas of a cryogenic plant is critical in order to avoid precipitation of these components in the cold section of the plant. The design of the Hannibal Gas Plant in Sfax, Tunisia, accomplishes the removal of water and BTEX simultaneously. The plant receives 7.1 million Nm{sub 3}/day of feed gas and produces high heating value pipeline quality sales gas by removing nitrogen in the cold box. A methyl diethanol amine (MDEA) treating system at the front end of the plant is designed to remove carbon dioxide. The glycol system takes the saturated gas from the MDEA contactor and reduces the water content to 7 lb/MMscf. The glycol system is also designed to remove more than half of the BTEX from the feed gas so that these aromatic components will not precipitate in the cold section of the plant. GPA experimental data were used to fit the interaction parameters for the computer simulator used to design the glycol system. The results of the plant performance test verify the validity of the design.

  18. Welding shield for coupling heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menotti, James Louis

    2010-03-09

    Systems for coupling end portions of two elongated heater portions and methods of using such systems to treat a subsurface formation are described herein. A system may include a holding system configured to hold end portions of the two elongated heater portions so that the end portions are abutted together or located near each other; a shield for enclosing the end portions, and one or more inert gas inlets configured to provide at least one inert gas to flush the system with inert gas during welding of the end portions. The shield may be configured to inhibit oxidation during welding that joins the end portions together. The shield may include a hinged door that, when closed, is configured to at least partially isolate the interior of the shield from the atmosphere. The hinged door, when open, is configured to allow access to the interior of the shield.

  19. Starch gelatinization in coiled heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelder, J D H; Ptasinski, K J; Kerkhof, P J A M

    2004-01-01

    A gelatinizing model food derived from a 5% w/w cross-linked waxy maize starch suspension was simulated in coiled heaters to assess the impact of centrifugal forces on flow and heat transfer. For four coil diameters (D = 0.25, 1, 2.5, and infinity m) and three flow rates (w = 0.5, 1, and 2 m/s), heat transfer, viscous development, and the severity of channeling were evaluated. Increasing curvature proved to suppress channeling as a result of more uniform heating and gelatinization. The maximum attainable viscosity was also higher, implying a lower starch consumption for a target viscosity. Higher flow rates necessitated longer heaters, and the maximum viscosity decreased. Moderate product velocities are therefore recommended.

  20. REFINED METHOD OF COMPUTING MODES OF OPERATING OF CAPACITY-TYPE SOLAR HEATERS OF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermuratschii Vl.V.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The refined method procedure of thermal modes of solar heaters of water of the capacity type, based on use of an electro-thermal equivalent circuit and a method of central potentials is presented.

  1. Experimental characteristics of vortex heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piralishvili, Sh. A.; Novikov, N. N.

    The performance of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is investigated experimentally for the case where the tube operates as a heater, with the mass of the heated gas remaining constant. The results obtained indicate that energy separation zones with sufficiently high (50 percent) relative heating effects can be achieved for a gas flow ratio of unity. A nomogram is presented for calculating the relative and absolute heating effects as a function of the tube geometry.

  2. Graphite/Epoxy Deicing Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Ching-Cheh; Dillehay, Michael E.; Stahl, Mark

    1988-01-01

    Heat applied close to surface protected. One ply of highly electrically- and thermally-conductive brominated-graphite fiber composite laminated between two plies of electrically-insulating composite material, with michel foil making contact with end portions of graphite fibers. Part of foil exposed beyond composite to serve as electrical contact. Graphite/Epoxy composite heater developed to prevent and reverse formation of ice on advanced composite surfaces of aircraft.

  3. Dynamic analysis of the condensate and of the feed water in the Laguna Verde nuclear power station; Analisis dinamico del sistema de condensado y agua de alimentacion de la nucleoelectrica de Laguna Verde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo Muth, Javier; Sandoval Pena, Ramon [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1988-12-31

    This article shows a non-lineal mathematical model for the condensate, and feed water systems and for feed water heater drains at the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Station for its simulation in real time. The model allows the calculation of flows and pressures in all the piping system and equipment that integrate the systems. It was obtained by using the force unbalance in the fluid concept and is capable of reproducing its dynamic behavior through variations induced by the different operation modes and more common failures. The final model objective is to form part of the Laguna Verde simulator that will be used for operator training of this Nuclear Power Plant. [Espanol] En este articulo se muestra un modelo matematico no lineal de los sistemas de condensado, agua de alimentacion y drenes de calentadores de la central nuclear de Laguna Verde para su simulacion en tiempo real. El modelo permite calcular los flujos y las presiones en toda la red de tuberias y equipos que integran los sistemas. Se obtuvo utilizando el concepto de desbalance de fuerzas en el fluido, y es capaz de reproducir su comportamiento dinamico ante variaciones inducidas por los diversos modos de operacion y fallas mas comunes. El objetivo final del modelo es formar parte del simulador de Laguna Verde que se empleara para el adiestramiento de los operadores de dicha central nuclear.

  4. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholder, J.; Libra, B.; Weyer, P.; Heathcote, S.; Kolpin, D.; Thorne, P.S.; Wichman, M.

    2007-01-01

    Waste from agricultural livestock operations has been a long-standing concern with respect to contamination of water resources, particularly in terms of nutrient pollution. However, the recent growth of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) presents a greater risk to water quality because of both the increased volume of waste and to contaminants that may be present (e.g., antibiotics and other veterinary drugs) that may have both environmental and public health importance. Based on available data, generally accepted livestock waste management practices do not adequately or effectively protect water resources from contamination with excessive nutrients, microbial pathogens, and pharmaceuticals present in the waste. Impacts on surface water sources and wildlife have been documented in many agricultural areas in the United States. Potential impacts on human and environmental health from long-term inadvertent exposure to water contaminated with pharmaceuticals and other compounds are a growing public concern. This workgroup, which is part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, identified needs for rigorous ecosystem monitoring in the vicinity of CAFOs and for improved characterization of major toxicants affecting the environment and human health. Last, there is a need to promote and enforce best practices to minimize inputs of nutrients and toxicants from CAFOs into freshwater and marine ecosystems.

  5. THE EFFECT OF WATER EXTRACT FROM WILD THYME ON COLORADO POTATO BEETLE FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Rusin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of water extracts prepared from fresh and dry matter of wild thyme (Thymus serpyllum L. on feeding adults and larvae of Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Dry extracts were prepared at concentration of 2%, 5% and 10%, while the fresh plant at concentration of 10%, 20% and 30%. Feeding intensity assessment was conducted by dipping leaves of potato in respective solutions of the extracts and determining the mass of food consumed by adults and larvae, and changes of larvae body weight once daily. In addition, absolute deterrence index and palatability index were calculated. The results of the experiment showed that for an efficient limitation of the feeding adult Colorado potato beetles, an extract from dry matter of wild thyme with a concentration of at least 10% should be used. L4 larvae appear to be considerably more susceptible to the effect of T. serpyllum extract. In their case, an efficient limitation of the feeding, as well as body weight gain can be obtained using extracts from both dry and fresh matter, at concentrations of over 5% for dry matter and over 20% for fresh matter. With the increase of extract concentration, the value of the calculated palatability index decreases, and the deterrence index value increases.

  6. Effect of produced water on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkoff, H.; Parrish, C. [Memorial Univ. of Newfoundland, St. John' s, NL (Canada); Hamoutene, D.; Mabrouk, G.; Samuelson, S.; Mansour, A.; Lee, K. [Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Dartmouth, NS (Canada). Maritimes Region, Ocean Sciences Division

    2007-07-01

    This paper addressed concerns regarding potentially detrimental cumulative effects of waste products from oil industry activities on marine organisms around production sites. The metabolic capacities, feeding and digestive physiology of fish have been shown to change with environmental parameters, which could impact the growth and health status of fish populations. In this study, the effects of produced water (PW) on feeding and metabolism of Atlantic cod was investigated by exposing fish to 0.100 ppm (x 10,000 PW dilution) or 200 ppm (x 500 dilution) of PW for 76 days. Throughout the experiment, food intake and mean weight were monitored. In addition, serum lipids, metabolites and gene expression of a brain appetite regulating factor were measured at the end of the experiment. No significant differences were observed in weight gain or food intake between the 3 groups of fish. Serum metabolites and neuropeptide Y expression remained unchanged between groups. The study is ongoing to complete comparative measurements of whole blood fatty acid profiles in plasma. The preliminary results indicate that feeding and metabolism in cod is not affected by produced water.

  7. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh S Karimov

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tank were also included in the calculations. The biogas digester consisted of a methane tank with built-in solar reverse absorber heater to harness the radiant solar energy for heating the slurry comprising of different organic wastes (dung, sewage, food wastes etc.. The methane tank was initially filled to 70% of its volume with organic wastes from the GIK institute’s sewage. The remaining volume was filled with sewage and cow dung from other sources. During a three month period (October-December, 2009 and another two month period (February-March, 2010, the digester was investigated. The effects of solar radiation on the absorber, the slurry’s temperature, and the ambient temperature were all measured during these investigations. It was found that using sewage only and sewage with cow dung in the slurry resulted in retention times of four and two weeks, respectively. The corresponding biogas produced was 0.4 m3 and 8.0 m3, respectively. Finally, this paper also elaborates on the upgradation of biogas through the removal of carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide and water vapour, and also the process of conversion of biogas energy into electric powerABSTRAK: Kajian ini membentangkan rekabentuk, fabrikasi dan penyelidikan tentang pencerna biogas dengan pemanas solar ringkas. Sebagai pemanas solar, ia dilengkapkan dengan penyerap pemanas beralik. Suhu maksimum(50oC di dalam tangki metana telah diambil sebagai parameter utama rekabentuk pencerna. Dengan menggunakan

  8. Experimental investigation of the performance of an elbow-bend type heat exchanger with a water tube bank used as a heater or cooler in alpha-type Stirling machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Ehwany, A.A.; Hennes, G.M. [Mech. Power Dept., Faculty of Eng., Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt); Eid, E.I. [Mech. Dept., Faculty of Ind. Education, Suez Canal University, Suez 43515 (Egypt); El-Kenany, E. [The Specialized Studies Academy, Workers University, Tech. Dept., Mansura (Egypt)

    2011-02-15

    In this work the effect of the elbow-bend geometry and the effect of the tube arrangement on the performance of air-to-water heat exchanger is studied experimentally. In elbow-bend heat exchanger, the direction of the working fluid is bended at 90 degrees to its inlet direction. The heating or cooling fluid flows inside straight tubes while the working fluid flows past the tubes along an elbow pass. Three different types of the geometry of the elbow with three different tube bank arrangements were studied. The results were plotted and analyzed to clarify the effects of the elbow-bend geometry, the tube bank arrangements and the dead volume in the heat exchanger on the heat transfer and pressure drop. Two empirical correlations were deduced for each design, one to predict the relation between Nusselt and Reynolds numbers, while the other relation is between the friction factor and Reynolds number. This work was done to select the more suitable design to be used as a heater or a cooler in Stirling machines. (author)

  9. Building America Case Study: Heat Pump Water Heater Ducting Strategies with Encapsulated Attics in Climate Zones 2 and 4, LaFayette, Georgia (CZ4), and Savannah, Georgia (CZ2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-02-01

    The focus of this study is on the performance of HPWHs with several different duct configurations and their effects on whole building heating, cooling, and moisture loads. A.O. Smith 60 gallon Voltex (PHPT-60) heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) were included at two project sites and ducted to or located within spray foamed encapsulated attics. The effect of ducting a HPWH's air stream does not diminish its efficiency if the ducting does not reduce intake air temperature, which expands HPWH application to confined areas. Exhaust ducts should be insulated to avoid condensation on the exterior, however this imposes a risk of condensation occurring in the duct's interior near the HPWH due to large variation of temperatures between the compressor and the duct and the presence of bulk moisture around the condenser. The HPWH's air conditioning impact on HVAC equipment loads is minimal when the intake and exhaust air streams are connected to a sealed attic and not the living space. A HPWH is not suitable as a replacement dehumidifier in sealed attics as peak moisture loads were observed to only be reduced if the heat pump operated during the morning. It appears that the intake air temperature and humidity was the most dominant variable affecting HPWH performance. Different ducting strategies such as exhaust duct only, intake duct only, and exhaust and intake ducting did not have any effect on HPWH performance.

  10. 电话远程控制智能家用电热水器控制器设计%Design of intel l igent water-heater control ler by using a remote telephone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱应国

    2014-01-01

    The system can remotely control household electric water-heater by using a telephone or mobile phone.It mainly consists of STC89C52 single chip,DTMF decode chip MT8870,voice chip ISD4004.The system can directly switch electrical appliances,and automatic voice prompt.Users can use it when they go out to cause someone to illusion at home,so it can improve the home furnishing safety.Have been ex-tended,it can also remotely control air conditioning,lights,electric rice cookers,televisions and other ap-pliances.%一种利用电话或手机远程控制家用电热水器系统,该系统主要由 STC89 C52单片机、DT-MF解码芯片MT8870、语音芯片ISD4004组成。该系统可以直接开关电器,并且有自动语音提示功能,用户外出时可用此远程控制系统来造成有人在家的假象,提高居家安全。该系统扩展后,还可以远程控制空调、电灯、电饭煲、电视机等其他电器。

  11. Differences in the composition of organic impurities in ground and surface waters. Consequences for the preparation of boiler feed water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, S.A. [DOC-Labor Dr. Huber, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    It is generally accepted that current limits for total organic carbon (TOC) in the pharmaceutical industry (500 ppb) and semiconductor industry (10-25 ppb) should be regarded as precautionary measures and do not necessarily reflect true scientific evidence. For the power industry the situation is different. Here, recommended TOC-limits for boiler feed waters (in 1999: VGB: 200 ppb; EPRI: 100 ppb) are based on scientific and empirical data. The oxidation of, say, 50 ppb TOC to carbon dioxide in the water/steam cycle will increase steam condensate conductivity by 0.48 {mu}{sup S}/cm (values may depend on literature source, here [1]), a value which is not acceptable as it desensitizes the detection of leaks in cooling water heat exchangers. Apart from this indirect effect of TOC there is also evidence for direct negative effects of TOC on steel materials. Even small amounts of organic acids, which are produced as intermediates in the TOC oxidation process, may locally lower the pH down to levels [2] where erosion corrosion of boiler tubes can take place. It was also found that carbon is enriched in stress corrosion cracks of turbine materials [3]. The present paper will discuss the ''TOC-issue'' in boiler feed water preparation. Most of the results can be applied also to other industries, e.g. semiconductor, chemical or pharmaceutical. (authors)

  12. Detection of artificial water flows by the lateral line system of a benthic feeding cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Sevey, Benjamin J; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-04-01

    The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects water motions within a few body lengths of the source. Several types of artificial stimuli have been used to probe lateral line function in the laboratory, but few studies have investigated the role of flow sensing in benthic feeding teleosts. In this study, we used artificial flows emerging from a sandy substrate to assess the contribution of flow sensing to prey detection in the peacock cichlid, Aulonocara stuartgranti, which feeds on benthic invertebrates in Lake Malawi. Using a positive reinforcement protocol, we trained fish to respond to flows lacking the visual and chemical cues generated by tethered prey in prior studies with A. stuartgranti Fish successfully responded to artificial flows at all five rates presented (characterized using digital particle image velocimetry), and showed a range of flow-sensing behaviors, including an unconditioned bite response. Immediately after lateral line inactivation, fish rarely responded to flows and the loss of vital fluorescent staining of hair cells (with 4-di-2-ASP) verified lateral line inactivation. Within 2 days post-treatment, some aspects of flow-sensing behavior returned and after 7 days, flow-sensing behavior and hair cell fluorescence both returned to pre-treatment levels, which is consistent with the reported timing of hair cell regeneration in other vertebrates. The presentation of ecologically relevant water flows to assess flow-sensing behaviors and the use of a positive reinforcement protocol are methods that present new opportunities to study the role of flow sensing in the feeding ecology of benthic feeding fishes.

  13. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary This study was designed to benchmark the characteristics of loads of cattle stopping for feed, water and rest during long distance transport in Canada. Another objective of this study was to determine how well these loads were following current Canadian regulations for the length of time animals can spend in transit, and how long they must be rested for. The majority of loads stopping for feed water and rest were transporting cattle to feedlots rather than processing plants. Al...

  14. Parallel heater system for subsurface formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Christopher Kelvin (Houston, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Nguyen, Scott Vinh (Houston, TX)

    2011-10-25

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is disclosed. The system includes a plurality of substantially horizontally oriented or inclined heater sections located in a hydrocarbon containing layer in the formation. At least a portion of two of the heater sections are substantially parallel to each other. The ends of at least two of the heater sections in the layer are electrically coupled to a substantially horizontal, or inclined, electrical conductor oriented substantially perpendicular to the ends of the at least two heater sections.

  15. Water transparency of Macrobrachium amazonicum ponds under different feeding regimens and selective harvests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlei Cassiano Keppeler

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In aquaculture systems, water transparency is affected by water supply, feeding rate and fertilization. A study was conducted from December 19, 2003 to May 12, 2004 for a period of approximately 120 days. Twelve 0.01ha earthen ponds were used with 1m deep water. Prawns were fed commercial diet at a rate of 7 to 9% of biomass until the 14th week. Then, three groups of three ponds were fed with 3%, 5% and 7% of prawn biomass. The remaining three other ponds were subjected to combined harvest. The amount of penetrating light was calculated according to Lambert's Law, described as Iz = Ioe-kz. Evaluation of the data using Kruskall-Wallis, complemented by LSD test, showed a significant difference between treatments of 3 and 5% (p 0.05.

  16. Water reclamation and value-added animal feed from corn-ethanol stillage by fungal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M L; Khanal, S K; Pometto, A L; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2014-01-01

    Rhizopus oligosporus was cultivated on thin stillage from a dry-grind corn ethanol plant. The aim of the research was to develop a process to replace the current energy-intensive flash evaporation and make use of this nutrient-rich stream to create a new co-product in the form of protein-rich biomass. Batch experiments in 5- and 50-L stirred bioreactors showed prolific fungal growth under non-sterile conditions. COD, suspended solids, glycerol, and organic acids removals, critical for in-plant water reuse, reached ca. 80%, 98%, 100% and 100%, respectively, within 5 d of fungal inoculation, enabling effluent recycle as process water. R. oligosporus contains 2% lysine, good levels of other essential amino acids, and 43% crude protein - a highly nutritious livestock feed. Avoiding water evaporation from thin stillage would furthermore save substantial energy inputs on corn ethanol plants.

  17. Estimation of green water footprint of animal feed for beef cattle production in Southern Great Plains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan Kannan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of our study is to safeguard and promote regional beef production while mitigating its environmental footprint. Conducting a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA including green water footprint (GWF is one of the objectives. This manuscript describes the estimation of GWF of animal feed crops including grasses of native range and introduced pasture, winter pasture and small grains typical to Southern Great Plains. The estimates are based on modeled evapotranspiration from Agricultural Policy Environmental Extender (APEX model under Nutrient Tracking Tool (NTT framework. NTT simulated crop growth, water balance, animal grazing, and manure management using 47 years of weather data from 1960. Our results aggregated by county indicate grasses in the native range and field crops used as winter pasture show smaller GWF than grasses in the introduced pasture and small grains. Animal stocking rate appears to be directly correlated with water requirement to produce a unit quantity of forage.

  18. SINGLE HEATER TEST FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.B. Cho

    1999-05-01

    The Single Heater Test is the first of the in-situ thermal tests conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy as part of its program of characterizing Yucca Mountain in Nevada as the potential site for a proposed deep geologic repository for the disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level nuclear waste. The Site Characterization Plan (DOE 1988) contained an extensive plan of in-situ thermal tests aimed at understanding specific aspects of the response of the local rock-mass around the potential repository to the heat from the radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. With the refocusing of the Site Characterization Plan by the ''Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program Plan'' (DOE 1994), a consolidated thermal testing program emerged by 1995 as documented in the reports ''In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (DOE 1995) and ''Updated In-Situ Thermal Testing Program Strategy'' (CRWMS M&O 1997a). The concept of the Single Heater Test took shape in the summer of 1995 and detailed planning and design of the test started with the beginning fiscal year 1996. The overall objective of the Single Heater Test was to gain an understanding of the coupled thermal, mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes that are anticipated to occur in the local rock-mass in the potential repository as a result of heat from radioactive decay of the emplaced waste. This included making a priori predictions of the test results using existing models and subsequently refining or modifying the models, on the basis of comparative and interpretive analyses of the measurements and predictions. A second, no less important, objective was to try out, in a full-scale field setting, the various instruments and equipment to be employed in the future on a much larger, more complex, thermal test of longer duration, such as the Drift Scale Test. This ''shake down'' or trial aspect of the Single Heater Test applied

  19. Analysis and selection of high pressure heaters design for a new generation of NPP with BN-1200 reactor plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, A. Yu.; Sukhorukov, Yu. G.; Trifonov, N. N.; Grigor'eva, E. B.; Esin, S. B.; Svyatkin, F. A.; Nikolaenkova, E. K.; Prikhod'ko, P. Yu.; Nazarov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    In the development of advanced high-power steam-turbine plants (STP), special attention is placed on the design of reliable and economical high-pressure heater (HPH) capable to maintain the specified thermal hydraulic performance during the entire service life. Comparative analysis of the known designs of HPH, such as the spiral-collector HPH, the collector-coiled HPH, the collector-platen HPH, modular HPH, and the chamber HPH, was carried out. The advantages and disadvantages of each design were pointed. For better comparison, the heaters are separated into two groups—horizontal and vertical ones. The weight and dimension characteristics, the materials and features of the basic elements, and operating features of variety HPH are presented. At operating the spiral-collector HPH used in the majority of regenerative schemes of high-pressure STP of thermal and nuclear power plants, the disadvantages reducing the economy and reliability of their operation were revealed. The recommendations directed to the reliability growth of HPH, the decrease of subcooling the feed water, the increase of compactness are stated. Some of these were developed by the specialists of OAO NPO TsKTI and are successfully implemented on the thermal power plants and nuclear power plants. Technical solutions to reduce the cost of regeneration system and the weight of chamber HPH, reduce the thickness of the tube plate of HPH, and reliability assurance of the cooler of steam and condensate built in the HPH casing under all operating conditions were proposed. Three types of feed water chambers for vertical and horizontal chamber HPH are considered in detail, the constructive solutions that have been implemented in HPH of the regeneration system of turbines of 1000 and 1200 MW capacity with water-moderated water-cooled power reactor (WMWCPR) are described. The optimal design of HPH for the regeneration system of high-pressure turbine plant with BN-1200 reactor was selected.

  20. 一体化太阳能热泵热水器运行特性的实验研究%Experimental Study on the Operating Characteristics of Solar Heat Pump Water Heater Integrated With Collector, Storage and Evaporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫梁彦; 王玲珑; 吴薇

    2011-01-01

    A novel solar heat pump water heater integrated with collector, storage and evaporation (SHPWHICSE) is presented and analyzed. By adding phase-changing materials into the collector/storage/evaporator, the solar energy can be absorbed and storied as latent heat. Calculating the storied energy according to temperature variation of the phasechange material which is chosen as paraffin, the result is that the storied energy can meet the heat load of this system. Solar got efficiency of this system is defined and compared with the direct expansion solar heat pump water heater. Experimental studies of SHPWHICSE with 150L water heating capacity are done at typical weather conditions in spring. The results indicate the system's COP is 5.63 on sunny days. Although on overcast or rainy days, the system's COP can reach 4. 13. Moreover, solar radiation intensity's unstable change has little influerace on the solar got efficiency and COP. Therefore, SHPWHICSE can be operating highly efficiently and stably at various weather conditions for domestic hot water.%介绍并研究了一种新型集热/蓄能/蒸发一体化太阳能热泵热水器系统(SHPWHICSE).该装置将真空管集热器、蓄能容器和蒸发器集于一体,通过相变潜热吸收并储存大量太阳能.根据相变材料(石蜡)在吸、放热过程中温度的变化计算蓄热量,确定相变材料中储存的热量能够满足系统热负荷.定义了一体化太阳能热泵系统的得热效率,并和直膨式太阳能热泵热水器得热效率进行比较.在春季典型工况下对容量为150L的SHPWHICSE进行实验研究,结果表明:晴天工况下,系统COP可达5.63;即使阴雨天,COP也可达4.13;太阳辐射强度的不稳定变化对热泵系统得热效率和COP的影响不大.因此,该系统在各种天气条件下都可以高效稳定地制取生活热水.

  1. The diet and feeding ecology of Conger conger (L. 1758 in the deep waters of the Eastern Ionian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ANASTASOPOULOU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the European conger eel Conger conger was investigated for the first time in the Eastern Mediterranean. Fish dominated the European conger eel diet in the deep waters of E. Ionian Sea. All other prey taxa were identified as accidental preys. However, intestine analysis showed that Natantia, Brachyura and Cephalopoda might have a more important contribution in the diet of the species. C. conger exhibited a benthopelagic feeding behavior as it preyed upon both demersal and mesopelagic taxa. The high vacuity index and the low stomach and intestine fullness indicated that the feeding intensity of the species in the deep waters of Eastern Ionian Sea was quite low. C. conger feeding strategy was characterised by specialisation in various resource items. A between-phenotype contribution to niche width was observed for some prey categories. European Conger eel feeding specialisation seemed to be an adaptation to a food-scarce environment, as typified in deep-water habitats

  2. Water Flow Affects Zooplankton Feeding by the Scleractinian Coral Galaxea fascicularis on a Polyp and Colony Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wijgerde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Several factors may affect heterotrophic feeding of benthic marine invertebrates, including water flow rate and polyp context (i.e., the presence of neighbouring polyps. We tested the interactive effects of water flow rate and polyp context on zooplankton feeding by the scleractinian coral Galaxea fascicularis. Single polyps and colonies were incubated in a flow cell for 30 minutes with an ambient Artemia nauplii concentration of 10,000 L−1 and water flow rates ranging from 1.25 to 40 cm s−1. Water flow rate and polyp context showed significant main and interactive effects on feeding rates of G. fascicularis polyps. More specifically, feeding rates were optimal at flow rates of 1.25 cm s−1 for single polyps and 5 to 10 cm s−1 for polyps inhabiting colonies. The presence of epizoic acoelomorph flatworms may have negatively affected the observed feeding rates, especially at high flow. Our results demonstrate that water flow affects coral feeding and thus heterotrophic nutrient input at both a polyp and colony level. These findings are of relevance to our understanding of how biotic and abiotic factors interact on coral heterotrophy and may serve to optimise coral aquaculture.

  3. SELECTED ORGANIC POLLUTANT EMISSIONS FROM UNVENTED KEROSENE HEATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    An exploratory study was performed to assess the semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emission rates from unvented kerosene space heaters. A well-tuned radiant heater and maltuned convective heater were tested for semivolatile and nonvolatile organic pollutant emiss...

  4. 高压加热器运行中存在的问题及对策%Existing Problems and Countermeasure on the Operation of High Pressure Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李航; 魏科

    2012-01-01

    Pointed out that the thermal power plant of high pressure heater leakage of high pressure heater leakage phenomenon,after the influence on the unit,in response to high pressure heater tubes and expanding mouth leak exists,automatic feed water bypass sealing is poor,poor drainage system automatically into some of the more common problems,analyze the reasons of the causes,proposes treatment countermeasures.%指出了火力电厂高压加热器泄漏的现象,高压加热器泄漏后对机组的影响,针对高压加热器存在的管子及胀口泄漏、给水自动旁路密封不佳、疏水系统自动投入不良等一些较普遍的问题,分析问题的成因,提出针对性的处理对策。

  5. Water stress and aphid feeding differentially influence metabolite composition in Arabidopsis thaliana (L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Mewis

    Full Text Available Little is known about how drought stress influences plant secondary metabolite accumulation and how this affects plant defense against different aphids. We therefore cultivated Arabidopsis thaliana (L. plants under well-watered, drought, and water-logged conditions. Two aphid species were selected for this study: the generalist Myzus persicae (Sulzer and the crucifer specialist Brevicoryne brassicae (L.. Metabolite concentrations in the phloem sap, which influence aphid growth, changed particularly under drought stress. Levels of sucrose and several amino acids, such as glutamic acid, proline, isoleucine, and lysine increased, while concentrations of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate decreased. M. persicae population growth was highest on plants under drought stress conditions. However, B. brassicae did not profit from improved phloem sap quality under drought stress and performed equally in all water treatments. Water stress and aphids generally had an opposite effect on the accumulation of secondary metabolites in the plant rosettes. Drought stress and water-logging led to increased aliphatic glucosinolate and flavonoid levels. Conversely, aphid feeding, especially of M. persicae, reduced levels of flavonoids and glucosinolates in the plants. Correspondingly, transcript levels of aliphatic biosynthetic genes decreased after feeding of both aphid species. Contrary to M. persicae, drought stress did not promote population growth of B. brassicae on these plants. The specialist aphid induced expression of CYP79B2, CYP79B3, and PAD3 with corresponding accumulation of indolyl glucosinolates and camalexin. This was distinct from M. persicae, which did not elicit similarly strong camalexin accumulation, which led to the hypothesis of a specific defense adaptations against the specialist aphid.

  6. Input/output test results and long-term performance prediction of a domestic thermosiphon solar water heater in Algiers, Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerrouki, A.; Said, N.; Tedjiza, B. [CDER, Route de l' Observatoire BP, Algiers (Algeria); Boumedien, A. [USTHB, Algiers (Algeria). Institut de Genie-Mecanique

    2002-01-01

    Experimental tests have been conducted following the recommended CSTG guidelines in outdoor conditions, in order to evaluate a thermosiphon Solar Domestic Hot Water (SDHW) system. This thermosiphonic solar system tested represents a good sample of various characteristics for SDHW systems manufactured by the Algerian industry. Heating of water utilising solar energy is a well-known and established technology in many parts of Algeria. With increasing number of solar heating systems on the market, a need was felt to adopt a standard testing and rating procedure for them. The introduction of test procedures should provide an equitable basis for competition amongst manufacturers and an essential criterion for design and selection of the equipment. (author)

  7. Three-dimensional temperature field in a line-heater embedded by a spiral electric resistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, S.Y.; Wei, P.S.; Wang, Z.P. [Department of Mechanical and Electro-Mechanical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70, Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China)

    2006-06-15

    In this study, three-dimensional temperature fields induced by AC and DC through a spiral electric resistor in a line-heater are numerically investigated. Electric heaters have been widely found, for example, in houses as dryers, stoves, and water heaters, and in industrial and research institutions as elements of equipments. The line-heater in the present model is realistically considered to have multiple regions composed of a spiral electric resistor, electrically insulated region, covering outer layer, and two terminal pins with distinct thermal and electrical properties. Solving unsteady three-dimensional heat conduction equations in distinct regions, the surface temperatures predicted as a function of time in this model are confirmed by the measured data. The calculated results quantitatively show that high surface temperatures of the heater can be reached by increasing dimensionless joule heat parameter, radius of the spiral electric resistor or pins, thermal diffusivity of the insulation region, and decreasing Biot number and radius of insulation region. The effects of the pins on surface temperature are also studied. Aside from showing that DC produces higher temperature than AC, the results indicate that the effects of current frequency on temperature fields are insignificant. The findings can be generalized to a curved heater, because any local location can be considered as a small line-segment. The present work provides general and quantitative data valuable for designing an efficient heater/furnace. [Author].

  8. "Starfish" Heater Head For Stirling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, N.

    1993-01-01

    Proposed "starfish" heater head for Stirling engine enables safe use of liquid sodium as heat-transfer fluid. Sodium makes direct contact with heater head but does not come in contact with any structural welds. Design concept minimizes number of, and simplifies nonstructural thermal welds and facilitates inspection of such welds.

  9. Subsurface connection methods for subsurface heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Bass, Ronald Marshall (Houston, TX); Kim, Dong Sub (Sugar Land, TX); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Stegemeier, George Leo (Houston, TX); Keltner, Thomas Joseph (Spring, TX); Carl, Jr., Frederick Gordon (Houston, TX)

    2010-12-28

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes a first elongated heater in a first opening in the formation. The first elongated heater includes an exposed metal section in a portion of the first opening. The portion is below a layer of the formation to be heated. The exposed metal section is exposed to the formation. A second elongated heater is in a second opening in the formation. The second opening connects to the first opening at or near the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated. At least a portion of an exposed metal section of the second elongated heater is electrically coupled to at least a portion of the exposed metal section of the first elongated heater in the portion of the first opening below the layer to be heated.

  10. Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water.

  11. Feeding frequency, but not dietary water content, affects voluntary physical activity in young lean adult female cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Godoy, M R C; Ochi, K; de Oliveira Mateus, L F; de Justino, A C C; Swanson, K S

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether increased dietary water content and feeding frequency increased voluntary physical activity of young, lean adult female cats. A replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial treatment arrangement (feeding frequency and water content) was used. The 4 treatments consisted of 1 meal daily dry pet food without added water (1D; 12% moisture as is), 1 meal daily dry pet food with added water (1W; 70% total water content), 4 meals daily dry pet food without added water (4D; 12% moisture as is), and 4 meals daily dry pet food with added water (4W; 70% total water content). Eight healthy adult, lean, intact, young, female domestic shorthair cats were used in this experiment. Voluntary physical activity was evaluated using Actical activity monitors placed on collars and worn around the cats' necks for the last 7 d of each experimental period of 14 d. Food anticipatory activity (FAA) was calculated based on 2 h prior to feeding periods and expressed as a percentage of total daily voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency (4 vs. 1 meal daily) resulted in greater average daily activity (P = 0.0147), activity during the light period (P = 0.0023), and light:dark activity ratio (P = 0.0002). In contrast, physical activity during the dark period was not altered by feeding frequency (P > 0.05). Cats fed 4 meals daily had increased afternoon FAA (P= 0.0029) compared with cats fed once daily. Dietary water content did not affect any measure of voluntary physical activity. Increased feeding frequency is an effective strategy to increase the voluntary physical activity of cats. Thus, it may assist in the prevention and management of obesity.

  12. 基于ANSYS Workbench的太阳能热水器支架优化设计%Optimization Design of Solar Energy Water Heater's Support Based on ANSYS Workbench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静敏; 范云霄

    2011-01-01

    The mechanics analysis model of solar energy water heater's support was set up. Using special CAE software ANSYS Workbench, setting the target of getting minimum maximum equivalent stresses, and taking the location of connecting rode as variable, the paper proceeded analysis comparing and optimization design, to assure the optimal plan of the support and reasonable location of the connecting rode. The three dimensional model of the support was finished by Design modeler in AWE, with the help of this modeling, proceeding the meshed dividing adding restricted loading in design simulation and based on it,proceeded the stress strain of the support in the static condition parallely. At last the optimal design was completed in DesignXplorer.%建立了某型号太阳能热水器安装支架力学分析模型,并针对其2种改进方案,利用专业大型CAE软件ANSYSWorkbench,以最大等效应力最小为优化设计目标,以增加的连接杆的位置为设计变量,进行了分析对比和优化设计,确定了该支架的优化方案及连接杆最合理的位置.在AWE环境下Design Modeler模块中对支架进行三维建模;借助于这个模型,在AWE的Design Simulations模块中进行网格划分和约束载荷的施加;在此基础上并行地对支架进行了静力条件下的应力应变求解,最后在DesignXplorer完成优化设计.

  13. 太阳能热水器与住宅建筑一体化案例分析%A case study of integration of solar water heaters and residential construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏琰琰; 门艳红

    2011-01-01

    太阳能热水器与建筑一体化设计的具体实施和操作有利于提高建筑设计水平,促成建成环境的经济灵活性.适应建筑一体化的太阳能热水器技术在行业中发展迅速,技术的支持为太阳能热水器与建筑一体化设计提供了可能性.本文界定了太阳能热水器与住宅建筑一体化的定义及其设计方法,通过对热水器系统及机器本身的各项技术参数进行对比,作为选择依据和数据参照,业已建成的建大花园项目在具体实施的过程中,将建筑一体化的实现从造型、结构和设备三方面进行探讨,并分析验证了其措施的可行性和实际的建成效果.%The integration of solar water heaters (SWH) and residential construction can enhance the architectural quality and the economic viability of the built environment. SWH technology development of building-integrated applications is one of the fastest growing areas in the SWH industry. Application to apartment buildings in Jianda Districts is used as an example to demonstrate the whole building integration approach. Project parameters of the system and the equipment are analyzed. The realization of building integration is explored from the aspects of shape, structure & equipment, and the thermal performance and the built environment is discussed.

  14. Probiotic preparation reduces faecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chickens fed ochratoxin A contaminated feed (in vivo study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Smulikowska, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the faecal water of chickens fed ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed with and without probiotic preparation. The study was performed on 20 healthy female Ross broiler chickens divided into 4 groups: control chickens - fed with non-supplemented feed; PP chickens - fed feed supplemented with the probiotic preparation; OTA chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA; OTA + PP chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA and supplemented with the probiotic preparation. Faecal water samples were collected on the 35(th) day of life of chickens from each group. Genotoxicity was measured using the comet assay, and cytotoxicity by means of MTT tests. Mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tails of the comets, was 8.50 ± 1.10 for chickens fed OTA at 1 mg/kg and 6.41 ± 0.67 in the controls. The supplementation of feed with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 4.74 ± 0.78. In the control group of chickens the average cytotoxicity was 38.5 ± 0.5 (in MTT), while in the probiotic preparation group (PP group) it was 31.8 ± 0.7 (in MTT). After supplementation of the feed with the probiotic preparation, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were decreased in a statistically significant manner.

  15. An assessment of efficient water heating options for an all-electric single family residence in a mixed-humid climate

    OpenAIRE

    Balke, Elizabeth C.; Healy, William M.; Ullah, Tania

    2016-01-01

    An evaluation of a variety of efficient water heating strategies for an all-electric single family home located in a mixed-humid climate is conducted using numerical modeling. The strategies considered include various combinations of solar thermal, heat pump, and electric resistance water heaters. The numerical model used in the study is first validated against a year of field data obtained on a dual-tank system with a solar thermal preheat tank feeding a heat pump water heater that serves as...

  16. 温和地区阳台壁挂式平板型太阳能热水器水量配比优化%Optimization of tank-volume-to-collector-area ratio for balcony wall-mounted flat-plate solar water heater in mild region of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏生贤; 胡粉娥; 晏翠琼

    2016-01-01

    基于温和地区9城市的典型气象数据,利用所建数学模型对阳台壁挂式平板型太阳能热水器的水量配比和太阳能保证率进行了计算,并讨论了方位角对水量配比的影响。结果显示,南向阳台壁挂式太阳能热水器春、夏、秋、冬4季和全年水量配比的取值范围分别为28~51、21~41、31~53、37~57和31~47 kg/m2。为便于应用,给出了南向阳台壁挂式太阳能热水器季均和年均水量配比与倾角间相关系数大于0.99的线性回归关系式。对于非南向阳台壁挂式太阳能热水器,季均和年均水量配比的方位角因子随方位角的增大而逐渐减小。倾角为60°~90°、方位角为10°~90°时,季均和年均水量配比的方位角因子分别位于0.57~1.00和0.72~1.00之间。方位角分别小于20°和30°时,方位角对冬季水量配比和春、夏、秋3季及年均水量配比的影响约为5%;方位角分别小于30°和40°时,方位角对上述水量配比的影响约为10%。进一步讨论发现,温和地区南向阳台壁挂式太阳能热水器的年均太阳能保证率位于0.55~0.70之间,推广应用潜力较大。%Solar water heaters are widely used in urban and rural China. The Home Appliances to the Countryside program from government further expands its application in rural areas. In the end of 2010, there were 168 million square meters of installed solar heaters, with an annual primary energy saving of 20 Mtce. The total installation is very likely to reach 250 million square meters in 2015 and at least 600 million square meters in 2020. In the 2009 Copenhagen UN Climate Change Summit, president Hu Jintao pledged to the international community to reduce the CO2 intensity of the economy by 40% to 45% by 2020 on the baseline level of 2005. Meanwhile, the share of non-fossil energy is also expected to rise to 15%. Application of solar water heaters will help to achieve this goal. The

  17. Effects of heated seat and foot heater on thermal comfort and heater energy consumption in vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oi, Hajime; Yanagi, Kotaro; Tabata, Koji; Tochihara, Yutaka

    2011-08-01

    Subjective experiments involving 12 different conditions were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal sensation and thermal comfort. The experimental conditions involved various combinations of the operative temperature in the test room (10 or 20°C), a heated seat (on/off) and a foot heater (room operative temperature +10 or +20°C). The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. The room operative temperature at which the occupants felt a 'neutral' overall thermal sensation was decreased by about 3°C by using the heated seat or foot heater and by about 6°C when both devices were used. Moreover, the effects of these devices on vehicle heater energy consumption were investigated using simulations. As a result, it was revealed that heated seats and foot heaters can reduce the total heater energy consumption of vehicles. Statement of Relevance: Subjective experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of heated seats and foot heaters in vehicles on thermal comfort. The heated seat and foot heater improved the occupant's thermal sensation and comfort in cool environments. These devices can reduce the total heater energy consumption in vehicles.

  18. UTILIZATION OF WATER CRESS (NASTURTIUM OFFICINALE L. IN NOBLE CRAYFISH (ASTACUS ASTACUS FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’AGARO E.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile Astacus astacus (initial b.w.: 0.98 ± 0.06 g were cultured (30 crayfish/m2 in 200l tanks for 69 days. The experimental design was composed of three treatments as follows: control diet (C (crude protein: 28.4% of the total dried matter, “DM”; ether extract: 6.22% DM, water cress (W (crude protein: 20.7% DM; ether extract: 1.9% DM and control diet + water cress (C + W with thee replicates per treatment. Relative growth rate improved significantly (P < 0.05 in crayfish fed C + W (+ 110% compared to W (+ 43% and the control diet (+ 36%. Gross protein and lipid retentions of the treatment C + W were significantly higher than the control diet and water cress fed alone. At the end of the experiment, a higher survival rate of A. astacus was observed (P < 0.05 in the treatment C + W (67% and C (71% compared to the W (58%. These results suggest that the plant water cress (Nasturtium officinale can be used as supplemental food in noble crayfish feeding.

  19. Natural Convection of Nanofluids in a Square Enclosure with a Protruding Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Guiet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a numerical study on natural convection from a protruding heater located at the bottom of a square cavity filled with a copper-water nanofluid. The vertical walls of the cavity are cooled isothermally; the horizontal ones are adiabatic, and the heater is attached to the bottom wall. The heat source is assumed either to be isothermal or to have a constant heat flux. The effective viscosity and thermal conductivity of the nanofluid are modeled according to Brinkman and Patel, respectively. Numerical solutions of the full-governing equations, based on the lattice Boltzmann method, are obtained for a wide range of the governing parameters: the Rayleigh number, Ra; the Prandtl number, Pr; the geometrical parameters specifying the heater; the volume fraction of nanoparticles, Φ. For a particular geometry, it has been found that, for a given Ra, heat transfer is enhanced with increasing Φ, independently of the thermal boundary condition applied on the heater.

  20. Phytoremediation of aquaculture wastewater for water recycling and production of fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaly, A E; Kamal, M; Mahmoud, N S

    2005-01-01

    Five plants were examined for their ability to remove nutrients from aquaculture wastewater and suitability as fish feed: alfalfa, white clover, oat, fall rye, barley. The seeds were first germinated in water in a hydroponic system, and the plants were fed wastewater from Tilapia production facility. Clover and alfalfa seeds were infected with fungus shortly after germination, and their roots were completely destroyed by day 14. Oat, rye and barley had the fastest growth and showed greater tolerance to fungal disease compared with alfalfa and clover. Although substantial amounts of soluble and insoluble substances were released by the seeds during the germination period, the plants were able to remove all the pollutants in wastewater and significant portions of those released substances. The total reductions in total solids, COD, NO3-N, NO2-N, phosphate and potassium ranged from 54.7% to 91.0%, 56.0% to 91.5%, 82.9% to 98.1%, 95.9% to 99.5%, 54.5% to 93.6% and 99.6% to 99.8%, respectively. Oat, barley and rye grow well in this type of hydroponic system and can be used as a fish feed after being supplemented with fat, Ca, Na, Mn and Fe. Oil seeds and the chlorides of these elements could be added to these plants when formulating the fish feed. For a continuous operation, a two-unit system could be configured to allow for one week germination and one week cleaning and startup in one unit while the other unit is in operation.

  1. Development of Exhaust Gas Driven Absorption Chiller-Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Naoyuki; Endou, Tetsuya; Saito, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Sunao

    Waste heat from co-generation systems are usually recovered by hot water or steam, those are used to drive absorption refrigerators at cooling time, and those are used for heating via heat exchangers at heating time. However waste heat from micro gas turbines are discharged in the form of exhaust gas, it is simple that exhaust gas is directly supplied to absorption chiller-heaters. In the first report we studied cooling cycle, and this second paper, we evaluated various absorption heating cycles for exhaust gas driven absorption chiller-heaters, and adopted one of these cycles for the prototype machine. Also, we experimented with the prototype for wide range condition and got the heating characteristics. Based on the experimental data, we developed a simulation model of the static characteristics, and then studied how to increase the output by limited exhaust gas.

  2. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  3. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R

    2015-04-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI=0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI=1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI=1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Source tracking swine fecal waste in surface water proximal to swine concentrated animal feeding operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Christopher D.; Myers, Kevin; Wing, Steve; Hall, Devon; Baron, Dothula; Stewart, Jill R.

    2015-01-01

    Swine farming has gone through many changes in the last few decades, resulting in operations with a high animal density known as confined animal feeding operations (CAFOs). These operations produce a large quantity of fecal waste whose environmental impacts are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate microbial water quality in surface waters proximal to swine CAFOs including microbial source tracking of fecal microbes specific to swine. For one year, surface water samples at up- and downstream sites proximal to swine CAFO lagoon waste land application sites were tested for fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus) and candidate swine-specific microbial source-tracking (MST) markers (Bacteroidales Pig-1-Bac, Pig-2-Bac, and Pig-Bac-2, and methanogen P23-2). Testing of 187 samples showed high fecal indicator bacteria concentrations at both up- and downstream sites. Overall, 40%, 23%, and 61% of samples exceeded state and federal recreational water quality guidelines for fecal coliforms, E. coli, and Enterococcus, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac showed the highest specificity to swine fecal wastes and were 2.47 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03, 5.94) and 2.30 times (95% CI = 0.90, 5.88) as prevalent proximal down- than proximal upstream of swine CAFOs, respectively. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac were also 2.87 (95% CI = 1.21, 6.80) and 3.36 (95% CI = 1.34, 8.41) times as prevalent when 48 hour antecedent rainfall was greater than versus less than the mean, respectively. Results suggest diffuse and overall poor sanitary quality of surface waters where swine CAFO density is high. Pig-1-Bac and Pig-2-Bac are useful for tracking off-site conveyance of swine fecal wastes into surface waters proximal to and downstream of swine CAFOs and during rain events. PMID:25600418

  5. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milad Kasiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW, dried Tubifex (DT, dried Gammarus (DG and prepared granulated feed (PGF, twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI, fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested.

  6. Development of superconducting high gradient magnetic separation system for scale removal from feed-water in thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibatani, Saori; Nakanishi, Motohiro; Mizuno, Nobumi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); and others

    2016-03-15

    A Superconducting High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) system is proposed for treatment of feed-water in thermal power plant. This is a method to remove the iron scale from feed-water utilizing magnetic force. One of the issues for practical use of HGMS system is to extend continuous operation period. In this study, we designed the magnetic filters by particle trajectory simulation and HGMS experiments in order to solve this problem. As a result, the quantity of magnetite captured by each filter was equalized and filter blockage was prevented. A design method of the magnetic filter was proposed which is suitable for the long-term continuous scale removal in the feed-water system of the thermal power plant.

  7. Biogas Digester with Simple Solar Heater

    OpenAIRE

    Kh S Karimov; Muhammad Abid

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In this research work, the design, fabrication and investigation of a biogas digester with simple solar heater are presented. For the solar heater, a built-in reverse absorber type heater was used. The maximum temperature (50°C) inside the methane tank was taken as a main parameter for the design of the digester. Then, the energy balance equation for the case of a static mass of fluid being heated was used to model the process. The parameters of thermal insulation of the methane tan...

  8. Particulate matter sensor with a heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew

    2011-08-16

    An apparatus to detect particulate matter. The apparatus includes a sensor electrode, a shroud, and a heater. The electrode measures a chemical composition within an exhaust stream. The shroud surrounds at least a portion of the sensor electrode, exclusive of a distal end of the sensor electrode exposed to the exhaust stream. The shroud defines an air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud and an opening toward the distal end of the sensor electrode. The heater is mounted relative to the sensor electrode. The heater burns off particulate matter in the air gap between the sensor electrode and the shroud.

  9. 46 CFR 52.25-15 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 52.25-15 Section 52.25-15... Boiler Types § 52.25-15 Fired thermal fluid heaters. (a) Fired thermal fluid heaters shall be designed...) Each fired thermal fluid heater must be fitted with a control which prevents the heat transfer...

  10. 40 CFR 65.149 - Boilers and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... thermal units per hour) or greater. (ii) A boiler or process heater into which the vent stream is... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Boilers and process heaters. 65.149... System or a Process § 65.149 Boilers and process heaters. (a) Boiler and process heater equipment...

  11. 46 CFR 63.25-5 - Fired thermal fluid heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fired thermal fluid heaters. 63.25-5 Section 63.25-5... heaters. (a) Construction. Fired thermal fluid heaters must meet the requirements of part 52 of this chapter, as applicable. (b) Controls. Fired thermal fluid heaters must have a low fluid level...

  12. Nanofiltration of Mine Water: Impact of Feed pH and Membrane Charge on Resource Recovery and Water Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Mullett

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Two nanofiltration membranes, a Dow NF 270 polyamide thin film and a TriSep TS 80 polyamide thin film, were investigated for their retention of ionic species when filtering mine influenced water streams at a range of acidic pH values. The functional iso-electric point of the membranes, characterized by changes in retention over a small pH range, were examined by filtering solutions of sodium sulphate. Both membranes showed changes in retention at pH 3, suggesting a zero net charge on the membranes at this pH. Copper mine drainage and synthetic solutions of mine influenced water were filtered using the same membranes. These solutions were characterized by pH values within 2 and 5, thus crossing the iso-electric point of both membranes. Retention of cations was maximized when the feed solution pH was less than the iso-electric point of the membrane. In these conditions, the membrane has a net positive charge, reducing the transmission rate of cations. From the recoveries of a range of cations, the suitability of nanofiltration was discussed relative to the compliance with mine water discharge criteria and the recovery of valuable commodity metals. The nanofiltration process was demonstrated to offer advantages in metal recovery from mine waste streams, concomitantly enabling discharge criteria for the filtrate disposal to be met.

  13. Varying properties along lengths of temperature limited heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Xie, Xueying (Houston, TX); Miller, David Scott (Katy, TX); Ginestra, Jean Charles (Richmond, TX)

    2011-07-26

    A system for heating a subsurface formation is described. The system includes an elongated heater in an opening in the formation. The elongated heater includes two or more portions along the length of the heater that have different power outputs. At least one portion of the elongated heater includes at least one temperature limited portion with at least one selected temperature at which the portion provides a reduced heat output. The heater is configured to provide heat to the formation with the different power outputs. The heater is configured so that the heater heats one or more portions of the formation at one or more selected heating rates.

  14. Slat Heater Boxes for Thermal Vacuum Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungar, Eugene

    2003-01-01

    Slat heater boxes have been invented for controlling the sink temperatures of objects under test in a thermal vacuum chamber, the walls of which are cooled to the temperature of liquid nitrogen. A slat heater box (see Figure 1) includes a framework of struts that support electrically heated slats that are coated with a high-emissivity optically gray paint. The slats can be grouped together into heater zones for the purpose of maintaining an even temperature within each side. The sink temperature of an object under test is defined as the steady-state temperature of the object in the vacuum/ radiative environment during the absence of any internal heat source or sink. The slat heater box makes it possible to closely control the radiation environment to obtain a desired sink temperature. The slat heater box is placed inside the cold thermal vacuum chamber, and the object under test is placed inside (but not in contact with) the slat heater box. The slat heaters occupy about a third of the field of view from any point on the surface of the object under test, the remainder of the field of view being occupied by the cold chamber wall. Thus, the radiation environment is established by the combined effects of the slat heater box and the cold chamber wall. Given (1) the temperature of the chamber wall, (2) the fractions of the field of view occupied by the chamber wall and the slat heater box, and (3) the emissivities of the slats, chamber wall, and the surface of object under test, the slat temperature required to maintain a desired sink temperature can be calculated by solving the equations of gray-body radiation for the steady-state adiabatic case (equal absorption and emission by the object under test). Slat heater boxes offer an important advantage over the infrared lamps that have been previously used to obtain desired sink temperatures: In comparison with an infrared lamp, a slat heater box provides a greater degree of sink temperature uniformity for a test

  15. Diesel particulate filter with zoned resistive heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-03-08

    A diesel particulate filter assembly comprises a diesel particulate filter (DPF) and a heater assembly. The DPF filters a particulate from exhaust produced by an engine. The heater assembly has a first metallic layer that is applied to the DPF, a resistive layer that is applied to the first metallic layer, and a second metallic layer that is applied to the resistive layer. The second metallic layer is etched to form a plurality of zones.

  16. Note: Improved wire-wound heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm(2) and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  17. Note: Improved wire-wound heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmann, Ricardo G.; Vitoux, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    The authors have measured, at cryogenic temperature, the upper limit of the heat transfer in different configurations of a wire-wound heater. We found that the heat transferred has an upper limit of about 15 W/cm2 and is dependent on the diameter of the wire. In this paper, we present three ways of increasing the heat transferred by this type of heater and its application in different continuous flow cryostats.

  18. Water availability and calcium propionate affect fungal population and aflatoxins production in broiler finisher feed during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sahib; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Zeb, Alam; Shah, Abdul Sattar; Magan, Naresh

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of calcium propionate, water activity (aw) and incubation time on the total fungal count and aflatoxins B₁ (AFB₁), B₂ (AFB₂), G₁ (AFG₁) and G₂ (AFG₂) production in the broiler finisher feed. The feed was added with calcium propionate (5 g kg(-1)), adjusted to 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw and stored for 28 days at 25°C, analysing for mould growth and aflatoxins production every 7 days. Analysis of variance indicated that all the factors (preservative, aw and storage time) alone and in combination significantly (p aflatoxins production in the feed. Minimum total fungal counts (1.99 × 10(2) CFU g(-1)) were observed in calcium propionate feed at 0.85 aw on day 1 and the highest (4.36 × 10(9) CFUs g(-1)) in control sample at 0.95 aw on day 28 of storage. During the storage period, AFB₁ content in control samples increased from 11.35 to 73.44, from 11.58 to 81.81 and from 11.54 to 102.68 ng g(-1), whereas in preserved feed the content of B₁ increased from 11.47 to 37.83, from 11.54 to 49.07 and from 11.20 to 53.14 ng g(-1) at 0.85, 0.90 and 0.95 aw, respectively. Similar patterns were noted for AFB2, AFG₁ and AFG₂ contents. All the aflatoxins readily increased over storage time; however, the increase was much slower in preserved feed that contained a lower amount of available water. This study reveals that calcium propionate addition to poultry litter along with water activity amelioration is an effective tool for controlling mould incidence and aflatoxin production in poultry feed.

  19. Conasauga near-surface heater experiment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumhansl, J.L.

    1979-11-01

    The Conasauga Experiment was undertaken to begin assessment of the thermomechanical and chemical response of a specific shale to the heat resulting from emplacement of high-level nuclear wastes. Canister-size heaters were implanted in Conasauga shale in Tennessee. Instrumentation arrays wee placed at various depths in drill holes around each heater. The heaters operated for 8 months and, after the first 4 days, were maintained at 385/sup 0/C. Emphasis was on characterizing the thermal and mechanical response of the formation. Conduction was the major mode of heat transport; convection was perceptible only at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Despite dehydration of the shale at higher temperatures, in situ thermal conductivity was essentially constant and not a function of temperature. The mechanical response of the formation was a slight overall expansion, apparently resulting in a general decrease in permeability. Metallurgical observations were made, the stability of a borosilicate glass wasteform simulant was assessed, and changes in formation mineralogy and groundwater composition were documented. In each of these areas, transient nonequilibrium processes occur that affect material stability and may be important in determining the integrity of a repository. In general, data from the test reflect favorably on the use of shale as a disposal medium for nuclear waste.

  20. A rhetorical investigation of energy-related environmental issues and a proposed modeling of variables influencing the employment of domestic solar water heaters with a focus on mobilizing information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Lilla Gayle

    how the variables and information identified in the rhetorical investigation might be actualized in the construction of messages related to a particular consumer energy behavior, the proposed modeling of variables is used as a framework for a heuristic experimental study. This experimental study is designed to test the influence of one particular variable found at the beliefs level---action strategies and skills, or mobilizing information---on consumers' attitudes and intentions to behave toward a specific energy-related topic, the employment of domestic solar water heaters.

  1. Bacterial abundance and diversity in pond water supplied with different feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ya; Hou, Jie; Deng, Ming; Liu, Quansheng; Wu, Chongwei; Ji, Yingjie; He, Xugang

    2016-10-01

    The abundance and diversity of bacteria in two types of ponds were investigated by quantitative PCR and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The results revealed that the abundance of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in D ponds (with grass carp fed sudan grass) was significantly lower than that in E ponds (with grass carp fed commercial feed). The microbial communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Actinobacteria in both E and D ponds, while the abundance of some genera was significantly different between the two types of ponds. Specifically, some potential pathogens such as Acinetobacter and Aeromonas were found to be significantly decreased, while some probiotics such as Comamonadaceae unclassified and Bacillales unclassified were significantly increased in D ponds. In addition, water quality of D ponds was better than that of E ponds. Temperature, dissolved oxygen and nutrients had significant influence on bacterial communities. The differences in bacterial community compositions between the two types of ponds could be partially explained by the different water conditions.

  2. 9 CFR 72.17 - Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted in authorized pens for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS TEXAS (SPLENETIC) FEVER IN CATTLE § 72.17... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unloading noninfected cattle for rest, feed, and water only, permitted in authorized pens for such purpose. 72.17 Section 72.17 Animals...

  3. An in situ postexposure feeding assay with Carcinus maenas for estuarine sediment-overlying water toxicity evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Susana M. [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Largo Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Moreira-Santos, Matilde [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Guilhermino, Lucia [Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas de Abel Salazar (ICBAS), Departamento de Estudos de Populacoes, Largo Abel Salazar 2, 4099-003 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigacao Marinha e Ambiental, Laboratorio de Ecotoxicologia, Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050-123 Porto (Portugal); Ribeiro, Rui [Instituto do Ambiente e Vida, Departamento de Zoologia da Universidade de Coimbra, Largo Marques de Pombal, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)]. E-mail: rui.ribeiro@zoo.uc.pt

    2006-01-15

    This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, using the Polychaeta Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Mueller as food source, was first developed. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by comparing it to that of lethality, upon cadmium exposure. The influence of environmental conditions prevailing during exposure (salinity, temperature, substrate, light regime, and food availability) on postexposure feeding was also addressed. The potential of this in situ assay was then investigated by deploying organisms at ten sites, located in reference and contaminated Portuguese estuaries. Organism recovery ranged between 90% and 100% and a significant postexposure feeding depression (16.3-72.7%) was observed at all contaminated sites relatively to references. - A new sub-lethal toxicity assay is presented for marine invertebrates.

  4. Performance Study of Swimming Pool Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this report is to perform a controlled laboratory study on the efficiency and emissions of swimming pool heaters based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected variations in operational parameters. Swimming pool heater sales trends have indicated a significant decline in the number of conventional natural gas-fired swimming pool heaters (NGPH). On Long Island the decline has been quite sharp, on the order of 50%, in new installations since 2001. The major portion of the decline has been offset by a significant increase in the sales of electric powered heat pump pool heaters (HPPH) that have been gaining market favor. National Grid contracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to measure performance factors in order to compare the relative energy, environmental and economic consequences of using one technology versus the other. A field study was deemed inappropriate because of the wide range of differences in actual load variations (pool size), geographic orientations, ground plantings and shading variations, number of hours of use, seasonal use variations, occupancy patterns, hour of the day use patterns, temperature selection, etc. A decision was made to perform a controlled laboratory study based on a limited field investigation into the range of expected operational variations in parameters. Critical to this are the frequency of use, temperature selection, and sizing of the heater to the associated pool heating loads. This would be accomplished by installing a limited amount of relatively simple compact field data acquisition units on selected pool installations. This data included gas usage when available and alternately heater power or gas consumption rates were inferred from the manufacturer's specifications when direct metering was not available in the field. Figure 1 illustrates a typical pool heater installation layout.

  5. Effect of Position of Upper Connecting Pipe on the Tank on Thermal Performance of Domestic Solar Water Heaters with a Vertical Storage Tank and Flat-plate Collectors%上循环管位置对平板型家用太阳能热水器性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱海威; 高文峰; 林文贤; 刘滔; 李泽东

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,the domestic solar water heater with a vertical storage tank and a flat-plat collector,which is commercially available and popular in the market,was experimentally in-vestigated.Firstly, natural circulation experiment platform of flat plate domestic solar water heater was set up.The effect of two different positions of upper connecting pipe on temperature variation in the water tank during the heating stage in the daytime and thermal performances was measured.Through the analysis of test data,The difference of temperature stratification in the water tank with upper connecting pipe at high position and at low position were studied re-spectively.Also the instantaneous efficiency in 10 minutes was defined and compared.The results showed that there was better temperature stratification in the water tank when it’s upper con-necting pipe at high position during heating stage.In addition,the instantaneous efficiency of so-lar water heater,which water tank with upper connecting pipe at high location under the natural circulation condition was superior to the water tank with upper circulation pipe at low position.%对一种常见的平板型立式储热水箱家用太阳能热水器进行试验分析。搭建了自然循环平板型家用太阳能热水器的实验平台。测量了两种不同位置的上循环管对白天加热阶段储热水箱温度变化及对热性能的影响,通过测试数据分析对比了高、低位上循环管循环时,水箱内温度变化、分层状况,定义了十分钟内的平均效率,并进行了比较。结果表明:储热水箱升温阶段采用高位上循环管的水箱内部出现较好的水温分层;高位上循环管热水器的自然循环瞬时效率比低位上循环管热水器的瞬时效率高。

  6. The Use of Water Exchange for Feeding Rate and Growth Promotion of Shortfin Eel Anguilla bicolor bicolor In Recirculating Water System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taufiq-Spj, N.; Sunaryo, S.; Wirasatriya, A.; Sugianto, D. N.

    2017-02-01

    The shortage of eel’s seed Anguilla spp. and it’s consumption size will induce the hunting of this species. Thus, stocks are critically endangered. Central Java have two indigenious species i.e. A. marmorata and A. bicolor bicolor. These two species will be endanger if management of stock do not conduct properly. The use of water exchange by replacing water volume for feeding rate and growth promotion of Indonesian shortfin eel A. bicolor bicolor in RWS will at least give a basic information in appropriate aquaculture systems and as a part of disaster mitigation of indegenious species extinction. The study used 3 replications and 3 treatments of water exchange, i.e. T1: 50, T2: 100, and T3: 200 % of water removed d-1. The fish were fed with approx. 2.2% dry basis of formulated feed. Tanks with volume of 1 m3 contain a density of approx. 20 kg seed stock of shortfin eel fingerlink size per m3 water in RSW. The result shows that feeding rate among treatments are significantly different (α water exchange (α water exchange (α < 0.001). Where for IAG: T1= 55.42±3.69, T2= 71.02±2.40, T3= 106.12±1.98% and BAG: T1= 35.11±1.13, T2= 52.94±6.17, T3= 90.77±3.14% respectively.

  7. Aquaporin water channel AgAQP1 in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae during blood feeding and humidity adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kun; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Cha, Sung-Jae; Agre, Peter; Rasgon, Jason L

    2011-04-12

    Altered patterns of malaria endemicity reflect, in part, changes in feeding behavior and climate adaptation of mosquito vectors. Aquaporin (AQP) water channels are found throughout nature and confer high-capacity water flow through cell membranes. The genome of the major malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae contains at least seven putative AQP sequences. Anticipating that transmembrane water movements are important during the life cycle of A. gambiae, we identified and characterized the A. gambiae aquaporin 1 (AgAQP1) protein that is homologous to AQPs known in humans, Drosophila, and sap-sucking insects. When expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, AgAQP1 transports water but not glycerol. Similar to mammalian AQPs, water permeation of AgAQP1 is inhibited by HgCl(2) and tetraethylammonium, with Tyr185 conferring tetraethylammonium sensitivity. AgAQP1 is more highly expressed in adult female A. gambiae mosquitoes than in males. Expression is high in gut, ovaries, and Malpighian tubules where immunofluorescence microscopy reveals that AgAQP1 resides in stellate cells but not principal cells. AgAQP1 expression is up-regulated in fat body and ovary by blood feeding but not by sugar feeding, and it is reduced by exposure to a dehydrating environment (42% relative humidity). RNA interference reduces AgAQP1 mRNA and protein levels. In a desiccating environment (adaptation of A. gambiae, a major mosquito vector of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa.

  8. Performance characterization of a hydrogen catalytic heater.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Terry Alan; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2010-04-01

    This report describes the performance of a high efficiency, compact heater that uses the catalytic oxidation of hydrogen to provide heat to the GM Hydrogen Storage Demonstration System. The heater was designed to transfer up to 30 kW of heat from the catalytic reaction to a circulating heat transfer fluid. The fluid then transfers the heat to one or more of the four hydrogen storage modules that make up the Demonstration System to drive off the chemically bound hydrogen. The heater consists of three main parts: (1) the reactor, (2) the gas heat recuperator, and (3) oil and gas flow distribution manifolds. The reactor and recuperator are integrated, compact, finned-plate heat exchangers to maximize heat transfer efficiency and minimize mass and volume. Detailed, three-dimensional, multi-physics computational models were used to design and optimize the system. At full power the heater was able to catalytically combust a 10% hydrogen/air mixture flowing at over 80 cubic feet per minute and transfer 30 kW of heat to a 30 gallon per minute flow of oil over a temperature range from 100 C to 220 C. The total efficiency of the catalytic heater, defined as the heat transferred to the oil divided by the inlet hydrogen chemical energy, was characterized and methods for improvement were investigated.

  9. Dielectric Heaters for Testing Spacecraft Nuclear Reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert; Bitteker, Leo; Godfroy, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    A document proposes the development of radio-frequency-(RF)-driven dielectric heaters for non-nuclear thermal testing of the cores of nuclear-fission reactors for spacecraft. Like the electrical-resistance heaters used heretofore for such testing, the dielectric heaters would be inserted in the reactors in place of nuclear fuel rods. A typical heater according to the proposal would consist of a rod of lossy dielectric material sized and shaped like a fuel rod and containing an electrically conductive rod along its center line. Exploiting the dielectric loss mechanism that is usually considered a nuisance in other applications, an RF signal, typically at a frequency .50 MHz and an amplitude between 2 and 5 kV, would be applied to the central conductor to heat the dielectric material. The main advantage of the proposal is that the wiring needed for the RF dielectric heating would be simpler and easier to fabricate than is the wiring needed for resistance heating. In some applications, it might be possible to eliminate all heater wiring and, instead, beam the RF heating power into the dielectric rods from external antennas.

  10. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Mueller

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. All tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids, bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8–2.4 µg C g–1 DW d–1 and nitrogen (0.2–0.8 µg N g–1 DW d–1 into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae to 35% (Artemia. De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  11. Opportunistic feeding on various organic food sources by the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, C. E.; Larsson, A. I.; Veuger, B.; Middelburg, J. J.; van Oevelen, D.

    2014-01-01

    The ability of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa to exploit different food sources was investigated under standardized conditions in a flume. The tested food sources, dissolved organic matter (DOM, added as dissolved free amino acids), bacteria, algae, and zooplankton (Artemia) were deliberately enriched in 13C and 15N. The incorporation of 13C and 15N was traced into bulk tissue, fatty acids, hydrolysable amino acids, and the skeleton (13C only) of L. pertusa. Incorporation rates of carbon (ranging from 0.8-2.4 μg C g-1 DW d-1) and nitrogen (0.2-0.8 μg N g-1 DW d-1) into coral tissue did not differ significantly among food sources indicating an opportunistic feeding strategy. Although total food assimilation was comparable among sources, subsequent food processing was dependent on the type of food source ingested and recovery of assimilated C in tissue compounds ranged from 17% (algae) to 35% (Artemia). De novo synthesis of individual fatty acids by L. pertusa occurred in all treatments as indicated by the 13C enrichment of individual phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) in the coral that were absent in the added food sources. This indicates that the coral might be less dependent on its diet as a source of specific fatty acids than expected, with direct consequences for the interpretation of in situ observations on coral nutrition based on lipid profiles.

  12. Carbon and water footprint of pork supply chain in Catalonia: From feed to final products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noya, Isabel; Aldea, Xavier; Gasol, Carles M; González-García, Sara; Amores, Maria José; Colón, Joan; Ponsá, Sergio; Roman, Isabel; Rubio, Miguel A; Casas, Eudald; Moreira, María Teresa; Boschmonart-Rives, Jesús

    2016-04-15

    A systematic tool to assess the Carbon Footprint (CF) and Water Footprint (WF) of pork production companies was developed and applied to representative Catalan companies. To do so, a cradle-to-gate environmental assessment was carried out by means of the LCA methodology, taking into account all the stages involved in the pork chain, from feed production to the processing of final products, ready for distribution. In this approach, the environmental results are reported based on eight different functional units (FUs) according to the main pork products obtained. With the aim of ensuring the reliability of the results and facilitating the comparison with other available reports, the Product Category Rules (PCR) for Catalan pork sector were also defined as a basis for calculations. The characterization results show fodder production as the main contributor to the global environmental burdens, with contributions higher than 76% regardless the environmental indicator or the life cycle stage considered, which is in agreement with other published data. In contrast, the results in terms of CF and WF lay above the range of values reported elsewhere. However, major discrepancies are mainly due to the differences in the co-products allocation criteria. In this sense, economic/physical allocation and/or system expansion have been mostly considered in literature. In contrast, no allocation was considered appropriate in this study, according to the characteristics of the industries and products under assessment; thus, the major impacts fall on the main product, which derives on comparatively higher environmental burdens. Finally, due to the relevance of fodder production in the overall impact assessment results, strategies to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions as well as water use associated to this stage were proposed in the pork supply chain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A modernized high-pressure heater protection system for nuclear and thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svyatkin, F. A.; Trifonov, N. N.; Ukhanova, M. G.; Tren'kin, V. B.; Koltunov, V. A.; Borovkov, A. I.; Klyavin, O. I.

    2013-09-01

    Experience gained from operation of high-pressure heaters and their protection systems serving to exclude ingress of water into the turbine is analyzed. A formula for determining the time for which the high-pressure heater shell steam space is filled when a rupture of tubes in it occurs is analyzed, and conclusions regarding the high-pressure heater design most advisable from this point of view are drawn. A typical structure of protection from increase of water level in the shell of high-pressure heaters used in domestically produced turbines for thermal and nuclear power stations is described, and examples illustrating this structure are given. Shortcomings of components used in the existing protection systems that may lead to an accident at the power station are considered. A modernized protection system intended to exclude the above-mentioned shortcomings was developed at the NPO Central Boiler-Turbine Institute and ZioMAR Engineering Company, and the design solutions used in this system are described. A mathematical model of the protection system's main elements (the admission and check valves) has been developed with participation of specialists from the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, and a numerical investigation of these elements is carried out. The design version of surge tanks developed by specialists of the Central Boiler-Turbine Institute for excluding false operation of the high-pressure heater protection system is proposed.

  14. Feeds, water quality, gut morphology and digestion in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trần Ngọc Thiên Kim, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Diet composition, ingredient and nutrients, are important to consider for maintaining intestinal functions. Studies on both positive (using feed additives) and negative effects (using high inclusion of plant ingredients) of fish feeds are numerous, however, between studies results are often highly

  15. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted... agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj...

  16. Hollow cathode heater development for the Space Station plasma contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.

    1993-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been selected for use on the Space Station. During the operation of the plasma contactor, the hollow cathode heater will endure approximately 12000 thermal cycles. Since a hollow cathode heater failure would result in a plasma contactor failure, a hollow cathode heater development program was established to produce a reliable heater design. The development program includes the heater design, process documents for both heater fabrication and assembly, and heater testing. The heater design was a modification of a sheathed ion thruster cathode heater. Three heaters have been tested to date using direct current power supplies. Performance testing was conducted to determine input current and power requirements for achieving activation and ignition temperatures, single unit operational repeatability, and unit-to-unit operational repeatability. Comparisons of performance testing data at the ignition input current level for the three heaters show the unit-to-unit repeatability of input power and tube temperature near the cathode tip to be within 3.5 W and 44 degrees C, respectively. Cyclic testing was then conducted to evaluate reliability under thermal cycling. The first heater, although damaged during assembly, completed 5985 ignition cycles before failing. Two additional heaters were subsequently fabricated and have completed 3178 cycles to date in an on-going test.

  17. Primary helium heater for propellant pressurization systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichmuth, D. M.; Nguyen, T. V.; Pieper, J. L.

    1991-01-01

    The primary helium heater is a unique design that provides direct heating of pressurant gas for large pressure fed propulsion systems. It has been conceptually designed to supply a heated (800-1000 R) pressurization gas to both a liquid oxygen and an RP-1 propellant tank. This pressurization gas is generated within the heater by mixing super critical helium (40-300 R and 3000-1600 psi) with an appropriate amount of combustion products from a 4:1 throttling stoichiometric LO2/LH2 combustor. This simple, low cost and reliable mixer utilizes the large quantity of helium to provide stoichiometric combustor cooling, extend the throttling limits and enhance the combustion stability margin. Preliminary combustion, thermal, and CFD analyses confirm that this low-pressure-drop direct helium heater can provide the constant-temperature pressurant suitable for tank pressurization of both fuel and oxidizer tanks of large pressure fed vehicles.

  18. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki

    2016-02-01

    water consumption occurring in the second hour. The cause of this thirst sensation during the second hour of dry forage feeding period was not hypovolemia brought about by excessive salivation, but rather increases in plasma osmolality due to the ruminal absorption of salt from the consumed feed. This suggests the water intake following dry forage feeding is determined by the level of salt content in the feed.

  19. Performance of a water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)system in the treatment of wastewater from a duck farm and the effects of using water hyacinth as duck feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jianbo; FU Zhihui; YIN Zhaozheng

    2008-01-01

    Nowadays, intensive breeding of poultry and livestock of large scale has made the treatment of its waste and wastewater an urgent environmental issue. which motivated this study. A wetland of 688 m2 was constructed on an egg duck farm, and water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)was chosen as an aquatic plant for the wetland and used as food for duck production. The objectives of this study were to test the role of water hyacinth in purifying nutrient-rich wastewater and its effects on the ducks' feed intake, egg laying performance and egg quality. This paper shows that the constructed wetland removed as much as 64. 44%of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 21. 78%of total nitrogen(TN)and 23. 02%of total phosphorus(TP). Both dissolved oxygen(DO)and the transparency of the wastewater were remarkably improved, with its transparency 2. 5 times higher than that of the untreated wastewater. After the ducks were fed with water hyacinth, the average daily feed intake and the egg-laying ratio in the test group were 5. 86%and 9. 79%higher, respectively, than in the control group; the differences were both significant at the0. 01 probability level. The egg weight in the test group Was 2. 36%higher than in the control group(P<0. 05), but the feed conversion ratios Were almost the same. The eggshell thickness and strength Were among the egg qualities significantly increased in ducks fed with water hyacinth. We concluded that a water hyacinth system was effective for purifying wastewater from an intensive duck farm during the water hyacinth growing season, as harvested water hyacinth had an excellent performance as duck feed. We also discussed the limitations of the experiment.

  20. Impact of Providing Feed and/or Water on Performance, Physiology, and Behavior of Weaned Pigs during a 32-h Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlene Garcia

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Transportation at weaning is a complex stressor made up of many factors, including withdrawal from feed and water, which can potentially negatively affect the health and welfare of pigs, especially those already experiencing weaning stress. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of weaning and extended transport durations (up to 32 h, with and without the provision of feed and/or water, on pig welfare. Treatment groups included: pigs neither weaned nor transported, control (CON; weaned pigs transported and provided with feed and water (T+; weaned pigs transported without feed and water (T−; weaned pigs transported with only feed (T+F; and weaned pigs transported with only water provided (TRAN+W. The effect of transport (with and without feed and/or water on weaned pigs was assessed using behavior, performance, and physiology. After a 32-h transport period, pigs transported without water lost markedly more weight than those transported with water ( p < 0.01. Furthermore, the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio was markedly higher in male pigs transported without water ( p < 0.05. Overall, transportation had a negative effect on pig well-being, especially when water was not provided.

  1. Feeding ecology of pelagic fish larvae and juveniles in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, R J D; Rooker, J R

    2009-11-01

    Stable isotope ratios of carbon (delta13C) and nitrogen (delta15N) were used to investigate feeding patterns of larval and early juvenile pelagic fishes in slope waters of the Gulf of Mexico. Contribution of organic matter supplied to fishes and trophic position within this pelagic food web was estimated in 2007 and 2008 by comparing dietary signatures of the two main producers in this ecosystem: phytoplankton [based on particulate organic matter (POM)] and Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios of POM and pelagic Sargassum spp. were significantly different from one another with delta13C values of POM depleted by 3-6 per thousand and delta15N values enriched by 2 relative to Sargassum spp. Stable isotope ratios were significantly different among the five pelagic fishes examined: blue marlin Makaira nigricans, dolphinfish Coryphaena hippurus, pompano dolphinfish Coryphaena equiselis, sailfish Istiophorus platypterus and swordfish Xiphias gladius. Mean delta13C values ranged almost 2 among fishes and were most depleted in I. platypterus. In addition, mean delta15N values ranged 4-5 with highest mean values found for both C. hippurus and C. equiselis and the lowest mean value for M. nigricans during both years. Increasing delta13C or delta15N with standard length suggested that shifts in trophic position and diet occurred during early life for several species examined. Results of a two-source mixing model suggest approximately an equal contribution of organic matter by both sources (POM=55%; pelagic Sargassum spp.=45%) to the early life stages of pelagic fishes examined. Contribution of organic matter, however, varied among species, and sensitivity analyses indicated that organic source estimates changed from 2 to 13% for a delta(13)C fractionation change of +/-0.25 per thousand or a delta15N fractionation change of +/-1.0 per thousand relative to original fractionation values.

  2. Cereal Feeding in Fishes Nutrition for Fishery in Fresh Water from Banat Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Mnerie

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries have traditionally been managed by direct restrictions, including seasonal and area closures, minimum mesh size, and access limitations. In recent years, licensing and an individual quota system were introduced as effortcontrol measures, in order to bring fishing effort more in line with the available resources. The overall responsibility for fisheries policy in Romania falls under auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Rural Development through its Directorate of Fisheries. The major objectives of Romanian fisheries are to bring the national fisheries legislation closer to the European Union (EU Common Fisheries Policy (CFP and to set up the administrative capacity and institutional building needed to cope with EU accession in 2007. In June 2001, Romania completed negotiations with EU in the area of fisheries, accepting the entire acquis communautaire without requesting any derogation or transition periods. The European Fisheries Fund will support Romania as a new EU Member State to develop a competitive, modern and dynamic fisheries sector, based on sustainable fishing and aquaculture activities, while also taking account of other important aspects such as environmental protection, the demands of the consumers and the food industry. The program is also expected to increase the competitiveness of the fisheries sector, encourage job creation and promote the growth of the aquaculture industry. The paper shows some aspects about Romanian fishery policy, an important opportunity for development research in fishery in fresh water from Banat region. Also, it is presents some research results about using the cereal feeding as fish’s nutrition, in special for common carp.

  3. Effect of ground fenugreek seeds (Trigonella foenum-graecum on feed consumption and milk performance in Anatolian water buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Degirmencioglu

    2016-08-01

    matter (13.17–14.00 kg day−1 (P < 0.05 and daily concentrated feed consumption (2.90–3.81 kg day−1 (P < 0.01 and significantly increased milk production (7.34–8.01 kg day−1 (P < 0.01 in Anatolian water buffaloes (AWBs. In future work, the use of other herbs in AWB may be investigated.

  4. 40 CFR 63.988 - Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bed. (3) Where a boiler or process heater of less than 44 megawatts (150 million British thermal units... heaters. 63.988 Section 63.988 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Routing to a Fuel Gas System or a Process § 63.988 Incinerators, boilers, and process heaters....

  5. Heater size effect on subcooled pool boiling of FC-72

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Rishi; Kim, Jungho [University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    Extensive research has been conducted on pool boiling using heaters larger than the capillary length. For large heaters and/or high gravity conditions, boiling is dominated by buoyancy, and the heat transfer is heater size independent. Much less is known about boiling on small heaters and at low gravity levels. The ratio of heater size L{sub h} to capillary length L{sub c} is an important parameter in the determination of heater size dependence on heat transfer. As the ratio L{sub h}/L{sub c} decreases due to a decrease in either heater size or gravity, surface tension forces become dominant. It is proposed that transition from buoyancy to surface tension dominated boiling occurs when the heater size and bubble departure diameter are of the same order. Previous work in variable gravity with flat surfaces has shown that the heat transfer was heater size independent only when the ratio L{sub h}/L{sub c} was considerably larger than 1. An array of 96 platinum resistance heater elements in a 10 x 10 configuration with individual elements 0.7 x 0.7 mm{sup 2} in size was used to vary heater size and measure the heat transfer. The threshold value of L{sub h}/L{sub c} above which pool boiling is heater size independent was found to be about 2.8. (author)

  6. 46 CFR 111.70-5 - Heater circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heater circuits. 111.70-5 Section 111.70-5 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Motor Circuits, Controllers, and Protection § 111.70-5 Heater circuits. (a) If an enclosure for a... from a separate circuit, the heater circuit must be disconnected from its source of potential by...

  7. Culturable bacterial diversity from a feed water of a reverse osmosis system, evaluation of biofilm formation and biocontrol using phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgini, D R B; Dias, R S; Siqueira, V M; Valadares, L A B; Albanese, J M; Souza, R S; Torres, A P R; Sousa, M P; Silva, C C; De Paula, S O; Oliveira, V M

    2014-10-01

    Biofilm formation on reverse osmosis (RO) systems represents a drawback in the application of this technology by different industries, including oil refineries. In RO systems the feed water maybe a source of microbial contamination and thus contributes for the formation of biofilm and consequent biofouling. In this study the planktonic culturable bacterial community was characterized from a feed water of a RO system and their capacities were evaluated to form biofilm in vitro. Bacterial motility and biofilm control were also analysed using phages. As results, diverse Protobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were identified. Alphaproteobacteria was the predominant group and Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium the most abundant genera. Among the 30 isolates, 11 showed at least one type of motility and 11 were classified as good biofilm formers. Additionally, the influence of non-specific bacteriophage in the bacterial biofilms formed in vitro was investigated by action of phages enzymes or phage infection. The vB_AspP-UFV1 (Podoviridae) interfered in biofilm formation of most tested bacteria and may represent a good alternative in biofilm control. These findings provide important information about the bacterial community from the feed water of a RO system that may be used for the development of strategies for biofilm prevention and control in such systems.

  8. Preliminary study of acceleration based sensor to record nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at water surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subakti, Aji; Khotimah, Zarah F.; Darozat, Fajar M.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the acceleration based sensor was developed to monitor the activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at the water surface. This study was conducted for three weeks in a fish pond with 40 m2 in size, stocked with 850 fingerlings of Nile tilapia strain Nirwana-2 (average biomass of 13 g, fed four times a day at 8 am, 12 pm, 4 pm, and 8 pm). The acceleration sensor system was installed floating in the pond and was designed in a way so that the xz plane of the sensor will be parallel with water surface, while the y-axis will be pointing downward. By sensing the acceleration caused by the surface wave, the activities of fish near surface water could be monitored. The result showed that there were three distinctive patterns could be observed which was related to the feeding activity of fish. Generally, it can be concluded that this acceleration based sensor system can be integrated with automatic feeder machine, in particular by analyzing the recorded patter, it is possible to monitor when the fish stop eating, and so the right amount of feed could be given to the fish.

  9. Effects of dietary fiber and feeding frequency on ruminal fermentation, digesta water-holding capacity, and fractional turnover of contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froetschel, M A; Amos, H E

    1991-03-01

    To determine the effects of different sources of fiber and feeding frequency on digesta water-holding capacity (WHC; g H2O/g DM) and ruminal liquid contents, four ruminally fistulated Jersey steers were fed a 60:40 roughage-concentrate diet at 1.5 times NEm. Diets contained either sorghum silage (SS) or a 67:33 mixture of SS and soyhulls (SH) as roughage and were fed either once or 12 times daily, in a 2 x 2 factorial experiment with 15-d periods. Ruminal fluid was sampled at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 20, and 24 h after a dose of Co-EDTA on d 10 and analyzed for Co, VFA, ammonia, buffering capacity, and osmolality. Ruminal WHC, NDF, ADF, lignin, and starch were measured in samples obtained by ruminal evacuation at 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after feeding on d 11, 12, 14, and 15, respectively. Substitution of SH for SS decreased ruminal pH .32 units and dilution rate by 26.8% but increased total VFA by 10.9%, osmolality by 13.6%, and the fractional turnover rate (FTR) of ADF by 22.5% (P less than .05). Frequent feeding resulted in 4.7, 21.9, and 74.4% increases in total VFA and FTR of ruminal DM and starch (P less than .05), respectively. Interactions (P less than .05) were observed between dietary fiber source and feeding frequency for ruminal fluid molar percentage acetate to propionate ratio (A/P), liquid volume (evacuated), and WHC (kilograms). Substituting SH for SS decreased ruminal WHC (kilograms), liquid volume, and A/P only in steers fed once daily. Ruminal WHC (kilograms) was correlated positively with ruminal liquid volume but negatively with DM FTR. The dynamics of digesta WHC (kilograms) associated with dietary fiber source and feeding frequency suggest that it may influence the contribution of water and salivary secretions to ruminal liquid contents.

  10. Materials for a Stirling engine heater head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, J. E.; Lehmann, G. A.; Emigh, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    Work done on the 25-kW advanced Stirling conversion system (ASCS) terrestrial solar program in establishing criteria and selecting materials for the engine heater head and heater tubes is described. Various mechanisms contributing to incompatibility between materials are identified and discussed. Large thermal gradients, coupled with requirements for long life (60,000 h at temperature) and a large number of heatup and cooldown cycles (20,000) drive the design from a structural standpoint. The pressurized cylinder is checked for creep rupture, localized yielding, reverse plasticity, creep and fatigue damage, and creep ratcheting, in addition to the basic requirements for bust and proof pressure. In general, creep rupture and creep and fatigue interaction are the dominant factors in the design. A wide range of materials for the heater head and tubes was evaluated. Factors involved in the assessment were strength and effect on engine efficiency, reliability, and cost. A preliminary selection of Inconel 713LC for the heater head is based on acceptable structural properties but driven mainly by low cost. The criteria for failure, the structural analysis, and the material characteristics with basis for selection are discussed.

  11. Feeding of the brine shrimp Artemia on yeast: effect of mechanical disturbance, animal density, water quality and light intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Coutteau, P. (Peter); Sorgeloos, P.

    1989-01-01

    Details are given of experiments conducted to determine the effects of tank culture conditions on the feeding of Artemia. Mechanical disturbance, animal density and water quality were found to affect the feeding rate of Artemia. The importance of culture conditions in maintaining a rate of food consumption which does not limit the growth of the brine shrimp is stressed.

  12. Implementing drinking water feed additive strategies in post-weaning piglets, antibiotic reduction and performance impacts: case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesonero Escuredo, Juan Antonio; van der Horst, Yvonne; Carr, John; Maes, Dominiek

    2016-01-01

    Piglets at weaning suffer many stressors such as sudden change of feed, change in group composition and the end of lactogenic immunity. These stressors may cause poor growth performance. There is a need for alternatives to support piglets during the weaning period. Organic acids are known to have a positive effect on performance through reducing the pH and their antimicrobial action. The purpose was to study the effect of the inclusion of a free and buffered organic acid blend in drinking water on performance of weaned pigs. Four-hundred and twenty pigs in a conventional herd were allocated after weaning to one of three treatments and monitored during 4 weeks: group (1) Full medication, group (2) organic acid blend + full medication, group (3) organic acid blend + reduced medication. Average daily gain, feed intake and water consumption was recorded at group level. During the overall study period live weight and average daily gain of the piglets was significantly higher (P treatment (3) compared to (1) and (2) (Table 1). Live weight was significantly higher for treatment (3) compared to (1) from week 2 of the study (Fig. 1). No significant differences were found for average daily feed intake. FCR for treatment (3) improved by 1.0 compared to treatment (1) in week 1 (P treatment (3) than for (1) and (2) (Table 1). Pigs receiving organic acids in drinking water had significantly (P water consumption than group (1) in weeks 3 and 4 (Table 2). The use of a blend of free and buffered organic acids together with a reduced medication program improves growth performance during the first month after weaning compared to a control with full medication and a combination between organic acids and full medication. This implies that organic acids could be used as a valid alternative for antibiotic reduction in post-weaning pigs. The treatment also increased the drinking water intake.

  13. EFFECT OF FENNEL WATER EXTRACTS ON REDUCTION OF FEEDING OF PEA LEAF WEEVIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Biniaś

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the effect of aqueous extracts from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. seeds at 2%, 5%, 10% and 20% concentrations on the feeding of peal leaf weevil (Sitona lineatus L. on broad bean (Vicia faba L.. The experiment was conducted in the laboratory, in six replicates. Feeding intensity assessment was conducted by dipping leaves of broad bean in respective solutions of the extracts and determining the area of broad bean leaves, eaten by pea leaf weevil beetle in the 12 hour intervals. In addition, absolute deterrence index and palatability index were calculated. As a result of the observation no significant limiting effect of fennel seed aqueous extracts on the feeding of the pea leaf weevil females was shown. All of the used fennel extracts had inhibitory effect on the feeding of male S. linetaus and the strongest effect of extracts was observed in the first 36 hours of the experiment. The high values of the palatability index (particularly for the females with relatively low absolute deterrence index, indicate limited possibilities of the use of aqueous extracts from fennel seeds for the protection against the feeding of the beetles from the genus Sitona.

  14. Total mercury in muscle tissue of five shark species from Brazilian offshore waters: effects of feeding habit, sex, and length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo de Pinho, Alexandra; Davée Guimarães, Jean Remy; Martins, Agnaldo S; Costa, P A S; Olavo, G; Valentin, Jean

    2002-07-01

    This study was carried out to assess mercury levels in fish from Brazilian offshore waters. Generally sharks have relatively high mercury levels which are also affected by diet, age (associated with length), and sex. Total mercury levels were determined in five shark species with different habits (Carcharhinus signatus, Mustelus canis, Mustelus norrisi, Squalus megalops, and Squalus mitsukurii) which were collected during 1997 in southern Brazil's offshore waters. The highest mercury concentrations, all above the limit established by Brazilian legislation (0.5 microg.g(-1)), were detected in piscivorous species (C. signatus, S. megalops, and S. mitsukurii) with averages of 1.77+/-0.56, 1.9+/-0.58, and 2.22+/- 0.72 microg.g(-1), respectively, while species that feed mainly on invertebrates (M. canis and M. norrisi) had averages of 0.41+/-0.35 and 0.36+/-0.28 microg.g(-1). These results indicate that feeding habits influence total mercury level in sharks. Methylmercury (as a percentage of total mercury) determined in S. mitsukurii and M. canis also showed an influence of feeding habit. Positive correlations between mercury concentration and length were statistically significant (Pmercury levels were generally higher in males than in females for all species (with the exception of S. mitsukurii), a statistically significant correlation was observed only for M. canis.

  15. Impact of seasonal variation and feeding on reproductive behavior of fresh water spiny eel Mastacembelus armatus from Cauvery River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Venkatachalam Uthayakumar; Parathattil Rathan Sreedevi; Dhanapalan Senthilkumar; Subramanian Munirasu; Aathi Kiruba; Venkatachalam Ramasubramanian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effect of seasonal variation and nutritional factors over the fecundity, gonado somatic index (GSI) and sperm motility of fresh water spiny eel Mastacembelus armatus (M. armatus) under artificial cave fitted tanks in laboratory condition. Methods: Forty pairs of M. armatus were collected from River Cauvery and are acclimated under lab condition. The fishes were fed with three different feeds like Fresh water prawns, earthworms and fish larvae for 60 days. Fecundity, sperm motility, Length weight relationship and GSI were analysed using standard procedures. Results: The fecundity rate was increased when body weight and gonad weight increased. The lograthemic relationship of the fecundity-total length and fecundity-body weight were found to be more correlated than the fecundity-gonad weight relationship. Maximum GSI was recorded in both male and female fishes during the breeding season (June-October). The condition factor (K) was maximum at the non breeding seasons and reduced in peak breeding season of M. armatus. In male fishes the sperm motility was recorded maximum (70%-85%) in the breeding season and regressed gradually to 0-15%. Among the feeding groups earthworm fed group showed higher body weight and fecundity rate than the control group which was statistically significant at P <0.05 level. Conclusion: The outcome of the present study shows the seasonal variation and feeding increase the reproductive performance. It can be effectively used for the healthy brooder selection, captive breeding and conservation of M. armatus.

  16. Boiler Feed Water/Makeup Water Automatic Control Design and Application%锅炉供水/补水自动控制设计及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万全福

    2014-01-01

    The improvement of the backward electrical facilities in the water supply system of industrial hot water boilers in the forest area can realize such functions as constant pressure automatic water feed / water makeup,automatic water discharge in case of overpressure and automatic alarms as well as a high automation degree and easy maintenance.%林区工业热水锅炉供水系统的电气设施落后,改进后使其具有了恒压自动供水/补水、超压自动泄水、自动报警等功能,并且自动化程度高,维护方便。

  17. Improving performance of electrostatic heater-theaters for light crude doped heavy crude; A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Ray, S.; Rai, R. [Institute of Oil and Gas Production Technology, New Bombay (India)

    1995-12-31

    Crude oil treatment systems for heavy oil assume paramount importance due to the difficult nature of emulsions formed and presence of water in the form of small droplets. With the aging of heavy oil fields, operating under active water drive, water content in the emulsion produced increases substantially. This has a direct impact on heater-treater performance and treated crude quality. A typical problem is discussed in this paper where the gradual increase in emulsion production over a period of time in heavy oil belts of ONGC have affected the electrostatic heater-treater performance, treating light crude doped heavy crude, resulting in increased BS&W (basic sediments and water) in the treated crude. Critical levels of water cut in both heavy and light crudes have been identified beyond which the existing emulsion treating system becomes ineffective. Analysis have also been carried out to identify optimum mixing proportion which result in the most effective demulsification.

  18. Feeding ecology of marine birds in the nearshore waters of Kodiak Island: Final report to the Outer Continental Shelf Environmental Assessment Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The feeding habits of marine birds in the nearshore waters of Kodiak Island were studied during winter 1976-1977 and February 1978 and during summer 1977 and 1978....

  19. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  20. Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, aggregate around offshore platforms in Qatari waters of the Arabian Gulf to feed on fish spawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, David P; Jaidah, Mohammed Y; Jabado, Rima W; Lee-Brooks, Katie; Nour El-Din, Nehad M; Al Malki, Ameena A; Elmeer, Khaled; McCormick, Paul A; Henderson, Aaron C; Pierce, Simon J; Ormond, Rupert F G

    2013-01-01

    Whale sharks, Rhincodon typus, are known to aggregate to feed in a small number of locations in tropical and subtropical waters. Here we document a newly discovered major aggregation site for whale sharks within the Al Shaheen oil field, 90 km off the coast of Qatar in the Arabian Gulf. Whale sharks were observed between April and September, with peak numbers observed between May and August. Density estimates of up to 100 sharks within an area of 1 km(2) were recorded. Sharks ranged between four and eight metres' estimated total length (mean 6.92 ± 1.53 m). Most animals observed were actively feeding on surface zooplankton, consisting primarily of mackerel tuna, Euthynnus affinis, eggs.

  1. 空气源热泵在学生公寓的热水改造工程中的应用%Application of Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater to Reconstruction Project of Domestic Hot Water in Student Apartment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何绪春

    2012-01-01

    The domestic water-heating system with gas-fired boiler of a college apartment in Chongqing was discussed.The reconstruction plans concerning air-source heat pump heating system and solar assisted air-source heat system were processed and discussed respectively after the analysis on daily hot water load.Compared with the original water-heating system,the annual operating costs of solar heating systems would be the lowest.%以重庆某学校采用燃气锅炉房作为热源的洗浴热水加热系统作为研究对象。对热水系统日用热量进行了分析。对原加热系统提出两种改造方案:空气源热泵加热系统、太阳能辅助空气源加热系统,探讨了这两种加热系统的系统流程,与原加热系统的年运行费用进行了比较,太阳能加热系统的年运行费用最低。

  2. Modelling Water Level Influence on Habitat Choice and Food Availability for Zostera Feeding Brent Geese Branta bernicla in Non-Tidal Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P.

    2000-01-01

    Brent geese Branta bernicla spring fattening around Agero, Denmark, alternate between feeding on saltmarshes and submerged Zostera beds in Limfjorden. It appeared from field observations that these alternations depended on the water level in Limfjorden. A model was developed to assess the impact ......). The models presented may be considered as tools in investigations of habitat use and carrying capacity of seagrass beds in non-tidal areas, where birds' access to feeding areas regularly may be hindered by high water levels....

  3. Eleana near-surface heater experiment final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lappin, A R; Thomas, R K; McVey, D F

    1981-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a near-surface heater experiment operated at a depth of 23 m in argillite within the Eleana Formation on the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test geometrically simulated emplacement of a single canister of High-Level Waste (HLW) and was operated at a power level of 2.5 kW for 21 days, followed by 3.8 kW to 250 days, when the power was turned off. Below 85 to 100{sup 0}C, there was good agreement between modeled and measured thermal results in the rock and in the emplacement hole, except for transient transport of water in the heater hole. Above 100{sup 0}C, modeled and measured thermal results increasingly diverged, indicating that the in-situ rock-mass thermal conductivity decreased as a result of dehydration more than expected on the basis of matrix properties. Correlation of thermomechanical modeling and field results suggests that this decrease was caused by strong coupling of thermal and mechanical behavior of the argillite at elevated temperatures. No hole-wall decrepitation was observed in the experiment; this fact and the codrrelation of modeled and measured results at lower temperatures indicate that there is no a priori reason to eliminate argillaceous rocks from further consideration as a host rock for nuclear wastes.

  4. A micro solar heater for portable energy generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Raúl; Morrison, Graham; The, Owen; Rosengarten, Gary

    2007-12-01

    This study presents a new concept that combines microtechnology with solar thermal energy to provide a free portable energy source. A water-methanol mixture flows through an array of parallel microchannels which are fabricated into a silicon matrix using conventional micro-fabrication techniques. A vacuum layer is interposed between the channels and the external surface to thermally insulate the channels from the ambient temperature. A selective coating is deposited on one of the vacuum walls to absorb the short wavelength incoming radiation and reduce the long wavelength radiation, hence reducing the heat losses. A geometry and material optimization is still being developed in order to obtain the highest possible efficiency for the micro-heater, while keeping a low pressure drop in the micro-channels. The methanol outlet temperature is predicted to be higher than 250°C. This temperature is required for hydrogen production in a methanol reforming micro-reactor. Therefore, it is envisaged that the micro-solar heater will supply the thermal energy needed for hydrogen generation, that can later be used as fuel for microfuel cells. Both technologies can be integrated in a portable device.

  5. An assessment of efficient water heating options for an all-electric single family residence in a mixed-humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balke, Elizabeth C; Healy, William M; Ullah, Tania

    2016-12-01

    An evaluation of a variety of efficient water heating strategies for an all-electric single family home located in a mixed-humid climate is conducted using numerical modeling. The strategies considered include various combinations of solar thermal, heat pump, and electric resistance water heaters. The numerical model used in the study is first validated against a year of field data obtained on a dual-tank system with a solar thermal preheat tank feeding a heat pump water heater that serves as a backup. Modeling results show that this configuration is the most efficient of the systems studied over the course of a year, with a system coefficient of performance (COPsys) of 2.87. The heat pump water heater alone results in a COPsys of 1.9, while the baseline resistance water heater has a COPsys of 0.95. Impacts on space conditioning are also investigated by considering the extra energy consumption required of the air source heat pump to remove or add heat from the conditioned space by the water heating system. A modified COPsys that incorporates the heat pump energy consumption shows a significant drop in efficiency for the dual tank configuration since the heat pump water heater draws the most heat from the space in the heating season while the high temperatures in the solar storage tank during the cooling season result in an added heat load to the space. Despite this degradation in the COPsys, the combination of the solar thermal preheat tank and the heat pump water heater is the most efficient option even when considering the impacts on space conditioning.

  6. Effects of Animal Feeding Operations on Water Resources and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    meal, meat/bone meal, tapioca, maize grits) from 57 feed mills. Among the isolated bacteria, the most frequent serotype was Salmonella hadar. Harris...their first year of operation. One basin (site A), located at a small dairy farm, holds a manure- silage mixture, milkhouse wastewater, and local runoff

  7. Effects of water extracts from chicory and BHT on the in vitro rumen degradation of feeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Butyl-Hydroxyl-Toluene (BHT and of Red Chicory Extract (RCE on kinetics of gas production (GP and rumen degradability values (OMd, NDFd and in vitro true OM degradability - IVTOMD of two feeds (meadow hay and corn meal were evaluated using an in vitro automatic batch system. For each feed 2 increasing dosages (0.15 and 1.5 mg/g of feed of BHT and RCE and a Control (C were tested in 4 replications and 2 incubations. First incubation lasted 72h, the 2nd one was stopped at the times on which half of GP was produced (t½, which were 9 and 16 h for corn and hay, respectively. From the supernatants of the 2nd incubation, VFA, NH3, N content of the residual NDF were analysed and the microbial N balance was computed. The 2 feeds significantly affected rumen fermentation parameters; BHT significantly increased asymptotic GP, t½ and IVTOMD (P<0.01, decreased the proportion of butyrate (P<0.01 but did not affect microbial N balance; RCE did not influence any of the parameters measured with respect to C, except for a significant increase of the estimated N available for microbes at the higher dosage.

  8. 全玻璃真空管式太阳热水器热性能研究(一) ——计算模型及计算结果%Thermal Performance Study on All-Glass Evacuated Tubular Water Heaters(一) ——model of calculation and results of calculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋爱国

    2001-01-01

    A synthetic model of calculation which include solar radiationmodel and receiving energy model and daily efficiency model and instandaneous efficiency model are introduced for analyzing thermal performance of all-glass evacuated tubular water heaters,and results of calculation are obtained.%为了系统、全面地分析全玻璃真空管式太阳热水器(以下简称真空管式太阳热水器)的热性能,提出了包括阳光模型、真空管采集能量模型以及日平均效率、瞬时效率计算模型在内的一个综合的计算模型,并对真空管式太阳热水器的热性能进行了计算.

  9. Cultivation of rice for animal feed with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater for enhanced nitrogen removal: comparison of cultivation systems feeding irrigation water upward and downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, A; Ito, H; Sasaki, A; Kajihara, A; Watanabe, T

    2015-01-01

    To achieve enhanced nitrogen removal, we modified a cultivation system with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater by using rice for animal feed instead of human consumption. The performance of this modified system was evaluated through a bench-scale experiment by comparing the direction of circulated irrigation (i.e. passing through paddy soil upward and downward). The modified system achieved more than three times higher nitrogen removal (3.2 g) than the system in which rice for human consumption was cultivated. The removal efficiency was higher than 99.5%, regardless of the direction of circulated irrigation. Nitrogen in the treated municipal wastewater was adsorbed by the rice plant in this cultivation system as effectively as chemical fertilizer used in normal paddy fields. Circulated irrigation increased the nitrogen released to the atmosphere, probably due to enhanced denitrification. Neither the circulation of irrigation water nor its direction affected the growth of the rice plant and the yield and quality of harvested rice. The yield of rice harvested in this system did not reach the target value in normal paddy fields. To increase this yield, a larger amount of treated wastewater should be applied to the system, considering the significant amount of nitrogen released to the atmosphere.

  10. Large eddy simulation of combustion instability in a tripropellant air heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lei; Shen, Chibing

    2016-12-01

    This research is motivated by the issue associated with high frequency combustion instability. Large eddy simulation was performed to investigate spontaneous combustion instability in an air/LO2/C2H5OH tripropellant air heater. The simulation predicts self-excited transverse oscillations. Overall behavior of combustion instability including pressure time histories, mode shapes, Rayleigh index and unsteady response of the injector were studied in detail. Special emphasis was given to the flame behavior, droplet trajectories, pressure evolutions, and formation of large-scale vortical structures during combustion instability in present air heater. Furthermore, in contrast to previous investigations, a new process is identified in the simulation that may feed energy into the acoustic mode and drive combustion instability.

  11. 农户购买太阳能热水器行为的影响因素分析--基于鄱阳湖生态经济区1500户农户数据%Factors Affecting Farmers in Buying Solar Water Heaters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王火根; 李娜

    2016-01-01

    以江西鄱阳湖生态经济区1500户农户的调研数据为基础,建立二元Logistic模型实证分析农户购买太阳能热水器行为的影响因素。研究结果表明:农户家庭年收入、离城镇的距离、村经济发展水平、村所在的地理环境与木柴的可获得性程度对农户购买太阳能热水器的影响显著,家庭收入来源与农户的年龄对农户购买太阳能热水器的影响不显著。为推动太阳能热水器在农村地区的广泛应用,政府应加强宣传,发展农村经济与制定有效的产业扶持政策等。%Promotion of solar water heaters can change the rural energy consumption structure,decrease the consumption of conventional energy and the dependence on traditional energy,thus reducing greenhouse gas emissions,which helps to protect rural ecological environment and improve farmers’ life quality and their living standard.This paper,with the help of Logistic model,analyzed the factors influencing farmers’use of solar water heaters based on data collected of 1500 farmers in Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone. The results show that education,family income,distance from the town and village economic development level are significant positive factors while the effect of the geographical surroundings of the village and availability of wood was not significant.Besides,source of income and age are insignificant factors.

  12. Solar Air Heaters with Thermal Heat Storages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Saxena

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy can be converted into different forms of energy, either to thermal energy or to electrical energy. Solar energy is converted directly into electrical power by photovoltaic modules, while solar collector converts solar energy into thermal energy. Solar collector works by absorbing the direct solar radiation and converting it into thermal energy, which can be stored in the form of sensible heat or latent heat or a combination of sensible and latent heats. A theoretical study has been carried out to rate the various thermal energy storage commonly used in solar air heaters. During the investigations rock bed storages have been found to be low type thermal heat storage, while phase change materials have been found to be high heat thermal storages. Besides this, a few other heat storing materials have been studied and discussed for lower to higher ratings in terms of thermal performance purposely for solar heaters.

  13. Single-heater test final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, S. C.; Buscheck, T. A.; DeLoach, L. D.; Lin, W.; Ramirez, A. I.

    1998-09-01

    The Single-Heater Test (SHT) was one phase of the field-scale thermal testing program of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. The primary purpose of the SHT was to study the thermomechanical (TM) behavior of the densely welded, non-lithophysal Topopah Spring tuff at the Exploratory Studies Facility. The SHT was also used as a shake-down for testing thermal-hydrologic-chemical-mechanical processes in situ, testing that will be conducted in the Drift-Scale Test. In the SHT, a line-heat source 5-m long was emplaced in a pillar and used to heat the pillar for approximately nine months. The thermal field was relatively cylindrical about the line-heat source. The heater was turned off after nine months of heating, and the rock mass was monitored during the cool-down for another nine months, until May 28, 1997, when the test was terminated.

  14. Firebox modeling of SRT cracking heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, K.M.; Albano, J.V. [ABB Lummus Crest Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Thermal cracking of hydrocarbons remains the most economically attractive route for the production of ethylene. The heat for the endothermic cracking reaction is supplied in high capacity fired heaters which are designed specifically to have high selectivity to olefins. In the cracking process, coke is deposited within the tubes of the radiant coil. The rate of coke deposition in a cracking furnace is a function not only of process conditions but of other factors as well. High tube metal temperatures in certain areas of the coil or hot spots can cause locally high coking rate leading to partial blockage of the tubes and consequently, short runs. The small diameter tubes used in modern high selectivity heaters are more sensitive than older large tube designs. The occurrence of these hot zones is a strong function of fireside conditions. For satisfactory performance, the heat flux profile in a cracking heater must be maintained as uniform as possible. In addition, it is important to minimize the variation of process temperatures entering the various cracking coils. These fireside variables are not only a function of the type of burners, excess air, type of fuel(s) and distribution of air and fuel but depend significantly on the air and flue gas flow patterns associated with the firebox, i.e., the firebox aerodynamics. Poor aerodynamics can adversely affect firing patterns and hence heat flux profiles in commercial furnaces. A variety of modeling techniques have been used to evaluate the firebox aerodynamics of Lummus, Short Residence Time, cracking heaters. These include flow visualization, physical cold flow modeling, and computational techniques. These approaches are discussed in this paper.

  15. Control of heat transfer in continuous-feeding Czochralski-silicon crystal growth with a water-cooled jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhan; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The continuous-feeding Czochralski method is an effective method to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon. By promoting the crystal growth rate, the cost can be reduced further. However, more latent heat will be released at the melt-crystal interface under a high crystal growth rate. In this study, a water-cooled jacket was applied to enhance the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Quasi-steady-state numerical calculation was employed to investigate the impact of the water-cooled jacket on the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Latent heat released during the crystal growth process at the melt-crystal interface and absorbed during feedstock melting at the feeding zone was modeled in the simulations. The results show that, by using the water-cooled jacket, heat transfer in the growing crystal is enhanced significantly. Melt-crystal interface deflection and thermal stress increase simultaneously due to the increase of radial temperature at the melt-crystal interface. With a modified heat shield design, heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface is well controlled. The crystal growth rate can be increased by 20%.

  16. Ecological effects of scrubber water discharge on coastal plankton: Potential synergistic effects of contaminants reduce survival and feeding of the copepod Acartia tonsa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koski, Marja; Stedmon, Colin; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    and hydrocarbons. We investigated 1) the threshold concentrations of scrubber discharge water for survival, feeding and reproduction of the copepod Acartia tonsa, 2) whether the effects depend on the exposure route and 3) whether exposure to discharge water can be detected in field-collected organisms. A direct...... exposure to discharge water increased adult copepod mortality and reduced feeding at metal concentrations which were orders of magnitude lower than the lethal concentrations in previous single-metal studies. In contrast, reproduction was not influenced by dietary uptake of contaminants. Scrubber water...

  17. Development of Multi-Stage Steam Injector for Feedwater Heaters in Simplified Nuclear Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Ohmori, Shuichi; Mori, Michitsugu; Asanuma, Yutaka; Iwaki, Chikako

    A steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact and passive pump and also acts as a high-performance direct-contact compact heater to heat up feedwater by using extracted steam from the turbine. To develop high performance compact feedwater heater, it is necessary to quantify the characteristics between physical properties of the flow field. Its performance depends on the phenomena of steam condensation onto the water jet surface and heat transfer in the water jet due to turbulence on to the phase-interface. The analysis was conducted by using CFD code embedded separate two-phase flow models that were confirmed by the experimental data. As the four-stage SI is compact heater, the system is expected to bring about great simplification and materials-saving effects, and high reliability of its operation. Therefore, it is confirmed that the simplification of the power plant by replacing all low-pressure feedwater heaters with the four-stage SI system, having steam extraction pressures equal to those for the existing ABWR system.

  18. Heater Validation for the NEXT-C Hollow Cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Timothy R.; Soulas, George C.; Mackey, Jonathan Ar.

    2017-01-01

    Swaged cathode heaters whose design was successfully demonstrated under a prior flight project are to be provided by the NASA Glenn Research Center for the NEXT-C ion thruster being fabricated by Aerojet Rocketdyne. Extensive requalification activities were performed to validate process controls that had to be re-established or revised because systemic changes prevented reuse of the past approaches. A development batch of heaters was successfully fabricated based on the new process controls. Acceptance and cyclic life testing of multiple discharge and neutralizer sized heaters extracted from the development batch was initiated in August, 2016, with the last heater completing testing in April, 2017. Cyclic life testing results substantially exceeded the NEXT-C thruster requirement as well as all past experience for GRC fabricated units. The heaters demonstrated ultimate cyclic life capability of 19050 to 33500 cycles. A qualification batch of heaters is now being fabricated using the finalized process controls. A set of six heaters will be acceptance and cyclic tested to verify conformance to the behavior observed with the development heaters. The heaters for flight use will be then be provided to the contractor. This paper summarizes the fabrication process control activities and the acceptance and life testing of the development heater units.

  19. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific

    OpenAIRE

    Mejía-Falla Paola A; Navia Andrés F; Giraldo Alan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found i...

  20. Insulated conductor temperature limited heater for subsurface heating coupled in a three-phase WYE configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Sandberg, Chester Ledlie (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A heating system for a subsurface formation is described. The heating system includes a first heater, a second heater, and a third heater placed in an opening in the subsurface formation. Each heater includes: an electrical conductor; an insulation layer at least partially surrounding the electrical conductor; and an electrically conductive sheath at least partially surrounding the insulation layer. The electrical conductor is electrically coupled to the sheath at a lower end portion of the heater. The lower end portion is the portion of the heater distal from a surface of the opening. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are electrically coupled at the lower end portions of the heaters. The first heater, the second heater, and the third heater are configured to be electrically coupled in a three-phase wye configuration.

  1. Impact of kerosene space heaters on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanoune, B; Carteret, M

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, the use of kerosene space heaters as additional or principal heat source has been increasing, because these heaters allow a continuous control on the energy cost. These devices are unvented, and all combustion products are released into the room where the heaters are operated. The indoor air quality of seven private homes using wick-type or electronic injection-type kerosene space heaters was investigated. Concentrations of CO, CO2, NOx, formaldehyde and particulate matter (0.02-10 μm) were measured, using time-resolved instruments when available. All heaters tested are significant sources of submicron particles, NOx and CO2. The average NO2 and CO2 concentrations are determined by the duration of use of the kerosene heaters. These results stress the need to regulate the use of unvented combustion appliances to decrease the exposure of people to air contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of feeding and short-term fasting on water and electrolyte turnover in female mink (Mustela vison).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wamberg, S; Tauson, A H; Elnif, J

    1996-11-01

    Daily (24 h) rates of water and electrolyte turnover were measured in a conventional balance study in ten adult female pastel mink (Mustela vison) given free access to a standard mink feed for a 1-week conditioning period, followed by a 4 d experimental period and a 2 d fasting period. Drinking water was available throughout. In addition, the completeness of urine collection and the fraction of urine collected with the faeces were determined using a new experimental technique based on 24 h recoveries of specific urinary markers such as tritiated p-aminohippuric acid ([3H]PAH) or 14C-labelled inulin ([14C]IN) continuously delivered by small Alzet osmotic pumps implanted intraperitoneally. During feeding the mean individual percentage recovery in urine of [3H]PAH released from the osmotic pumps ranged from 68 to 88% (median 78%). The mean percentage of urinary [3H]PAH recovered from faecal collections was 6% (range 3-12%). In response to fasting the mean individual percentage recovery of [3H]PAH in urine ranged from 62 to 78% (median 68%). For urinary [14C]IN the mean percentage recoveries in fed and fasted animals were 79 and 63% respectively. Furthermore, during fasting, withdrawal of the supplies of dietary water caused a slight but insignificant (P = 0.17) increase in the daily intake of drinking water and, hence, the animals maintained their normal water balance by a dramatic reduction in urine excretion (P < 0.001). At the same time urinary solute excretion declined significantly (P < 0.001), due in part to the cessation of dietary electrolyte intake and in part to reduced formation of urea, whereas urinary osmolality decreased only moderately. The mean 24 h balances of Na, K, Ca, Mg, Cl and P were close to zero and only minor differences between the feeding and fasting periods were observed. When corrected for the measured inaccuracies in urine collection the balance data obtained in the present study represent useful reference standards for normally fed and

  3. Effect of Pressure, Feed Rate, and Abrasive Mass Flow Rate on Water Jet Cutting Efficiency When Cutting Recombinant Bamboo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongrong Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The impact of varying pressure, feed rate, and abrasive mass flow rate on the efficiency of an abrasive water jet cutting process was studied in this work. Recombinant bamboo samples with thicknesses of 5, 10, and 15 mm were cut by the abrasive water jet. The upper kerf width, lower kerf width, and the ratio of the upper kerf width to lower kerf width were chosen as the efficiency parameters. Mathematical models were developed to describe the relationship between the input process parameters and the efficiency parameters. The arrangement of experiments and analysis of results were performed based on response surface methodology. The evaluated model yielded predictions in agreement with experimental results.

  4. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Flint

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first comprehensive examination of long-haul cattle being transported across Canada and off-loaded for feed, water and rest. A total of 129 truckloads were observed at one of two commercial rest stations near Thunder Bay, Ontario. Data collected included information regarding the truck driver, the trailer, the trip, the animals and animal handling. The majority of the loads stopping were feeder calves (60.94% while 21.09% were weaned calves, and the remaining 14.84% were market weight cattle. The truck loads surveyed were in transit for, on average, 28.2 ± 5.0 hours before stopping and cattle were rested for an average of 11.2 ± 2.8 hours. These data suggest that loads stopping at the rest station were adhering to the regulations stated in the Health of Animals Act, which outline a maximum of 48 hours in transit before a mandatory stop of at least 5 hours for feed, water and rest. There was a large amount of variability around how well recommendations, such as stocking density were followed. Further research is required to assess how well cattle are coping with long-distance transport under current regulations and industry practices.

  5. Characteristics of Loads of Cattle Stopping for Feed, Water and Rest during Long-Distance Transport in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Hannah E; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, Karen S; Bateman, Ken G; Haley, Derek B

    2014-03-05

    This study is the first comprehensive examination of long-haul cattle being transported across Canada and off-loaded for feed, water and rest. A total of 129 truckloads were observed at one of two commercial rest stations near Thunder Bay, Ontario. Data collected included information regarding the truck driver, the trailer, the trip, the animals and animal handling. The majority of the loads stopping were feeder calves (60.94%) while 21.09% were weaned calves, and the remaining 14.84% were market weight cattle. The truck loads surveyed were in transit for, on average, 28.2 ± 5.0 hours before stopping and cattle were rested for an average of 11.2 ± 2.8 hours. These data suggest that loads stopping at the rest station were adhering to the regulations stated in the Health of Animals Act, which outline a maximum of 48 hours in transit before a mandatory stop of at least 5 hours for feed, water and rest. There was a large amount of variability around how well recommendations, such as stocking density were followed. Further research is required to assess how well cattle are coping with long-distance transport under current regulations and industry practices.

  6. A feed-forward Hopfield neural network algorithm (FHNNA) with a colour satellite image for water quality mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asal Kzar, Ahmed; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Hwee San, Lim; Al-Zuky, Ali A.; Mutter, Kussay N.; Hassan Al-Saleh, Anwar

    2016-06-01

    There are many techniques that have been given for water quality problem, but the remote sensing techniques have proven their success, especially when the artificial neural networks are used as mathematical models with these techniques. Hopfield neural network is one type of artificial neural networks which is common, fast, simple, and efficient, but it when it deals with images that have more than two colours such as remote sensing images. This work has attempted to solve this problem via modifying the network that deals with colour remote sensing images for water quality mapping. A Feed-forward Hopfield Neural Network Algorithm (FHNNA) was modified and used with a satellite colour image from type of Thailand earth observation system (THEOS) for TSS mapping in the Penang strait, Malaysia, through the classification of TSS concentrations. The new algorithm is based essentially on three modifications: using HNN as feed-forward network, considering the weights of bitplanes, and non-self-architecture or zero diagonal of weight matrix, in addition, it depends on a validation data. The achieved map was colour-coded for visual interpretation. The efficiency of the new algorithm has found out by the higher correlation coefficient (R=0.979) and the lower root mean square error (RMSE=4.301) between the validation data that were divided into two groups. One used for the algorithm and the other used for validating the results. The comparison was with the minimum distance classifier. Therefore, TSS mapping of polluted water in Penang strait, Malaysia, can be performed using FHNNA with remote sensing technique (THEOS). It is a new and useful application of HNN, so it is a new model with remote sensing techniques for water quality mapping which is considered important environmental problem.

  7. Impact of using raw or fermented manure as fish feed on microbial quality of water and fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagham Elsaidy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microbial water and fish quality was assessed due to feeding of chicken manure (CM and fermented chicken manure (FCM to fish in ponds, using Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus which were classified into 7 groups (G. Each group received different mixtures of CM or FCM with fish ration (FR, 0:100, 25:75, 50:50 and 100:0 (%CM or FCM:% FR. The obtained results revealed that total bacterial count (TBC and total coliform count (TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 in CM than both FCM and fish ration (FR. Escherichia coli and Salmonella were isolated from CM but not from FCM or FR. Additionally, TBC and TCC were significantly high at P ⩽ 0.05 at water and fish samples raised at CM ponds followed by FCM ponds in comparison with FR. Both E. coli and Salmonella were isolated from water and fish raised in ponds receiving either CM or FCM with higher incidence in those with CM. However all water and fish samples examined were free from E-coli O157: H7. The obtained results, proved the influence of CM on water and fish quality and recommend the use of FCM as a bacteriologically safe fish pond fertilizer.

  8. Thermodynamic optimisation of a boiler feed water desalination plant / Philippus Johannes van der Walt

    OpenAIRE

    Van der Walt, Philippus Johannes

    2014-01-01

    In the process of electricity generation, water is used as the working fluid to transport energy from the fuel to the turbine. This water has to be ultrapure in order to reduce maintenance cost on the boilers. For the production of ultrapure water, a desalination process is used. This process consists of an ultrafiltration pretreatment section, two reverse osmosis stages and a continuous electrodeionisation stage. Reverse osmosis desalination plants are, however, inherently inefficient wit...

  9. Microbial Challenge Testing of Single Liquid Cathode Feed Water Electrolysis Cells for the International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Robert J.; Wilson, Mark E.; Diderich, Greg S.; Steele, John W.

    2011-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA) operational performance may be adversely impacted by microbiological growth and biofilm formation over the electrolysis cell membranes. Biofilms could hinder the transport of water from the bulk fluid stream to the membranes and increase the cell concentration overpotential resulting in higher cell voltages and a shorter cell life. A microbial challenge test was performed on duplicate single liquid-cathode feed water electrolysis cells to evaluate operational performance with increasing levels of a mixture of five bacteria isolated from ISS and Space Shuttle potable water systems. Baseline performance of the single water electrolysis cells was determined for approximately one month with deionized water. Monthly performance was also determined following each inoculation of the feed tank with 100, 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 cells/ml of the mixed suspension of test bacteria. Water samples from the feed tank and recirculating water loops for each cell were periodically analyzed for enumeration and speciation of bacteria and total organic carbon. While initially a concern, this test program has demonstrated that the performance of the electrolysis cell is not adversely impacted by feed water containing the five species of bacteria tested at a concentration measured as high as 1,000,000 colony forming units (CFU)/ml. This paper presents the methodologies used in the conduct of this test program along with the performance test results at each level of bacteria concentration.

  10. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navia, Andrés F; Mejía-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan

    2007-09-18

    Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation.

  11. Supercritical water gasification of biomass: an experimental study of model compounds and potential biomass feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chakinala, Anand Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Gasification of biomass in supercritical water is a complex process. In supercritical water ideally the biomass structure and the larger molecules are broken down into smaller, gaseous components under the influence of radicals. However, the biomass is normally fed to the system at low temperature a

  12. Crypto heater:a design fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Lindley, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This proposal is to exhibit the work named Crypto Heater which is part of a design fiction [c.f 1,5,8:30] series intended to explore a near future world in which cryptographic currencies such as Bitcoin [6] have become commonplace. This work opens up space for discussion about the activities of the distributed peer-to-peer network of so-called "miners" that ensure the security of the Bitcoin network and regulate the supply of new currency in the Bitcoin economy. The physical part of the work ...

  13. Status of Hollow Cathode Heater Development for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulas, George C.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode-based plasma contactor has been selected for use on the Space Station. During the operation of the plasma contactor, the hollow cathode heater will endure approximately 12000 thermal cycles. Since a hollow cathode heater failure would result in a plasma contactor failure, a hollow cathode heater development program was established to produce a reliable heater. The development program includes the heater design, process documents for both heater fabrication and assembly, and heater testing. The heater design was a modification of a sheathed ion thruster cathode heater. Heater tests included testing of the heater unit alone and plasma contactor and ion thruster testing. To date, eight heaters have been or are being processed through heater unit testing, two through plasma contactor testing and three through ion thruster testing, all using direct current power supplies. Comparisons of data from heater unit performance tests before cyclic testing, plasma contactor tests, and ion thruster tests at the ignition input current level show the average deviation of input power and tube temperature near the cathode tip to be +/-0.9 W and +/- 21 C, respectively. Heater unit testing included cyclic testing to evaluate reliability under thermal cycling. The first heater, although damaged during assembly, completed 5985 ignition cycles before failing. Four additional heaters successfully completed 6300, 6300, 700, and 700 cycles. Heater unit testing is currently ongoing for three heaters which have to date accumulated greater than 7250, greater than 5500, and greater than 5500 cycles, respectively.

  14. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Missotten, Joris; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviat...

  15. Consumptive water use to feed humanity – curing a blind spot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Falkenmark

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Since in large parts of the world it is getting difficult to meet growing water demands by mobilising more water, the discourse has turned its focus to demand management, governance and the necessary concern for aquatic ecosystems by reserving an "environmental flow" in the river. The latter calls for attention to river depletion which may be expected in response to changes in consumptive water use by both natural and anthropogenic systems. Basically, consumptive use has three faces: runoff generation influenced by land cover changes; consumptive use of water withdrawn; and evaporation from water systems (reservoirs, canals, river based cooling. After demonstrating the vulnerability to changes in consumptive use under savanna region conditions – representative of many poverty and hunger prone developing countries subject to attention in the Millennium Development Goal activities – the paper exemplifies 1 changes in runoff generation in response to regional scale land cover changes; 2 consumptive use in large scale irrigation systems. It goes on to analyse the implications of seeing food as a human right by estimating the additional consumptive use requirements to produce food for the next two generations. Attention is paid to remaining degrees of freedom in terms of uncommitted water beyond an environmental flow reserve and to potential food trade consequences (so-called virtual water. The paper concludes that a human-right-to-food principle will have major consequences in terms of altered consumptive water use. It will therefore be essential for humanity to address river depletion to avoid loss of resilience of the life support system. This will demand a deep-going cooperation between hydrology, ecology and water governance.

  16. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejía-Falla Paola A

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Conclusion Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization. It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation.

  17. A novel role of three dimensional graphene foam to prevent heater failure during boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Ho Seon; Kim, Ji Min; Park, Chibeom; Jang, Ji-Wook; Lee, Jae Sung; Kim, Hyungdae; Kaviany, Massoud; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2013-01-01

    We report a novel boiling heat transfer (NBHT) in reduced graphene oxide (RGO) suspended in water (RGO colloid) near critical heat flux (CHF), which is traditionally the dangerous limitation of nucleate boiling heat transfer because of heater failure. When the heat flux reaches the maximum value (CHF) in RGO colloid pool boiling, the wall temperature increases gradually and slowly with an almost constant heat flux, contrary to the rapid wall temperature increase found during water pool boiling. The gained time by NBHT would provide the safer margin of the heat transfer and the amazing impact on the thermal system as the first report of graphene application. In addition, the CHF and boiling heat transfer performance also increase. This novel boiling phenomenon can effectively prevent heater failure because of the role played by the self-assembled three-dimensional foam-like graphene network (SFG).

  18. Evaluation of radiofrequency dielectric heaters workers exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, M; Del Frate, S; Villalta, R

    2008-01-01

    Radiofrequency dielectric heaters (RFDH) are widely used in the woodworking industry for gluing laminates by applying pressure and RF heating. The workers operating such equipment remain in the vicinity of the machinery all day and can therefore be exposed to considerable levels of electric and magnetic field at RFs. This work describes the method used to measure the strength of fields generated by this particular machinery. This procedure is based on current methods cited in the literature and introduces the necessary modifications to meet this specific case. In particular, as there is often a scarcity of technical data available relating to such heaters, it is suggested that a spectrum analyser be used for measurements in the frequencies domain. On the basis of the data obtained the norms of reference are established, the instrumentation to be used in successive stages determined as well as the identification of possible sources of interference from spurious signals. Furthermore, a mapping of the field strengths is presented and the means of determining the decay curve as a function of distance. This last type of measurement is done to estimate the effectiveness of grounding the machinery. The report ends with an estimate of the exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields and also some recommendations for reducing risk.

  19. Seasonal, sex and live weight variations in feed and water consumptions of adult captive African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse-1840) kept individually in cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzenda, T; Ayo, J O; Lakpini, C A M; Adelaiye, A B

    2013-06-01

    Adult African Giant rats (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse) (AGRs) (n = 231) of both sexes (117 bucks, 114 does) were live-trapped in the wild in Zaria, Nigeria. Live weight (LW), daily feed consumption (FC) and water consumption (WC) of the AGRs were measured during the cold-dry (CDS), hot-dry (HDS) and rainy (RS) seasons for 2 years with the aim of determining seasonal, sex and LW variations. Feed consumption was significantly different (p HDS, while the highest was obtained during the RS. Water consumption was also lowest (p HDS but did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) between the CDS and RS. Both feed and water consumptions were higher (p HDS, but the sex difference was not significant (p > 0.05) during the RS. Feed consumption correlated positively (p HDS). Intervention may be indicated during the HDS to improve feed and water consumptions for optimal performance of the AGRs.

  20. Parametric excitation of whistler waves by HF heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Lee, M. C.

    1989-01-01

    Possible generation of whistler waves by Tromso HF heater is investigated. It is shown that the HF heater wave can parametrically decay into a whistler wave and a Langmuir wave. Since whistler waves may have a broad range of frequency, the simultaneously excited Langmuir waves can have a much broader frequency bandwidth than those excited by the parametric decay instability.

  1. 46 CFR 111.85-1 - Electric oil immersion heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric oil immersion heaters. 111.85-1 Section 111.85-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Electric Oil Immersion Heaters § 111.85-1 Electric oil immersion...

  2. Managing the drinking water catchment areas: the French agricultural cooperatives feed back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrière, Séverine; Aumond, Claire

    2016-06-01

    The quality of raw water is problematic in France, largely polluted by nitrates and pesticides (Mueller and Helsel, Nutrients in the nation's waters-too much of a good thing? Geological Survey (U.S.), 1996; European Environment Agency, European waters-assessment of status and pressures, 2012).This type of pollution, even though not always due to agriculture (example of the catchment of Ambleville, county 95, France where the nitrate pollution is mainly due to sewers (2012)), has been largely related to the agricultural practices (Sci Total Environ 407:6034-6043, 2009).Taking note of this observation, and instead of letting it paralyze their actions, the agricultural cooperatives decided with Agrosolutions to act directly on the field with their subscribers to change the agricultural practices impacting the water and the environment.This article shows how the French agricultural cooperatives transformed the awareness of the raw water quality problem into an opportunity for the development and implementation of more precise and responsible practices, to protect their environment. They measure in order to pilot, co-construct and build the best action plans possible according to the three pillars of environment, economy and agronomy.

  3. Modelling material effects on flow-accelerated corrosion in primary CANDU coolant and secondary reactor feed-water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phromwong, P.; Lister, D., E-mail: c7r13@unb.ca [Univ. of New Brunswick, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Fredericton, New Brunswick (Canada); Uchida, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2012-07-01

    The effects of chromium content on flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel have been predicted very well by including a passivating layer, which is a chromium-dependent diffusion barrier at the metal-oxide interface. By adjusting the properties of the chromium-dependent layer, described with a Passivation Parameter (PP), we can predict the FAC of carbon steel of different chromium contents in typical reactor feed-water environments (140{sup o}C and neutral or ammoniated chemistry). The model and an appropriate PP are also applied to the environment typical of carbon-steel feeders in the primary coolant of a CANDU reactor (310{sup o}C and lithiated chemistry). The model predicts FAC rate very well (with a deviation of 10% or less) in both situations. (author)

  4. Infrared transparent graphene heater for silicon photonic integrated circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Daniel; Mohsin, Muhammad; Sagade, Abhay A; Otto, Martin; Chmielak, Bartos; Suckow, Stephan; Giesecke, Anna Lena; Neumaier, Daniel; Kurz, Heinrich

    2016-04-18

    Thermo-optical tuning of the refractive index is one of the pivotal operations performed in integrated silicon photonic circuits for thermal stabilization, compensation of fabrication tolerances, and implementation of photonic operations. Currently, heaters based on metal wires provide the temperature control in the silicon waveguide. The strong interaction of metal and light, however, necessitates a certain gap between the heater and the photonic structure to avoid significant transmission loss. Here we present a graphene heater that overcomes this constraint and enables an energy efficient tuning of the refractive index. We achieve a tuning power as low as 22 mW per free spectral range and fast response time of 3 µs, outperforming metal based waveguide heaters. Simulations support the experimental results and suggest that for graphene heaters the spacing to the silicon can be further reduced yielding the best possible energy efficiency and operation speed.

  5. Toxic organic pollutants from kerosene space heaters in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyanpour-Rad, Mansoor

    2004-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate qualitatively the emission of toxic organic pollutants from an unventilated conventional kerosene space heater commonly used in Iran. A brand new common convective kerosene space heater, the "Aladdin," was used for this study. The well-tuned convective heater was operated in a 2.6-m(3) test chamber and then the emission was tested for organic pollutants. The emission was collected on Teflon-impregnated glass-fiber filters and XAD-2 resin and then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. It was found that in addition to the ordinary pollutant gases, the heater emits aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and the related nitrated compounds, phthalates, naphthalenes, and some other toxic organic compounds. However, it was found that the heater did not emit fluoranthene, cyclohexane, benzoic acid, and higher-molecular-weight alkylbenzenes, which could have resulted from the combustion of some other types of kerosene.

  6. Note: Improved heater design for high-temperature hollow cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, M. S.; Gallimore, A. D.; Goebel, D. M.

    2017-02-01

    We present an improved heater design for thermionic cathodes using a rhenium filament encased in a boron nitride ceramic sleeve. This heater is relatively simple to fabricate, yet has been successfully used to reliably and repeatably light a lanthanum hexaboride (LaB6) hollow cathode based on a previously published design without noticeable filament degradation over hundreds of hours of operation. The high decomposition temperature of boron nitride (2800 C for inert environments) and melting point for rhenium (3180 C) make this heater especially attractive for use with LaB6, which may require operating temperatures upwards of 1700 C. While boron nitride decomposes in air above 1000 C, the heater was used only at vacuum with an inert gas discharge, and no degradation was observed. Limitations of current state of the art cathode heaters are also discussed and compared with the rhenium-boron nitride combination.

  7. Feeding ecology of capelin (Mallotus villosus Müller) in West Greenland waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedeholm, R.; Grønkjær, P.; Rysgaard, Søren

    2012-01-01

    ) were 9.54 ‰ ± 0.72 and 12.47 ‰ ± 0.38 (mean ± SD), respectively. However, when differences in isotopic baseline values (C. finmarchicus δ 15N, 2.47 ‰) in the two areas were taken into account, the isotope values suggest that capelin in the northern areas fed on a slightly higher trophic level higher...... prey by wet weight was euphausiids (61 %) followed by amphipods (18 %) and copepods (10 %). The most common species were Thysanoessa raschii, Themisto libulla, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus hyperboreus. Copepods dominated in smaller capelin but were replaced by euphausiids in larger fish. A similar...... prey shift towards euphausiids along with an increase in prey weight (relative and absolute) was seen with increasing latitude. The spatial variation in feeding pattern was supported by stable nitrogen analyses. The mean δ 15N values of capelin muscle tissue for the south (60-64°N) and north (68-72°N...

  8. Fish Welfare in Aquaponic Systems: Its Relation to Water Quality with an Emphasis on Feed and Faeces—A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijran Yavuzcan Yildiz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aquaponics is the combination of aquaculture (fish and hydroponic cultivation of plants. This review examines fish welfare in relation to rearing water quality, fish feed and fish waste and faeces to develop a sustainable aquaponic system where the co-cultured organisms, fish, bacteria in biofilters and plants, should be considered holistically in all aquaponics operations. Water quality parameters are the primary environmental consideration for optimizing aquaponic production and for directly impacting fish welfare/health issues and plant needs. In aquaponic systems, the uptake of nutrients should be maximised for the healthy production of the plant biomass but without neglecting the best welfare conditions for the fish in terms of water quality. Measures to reduce the risks of the introduction or spread of diseases or infection and to increase biosecurity in aquaponics are also important. In addition, the possible impacts of allelochemicals, i.e., chemicals released by the plants, should be taken into account. Moreover, the effect of diet digestibility, faeces particle size and settling ratio on water quality should be carefully considered. As available information is very limited, research should be undertaken to better elucidate the relationship between appropriate levels of minerals needed by plants, and fish metabolism, health and welfare. It remains to be investigated whether and to what extent the concentrations of suspended solids that can be found in aquaponic systems can compromise the health of fish. Water quality, which directly affects fish health and well-being, is the key factor to be considered in all aquaponic systems.

  9. The feeding activity of Colossoma macropomum larvae (tambaqui in fishponds with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LH. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available Analysis of macrophyte water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes as an organic fertilizer of Colossoma macropomum (tambaqui larvae in ponds is provided. Water hyacinth produce an organic fertilizer at the ratio of 100 g.m-2 in tambaqui ponds. Two groups of 5,000 larvae were transferred to two fishponds with and without water hyacinth fertilizer and reared until day 43. The fertilized pond evidenced more plankton abundance during the entire production period when compared with the control pond (P 0.05 in both ponds (with and without organic fertilizer. Fish larvae failed to show any preference or selectivity in relation to the different algae (P > 0.01 in the pond, but exhibited high ingestion selectivity for zooplankton (P < 0.05. Application of fertilizer increased (P < 0.05 the abundance of phytoplankton and zooplankton in the treatment pond. Since water hyacinth fertilizer is quite cheap and easily available, it may be conveniently used to enhance fish yield in ponds.

  10. Effect of water quality on the feeding ecology of axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego de Jesus Chaparro-Herrera

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Ambystoma mexicanum, a highly endangered species, is endemic to lake Xochimilco (Mexico City, Mexico which currently is being negatively affected by the introduction of Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia and water pollution. During the first weeks of development, when mortality is the highest, Ambystoma mexicanumdepends on a diet of zooplankton. The aim of this study was to check whether contamination levels in lake Xochimilco influence zooplankton consumption by similar size classes of A. mexicanum and Oreochromis niloticus. In this study, we analysed changes in the functional responses and prey preference of A. mexicanum and larval Tilapia in two media, one with filtered lake Xochimilco water and another one with reconstituted water. As prey we used cladocerans (Moina macrocopa, Alona glabra, Macrothrix triserialis and Simocephalus vetulus and ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens. Zooplankton was offered in 5 different densities, 10, 20, 40, 80, 160 ind./mL. Prey consumption by A. mexicanum varied in relation to the species offered and age of the larvae. From the first week to the eighth week prey consumption by A. mexicanum increased by 57%. Our functional response tests showed that regardless of the prey type, prey consumption by A. mexicanum was lower in the contaminated water from lake Xochimilco. Among the zooplankton offered in the contaminated environment predators preferred smaller and slower moving microcrustaceans such as Alona glabra and Heterocypris incongruens. Furthermore, O. niloticus preferred prey such as Moina macrocopa and Macrothrix triserialis in the contaminated medium and was more voracious than the axolotl. Our results indicate that both water quality of the lake and the presence of the more resistant exotic fish adversely impact the survival of this endangered amphibian.

  11. Solair heater program: solair applications study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-12-01

    General Electric has designed and tested a low-cost solar system using a vacuum tube solar air heater under ERDA Contract E(11-1)-2705. This contract extension has been provided to evaluate various applications of this solar collector. The evaluation identified attractive applications, evaluated corresponding control procedures, estimated system performance, compared economically insolation and insulation, and evaluated the repackaging of off-the-shelf equipment for improved cost effectiveness. The results of this study prompted General Electric's marketing group to do a detailed commercialization study of a residential domestic water heating system using the Solair concept which has been selected as the most attractive application. Other attractive applications are space/domestic water heating and a heat pump assisted solar system/domestic water heating where the heat pump and the solar system function in parallel. A prime advantage of heated air solar systems over liquid systems is cost and longer life which results in higher BTU's/dollar. Other air system advantages are no liquid leakage problems, no toxicity of freezing problems, and less complicated equipment. A hybrid solar system has been identified that can improve the market penetration of solar energy. This system would use the existing mass of the house for energy storage thereby reducing solar cost and complexity. Adequate performance can be obtained with house temperature swings comparable to those used in nighttime setback of the thermostat. Details of this system are provided.

  12. Development of an Operation Control System for Photovoltaics and Electric Storage Heaters for Houses Based on Information in Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Shin'ya

    An all-electric home using an electric storage heater with safety and cleaning is expanded. However, the general electric storage heater leads to an unpleasant room temperature and energy loss by the overs and shorts of the amount of heat radiation when the climate condition changes greatly. Consequently, the operation of the electric storage heater introduced into an all-electric home, a storage type electric water heater, and photovoltaics was planned using weather forecast information distributed by a communication line. The comfortable evaluation (the difference between a room-temperature target and a room-temperature result) when the proposed system was employed based on the operation planning, purchase electric energy, and capacity of photovoltaics was investigated. As a result, comfortable heating operation was realized by using weather forecast data; furthermore, it is expected that the purchase cost of the commercial power in daytime can be reduced by introducing photovoltaics. Moreover, when the capacity of the photovoltaics was increased, the surplus power was stored in the electric storage heater, but an extremely unpleasant room temperature was not shown in the investigation ranges of this paper. By obtaining weather information from the forecast of the day from an external service using a communication line, the heating system of the all-electric home with low energy loss and comfort temperature is realizable.

  13. The effect of tofu cake as an additional feed on local male sheep’s water consumption and their physiological response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayan Sukarya Dilaga

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeds are very important for the growth of animals due to it is contained almost all nutrients needed by the animals. Feeds are not only influence the animal growth but also their physiological response. The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of tofu cake as an additional feed replacing commercial concentrate on local male sheep’s water consumption and their physiological response such as body temperature, pulse, and rate of exhalation. The selected 15 local male sheep (in the age of 8-9 month with initial weight 12.53 ± 1.19 kg were housed individually in cage for about 14 weeks include 4 weeks adaptation period and 10 weeks experiment.The experiment was conducted using completely randomized design with 3 different treatments and 5 times repetition; T0 = ad libitum grass field + commercial concentrate, T1= ad libitum grass field + wet tofu cake, T2= ad libitum grass field + dried tofu cake, and water were provided in ad libitum method. Data analysis was done using analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Duncan’s multiple range test. The result shown that dried tofu cake as an additional feed replacing commercial concentrate was able to increasing the water consumption of local male sheep. Meanwhile the physiological test performed stable in the present of wet or dried tofu cake. Keywords— alternative feed, physiological response of male sheep

  14. Ecology and Feeding Habits Drive Infection of Water Bugs with Mycobacterium ulcerans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyin A Ebong, Solange; García-Peña, Gabriel E; Pluot-Sigwalt, Dominique; Marsollier, Laurent; Le Gall, Philippe; Eyangoh, Sara; Guégan, Jean-François

    2017-06-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU), the causative agent of Buruli ulcer, is present in a wide spectrum of environments, including terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems in tropical regions. The most promising studies on the epidemiological risk of this disease suggest that some ecological settings may favor infection of animals with MU including human. A species' needs and impacts on resources and the environment, i.e., its ecological niche, may influence its susceptibility to be infected by this microbial form. For example, some Naucoridae may dive in fresh waters to prey upon infected animals and thus may get infected with MU. However, these studies have rarely considered that inference on the ecological settings favoring infection and transmission may be confounded because host carrier sister species have similar ecological niches, and potentially the same host-microbe interactions. Hence, a relationship between the ecological niche of Naucoridae and its infection with MU may be due to a symbiotic relationship between the host and the pathogen, rather than its ecological niche. To account for this confounding effect, we investigated the relationships between surrogates of the ecological niche of water bug species and their susceptibility to MU, by performing phylogenetic comparative analyses on a large dataset of 11 families of water bugs collected in 10 different sites across Cameroon, central Africa. Our results indicate that MU circulates and infects a couple of host taxa, i.e., Belostomatidae, Naucoridae, living both in the aquatic vegetation and as predators inside the trophic network and sister species of water bugs have indeed similar host-microbe interactions with MU.

  15. Combined effects of water flow and copper concentration on the feeding behavior, growth rate, and accumulation of copper in tissue of the infaunal polychaete Polydora cornuta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Marienne A; Hentschel, Brian T; Deheyn, Dimitri D

    2016-12-01

    We performed an experiment in a laboratory flume to test the effects of water flow speed and the concentration of aqueaous copper on the feeding behavior, growth rate, and accumulation of copper in the tissues of juvenile polychaetes Polydora cornuta. The experiment included two flow speeds (6 or 15 cm/s) and two concentrations of added copper (0 or 85 μg/L). Worms grew significantly faster in the faster flow and in the lower copper concentration. In the slower flow, the total time worms spent feeding decreased significantly as copper concentration increased, but copper did not significantly affect the time worms spent feeding in the faster flow. Across all treatments, there was a significant, positive relationship between the time individuals spent feeding and their relative growth rate. Worms were observed suspension feeding significantly more often in the faster flow and deposit feeding significantly more often in the slower flow, but copper concentration did not affect the proportion of time spent in either feeding mode. The addition of 85 μg/L copper significantly increased copper accumulation in P. cornuta tissue, but the accumulation did not differ significantly due to flow speed. There was a significant interaction between copper and flow; the magnitude of the difference in copper accumulation between the 0 and 85 μg/L treatments was greater in the faster flow than in the slower flow. In slow flows that favor deposit feeding, worms grow slowly and accumulate less copper in their tissue than in faster flows that favor suspension feeding and faster growth.

  16. Feeding nine billion people sustainably: conserving land and water through shifting diets and changes in technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Nathaniel P; Duchin, Faye

    2014-04-15

    In the early 21st century the extensive clearing of forestland, fresh water scarcity, and sharp rises in the price of food have become causes for concern. These concerns may be substantially exacerbated over the next few decades by the need to provide improved diets for a growing global population. This study applies an inter-regional input-output model of the world economy, the World Trade Model, for analysis of alternative scenarios about satisfying future food requirements by midcentury. The scenario analysis indicates that relying only on more extensive use of arable land and fresh water would require clearing forests and exacerbating regional water scarcities. However, a combination of less resource-intensive diets and improved agricultural productivity, the latter especially in Africa, could make it possible to use these resources sustainably while also constraining increases in food prices. Unlike the scenario outcomes from other kinds of economic models, our framework reveals the potential for a decisive shift of production and export of agricultural products away from developed countries toward Africa and Latin America. Although the assumed changes in diets and technologies may not be realizable without incentives, our results suggest that these regions exhibit comparative advantages in agricultural production due to their large remaining resource endowments and their potential for higher yields.

  17. Engineering analyses and design calculations of NASA, Langley Research Center hydrogen-air-vitiated heater with oxygen replenishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The technical basis is presented for the design of the hydrogen-air-vitiated heater. The heater liner is subjected to a maximum thermal environment at a specified condition, where the combustion gas temperature, pressure and flow rate are 5000 F, 750 psia, and 11.0 lb/sec, respectively, and results in a heat flux of the order of 275 BTU/sec-sq ft. Cooling and stress analyses indicate that water is the logical choice for cooling of the combustor liner. A mixing analysis was undertaken to establish a good combination of combustor length and injector configuration. The analysis, using a conservative analytical approach, indicates a combustor length of the order of 5 ft combined with discrete fuel and oxidizer injection at an approximate 2-1/2 inch radial combustor position, and results in uniform combustion products at the heater exit for all specified envelope conditions.

  18. 欧盟家用空气源热泵热水器能效标准测试方法的研究%The Experimental Research on the European Coefficient of Performance Testing Methods of Household Air-source Heat-pump Water Heater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒宏; 何林; 杨加政

    2015-01-01

    目前欧盟热泵热水器测试标准 EN 16147:2011,Heat pumps with electrically driven compressors- Testing and requirements for marking of domestic hot water units已于2011年7月开始实施,但国内的标准GB/T 23137-2008并未有相应的更改。本文将通过测试静态加热式热泵热水器来对比分析其能效测试结果相对于国标测试方法的不同,并分析出目前国内开发的主流的热泵热水器在售后使用时的真正能效是否节能,并考虑到售后使用的能效情况,提出设计热泵热水器时的优化节能方向和售后客户使用的节能注意事项。%The European standard, EN 16147:2011,Heat pumps with electrically driven compressors - Testing and requirements for marking of domestic hot water units, has been put into effect from July, 2011. However, Chinese na-tional standard is still the GB/T 23137-2008 which hasn’t made the corresponding changes. In this paper, it tests the static heating water heat pump and use its data to compare and analyze the differences of Chinese national standard and European standard, including the coefficient of performance which used by users. Furthermore, this paper points out the development direction of energy conservation of heat-pump water heater and the matters needing attention for us-ers in consideration of the coefficient of performance.

  19. Integrity Assessment of GOH Heater Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Bong Sang; Hong, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Oh, J. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-08-01

    An assessment of structural integrity of ASTM A312-TP347 GOH heater tube was performed. The surface notches which had been produced during tube manufacturing process were analyzed microscopically. Chemical analysis, hardness tests, tensile tests, and J-Integral fracture resistance tests were carried out to compare the mechanical properties with those of the material specification and also with the other material of the same type. The test results showed the mechanical properties of the GOH tube material are within the specification range. An elastic-plastic fracture mechanics analysis based on the DPFAD method reveals the tube an appropriate safety margin for the normal operation. 13 refs., 5 tabs., 24 figs. (author)

  20. Danger of zooplankton feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, H.; Colin, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly and ther......Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly...