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Sample records for feed variation efficient

  1. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; van Reenen, C G; Gerrits, W J J

    2017-10-01

    High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3.4 d of age, and blood samples were collected before the first feeding. Subsequently, calves were characterized in the following 9 wk (period 1) using targeted challenges related to traits within each of 5 categories: feeding motivation, digestion, postabsorptive metabolism, behavior and stress, and immunology. In period 2 (wk 10-26), 130 calves were equally divided over 2 MR treatments: a control MR that contained lactose as the only carbohydrate source and a low-lactose MR in which 51% of the lactose was isocalorically replaced by glucose, fructose, and glycerol (2:1:2 ratio). Relations between early life characteristics and growth performance in later life were assessed in 117 clinically healthy calves. Average daily gain (ADG) in period 2 tended to be greater for control calves (1,292 ± 111 g/d) than for calves receiving the low-lactose MR (1,267 ± 103 g/d). Observations in period 1 were clustered per category using principal component analysis, and the resulting principal components were used to predict performance in period 2 using multiple regression procedures. Variation in observations in period 1 predicted 17% of variation in ADG in period 2. However, this was mainly related to variation in solid feed refusals. When ADG was adjusted to equal solid feed intake, only 7% of the variation in standardized ADG in period 2, in fact reflecting feed efficiency, could be explained by early life measurements. This indicates that >90

  2. Consistency of feed efficiency ranking and mechanisms associated with inter-animal variation among growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, A; Shabtay, A; Cohen-Zinder, M; Aharoni, Y; Miron, J; Agmon, R; Halachmi, I; Orlov, A; Haim, A; Tedeschi, L O; Carstens, G E; Johnson, K A; Brosh, A

    2018-04-03

    This study investigated the possible mechanisms for explaining interanimal variation in efficiency of feed utilization in intact male Holstein calves. Additionally, we examined whether the feed efficiency (FE) ranking of calves (n = 26) changed due to age and/or diet quality. Calves were evaluated during three periods (P1, P2, and P3) while fed a high-quality diet (calculated mobilizable energy [ME] of 11.8 MJ/kg DM) during P1 and P3, and a low-quality diet (calculated ME of 7.7 MJ/kg DM) during P2. The study periods were 84, 119, and 127 d, respectively. Initial ages of the calves in P1, P2, and P3 were 7, 11, and 15 mo, respectively, and initial body weight (BW) were 245, 367, and 458 kg, respectively. Individual dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), diet digestibility, and heat production (HP) were measured in all periods. The measured FE indexes were: residual feed intake (RFI), the gain-to-feed ratio (G:F), residual gain (RG), residual gain and intake (RIG), the ratio of HP-to-ME intake (HP/MEI), and residual heat production (RHP). For statistical analysis, animals' performance data in each period, were ranked by RFI, and categorized into high-, medium-, and low-RFI groups (H-RFI, M-RFI, and L-RFI). RFI was not correlated with in vivo digestibility, age, BW, BCS, or ADG in all three periods. The L-RFI group had lowest DMI, MEI, HP, retained energy (RE), and RE/ADG. Chemical analysis of the longissimus dorsi muscle shows that the L-RFI group had a higher percentage of protein and a lower percentage of fat compared to the H-RFI group. We suggested that the main mechanism separating L- from H-RFI calves is the protein-to-fat ratio in the deposited tissues. When efficiency was related to kg/day (DMI and ADG) and not to daily retained energy, the selected efficient L-RFI calves deposited more protein and less fat per daily gain than less efficient H-RFI calves. However, when the significant greater heat increment and maintenance energy requirement of

  3. Genetic variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and disease resistance exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Jokumsen, Alfred; Berg, Peer

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test that additive genetic (co)variation for survival, growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout. Thirty sires and 30 dams were mated by a partly factorial...... the predicted breeding values for VHS resistance and the predicted breeding values for the body weights, body length, and feed conversion efficiencies. These results demonstrate that additive genetic (co)variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and VHS resistance does exist within the farmed...... mating design. Each sire was mated to two dams, and each dam was mated to two sires, producing 50 viable full-sib families (29 sires, 25 dams). The fish from these families were reared for a 215-day growout period, and were assessed for survival between days 52 and 215, growth rate (i.e., body weight...

  4. Fecal microbial composition associated with variation in feed efficiency in pigs depends on diet and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Lisanne M.G.; Calus, Mario P.L.; Jansman, Aalfons J.M.; Bergsma, Rob; Knol, Egbert F.; Gilbert, Hélène; Zemb, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Dietary fiber content and composition affect microbial composition and activity in the gut, which in turn influence energetic contribution of fermentation products to the metabolic energy supply in pigs. This may affect feed efficiency (FE) in pigs. The present study investigated the relationship

  5. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  6. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Reenen, van C.G.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life

  7. Bovine Host Genetic Variation Influences Rumen Microbial Methane Production with Best Selection Criterion for Low Methane Emitting and Efficiently Feed Converting Hosts Based on Metagenomic Gene Abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Roehe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methane produced by methanogenic archaea in ruminants contributes significantly to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The host genetic link controlling microbial methane production is unknown and appropriate genetic selection strategies are not developed. We used sire progeny group differences to estimate the host genetic influence on rumen microbial methane production in a factorial experiment consisting of crossbred breed types and diets. Rumen metagenomic profiling was undertaken to investigate links between microbial genes and methane emissions or feed conversion efficiency. Sire progeny groups differed significantly in their methane emissions measured in respiration chambers. Ranking of the sire progeny groups based on methane emissions or relative archaeal abundance was consistent overall and within diet, suggesting that archaeal abundance in ruminal digesta is under host genetic control and can be used to genetically select animals without measuring methane directly. In the metagenomic analysis of rumen contents, we identified 3970 microbial genes of which 20 and 49 genes were significantly associated with methane emissions and feed conversion efficiency respectively. These explained 81% and 86% of the respective variation and were clustered in distinct functional gene networks. Methanogenesis genes (e.g. mcrA and fmdB were associated with methane emissions, whilst host-microbiome cross talk genes (e.g. TSTA3 and FucI were associated with feed conversion efficiency. These results strengthen the idea that the host animal controls its own microbiota to a significant extent and open up the implementation of effective breeding strategies using rumen microbial gene abundance as a predictor for difficult-to-measure traits on a large number of hosts. Generally, the results provide a proof of principle to use the relative abundance of microbial genes in the gastrointestinal tract of different species to predict their influence on traits e

  8. A review of feed efficiency in swine: biology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, John F; Rossoni-Serão, Mariana C; Gutiérrez, Néstor A

    2015-01-01

    Feed efficiency represents the cumulative efficiency with which the pig utilizes dietary nutrients for maintenance, lean gain and lipid accretion. It is closely linked with energy metabolism, as the oxidation of carbon-containing components in the feed drive all metabolic processes. While much is known about nutrient utilization and tissue metabolism, blending these subjects into a discussion on feed efficiency has proven to be difficult. For example, while increasing dietary energy concentration will almost certainly increase feed efficiency, the correlation between dietary energy concentration and feed efficiency is surprisingly low. This is likely due to the plethora of non-dietary factors that impact feed efficiency, such as the environment and health as well as individual variation in maintenance requirements, body composition and body weight. Nonetheless, a deeper understanding of feed efficiency is critical at many levels. To individual farms, it impacts profitability. To the pork industry, it represents its competitive position against other protein sources. To food economists, it means less demand on global feed resources. There are environmental and other societal implications as well. Interestingly, feed efficiency is not always reported simply as a ratio of body weight gain to feed consumed. This review will explain why this arithmetic calculation, as simple as it initially seems, and as universally applied as it is in science and commerce, can often be misleading due to errors inherent in recording of both weight gain and feed intake. This review discusses the importance of feed efficiency, the manner in which it can be measured and reported, its basis in biology and approaches to its improvement. It concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for future efforts.

  9. The relationship between different measures of feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits in Duroc pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Jiao, S; Tiezzi, F; Knauer, M; Huang, Y; Gray, K A; Maltecca, C

    2017-08-01

    Utilization of feed in livestock species consists of a wide range of biological processes, and therefore, its efficiency can be expressed in various ways, including direct measurement, such as daily feed intake, as well as indicator measures, such as feeding behavior. Measuring feed efficiency is important to the swine industry, and its accuracy can be enhanced by using automated feeding systems, which record feed intake and associated feeding behavior of individual animals. Each automated feeder space is often shared among several pigs and therefore raises concerns about social interactions among pen mates with regard to feeding behavior. The study herein used a data set of 14,901 Duroc boars with individual records on feed intake, feeding behavior, and other off-test traits. These traits were modeled with and without the random spatial effect of Pen_Room, a concatenation of room and pen, or random social interaction among pen mates. The nonheritable spatial effect of common Pen-Room was observed for traits directly measuring feed intake and accounted for up to 13% of the total phenotypic variance in the average daily feeding rate. The social interaction effect explained larger proportions of phenotypic variation in all the traits studied, with the highest being 59% for ADFI in the group of feeding behaviors, 73% for residual feed intake (RFI; RFI4 and RFI6) in the feed efficiency traits, and 69% for intramuscular fat percentage in the off-test traits. After accounting for the social interaction effect, residual BW gain and RFI and BW gain (RIG) were found to have the heritability of 0.38 and 0.18, respectively, and had strong genetic correlations with growth and off-test traits. Feeding behavior traits were found to be moderately heritable, ranging from 0.14 (ADFI) to 0.52 (average daily occupation time), and some of them were strongly correlated with feed efficiency measures; for example, there was a genetic correlation of 0.88 between ADFI and RFI6. Our work

  10. Feed conversion efficiency in aquaculture: do we measure it correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P.; Mailloux, Nicholas A.; Love, David C.; Milli, Michael C.; Cao, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Globally, demand for food animal products is rising. At the same time, we face mounting, related pressures including limited natural resources, negative environmental externalities, climate disruption, and population growth. Governments and other stakeholders are seeking strategies to boost food production efficiency and food system resiliency, and aquaculture (farmed seafood) is commonly viewed as having a major role in improving global food security based on longstanding measures of animal production efficiency. The most widely used measurement is called the ‘feed conversion ratio’ (FCR), which is the weight of feed administered over the lifetime of an animal divided by weight gained. By this measure, fed aquaculture and chickens are similarly efficient at converting feed into animal biomass, and both are more efficient compared to pigs and cattle. FCR does not account for differences in feed content, edible portion of an animal, or nutritional quality of the final product. Given these limitations, we searched the literature for alternative efficiency measures and identified ‘nutrient retention’, which can be used to compare protein and calories in feed (inputs) and edible portions of animals (outputs). Protein and calorie retention have not been calculated for most aquaculture species. Focusing on commercial production, we collected data on feed composition, feed conversion ratios, edible portions (i.e. yield), and nutritional content of edible flesh for nine aquatic and three terrestrial farmed animal species. We estimate that 19% of protein and 10% of calories in feed for aquatic species are ultimately made available in the human food supply, with significant variation between species. Comparing all terrestrial and aquatic animals in the study, chickens are most efficient using these measures, followed by Atlantic salmon. Despite lower FCRs in aquaculture, protein and calorie retention for aquaculture production is comparable to livestock production

  11. Genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pryce, J.E.; Wales, W.J.; Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Hayes, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their

  12. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  13. Association between protein feeding and reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow: specific emphasis on protein feeding in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    K.J. SHINGFIELD; M. JOKELA; K. KAUSTELL

    2008-01-01

    Associations between protein feeding and reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow are reviewed. Examination of published data indicated that reproductive responses assessed as days open, services per conception or conception rate following changes in protein feeding tend to be inconsistent. Discrepancies can arise due to between-study variations in experimental design, statistical analysis, sample population size, uterine health, cow age, parity, reproductive management or nutrient intake. De...

  14. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology...... partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....

  15. Genetic relationship between feed efficiency and profitability traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce the cost of feeding ... Feed costs represent approximately one-half the total cost of production for ... FCR and the energy required for growth and maintenance, assumed in the .... benefit to overall herd productivity has been questioned seriously (Archer et al., 1998).

  16. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin A. Ledogar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of the modern human (Homo sapiens cranium is characterized by a reduction in the size of the feeding system, including reductions in the size of the facial skeleton, postcanine teeth, and the muscles involved in biting and chewing. The conventional view hypothesizes that gracilization of the human feeding system is related to a shift toward eating foods that were less mechanically challenging to consume and/or foods that were processed using tools before being ingested. This hypothesis predicts that human feeding systems should not be well-configured to produce forceful bites and that the cranium should be structurally weak. An alternate hypothesis, based on the observation that humans have mechanically efficient jaw adductors, states that the modern human face is adapted to generate and withstand high biting forces. We used finite element analysis (FEA to test two opposing mechanical hypotheses: that compared to our closest living relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, the modern human craniofacial skeleton is (1 less well configured, or (2 better configured to generate and withstand high magnitude bite forces. We considered intraspecific variation in our examination of human feeding biomechanics by examining a sample of geographically diverse crania that differed notably in shape. We found that our biomechanical models of human crania had broadly similar mechanical behavior despite their shape variation and were, on average, less structurally stiff than the crania of chimpanzees during unilateral biting when loaded with physiologically-scaled muscle loads. Our results also show that modern humans are efficient producers of bite force, consistent with previous analyses. However, highly tensile reaction forces were generated at the working (biting side jaw joint during unilateral molar bites in which the chewing muscles were recruited with bilateral symmetry. In life, such a configuration would have increased the risk of joint

  17. Human feeding biomechanics: performance, variation, and functional constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechow, Paul C.; Wang, Qian; Gharpure, Poorva H.; Baab, Karen L.; Smith, Amanda L.; Weber, Gerhard W.; Grosse, Ian R.; Ross, Callum F.; Richmond, Brian G.; Wright, Barth W.; Byron, Craig; Wroe, Stephen; Strait, David S.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of the modern human (Homo sapiens) cranium is characterized by a reduction in the size of the feeding system, including reductions in the size of the facial skeleton, postcanine teeth, and the muscles involved in biting and chewing. The conventional view hypothesizes that gracilization of the human feeding system is related to a shift toward eating foods that were less mechanically challenging to consume and/or foods that were processed using tools before being ingested. This hypothesis predicts that human feeding systems should not be well-configured to produce forceful bites and that the cranium should be structurally weak. An alternate hypothesis, based on the observation that humans have mechanically efficient jaw adductors, states that the modern human face is adapted to generate and withstand high biting forces. We used finite element analysis (FEA) to test two opposing mechanical hypotheses: that compared to our closest living relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), the modern human craniofacial skeleton is (1) less well configured, or (2) better configured to generate and withstand high magnitude bite forces. We considered intraspecific variation in our examination of human feeding biomechanics by examining a sample of geographically diverse crania that differed notably in shape. We found that our biomechanical models of human crania had broadly similar mechanical behavior despite their shape variation and were, on average, less structurally stiff than the crania of chimpanzees during unilateral biting when loaded with physiologically-scaled muscle loads. Our results also show that modern humans are efficient producers of bite force, consistent with previous analyses. However, highly tensile reaction forces were generated at the working (biting) side jaw joint during unilateral molar bites in which the chewing muscles were recruited with bilateral symmetry. In life, such a configuration would have increased the risk of joint dislocation and

  18. Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J

    2011-09-01

    Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed

  19. Seasonal Variation in Food Preference and Feeding Ecology of Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    Seasonal Variation in Food Preference and Feeding Ecology of Two Juvenile. Marine Fishes, Pseudotolithus senegalensis (Sciaenidae) and Brachydeuterus auritus (Haemulidae) off Cape Coast, Ghana. J. Blay, Jr.1*, W. K. Awittor1 and D. Agbeko2. 1 Department of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, University of Cape Coast ...

  20. Effect of feeding silkworm on growth performance and feed efficiency of snakehead (Channa striata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmani, U.; Lono

    2018-04-01

    The snakehead, Chana striata is a carnivorous freshwater fish and widely distributed in Asia. High demand of this fish has been triggering many aquaculturist to culture C. stiata. Feed was the important factor for fish growth. Silkworm has high protein content, low fat and can be used as natural feed for finfish. This study investigate the silkworm feed in C. striata. The treatment of this research were A (100 % pellet); B (100 % silkworm); C (combination of 75 % pellet and 25 % silkworm); D (combination of 50 % pellet and 50 % silkworm); and E (combination of 25 % pellet and 75 % silkworm). The variables measured in this study were relatif growth, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate. The result show that silkworm gave the high growth performance, feed efficiency and survival rate of the snakehead (Channa striata) compared with the control.

  1. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  2. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D M; Tempelman, R J; Veerkamp, R

    2016-06-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and management with the desired goal being greater profitability. With increased milk production per cow, more feed is consumed per cow, but a greater portion of the feed is partitioned toward milk instead of maintenance and body growth. This dilution of maintenance has been the overwhelming driver of enhanced feed efficiency in the past, but its effect diminishes with each successive increment in production relative to body size and therefore will be less important in the future. Instead, we must also focus on new ways to enhance digestive and metabolic efficiency. One way to examine variation in efficiency among animals is residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of efficiency that is independent of the dilution of maintenance. Cows that convert feed gross energy to net energy more efficiently or have lower maintenance requirements than expected based on body weight use less feed than expected and thus have negative RFI. Cows with low RFI likely digest and metabolize nutrients more efficiently and should have overall greater efficiency and profitability if they are also healthy, fertile, and produce at a high multiple of maintenance. Genomic technologies will help to identify these animals for selection programs. Nutrition and management also will continue to play a major role in farm-level feed efficiency. Management practices such as grouping and total mixed ration feeding have improved rumen function and therefore efficiency, but they have also decreased our attention on individual cow needs. Nutritional grouping is key to helping each cow reach its genetic potential. Perhaps new computer-driven technologies, combined with genomics, will enable us to optimize management for

  3. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feeding behavior and temperament with performance, feed efficiency, ultrasound, and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Wang, Z; Li, C; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feeding behavior and temperament may be useful in genetic evaluations either as indicator traits for other economically relevant traits or because the behavior traits may have a direct economic value. We determined the variation in feeding behavior and temperament of beef cattle sired by Angus, Charolais, or Hybrid bulls and evaluated their associations with performance, efficiency, and carcass merit. The behavior traits were daily feeding duration, feeding head down (HD) time, feeding frequency (FF), and flight speed (FS, as a measure of temperament). A pedigree file of 813 animals forming 28 paternal half-sib families with about 20 progeny per sire was used. Performance, feeding behavior, and efficiency records were available on 464 animals of which 381 and 302 had records on carcass merit and flight speed, respectively. Large SE reflect the number of animals used. Direct heritability estimates were 0.28 +/- 0.12 for feeding duration, 0.33 +/- 0.12 for HD, 0.38 +/- 0.13 for FF, and 0.49 +/- 0.18 for FS. Feeding duration had a weak positive genetic (r(g)) correlation with HD (r(g) = 0.25 +/- 0.32) and FS (r(g) = 0.42 +/- 0.26) but a moderate negative genetic correlation with FF (r(g) = -0.40 +/- 0.30). Feeding duration had positive phenotypic (r(p)) and genetic correlations with DMI (r(p) = 0.27; r(g) = 0.56 +/- 0.20) and residual feed intake (RFI; r(p) = 0.49; r(g) = 0.57 +/- 0.28) but was unrelated phenotypically with feed conversion ratio [FCR; which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of growth (G:F)]. Feeding duration was negatively correlated with FCR (r(g) = -0.25 +/- 0.29). Feeding frequency had a moderate to high negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.74 +/- 0.15), FCR (r(g) = -0.52 +/- 0.21), and RFI (r(g) = -0.77 +/- 0.21). Flight speed was negatively correlated phenotypically with DMI (r(p) = -0.35) but was unrelated phenotypically with FCR or RFI. On the other hand, FS had a weak negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.11 +/- 0

  4. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that selecting sheep for a low behavioural reactivity to stressful situations will improve their metabolic efficiency, and thereby feed efficiency, during a controlled trial in an animal house. Twenty-four Merino wethers were used, 12 each from lines selected...... for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified....... It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  5. Association between protein feeding and reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow: specific emphasis on protein feeding in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. SHINGFIELD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Associations between protein feeding and reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow are reviewed. Examination of published data indicated that reproductive responses assessed as days open, services per conception or conception rate following changes in protein feeding tend to be inconsistent. Discrepancies can arise due to between-study variations in experimental design, statistical analysis, sample population size, uterine health, cow age, parity, reproductive management or nutrient intake. Detri-mental effects on reproductive efficiency following periods of excessive protein feeding are often attributed to increases in tissue urea and ammonia oncentrations leading to impaired reproductive hysiology, modified endocrine function or exacerbated postpartum negative energy balance. Examination of data collected from Finnish dairy herds (n = 16 051 participating in the national milk recording scheme during 1993 indicated that milk production was maximised in herds fed diets containing 180 g crude protein/kg dry matter. In contrast, no consistent relationships were identified between increases in on-farm protein feeding necessary to secure higher milk production and herd reproductive efficiency assessed as calving interval, first service interval and number of inseminations per calving. Further examination of data derived from 5 437 herds within the National recording scheme indicated that on-farm reproductive efficiency was independent of large variations in the mean annual urea concentration of bulk tank milk. It is concluded that increases in the crude protein content of Finnish dairy cow rations from 150 to between 170 and 180 g/kg dry matter would allow improvements in milk production to be realised without leading to significant reductions in reproductive efficiency.;

  6. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Schmid, K; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2006-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with digestion and energy partitioning of 27 steers. The steers were selected from a total of 306 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. Selected steers were ranked into high RFI (RFI > 0.5 SD above the mean, n = 11), medium RFI (RFI +/- 0.5 SD above and below the mean, n = 8), and low RFI (RFI 0.10). Residual feed intake was correlated with daily methane production and energy lost as methane (r = 0.44; P < 0.05). Methane production was 28 and 24% less in low-RFI animals compared with high- and medium-RFI animals, respectively. Residual feed intake tended to be associated (P < 0.10) with apparent digestibilities of DM (r = -0.33) and CP (r = -0.34). The RFI of steers was correlated with DE (r = -0.41; P < 0.05), ME (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), heat production (HP; r = 0.68; P < 0.001), and retained energy (RE; r = -0.67; P < 0.001; energy values are expressed in kcal/kg of BW(0.75)). Feedlot partial efficiency of growth was correlated (P < 0.01) with methane production (r = -0.55), DE (r = 0.46), ME (r = 0.49), HP (r = -0.50), and RE (r = 0.62). With the exception of HP (r = 0.37; P < 0.05), feed conversion ratio was unrelated to the traits considered in the study. Feeding duration was correlated (P < 0.01) with apparent digestibility of DM (r = -0.55), CP (r = -0.47), methane production (r = 0.51), DE (r = -0.52), ME (r = -0.55), and RE (r = -0.60). These results have practical implications for the selection of animals that eat less at a similar BW and growth rate and for the environmental sustainability of beef

  7. The influence of supplemented Curcuma in feed formulation to improve growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, M. M.; Zubaidah, M.; Arief, M.; Prayogo

    2018-04-01

    Catfish (Clarias sp.) is very potential to be developed as a food fish. The use of the feed additive in feed intended to improve the health, productivity and compliance with animal nutrition. Feed additive is to use ginger are derived from nature.The purpose of this study was to determine the potential increase in feed formulation. The Curcuma effect on growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.). The method used experimental methods and design complete random with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The parameters examined in this study aregrowth rate and efficiency feed.The research showed that the ANOVA markedly dissimilar ( Padditive on formulations feed.

  8. Interdemic variation in the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri: correlations among hypoxia, morphology, and feeding performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaack, S.; Chapman, L.J.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive change in one character may affect associated, but functionally unrelated, characters in adaptive or nonadaptive ways. For example, adaptive change in gill size (i.e., larger gills in hypoxic habitats) may alter adjacent feeding structures and therefore have indirect effects on feeding behavior. This study examines whether differences in total gill filament length among populations of the African cyprinid Barbus neumayeri correlate with variation in trophic structures and feeding performance. Morphological measurements revealed larger total gill filament length in populations from low-oxygen habitats. Differences in external and internal morphology of the trophic apparatus correlated with those found in gills and suggest a reduction in food capture and processing ability in fish with larger respiratory apparatus. In paired feeding trials on a novel prey type, large-gilled fish spent more time feeding than small-gilled fish of the same body size without ingesting more food. This suggests less efficient food uptake in large-gilled fish from hypoxic habitats. We suggest that variation in gill size facilitates the broad habitat distribution of B. neumayeri but may limit the success of phenotypes crossing physicochemical gradients. (author)

  9. Relationship among performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics, and their ability to predict economic value in the feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K M; Faulkner, D B; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nkrumah, J D; Shike, D W

    2013-12-01

    A 4-yr study was conducted using 736 steers of known Angus, Simmental, or Simmental × Angus genetics to determine performance, carcass, and feed efficiency factors that explained variation in economic performance. Steers were pen fed and individual DMI was recorded using a GrowSafe automated feeding system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada). Steers consumed a similar diet and received similar management each year. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine current economic value of feed efficiency and 2) identify performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics that predict: carcass value, profit, cost of gain, and feed costs. Economic data used were from 2011 values. Feed efficiency values investigated were: feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed to gain), residual feed intake (RFI), residual BW gain (RG), and residual intake and BW gain (RIG). Dependent variables were carcass value ($/steer), profit ($/steer), feed costs ($/steer • d(-1)), and cost of gain ($/kg). Independent variables were year, DMI, ADG, HCW, LM area, marbling, yield grade, dam breed, and sire breed. A 10% improvement in RG (P Profit increased with a 10% improvement in feed efficiency (P profit. Eighty-five percent of the variation in cost of gain was explained by ADG, DMI, HCW, and year. Prediction equations were developed that excluded ADG and DMI, and included feed efficiency values. Using these equations, cost of gain was explained primarily by FCR (R(2) = 0.71). Seventy-three percent of profitability was explained, with 55% being accounted for by RG and marbling. These prediction equations represent the relative importance of factors contributing to economic success in feedlot cattle based on current prices.

  10. A Low VSWR and High Efficiency Waveguide Feed Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiao-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low VSWR and high efficiency antenna array operating in the Ku band for satellite communications is presented in this paper. To achieve high radiation efficiency and broad enough bandwidth, all-metal radiation elements and full-corporate waveguide feeding network are employed. As the general milling method is used in the multilayer antenna array fabrication, the E-plane waveguide feeding network is adopted here to suppress the wave leakage caused by the imperfect connectivity between adjacent layers. A 4 × 8 elements array prototype was fabricated and tested for verification. The measured results of proposed antenna array show bandwidth of 6.9% (13.9–14.8 GHz for VSWR < 1.5. Furthermore, antenna gain and efficiency of higher than 22.2 dBi and 80% are also exhibited, respectively.

  11. Weather influences feed intake and feed efficiency in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Wall, Eileen

    2017-03-01

    A key goal for livestock science is to ensure that food production meets the needs of an increasing global population. Climate change may heighten this challenge through increases in mean temperatures and in the intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of extreme weather events, such as heat waves. Under high ambient temperatures, livestock are expected to decrease dry matter intake (DMI) to reduce their metabolic heat production. High yielding dairy cows require high DMI to support their levels of milk production, but this may increase susceptibility to heat stress. Here, we tested how feed intake and the rate of converting dry matter to milk (feed efficiency, FE) vary in response to natural fluctuations in weather conditions in a housed experimental herd of lactating Holstein Friesians in the United Kingdom. Cows belonged to 2 lines: those selected for high genetic merit for milk traits (select) and those at the UK average (control). We predicted that (1) feed intake and FE would vary with an index of temperature and humidity (THI), wind speed, and the number of hours of sunshine, and that (2) the effects of (1) would depend on the cows' genetic merit. Animals received a mixed ration, available ad libitum, from automatic feed measurement gates. Using >73,000 daily feed intake and FE records from 328 cows over 8 yr, we found that select cows produced more fat- and protein-corrected milk, and had higher DMI and FE than controls. Cows of both lines decreased DMI and fat- and protein-corrected milk but, importantly, increased FE as THI increased. This suggests that improvements in the efficiency of converting feed to milk may partially offset the costs of reduced milk yield owing to a warmer climate, at least under conditions of mild heat stress. The rate of increase in FE with THI was steeper in select cows than in controls, which raises the possibility that select cows use more effective coping tactics. This is, to our knowledge, the first longitudinal study

  12. Dorper sheep utilizing feed resources efficiently: a Mediterranean case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Ocak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect varying feeding systems would have on meat quality and production. The study looked at 45 Dorper lambs which were subjected to three different feeding protocols representing three alternate production systems: extensive grazing system (Group G, an intensive feedlot system being fed concentrate + alfalfa hay (Group C, and a semi-intensive production system comprising grazing + concentrate (Group GC. The lambs were slaughtered 62 days after weaning at approximately four months of age and meat quality factors such as pH, colour, shear force, cooking and water loss, as well as carcass characteristics; back fat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width, and muscle area were measured instrumentally on the longissimus dorsi muscle. A new measuring index was used to assess feed cost against weight gain to determine performance for profitability. In calculating cost kg-1 live weight gain, the extensive grass-fed production was significantly lower, approximately 70% less than the intensive feedlot system. Very little significant effect on meat quality was seen among the three systems. Slaughter weight had a significant effect on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and drip loss. The lean carcass trait of the Dorper breed was a major positive attribute, but minor benefits gained in meat quality with the feedlot production system did not justify the substantial additional cost of production. Dorper sheep can be considered efficient feed converters on pasture, and thus a suitable breed for lamb meat production in countries like Turkey, where feed costs are the main contributor to farm outgoing.

  13. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea Solea) Reared in Captivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mas-Munoz, J.; Komen, J.; Schneider, O.; Visch, S.W.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected

  14. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  15. Feeding of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC to growing sheep: 2. Growth rate and feed efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Lubis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of yeast and or filamentous fungi as feed additive to ruminants has been of interest since the late 1980’s. Two fungi species have been commercially produced in the United States, (1 Yea-Sacc containing living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and (2 Amaferm bearing Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract. It has been demonstrated and proven that the cultures can enhance rumen development and function in young ruminants. This paper concerns the use of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC as feed additive for young-growing male ‘Garut’ sheep. The A. oryzae was cultured in a media made of mineral-enriched ‘onggok’ flour, a material of tapioca processing waste. The AOFC was prepared gradually by incubating the fungus at room temperature (26 – 300C for 5 days, dried at 400C and ground. The AOFC was added to a commercial concentrate (GT-03 at 0, 5 and 10% (w/w levels, as treatment C0 (control, C1, and C2, respectively. Fifteen growing ‘Garut’ sheep were used and the concentrate feed treatments were randomly allotted based on a randomized block design. Drinking water was available at all time. The amount of feed offered (chopped King grass and concentrates and their refusals were weighed daily and live-weight of sheep was measured once a week in the morning. Daily feces was collected and weighed in the last 10 days of the 14-week experimental period. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, total fiber (NDF, and ash. AOFC supplementation resulted in higher weight gains (P<0.05, which were 94.81; 122.08; and 140.52 g/d for C0, C1, and C2 treatments, respectively. Dry and organic matter, as well as protein intake was also significantly increased by inclusion of AOFC into concentrate diet (P<0.05. The increment in nutrient intake was from increased consumption of concentrates, and not from King grass, however, there was no effect of AOFC supplementation on feed efficiency.

  16. Replication and validation of genome-wide associations with feed efficiency of dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving feed efficiency in dairy production is an important endeavor as it can reduce feed costs and mitigate negative impacts of production on the environment. Feed efficiency is a multivariate phenotype characterized by a variety of phenotypic variables such as dry matter intake, body weight gai...

  17. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  18. Transcriptome differences in the rumen of beef steers with variation in feed intake and gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. The rumen wall interacts with feed, microbial populations and volatile fatty acids important to ruminant nutrition indicating it may play a critical role in the beef steer’s ability to utilize feedstuffs efficiently. To identif...

  19. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, L C; VandeHaar, M J; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Wiggans, G R; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Coffey, M P; Connor, E E; Hanigan, M D; Staples, C; Wang, Z; Dekkers, J C M; Spurlock, D M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphisms having individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records were used in this study. Cows were from research herds located in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Feed efficiency, defined as residual feed intake (RFI), was calculated within location as the residual of the regression of dry matter intake (DMI) on milk energy (MilkE), metabolic body weight (MBW), change in body weight, and systematic effects. For RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW, bivariate analyses were performed considering each trait as a separate trait within parity group to estimate variance components and genetic correlations between them. Animal relationships were established using a genomic relationship matrix. Genome-wide association studies were performed separately by parity group for RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW using the Bayes B method with a prior assumption that 1% of single nucleotide polymorphisms have a nonzero effect. One-megabase windows with greatest percentage of the total genetic variation explained by the markers (TGVM) were identified, and adjacent windows with large proportion of the TGVM were combined and reanalyzed. Heritability estimates for RFI were 0.14 (±0.03; ±SE) in primiparous cows and 0.13 (±0.03) in multiparous cows. Genetic correlations between primiparous and multiparous cows were 0.76 for RFI, 0.78 for DMI, 0.92 for MBW, and 0.61 for MilkE. No single 1-Mb window explained a significant proportion of the TGVM for RFI; however, after combining windows, significance was met on Bos taurus autosome 27 in primiparous cows, and nearly reached on Bos taurus autosome 4 in multiparous cows. Among other genes, these regions contain β-3 adrenergic receptor and the physiological candidate gene

  20. Liveweight gain and efficiency of feed utilization by Bunaji cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was carried out to study the effect of feeding increasing levels of total digestible nutrients (TDN) on the live weight of Bunaji cows during early lactation. The feeding trial ran for 56 days, starting on the 6th day after parturition. The experimental cows, in a completely randomized design, were randomly allocated ...

  1. Cultural variation in early feeding pattern and maternal perceptions of infant growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsden, M.; Meijers, C.M.C.; Jansen, J.E.; de Kroon, M.L.A.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    The perception of healthy growth and weight may differ between cultures, which could influence feeding practises and consequently affect the development of overweight. The present study examined ethnic variation in maternal perceptions of growth and their influence on feeding practises among Turkish

  2. Genetic parameters and expected responses to selection for components of feed efficiency in a Duroc pig line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan P; Ragab, Mohamed; Quintanilla, Raquel; Rothschild, Max F; Piles, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Improving feed efficiency ([Formula: see text]) is a key factor for any pig breeding company. Although this can be achieved by selection on an index of multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction of breeding values with optimal economic weights, considering deviations of feed intake from actual needs ([Formula: see text]) should be of value for further research on biological aspects of [Formula: see text]. Here, we present a random regression model that extends the classical definition of [Formula: see text] by including animal-specific needs in the model. Using this model, we explore the genetic determinism of several [Formula: see text] components: use of feed for growth ([Formula: see text]), use of feed for backfat deposition ([Formula: see text]), use of feed for maintenance ([Formula: see text]), and unspecific efficiency in the use of feed ([Formula: see text]). Expected response to alternative selection indexes involving different components is also studied. Based on goodness-of-fit to the available feed intake ([Formula: see text]) data, the model that assumes individual (genetic and permanent) variation in the use of feed for maintenance, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] showed the best performance. Joint individual variation in feed allocation to maintenance, growth and backfat deposition comprised 37% of the individual variation of [Formula: see text]. The estimated heritabilities of [Formula: see text] using the model that accounts for animal-specific needs and the traditional [Formula: see text] model were 0.12 and 0.18, respectively. The estimated heritabilities for the regression coefficients were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.55 for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations of [Formula: see text] were positive with amount of feed used for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] but negative for [Formula: see text]. Expected response in overall efficiency, reducing [Formula

  3. Stonefly (Plecoptera) Feeding Modes: Variation Along a California River Continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard L. Bottorff; Allen W. Knight

    1989-01-01

    The distribution of Plecoptera along a California river was used to test several predictions of the River Continuum Concept about how functional feeding groups should change along a stream's length. Stoneflies were collected from stream orders 1-6 (123 km) of the Cosumnes River continuum in the central Sierra Nevada. The 69 stonefly species collected were...

  4. Indirect risk effects reduce feeding efficiency of ducks during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan; Eichholz, Michael W; Stafford, Joshua D

    2018-01-01

    Indirect risk effects of predators on prey behavior can have more of an impact on prey populations than direct consumptive effects. Predation risk can elicit more vigilance behavior in prey, reducing the amount of time available for other activities, such as foraging, which could potentially reduce foraging efficiency. Understanding the conditions associated with predation risk and the specific effects predation risk have on prey behavior is important because it has direct influences on the profitability of food items found under various conditions and states of the forager. The goals of this study were to assess how ducks perceived predation risk in various habitat types and how strongly perceived risk versus energetic demand affected foraging behavior. We manipulated food abundance in different wetland types in Illinois, USA to reduce confounding between food abundance and vegetation structure. We conducted focal-animal behavioral samples on five duck species in treatment and control plots and used generalized linear mixed-effects models to compare the effects of vegetation structure versus other factors on the intensity with which ducks fed and the duration of feeding stints. Mallards fed more intensively and, along with blue-winged teal, used longer feeding stints in open habitats, consistent with the hypothesis that limited visibility was perceived to have a greater predation risk than unlimited visibility. The species temporally nearest to nesting, wood ducks, were willing to take more risks for a greater food reward, consistent with an increase in a marginal value of energy as they approached nesting. Our results indicate that some duck species value energy differently based on the surrounding vegetation structure and density. Furthermore, increases in the marginal value of energy can be more influential than perceived risk in shaping foraging behavior patterns. Based on these findings, we conclude that the value of various food items is not solely

  5. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yali; Bickhart, Derek M; Chung, Hoyoung; Hutchison, Jana L; Norman, H Duane; Connor, Erin E; Liu, George E

    2012-11-01

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of copy number variations (CNVs) using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intake (RFI). We detected 443 candidate CNV regions (CNVRs) that represent 18.4 Mb (0.6 %) of the genome. To investigate the functional impacts of CNVs, we created two groups of 30 individual animals with extremely low or high estimated breeding values (EBVs) for RFI, and referred to these groups as low intake (LI; more efficient) or high intake (HI; less efficient), respectively. We identified 240 (~9.0 Mb) and 274 (~10.2 Mb) CNVRs from LI and HI groups, respectively. Approximately 30-40 % of the CNVRs were specific to the LI group or HI group of animals. The 240 LI CNVRs overlapped with 137 Ensembl genes. Network analyses indicated that the LI-specific genes were predominantly enriched for those functioning in the inflammatory response and immunity. By contrast, the 274 HI CNVRs contained 177 Ensembl genes. Network analyses indicated that the HI-specific genes were particularly involved in the cell cycle, and organ and bone development. These results relate CNVs to two key variables, namely immune response and organ and bone development. The data indicate that greater feed efficiency relates more closely to immune response, whereas cattle with reduced feed efficiency may have a greater capacity for organ and bone development.

  6. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feeding behavior with feed intake, growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Mao, F; Crews, D H; Vinsky, M; Li, C

    2014-03-01

    Feeding behavior traits including daily feeding duration (FD), daily feeding head down time (HD), average feeding duration per feeding event (FD_AVE), average feeding head down time per feeding event (HD_AVE), feeding frequency (FF), and meal eating rate (ER) were analyzed to estimate their phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake, growth performance, residual feed intake (RFI), ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais finishing steers. Heritability estimates for FD, HD, FD_AVE, HD_AVE, FF, and ER were 0.27 ± 0.09 (SE), 0.25 ± 0.09, 0.19 ± 0.06, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.24 ± 0.08, and 0.38 ± 0.10, respectively, in the Angus population and 0.49 ± 0.12, 0.38 ± 0.11, 0.31 ± 0.09, 0.29 ± 0.10, 0.43 ± 0.11, and 0.56 ± 0.13, respectively, in the Charolais population. In both the Angus and Charolais steer populations, FD and HD had relatively stronger phenotypic (0.17 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.04) and genetic (0.29 ± 0.17 to 0.54 ± 0.18) correlations with RFI in comparison to other feeding behavior traits investigated, suggesting the potential of FD and HD as indicators in assessing variation of RFI. In general, feeding behavior traits had weak phenotypic correlations with most of the ultrasound and carcass merit traits; however, estimated genetic correlations of the feeding behavior traits with some fat deposition related traits were moderate to moderately strong but differed in magnitude or sign between the Angus and Charolais steer populations, likely reflecting their different biological types. Genetic parameter estimation studies involving feeding behavior traits in beef cattle are lacking and more research is needed to better characterize the relationships between feeding behavior and feed intake, growth, feed utilization, and carcass merit traits, in particular with respect to different biological types of cattle.

  7. Intake and feeding efficiency in feed-lot lambs Consumo e Eficiência Alimentar em Cordeiros Confinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joadil Gonçalves Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the intake and feed efficiency in fed-lot sheep as function of the body weight (BW variation. Data from three experiments with 50 feedlot lambs maintained in individual metabolic cages and fed diets composed of 50:50 roughage:concentrate were used. The experiment lasted 120 days; every 21 days the animals were weighed and the dry matter intake and body weight change were daily done. The intake was determined by checking daily the feed offer level and orts. The increased in animals body weight incremented the dry matter intake in 30.8g/kg of body weight/day, but promoted reduction of 0.0318% when the intake was expressed as percentage of BW. In addition, the advance of body weight affected negatively the feed conversion (FC, where animals with BW of 30 kg showed estimated FC of 4.55 of dry matter/kg of BW gain, while animals with BW of 45 kg have would food conversion of 7.03 kg of DM/kg of BW gain.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o consumo e a eficiência alimentar em ovinos confinados em função da variação no peso vivo (PV. Foram utilizados dados de três experimentos com cordeiros em confinamento, 50 animais no total, mantidos em gaiolas individuais para estudos de metabolismo, alimentados com dietas de relação volumoso: concentrado 50:50. Durante o experimento (120 dias, os animais foram monitorados quanto ao consumo diário de matéria seca e à variação de peso vivo, por meio de pesagens realizadas a cada 21 dias. O consumo foi determinado pelo monitoramento diário da oferta de alimento e das sobras. Com o do peso vivo dos animais aumentou o consumo de matéria seca em 29,38g/kg de PV/dia, mas promoveu redução de 0,0318% quando expresso em porcentagem do PV. Além disso, o avanço do PV afetou negativamente a conversão alimentar (CA, de modo que animais com 30kg de PV apresentaram CA estimada de 4,55kg de MS/kg de PV ganho, enquanto animais com peso

  8. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  9. System Genetics and Transcriptomic of Feed Efficiency in Nordic Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna; Løvendahl, Peter

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed (DE) genes, co-expressed (CE) genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes......, energy balance, nutrient partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....

  10. Modern features of complementary feeding and their efficiency in baby-led feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Duka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Baby-led feeding exists in the practice of pediatrics since 2002. But there are still no clear results on the effectiveness of its implementation and the impact on the health of young children. Particular attention is required to study the effectiveness of introducing complementary feeding. Materials and methods. We analyzed 245 questionnaires of infants with baby-led-feeding. In the questionnaires for mothers, questions were raised about the initiation of the introduction of complementary feeding, its types, the child’s reaction, with the assessment of physical development and the previous diseases. Results. Children with baby-led-feeding have a tendency to late introduction of complementary feeding (from 6 months. It turned out that until this age, the child receives only breast milk, which can’t satisfy the need for important constituent ingredients. They are necessary for the child at this age, and it leads to various metabolic disorders in the form of allergic di­seases, metabolic syndrome, anemia, osteoporosis and others. Particular concern was caused by the fact that children start receiving meat products too late, which naturally leads to the development of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, contrary to the current norms and regulations, we noticed frequent facts of self-consumption of the whole milk itself and fermented milk products made from it (kephir, yoghurt. Conclusions. Based on the study of this question, it was proved that the existing provisions on the introduction of complementary foods with baby-led-feeding require supervision and correction in accordance with the state of children’s health and the existing provisions of the World Health Organization.

  11. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P feed efficiency.

  12. More feed efficient sheep produce less methane and carbon dioxide when eating high-quality pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, B; Rose, G; Macleay, C; Jones, C; Brown, D J; Kearney, G; Ferguson, M; Thompson, A N

    2017-09-01

    The Australian sheep industry aims to increase the efficiency of sheep production by decreasing the amount of feed eaten by sheep. Also, feed intake is related to methane production, and more efficient (low residual feed intake) animals eat less than expected. So we tested the hypothesis that more efficient sheep produce less methane by investigating the genetic correlations between feed intake, residual feed intake, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Feed intake, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured on Merino ewes at postweaning (1,866 at 223 d old), hogget (1,010 sheep at 607 d old), and adult ages (444 sheep at 1,080 d old). Sheep were fed a high-energy grower pellet ad libitum for 35 d. Individual feed intake was measured using automated feeders. Methane was measured using portable accumulation chambers up to 3 times during this feed intake period. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between traits were estimated using ASReml. Oxygen (range 0.10 to 0.20) and carbon dioxide (range 0.08 to 0.28) were generally more heritable than methane (range 0.11 to 0.14). Selecting to decrease feed intake or residual feed intake will decrease methane (genetic correlation [] range 0.76 to 0.90) and carbon dioxide ( range 0.65 to 0.96). Selecting to decrease intake ( range 0.64 to 0.78) and methane ( range 0.81 to 0.86) in sheep at postweaning age would also decrease intake and methane in hoggets and adults. Furthermore, selecting for lower residual feed intake ( = 0.75) and carbon dioxide ( = 0.90) in hoggets would also decrease these traits in adults. Similarly, selecting for higher oxygen ( = 0.69) in hoggets would also increase this trait in adults. Given these results, the hypothesis that making sheep more feed efficient will decrease their methane production can be accepted. In addition, carbon dioxide is a good indicator trait for feed intake because it has the highest heritability of the gas traits measured; is cheaper, faster, and

  13. Unravelling variation in feeding, social interaction and growth patterns among pigs using an agent-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, Iris J M M; de Boer, Imke J M; Hofstede, Gert Jan; Bokkers, Eddie A M

    2018-07-01

    Domesticated pigs, Sus scrofa, vary considerably in feeding, social interaction and growth patterns. This variation originates partly from genetic variation that affects physiological factors and partly from behavioural strategies (avoid or approach) in competitive food resource situations. Currently, it is unknown how variation in physiological factors and in behavioural strategies among animals contributes to variation in feeding, social interaction and growth patterns in animals. The aim of this study was to unravel causation of variation in these patterns among pigs. We used an agent-based model to explore the effects of physiological factors and behavioural strategies in pigs on variation in feeding, social interaction and growth patterns. Model results show that variation in feeding, social interaction and growth patterns are caused partly by chance, such as time effects and coincidence of conflicts. Furthermore, results show that seemingly contradictory empirical findings in literature can be explained by variation in pig characteristics (i.e. growth potential, positive feedback, dominance, and coping style). Growth potential mainly affected feeding and growth patterns, whereas positive feedback, dominance and coping style affected feeding patterns, social interaction patterns, as well as growth patterns. Variation in behavioural strategies among pigs can reduce aggression at group level, but also make some pigs more susceptible to social constraints inhibiting them from feeding when they want to, especially low-ranking pigs and pigs with a passive coping style. Variation in feeding patterns, such as feeding rate or meal frequency, can indicate social constraints. Feeding patterns, however, can say something different about social constraints at group versus individual level. A combination of feeding patterns, such as a decreased feed intake, an increased feeding rate, and an increased meal frequency might, therefore, be needed to measure social constraints

  14. Performance efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate, and survival rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) through the addition of phytase in the feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, D.; Samidjan, I.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding phytase enzyme in the feed on digestibility of feed, efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate and survival rate of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish samples in this research were Common carp with an average - weight of 3.34 ± 0,16 g/fish. The treatments were adding the phytase enzyme in the feed with the different level of doses. Those were A (0 U kg-1 feed), B (500 U kg-1 feed), C (1.000 U kg-1 feed g) and D (1.500 U kg-1 feed). Observation was conducted on digestibility of protein (ADCP), digestibility of phosphor (ADCF), efficiency of feed utilization (EFU), relative growth rate (RGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR) and water quality parameters. The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme significantly (P0.05) affected on SR of common carp. Based on results, it was concluded that optimum doses of phytase enzyme feed in terms of digestibility of feed, efficiency utilization of Feed and growth rate of Common carp ranges from 943 to 1100 U kg-1 feed

  15. Sequential feeding using whole wheat and a separate protein-mineral concentrate improved feed efficiency in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Même, N; Rideau, N; Roffidal, L; Tukur, H M; Bastianelli, D; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P

    2010-04-01

    The effect of feeding nutritionally different diets in sequential or loose-mix systems on the performance of laying hen was investigated from 16 to 46 wk of age. Equal proportions of whole wheat grain and protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) were fed either alternatively (sequential) or together (loose-mix) to ISA Brown hens. The control was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained 5 birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per d) and distributed twice (4 and 11 h after lights-on). In the sequential treatment, only wheat was fed at first distribution, followed by balancer diet at the second distribution. In loose-mix, the 2 rations were mixed and fed together during the 2 distributions. Leftover feed was always removed before the next distribution. Sequential feeding reduced total feed intake when compared with loose-mix and control. It had lower wheat (-9 g/bird per d) but higher balancer (+1.7 g/bird per d) intakes than loose-mix. Egg production, egg mass, and egg weight were similar among treatments. This led to an improvement in efficiency of feed utilization in sequential compared with loose-mix and control (10 and 5%, respectively). Birds fed sequentially had lower calculated ME (kcal/bird per d) intake than those fed in loose-mix and control. Calculated CP (g/bird per d) intake was reduced in sequential compared with loose-mix and control. Sequentially fed hens were lighter in BW. However, they had heavier gizzard, pancreas, and liver. Similar liver lipid was observed among treatments. Liver glycogen was higher in loose-mix than the 2 other treatments. It was concluded that feeding whole wheat and balancer diet, sequentially or loosely mixed, had no negative effect on performance in laying hens. Thus, the 2 systems are alternative to conventional feeding. The increased efficiency of feed utilization in sequential feeding is an added

  16. A prototype national cattle evaluation for feed intake and efficiency of Angus cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent development of technologies for measuring individual feed intake has made possible the collection of data suitable for breed-wide genetic evaluation. Goals of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for components of feed efficiency and develop a prototype system for conducting a ge...

  17. A vapor feed methanol microfluidic fuel cell with high fuel and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yifei; Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A microfluidic fuel cell with a vapor feed anode is investigated. • Its advantages include simpler design, direct usage of methanol and better performance. • The prototype achieves a peak power density of 55.4 mW cm −2 under room temperature. • The energy efficiency of 9.4% is much higher than its liquid feed counterpart. - Abstract: In this paper, a prototype of methanol microfluidic fuel cell with vapor feed anode configuration is proposed to improve the fuel and energy efficiency of the conventional liquid feed methanol microfluidic fuel cells. Peak power density of 55.4 mW cm −2 can be achieved with this prototype under room temperature, which is 30% higher than its conventional liquid feed counterpart. Moreover, an energy efficiency of 9.4% is achieved, which is 27.5 times higher than its liquid feed counterpart. This superiority on both cell performance and energy efficiency is directly benefitted from its vapor feed anode configuration, which alleviates the fuel crossover, eliminates the fuel depletion boundary layer, and avoids the bulk anolyte wastage. The tradeoff between cell performance and fuel utilization for conventional liquid feed microfluidic fuel cells is also evaded

  18. Inter-laboratory variation in in vitro gas production profiles of some selected feeds, using both manual and automated methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rymer, C.; Williams, B.A.; Brooks, A.E.; Davies, D.R.; Givens, D.I.

    2005-01-01

    A study was conducted to estimate variation among laboratories and between manual and automated techniques of measuring pressure on the resulting gas production profiles (GPP). Eight feeds (molassed sugarbeet feed, grass silage, maize silage, soyabean hulls, maize gluten feed, whole crop wheat

  19. Feed efficiency of diets with different energy and protein concentrations supplemented with methionine in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Purwanti, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the feed efficiency of quail diets containing different concentrations of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) with constant ratio and supplemented with methionine. Four hundred laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment used 5 replicates of 20 quails. Two basal diets were formulated to contain 2,800 kcal kg-1 ME and 18.7% CP (High ME-CP) and 2,600 kcal kg-1 ME and 17.3% CP (Low ME-CP). Each basal diet was supplemented with 0 and 0.12% methionine. The High ME-CP diets generated lower feed consumption but higher egg mass and feed efficiency (Pprotein efficiency ratio (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with methionine resulted the highest feed efficiency followed by the Low ME-CP supplemented with methionine, while both High ME-CP and Low ME-CP without methionine supplementation resulted the lowest feed efficiency (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with 0.12% methionine provided benefit to improve the feed efficiency in laying quails.

  20. Finishing pigs that are divergent in feed efficiency show small differences in intestinal functionality and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli

    Full Text Available Controversial information is available regarding the feed efficiency-related variation in intestinal size, structure and functionality in pigs. The present objective was therefore to investigate the differences in visceral organ size, intestinal morphology, mucosal enzyme activity, intestinal integrity and related gene expression in low and high RFI pigs which were reared at three different geographical locations (Austria, AT; Northern Ireland, NI; Republic of Ireland, ROI using similar protocols. Pigs (n = 369 were ranked for their RFI between days 42 and 91 postweaning and low and high RFI pigs (n = 16 from AT, n = 24 from NI, and n = 60 from ROI were selected. Pigs were sacrificed and sampled on ~day 110 of life. In general, RFI-related variation in intestinal size, structure and function was small. Some energy saving mechanisms and enhanced digestive and absorptive capacity were indicated in low versus high RFI pigs by shorter crypts, higher duodenal lactase and maltase activity and greater mucosal permeability (P < 0.05, but differences were mainly seen in pigs from AT and to a lesser degree in pigs from ROI. Additionally, low RFI pigs from AT had more goblet cells in duodenum but fewer in jejunum compared to high RFI pigs (P < 0.05. Together with the lower expression of TLR4 and TNFA in low versus high RFI pigs from AT and ROI (P < 0.05, these results might indicate differences in the innate immune response between low and high RFI pigs. Results demonstrated that the variation in the size of visceral organs and intestinal structure and functionality was greater between geographic location (local environmental factors than between RFI ranks of pigs. In conclusion, present results support previous findings that the intestinal size, structure and functionality do not significantly contribute to variation in RFI of pigs.

  1. Production System of Peranakan Etawah Goat under Application of Feed Technology: Productivity and Economic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sodiq

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feed resources are the major constraint in increasing goat production in the village. The main constraints to goat raising are related to feeds (i the high cost of transport of crop residues and grass to the homesteads, (ii the low nutritive value of feeds used, particularly in the dry period. This research was design to evaluate goat productivity and economic efficiency of goat farming under application of feed technology production system in Peranakan Etawah goat farmer group of Gumelar Banyumas Central Java. All farmers were taken as respondents using census methods. On farm research with participative focused group discussion, indepth interview, and farm observation. Descriptive analysis and independent t test methods were used to analyze the data. Results of this study showed that there was a significant improvement goat productivity on production system with the application of feed technology. Body weight at weaning, survival rate till weaning, and doe productivity were increased 7%, 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of significant different of farmers income and economic efficiency before and after the applied feed technology (P>0.05. The calculation was based on cash flow. Before application, farmers income per year and economic efficiency were Rp14.404.520,00 and 1.21, then insignificantly improve into Rp16.487.100,00 and 1.27, respectively. (Animal Production 11(3: 202-208 (2009 Key Words: Livestock production system, Peranakan Etawah goat, feed technology aplication, productivity and economic efficiency

  2. Genotypic variation of nitrogen use efficiency in Indian mustard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Altaf; Khan, Ishrat; Abrol, Yash P.; Iqbal, Muhammad

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the variation of nitrogen efficiency (NE), nitrogen uptake efficiency (UE), physiological nitrogen use efficiency (PUE) among Indian mustard genotypes, grown under N-insufficient and N-sufficient conditions. Nitrogen efficiency varied from 52.7 to 92.8. Seed yield varied from 1.14 t ha -1 to 3.21 t ha -1 under N-insufficient condition, while 2.14 t ha -1 -3.33 t ha -1 under N-sufficient condition. Physiological basis of this difference was explained in terms of nitrogen uptake efficiency and physiological nitrogen use efficiency, and their relationship with the growth and yield characteristics. While nitrogen uptake efficiency was positively correlated with plant biomass (0.793**), leaf area index (0.664*), and leaf nitrogen content (0.783**), physiological nitrogen use efficiency is positively correlated with photosynthetic rate (0.689**) and yield (0.814**). This study suggests that genotype having high nitrogen uptake efficiency and high physiological nitrogen use efficiency might help in reducing the nitrogen load on soil without any penalty on the yield. - Nitrogen efficient crop plants may help in reducing environmental contamination of nitrate without any penalty on seed yield

  3. New benchmarks for costs and cost-efficiency of school-based feeding programs in food-insecure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Cavallero, Andrea; Minervini, Licia; Mirabile, Mariana; Molinas, Luca; de la Mothe, Marc Regnault

    2011-12-01

    School feeding is a popular intervention that has been used to support the education, health and nutrition of school children. Although the benefits of school feeding are well documented, the evidence on the costs of such programs is remarkably thin. Address the need for systematic estimates of the cost of different school feeding modalities, and of the determinants of the considerable cost variation among countries. WFP project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected for 78 projects in 62 countries through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The standardized yearly average school feeding cost per child, not including school-level costs, was US$48. The yearly costs per child were lowest at US$23 for biscuit programs reaching school-going children and highest at US$75 for take-home rations programs reaching families of schoolgoing children. The average cost of programs combining on-site meals with extra take-home rations for children from vulnerable households was US$61. Commodity costs were on average 58% of total costs and were highest for biscuit and take-home rations programs (71% and 68%, respectively). Fortified biscuits provided the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery, whereas take-home rations were more cost-efficient in terms of food quantities delivered. Both costs and effects should be considered carefully when designing school feeding interventions. The average costs of school feeding estimated here are higher than those found in earlier studies but fall within the range of costs previously reported. Because this analysis does not include school-level costs, these

  4. Feed efficiency differences and reranking in beef steers fed grower and finisher diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durunna, O N; Mujibi, F D N; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E K; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2011-01-01

    This 3-yr study used 490 steers to determine whether feedlot steers changed their feed efficiency (FE) ranking when fed a grower diet, then a finisher diet. The steers were crossbreds and were between 5 to 7 mo of age. There were 2 feeding periods each year. Within each year, approximately 90 steers had their diet switched from a grower to a finisher diet (feed-swap group), whereas another 90 steers were fed either the grower (grower-fed group) or the finisher (finisher-fed group) diet throughout the feeding trial. Each feeding test lasted for a minimum of 10 wk, and all steers were fed ad libitum. Individual animal feed intakes were collected using the GrowSafe feeding system, and BW were measured every 2 wk. Residual feed intake (RFI), G:F, and Kleiber ratio (KR) were computed at the end of each feeding period. For each measure of efficiency, animals were classified as low, medium, or high based on 0.5 SD from the mean. The majority of steers did not maintain the previous efficiency class in the second period. Approximately 58, 51, and 51% of steers in the feed-swap group, finisher-fed group, and the grower-fed group, respectively, changed their RFI measure by 0.5 SD. A low rank correlation occurred in all test groups but was less in the feed-swap group. Spearman rank correlations between the 2 feeding periods in the feed-swap group were 0.33, 0.20, and 0.31 for RFI, G:F, and KR, respectively. Classifications based on G:F and KR showed that a greater number of steers (P 0.05) between the proportions of individuals that changed or maintained their FE class. In the groups without a feed-swap, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in the proportion of steers that changed or maintained the same FE class for all FE measures. Our results suggest that diet type and feeding period affect the FE ranking in beef steers. A feedlot diet is ideal for evaluating the FE potential of steers for feedlot profitability; however, we suggest that tests involving less dense diets should

  5. Association analysis between feed efficiency studies and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T; Chen, L; Du, X; Lai, S J; Huang, S P; Liu, Y L; Lu, L Z

    2016-10-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is now considered a more reasonable metric to evaluate animal feed efficiency. In this study, the correlation between RFI and other feed efficiency traits was investigated and gene expression within the hypothalamus was determined in low RFI (LRFI) and high RFI (HRFI) ducks. Further, several hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mean feed intake value was 160 g/day, whereas the egg mass laid (EML) and body weight were approximately 62.4 g/day and 1.46 kg respectively. Estimates for heritability of RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake were 0.26, 0.18 and 0.23 respectively. RFI is phenotypically positively correlated with feed intake and FCR (P ducks compared with LRFI ducks (P ducks. The results indicate that selection for LRFI could reduce feed intake without significant changes in EML, whereas selection on FCR will increase EML. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a complex trait that is economically important for livestock production; however, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown in pigs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), candidate genes and biol...... revealed key genes and genetic variants that control feed efficiency that could potentially be useful for genetic selection of more feed efficient pigs....

  7. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Cancian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS and ultrasound (US for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US and feed efficiency (FE, carcass weight (HCW, dressing percentage (DP and retail product yield (RPY in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male, 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST] were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old and finishing phases (21-month old. Visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P and muscling (M were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT, rump fat thickness (URFT and ribeye area (UREA were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F ratio and residual feed intake (RFI were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  8. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    OpenAIRE

    Srisook, S.; Mahankich, S.; Tantikitti, C.; Onkong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM) replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulat...

  9. Hedgehog signaling mediates adaptive variation in a dynamic functional system in the cichlid feeding apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yinan; Albertson, R Craig

    2014-06-10

    Adaptive variation in the craniofacial skeleton is a key component of resource specialization and habitat divergence in vertebrates, but the proximate genetic mechanisms that underlie complex patterns of craniofacial variation are largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway mediates widespread variation across a complex functional system that affects the kinematics of lower jaw depression--the opercular four-bar linkage apparatus--among Lake Malawi cichlids. By using a combined quantitative trait locus mapping and population genetics approach, we show that allelic variation in the Hh receptor, ptch1, affects the development of distinct bony elements in the head that represent two of three movable links in this functional system. The evolutionarily derived allele is found in species that feed from the water column, and is associated with shifts in anatomy that translate to a four-bar system capable of faster jaw rotation. Alternatively, the ancestral allele is found in species that feed on attached algae, and is associated with the development of a four-bar system that predicts slower jaw movement. Experimental manipulation of the Hh pathway during cichlid development recapitulates functionally salient natural variation in craniofacial geometry. In all, these results significantly extend our understanding of the mechanisms that fine-tune the craniofacial skeletal complex during adaptation to new foraging niches.

  10. Efficient Variational Approaches for Deformable Registration of Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Ali Akinlar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirichlet, anisotropic, and Huber regularization terms are presented for efficient registration of deformable images. Image registration, an ill-posed optimization problem, is solved using a gradient-descent-based method and some fundamental theorems in calculus of variations. Euler-Lagrange equations with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are obtained. These equations are discretized by multigrid and finite difference numerical techniques. The method is applied to the registration of brain MR images of size 65×65. Computational results indicate that the presented method is quite fast and efficient in the registration of deformable medical images.

  11. Result Variation and Efficiency Kinetics in Real-Time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Shahsiah

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent monitoring of DNA amplification is the basis of real-time PCR. Absolute quantification can be achieved using a standard curve method. The standard curve is constructed by amplifying known amounts of standards under identical conditions to that of the samples.The objective of the current study is to propose a mathematical model to assess the acceptability of PCR resulys.Four commercial standards for HCV-RNA (hepatitis C virus RNA along with 6 patient samples were measured by real-time PCR, using two different RT-PCR reagents. The standard deviation of regression (Sy,x was calculated for each group of standard and compared by F-Test. The efficiency kinetics was computed by logistic regression, c2 goodness of fit test was preformed to assess the appropriateness of the efficiency curves.Calculated efficiencies were not significantly different from the value predicted by logistic regression model. Reactions with more variation showed less stable efficiency curves, with wider range of amplification efficiencies.Amplification efficiency kinetics can be computed by fitting a logistic regression curve to the gathered fluorescent data of each reaction. This model can be employed to assess the acceptability of PCR results calculated by standard curve method.

  12. Genetic relationships between feed efficiency in growing males and beef cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J J; Evans, R D; Mc Hugh, N; Kenny, D A; McGee, M; Crews, D H; Berry, D P

    2011-11-01

    Most studies on feed efficiency in beef cattle have focused on performance in young animals despite the contribution of the cow herd to overall profitability of beef production systems. The objective of this study was to quantify, using a large data set, the genetic covariances between feed efficiency in growing animals measured in a performance-test station, and beef cow performance including fertility, survival, calving traits, BW, maternal weaning weight, cow price, and cull cow carcass characteristics in commercial herds. Feed efficiency data were available on 2,605 purebred bulls from 1 test station. Records on cow performance were available on up to 94,936 crossbred beef cows. Genetic covariances were estimated using animal and animal-dam linear mixed models. Results showed that selection for feed efficiency, defined as feed conversion ratio (FCR) or residual BW gain (RG), improved maternal weaning weight as evidenced by the respective genetic correlations of -0.61 and 0.57. Despite residual feed intake (RFI) being phenotypically independent of BW, a negative genetic correlation existed between RFI and cow BW (-0.23; although the SE of 0.31 was large). None of the feed efficiency traits were correlated with fertility, calving difficulty, or perinatal mortality. However, genetic correlations estimated between age at first calving and FCR (-0.55 ± 0.14), Kleiber ratio (0.33 ± 0.15), RFI (-0.29 ± 0.14), residual BW gain (0.36 ± 0.15), and relative growth rate (0.37 ± 0.15) all suggest that selection for improved efficiency may delay the age at first calving, and we speculate, using information from other studies, that this may be due to a delay in the onset of puberty. Results from this study, based on the estimated genetic correlations, suggest that selection for improved feed efficiency will have no deleterious effect on cow performance traits with the exception of delaying the age at first calving.

  13. Hot topic: Definition and implementation of a breeding value for feed efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Nieuwhof, G; Wales, W J; Coffey, M P; Hayes, B J; Goddard, M E

    2015-10-01

    A new breeding value that combines the amount of feed saved through improved metabolic efficiency with predicted maintenance requirements is described. The breeding value includes a genomic component for residual feed intake (RFI) combined with maintenance requirements calculated from either a genomic or pedigree estimated breeding value (EBV) for body weight (BW) predicted using conformation traits. Residual feed intake is only available for genotyped Holsteins; however, BW is available for all breeds. The RFI component of the "feed saved" EBV has 2 parts: Australian calf RFI and Australian lactating cow RFI. Genomic breeding values for RFI were estimated from a reference population of 2,036 individuals in a multi-trait analysis including Australian calf RFI (n=843), Australian lactating cow RFI (n=234), and UK and Dutch lactating cow RFI (n=958). In all cases, the RFI phenotypes were deviations from a mean of 0, calculated by correcting dry matter intake for BW, growth, and milk yield (in the case of lactating cows). Single nucleotide polymorphism effects were calculated from the output of genomic BLUP and used to predict breeding values of 4,106 Holstein sires that were genotyped but did not have RFI phenotypes themselves. These bulls already had BW breeding values calculated from type traits, from which maintenance requirements in kilograms of feed per year were inferred. Finally, RFI and the feed required for maintenance (through BW) were used to calculate a feed saved breeding value and expressed as the predicted amount of feed saved per year. Animals that were 1 standard deviation above the mean were predicted to eat 66 kg dry matter less per year at the same level of milk production. In a data set of genotyped Holstein sires, the mean reliability of the feed saved breeding value was 0.37. For Holsteins that are not genotyped and for breeds other than Holsteins, feed saved is calculated using BW only. From April 2015, feed saved has been included as part of

  14. Efficient algorithm for bifurcation problems of variational inequalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mittelmann, H.D.

    1983-01-01

    For a class of variational inequalities on a Hilbert space H bifurcating solutions exist and may be characterized as critical points of a functional with respect to the intersection of the level surfaces of another functional and a closed convex subset K of H. In a recent paper [13] we have used a gradient-projection type algorithm to obtain the solutions for discretizations of the variational inequalities. A related but Newton-based method is given here. Global and asymptotically quadratic convergence is proved. Numerical results show that it may be used very efficiently in following the bifurcating branches and that is compares favorably with several other algorithms. The method is also attractive for a class of nonlinear eigenvalue problems (K = H) for which it reduces to a generalized Rayleigh-quotient interaction. So some results are included for the path following in turning-point problems

  15. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; calving had superior efficiency ratios as cows. Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  16. Associations of rumen parameters with feed efficiency and sampling routine in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S; Munro, J C; Zhou, M; Guan, L L; Schenkel, F S; Steele, M A; Miller, S P; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-11-10

    Characterizing ruminal parameters in the context of sampling routine and feed efficiency is fundamental to understand the efficiency of feed utilization in the bovine. Therefore, we evaluated microbial and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, rumen papillae epithelial and stratum corneum thickness and rumen pH (RpH) and temperature (RT) in feedlot cattle. In all, 48 cattle (32 steers plus 16 bulls), fed a high moisture corn and haylage-based ration, underwent a productive performance test to determine residual feed intake (RFI) using feed intake, growth, BW and composition traits. Rumen fluid was collected, then RpH and RT logger were inserted 5.5±1 days before slaughter. At slaughter, the logger was recovered and rumen fluid and rumen tissue were sampled. The relative daily time spent in specific RpH and RT ranges were determined. Polynomial regression analysis was used to characterize RpH and RT circadian patterns. Animals were divided into efficient and inefficient groups based on RFI to compare productive performance and ruminal parameters. Efficient animals consumed 1.8 kg/day less dry matter than inefficient cattle (P⩽0.05) while achieving the same productive performance (P⩾0.10). Ruminal bacteria population was higher (P⩽0.05) (7.6×1011 v. 4.3×1011 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) and methanogen population was lower (P⩽0.05) (2.3×109 v. 4.9×109 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) in efficient compared with inefficient cattle at slaughter with no differences (P⩾0.10) between samples collected on-farm. No differences (P⩾0.10) in rumen fluid VFA were also observed between feed efficiency groups either on-farm or at slaughter. However, increased (P⩽0.05) acetate, and decreased (P⩽0.05) propionate, butyrate, valerate and caproate concentrations were observed at slaughter compared with on-farm. Efficient had increased (P⩽0.05) rumen epithelium thickness (136 v. 126 µm) compared with inefficient cattle. Efficient animals

  17. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV =8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each fourheads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattlewas given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1%and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hoursand was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. Theresults showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P<0.01and daily BWGain (P<0.05, but the effect was not found (P>0.05 on DMI, length time for eating(196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time(37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This researchshowed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and ruminationcompared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  18. How to measure the economic impacts of changes in growth, feed efficiency and survival in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Setala, J.; Berrill, I.K.; Ruohonen, K.; Noble, C.; Schneider, O.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we introduce a variety of bio-economic models that can be used to calculate the economic benefits associated with improved productivity in aquaculture. In the aquaculture industry, three important biological productivity factors are growth, survival and feed efficiency. The

  19. Comparative study of thermoluminescent efficiencies before variation of experimental factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, O.; Estrada, D.; Gonzalez, P.; Rodriguez V, M.; Buenfil, A.E.; Ruiz T, C.; Brandan, M.E.; Gamboa de Buen, I.; Aviles, P.; Horowitz, Y.S.

    2001-01-01

    An investigation for quantifying the influence of varying distinct experimental factors in the measurements of relative thermoluminescent efficiency of 3 MeV protons was realized with respect to gamma radiation in LiF: Mg, Ti. Variations in a dosemeters batch were considered, as presentation, applied thermal treatments and reader equipment. The main conclusion of this work is to emphasize the importance for measuring entire series of experiments in the same laboratory following a protocol defined carefully and using dosemeters of the same batch for obtaining response before charging particle and the response before gamma radiation with identical procedures of baking and reading. (Author)

  20. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  1. Linkage of microbial ecology to phenotype: correlation of rumen microbial ecology to cattle's feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Le Luo; Nkrumah, Joshua D; Basarab, John A; Moore, Stephen S

    2008-11-01

    Linkage of rumen microbial structure to host phenotypical traits may enhance the understanding of host-microbial interactions in livestock species. This study used culture-independent PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to investigate the microbial profiles in the rumen of cattle differing in feed efficiency. The analysis of detectable bacterial PCR-DGGE profiles showed that the profiles generated from efficient steers clustered together and were clearly separated from those obtained from inefficient steers, indicating that specific bacterial groups may only inhabit in efficient steers. In addition, the bacterial profiles were more likely clustered within a certain breed, suggesting that host genetics may play an important role in rumen microbial structure. The correlations between the concentrations of volatile fatty acids and feed efficiency traits were also observed. Significantly higher concentrations of butyrate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P = 0.006) were detected in the efficient steers. Our results revealed potential associations between the detectable rumen microbiota and its fermentation parameters with the feed efficiency of cattle.

  2. Temporal feeding pattern may influence reproduction efficiency, the example of breeding mares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Benhajali

    Full Text Available Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares, night and day for the "continuous feeding" group (CF mares. The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets. Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002 and more fertility (p = 0.024 in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares. Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding.

  3. Efficient iris recognition by characterizing key local variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Tan, Tieniu; Wang, Yunhong; Zhang, Dexin

    2004-06-01

    Unlike other biometrics such as fingerprints and face, the distinct aspect of iris comes from randomly distributed features. This leads to its high reliability for personal identification, and at the same time, the difficulty in effectively representing such details in an image. This paper describes an efficient algorithm for iris recognition by characterizing key local variations. The basic idea is that local sharp variation points, denoting the appearing or vanishing of an important image structure, are utilized to represent the characteristics of the iris. The whole procedure of feature extraction includes two steps: 1) a set of one-dimensional intensity signals is constructed to effectively characterize the most important information of the original two-dimensional image; 2) using a particular class of wavelets, a position sequence of local sharp variation points in such signals is recorded as features. We also present a fast matching scheme based on exclusive OR operation to compute the similarity between a pair of position sequences. Experimental results on 2255 iris images show that the performance of the proposed method is encouraging and comparable to the best iris recognition algorithm found in the current literature.

  4. The dynamic efficiency of feed-in tariffs: The impact of different design elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic efficiency has received much less attention than the effectiveness and static efficiency criteria to assess policies to support electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E). On the other hand, the literature on RES-E support shows that the choice of design elements within RES-E support instruments is at least as important to successfully promote RES-E as the choice of specific instruments. The aim of this paper is to build a theoretical framework for dynamic efficiency analysis and assess the dynamic efficiency properties of the different design elements of feed-in tariffs. It is shown that, in fact, several design elements can have a significant impact on the different dimensions of dynamic efficiency. Particularly relevant design elements in this context are technology-specific fixed-tariffs, floor prices, degression, reductions of support over time for existing plants, long duration of support and support falling on consumers. In addition, it is shown than some design elements would be more appropriate than others to activate specific dimensions. - Highlights: ► A theoretical framework for dynamic efficiency analysis is built. ► The dynamic efficiency properties of feed-in tariffs design elements are assessed. ► Several design elements have a significant impact on the different dimensions of dynamic efficiency.

  5. Plant fertilization interacts with life history: variation in stoichiometry and performance in nettle-feeding butterflies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Audusseau

    Full Text Available Variation in food stoichiometry affects individual performance and population dynamics, but it is also likely that species with different life histories should differ in their sensitivity to food stoichiometry. To address this question, we investigated the ability of the three nettle-feeding butterflies (Aglais urticae, Polygonia c-album, and Aglais io to respond adaptively to induced variation in plant stoichiometry in terms of larval performance. We hypothesized that variation in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments should be functionally linked to species differences in host plant specificity. We found species-specific differences in larval performance between plant fertilization treatments that could not be explained by nutrient limitation. We showed a clear evidence of a positive correlation between food stoichiometry and development time to pupal stage and pupal mass in A. urticae. The other two species showed a more complex response. Our results partly supported our prediction that host plant specificity affects larval sensitivity to food stoichiometry. However, we suggest that most of the differences observed may instead be explained by differences in voltinism (number of generations per year. We believe that the potential of some species to respond adaptively to variation in plant nutrient content needs further attention in the face of increased eutrophication due to nutrient leakage from human activities.

  6. Fetal and neonatal programming of postnatal growth and feed efficiency in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Ju; Wang, Binggen; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic regulation of protein expression and functions include chromatin remodeling; DNA methylation (occurring at the 5´-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides); and histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination). Like maternal malnutrition, undernutrition during the neonatal period also reduces growth performance and feed efficiency (weight gain:feed intake; also known as weight-gain efficiency) in postweaning pigs by 5-10%, thereby increasing the days necessary to reach the market body-weight. Supplementing functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) and vitamins (e.g., folate) play a key role in activating the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and regulating the provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients are beneficial for the dietary treatment of metabolic disorders in offspring with intrauterine growth restriction or neonatal malnutrition. The mechanism-based strategies hold great promise for the improvement of the efficiency of pork production and the sustainability of the global swine industry.

  7. Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Supandi, Dadang; Firsoni

    2002-01-01

    Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

  8. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feed efficiency with growth performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Okine, E; Wang, Z; Basarab, J; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-05-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular importance to the beef industry, as feed costs represent the single largest variable cost in beef production systems. Selection for more efficient cattle will lead to reduction of feed related costs, but should not have adverse impacts on quality of the carcass. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic and genetic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for end-of-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf), and RFI adjusted for ultrasound backfat thickness and LM area (RFIfr) with growth, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in an Angus population of 551 steers and in a Charolais population of 417 steers. In the Angus steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlation of RFI with carcass merit traits including HCW, carcass backfat, carcass LM area, lean meat yield, and carcass marbling were not significant or weak with correlations coefficients ranging from -0.0007 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.21. In the Charolais steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with the carcass merit traits were also weak, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.19 ± 0.18, except for the genetic correlation with carcass average backfat, which was moderate with a magnitude of 0.42 ± 0.29. Inclusion of ultrasound backfat thickness in the model to predict the expected daily DMI for maintenance explained on average an additional 0.5% variation of DMI in the Angus steers and 2.3% variation of DMI in the Charolais steer population. Inclusion of both the ultrasound backfat and LM area in the model explained only 0.7% additional variance in DMI in the Angus steer population and only 0.6% in the Charolais steer population on top of the RFIf model. We concluded that RFIf adjusted for ultrasound backfat at the end of the test will lead to decreases of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations with carcass backfat and marbling score to a greater extent for late-maturing beef breeds such as Charolais than

  9. Ingestive behavior of Nellore and Bonsmara cattle during the feed efficiency test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Marchi Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported relationship between eating behavior and performance in feedlot cattle. The evaluation of behavior traits demands high degree of work and trained manpower, therefore, in recent years has been used an automated feed intake measurement system (GrowSafe System ®, that identify and record individual feeding patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between feeding behavior traits and average daily gain in Nellore calves undergoing feed efficiency test. Date from 85 Nelore males was recorded during the feed efficiency test performed in 2012, at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte, Instituto de Zootecnia, São Paulo State. Were analyzed the behavioral traits: time at feeder (TF, head down duration (HD, representing the time when the animal is actually eating, frequency of visits (FV and feed rate (FR calculated as the amount of dry matter (DM consumed by time at feeder (g.min-1. The ADG was calculated by linear regression of individual weights on days in test. ADG classes were obtained considering the average ADG and standard deviation (SD being: high ADG (>mean + 1.0 SD, medium ADG (± 1.0 SD from the mean and low ADG (feed per time (g.min-1 than the low and medium ADG animals. No diferences were observed (P>0.05 among ADG classes for FV, indicating that these traits are not related to each other. These results shows that the ADG is related to the agility in eat food and not to the time spent in the bunk or to the number of visits in a range of 24 hours.

  10. Indexed variation graphs for efficient and accurate resistome profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Will P M; Winn, Martyn D

    2018-05-14

    Antimicrobial resistance remains a major threat to global health. Profiling the collective antimicrobial resistance genes within a metagenome (the "resistome") facilitates greater understanding of antimicrobial resistance gene diversity and dynamics. In turn, this can allow for gene surveillance, individualised treatment of bacterial infections and more sustainable use of antimicrobials. However, resistome profiling can be complicated by high similarity between reference genes, as well as the sheer volume of sequencing data and the complexity of analysis workflows. We have developed an efficient and accurate method for resistome profiling that addresses these complications and improves upon currently available tools. Our method combines a variation graph representation of gene sets with an LSH Forest indexing scheme to allow for fast classification of metagenomic sequence reads using similarity-search queries. Subsequent hierarchical local alignment of classified reads against graph traversals enables accurate reconstruction of full-length gene sequences using a scoring scheme. We provide our implementation, GROOT, and show it to be both faster and more accurate than a current reference-dependent tool for resistome profiling. GROOT runs on a laptop and can process a typical 2 gigabyte metagenome in 2 minutes using a single CPU. Our method is not restricted to resistome profiling and has the potential to improve current metagenomic workflows. GROOT is written in Go and is available at https://github.com/will-rowe/groot (MIT license). will.rowe@stfc.ac.uk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Efficiency of organic acid preparations for the elimination of naturally occurring Salmonella in feed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Kolar, Veronika; Adler, Andreas; Strnad, Irmengard

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella can enter animal stocks via feedstuffs, thus posing not only an infection risk for animals, but also threatening to contaminate food of animal origin and finally humans. Salmonella contamination in feedstuffs is still a recurring and serious issue in animal production (especially for the poultry sector), and is regularly detected upon self-monitoring by feed companies (self-checks) and official inspections authorities. Operators within the feed chain in certain cases need to use hygienic condition enhancers, such as organic acids, to improve the quality of feed for animal nutrition, providing additional guarantees for the protection of animal and public health. The present study investigated the efficiencies of five organic acid preparations. The acid products were added to three different feed materials contaminated with Salmonella (contamination occurred by recontamination in the course of the production process) at seven different inclusion rates (1-7%) and analysed after 1, 2, and 7 days' exposure time using culture method (tenfold analysis). A reliable standard was established for defining a successful decontamination under the prevailing test conditions: 10 Salmonella-negative results out of 10 tested samples (0/10: i.e. 0 positive samples and 10 negative samples). The results demonstrated that the tested preparations showed significant differences with regard to the reduction in Salmonella contamination. At an inclusion rate of 7% of the feed materials, two out of five acid preparations showed an insufficient, very small, decontamination effect, whereas two others had a relatively large partial effect. Reliable decontamination was demonstrated only for one acid preparation, however, subject to the use of the highest acid concentration.

  12. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  13. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  14. Feeding variations and shape changes of a temperate reef clingfish during its early ontogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Bernal-Durán

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rocky reef fishes have complex life cycles, involving transition from a pelagic to a benthic environment. This means that as they grow, their morphology, behaviour and feeding habits must change. Therefore, shape changes occurring during early development of these fishes will be related to diet changes. The clingfish Sicyases sanguineus was selected for this study, because it displays a noticeable variation in shape from pelagic larvae to juvenile stage, and it is expected that diet composition will change as well. The pattern of shape changes was studied using geometric morphometrics. A set of 9 landmarks were digitized in 159 larval and juvenile fish and the same specimens were used for gut content analysis. Allometric growth was most prominent early in the ontogeny, from 4 to 12 mm. Morphology changed from a thin and hydrodynamic shape to a more robust and deeper body prior to settlement. The diet of the clingfish during larval stages showed preferences for a variety of copepod stages. As individual grows the ingested prey volume increases, but not the number and width of prey. A partial least square analysis showed low covariance between shape changes and diet composition changes in prey number and volume, suggesting that the two processes were temporally decoupled. The biggest shape changes, a lengthening of the visceral cavity and a flattening of the head, occurred up to 12 mm standard length, while the largest feeding differentiation, shifting from copepods to microalgae, occurred after 16 mm. Results suggest that shape changes precede trophic changes in this clingfish species during the transition from a pelagic to a benthic habitat.

  15. Genetic variation in efficiency to deposit fat and lean meat in Norwegian Landrace and Duroc pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, K H; Ødegård, J; Olsen, D; Meuwissen, T H E

    2015-08-01

    Feed costs amount to approximately 70% of the total costs in pork production, and feed efficiency is, therefore, an important trait for improving pork production efficiency. Production efficiency is generally improved by selection for high lean growth rate, reduced backfat, and low feed intake. These traits have given an effective slaughter pig but may cause problems in piglet production due to sows with limited body reserves. The aim of the present study was to develop a measure for feed efficiency that expressed the feed requirements per 1 kg deposited lean meat and fat, which is not improved by depositing less fat. Norwegian Landrace ( = 8,161) and Duroc ( = 7,202) boars from Topigs Norsvin's testing station were computed tomography scanned to determine their deposition of lean meat and fat. The trait was analyzed in a univariate animal model, where total feed intake in the test period was the dependent variable and fat and lean meat were included as random regression cofactors. These cofactors were measures for fat and lean meat efficiencies of individual boars. Estimation of fraction of total genetic variance due to lean meat or fat efficiency was calculated by the ratio between the genetic variance of the random regression cofactor and the total genetic variance in total feed intake during the test period. Genetic variance components suggested there was significant genetic variance among Norwegian Landrace and Duroc boars in efficiency for deposition of lean meat (0.23 ± 0.04 and 0.38 ± 0.06) and fat (0.26 ± 0.03 and 0.17 ± 0.03) during the test period. The fraction of the total genetic variance in feed intake explained by lean meat deposition was 12% for Norwegian Landrace and 15% for Duroc. Genetic fractions explained by fat deposition were 20% for Norwegian Landrace and 10% for Duroc. The results suggested a significant part of the total genetic variance in feed intake in the test period was explained by fat and lean meat efficiency. These new

  16. Feed efficiency of tropically adapted cattle when fed in winter or spring in a temperate location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G

    2018-04-16

    Earlier work has shown that young, tropically adapted cattle do not gain as rapidly as temperately adapted cattle during the winter in Oklahoma. The objective for this study was to determine if efficiency of gains was also impacted in tropically adapted cattle and if efficiency was consistent over different seasons. Over 3 yrs, 240 straightbred and crossbred steers (F1 and three-way crosses) of Angus, Brahman or Romosinuano breeding, born in Brooksville, FL were transported to El Reno, OK in October and fed in two phases to determine performance, individual intake and efficiency. Phase 1 (WIN) began in November after a 28 d recovery from shipping stress and Phase 2 (SS) began in March, 28 d following completion of WIN each year. The diet for WIN was a grower diet (14% CP, 1.10 Mcal NEg/kg) and that for the SS was a feedlot diet (12.8% CP; 1.33 Mcal NEg/kg). After a 14 d adjustment to diet and facilities, intake trials were conducted over a period of 56 to 162 d for determination of intake and gain for efficiency. Body weights were recorded at approximately 14 d intervals, and initial BW, median BW, and ADG were determined from individual animal regressions of BW on days on feed (DOF). Individual daily DMI was then regressed by phase on median BW and ADG, and residuals of regression were recorded as residual feed intake (RFI). Similarly, daily gain was regressed by phase on median BW and DMI, and errors of regression were recorded as residual gain (RADG). Gain to feed (G:F) was also calculated. The statistical model to evaluate ADG, DMI, and efficiency included fixed effects of dam age (3 to 4, 5, 6 to10, and > 10yr), harvest group (3 per year), age on test, and a nested term DT(ST x XB) where DT = proportion tropical breeding of dam (0, 0.5, or 1), ST= proportion tropical breeding of sire (1, or 0), and XB whether the calf was straightbred or crossbred. Year of record, sire(ST x XB) and pen were random effects. Pre-weaning ADG and BW increased (P efficiency

  17. Distributed photovoltaic architecture powering a DC bus: Impact of duty cycle and load variations on the efficiency of the generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouache, Hadj; Zegaoui, Abdallah; Boutoubat, Mohamed; Bokhtache, Aicha Aissa; Kessaissia, Fatma Zohra; Charles, Jean-Pierre; Aillerie, Michel

    2018-05-01

    This paper focuses on a photovoltaic generator feeding a load via a boost converter in a distributed PV architecture. The principal target is the evaluation of the efficiency of a distributed photovoltaic architecture powering a direct current (DC) PV bus. This task is achieved by outlining an original way for tracking the Maximum Power Point (MPP) taking into account load variations and duty cycle on the electrical quantities of the boost converter and on the PV generator output apparent impedance. Thereafter, in a given sized PV system, we analyze the influence of the load variations on the behavior of the boost converter and we deduce the limits imposed by the load on the DC PV bus. The simultaneous influences of 1- the variation of the duty cycle of the boost converter and 2- the load power on the parameters of the various components of the photovoltaic chain and on the boost performances are clearly presented as deduced by simulation.

  18. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisook, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulated to contain defatted SBM to replace fish meal at 0, 10 and 20% of fish meal protein. Each diet wasgiven to the fish at either 4% of body weight (BW or to satiation. At each feeding level, the fish were fed at two feeding frequencies, once and twice daily. Fish with an average initial weight of 2.04±0.06 g/fish werereared for twelve weeks in the flow through system. Growth of fish reduced with an increasing amount of defatted SBM incorporated in diets as observed in other carnivorous species. Within groups of fish fed thesame diet, different growth performance and feed efficiency differed due to both feeding level and frequency. Weight gain of fish that were fed diet with defatted SBM replacing 10% of fish meal protein (diet 2until satiation was not significantly different from fish fed fish meal based diet at 4% BW. Furthermore, feeding fish the former diet twice daily resulted in an improvement of FCR, PER and PPV of fish to those ofthe fish fed fish meal based diet at satiation twice daily. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss was affected by diet, feeding level and frequency. Fish fed diet 2 until satiation twice daily lost nitrogen and phosphorus in theamount similar to that of fish fed fish meal based diet until satiation.

  19. Individual and job-related variation in infant feeding practices among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzywacz, Joseph G; Tucker, Jenna; Clinch, C Randall; Arcury, Thomas A

    2010-01-01

    To document working mothers' infant feeding practices and delineate factors that may shape infant feeding. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a community sample of working women with 8-month old infants (n=199). Nearly all working mothers used commercially prepared foods like infant cereals, fruits, and vegetables. Approximately one-fifth fed infants french fries, sweetened beverages, and sweetened desserts. Unhealthy infant feeding was elevated among unmarried mothers, those with less education, and those with a nonstandard work schedule. Working mothers use commercially prepared foods for infant feeding. Socially disadvantaged working mothers' infant feeding may pose health and developmental risks.

  20. Ingestive behavior of Nellore and Bonsmara cattle during the feed efficiency test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Marchi Maiorano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to describe the ingestive behavior in Nellore and Bonsmara cattle during the feed efficiency test. The test was performed at the Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte – Instituto de Zootecnia, Sertãozinho, São Paulo State. Twenty-three Nellore and 19 Bonsmara calves, aging 276 ± 19.2 and 278 ± 29.2 days and weighing 246 ± 26.7 and 273 ± 30.7 kg, on average, at the beginning of the test, respectively, were used. Animals were randomly located in individual pens, during four periods of 28 days, being the first period a pre-test adjustment period. Calves were fed twice a day, with the same diet. Daily the amount of food offered was adjusted in order to maintain 5 to 10% of refusals. Dry matter intake (DMI was calculated by the difference between food offered and refusals. Animals were weighed each seven days. Average daily gain (ADG was obtained by linear regression of weights in days in test. Feed conversion was obtained by the DMI:ADG ratio. Ingestive behavior was measured three times, every 28 days, excluding de pre-test period. Observations lasted 24 hours, with records at intervals of five minutes. The behavioral traits analyzed were: bunk attendance duration (BAD, rumination time (RT and idle time (IT expressed in minutes per day. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS 9.3. The model included the fixed effects of period, breed and weight nested in breed. The weight nested in breed effect was significant for all traits analyzed (P<0.05. The breed effect was significant for BAD, RT, IT, e ADG (P<0.05. Nellore calves had higher means for ADG, BAD and RT and lower mean for IT (P<0.05 than Bonsmara calves. There were significant differences among periods for traits ADG, BAD and IT (P<0.05, showing that the animals had greater weight gain at the beginning of the feed efficiency test because they had spent more time feeding and consequently less time in idle. Thus, it is evident that there are differences in

  1. Associations of acute stress and overnight heart rate with feed efficiency in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, J C; Schenkel, F S; Physick-Sheard, P W; Fontoura, A B P; Miller, S P; Tennessen, T; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-03-01

    Proxies have the potential to accelerate feed efficiency (residual feed intake (RFI); kg dry matter/day) improvement, assisting with the reduction of beef cattle feed costs and environmental impact. Heart rate (HR) (beats per minute (BPM)) is associated with feed efficiency and influenced by autonomic activity and peripheral metabolism, suggesting HR could be used as a proxy for feed efficiency. Objectives were to assess associations between overnight HR, lying patterns and RFI, and between acute stress HR and RFI. Heifer calves (n=107; 408±28 days of age, 341±42.2 kg) and yearling heifers (n=36; 604±92 days of age, 539±52.2 kg) were exposed to a performance test to determine productive performance. Overnight HR (electrode based) and lying patterns (accelerometer based) were monitored on a subgroup of heifer calves (n=40; 20 lowest RFI; 20 highest RFI). In the 10-min acute stress assessment, all heifers were individually exposed to the opening and closing of an umbrella and HR before (HRBEF), in response to (HRMAX), after (HRAFT) and change (HRCHG; HRAFT-HRBEF) as a result of exposure were determined. Using polynomial regression, rate of HR decrease pre-exposure (β 1) and rates of HR increase (β 2) and decrease (β 3, β 4) post-exposure were determined. Heifer calves in the overnight assessment were classified into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and HR means were treated as repeated measures and compared using multiple regression. In the acute stress assessment, heifers were classified within cattle category into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and means and polynomial regression parameters were compared using multiple regression. Low-RFI heifer calves had a lower overnight HR (69.2 v. 72.6 BPM), similar HR change from lying to standing intervals (8.9 v. 9.2 BPM) and similar time lying (61.1% v. 64.5%) compared with high-RFI heifer calves. Low-RFI heifer calves had a higher absolute HRMAX (162.9 v. 145.7 BPM) and β 2 (-0.34 v. -0.20) than high

  2. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system. PMID:24344273

  3. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-12-24

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system.

  4. Global variation of carbon use efficiency in terrestrial ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaolu; Carvalhais, Nuno; Moura, Catarina; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-04-01

    Carbon use efficiency (CUE), defined as the ratio between net primary production (NPP) and gross primary production (GPP), is an emergent property of vegetation that describes its effectiveness in storing carbon (C) and is of significance for understanding C biosphere-atmosphere exchange dynamics. A constant CUE value of 0.5 has been widely used in terrestrial C-cycle models, such as the Carnegie-Ames-Stanford-Approach model, or the Marine Biological Laboratory/Soil Plant-Atmosphere Canopy Model, for regional or global modeling purposes. However, increasing evidence argues that CUE is not constant, but varies with ecosystem types, site fertility, climate, site management and forest age. Hence, the assumption of a constant CUE of 0.5 can produce great uncertainty in estimating global carbon dynamics between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. Here, in order to analyze the global variations in CUE and understand how CUE varies with environmental variables, a global database was constructed based on published data for crops, forests, grasslands, wetlands and tundra ecosystems. In addition to CUE data, were also collected: GPP and NPP; site variables (e.g. climate zone, site management and plant function type); climate variables (e.g. temperature and precipitation); additional carbon fluxes (e.g. soil respiration, autotrophic respiration and heterotrophic respiration); and carbon pools (e.g. stem, leaf and root biomass). Different climate metrics were derived to diagnose seasonal temperature (mean annual temperature, MAT, and maximum temperature, Tmax) and water availability proxies (mean annual precipitation, MAP, and Palmer Drought Severity Index), in order to improve the local representation of environmental variables. Additionally were also included vegetation phenology dynamics as observed by different vegetation indices from the MODIS satellite. The mean CUE of all terrestrial ecosystems was 0.45, 10% lower than the previous assumed constant CUE of 0

  5. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram. A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] level as substitute of conventional feed ingredients) for 6 weeks. The chicks were reared in battery brooders for the first 2 weeks, and thereafter, in well-ventilated deep litter house following standard management protocols. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to all the groups throughout the experiment. The daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain were recorded, and a metabolic trial for 3 days was conducted at the end of the 6(th) week. Feed consumption decreased for inclusion of TDLM but without any significant differences, except during the 3(rd) week where it reduced significantly (pbroilers reared under deep litter system of management in Mizoram.

  6. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  7. Intermittent fasting induces hypothalamic modifications resulting in low feeding efficiency, low body mass and overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chausse, Bruno; Solon, Carina; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C; Masselli Dos Reis, Ivan G; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B; Gobatto, Claudio A; Velloso, Licio A; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is an often-used intervention to decrease body mass. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, 24 hour cycles of IF result in light caloric restriction, reduced body mass gain, and significant decreases in the efficiency of energy conversion. Here, we study the metabolic effects of IF in order to uncover mechanisms involved in this lower energy conversion efficiency. After 3 weeks, IF animals displayed overeating during fed periods and lower body mass, accompanied by alterations in energy-related tissue mass. The lower efficiency of energy use was not due to uncoupling of muscle mitochondria. Enhanced lipid oxidation was observed during fasting days, whereas fed days were accompanied by higher metabolic rates. Furthermore, an increased expression of orexigenic neurotransmitters AGRP and NPY in the hypothalamus of IF animals was found, even on feeding days, which could explain the overeating pattern. Together, these effects provide a mechanistic explanation for the lower efficiency of energy conversion observed. Overall, we find that IF promotes changes in hypothalamic function that explain differences in body mass and caloric intake.

  8. Effects of feeding frequency variation on the growth and survival of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highest survival rate of 73.3% was recorded in fingerlings fed once in two days. The study showed that body composition of C. gariepinus fingerlings was influenced by the different feeding frequencies. Based on the growth performance recorded in this research, once in a day feeding frequency was the best to obtain the ...

  9. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed-in-Tariff (FiT mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii describes the developments of PV, (iii applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium; and finally (iv predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  10. Biofuels done right: land efficient animal feeds enable large environmental and energy benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Bals, Bryan D; Kim, Seungdo; Eranki, Pragnya

    2010-11-15

    There is an intense ongoing debate regarding the potential scale of biofuel production without creating adverse effects on food supply. We explore the possibility of three land-efficient technologies for producing food (actually animal feed), including leaf protein concentrates, pretreated forages, and double crops to increase the total amount of plant biomass available for biofuels. Using less than 30% of total U.S. cropland, pasture, and range, 400 billion liters of ethanol can be produced annually without decreasing domestic food production or agricultural exports. This approach also reduces U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by 670 Tg CO₂-equivalent per year, or over 10% of total U.S. annual emissions, while increasing soil fertility and promoting biodiversity. Thus we can replace a large fraction of U.S. petroleum consumption without indirect land use change.

  11. Energy and protein feed-to-food conversion efficiencies in the US and potential food security gains from dietary changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepon, A.; Eshel, G.; Noor, E.; Milo, R.

    2016-10-01

    Feeding a growing population while minimizing environmental degradation is a global challenge requiring thoroughly rethinking food production and consumption. Dietary choices control food availability and natural resource demands. In particular, reducing or avoiding consumption of low production efficiency animal-based products can spare resources that can then yield more food. In quantifying the potential food gains of specific dietary shifts, most earlier research focused on calories, with less attention to other important nutrients, notably protein. Moreover, despite the well-known environmental burdens of livestock, only a handful of national level feed-to-food conversion efficiency estimates of dairy, beef, poultry, pork, and eggs exist. Yet such high level estimates are essential for reducing diet related environmental impacts and identifying optimal food gain paths. Here we quantify caloric and protein conversion efficiencies for US livestock categories. We then use these efficiencies to calculate the food availability gains expected from replacing beef in the US diet with poultry, a more efficient meat, and a plant-based alternative. Averaged over all categories, caloric and protein efficiencies are 7%-8%. At 3% in both metrics, beef is by far the least efficient. We find that reallocating the agricultural land used for beef feed to poultry feed production can meet the caloric and protein demands of ≈120 and ≈140 million additional people consuming the mean American diet, respectively, roughly 40% of current US population.

  12. Utilization of macrominerals and trace elements in pregnant heifers with distinct feed efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R S; Montanholi, Y R; Lopez, S; Smith, B; Miller, S P; France, J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate utilization of dietary minerals and trace elements in pregnant heifers with distinct residual feed intakes (RFI). Feed intake, body weight (BW), and body composition traits were recorded in 36 crossbred heifers over a period of 37 wk, starting shortly after weaning at 8.3 (0.10; standard deviation) mo of age with an average BW of 276 (7.8) kg. Both BW and body composition were monitored regularly throughout the study, whereas individual feed intake was assessed during the last 84 d of the trial. Data recorded were used to calculate RFI for each heifer. Heifers were ranked based on RFI and assigned to high (n=14) or low (n=10) RFI groups. After the RFI study, 24 selected heifers [age 18.2 (0.14) mo; 87.5 (4.74) d in gestation; 497 (8.5) kg of BW] were used in an indirect digestibility trial (lignin as internal marker). Heifers were fed a ration containing corn silage, haylage, and a mineral premix in which Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn, and Co were provided in the diet according to National Research Council requirements of pregnant replacement heifers. The digestibility trial lasted 1 wk, during which samples of feces were gathered twice daily, and blood and liver biopsy samples were collected on the last day. We noted no significant differences between low- and high-RFI heifers in dry matter digestibility. Apparent absorption of Cu, Zn, and Mn was increased in heifers with low RFI, and apparent absorption of Co tended to be greater for these animals. Concentrations of macrominerals and trace elements in serum of pregnant heifers were similar for both groups except for Se, which was increased in the serum of low-RFI heifers. Liver concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn did not differ between low- and high-RFI heifers. In conclusion, whereas improved absorption of some trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co) and increased Se serum concentration appear to be associated with superior feed efficiency in pregnant

  13. Effects of probiotic supplement ( and on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population of weaning rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Lam Phuoc

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of single or/and double strains of probiotic supplement on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population in distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT of weaning rabbits. Methods Sixty-four weaning (28 days old New Zealand White rabbits were randomly distributed into four groups with treatments including: basal diet without probiotic supplement (control or supplemented as follows: 1×106 cfu/g B. subtilis (BS group, 1×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (LA group, or 0.5×106 cfu/g B. subtilis plus 0.5×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (BL group. During the research, the male and female rabbits were fed separately. Body weight of the rabbits was recorded at 28, 42, and 70 d of age. Results There was an increase (p<0.05 in body weight gain for the LA group at 42 d. Rabbits fed BL responsed with a greater growth (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05 than those fed with no probiotic. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and gross energy were higher (p<0.05 in LA and BL groups than those in the control group. Male rabbits had higher (p<0.05 Bacilli spp. and Coliformis spp. in the ileum than female rabbits. Rabbits supplemented with BS had greater (p<0.05 numbers of bacilli in all intestinal segments than those receiving no probiotic, whereas intestinal Lactobacilli populations were greater (p<0.001 in the LA and BL diets compared to control. Average intestinal coliform populations were lowest (p<0.05 in the rabbits supplemented with LA as compared to those fed the control and BS. Conclusion Supplementation of L. acidophilus alone or in combination with B. subtilis at a half of dose could enhance number of gut beneficial bacteria populations, nutrient digestibility, cecal fermentation, feed efficiency, and growth performance, but rabbits receiving only B. subtilis alone were not different from the controls without probiotic.

  14. Genetic variance and covariance and breed differences for feed intake and average daily gain to improve feed efficiency in growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K J; Bormann, J M; Weaber, R L; MacNeil, M D; Bradford, H L; Freetly, H C; Hales, K E; Moser, D W; Snelling, W M; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A

    2017-04-01

    Feed costs are a major economic expense in finishing and developing cattle; however, collection of feed intake data is costly. Examining relationships among measures of growth and intake, including breed differences, could facilitate selection for efficient cattle. Objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth and intake traits and compare indices for feed efficiency to accelerate selection response. On-test ADFI and on-test ADG (TESTADG) and postweaning ADG (PWADG) records for 5,606 finishing steers and growing heifers were collected at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center in Clay Center, NE. On-test ADFI and ADG data were recorded over testing periods that ranged from 62 to 148 d. Individual quadratic regressions were fitted for BW on time, and TESTADG was predicted from the resulting equations. We included PWADG in the model to improve estimates of growth and intake parameters; PWADG was derived by dividing gain from weaning weight to yearling weight by the number of days between the weights. Genetic parameters were estimated using multiple-trait REML animal models with TESTADG, ADFI, and PWADG for both sexes as dependent variables. Fixed contemporary groups were cohorts of calves simultaneously tested, and covariates included age on test, age of dam, direct and maternal heterosis, and breed composition. Genetic correlations (SE) between steer TESTADG and ADFI, PWADG and ADFI, and TESTADG and PWADG were 0.33 (0.10), 0.59 (0.06), and 0.50 (0.09), respectively, and corresponding estimates for heifers were 0.66 (0.073), 0.77 (0.05), and 0.88 (0.05), respectively. Indices combining EBV for ADFI with EBV for ADG were developed and evaluated. Greater improvement in feed efficiency can be expected using an unrestricted index versus a restricted index. Heterosis significantly affected each trait contributing to greater ADFI and TESTADG. Breed additive effects were estimated for ADFI, TESTADG, and the efficiency indices.

  15. Variation in nitrogen use efficiencies on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daatselaar, Co Hg; Reijs, Joan R.; Oenema, Jouke; Doornewaard, Gerben J.; Aarts, Frans

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: On dairy farms, the input of nutrients including nitrogen is higher than the output in products such as milk and meat. This causes losses of nitrogen to the environment. One of the indicators for the losses of nitrogen is the nitrogen use efficiency. In the Dutch Minerals Policy

  16. PUMPKIN CAKE AND PUMPKIN SLUDGE USE EFFICIENCY IN CHICKEN-ROILERS FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Shkrygunov K. I.; Lipova E. A.; Dikusarov V. G.; Soshkin Y. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research devoted to the poultry feeding with pumpkin cake and pumpkin sludge technology development and implementation – feeding stuff by-products at pumpkin seeds processing

  17. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  18. Conservation and variation in the feeding mechanism of the spiny dogfish squalus acanthias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga; Motta

    1998-05-01

    Changes in the feeding mechanism with feeding behavior were investigated using high-speed video and electromyography to examine the kinematics and motor pattern of prey capture, manipulation and transport in the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias (Squalidae: Squaliformes). In this study, Squalus acanthias used both suction and ram behaviors to capture and manipulate prey, while only suction was used to transport prey. The basic kinematic feeding sequence observed in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates is conserved in the spiny dogfish. Prey capture, bite manipulation and suction transport events are characterized by a common pattern of head movements and motor activity, but are distinguishable by differences in duration and relative timing. In general, capture events are longer in duration than manipulation and transport events, as found in other aquatic-feeding lower vertebrates. Numerous individual effects were found, indicating that individual sharks are capable of varying head movements and motor activity among successful feeding events. Upper jaw protrusion in the spiny dogfish is not restricted by its orbitostylic jaw suspension; rather, the upper jaw is protruded by 30 % of its head length, considerably more than in the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris (Carcharhinidae: Carcharhiniformes) (18 %) with its hyostylic jaw suspension. One function of upper jaw protrusion is to assist in jaw closure by protruding the upper jaw as well as elevating the lower jaw to close the gape, thus decreasing the time to jaw closure. The mechanism of upper jaw protrusion was found to differ between squaliform and carcharhiniform sharks. Whereas the levator palatoquadrati muscle assists in retracting the upper jaw in the spiny dogfish, it assists in protruding the upper jaw in the lemon shark. This study represents the first comprehensive electromyographic and kinematic analysis of the feeding mechanism in a squaliform shark.

  19. Effect of Two Different Levels of Fiber on Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, Feed Efficiency and Ruminal Metabolites of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salary Neya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay and starter fiber level on feed intake and performance of Holstein dairy calves, using thirty two male calves in a completely randomized design assigned to four diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments were as follow: T1: starter with low fiber and without alfalfa hay, T2: starter with low fiber along with alfalfa hay, T3: starter with high fiber and without alfalfa hay and T4: starter with high fiber along with alfalfa hay. Results showed feed intake was not significantly different in pre-weaning and throughout the study but after weaning there was significant difference among treatments. Average daily gain of calves was not significantly different during pre-weaning period but during post-weaning and throughout the study there was significant difference among treatments for this trait. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among treatments in pre-weaning and post-weaning periods but it was significantly different during throughout the study. The results of this experiment showed adding fiber to dairy calves ration through both starter concentrate and alfalfa hay may reduce their performance.

  20. Small intestinal growth measures are correlated with feed efficiency in market weight cattle, despite minimal effects of maternal nutrition during early to midgestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A M; Hess, B W; Paisley, S I; Du, M; Caton, J S

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that gestational nutrition would affect calf feed efficiency and small intestinal biology, which would be correlated with feed efficiency. Multiparous beef cows (n = 36) were individually fed 1 of 3 diets from d 45 to 185 of gestation: native grass hay and supplement to meet NRC recommendations (control [CON]), 70% of CON NEm (nutrient restricted [NR]), or a NR diet with a RUP supplement (NR+RUP) to provide similar essential AA as CON. After d 185 of gestation, cows were managed as a single group, and calf individual feed intake was measured with the GrowSafe System during finishing. At slaughter, the small intestine was dissected and sampled. Data were analyzed with calf sex as a block. There was no effect (P ≥ 0.33) of maternal treatment on residual feed intake, G:F, DMI, ADG, or final BW. Small intestinal mass did not differ (P ≥ 0.38) among treatments, although calf small intestinal length tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for NR than NR+RUP. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.20) in calf small intestinal density or jejunal cellularity, proliferation, or vascularity among treatments. Jejunal soluble guanylate cyclase mRNA was greater (P RUP than CON and NR. Residual feed intake was positively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with small intestinal mass and relative mass and jejunal RNA content but was negatively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with jejunal mucosal density and DNA concentration. Gain:feed was positively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with jejunal mucosal density, DNA, protein, and total cells and was negatively correlated (P ≤ 0.05) with small intestinal relative mass, jejunal RNA, and RNA:DNA. Dry matter intake was positively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with small intestinal mass, relative mass, length, and density as well as jejunal DNA and protein content, total cells, total vascularity, and kinase insert domain receptor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 mRNA and was negatively correlated (P = 0.02) with relative small intestinal length. In this

  1. Size does matter - Intraspecific variation of feeding mechanics in the crested newt Triturus dobrogicus (Kiritzescu, 1903)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucera, Florian; Beisser, Christian J.; Lemell, Patrick

    2018-03-01

    Many studies have yet been conducted on suction feeding in aquatic salamander species. Within the Salamandridae, the crested newt Triturus dobrogicus (Kiritzescu, 1903), occurring from the Austrian Danube floodplains to the Danube Delta, was not subject of investigations so far. The present study examines the kinematics of aquatic suction feeding in this species by means of high-speed videography. Recordings of five individuals of different size and sex while feeding on bloodworms were conducted, in order to identify potential discrepancies among individuals and sizes. Five coordinate points were digitized from recordings of prey capture and twelve time- and velocity-determined variables were evaluated. All specimens follow a typical inertial suction feeding process, where rapid hyoid depression expands the buccal cavity. Generated negative pressure within the buccal cavity causes influx of water along with the prey item into the mouth. Results demonstrate higher distance values and angles for gape in individuals with smaller size. In addition, hyoid depression is maximized in smaller individuals. While Triturus dobrogicus resembles a typical inertial suction feeder in its functional morphology, intraspecific differences could be found regarding the correlation of different feeding patterns and body size.

  2. Ontogenetic variations and feeding habits of a Neotropical annual fish from southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana S. Dias

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Knowing the feeding biology of a population and its ontogenetic aspects can help in understanding the functioning of fish assemblages, essential to the conservation of the habitat biodiversity in which these species are found. Annual fishes complete their life cycle in temporary aquatic environments, existing in adult stage only for brief annual periods. Changes in the feeding habits between different size classes could indicate that a species belongs to different feeding groups in different growth phases. The aim of this work was to characterize the diet of Cynopoecilus fulgens Costa, 2002 in a temporary flooded area in the coastal plain of southern Brazil, taking into consideration possible alterations in feeding habits in different body size classes caused by ontogenetic changes, to explain the coexistence of these individuals in a short space of time. The diet analysis indicated that C. fulgens is a generalist, consuming small crustaceans and autochthonous insects. Intraspecific differences in diet were determined when compared between nine classes of standard length. Adults fed mainly on autochthonous insects, and juveniles ingested mostly crustaceans, with the population being separated into two trophic groups: invertivores and invertivores with a tendency towards zooplanktivory. It is possible to conclude that the ontogenetic changes in the diet of C. fulgens are related to morphological restrictions due to the size of the individuals, since feeding competitive relations are probably not so evident.

  3. Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network Model to Estimate the TPH Removal Efficiency in Soil Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: A feed forward artificial neural network (FFANN was developed to predict the efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from a contaminated soil, using soil washing process with Tween 80. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of developed FFANN model for the estimation of   TPH removal. Materials and Methods: Several independent repressors including pH, shaking speed, surfactant concentration and contact time were used to describe the removal of TPH as a dependent variable in a FFANN model. 85% of data set observations were used for training the model and remaining 15% were used for model testing, approximately. The performance of the model was compared with linear regression and assessed, using Root of Mean Square Error (RMSE as goodness-of-fit measure Results: For the prediction of TPH removal efficiency, a FANN model with a three-hidden-layer structure of 4-3-1 and a learning rate of 0.01 showed the best predictive results. The RMSE and R2 for the training and testing steps of the model were obtained to be 2.596, 0.966, 10.70 and 0.78, respectively. Conclusion: For about 80% of the TPH removal efficiency can be described by the assessed regressors the developed model. Thus, focusing on the optimization of soil washing process regarding to shaking speed, contact time, surfactant concentration and pH can improve the TPH removal performance from polluted soils. The results of this study could be the basis for the application of FANN for the assessment of soil washing process and the control of petroleum hydrocarbon emission into the environments.

  4. Intraspecific growth variation among rainbow trout and brook trout: Impact of initial body weight and feeding level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Richard Skøtt; Ostenfeld, T.

    2010-01-01

    larger body weight (BW) CVs compared to BT (0.257 vs. 0.206, P differences in weight gains enhance size variations in terms...... for species (RT: 3.71, BT: 2.32, P > 0.05). The magnitude of slopes decreased over time (weeks 0–3:4.27, weeks 3–6:3.02 and weeks 6–9:1.74, P differences in weight gains between experimental groups were reflected in differences in coefficients of variations (CVs) for body growth. RT had...... of higher CVs, and this may have implications for feeding tactics in aquaculture where large size variations in groups may be disadvantageous to fish farmers....

  5. The efficiency of Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, Ronan; O'Malley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation has some unusual features making it different from other REFIT schemes around the world. By utilising an annual floor price element the scheme presents an option value to the contract holder, which to date has gone unnoticed or unvalued in the market. By employing an option pricing framework, this paper has quantified for the first time in the public domain the expected costs and value of the Irish REFIT support scheme for wind generation. While the cost of the REFIT scheme to the electricity consumer appears to be lower than the cost of schemes in other countries, significant inefficiencies exist as a result of the structure of the scheme. The Irish REFIT scheme is contrasted with a single Fixed Price support scheme and the analysis suggests that the Fixed Price scheme can provide a similar or greater incentive to the wind sector at half the cost to the end electricity consumer, and may also prove more compatible with consumers desire to reduce inter-year electricity portfolio cost volatility. - Highlights: → We review and summarise Ireland's support scheme for renewable energy. → We present information about the operation of the scheme in industry to date. → The scheme is really a series of put options. → Our option pricing model shows that the scheme is much more expensive/valuable than the industry has recognised to date. → The existing scheme is inefficient and simple variations represent much better policy instruments.

  6. Genetic variation associated with mammalian feeding in Culex pipiens from a West Nile virus epidemic region in Chicago, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shaoming; Hamer, Gabriel L; Molaei, Goudarz; Walker, Edward D; Goldberg, Tony L; Kitron, Uriel D; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2009-12-01

    Mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex are important vectors of West Nile virus in the United States. We examined the genetic variations of Cx. pipiens mosquitoes from Chicago, Illinois that were determined to be principally ornithophilic but exhibited a relatively higher inclination for mammalian hosts including humans. Microsatellite analysis of 10 polymorphic markers was performed on 346 engorged Cx. pipiens specimens with identified avian or mammalian blood meals. Our results indicated that there were no significant differences in allelic richness, the pattern of conformity to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, and linkage disequilibrium, nor was there overall genetic differentiation between specimens with avian- and mammalian-derived blood meals. However, Cx. pipiens form pipiens with mammalian- (including human-) derived blood meals had significantly higher ancestry (p 0.05) and the proportion of hybrids (p > 0.05) from Cx. quinquefasciatus (population from Harris Country, Texas). No temporal genetic variation was detected in accordance with the observation that there was no shift in blood feeding from birds to mammals. The results of this study in conjunction with regional host-feeding behavior suggest that the probability of genetic ancestry from Cx. pipiens f. molestus may predispose mosquitoes to feed more readily on mammals; however, the genetic mechanisms are unknown.

  7. Ethnic variation in infant-feeding practices in the Netherlands and Weight Gain at 4 months

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulk-Bunschoten, A.M.W.; Pasker-Jong, P.C.M. de; Wouwe, J.P. van; Groot, C.J. de

    2008-01-01

    This prospective study of 4438 infants (0-4 months) examined differences in infant-feeding patterns in relation to the ethnic origin of their mothers, based on the mother's native language: Dutch (87%), Turkish (4%), Moroccan (3%), other European languages (3%), and various other languages (4%).

  8. Seasonal variation of assemblage and feeding guild structure of fish species in a boreal tidal basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellnreitner, Florian; Pockberger, Moritz; Asmus, Harald

    2012-08-01

    Species composition, abundance, feeding relationships and guild structure of the fish assemblage in the Sylt-Rømø bight, a tidal basin in the northern Wadden Sea, were investigated to show seasonal differences and the importance of functional groups in this area. The tidal flats and in shallow subtidal areas were sampled using a beach seine and a bottom trawl net was used for deeper subtidal areas and tidal gullies. Species richness of fish was highest in summer where 26 species were caught, while the lowest richness was recorded in winter (17 species). Clear differences in species richness and abundance were found between shallow areas and deeper parts of the bight. Clupea harengus and Ammodytes tobianus were the most abundant species in deeper areas, while Pomatoschistus microps and Pomatoschistus minutus dominated shallower waters. Gut contents of 27 fish species were identified and the guild structure analyzed by UPGMA clustering of niche overlaps. Calanoid copepods (19.9%), Crangon crangon (18.2%) and mysid shrimps (8.4%) were the most abundant prey items of all fish species combined. Seven feeding guilds were present in the fall and winter, and eight and six in spring and summer, respectively. Fish feeding on calanoid copepods and C. crangon were present year round, whereas the occurrence of other guilds varied between seasons. Species composition of prey changed through seasons and, for some fish species, even the feeding mode itself varied with season. Most noticeable, 11 fish species changed guilds between seasons. We found a convergence in summer towards abundant prey items, whereas in winter diet overlap was lower. This is the first investigation of guild structure of almost all fish species present in a Wadden Sea area, and shows that consideration of seasonal differences is essential when determining feeding relationships of fish in temperate areas.

  9. Inherent variation in growth efficiency of African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) juveniles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matos Martins, de C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the major causes of growth variation is crucial for the success of fish farming since its reduction contributes to maximize production efficiency, reduce food waste and improve water quality. The growth variation observed in aquaculture has been associated with the establishment of

  10. Design of an economically efficient feed-in tariff structure for renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.; Su Xuejuan

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests, albeit tentatively, that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are more effective than alternative support schemes in promoting renewable energy technologies (RETs). FITs provide long-term financial stability for investors in RETs, which, at the prevailing market price of electricity, are not currently cost-efficient enough to compete with traditional fossil fuel technologies. On the other hand, if not properly designed, FITs can be economically inefficient, as is widely regarded to have been the case under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). Under PURPA, too high a guaranteed price led to the creation of so-called 'PURPA machines'-poorly performing generating units that could survive financially only because of heavy subsidies that came at the expense of retail customers. Similarly, because of their adverse impacts on retail electricity rates, German FITs have been subject to increasing political pressure from utilities and customers. In this paper, we propose an innovative two-part FIT, consisting of both a capacity payment and a market-based energy payment, which can be used to meet the renewables policy goals of regulators. Our two-part tariff design draws on the strengths of traditional FITs, relies on market mechanisms, is easy to implement, and avoids the problems caused by distorting wholesale energy markets through above-market energy payments. The approach is modeled on forward capacity market designs that have been recently implemented by several regional transmission organizations in the USA to address needs for new generating capacity to ensure system reliability

  11. Seasonal Variation in Feeding Behaviour of Indian Roofed Turtle, Pangshura tectum in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hossain Md Lokman; Sarker, Shorab Uddin; Sarker Noor Jahan

    2008-01-01

    Study was conducted in nature and in captivity to observe the food contents and feeding behaviour of Indian roofed turtle, Pangshura tectum, in Bangladesh between January 1997 and December 2001. The species was found to be omnivore, fed on plants, dead fishes, insects and fecal matters. In nature, the food consumption of the turtle was 3.32% of the body weight per day that was the highest in summer (4.6%) and lowest in winter (1.7%). In captivity, the consumption was 5.8% of the body weight per day and it was highest in rainy season (7.5%) and lowest in winter (3.8%). The feeding frequency was higher in captivity than in nature. (author)

  12. A genome-wide association scan in pig identifies novel regions associated with feed efficiency trait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Kadlecová, Veronika; Hornshøj, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an economically important trait in pigs and feed accounts for a significant proportion of the costs involved in pig production. In this study we used a high density SNP chip panel, Porcine SNP60 BeadChip, to identify association between FCR and SNP markers and to st...

  13. Genetic Determinism of Fearfulness, General Activity and Feeding Behavior in Chickens and Its Relationship with Digestive Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Bertin, Aline

    2017-01-01

    The genetic relationships between behavior and digestive efficiency were studied in 860 chickens from a cross between two lines divergently selected on digestive efficiency. At 2 weeks of age each chick was video-recorded in the home pen to characterize general activity and feeding behavior. Tonic immobility and open-field tests were also carried out individually to evaluate emotional reactivity (i.e. the propensity to express fear responses). Digestive efficiency was measured at 3 weeks. Genetic parameters of behavior traits were estimated. Birds were genotyped on 3379 SNP markers to detect QTLs. Heritabilities of behavioral traits were low, apart from tonic immobility (0.17-0.18) and maximum meal length (0.14). The genetic correlations indicated that the most efficient birds fed more frequently and were less fearful. We detected 14 QTL (9 for feeding behavior, 3 for tonic immobility, 2 for frequency of lying). Nine of them co-localized with QTL for efficiency, anatomy of the digestive tract, feed intake or microbiota composition. Four genes involved in fear reactions were identified in the QTL for tonic immobility on GGA1.

  14. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , compared to their lowest recorded weight after calving. Subsequently, the cows were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments until the end of lactation. There was no effect of feeding strategy on DM intake during week 9–40 of lactation. Fat supplemented rations (WCR; RPF) increased yield of milk...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...

  15. Integrated GWAS and Pathway profiling for feed efficiency traits in pigs leads to novel genes and their molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2013-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) are being extensively used in revealing genetic architecture of complex traits. However, GWAS offer limited understanding of the biological role of significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting complex traits. Pathway analysis using GWAS results...... is an important step where we firstly detect genes located near GWAS-detected SNPs and subsequently we detect enrichment of these genes in various biological processes and pathways. The objective of this study was to apply these steps to identify relevant pathways involved in residual feed intake (RFI) in pigs....... Residual feed intake is a feed efficiency measure and is highly economically important in animal production. In our study, a total of 596 Yorkshire boars had phenotypic and genotypic records. After quality control, 37,915 SNPs were available for GWAS which was implemented in the DMU software package...

  16. The effect of different feed restriction programs on reproductive performance, efficiency, frame size, and uniformity in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; Coon, C N

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feed restriction programs on breeder reproductive performance. In experiment 1, every day (ED), skip-a-day (SK), 4-3, and 5-2 programs were compared. Diets did not differ, and feed intake was identical in all groups. Four hundred twenty pullets were reared on each program. At 21 wk, 80 breeders from each program were individually housed to record performance parameters. Body weight and frame size were larger in ED pullets than SK, 4-3, or 5-2 despite equal intakes. Hens fed ED reached sexual maturity at a younger age than other groups. Hens fed ED also produced more total and settable eggs than SK hens. Egg weight was heavier in 5-2 hens than in ED with 4-3 and SK intermediate. Efficiency of feed utilization was best in ED hens. In experiment 2 the same programs were tested, but pullets were reared to reach equal BW. One hundred seventy-five pullets were reared on each program, of which 60 were housed. Feed intake was greater for SK, 4-3, and 5-2 than ED pullets to reach the same BW. Frame size did not differ, indicating that BW was the cause of differences in experiment 1. In experiment 2, differences in performance were attenuated but not eliminated by feeding to reach equal BW, suggesting that metabolic factors aside from BW are altered by feeding programs. The 5-2 produced larger eggs than ED with the trend among programs being identical to that in experiment 1. These results suggest that metabolic changes such as increased lipogenesis or alterations in body composition may result in larger eggs in feeding programs that include off-feed days. Mortality, fertility, and hatchability were not affected by feeding programs in either experiment. Body composition analysis indicated the importance of total lean protein mass as a threshold for the onset of sexual maturity. Programs like SK are less efficient than ED and may result in reduced performance.

  17. Primary genome scan to identify putative quantitative trait loci for feedlot growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Li, C; Marques, E; Crews, D H; Bartusiak, R; Murdoch, B; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A; Moore, S S

    2007-12-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle are economically relevant traits. The study was conducted to identify QTL for feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle by using genotype information from 100 microsatellite markers and 355 SNP genotyped across 400 progeny of 20 Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls. Traits analyzed include feedlot ADG, daily DMI, feed-to-gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F)], and residual feed intake (RFI). A mixed model with sire as random and QTL effects as fixed was used to generate an F-statistic profile across and within families for each trait along each chromosome, followed by empirical permutation tests to determine significance thresholds for QTL detection. Putative QTL for ADG (chromosome-wise P < 0.05) were detected across families on chromosomes 5 (130 cM), 6 (42 cM), 7 (84 cM), 11 (20 cM), 14 (74 cM), 16 (22 cM), 17 (9 cM), 18 (46 cM), 19 (53 cM), and 28 (23 cM). For DMI, putative QTL that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 1 (93 cM), 3 (123 cM), 15 (31 cM), 17 (81 cM), 18 (49 cM), 20 (56 cM), and 26 (69 cM) in the across-family analyses. Putative across-family QTL influencing F:G that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 3 (62 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (27 cM), 11 (16 cM), 16 (30 cM), 17 (81 cM), 22 (72 cM), 24 (55 cM), and 28 (24 cM). Putative QTL influencing RFI that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 1 (90 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (22 cM), 8 (80 cM), 12 (89 cM), 16 (41 cM), 17 (19 cM), and 26 (48 cM) in the across-family analyses. In addition, a total of 4, 6, 1, and 8 chromosomes showed suggestive evidence (chromosome-wise, P < 0.10) for putative ADG, DMI, F:G, and RFI QTL, respectively. Most of the QTL detected across families were also detected within families, although the locations across families were not necessarily the locations within families, which is

  18. Effect of simplified feeding based only on wheat bran and brewer’s grain on rabbit performance and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Cherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simplified diets are based on maximum incorporation of fodder and/or by-products into animal feed, thus minimizing the formulation and the costs. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of feeding fattening rabbits with a simplified diet composed of only two agro-industrial by-products inexpensive and locally available: brewer’s grain and wheat bran. At weaning (35 days, 68 rabbits were divided into two identical groups (mean weight = 833 g and housed in individual cages until slaughter (77 days. Each of the two groups (B0 and SF was fed ad libitum either a commercial pelleted feed (control, or a simplified pelleted  experimental diet "SF" containing 72% wheat bran and 27% brewer’s grain. The feed conversion was within the standards and similar in the two groups (3.55 on average. The growth rate and feed intake of B0 group were 12% higher (P <0.001 than that of the SF group (35.2g vs 31.2 and 128.3 vs 113 g/d. The cold carcass yield and the carcass weight were respectively higher (P <0.001 by 4 units and by 9% in the control group. The carcass of SF group was less fatty (perirenal fat: -23%, inguinal fat: -41% and scapular fat:-14%. The economic efficiency was 40% better for SF diet with almost 50 Algerian Dinar more benefit (/kg of meat.

  19. Growth and food conversion efficiency in the fish Etroplus suratensis in relation to different feeding levels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Based on chemical composition of feed and body constituents, food utilization at maintenance and different production levels was estimated. On theoretical derivations, 175, 450 and 650 kcal/kg super(0.8)/week represented the maintenance, optimum...

  20. Circadian Macronutrients Variations over the First 7 Weeks of Human Milk Feeding of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran-Lev, Hadar; Mimouni, Francis B; Ovental, Amit; Mangel, Laurence; Mandel, Dror; Lubetzky, Ronit

    2015-09-01

    Little is known about circadian variations of macronutrients content of expressed preterm human milk (HM). This study evaluated diurnal variations of macronutrients and energy content of preterm HM over the first 7 weeks of lactation and tested the hypothesis that values obtained during a morning sample are predictive of those obtained from an evening sample. Expressed HM was obtained from 32 mothers of preterm infants (26-33 weeks in gestational age), who routinely expressed all their milk every 3 hours from the beginning of the second to the seventh week after delivery. One aliquot was obtained from the first morning expression and the second from the evening expression. Energy and macronutrients contents were measured using an HM analyzer. Mean fat and energy contents of all samples obtained during the whole period were significantly higher in evening samples (p < 0.0001). There were no significant differences between morning and evening carbohydrates and protein contents. Concentrations of protein, carbohydrates, and fat from morning samples were predictive of evening concentrations to different extents (R(2) = 0.720, R(2) = 0.663, and R(2) = 0.20, respectively; p < 0.02). The predictability of evening values by morning values was not influenced by the week of lactation at sampling or by individual patients. In repeated-measures analysis of variance performed on 11 patients who completed the whole 7-week period, over time, there was a significant decrease in fat, energy, and protein contents, whereas carbohydrates content remained unchanged. Day-night differences remained significant only for fat content. Circadian variations in fat and energy concentrations of HM are consistent over the first 7 weeks of lactation. There are no consistent circadian variations in HM protein and carbohydrates. Over a given day, there are little variations in protein and carbohydrates content, but fat concentrations are more variable, and evening values are less well predicted by

  1. Increasing efficiency of human mesenchymal stromal cell culture by optimization of microcarrier concentration and design of medium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Chew, Yi Kong; Tan, Hong Yu; Reuveny, Shaul; Weng Oh, Steve Kah

    2015-02-01

    Large amounts of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are needed for clinical cellular therapy. In a previous publication, we described a microcarrier-based process for expansion of MSCs. The present study optimized this process by selecting suitable basal media, microcarrier concentration and feeding regime to achieve higher cell yields and more efficient medium utilization. MSCs were expanded in stirred cultures on Cytodex 3 microcarriers with media containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Process optimization was carried out in spinner flasks. A 2-L bioreactor with an automated feeding system was used to validate the optimized parameters explored in spinner flask cultures. Minimum essential medium-α-based medium supported faster MSC growth on microcarriers than did Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (doubling time, 31.6 ± 1.4 vs 42 ± 1.7 h) and shortened the process time. At microcarrier concentration of 8 mg/mL, a high cell concentration of 1.08 × 10(6) cells/mL with confluent cell concentration of 4.7 × 10(4)cells/cm(2) was achieved. Instead of 50% medium exchange every 2 days, we have designed a full medium feed that is based on glucose consumption rate. The optimal medium feed that consisted of 1.5 g/L glucose supported MSC growth to full confluency while achieving the low medium usage efficiency of 3.29 mL/10(6)cells. Finally, a controlled bioreactor with the optimized parameters achieved maximal confluent cell concentration with 16-fold expansion and a further improved medium usage efficiency of 1.68 mL/10(6)cells. We have optimized the microcarrier-based platform for expansion of MSCs that generated high cell yields in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. This study highlighted the critical parameters in the optimization of MSC production process. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. On the extent of genetic variation for transpiration efficiency in sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, G.L.; Broad, I.J.; Farquhar, G.D.

    1997-01-01

    A glasshouse study examined 49 diverse sorghum lines for variation in transpiration efficiency. Three of the 49 lines grown were Sorghum spp. native to Australia; one was the major weed Johnson grass (Sorghum halepense), and the remaining 45 lines were cultivars of Sorghum bicolor. All plants were grown under non-limiting water and nutrient conditions using a semi-automatic pot watering system designed to facilitate accurate measurement of water use. Plants were harvested 56-58 days after sowing and dry weights of plant parts were determined. Transpiration efficiency differed significantly among cultivars. The 3 Australian native sorghums had much lower transpiration efficiency than the other 46 cultivars, which ranged from 7.7 to 6.0 g/kg. For the 46 diverse cultivars, the ratio of range in transpiration efficiency to its l.s.d. was 2.0, which was similar to that found among more adapted cultivars in a previous study. This is a significant finding as it suggests that there is likely to be little pay-off from pursuing screening of unadapted material for increased variation in transpiration efficiency. It is necessary, however, also to examine absolute levels of transpiration efficiency to determine whether increased levels have been found. The cultivar with greatest transpiration efficiency in this study (IS9710) had a value 9% greater (P < 0.05) than the accepted standard for adapted sorghum cultivars. The potential impact of such an increase in transpiration efficiency warrants continued effort to capture it. Transpiration efficiency has been related theoretically and experimentally to the degree of carbon isotope discrimination in leaf tissue in sorghum, which thus offers a relatively simple selection index. In this study, the variation in transpiration efficiency was not related simply to carbon isotope discrimination. Significant associations of transpiration efficiency with ash content and indices of photosynthetic capacity were found. However, the

  3. Colostrum replacer feeding regimen, addition of sodium bicarbonate, and milk replacer: the combined effects on absorptive efficiency of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, R G; Cabral, M A; Chapman, C E; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2014-01-01

    Eighty Holstein and Holstein cross dairy calves were blocked by birth date and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 treatments within each block to examine the effect of a colostrum replacer (CR) feeding regimen, supplementation of CR with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and provision of a milk replacer (MR) feeding on IgG absorption. Calves were offered a CR containing 184.5g/L of IgG in either 1 feeding at 0h (within 30 min of birth), with or without 30g of NaHCO3, with or without a feeding of MR at 6h of age, or 2 feedings of CR (123g of IgG at 0h with or without 20g of NaHCO3 and 61.5g of IgG at 6h with or without 10g of NaHCO3), with or without a MR feeding at 12h. Therefore, treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR; (2) 2 feedings of CR; (3) 1 feeding of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (4) 2 feedings of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (5) 1 feeding of CR + MR feeding; (6) 2 feedings of CR + MR feeding; (7) 1 feeding of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding; and (8) 2 feedings of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h after birth and were analyzed for IgG via radial immunoassay. Results indicated that CR feeding schedule, MR feeding, and the interactions CR × Na, CR × MR, and CR × Na × MR were similar for 24-h serum IgG, apparent efficiency of absorption, or area under the curve. Serum IgG at 24h, apparent efficiency of absorption, and area under the curve were decreased with addition of NaHCO3 compared with calves not supplemented with NaHCO3. These data indicate that supplementation of CR with NaHCO3 is not beneficial to IgG absorption and feeding MR within 6h of CR feeding does not affect IgG absorption. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Quantitative variations in the essential oil of Minthostachys mollis (Kunth.) Griseb. in response to insects with different feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchio, Erika; Zygadlo, Julio; Valladares, Graciela R

    2005-08-24

    Plants display a diverse array of inducible changes in secondary metabolites following insect herbivory. Herbivores differ in their feeding behavior, physiology, and mode of attachment to the leaf surface, and such variations might be reflected in the induced responses of damaged plants. Induced changes were analyzed for Minthostachys mollis, a Lamiaceae with medicinal and aromatic uses, and four species of folivore insects with different feeding habits (chewing, scraping, sap-sucking, and puncturing). In M. mollis leaves experimentally exposed to the insects, levels of the two dominant monoterpenes pulegone and menthone were assessed 24 and 48 h after wounding. Menthone content generally decreased in the essential oil of damaged leaves, whereas pulegone concentration increased in all treatments. These changes occurred also in the adjacent undamaged leaves, suggesting a systemic response. The relatively uniform response to different kinds of damage could be attributable to the presence of such a strongly active compound as pulegone in the essential oil of M. mollis. The effects of wounding on essential oil concentration may be significant from a commercial point of view.

  5. Rumen microbial variation and nutrient utilisation in mithun (Bos frontalis) under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, B; Saha, S K; Khate, K; Agarwal, N; Katole, S; Haque, N; Rajkhowa, C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of feeding different diets on fermentation, enzyme activities and microbial population in the rumen fluid of mithun (Bos frontalis). In a randomized block design, 20 male mithun (6-8 months of age, 152 ± 12.6 kg body weight) were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 5/group) and fed experimental diets ad libitum for 180 days. The diet R1 contained tree foliages (TF), R2 comprised of 50% concentrate mixture (CM) and 50% TF, R3 contained 50% CM and 50% rice straw, and R4 contained 50% CM, 25% TF and 25% rice straw. Rumen liquor was collected at 0 and 180 days of the experiment for estimation of different ruminal parameters and a digestion trial was conducted at the end of the experiment. Rumen fluid was analysed for pH, ammonia nitrogen (NH3 -N), total-N, ruminal enzymes, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) and microbial profile. The relative quantification of ruminal microbes was carried out with real-time PCR using bacteria as the house keeping gene. The dry matter intake, nutrients digestibility, body weight gain, NH3 -N, total-N, carboxymethyl cellulase, avicelase, xylanase, amylase, protease and molar proportion of butyrate were (p ecology, nutrient utilization and thus better performance under stall fed system. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Energy efficiency in the agricultural and food industry illustrated with the example of the feed production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembicki Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is an indicator specifying the amount of saved electric energy thanks to implementation of suitable systems and solutions aimed at reducing the energy consumption in a production plant. Effective use of electric energy or heat energy is intended to reduce the amount of energy required to manufacture products and provide services. Decreased demand for electric energy in the production plant by only a few percent’s may result in considerable savings which in turn assure increased production profitability. If we reduce the energy consumption, it will translate into reduced pollution generated and emitted to the environment. Thanks to this, the plant may limit its negative impact on the surrounding. The feed industry is known to consume much amount of energy for the purposes of production. This energy is intended for pre-processing of substrates, actual production and preparation of ready product to be taken over by the customer. Farmers use fodders to feed their animals. Quality of fodders (feeds and their ingredients determine health of farm animals, which has a direct impact on the quality of products we consume, and consequently on our health. An thorough analysis of feed production plants and reduction of their energy consumption should translate into improved effectiveness. Saved energy allows producing high-quality products and using ingredients of higher quality, which in turn may influence competitiveness of prices of ready products.

  7. Genetic parameters of rumination time and feed efficiency traits in primiparous Holstein cows under research and commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov, M V; Fogh, A; Løvendahl, P

    2017-12-01

    Feed efficiency has the potential to be improved both through feeding, management, and breeding. Including feed efficiency in a selection index is limited by the fact that dry matter intake (DMI) recording is only feasible under research facilities, resulting in small data sets and, consequently, uncertain genetic parameter estimates. As a result, the need to record DMI indicator traits on a larger scale exists. Rumination time (RT), which is already recorded in commercial dairy herds by a sensor-based system, has been suggested as a potential DMI indicator. However, RT can only be a DMI indicator if it is heritable, correlates with DMI, and if the genetic parameters of RT in commercial herd settings are similar to those in research facilities. Therefore, the objective of our study was to estimate genetic parameters for RT and the related traits of DMI in primiparous Holstein cows, and to compare genetic parameters of rumination data between a research herd and 72 commercial herds. The estimated heritability values were all moderate for DMI (0.32-0.49), residual feed intake (0.23-0.36), energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield (0.49-0.70), and RT (0.14-0.44) found in the research herd. The estimated heritability values for ECM were lower for the commercial herds (0.08-0.35) than that for the research herd. The estimated heritability values for RT were similar for the 2 herd types (0.28-0.32). For the research herd, we found negative individual level correlations between RT and DMI (-0.24 to -0.09) and between RT and RFI (-0.34 to -0.03), and we found both positive and negative correlations between RT and ECM (-0.08 to 0.09). For the commercial herds, genetic correlations between RT and ECM were both positive and negative (-0.27 to 0.10). In conclusion, RT was not found to be a suitable indicator trait for feed intake and only a weak indicator of feed efficiency. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Meta-analysis of the effects of essential oils and their bioactive compounds on rumen fermentation characteristics and feed efficiency in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiaosa-ard, R; Zebeli, Q

    2013-04-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effects of essential oils and their bioactive compounds (EOBC) on rumen fermentation in vivo as well as animal performance and feed efficiency in different ruminant species, using a meta-analysis approach. Ruminant species were classified into 3 classes consisting of beef cattle, dairy cattle, and small ruminants. Two datasets (i.e., rumen fermentation and animal performance) were constructed, according to the available dependent variables within each animal class, from 28 publications (34 experiments) comprising a total of 97 dietary treatments. In addition, changes in rumen fermentation parameters relative to controls (i.e., no EOBC supplementation) of all animal classes were computed. Data were statistically analyzed within each animal class to evaluate the EOBC dose effect, taking into account variations of other variables across experiments (e.g., diet, feeding duration). The dose effect of EOBC on relative changes in fermentation parameters were analyzed across all animal classes. The primary results were that EOBC at doses rumen as a result of decreased acetate to propionate ratio. These responses were more pronounced in beef cattle (methane, P = 0.001; acetate to propionate ratio, P = 0.005) than in small ruminants (methane, P = 0.068; acetate to propionate ratio, P = 0.056) and in dairy cattle (P > 0.05), respectively. The analysis of relative changes in rumen fermentation variables suggests that EOBC affected protozoa numbers (P 0.20 g/kg DM) of EOBC had an inhibitory effect on this variable whereas lower doses promoted the number. For performance data, because numbers of observations in beef cattle and small ruminants were small, only those of dairy cattle (DMI, milk yield and milk composition, and feed efficiency) were analyzed. The results revealed no effect of EOBC dose on most parameters, except increased milk protein percentage (Pcontent (P = 0.006). It appears that EOBC supplementation can enhance rumen

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of genes in the nitrogen recycling pathway of meat-type chickens divergently selected for feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrey, S E; Lee, J; Karnuah, A B; Rekaya, R

    2014-04-01

    The understanding of the dynamics of ammonia detoxification and excretion in uricotelic species is lagging behind ureotelic species. The relative expression of genes involved in nitrogen recycling and feed efficiency in chickens is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the transcriptomics differences in key genes in the nitrogen (N) metabolism and purine biosynthesis pathway in a chicken population divergently selected for low (LRFI) or high (HRFI) residual feed intake at days 35 and 42 using duodenum, liver, pectoralis major (P. major) and kidney. There was a significant positive correlation between RFI and fecal N. The purine salvage pathway was activated in the LRFI compared with HRFI at days 42. The birds in the LRFI population attained greater feed efficiency by having lower FI, increasing their protein retention and producing adequate glutamine to maintain growth compared with the HRFI line. To maintain growth, excess N is deaminated mostly to generate purine nucleotides. Generating purine nucleotides primarily from the purine biosynthesis pathway is energetically costly, and to preserve energy, they preferentially generate nucleotides from the purine salvage pathway. The LRFI birds need to generate sufficient nucleotides to maintain growth despite reduced FI that then results in reduced fecal N. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  10. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feed intake and measures of efficiency with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Crews, D H; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feed intake and efficiency of growth are economically important traits of beef cattle. This study determined the relationships of daily DMI, feed:gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F) and therefore increases as the efficiency of gain decreases and vice versa, residual feed intake (RFI), and partial efficiency of growth (efficiency of ADG, PEG) with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle. Residual feed intake was calculated from phenotypic regression (RFIp) or genetic regression (RFIg) of ADG and metabolic BW on DMI. An F1 half-sib pedigree file containing 28 sires, 321 dams, and 464 progeny produced from crosses between Alberta Hybrid cows and Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls was used. Families averaged 20 progeny per sire (range = 3 to 56). Performance, ultrasound, and DMI data was available on all progeny, of which 381 had carcass data. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were obtained using SAS and ASREML software, respectively. Differences in RFIp and RFIg, respectively, between the most and least efficient steers (i.e., steers with the lowest PEG) were 5.59 and 6.84 kg of DM/d. Heritabilities for DMI, F:G, PEG, RFIp, and RFIg were 0.54 +/- 0.15, 0.41 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.16, 0.21 +/- 0.12, and 0.42 +/- 0.15, respectively. The genetic (r = 0.92) and phenotypic (r = 0.97) correlations between RFIp and RFIg indicated that the 2 indices are very similar. Both indices of RFI were favorably correlated phenotypically (P 0.50), but only DMI had strong genetic (r = 0.87 +/- 0.10) and phenotypic (r = 0.65) correlations with metabolic BW. Generally, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with carcass merit were not different from zero, except genetic correlations of RFI with ultrasound and carcass LM area and carcass lean yield and phenotypic correlations of RFI with backfat thickness (P < 0.01). Daily DMI had moderate to high phenotypic (P < 0.01) and genetic correlations with all the ultrasound and carcass traits

  11. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency due to differences in photosynthetic capacity among sugarcane-related clones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjia; Jackson, Phillip; Lu, Xin; Xu, Chaohua; Cai, Qing; Basnayake, Jayapathi; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Ghannoum, Oula; Fan, Yuanhong

    2017-04-01

    Sugarcane, derived from the hybridization of Saccharum officinarum×Saccharum spontaneum, is a vegetative crop in which the final yield is highly driven by culm biomass production. Cane yield under irrigated or rain-fed conditions could be improved by developing genotypes with leaves that have high intrinsic transpiration efficiency, TEi (CO2 assimilation/stomatal conductance), provided this is not offset by negative impacts from reduced conductance and growth rates. This study was conducted to partition genotypic variation in TEi among a sample of diverse clones from the Chinese collection of sugarcane-related germplasm into that due to variation in stomatal conductance versus that due to variation in photosynthetic capacity. A secondary goal was to define protocols for optimized larger-scale screening of germplasm collections. Genotypic variation in TEi was attributed to significant variation in both stomatal and photosynthetic components. A number of genotypes were found to possess high TEi as a result of high photosynthetic capacity. This trait combination is expected to be of significant breeding value. It was determined that a small number of observations (16) is sufficient for efficiently screening TEi in larger populations of sugarcane genotypes The research methodology and results reported are encouraging in supporting a larger-scale screening and introgression of high transpiration efficiency in sugarcane breeding. However, further research is required to quantify narrow sense heritability as well as the leaf-to-field translational potential of genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency-related traits observed in this study. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  12. Growth, meat and feed efficiency traits of lambs born to ewes submitted to energy restriction during mid-gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, L; Quintans, G; San Julián, R; Ferreira, G; Ithurralde, J; Fierro, S; Pereira, A S C; Baldi, F; Banchero, G E

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the energy restriction of gestation of adult ewes from day 45 to day 115 on lamb live performance parameters, carcass and meat traits. In experiment I, dietary energy was restricted at 70% of the metabolizable energy (ME) requirements, after which ewes were re-fed ad libitum until lambing. In experiment II, dietary energy was restricted at 60% of the ME requirements, and ewes were re-fed to ME requirements until lambing. All ewes grazed together from the end of the restriction periods to weaning. Lambs were weaned and lot fed until slaughter. Feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency were recorded, and body fat thickness and ribeye area (REA) were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle. After slaughter, carcass weight and yield, fat depth, carcass and leg length, and frenched rack and leg weights and yields were determined. Muscle fiber type composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color were determined in the longissimus lumborum muscle. In experiment I, energy restriction followed by ad libitum feeding affected lamb birth weight (P0.05) were observed on later BW, REA, BF or carcass traits. Lambs born to non-restricted-fed ewes had higher (Penergy restriction followed by ME requirements feeding, affected (Pefficient (P=0.16) than lambs from unrestricted dams. Ribeye area and BF were not influenced by treatment. Treatment significantly affected slaughter weight, but had no effects on carcass yield and traits or on meat traits. The results obtained in both experiments indicate submitting ewes to energy restriction during gestation affects the performance of their progeny but the final outcome would depend on the ewe's re-feeding level during late gestation and the capacity of the offspring to compensate the in utero restriction after birth.

  13. About efficient quasi-Newtonian schemes for variational calculations in nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puddu, G.

    2009-01-01

    The Broyden-Fletcher-Goldhaber-Shanno (BFGS) quasi-Newtonian scheme is known as the most efficient scheme for variational calculations of energies. This scheme is actually a member of a one-parameter family of variational methods, known as the Broyden β-family. In some applications to light nuclei using microscopically derived effective Hamiltonians starting from accurate nucleon-nucleon potentials, we actually found other members of the same family which have better performance than the BFGS method. We also extend the Broyden β -family of algorithms to a two-parameter family of rank-three updates which has even better performances. (orig.)

  14. Spot Feeding Spheroidal Graphite Iron with Exothermic and Insulating Ram-Up Sleeves in Vertically Parted Moulds: Efficiency, Microstructure, Dimensional Accuracy, Deformation, and Driving Force and Feeding Criteria Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard

    feeders (ram-up sleeves) is investigated, showing that this new feeding approach can be used successfully to feed secluded sections inductile cast iron (EN-GJS-500-7). The feeder efficiency is tested using a high Silicon (Si) ductile iron (EN-GJS-450-10). The limits for the examined feeder configurations......Improvement of feeder technologies for energy savings in cast iron foundries is not only the title of the project behind this dissertation; it is a good idea that can improve casting yield and reduce production cost, and in turn strengthening the foundries competitive advantage. The approach...... of solidification. The dissertation provides a new approach to feeding secluded sections, a new characterisation of the underlying feeding forces, and new knowledge about the thermal deformation effects caused and controlled by feeding....

  15. Effects of feed intake and dietary urea concentration on ruminal dilution rate and efficiency of bacteria growth in steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firkins, J.L.; Lewis, S.M.; Montgomery, L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Four multiple-fistulated steers (340 kg) were fed a diet containing 50% ground grass hay, 20% dry distillers grains, and 30% concentrate at two intakes (7.2 or 4.8 kg DM/d). Urea (.4 or 1.2% of the diet) was infused continuously into the steers' rumens. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Infusing urea at .4 or 1.2% of the diet resulted in ruminal NH 3 N concentration of 4.97 and 9.10 mg/dl, respectively. Feeding steers at high rather than low intake decreased ruminal and total tract digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, and ADF but did not increase ruminal escape of N. However, apparent N escape from the rumen calculated using purines, but not 15 N, as a bacterial marker was higher when 1.2 vs. .4% urea was infused. Feeding at high rather than at low intake increased the total pool of viable bacteria per gram organic matter fermented in the rumen. Although ruminal fluid outflows and particulate dilution rates were greater when steers were fed at high than low intakes, efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were unaffected by intake. The possibility of increased N recycling within the rumen with feeding at the higher intake is discussed

  16. Feed efficiency of tropically adapted cattle when fed in winter or spring in a temperate location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier work has shown that young, tropically adapted cattle do not gain as rapidly as temperately adapted cattle during the winter in OK. The objective for this study was to determine if efficiency of gains was also impacted in tropically adapted cattle and if efficiency is consistent in different...

  17. Efficiency of use of supplementary lighting in rearing of dairy calves during milk feeding stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledson L. P. de Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate programs of supplementary lighting for calves in individual shelters with different roof materials, as a strategy to stimulate concentrate consumption and the reduction of the milk feeding period and increase financial viability. Twenty seven dairy crossed Holstein × Gir female calves were randomly distributed in individual shelters with three different roofing materials (cement fiber tile, recycled tile and thatched roofs, associated with three different light duration (12, 16 and 20 h and with three repetitions. The experimental design was completely randomized in 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between the types of roofs × supplemental light; also, there was no significant effect of the covering types on the average consumption of concentrate and occurance of diarrhea in calves. On the other hand 20 h of lighting stimulated the consumption of concentrate and allowed weaning of calves at 55 days of age and 20% reduction in the cost of rearing animals during milk feeding stage.

  18. Feeding behavior, microbial efficiency, and nitrogen balance of Nellore heifers supplemented with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Mesquita da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of crude glycerin in diets for Nellore heifers grazing on a Brachiaria brizantha pasture, during the dry season, on urine and plasma urea concentrations, feeding behavior, and microbial protein synthesis. Sixty Nellore heifers with an average initial weight of 285.89 ± 18.74 kg, at approximately 19 ± 2 months of age, were distributed, in a completely randomized design, into the following five treatments with twelve replicates: 0.00, 4.00, 8.00, 12.00, and 16.00% inclusion of crude glycerin in the diet they were fed. Grazing time decreased linearly (P 0.05, averaging 113.73g CP per kg TDN ingested. Plasma nitrogen concentration did not show any effects (P > 0.05, averaging 13.11 mg dL?1. Supplementing heifers during the dry season, at 0.7% BW, using up to 16% crude glycerin in the diet composition, did not elicit positive responses from feeding behavior and had little influence on microbial synthesis.

  19. Variations in land surface temperature and cooling efficiency of green space in rapid urbanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Zhaowu; Guo, Xieying; Zeng, Yuxi

    2018-01-01

    understood. Additionally, a strategy to optimize the most significant decreased land cover type in order to maximize the cooling effect is still lacking. Therefore, in this study, we selected the rapidly urbanizing and ‘hottest’ city in China, Fuzhou, as a case study. Two algorithms were selected to compare....... This study extends the current understanding of LCC dynamics and LST variation. The concepts of the CE and TVoE are meaningful for landscape planning practice and can be used in other cases....... and obtain reliable LST data. A land use transfer matrix was used to detect critical contributions leading to the LST variations. The concept of cooling efficiency (CE) and the threshold value of efficiency (TVoE) are also proposed, defined, and calculated. The results show that LST values increased...

  20. Evidence of increment of efficiency of the Mexican Stock Market through the analysis of its variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Brizio, H. F.; Hernández-Montoya, A. R.; Huerta-Quintanilla, R.; Rodríguez-Achach, M.

    2007-07-01

    It is well known that there exist statistical and structural differences between the stock markets of developed and emerging countries. In this work, and in order to find out if the efficiency of the Mexican Stock Market has been changing over time, we have performed and compared several analyses of the variations of the Mexican Stock Market index (IPC) and Dow Jones industrial average index (DJIA) for different periods of their historical daily data. We have analyzed the returns autocorrelation function (ACF) and used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study returns variations. We also analyze the volatility, mean value and standard deviation of both markets and compare their evolution. We conclude from the overall result of these studies, that they show compelling evidence of the increment of efficiency of the Mexican Stock Market over time. The data samples analyzed here, correspond to daily values of the IPC and DJIA for the period 10/30/1978-02/28/2006.

  1. Inter-domain synergism is required for efficient feeding of cellulose chain into active site of cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim

    2016-01-01

    systems. TrCel7A consists of catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites. The active site of TrCel7A is lined with four Trp residues with two...... to Ala substitution on on-rates was strongly dependent on the presence of the CBM-linker. This compensation between CBM-linker and Trp-38 indicates synergism between CBM-linker and CD in feeding the cellulose chain into the active site. The inter-domain synergism was pre-requisite for the efficient......Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme...

  2. Effects of different feeding levels on moulting, growth, food conversion efficiency and biochemical composition of the prawn, metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    food/g prawn/day represented the maintenance, optimum and maximum feeding levels Specific dynamic action increased twice at the observed maximum feeding level (20%) than at optimum feeding level (12%), indicating that the energy cost of converting food...

  3. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Meixia; Luo, Weiwei; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhou, Ying; Tong, Jingou

    2018-01-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Brain tissues of six crucian carp with extreme FCE performances were subjected to transcriptome analysis. A total of 544,612 unigenes with a mean size of 644.38 bp were obtained from Low- and High-FCE groups, and 246 DEGs that may be involved in FCE traits were identified in these two groups. qPCR confirmed that genes previously identified as up- or down-regulated by RNA-Seq were effectively up- or down-regulated under the studied conditions. Thirteen key genes, whose functions are associated with metabolism (Dgkk, Mgst3 and Guk1b), signal transduction (Vdnccsa1b, Tgfα, Nr4a1 and Tacr2) and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1, Myh14 and Igfbp7) were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) annotations. Our novel findings provide useful pathway information and candidate genes for future studies of genetic mechanisms underlying FCE in crucian carp. PMID:29538345

  4. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixia Pang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus. Brain tissues of six crucian carp with extreme FCE performances were subjected to transcriptome analysis. A total of 544,612 unigenes with a mean size of 644.38 bp were obtained from Low- and High-FCE groups, and 246 DEGs that may be involved in FCE traits were identified in these two groups. qPCR confirmed that genes previously identified as up- or down-regulated by RNA-Seq were effectively up- or down-regulated under the studied conditions. Thirteen key genes, whose functions are associated with metabolism (Dgkk, Mgst3 and Guk1b, signal transduction (Vdnccsa1b, Tgfα, Nr4a1 and Tacr2 and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1, Myh14 and Igfbp7 were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Our novel findings provide useful pathway information and candidate genes for future studies of genetic mechanisms underlying FCE in crucian carp.

  5. Effect of breeding strategy and feeding system on the within-herd variation of lean meat percents in Danish slaughter pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stege, H; Bagger, J; Nielsen, J P; Ersbøll, A K

    2011-08-01

    In several countries slaughter pigs are paid for individually, according to slaughter weight and lean meat percent (LMP). Production of uniform batches of pigs within the optimal weight and LMP limits will obtain the best price. Therefore, all pigs should have a similar growth rate (average daily gain, ADG) and reach an appropriate slaughter weight within the same time period. LMP may serve as a proxy for ADG since pigs with low LMP have significantly higher ADG than pigs with high LMP and vice versa. Both breeding strategy and feeding system may influence the range of variation among pigs. The aim of this study was to test the two following hypotheses: (1) Herds purchasing breeding gilts have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds producing their own breeding gilts and (2) Herds using restricted feeding of finishers have a higher mean value and a lower variation (standard deviation) in LMP than herds with ad libitum feeding of finishers. The study included 72 herds and a total of 345,132 pigs slaughtered during one year. Among the 72 herds, 40 were home-breeders and 32 purchased breeding gilts from a breeding company. Nineteen herds used restricted feeding, of which 8 (42%) were home-breeders. Fifty-three herds used ad libitum feeding, of which 32 (60%) were home-breeders. Breeding strategy had a significant effect on SDLMP (p=0.003), where purchase of breeding gilts resulted in a significantly lower standard deviation of the monthly LMP compared to home-bred gilts (a difference in median SDLMP of 0.2 percentage points or 8% difference between groups). Feeding system had a significant effect on the meanLMP (p<0.001), with a significantly higher meanLMP in herds using restrictive feeding compared to ad libitum feeding (60.7% versus 60.0%). Restrictive feeding also resulted in a significantly lower SDLMP (p<0.001) compared to ad libitum feeding (2.2% versus 2.5% or a 12% difference between groups). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier

  6. Feeding efficiency of Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni in different experimental substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Balasubramanian, T.; Iyer, H.K.; Kutty, M.K.

    Preying efficiency in the substrata of different concentrations of mud sand, silt and clay and also in mud from natural habitat was examined with respect to Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni in order to understand the factors in their natural...

  7. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  8. Phenotypically divergent classification of preweaned heifer calves for feed efficiency indexes and their correlations with heat production and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, J M; Coelho, S G; Machado, F S; Azevedo, R A; Lima, J A M; Carneiro, J C; Lage, C F A; Ferreira, A L; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Campos, M M

    2018-03-07

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess if there is phenotypical divergence for feed efficiency (FE) during the preweaning phase; (2) if FE is correlated with heat production (HP) measured by the face mask method or (3) by surface skin temperature via thermography, and (4) whether these methods are applicable to preweaned calves. Holstein × Gyr heifer calves (n = 36, birth body weight = 32.4 ± 6.6 kg) were enrolled and on trial between 4 and 12 wk of age and were classified into 2 residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG) groups: high efficiency (HE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 9) and low efficiency (LE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 8). Calves were fed milk (6 L/d) and solid feed (95% starter and 5% chopped Tifton 85 hay, as fed). Growth was monitored weekly and feed intake (milk and solid feed) daily, during the whole period. Gas exchanges (O 2 consumption and production of CO 2 and CH 4 ) were obtained using a face mask at 45 ± 5 d of age and HP was estimated. Maximum temperatures were measured at 7 sites with an infrared camera at 62 ± 7 d of age. There was divergence in RFI and RG. Respectively, HE and LE calves had RFI of -0.14 and 0.13 kg/d, and RG of 0.05 and -0.07 kg/d. Dry matter intake was 15% lower in HE-RFI compared with LE-RFI, but no differences were observed in average daily weight gain. Within the RG test, no differences were observed in dry matter intake or average daily gain. The HE-RFI calves consumed less O 2 (L/d) and produced less CO 2 (L/d). Heart rate and HP were lower for HE-RFI calves compared with LE-RFI. Residual feed intake was correlated with HP (r = 0.48), O 2 consumption (r = 0.48), CO 2 production (r = 0.48), and heart rate (r = 0.40). No differences were observed in HP and gas exchanges between RG groups. Methane production was null in both groups. Eye temperature measured by thermography was 0.5°C greater in HE-RG than LE-RG calves. Differences in skin temperature between HE and LE calves were not observed at

  9. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND COTTONSEED CAKES IN THE FEED OF CROSSBRED CALVES FOR MEAT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. JABBAR, M. I. ANJUM1, S. REHMAN2 AND W. SHAHZAD2

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crossbred (Sahiwal x Friesian male calves of 9-10 months age and weighing 70 to 90 kg, were used in completely randomized design to investigate the possibility of replacing cottonseed cakes (CSC with sunflower meal (SFM, partially or completely, in rations for fattening of crossbred calves for meat production. Three concentrate rations viz. A, B and C were formulated. Ration A containing CSC was fed to the calves of group A, ration B containing SFM was fed to calves of group B and ration C containing both CSC + SFM was fed to calves of group C. The feed intake of calves belonging to group C was the highest (5.7 ± 2.3 kg followed by group B (5.5 ± 1.3 kg and group A (5.2 ± 2.0 kg. Average daily body weight gain was 0.73 ± 0.1, 0.72 ± 0.2 and 0.71 ± 0.1 kg for groups A, B and C, respectively. Calves fed SFM gained numerically less than the calves fed CSC but higher than SFM+ CSC. Feed conversion ratio was 7.1 ± 0.4, 7.7 ± 0.7 and 8.0 ± 0.6, for calves of groups A, B and C, respectively. Dressing percentage averaged 51.5 ± 1.3, 52.1 ± 1.2 and 52.3 ± 0.8 for the respective rations. However, the differences in feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentages among calves of three groups were non significant. Considering the cost of feed and average growth, the cost of per kg body weight gain was 38, 30 and 37 rupees for the groups A, B and C, respectively. The lowest cost was observed in SFM based ration (B that was about 19% less than ration containing CSC. Results indicated that for fattening of crossbred calves the use of SFM is as efficient as CSC but more economical and can successfully replace CSC in fattening rations.

  10. Variation in efficiency of parallel algorithms. [for study of stiffness matrices in planar trusses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, A.; Melosh, R. J.; Utku, S.; Salama, M.

    1985-01-01

    The present study has the objective to investigate some iterative parallel-processor linear equation solving algorithms with respect to efficiency for analyses of typical linear engineering systems. Attention is given to a set of n linear equations, Ku = p, where K = an n x n positive definite, sparsely populated, symmetric matrix, u = an n x 1 vector of unknown responses, and p = an n x 1 vector of prescribed constants. This study is concerned with a hybrid method in which iteration is used to solve the problem, while a direct method is used on the local processor level. Variations in the efficiency of parallel algorithms are explored. Measures of the efficiency are based on computer experiments regarding the algorithms. For all the algorithms, the wall clock time is found to decrease as the number of processors increases.

  11. Effect of feeding frequency on the reproductive efficiency of two species of Triatoma with different epidemiological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In Triatominae, reproductive efficiency is an important factor influencing population dynamics, and a useful parameter in measuring a species' epidemiological significance as a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909. The reproductive efficiency of triatomines is affected by food availability; hence, we measured and compared the effects of feeding frequency on the reproductive parameters of Triatoma patagonica (Del Ponte, 1929 and Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1934, and the effects of starvation on T. patagonica. Methods Couples from both species were fed weekly, or every 3 weeks; in addition, females in couples of T. patagonica were not fed. Each couple was observed weekly and reproductive efficiency was assessed on the following parameters: fecundity (eggs/female, fertility (eggs hatched/eggs laid, initiation and end of oviposition, initiation of mating, number of matings/week, and number of reproductive weeks. Relative meal size index (RMS, blood consumption index (CI, and E values (eggs/mg blood were also calculated. Results Changes in feeding frequency affected the reproductive parameters of T. patagonica only, with a decrease in fecundity and number of reproductive weeks for those fed every 3 weeks, or not fed. The reproductive period, RMS index, and CI were lower for T. patagonica than T. infestans. However, despite the lower fecundity of T. patagonica, this species required less blood to produce eggs, with an E values of 2 compared to 2.94 for T. infestans. Conclusions Our results suggest that the differences in fecundity observed between species reflect the availability of food in their natural ecotopes.

  12. Strategies for improving water use efficiency in livestock feed production in rain-fed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.; Oosting, S.J.; Haileslassie, A.; Duncan, A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall

  13. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P energy sources modified the partition of energy between liver, adipose tissue, and muscle in a way that was partly dependent of the genetics for feed efficiency, and changed the activity levels of biochemical pathways involved in lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  14. Impact of reduced marker set estimation of genomic relationship matrices on genomic selection for feed efficiency in Angus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Northcutt Sally L

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular estimates of breeding value are expected to increase selection response due to improvements in the accuracy of selection and a reduction in generation interval, particularly for traits that are difficult or expensive to record or are measured late in life. Several statistical methods for incorporating molecular data into breeding value estimation have been proposed, however, most studies have utilized simulated data in which the generated linkage disequilibrium may not represent the targeted livestock population. A genomic relationship matrix was developed for 698 Angus steers and 1,707 Angus sires using 41,028 single nucleotide polymorphisms and breeding values were estimated using feed efficiency phenotypes (average daily feed intake, residual feed intake, and average daily gain recorded on the steers. The number of SNPs needed to accurately estimate a genomic relationship matrix was evaluated in this population. Results Results were compared to estimates produced from pedigree-based mixed model analysis of 862 Angus steers with 34,864 identified paternal relatives but no female ancestors. Estimates of additive genetic variance and breeding value accuracies were similar for AFI and RFI using the numerator and genomic relationship matrices despite fewer animals in the genomic analysis. Bootstrap analyses indicated that 2,500-10,000 markers are required for robust estimation of genomic relationship matrices in cattle. Conclusions This research shows that breeding values and their accuracies may be estimated for commercially important sires for traits recorded in experimental populations without the need for pedigree data to establish identity by descent between members of the commercial and experimental populations when at least 2,500 SNPs are available for the generation of a genomic relationship matrix.

  15. Yeast culture increased plasma niacin concentration, evaporative heat loss, and feed efficiency of dairy cows in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Julia D L; Silva, Rayana B; Fernandes, Tatiane; Barbosa, Eugenio F; Graças, Larissa E C; Araujo, Rafael C; Pereira, Renata A N; Pereira, Marcos N

    2018-04-04

    The supplementation of dairy cows with yeast culture may increase diet digestibility, plasma niacin concentration, heat dissipation, and lactation performance. Our objective was to evaluate the response of Holstein cows in late lactation (234 ± 131 d in milk) to dead yeast culture (YC, 15 g/d, Factor SC, GRASP, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during Brazilian summer (temperature-humidity index >68 for 92.2% of the time). Thirty-two cows were individually fed a standard total mixed ration for 14 d and control (CTL) or YC treatments for 35 d, in a covariate adjusted complete randomized block design. Response was evaluated in wk 5 or as repeated measures over time. Cows were milked 3 times per day and treatments (YC or placebo) were orally dosed to each cow before each milking. Plasma niacin was 1.50 for CTL and 1.66 µg/mL for YC. The YC reduced rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, whereas it tended to increase sweating rate. The proportion of cows with rectal temperature ≥39.2°C on CTL and YC was, respectively, 8 and 0% at 0730 h, 52 and 25% at 1500 h, and 35 and 26% at 2200 h. Plasma glucose was increased by YC. The total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, plasma urea N concentration, molar proportion of ruminal VFA, and urinary allantoin excretion were not affected by YC. Cows fed YC were less selective against feed particles >19 mm in the morning, in the afternoon were more selective against long feed particles and in favor of particles loss, and feed efficiency of late lactation dairy cows by reducing intake at similar milk yield. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient biosynthesis of d-ribose using a novel co-feeding strategy in Bacillus subtilis without acid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J; Zhuang, W; Li, N N; Tang, C L; Ying, H J

    2017-01-01

    Normally, low d-ribose production was identified as responsible for plenty of acid formation by Bacillus subtilis due to its carbon overflow. An approach of co-feeding glucose and sodium citrate is developed here and had been proved to be useful in d-ribose production. This strategy is critical because it affects the cell concentration, the productivity of d-ribose and, especially, the formation of by-products such as acetoin, lactate and acetate. d-ribose production was increased by 59·6% from 71·06 to 113·41 g l -1 without acid formation by co-feeding 2·22 g l -1  h -1 glucose and 0·036 g l -1  h -1 sodium citrate to a 60 g l -1 glucose reaction system. Actually, the cell density was also enhanced from 11·51 to 13·84 g l -1 . These parameters revealed the importance of optimization and modelling of the d-ribose production process. Not only could zero acid formation was achieved over a wide range of co-feeding rate by reducing glycolytic flux drastically but also the cell density and d-ribose yield were elevated by increasing the hexose monophosphate pathway flux. Bacillus subtilis usually produce d-ribose accompanied by plenty of organic acids when glucose is used as a carbon source, which is considered to be a consequence of mismatched glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle capacities. This is the first study to provide high-efficiency biosynthesis of d-ribose without organic acid formation in B. subtilis, which would be lower than the cost of separation and purification. The strain transketolase-deficient B. subtilis CGMCC 3720 can be potentially applied to the production of d-ribose in industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. EVA: Exome Variation Analyzer, an efficient and versatile tool for filtering strategies in medical genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coutant Sophie

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole exome sequencing (WES has become the strategy of choice to identify a coding allelic variant for a rare human monogenic disorder. This approach is a revolution in medical genetics history, impacting both fundamental research, and diagnostic methods leading to personalized medicine. A plethora of efficient algorithms has been developed to ensure the variant discovery. They generally lead to ~20,000 variations that have to be narrow down to find the potential pathogenic allelic variant(s and the affected gene(s. For this purpose, commonly adopted procedures which implicate various filtering strategies have emerged: exclusion of common variations, type of the allelics variants, pathogenicity effect prediction, modes of inheritance and multiple individuals for exome comparison. To deal with the expansion of WES in medical genomics individual laboratories, new convivial and versatile software tools have to implement these filtering steps. Non-programmer biologists have to be autonomous combining themselves different filtering criteria and conduct a personal strategy depending on their assumptions and study design. Results We describe EVA (Exome Variation Analyzer, a user-friendly web-interfaced software dedicated to the filtering strategies for medical WES. Thanks to different modules, EVA (i integrates and stores annotated exome variation data as strictly confidential to the project owner, (ii allows to combine the main filters dealing with common variations, molecular types, inheritance mode and multiple samples, (iii offers the browsing of annotated data and filtered results in various interactive tables, graphical visualizations and statistical charts, (iv and finally offers export files and cross-links to external useful databases and softwares for further prioritization of the small subset of sorted candidate variations and genes. We report a demonstrative case study that allowed to identify a new candidate gene

  18. Insect herbivores associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae: responses of gall-forming and free-feeding insects to latitudinal variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcílio Fagundes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatial heterogeneity hypothesis has been invoked to explain the increase in species diversity from the poles to the tropics: the tropics may be more diverse because they contain more habitats and microhabitats. In this paper, the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis prediction was tested by evaluating the variation in richness of two guilds of insect herbivores (gall-formers and free-feeders associated with Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae along a latitudinal variation in Brazil. The seventeen populations of B. dracunculifolia selected for insect herbivores sampling were within structurally similar habitats, along the N-S distributional limit of the host plant, near the Brazilian sea coast. Thirty shrubs were surveyed in each host plant population. A total of 8 201 galls and 864 free-feeding insect herbivores belonging to 28 families and 88 species were sampled. The majority of the insects found on B. dracunculifolia were restricted to a specific site rather than having ageographic distribution mirroring that of the host plant. Species richness of free-feeding insects was not affected by latitudinal variation corroborating the spatial heterogeneity hypothesis. Species richness of gall-forming insects was positively correlated with latitude, probably because galling insect associated with Baccharris genus radiated in Southern Brazil. Other diversity indices and evenness estimated for both gall-forming and free feeding insect herbivores, did not change with latitude, suggesting a general structure for different assemblages of herbivores associated with the host plant B. dracunculifolia. Thus it is probable that, insect fauna sample in each site resulted of large scale events, as speciation, migration and coevolution, while at local level, the population of these insects is regulated by ecological forces which operate in the system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 1419-1432. Epub 2011 September 01.La hipótesis de heterogeneidad espacial se ha

  19. Comparative Study of Milk Production and Feed Efficiency Based on Farmers Best Practices and National Research Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lestari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare local dairy farmer ration formula with national research council in producing higher feed efficiency and milk production. This study had two stages. The first stage was in vitro study of dairy farmer rations which have different raw materials (R3, R4, and R5 with NRC based ration (R2 and Demo Farm ration (R1. The variables measured in this stage were proximate composition, volatile fatty acid, ammonia, dry matter and organic matter digestibility. The first stage used a randomized block design with five treatments, three groups of ruminal fluid, and three replications. The second stage used nine lactating cows with three periods of lactation (one, three, and other and used a randomized block design with three treatments, three groups, and one replication. Parameters measured were dry matter intake, manure score, milk production, body weight gain, body condition score, and technical and economical efficiencies. The first stage result showed that R1, R2, and R3 were three best rations in nutrient composition and fermentability (ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations were optimum for microbial growth and high digestibility, so in conclusion those three rations were the best rations and should be compared by in vivo method. The result of the second stage showed that all tested rations were not significantly different in milk production, performance and efficiency, so in conclusion those three rations have the same quality.

  20. Do breath gas measurements hold the key to unlocking the genetics of feed efficiency in dairy cows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Difford, Gareth; de Haas, Yvette; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    Recording dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows is the precursor to determining feed efficiency, a highly profitable and desirable selection trait. However records on large numbers of animals are expensive and prohibitive under commercial conditions. Usually small research herds are recorded...... for DMI and then used to predict breeding values for DMI along using other highly correlated traits like milk yield, body weight and chest width. Recent interest in greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH4), has seen the development of tools for measuring gas concentrations in the breath of the cow during...... milking in automated milking stations. This makes it possible to obtain records on large numbers of animals under commercial conditions. Since CH4 production is a conditional by-product of DMI, it is not surprising that DMI is the single best predictor of CH4 production. Traditionally, this relationship...

  1. An Efficient Expert System Generator for Qualitative Feed-Back Loop Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Quite often the variables used in system analysis are qualitative in nature. They cannot be defined precisely, whereas software development for system analysis needs a mathematical framework with precise computations. It is not trivial to capture the uncertainty in the system.
    Fuzzy sets provide us the facility to capture the uncertainty in the system. In normal crisp set where the membership of an element is always certain in a sense that it would be member or not of the given set. In contrast to this a membership functions or possibility (ranging from 0 to 1, including both values is assigned with each member. System analysis is done through system dynamics which is not very efficient. We present an efficient technique to generate expert system using fuzzy set. In our proposed approach five linguistic qualifiers are used for each variable, namely, Very Low (VL, Low (L, Medium (M, High (H, and Very High
    (VH. We capture the influence or feedback in the system with the help of if then else rules and matrices are generated for them which are used for analysis. Complete methodology and its applicability are presented here.

  2. Cooling cows efficiently with water spray: Behavioral, physiological, and production responses to sprinklers at the feed bunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer M; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2016-06-01

    Dairies commonly mount nozzles above the feed bunk that intermittently spray cows to dissipate heat. These sprinklers use potable water-an increasingly scarce resource-but there is little experimental evidence for how much is needed to cool cows in loose housing. Sprinkler flow rate may affect the efficacy of heat abatement, cattle avoidance of spray (particularly on the head), and water waste. Our objectives were to determine how sprinkler flow rate affects cattle behavioral, physiological, and production responses when cows are given 24-h access to spray in freestall housing, and to evaluate heat abatement in relation to water use. We compared 3 treatments: sprinklers that delivered 1.3 or 4.9L/min (both 3min on and 9min off, 24h/d) and an unsprayed control. Nine pairs of high-producing lactating Holstein cows received each treatment at a shaded feed bunk for 2d in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design [air temperature (T): 24-h maximum=33±3°C, mean ± SD]. Cows spent 5.8±0.9h/24h (mean ± SD) at the feed bunk overall, regardless of treatment. With few exceptions, cows responded similarly to the 1.3 and 4.9L/min flow rates. Sprinklers resulted in visits to the feed bunk that were on average 23 to 27% longer and 13 to 16% less frequent compared with the control, perhaps because cows avoided walking through spray. Indeed, when the sprinklers were on, cows left the feed bunk half as often as expected by chance, and when cows chose to walk through spray, they lowered their heads on average 1.7- to 3-fold more often than in the control. Despite possible reluctance to expose their heads to spray, cows did not avoid sprinklers overall. In warmer weather, cows spent more time at the feed bunk when it had sprinklers (on average 19 to 21min/24h for each 1°C increase in T), likely for heat abatement benefits. Compared with the control, sprinklers resulted in 0.3 to 0.7°C lower body temperature from 1300 to 1500h and 1700 to 2000h overall and attenuated the rise in this

  3. Specific infant feeding practices do not consistently explain variation in anthropometry at age 1 year in urban United States, Mexico, and China cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M; Peng, Yong-mei; Herbers, Patricia M; Yao, Wen; Ortega, Hilda; Davidson, Barbara S; McMahon, Robert J; Morrow, Ardythe L

    2013-02-01

    Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant's birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P Mexico City infants (P < 0.001). Adjusting for nonfeeding covariates, the only feeding variable associated with anthropometry was EBF duration, which was modestly inversely associated with weight-for-age but not length-for-age or BMI Z-scores at 1 y. Although feeding variables differed by cohort, their impact on anthropometry differences was not consistent among cohorts. Overall, across these urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry.

  4. Specific Infant Feeding Practices Do Not Consistently Explain Variation in Anthropometry at Age 1 Year in Urban United States, Mexico, and China Cohorts12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Jessica G.; Guerrero, M. Lourdes; Ruiz-Palacios, Guillermo M.; Peng, Yong-mei; Herbers, Patricia M.; Yao, Wen; Ortega, Hilda; Davidson, Barbara S.; McMahon, Robert J.; Morrow, Ardythe L.

    2013-01-01

    Infant feeding practices generally influence infant growth, but it is unclear how introduction of specific foods affects growth across global populations. We studied 3 urban populations in the Global Exploration of Human Milk study to determine the association between infant feeding and anthropometry at 1 y of age. Three hundred sixty-five breastfeeding mother-infant pairs (120 US, 120 China, and 125 Mexico) were recruited soon after the infant’s birth. Enrollment required agreement to breastfeed ≥75% for at least 3 mo. Weekly, 24-h, food frequency data were conducted on infants for 1 y and exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) duration and timing of specific complementary food introduction were calculated. Weight and length were measured at age 1 y and anthropometry Z-scores calculated using WHO standards. Cohorts in the 3 urban populations (Shanghai, China; Cincinnati, USA; and Mexico City, Mexico) differed by median EBF duration (5, 14, and 7 wk, respectively; P Mexico City infants (P < 0.001). Adjusting for nonfeeding covariates, the only feeding variable associated with anthropometry was EBF duration, which was modestly inversely associated with weight-for-age but not length-for-age or BMI Z-scores at 1 y. Although feeding variables differed by cohort, their impact on anthropometry differences was not consistent among cohorts. Overall, across these urban, international, breast-fed cohorts, differences in specific feeding practices did not explain the significant variation in anthropometry. PMID:23236024

  5. Cooperative ad hoc networks for energy and delay efficient content distribution with fast channel variations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad

    2012-11-20

    Cooperative ad hoc networks for the efficient distribution of content of common interest are studied in the case of fast channel variations. Mobiles are grouped into cooperative clusters for the purpose of receiving the content with optimized energy efficiency. Data are sent to mobile terminals on a long range (LR) link, and then, the terminals exchange the content by using an appropriate short range wireless technology. When channel state information is available for the LR links, unicasting is used on the LR. When accurate channel state information is not available, threshold-based multicasting is implemented on the LR. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form in scenarios with fast channel variations. Results show significant energy savings in the proposed schemes compared with the noncooperative case and other previous related work. Furthermore, the energy minimizing solutions are shown to lead to reduced delay in the content distribution process. Practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Cooperative ad hoc networks for energy and delay efficient content distribution with fast channel variations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad; Yaacoub, Elias E.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Abu-Dayya, Adnan A.

    2012-01-01

    Cooperative ad hoc networks for the efficient distribution of content of common interest are studied in the case of fast channel variations. Mobiles are grouped into cooperative clusters for the purpose of receiving the content with optimized energy efficiency. Data are sent to mobile terminals on a long range (LR) link, and then, the terminals exchange the content by using an appropriate short range wireless technology. When channel state information is available for the LR links, unicasting is used on the LR. When accurate channel state information is not available, threshold-based multicasting is implemented on the LR. Energy minimization is formulated as an optimization problem for each scenario, and the optimal solutions are determined in closed form in scenarios with fast channel variations. Results show significant energy savings in the proposed schemes compared with the noncooperative case and other previous related work. Furthermore, the energy minimizing solutions are shown to lead to reduced delay in the content distribution process. Practical implementation aspects of the proposed methods are also discussed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Proteomic analysis indicates that mitochondrial energy metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue is negatively correlated with feed efficiency in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liangliang; Xu, Yueyuan; Hou, Ye; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhou, Lian; Liu, Huiying; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Miao, Yuanxin; Zhao, Shuhong; Liu, Huazhen; Li, Xinyun

    2017-03-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a highly important economic trait in pig production. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of FE is essential for trait improvement. In this study, the skeletal muscle proteome of high-FE and low-FE pigs were investigated by the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1780 proteins were identified, among which 124 proteins were differentially expressed between the high- and low-FE pigs, with 74 up-regulated and 50 down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Ten randomly selected differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were validated by Western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that all the 25 DEPs located in mitochondria were down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Furthermore, the glucose-pyruvate-tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism signaling pathway was found to differ between high- and low-FE pigs. The key enzymes involved in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate were up-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Thus, our results suggested mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle tissue was negatively correlated with FE in pigs, and glucose utilization to generate ATP was more efficient in the skeletal muscle tissue of high-FE pigs. This study offered new targets and pathways for improvement of FE in pigs.

  8. Cereal starch, protein, and fatty acid pre-caecal disappearance is affected by both feed technological treatment and efficiency of the chewing action in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Dickow, Mia Schødt; Brøkner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    determined by feedtechnologicaltreatment. Efficient chewing of the feed is essential for herbivores ability to meet their relatively high energy demands from high fibre containing diets and the efficiency of the chewingaction can also influence the physical structure of kernels and influence their digestion....... To study the impact of chewing on the pre-caecaldisappearance of dietary constituents, feed samples were subjected to either milling through a 1 mm screen or blending for 2 s. on a sample mill, to model the chewingaction of grain fed horses with healthy teeth or neglected teeth, respectively. Correlations...

  9. Effect of source and dose of probiotics and exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on intake, feed efficiency, and growth of male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Raman; Bandla, Srinivas

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger and three commercial exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) were tested in vitro to select best source and optimum dose followed by in vivo studies on male buffalo calves. Bacterial (P calves with concentrate supplement (CS). Calves were randomly divided into three groups either without probiotics and EFE (CG) or with probiotics (EG(1)) or probiotics combined with EFE (EG(2)) on wheat straw diet. Organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber digestibility was improved significantly. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and feed efficiency were significantly higher (P feed efficiency was 2.6% or 1.6% more (P calves.

  10. Genetic parameters for different measures of feed efficiency and related traits in boars of three pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    ) to 0.67 (LL) for BF, and from 0.13 (DD) to 0.19 (YY) for body conformation. Feeding behavior traits including DFI, number of visits to feeder per day (NVD), total time spent eating per day (TPD), feed intake rate (FR), feed intake per visit (FPV), and time spent eating per visit (TPV) were moderately...

  11. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus ( Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis leaf meal (ELM supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05 while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05. Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05 with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05 while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency.

  12. Ontogenetic, spatial and temporal variations in the feeding ecology of Deuterodon langei Travassos, 1957 (Teleostei: Characidae in a Neotropical stream from the Atlantic rainforest, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean R. S. Vitule

    Full Text Available Information related to the diet of one species always contributes to the knowledge of its bionomy and the functioning of the ecosystem in which the species lives. Therefore, understanding the feeding ecology of one fish population and its ontogenetic, spatial and temporal aspects help to understand the structure of fish assemblages and river communities. Knowledge of this structure is essential for habitat management and biodiversity conservation. The feeding ecology of Deuterodon langei Travassos, 1957 was studied through analyses of diet composition, sharing of resources, feeding strategy and contribution of food items to the width of its niche. The analysis included an assessment of ontogenetic, spatial and seasonal variations. The species was considered omnivorous with great plasticity caused by seasonal variation in food availability throughout the river basin, but mainly through ontogeny. The diet of smaller individuals revealed a predominance of insects and other arthropods, while the diet of larger specimens showed allochthonous plant items as the main components. The low intestinal quotient (IQ values for the smaller individuals were accounted for their mainly insectivorous diet. The greater relative length of the intestine can account for the greater plasticity of the adult diet, enabling them to use diet items of larger size and more difficult digestion, such as plant items. Therefore, shifts in feeding ecology during growth are confirmed in this omnivorous tropical river fish, strengthening the concept that, when comparing food habits among species, fish size must be taken into account. This study also provides needed information regarding the feeding ecology of fishes intrinsically associated with the Atlantic rainforest, one of the most threatened and biodiverse ecosystems of the planet.

  13. Size does matter – Intraspecific variation of feeding mechanics in the crested newt Triturus dobrogicus (Kiritzescu, 1903

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kucera Florian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have yet been conducted on suction feeding in aquatic salamander species. Within the Salamandridae, the crested newt Triturus dobrogicus (Kiritzescu, 1903, occurring from the Austrian Danube floodplains to the Danube Delta, was not subject of investigations so far. The present study examines the kinematics of aquatic suction feeding in this species by means of high-speed videography. Recordings of five individuals of different size and sex while feeding on bloodworms were conducted, in order to identify potential discrepancies among individuals and sizes. Five coordinate points were digitized from recordings of prey capture and twelve time- and velocity-determined variables were evaluated. All specimens follow a typical inertial suction feeding process, where rapid hyoid depression expands the buccal cavity. Generated negative pressure within the buccal cavity causes influx of water along with the prey item into the mouth. Results demonstrate higher distance values and angles for gape in individuals with smaller size. In addition, hyoid depression is maximized in smaller individuals. While Triturus dobrogicus resembles a typical inertial suction feeder in its functional morphology, intraspecific differences could be found regarding the correlation of different feeding patterns and body size.

  14. RATIO ESTIMATORS FOR THE CO-EFFICIENT OF VARIATION IN A FINITE POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana V

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The Co-efficient of variation (C.V is a relative measure of dispersion and is free from unit of measurement. Hence it is widely used by the scientists in the disciplines of agriculture, biology, economics and environmental science. Although a lot of work has been reported in the past for the estimation of population C.V in infinite population models, they are not directly applicable for the finite populations. In this paper we have proposed six new estimators of the population C.V in finite population using ratio and product type estimators. The bias and mean square error of these estimators are derived for the simple random sampling design. The performance of the estimators is compared using a real life dataset. The ratio estimator using the information on the population C.V of the auxiliary variable emerges as the best estimator

  15. An efficient multiple particle filter based on the variational Bayesian approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa

    2015-12-07

    This paper addresses the filtering problem in large-dimensional systems, in which conventional particle filters (PFs) remain computationally prohibitive owing to the large number of particles needed to obtain reasonable performances. To overcome this drawback, a class of multiple particle filters (MPFs) has been recently introduced in which the state-space is split into low-dimensional subspaces, and then a separate PF is applied to each subspace. In this paper, we adopt the variational Bayesian (VB) approach to propose a new MPF, the VBMPF. The proposed filter is computationally more efficient since the propagation of each particle requires generating one (new) particle only, while in the standard MPFs a set of (children) particles needs to be generated. In a numerical test, the proposed VBMPF behaves better than the PF and MPF.

  16. EFFECTS OF FEED SUPPLEMENT ON THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY OF BEEF COWS UNDER SMALL FARMS CONDITION AT A TROPICAL AREA OF INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Toleng, Abdul Latief

    2016-01-01

    Low artificial insemination (AI) efficiency in beef cattle has been reported in some tropical regions, such in Indonesia. Factors related to this problem are not yet well known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify factors that might affect the AI efficiency and to evaluate the effects of feed supplement on the AI efficiency in beef cows at a tropical area of Indonesia. Two steps of study were conducted. Study 1 was to identify factors that might affect the efficiency of AI. T...

  17. Intraspecific variation in Pinus pinaster PSII photochemical efficiency in response to winter stress and freezing temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera, Leyre; Gil-Pelegrin, Eustaquio; Notivol, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    As part of a program to select maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) genotypes for resistance to low winter temperatures, we examined variation in photosystem II activity by chlorophyll fluorescence. Populations and families within populations from contrasting climates were tested during two consecutive winters through two progeny trials, one located at a continental and xeric site and one at a mesic site with Atlantic influence. We also obtained the LT₅₀, or the temperature that causes 50% damage, by controlled freezing and the subsequent analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in needles and stems that were collected from populations at the continental trial site.P. pinaster showed sensitivity to winter stress at the continental site, during the colder winter. The combination of low temperatures, high solar irradiation and low precipitation caused sustained decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v)/F(m)), quantum yield of non-cyclic electron transport (Φ(PSII)) and photochemical quenching (qP). The variation in photochemical parameters was larger among families than among populations, and population differences appeared only under the harshest conditions at the continental site. As expected, the environmental effects (winter and site) on the photochemical parameters were much larger than the genotypic effects (population or family). LT₅₀ was closely related to the minimum winter temperatures of the population's range. The dark-adapted F(v)/F(m) ratio discriminated clearly between interior and coastal populations.In conclusion, variations in F(v)/F(m), Φ(PSII), qP and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in response to winter stress were primarily due to the differences between the winter conditions and the sites and secondarily due to the differences among families and their interactions with the environment. Populations from continental climates showed higher frost tolerance (LT₅₀) than coastal populations that typically experience mild winters

  18. Efficient computation of the elastography inverse problem by combining variational mesh adaption and a clustering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, Alexander; Bruhns, Otto T; Reichling, Stefan; Mosler, Joern

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an efficient implementation suitable for the elastography inverse problem. More precisely, the novel algorithm allows us to compute the unknown stiffness distribution in soft tissue by means of the measured displacement field by considerably reducing the numerical cost compared to previous approaches. This is realized by combining and further elaborating variational mesh adaption with a clustering technique similar to those known from digital image compression. Within the variational mesh adaption, the underlying finite element discretization is only locally refined if this leads to a considerable improvement of the numerical solution. Additionally, the numerical complexity is reduced by the aforementioned clustering technique, in which the parameters describing the stiffness of the respective soft tissue are sorted according to a predefined number of intervals. By doing so, the number of unknowns associated with the elastography inverse problem can be chosen explicitly. A positive side effect of this method is the reduction of artificial noise in the data (smoothing of the solution). The performance and the rate of convergence of the resulting numerical formulation are critically analyzed by numerical examples.

  19. Inter-domain Synergism Is Required for Efficient Feeding of Cellulose Chain into Active Site of Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter; Väljamäe, Priit

    2016-12-09

    Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites. The active site of TrCel7A is lined with four Trp residues with two of them, Trp-40 and Trp-38, in the substrate binding sites near the tunnel entrance. Although addressed in numerous studies the elucidation of the role of CBM and active site aromatics has been obscured by a complex multistep mechanism of processive GHs. Here we studied the role of the CBM-linker and Trp-38 of TrCel7A with respect to binding affinity, on- and off-rates, processivity, and synergism with endoglucanase. The CBM-linker increased the on-rate and substrate affinity of the enzyme. The Trp-38 to Ala substitution resulted in increased off-rates and decreased processivity. The effect of the Trp-38 to Ala substitution on on-rates was strongly dependent on the presence of the CBM-linker. This compensation between CBM-linker and Trp-38 indicates synergism between CBM-linker and CD in feeding the cellulose chain into the active site. The inter-domain synergism was pre-requisite for the efficient degradation of cellulose in the presence of endoglucanase. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamananjara, A. [LRI-SRA, Laboratoire des Radio-isotopes, Universite d' Antananarivo, Antananarivo (Madagascar); Abdou, M. Malam [Laboratoire Banques de genes CERRA / KOLLO, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger (INRAN), Niamey (Niger); Pernot, C.; Drevon, J. J. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Eco and Sols, Montpellier (France)

    2013-11-15

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important food legume. In Africa, it is mostly cultivated under such environmental constraints as drought and pest, and nutrient deficiency. In particular low soil phosphorus strongly limits crop production for the poor farmers with limited access to P fertilizers. Therefore breeding cowpea for the tolerance to P deficiency is considered as an alternative to increase the productivity of traditional cowpea-cereal cropping systems in soils with low P availability. This paper reports cowpea genotypic-variation in P use efficiency for symbiotic nitrogen fixation as a contribution to select tolerant cowpea lines under P deficiency. Eighty cowpea cultivars inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 were pre-screened as a single replicate under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks under P deficiency versus P sufficiency, namely 15 vs 30 {mu}mol plant{sup -1} week{sup -1}. Large variability in nodule number per plant, and in shoot growth as a function of nodule mass, was observed among the diversity of cowpea lines. From this pre-screening experiment, the 40 cowpea lines showing the highest SNF-potential, i.e. high nodulation linked with high N{sub 2}-dependent growth under P sufficiency, and the most contrasting tolerance to P deficiency, i.e. highest vs lowest N{sub 2}-dependent growth under P deficiency, were grown again in glasshouse hydroaeroponics with 6 replicates. As an illustration of the most contrasting lines, the nodulation was decreased under P deficiency by less than 20% for IT82E-18 whereas by more than 80% for IT95K-1105-5 or SUVITA 2. The variations in nodulation were correlated with variations in growth with mean value of additional growth per unit increase in nodule biomass of 23 g shoot DW g-1 nodule DW under P sufficiency, showing 3 lines showing exceptionally high potential for symbiotic nitrogen fixation, versus 28 g shoot DW g{sup -1} nodule DW showing large variation among lines

  1. Full-Scale Modeling Explaining Large Spatial Variations of Nitrous Oxide Fluxes in a Step-Feed Plug-Flow Wastewater Treatment Reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bing-Jie; Pan, Yuting; van den Akker, Ben; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-08-04

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) emission data collected from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) show huge variations between plants and within one plant (both spatially and temporarily). Such variations and the relative contributions of various N2O production pathways are not fully understood. This study applied a previously established N2O model incorporating two currently known N2O production pathways by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) (namely the AOB denitrification and the hydroxylamine pathways) and the N2O production pathway by heterotrophic denitrifiers to describe and provide insights into the large spatial variations of N2O fluxes in a step-feed full-scale activated sludge plant. The model was calibrated and validated by comparing simulation results with 40 days of N2O emission monitoring data as well as other water quality parameters from the plant. The model demonstrated that the relatively high biomass specific nitrogen loading rate in the Second Step of the reactor was responsible for the much higher N2O fluxes from this section. The results further revealed the AOB denitrification pathway decreased and the NH2OH oxidation pathway increased along the path of both Steps due to the increasing dissolved oxygen concentration. The overall N2O emission from this step-feed WWTP would be largely mitigated if 30% of the returned sludge were returned to the Second Step to reduce its biomass nitrogen loading rate.

  2. Seasonal and annual variations in the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisogni, A; Rossi, M; Sgolastra, F; Bortolotti, L; Bogo, G; de Manincor, N; Quaranta, M; Galloni, M

    2016-05-01

    The interplay between insect and plant traits outlines the patterns of pollen transfer and the subsequent plant reproductive fitness. We studied the factors that affect the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L. by evaluating insect behaviour and morphological characteristics in relation to flowering phenology. In order to extrapolate the pollinator importance of single taxa and of the whole pollinator guild, we calculated an index distinguishing between potential (PPI) and realized (RPI) pollinator importance. Although the pollinator species spectrum appeared rather constant, we found high intra- and inter-annual variability of pollinator frequency and importance within the insect community. Flower visitation rate strictly depended on insect abundance and on the overlap between their flying period and flower blooming. All the pollinators visited flowers from the bottom to the top of the racemes, excluding intra-plant geitonogamous pollination, and most of them showed high pollen fidelity. Only medium large-sized bees could contact the upward bending stiles while feeding on nectar, highlighting a specialisation of the plant towards bigger pollinators. Moreover, we found evidence of functional specialisation, since all pollinators were restricted to a single taxonomic group (order: Hymenoptera; superfamily: Apoidea). Both the PPI and RPI indices indicate Habropoda tarsata as the most important pollinator of D. albus. Following hand cross-pollination experiments we revealed the presence of pollination limitation in 1 of the 3 years of field study. We discuss this result in relation to flowering abundance and to possible mismatches of phenological periods between plants and insects. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. Propolis extract in the diet of crossbred (½ Angus vs. ½ Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the replacement of monensin by propolis on performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristic of bulls finished in feedlot. The bulls, kept in feedlot for 70 days, were allocated in three diets: Control (CON, Monensin (MON and Propolis (PRO. They were fed on corn silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Further, 250 mg monensin and 35 g propolis/bulls/day were included respectively in the MON and PRO diets. Animal performance and carcass characteristics were similar (P>0.05 among diets. Feed intake was higher (P0.05 urinary excretion, microbial synthesis and carcass characteristics.

  4. Feed efficiency and body weight growth throughout growing-furring period in mink using random regression method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    days of age for 2139 male mink and the same number of females. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with three weeks interval based on daily feed consumption between weighing’s from 105 to 210 days of age. Heritability estimates for RFI increased by age from 0.18 (0.03, standard deviation...

  5. Spatial-temporal variation of ecosystem water use efficiency in Beijing’s suburban region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, F.; Zhang, Q.; Zhang, X. C.; Yuan, S. B.; Lu, N.; Yan, N. Na

    2017-08-01

    Suburban ecosystem has multiple functions such as soil conservation and water regulation, which are critical for the welfare of human beings in the city. Water use efficiency (WUE) is an important indicator of ecosystem function that represents the amount of productivity per unit mass of evapotranspiration (ET). Improving WUE of suburban ecosystem is significant to climate regulation by carbon sequestration and water consumption, especially for cities with severe water shortage like Beijing, the capital of China. Based on remote sensing data, this paper examined the spatial and temporal variations in WUE in Beijing’s suburban region from 2002 to 2010. The results showed that the average annual WUE was 0.868 g C mm-1 m-2. It has large spatial variation with the minimum of 0.500 g C mm-1 m-2 in the Miyun District. During the study periods, the area with significant increasing trend of WUE was 63.2% of the total suburban region. In terms of ecosystem type, the value of WUE was following the sequence, deciduous coniferous forest (0.921g C mm-1 m-2) > mixed forest (0.887g C mm-1 m-2) > deciduous broadleaf forest (0.884 g C mm-1 m-2) > shrubland (0.860 g C mm-1 m-2) > evergreen coniferous forest (0.836 g C mm-1 m-2) > grassland (0.830 g C mm-1 m-2). As ET was similar among the ecosystems, the difference in WUE was mainly due to the discrepancy of NPP. We found that NPP significantly correlated with the diversity of ecosystem type (represented by Shannon-Wiener index). Our results suggest that ecological engineering construction, scientific ecosystem type selection, ecosystem diversity improvement and drought-resistant species cultivation are conductive to improve ecosystem WUE in Beijing’s suburban region.

  6. The effect of lignite quality variation on the efficiency of on-line ash analyzers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galetakis, Michael J. [Technical University of Crete, Dept. of Mineral Resources Engineering, University Campus, 73 100 Hania (Greece); Pavloudakis, Francis F. [Public Power Corporation SA, General Division of Mines, Kifisou and Dyrrahiou 89, 104 43 Athens (Greece)

    2009-12-01

    A sustainable coal industry needs to achieve a number of objectives including improvements in utilization of deposits, energy efficiency, and environmental performance during combustion. The ''Clean Coal Concept'' promises to combine the secure and low cost electricity supply offered by hard coal and lignite with adequate environmental precautions. In this context, modern quality control systems, which are greatly based on the on-line analyzers, play an important role in achieving sustainability targets. This paper examines the possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the mineral matter content of low quality lignite mined from the lignite basin of Megalopolis, Peloponnese, Greece. The effect of the accuracy of the on-line analyzers to process control, when used for the characterization of low rank coals with complex and variable composition, is investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual energy gamma-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the mine pit to the homogenization stockyard. All measurement data were compared to data gathered during the realisation of similar trials in the lignite mines of Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece. Results indicated that the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not satisfactory and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The achieved inferior accuracy of the on-line measurement's accuracy, compared to previous applications at other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the mineral matter content of lignite and lignite composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average mass absorption coefficient of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of

  7. Variation for yield, water-use efficiency, and canopy morphology among nine alfalfa germplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, I.M.; Townsend, M.S.; Henning, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) production under irrigated and rainfed conditions may benefit from improvements in water-use efficiency (WUE), the amount of forage and root biomass produced per unit of water transpired. If benefits from improved WUE are to be realized, correlations between important agronomic traits and key physiological traits associated with WUE must be determined. This study characterized variation for dry matter yield, forage maturity, leaf-to-stem ratio (LSR), carbon isotope discrimination (delta), canopy temperature, ash content, and specific leaf mass (SLM) in alfalfa. Associations between traits were also determined. Nine alfalfa germplasms representing eight of the nine historical genetic diversity groups, and a very fall-dormant (VFD) population, were established in seeded, irrigated plots for 2 yr near Las Cruces, NM. Significant variation (P less than or equal to 0.10) was detected for all traits and was greatest for delta and maturity, intermediate for yield, canopy temperature, ash content, and LSR, and least for SLM. The African, Peruvian, and Indian germplasms exhibited a higher delta than either the Turkistan, VFD, M. varia Martyn., or Ladak germplasms. Carbon isotope discrimination was positively correlated with forage yield (r = 0.64; P less than or equal to 0.10; n = 9) and forage maturity (r = 0.66; P less than or equal to 0.05; n = 9). No association was detected between delta and either canopy temperature, ash content, SLM, or LSR. The results indicate that differences in stomatal conductance or photosynthetic capacity exist among the nine populations, and that germplasms with low delta tended to have slower growth and development rates under irrigated conditions. Neither canopy temperature, ash content, nor SLM provided suitable alternate measurements of delta among the nine alfalfa germplasms

  8. Intraspecific variation in Pinus pinaster PSII photochemical efficiency in response to winter stress and freezing temperatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leyre Corcuera

    Full Text Available As part of a program to select maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. genotypes for resistance to low winter temperatures, we examined variation in photosystem II activity by chlorophyll fluorescence. Populations and families within populations from contrasting climates were tested during two consecutive winters through two progeny trials, one located at a continental and xeric site and one at a mesic site with Atlantic influence. We also obtained the LT₅₀, or the temperature that causes 50% damage, by controlled freezing and the subsequent analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence in needles and stems that were collected from populations at the continental trial site.P. pinaster showed sensitivity to winter stress at the continental site, during the colder winter. The combination of low temperatures, high solar irradiation and low precipitation caused sustained decreases in maximal photochemical efficiency (F(v/F(m, quantum yield of non-cyclic electron transport (Φ(PSII and photochemical quenching (qP. The variation in photochemical parameters was larger among families than among populations, and population differences appeared only under the harshest conditions at the continental site. As expected, the environmental effects (winter and site on the photochemical parameters were much larger than the genotypic effects (population or family. LT₅₀ was closely related to the minimum winter temperatures of the population's range. The dark-adapted F(v/F(m ratio discriminated clearly between interior and coastal populations.In conclusion, variations in F(v/F(m, Φ(PSII, qP and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ in response to winter stress were primarily due to the differences between the winter conditions and the sites and secondarily due to the differences among families and their interactions with the environment. Populations from continental climates showed higher frost tolerance (LT₅₀ than coastal populations that typically experience mild

  9. Interspecific variation within the genus Asclepias in response to herbivory by a phloem-feeding insect herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Caralyn B; Hunter, Mark D

    2007-11-01

    Induced plant responses to leaf-chewing insects have been well studied, but considerably less is known about the effects of phloem-feedings insects on induction. In a set of laboratory experiments, we examined density-dependent induction by the milkweed-oleander aphid, Aphis nerii, of putative defenses in four milkweed species (Asclepias incarnata, Asclepias syriaca, Asclepias tuberosa, and Asclepias viridis). We hypothesized that high aphid density would lead to increased cardenolide expression in species with low constitutive levels of cardenolides (e.g., A. tuberosa), but that there would be no induction in high constitutive cardenolide species (e.g., A. viridis). Based on previous studies, we did not expect cardenolide induction in A. incarnata. Contrary to our predictions, we observed feeding-induced declines of cardenolide concentrations in A. viridis. Cardenolide concentrations did not respond to aphid feeding in the other three milkweed species. Aphids also caused reductions in biomass accumulation by two of four Asclepias species, A. viridis and A. incarnata. High aphid density led to a decrease in A. viridis foliar nitrogen concentration. However, aphids had no effect on the defensive chemistry, growth, or nutritional quality of either A. syriaca or A. tuberosa. Our results highlight that congeneric plant species may respond differently to the same levels of herbivore damage.

  10. Effect of fiber-based creep feed on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency in nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Knight, M H; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Caton, J S

    2004-12-01

    Six Angus crossbred cow-calf pairs (653 +/- 35 kg and 157 +/- 10 kg initial BW for cows and calves, respectively) were used to evaluate the influence of a fiber-based creep feed on intake, ruminal fermentation, digestion characteristics, and microbial efficiency in nursing beef calves. Cow-calf pairs were stratified by calf age and assigned randomly to one of two treatments: control (no supplement) or supplemented. Supplemented calves received 0.9 kg of a 49% soy hulls, 44% wheat middlings, 6% molasses, and 1% limestone supplement (DM basis) daily. All calves were cannulated in the rumen and duodenum and given ad libitum access to chopped brome hay (Bromus inermus L; 7.43% CP, 40.96% ADF, and 63.99% NDF; DM basis). Supplementation was initiated on May 1 (88 +/- 10.3 d calf age). Three sampling periods were conducted throughout the study (June 14 to 25, July 5 to 16, and August 9 to 20). Supplement and forage were offered at 0800 daily. Total, hay, and milk OM intakes of nursing calves were not affected by supplementation (2,014 vs. 2,328 +/- 288.8, 1,486 vs. 1,029 +/- 3,06.9, and 528 vs. 575 +/- 87.0 g/d, respectively). Milk OM intake was less (P 0.40) total-tract OM digestibility during June and August; however, during July, total-tract OM digestibility was lower (P = 0.03) for the control calves. Ruminal ammonia concentration, total VFA, and butyrate molar proportion increased (P effects on OM intake, total-tract OM digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics in nursing beef calves.

  11. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhuo

    Full Text Available For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE at q (False Discover Rate 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01 enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  12. Natural Gas and CO2 Price Variation: Impact on the Relative Cost-Efficiency of LNG and Pipelines

    OpenAIRE

    Øverland, Indra; Ulvestad, Marte

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carri...

  13. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; de Boer, I J M; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M; Quillet, E; Komen, H; Aubin, J

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed). ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish)) and per farm per year (ENV(farm)). Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish) and ENV(farm) were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish) of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm) of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  14. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Besson

    Full Text Available In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA to calculate the economic (EV and environmental (ENV values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC and feed conversion ratio (FCR of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod, annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed, standing stock (Qstock, and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed. ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish and per farm per year (ENV(farm. Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish and ENV(farm were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  15. A statistical light use efficiency model explains 85% variations in global GPP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Ryu, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Photosynthesis is a complicated process whose modeling requires different levels of assumptions, simplification, and parameterization. Among models, light use efficiency (LUE) model is highly compact but powerful in monitoring gross primary production (GPP) from satellite data. Most of LUE models adopt a multiplicative from of maximum LUE, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (APAR), and temperature and water stress functions. However, maximum LUE is a fitting parameter with large spatial variations, but most studies only use several biome dependent constants. In addition, stress functions are empirical and arbitrary in literatures. Moreover, meteorological data used are usually coarse-resolution, e.g., 1°, which could cause large errors. Finally, sunlit and shade canopy have completely different light responses but little considered. Targeting these issues, we derived a new statistical LUE model from a process-based and satellite-driven model, the Breathing Earth System Simulator (BESS). We have already derived a set of global radiation (5-km resolution), carbon and water fluxes (1-km resolution) products from 2000 to 2015 from BESS. By exploring these datasets, we found strong correlation between APAR and GPP for sunlit (R2=0.84) and shade (R2=0.96) canopy, respectively. A simple model, only driven by sunlit and shade APAR, was thus built based on linear relationships. The slopes of the linear function act as effective LUE of global ecosystem, with values of 0.0232 and 0.0128 umol C/umol quanta for sunlit and shade canopy, respectively. When compared with MPI-BGC GPP products, a global proxy of FLUXNET data, BESS-LUE achieved an overall accuracy of R2 = 0.85, whereas original BESS was R2 = 0.83 and MODIS GPP product was R2 = 0.76. We investigated spatiotemporal variations of the effective LUE. Spatially, the ratio of sunlit to shade values ranged from 0.1 (wet tropic) to 4.5 (dry inland). By using maps of sunlit and shade effective LUE the accuracy of

  16. Spatial variation in host feeding patterns of Culex tarsalis and the Culex pipiens complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, T C; Lemenager, D A; Kluh, S; Carroll, B D; Lothrop, H D; Reisen, W K

    2012-07-01

    West Nile virus (family Flaviviridae, genus Flavivirus, WNV) is now endemic in California across a variety of ecological regions that support a wide diversity of potential avian and mammalian host species. Because different avian hosts have varying competence for WNV, determining the blood-feeding patterns of Culex (Diptera: Culicidae) vectors is a key component in understanding the maintenance and amplification of the virus as well as tangential transmission to humans and horses. We investigated the blood-feeding patterns of Culex tarsalis Coquillett and members of the Culex pipiens L. complex from southern to northern California. Nearly 100 different host species were identified from 1,487 bloodmeals, by using the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI). Cx. tarsalis fed on a higher diversity of hosts and more frequently on nonhuman mammals than did the Cx. pipiens complex. Several WNV-competent host species, including house finch and house sparrow, were common bloodmeal sources for both vector species across several biomes and could account for WNV maintenance and amplification in these areas. Highly competent American crow, western scrub-jay and yellow-billed magpie also were fed upon often when available and are likely important as amplifying hosts for WNV in some areas. Neither species fed frequently on humans (Cx. pipiens complex [0.4%], Cx. tarsalis [0.2%]), but with high abundance, both species could serve as both enzootic and bridge vectors for WNV.

  17. Genotypic Variation in Phosphorus Use Efficiency for Symbiotic Nitrogen Fixation in Voandzou (Vigna Subterranea)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andriamananjara, A.; Rabeharisoa, L. [Laboratoire des Radio-isotopes, Universite d' Antananarivo, Antananarivo (Madagascar); Abdou, M. Malam [Laboratoire Banques de genes CERRA / KOLLO, Institut National de Recherche Agronomique du Niger (INRAN), Niamey (Niger); Masse, D. [Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement, UMR Eco and Sols, Montpellier, (France); Amenc, L.; Pernot, C.; Drevon, J. J. [Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique, UMR Eco and Sols, Montpellier (France)

    2013-11-15

    Vigna subterranea, known as voandzou or Bambara groundnut as an African indigenous crop which is often neglected or under-used in African subsistence agriculture. Preliminary research and country perceptions have shown its agronomic and nutritional properties, in particular under atypical climates of arid and tropical areas, and in saline soils. There is a high potential to increase the production by optimizing symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) through effective inoculation even in nitrate-rich environments. In this study, Vigna subterranea inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756 was studied in order to assess the symbiotic fixation potential of different cultivars and landraces of Madagascar, Niger and Mali under low-P and sufficient-P conditions. Six voandzou cultivars inoculated with Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756, were grown under hydroaeroponic culture for 6 weeks supplied with four phosphorus levels of 15, 30, 75 and 250 {mu}mol plant{sup -1} week{sup -1} in order to establish the response curve of voandzou to P supply, and to induce P deficient and sufficient levels. In another experiment five tolerant cultivars with high SNF and five sensitive cultivars with low SNF were chosen after a preliminary screening of 54 voandzou genotypes, including 50 landraces from Madagascar, Niger and Mali supplied with 2 P levels as P deficient and P sufficient (30 and 75 {mu}mol plant{sup -1} week{sup -1} ) under hydroaeroponic conditions. Genotypic variation in SFN for the high phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) was observed among the 54 cultivars and landraces. Variability was especially related to the nodule and shoot biomass, nodule permeability, nodule respiration and gene phytase expression. Contrasting cultivars and landraces in terms of PUE for SNF were selected for further evaluation under field conditions. (author)

  18. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  19. Seasonal variations in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins Calidris alpina in a south European estuary: improved feeding conditions for northward migrants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo C Martins

    Full Text Available During the annual cycle, migratory waders may face strikingly different feeding conditions as they move between breeding areas and wintering grounds. Thus, it is of crucial importance that they rapidly adjust their behaviour and diet to benefit from peaks of prey abundance, in particular during migration, when they need to accumulate energy at a fast pace. In this study, we compared foraging behaviour and diet of wintering and northward migrating dunlins in the Tagus estuary, Portugal, by video-recording foraging birds and analysing their droppings. We also estimated energy intake rates and analysed variations in prey availability, including those that were active at the sediment surface. Wintering and northward migrating dunlins showed clearly different foraging behaviour and diet. In winter, birds predominantly adopted a tactile foraging technique (probing, mainly used to search for small buried bivalves, with some visual surface pecking to collect gastropods and crop bivalve siphons. Contrastingly, in spring dunlins generally used a visual foraging strategy, mostly to consume worms, but also bivalve siphons and shrimps. From winter to spring, we found a marked increase both in the biomass of invertebrate prey in the sediment and in the surface activity of worms and siphons. The combination of these two factors, together with the availability of shrimps in spring, most likely explains the changes in the diet and foraging behaviour of dunlins. Northward migrating birds took advantage from the improved feeding conditions in spring, achieving 65% higher energy intake rates as compared with wintering birds. Building on these results and on known daily activity budgets for this species, our results suggest that Tagus estuary provides high-quality feeding conditions for birds during their stopovers, enabling high fattening rates. These findings show that this large wetland plays a key role as a stopover site for migratory waders within the East

  20. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Improving Growth Rate and Feed Efficiency in Fish Farming Depend on Nitrogen and Density Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Vandeputte, M.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of fish breeding is to increase profit by producing faster growing fish with lower feed intake. However, little is known about the economic and environmental impacts of selective breeding programs for fish. We modelled a fish farm producing African catfish in a Recirculating Aquaculture

  1. Efficient co-conversion process of chicken manure into protein feed and organic fertilizer by Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Xiaopeng; Mazza, Lorenzo; Yu, Yongqiang; Cai, Minmin; Zheng, Longyu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Yu, Jeffrey; Huis, van Arnold; Yu, Ziniu; Fasulo, Salvatore; Zhang, Jibin

    2018-01-01

    A chicken manure management process was carried out through co-conversion of Hermetia illucens L. larvae (BSFL) with functional bacteria for producing larvae as feed stuff and organic fertilizer. Thirteen days co-conversion of 1000 kg of chicken manure inoculated with one million 6-day-old BSFL and

  2. Random variation in voluntary dry matter intake and effect of day length on feed intake capacity in growing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Andersen, Refsgaard; Foldager, John

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the random variation in voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) and to discuss the application of the results for monitoring purposes. Furthermore, the objective is to review and quantify the influence of day length or photoperiod on VDMI. VDMI was recorded...... was increased by 0.32% per hour increase in day length. This is in agreement with the increase found in reviewed literature when photoperiod was manipulated artificially. Practical application of the results for monitoring purposes are exemplified and discussed....

  3. Risk-based assessment of the cost-efficiency and the effectivity of renewable energy support schemes: Certificate markets versus feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagiani, Riccardo; Barquín, Julián; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of renewable energy sources in the electricity generation mix has the potential to reduce power sector's emissions and countries' dependence on imported oil. Climate change concerns and highly volatile oil prices have attracted governments' interest and support to sustain investments in renewable energy capacity, and different support policies have been implemented in many countries around the world. This paper analyzes the effects of investors' risk aversion on the performance of support schemes. The analysis compares two policy options, a feed-in tariff mechanism with a certificate market system. Results show that while a tariff mechanism could obtain better results than a certificate market, its performance is strictly dependent on regulator choices. A certificate market instead, permits to obtain the desired level of renewable energy market share with good cost-efficiency as long as investors' risk aversion is moderate. Moreover, discounting future cash flows with higher social discount rates further benefits a certificate system making it preferable to feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ► Paper analyzes the performance of feed-in tariffs and certificate markets. ► Model simulates the evolution of a power system considering investors' risk aversion. ► Tariffs could obtain better efficiency but also low effectiveness or over-investment. ► Barriers to entrance could result in higher certificates prices. ► Certificate performances benefit from higher social discount rates

  4. Lactobacillus Pentosus Ita23 and L. Acidipiscis Ita44 Enhance Feed Conversion Efficiency and Beneficial Gut Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YW Altaher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of probiotics especially Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria species on growth and feed utilization in poultry production has been extensively studied, the results were inconsistent presumably because the mode of action of probiotic is multi-factorial and each probiotic strain may affect the host in a specific manner. This study investigated the probiotic effect of two strains of Lactobacillus(Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44; 109 cells/kg feed isolated from mulberry (Morus Alba silage on the growth performance, cecal microbial population, and blood cholesterol of broiler chickens. One hundred twenty male broiler chicks (Cobb500 were randomLy allocated to two groups (control and treatment of six replicates (cages with 10 chicks per cage. Chicks in the control group received a standard diet and those in the treatment group received the same diet supplemented with 109 cells of the above Lactobacillus per kg feed. Supplementation of Lactobacillus did not affect body weight gain (averaged 1604 g at 35 days old but feed conversion ratio improved (p<0.01 by 6.4% due to reduction in feed intake (p<0.01 by birds in the treatment group. Supplementation also increased the population of Lactobacillusspp. and reduced pathogens E. coli in the cecal samples. Although Lactobacillus supplementation tends to reduce serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and triglyceride concentrations, these values were not significantly different from those of the control group. Results of this study showed that L. pentosus ITA23 and L. acidophilus ITA44 are potential probiotics to be used in poultry diets.

  5. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  6. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  7. Response of gross ecosystem productivity, light use efficiency, and water use efficiency of Mongolian steppe to seasonal variations in soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng-Gong; Eugster, Werner; Asanuma, Jun; Kotani, Ayumi; Davaa, Gombo; Oyunbaatar, Dambaravjaa; Sugita, Michiaki

    2008-03-01

    The examination of vegetation productivity and use of light and water resources is important for understanding the carbon and water cycles in semiarid and arid environments. We made continuous measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapor fluxes over an arid steppe ecosystem in Mongolia by using the eddy covariance (EC) technique. These measurements allow an examination of EC-estimated gross ecosystem productivity (GEP), light use efficiency (LUE), and water use efficiency (WUE) of the steppe. Daily variations of GEP, LUE, and WUE were associated with daily variations of incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), ambient temperature (Ta), and vapor pressure deficit (VPD). The magnitudes of these variations were also dependent on canopy development. On the daily basis, GEP linearly correlated with evapotranspiration rate and PAR. LUE correlated positively with leaf area index, Ta, and soil moisture availability but negatively with the surface reflectivity for short-wave solar radiation. Throughout the growing season, both GEP and LUE responded strongly to precipitation-fed soil moisture in the top 20 cm of the soil. An examination of the responses of LUE and WUE to PAR under different soil moisture conditions shows that when soil water availability exceeded VPD, the steppe was most efficient in light use, whereas it was less efficient in water use. The multivariate analysis of variance also suggests that soil moisture availability, especially water status in the upper 20-cm soil layer with dense distribution of grass roots, is the most significant factor that governs GEP, WUE, and LUE. This study provides a preliminary assessment of the use of available water and light by the Mongolian arid steppe ecosystems under seasonally varying soil moisture conditions. A better understanding of these functional responses is required to predict how climate change may affect arid steppe ecosystems.

  8. Genotypic variation in carbon isotope discrimination and transpiration efficiency in wheat. Leaf gas exchange and whole plant studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, A.G.; Farquhar, G.D.; Richards, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between carbon isotope discrimination, Δ, measured in plant dry matter and the ratio of intercellular to atmospheric partial pressures of CO 2 ,p i /p a , in leaves was examined in two glasshouse experiments using 14 wheat genotypes selected on the basis of variation in Δ of dry matter. Genotypic variation in Δ was similar in both experiments, with an average range of 1.8 x 10 -3 . Δ measured in dry matter and p i /p a measured in flag leaves were positively correlated. Variation among genotypes in p i /p a was attributed, approximately equally, to variation in leaf conductance and in photosynthetic capacity. The relationship between plant transpiration efficiency, W * (the amount of above-ground dry matter produced per unit water transpired) and Δ was was also examined. The results indicate that genotypic variation in Δ, measured in dry matter, should provide a reasonable measure of genotypic variation in long-term mean leaf p i /p a in wheat. 42 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Associations among methane emission traits measured in the feedlot and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, R M; Velazco, J I; Arthur, P F; Hegarty, R F

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate associations among animal performance and methane emission traits under feedlot conditions and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in residual feed intake (RFI), which is a measure of feed efficiency. Fifty-nine cattle were tested for feedlot RFI, of which 41 had methane production recorded on an ad libitum grain-based ration in the feedlot, 59 on a restricted grain-based ration in respiration chambers, and 57 on a restricted roughage ration in respiration chambers. The cattle became older and heavier as they went through the different phases of the experiment, but their feed intake (expressed as DMI) and daily emission of enteric methane (methane production rate; MPR) did not increase proportionally, as feed offered was restricted in the respiration chamber tests. Methane emissions by individual animals relative to their DMI were calculated as methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI) and as 2 measures of residual methane production (RMP and RMP), which were calculated as the difference between measured MPR and that predicted from feed intake by 2 different equations. Within each test regime, MPR was positively correlated ( = 0.28 to 0.61) with DMI. Phenotypic correlations for MY, RMP, and RMP between the feedlot test and the restricted grain test ( = 0.40 to 0.43) and between the restricted grain test and the restricted roughage test were moderate ( = 0.36 to 0.41) and moderate to strong between the feedlot test and the restricted roughage test ( = 0.54 to 0.58). These results indicate that the rankings of animals for methane production relative to feed consumed are relatively stable over the 3 test phases. Feedlot feed conversion ratio and RFI were not correlated with MPR in the feedlot test and grain-based chamber test but were negatively correlated with MPR in the chamber roughage test ( = -0.31 and -0.37). Both were negatively correlated with MY and RMP in the feedlot test ( = -0.42 to -0.54) and subsequent

  10. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, M; Khorvash, M; Amanlou, H; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%). The crude protein concentrations were kept constant across the treatments (16.7% of DM). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Cows fed 2 different RDP:RUP ratios exhibited similar dry matter intake (DMI), but those fed SFC showed decreased feed intake compared with those receiving GC (25.1 ± 0.48 vs. 26.2 ± 0.47 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed HR diets produced more milk than did those fed LR diets (44.4 ± 1.05 vs. 43.2 ± 1.05 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed SFC compared with those fed GC. Feed efficiency (i.e., milk yield/DMI) was enhanced with increasing ratio of RDP:RUP (1.68 ± 0.04 vs. 1.74 ± 0.04 for LR and HR, respectively). Apparent N efficiency was higher in cows fed HR than in those fed LR (30.4 ± 0.61 vs. 29.2 ± 0.62, respectively). Compared with cows fed the GC-based diet, those receiving SFC exhibited lower values of N intake, N-NH 3 concentration, and fecal N excretion. Cows receiving SFC-based diets spent more time ruminating (min/kg of DMI) than did those fed GC. Although these results showed no interaction effects of RDP:RUP ratio and corn processing method on performance, higher RDP:RUP ratios and ground corn can be effective feeding strategies for

  11. Influence of the feed pipe position of an industrial scale two-phase decanter on extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Brunetti, Lucio; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Catalano, Pasquale; Bianchi, Biagio

    2018-02-10

    Nowadays, olive oil extraction is basically achieved by means of two-phase decanters, which allow a reduction of water consumption and the leaching of phenolic compounds. Despite this, most of the working settings derive from studies carried out on three-phase decanters. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of two-phase decanter feed pipe position (FP) on the extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. Three different positions were considered: at 825 mm (FP1), 610 mm (FP2) and 520 mm (FP3) from the outlet of the oily phase. Position FP3 allowed the highest oil recovery (up to 10%), the lowest percentage of oil in the olive pomace and, in general, a regular trend in terms of oil extraction efficiency. However, the oily must that came out of the decanter was not completely clean in terms of residual content of solid sediment and water. The feeding position partially affected the profile of antioxidant compounds. In two-phase decanters, loading the olive paste close to the outlet of the oily phase is recommended to increase the extraction efficiency without jeopardizing the chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Essential oils improved weight gain, growth and feed efficiency of young dairy calves fed 18 or 20% crude protein starter diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Falahati, R; Poorhamdollah, M; Heidari, S R; Pezeshki, A

    2018-01-17

    The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO). The EO was supplemented as 1 g/kg of starter DM. Calves were fed ad libitum starter diet and were weaned at day 59 of age, but diets continued until day 80. There were no interactive effects of CP and EO on intake and growth. Pre-weaning feed efficiency tended to be increased for 200P-EO (p = .09). Average daily gain and feed efficiency during pre-weaning period as well as weaning weight were increased (p calves-fed EO (p = .05) and was lower in those fed 180P vs. 200P (p feed efficiency of dairy calves, irrespective of dietary protein content. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Different measures of energetic efficiency and their phenotypic relationships with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit in hybrid cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Ammoura, A; Guercio, S; Hansen, C; Li, C; Benkel, B; Murdoch, B; Moore, S S

    2004-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been proposed as an index for determining beef cattle energetic efficiency. Although the relationship of RFI with feed conversion ratio (FCR) is well established, little is known about how RFI compares to other measures of efficiency. This study examined the phenotypic relationships among different measures of energetic efficiency with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit of hybrid cattle (n = 150). Dry matter intake, ME intake (MEI), ADG, metabolic weight (MWT), and FCR during the test averaged 10.29 kg/d (SD = 1.62), 1,185.45 kJ/(kg0.75 x d) (SD = 114.69), 1.42 kg/d (SD = 0.25), 86.67 kg0.75 (SD = 10.21), and 7.27 kg of DM/kg of gain (SD = 1.00), respectively. Residual feed intake averaged 0.00 kg/d and ranged from -2.25 kg/d (most efficient) to 2.61 kg/d (least efficient). Dry matter intake (r = 0.75), MEI (r = 0.83), and FCR (r = 0.62) were correlated with RFI (P 0.5 SD) RFI vs. those with medium (+/-0.5 SD) or low (<0.5 SD) RFI (P < 0.001). Partial efficiency of growth (PEG; energetic efficiency for ADG) was correlated with RFI (r = -0.89, P < 0.001) and was lower (P < 0.001) for high- vs. medium- or low-RFI animals. However, RFI was not related to ADG (r = -0.03), MWT (r = -0.02), relative growth rate (RGR; growth relative to instantaneous body size; r = -0.04), or Kleiber ratio (KR; ADG per unit of MWT; r = -0.004). Also, DMI was correlated (P < 0.01) with ADG (r = 0.66), MWT (r = 0.49), FCR (r = 0.49), PEG (r = -0.52), RGR (r = 0.18), and KR (r = 0.36). Additionally, FCR was correlated (P < 0.001) with ADG (r = -0.63), PEG (r = -0.83), RGR (r = -0.75), and KR (r = -0.73), but not with MWT (r = 0.07). Correlations of measures of efficiency with ultrasound or carcass traits generally were not different from zero except for correlations of RFI, FCR, and PEG, respectively, with backfat gain (r = 0.30, 0.20, and -0.30), ultrasound backfat (r = 0.19, 0.21, and -0.25), grade fat (r = 0.25, 0.19, and -0.27), lean meat

  14. From frugivore to folivore: Altitudinal variations in the diet and feeding ecology of the Bioko Island drill (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Jacob R; Honarvar, Shaya; Nessel, Mark; Hearn, Gail W

    2015-12-01

    Variation in the quality and availability of food resources can greatly influence the ecology, behavior, and conservation of wild primates. We studied the influence of altitudinal differences in resource availability on diet in wild drill monkeys (Mandrillus leucophaeus poensis) on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. We compared fecal samples (n = 234) collected across three consecutive dry seasons for drills living in lowland (0-300 m asl) forest with nearby (18 km distance) drills living in montane forest (500-1000 m asl) in the Gran Caldera Southern Highlands Scientific Reserve. Lowland forest drills had a frugivorous diet very similar to that reported from studies on nearby mainland drills (M. l. leucophaeus) and mandrills (M. sphinx), with fruits comprising 90% of their dried fecal samples. However drills living in montane forest had a more folivorous diet, with herbaceous pith, leaves and fungi comprising 74% of their dried fecal samples and fruit becoming a minor component (24%). Furthermore, a dietary preference index indicated that the differences in the proportion of fruit and fibrous vegetation in the diets of lowland compared to montane drills was not simply a result of relative availability. Montane drills were actively consuming a higher mass of the available fruits and fibrous vegetation, a condition reflected in the greater mass of their fresh feces. Our results demonstrate the unexpected flexibility and complexity of dietary choices of this endangered species in two adjacent habitat types, a comparison of considerable importance for many other limited-range species faced with habitat loss and climate change. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Aksoy Nigar Yildirim Variational problem with complex co-efficient of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user1

    Abbaspour Mohammad Hassan see Ghaffarzadeh Ghodrat. 329. Abhyankar Shreeram S. Rees valuations. 525. Agarwal A K. seeAnand S. 23. Aithal A R. On the extrema of Dirichlet's first eigen- value of a family of punctured regular polygons in two dimensional space forms. 257. Aksoy Nigar Yildirim. Variational problem ...

  16. An efficient multiple particle filter based on the variational Bayesian approach

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    ) approach to propose a new MPF, the VBMPF. The proposed filter is computationally more efficient since the propagation of each particle requires generating one (new) particle only, while in the standard MPFs a set of (children) particles needs

  17. Bioprocess for efficient production of recombinant Pichia anomala phytase and its applicability in dephytinizing chick feed and whole wheat flat Indian breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-10-01

    The phytase of the yeast Pichia anomala (PPHY) is a suitable biocatalyst as a food and feed additive because of its adequate thermostability, acid stability, protease insensitivity and broad substrate spectrum. The cell-bound nature and low phytase titres are the main bottlenecks for its utility in food and feed industries. In this investigation, we have overcome the problems by constitutive secretory expression of PPHY under glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. A ~44-fold increase in rPPHY titre has been achieved after optimization of cultural variables by one-variable-at-a-time approach and two factorial statistical design. The use of GAP promoter makes the cultivation of the recombinant P. pastoris straight forward and eliminates the requirement of methanol for induction and hazards associated with its storage. Among metal-phytate complexes, Ca(2+) phytate is hydrolyzed more efficiently by rPPHY than Co(2+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) phytates. The enzyme is effective in dephytinizing whole wheat unleavened flat Indian breads (naan and tandoori) and different broiler feeds, thus mitigating anti-nutritional effects of phytates.

  18. Efficiency Study of Vertical Distance Variations in Wireless Power Transfer for E-Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhar, Morteza Ghorbani; Ouyang, Ziwei; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2016-01-01

    A Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system is a safe, convenient and smart charging solution for Electric Vehicle (EV) users. However, a drawback of WPT systems is reduced efficiency in comparison to conventional wired charging due to lower coupling. By increasing the volume of EVs in the market...... significant parameters that affect the system efficiency at low VD such as quality factor and third harmonic interference are analyzed and a mitigating approach is proposed...

  19. Effect of roughage on rumen microbiota composition in the efficient feed converter and sturdy Indian Jaffrabadi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Mootapally, Chandra Shekar; Reddy, Bhaskar; Shah, Shailesh V; Lunagaria, Pravin M; Kothari, Ramesh K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-12-29

    The rumen microbiota functions as an effective system for conversion of dietary feed to microbial proteins and volatile fatty acids. In the present study, metagenomic approach was applied to elucidate the buffalo rumen microbiome of Jaffrabadi buffalo adapted to varied dietary treatments with the hypothesis that the microbial diversity and subsequent in the functional capacity will alter with diet change and enhance our knowledge of effect of microbe on host physiology. Eight adult animals were gradually adapted to an increasing roughage diet (4 animals each with green and dry roughage) containing 50:50 (J1), 75:25 (J2) and 100:0 (J3) roughage to concentrate proportion for 6 weeks. Metagenomic sequences of solid (fiber adherent microbiota) and liquid (fiber free microbiota) fractions obtained using Ion Torrent PGM platform were analyzed using MG-RAST server and CAZymes approach. Taxonomic analysis revealed that Bacteroidetes was the most abundant phylum followed by Firmicutes, Fibrobacter and Proteobacteria. Functional analysis revealed protein (25-30 %) and carbohydrate (15-20 %) metabolism as the dominant categories. Principal component analysis demonstrated that roughage proportion, fraction of rumen and type of forage affected rumen microbiome at taxonomic as well as functional level. Rumen metabolite study revealed that rumen fluid nitrogen content reduced in high roughage diet fed animals and pathway analysis showed reduction in the genes coding enzymes involved in methanogenesis pathway. CAZyme annotation revealed the abundance of genes encoding glycoside hydrolases (GH), with the GH3 family most abundant followed by GH2 and GH13 in all samples. Results reveals that high roughage diet feed improved microbial protein synthesis and reduces methane emission. CAZyme analysis indicated the importance of microbiome in feed component digestion for fulfilling energy requirements of the host. The findings help determine the role of rumen microbes in plant

  20. Testing the FOODBANCS hypothesis: Seasonal variations in near-bottom particle flux, bioturbation intensity, and deposit feeding based on 234Th measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClintic, Mark A.; DeMaster, David J.; Thomas, Carrie J.; Smith, Craig R.

    2008-11-01

    Naturally occurring 234Th (24-d half-life) was used on the West Antarctic continental shelf to evaluate temporal variations in the flux of particulate material reaching the seabed, bioturbation intensity, the seasonal continuity of feeding by benthic fauna, and trends in particle selection during ingestion for six common detritivores (four surface deposit feeders and two subsurface deposit feeders). These measurements were made at three stations during the five FOODBANCS cruises (December 1999, March, June, and October 2000, and March 2001) to assess the nature of pelagic-benthic coupling on the shelf and to evaluate the seabed as a potential food bank for deposit feeders when surface primary production is minimal. Two summer regimes were sampled (March 2000 and March 2001) with the latter exhibiting a distinct 1-2-cm-thick phytodetritus layer in nearly all sediment core samples. At site B, the 234Th fluxes into the near-bottom (150/170 mab) sediment traps were indistinguishable for the December-March 2000, March-June 2000, and June-October 2000 sampling intervals (fluxes ranging from 170 to 280 dpm m -2 d -1). However, the sediment-trap 234Th flux measured for the October 2000-March 2001 interval (1000 dpm m -2 d -1) was ˜5-fold greater than during the other three sampling periods, consistent with the deposition of a phytodetritus layer. The steady-state 234Th fluxes derived from seabed inventories at site B were 2.4-2.7 times greater than the sediment-trap 234Th fluxes, indicating substantial scavenging of this particle-reactive radiotracer in the bottom 150 m of the water column and/or lateral transport near the seabed. The seabed 234Th inventories at the three stations showed no variation during the first four cruises, but were significantly greater during cruise FB-V (March 2001), when the phytodetritus layer occurred. Based on 234Th distributions in the seabed, bioturbation intensities (quantified using the diffusive mixing coefficient, Db) varied from 0

  1. Effects of shrimp head meal in the diets on growth, feed efficiency and pigmentation of sex-reversed red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimolrat, P.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp head meal (SHM was used to replace fish meal as a protein source in practical diets for sexreversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of fish meal protein or 0, 6.92, 13.84, 20.76 and 27.68% by weight of diet respectively. Catfish feed that contained protein content 37.22±0.10% was included as a reference diet. The experimental diets were fed to the fish with mean initial weight of 3.13±0.05 g for 8 weeks in 70 l aquaria. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed 50% of fishmeal protein replacement or diet 3 was not significant by different from those of fish on control diet (p>0.05. The data of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and productive protein value of fish fed diet 3 were equal to those fed control diet (p>0.05. The lowest growth rate and feed efficiency showed on fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement. The production cost of fish fed diet 3 was equal to those fed the control diet and the reference diet (p>0.05. Total carotenoid content in fish skin was significantly highest (p<0.05 in fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement diet. The result indicates that the use of SHM at the level of 50% replacement or 13.84% by weight of diet is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diet.

  2. Global and radial variations in the efficiency of massive star formation among galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L.E.; Young, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    In order to determine the regions within galaxies which give rise to the most efficient star formation and to test the hypothesis that galaxies with high infrared luminosities per unit molecular mass are efficiently producing high mass stars, researchers have undertaken an H alpha imaging survey in galaxies whose CO distributions have been measured as part of the Five College Radio Astronomy Observatory (FCRAO) Extragalactic CO Survey. From these images researchers have derived global H alpha fluxes and distributions for comparison with far infrared radiation (FIR) fluxes and CO fluxes and distributions. Here, researchers present results on the global massive star formation efficiency (SFE = L sub H sub alpha/M(H2)) as a function of morphological type and environment, and on the radial distribution of the SFE within both peculiar and isolated galaxies. On the basis of comparison of the global L sub H sub alpha/M(H2) and L sub FIR/M(H2) for 111 galaxies, researchers conclude that environment rather than morphological type has the strongest effect on the global efficiency of massive star formation. Based on their study of a small sample, they find that the largest radial gradients are observed in the interacting/peculiar galaxies, indicating that environment affects the star formation efficiency within galaxies as well

  3. Matrix-variational method: an efficient approach to bound state eigenproblems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerck, E.; d'Oliveira, A.B.

    1978-11-01

    A new matrix-variational method for solving the radial Schroedinger equation is described. It consists in obtaining an adjustable matrix formulation for the boundary value differential equation, using a set of three functions that obey the boundary conditions. These functions are linearly combined at every three adjacents points to fit the true unknown eigenfunction by a variational technique. With the use of a new class of central differences, the exponential differences, tridiagonal or bidiagonal matrices are obtained. In the bidiagonal case, closed form expressions for the eigenvalues are given for the Coulomb, harmonic, linear, square-root and logarithmic potentials. The values obtained are within 0.1% of the true numerical value. The eigenfunction can be calculated using the eigenvectors to reconstruct the linear combination of the set functions [pt

  4. Genotypic Variation of Early Maturing Soybean Genotypes for Phosphorus Utilization Efficiency under Field Grown Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaidoo, R. C. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan (Nigeria); Opoku, A.; Boahen, S. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Technology, Kumasi (Ghana); Dare, M. O. [Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta (Nigeria)

    2013-11-15

    Variability in the utilization of phosphorus (P) by 64 early-maturing soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) genotypes under low-P soil conditions were evaluated in 2009 and 2010 at Shika, Nigeria. Fifteen phenotypic variables; number of nodules, nodule dry weight, grain yield, plant biomass, total biomass, biomass N and P content, Phosphorus Utilization Index (PUI), shoot P Utilization efficiency (PUIS), grain P Utilization efficiency (PUIG), Harvest Index (HI), Biological N fixed (BNF), total N fixed and N and P uptake were measured. The four clusters revealed by cluster analysis were basically divided along (1) plant biomass and uptake, (2) nutrient acquisition and utilization and (3) nodulation components. Three early maturing genotypes, TGx1842-14E, TGx1912-11F and TGx1913-5F, were identified as having high P utilization index and low P uptake. These genotypes could be a potential source for breeding for P use efficiency in early maturing soybean genotypes. (author)

  5. Investing in innovation: trade-offs in the costs and cost-efficiency of school feeding using community-based kitchens in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Suwa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    School feeding programs have been a key response to the recent food and economic crises and function to some degree in nearly every country in the world. However, school feeding programs are complex and exhibit different, context-specific models or configurations. To examine the trade-offs, including the costs and cost-efficiency, of an innovative cluster kitchen implementation model in Bangladesh using a standardized framework. A supply chain framework based on international standards was used to provide benchmarks for meaningful comparisons across models. Implementation processes specific to the program in Bangladesh were mapped against this reference to provide a basis for standardized performance measures. Qualitative and quantitative data on key metrics were collected retrospectively using semistructured questionnaires following an ingredients approach, including both financial and economic costs. Costs were standardized to a 200-feeding-day year and 700 kcal daily. The cluster kitchen model had similarities with the semidecentralized model and outsourced models in the literature, the main differences involving implementation scale, scale of purchasing volumes, and frequency of purchasing. Two important features stand out in terms of implementation: the nutritional quality of meals and the level of community involvement. The standardized full cost per child per year was US$110. Despite the nutritious content of the meals, the overall cost-efficiency in cost per nutrient output was lower than the benchmark for centralized programs, due mainly to support and start-up costs. Cluster kitchens provide an example of an innovative implementation model, combining an emphasis on quality meal delivery with strong community engagement. However, the standardized costs-per child were above the average benchmarks for both low-and middle-income countries. In contrast to the existing benchmark data from mature, centralized models, the main cost drivers of the program were

  6. Asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone using a strictly (R)-stereoselective carbonyl reductase through efficient NADPH regeneration and the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Man; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Li; Bai, Yanbin; Chen, Liang; Yu, Meilan; Cheng, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wang, Zhao; Ying, Xiangxian

    2017-11-01

    To characterize a recombinant carbonyl reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SceCPR1) and explore its use in asymmetric synthesis of (R)-pantolactone [(R)-PL]. The NADPH-dependent SceCPR1 exhibited strict (R)-enantioselectivity and high activity in the asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone (KPL) to (R)-PL. Escherichia coli, coexpressing SceCPR1 and glucose dehydrogenase from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (EsGDH), was constructed to fulfill efficient NADPH regeneration. During the whole-cell catalyzed asymmetric reduction of KPL, the spontaneous hydrolysis of KPL significantly affected the yield of (R)-PL, which was effectively alleviated by the employment of the substrate constant-feeding strategy. The established whole-cell bioreduction for 6 h afforded 458 mM (R)-PL with the enantiomeric excess value of >99.9% and the yield of 91.6%. Escherichia coli coexpressing SceCPR1 and EsGDH efficiently catalyzed the asymmetric synthesis of (R)-PL through the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

  7. Variation in levels and removal efficiency of heavy and trace metals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general abundance distribution pattern for metals was Zn > Cu > Pb > Cr > Ni > As > Co > Cd > Hg. The removal efficiency ranged from 1.5% for Hg at Zandvliet WWTP plant during winter to 98.27% for Cu at Athlone WWTP treatment plant during summer. The final effluent concentration for most of the metals were within ...

  8. How within-group behavioural variation and task efficiency enhance fitness in a social group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Jonathan N; Riechert, Susan E

    2011-04-22

    How task specialization, individual task performance and within-group behavioural variation affects fitness is a longstanding and unresolved problem in our understanding of animal societies. In the temperate social spider, Anelosimus studiosus, colony members exhibit a behavioural polymorphism; females either exhibit an aggressive 'asocial' or docile 'social' phenotype. We assessed individual prey-capture success for both phenotypes, and the role of phenotypic composition on group-level prey-capture success for three prey size classes. We then estimated the effect of group phenotypic composition on fitness in a common garden, as inferred from individual egg-case masses. On average, asocial females were more successful than social females at capturing large prey, and colony-level prey-capture success was positively associated with the frequency of the asocial phenotype. Asocial colony members were also more likely to engage in prey-capture behaviour in group-foraging situations. Interestingly, our fitness estimates indicate females of both phenotypes experience increased fitness when occupying colonies containing unlike individuals. These results imply a reciprocal fitness benefit of within-colony behavioural variation, and perhaps division of labour in a spider society.

  9. Variation in Behavioral Reactivity Is Associated with Cooperative Restraint Training Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Training techniques that prepare laboratory animals to participate in testing via cooperation are useful tools that have the potential to benefit animal wellbeing. Understanding how animals systematically vary in their cooperative training trajectories will help trainers to design effective and efficient training programs. In the present report we document an updated method for training rhesus monkeys to cooperatively participate in restraint in a ‘primate chair.’ We trained 14 adult male mac...

  10. Absolute 22Na radioactivity measurement by gamma efficiency variation of 4πβ-γ coincidence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, Yoshio; Kawada, Yasusi.

    1994-01-01

    The absolute radioactivity of 22 Na was obtained by gamma efficiency variation of 4πβ-γ coincidence method. Some other previous techniques, such as sum peak gate method based on the positron emission rate, relative measurement with calibrated ionization chambers, and gamma spectrometry with a HPGe detector, were also tried to ensure the present result. The results of these methods were in reasonable agreement with the present absolute measurement. The assayed source solution of this experiment was transferred to NBS type ampoules, and sealed ampoules were sent to the SIR (International Reference System) in BIPM, Taiwan and Indonesia for the international comparison. (author)

  11. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  12. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence for increasing digestive and metabolic efficiency of energy utilization with age of dairy cattle as determined in two feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Zeitz, J O; Clauss, M; Furger, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2018-03-01

    The changes taking place with age in energy turnover of dairy cattle are largely unknown. It is unclear whether the efficiency of energy utilization in digestion (characterized by faecal and methane energy losses) and in metabolism (characterized by urine and heat energy losses) is altered with age. In the present study, energy balance data were obtained from 30 lactating Brown Swiss dairy cows aged between 2 and 10 years, and 12 heifers from 0.5 to 2 years of age. In order to evaluate a possible dependence of age effects on diet type, half of the cattle each originated from two herds kept at the same farm, which were fed either on a forage-only diet or on the same forage diet but complemented with 5 kg/day of concentrate since their first calving. During 2 days, the gaseous exchange of the animals was quantified in open-circuit respiration chambers, followed by an 8-day period of feed, faeces, urine and milk collection. Daily amounts and energy contents were used to calculate complete energy balances. Age and feeding regime effects were analysed by parametric regression analysis where BW, milk yield and hay proportion in forage as consumed were considered as covariates. Relative to intake of gross energy, the availability of metabolizable energy (ME) increased with age. This was not the result of an increasing energy digestibility, but of proportionately lower energy losses with methane (following a curvilinear relationship with the greatest losses in middle-aged cows) and urine (continuously declining). The efficiency of utilization of ME for milk production (k l) increased with age. Potential reasons include an increase in the propionate-to-acetate ratio in the rumen because of a shift away from fibre degradation and methane formation as well as lower urine energy losses. The greater k l allowed older cows to accrete more energy reserves in the body. As expected, offering concentrate enhanced digestibility, metabolizability and metabolic utilization of energy

  14. Importance of intestinal absorption of amino acids in regard to the efficiency of feed proteins in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbier, M.; Blum, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of 14 C(U) L-lysine was studied in vivo (perfusion of isolated intestinal folds) and in vitro (incubation of fragments of intestine) in the chicken and duck during growth. Factors that increase the nutritional efficiency of proteins, e.g. amino-acid deficiency, accelerate intestinal absorption. On the other hand, factors that reduce protein efficiency, be they nutritional (excess amino acids), physiological (age; sex: female compared with male; species: duck compared with chicken) or pathological (experimental coccidiosis), slow down the absorption of lysine. The results are discussed bearing in mind that the absorption rate has a double significance. It plays a part in digestive utilization; it may also reflect metabolic utilization to the extent that transfer through the intestinal mucosa is comparable to incorporation in the cells of the organism. (author)

  15. Inter-domain Synergism Is Required for Efficient Feeding of Cellulose Chain into Active Site of Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A*

    OpenAIRE

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter; Väljamäe, Priit

    2016-01-01

    Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and ...

  16. On the efficient simulation of the left-tail of the sum of correlated log-normal variates

    KAUST Repository

    Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2018-04-04

    The sum of log-normal variates is encountered in many challenging applications such as performance analysis of wireless communication systems and financial engineering. Several approximation methods have been reported in the literature. However, these methods are not accurate in the tail regions. These regions are of primordial interest as small probability values have to be evaluated with high precision. Variance reduction techniques are known to yield accurate, yet efficient, estimates of small probability values. Most of the existing approaches have focused on estimating the right-tail of the sum of log-normal random variables (RVs). Here, we instead consider the left-tail of the sum of correlated log-normal variates with Gaussian copula, under a mild assumption on the covariance matrix. We propose an estimator combining an existing mean-shifting importance sampling approach with a control variate technique. This estimator has an asymptotically vanishing relative error, which represents a major finding in the context of the left-tail simulation of the sum of log-normal RVs. Finally, we perform simulations to evaluate the performances of the proposed estimator in comparison with existing ones.

  17. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  18. Electron efficiency of nZVI does not change with variation of environmental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schöftner, Philipp; Waldner, Georg; Lottermoser, Werner; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Freitag, Peter; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) are already applied for in-situ dechlorination of halogenated organic contaminants in the field. We performed batch experiments whereby trichloroethene (TCE) was dehalogenated by nZVI under different environmental conditions that are relevant in practice. The tested conditions include different ionic strengths, addition of polyelectrolytes (carboxymethylcellulose and ligninsulphonate), lowered temperature, dissolved oxygen and different particle contents. Particle properties were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM, AAS and laser obscuration time measurements. TCE dehalogenation and H 2 evolution were decelerated by reduced ionic strength, addition of polyelectrolytes, temperature reduction, the presence of dissolved oxygen and reduced particle content. The partitioning of released electrons between reactions with the contaminant vs. with water (selectivity) was low, independent of the tested conditions. Basically out of hundred electrons that were released via nZVI oxidation only 3.1 ± 1.4 were used for TCE dehalogenation. Even lower selectivities were observed at TCE concentrations below 3.5 mg l −1 , hence particle modifications and/or combination of nZVI with other remediation technologies seem to be necessary to reach target concentrations for remediation. Our results suggest that selectivity is particle intrinsic and not as much condition dependent, hence particle synthesis and potential particle modifications of nZVI particles may be more important for optimization of the pollutant degradation rate, than tested environmental conditions. - Highlights: • We investigated the degradation kinetics of trichloroethene by zerovalent nanoiron particles. • Electron efficiency of the tested particles was very low (about 3%). • The tested environmental conditions had no significant influence on the degradation kinetics and electron efficiency. • We conclude that particle type is more important for

  19. Electron efficiency of nZVI does not change with variation of environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schöftner, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.schoeftner@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria); Waldner, Georg [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria); Lottermoser, Werner, E-mail: werner.lottermoser@sbg.ac.at [Salzburg University, FB Materialforschung und Physik, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Stöger-Pollach, Michael, E-mail: stoeger@ustem.tuwien.ac.at [Technical University of Vienna, Universitäre Service-Einrichtung für Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie — USTEM (Austria); Freitag, Peter, E-mail: p.freitag@kellergrundbau.at [Keller Grundbau Ges. mbH, Mariahilfer Straße 127a, 1150 Vienna (Austria); Reichenauer, Thomas G., E-mail: thomas.reichenauer@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria)

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) are already applied for in-situ dechlorination of halogenated organic contaminants in the field. We performed batch experiments whereby trichloroethene (TCE) was dehalogenated by nZVI under different environmental conditions that are relevant in practice. The tested conditions include different ionic strengths, addition of polyelectrolytes (carboxymethylcellulose and ligninsulphonate), lowered temperature, dissolved oxygen and different particle contents. Particle properties were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM, AAS and laser obscuration time measurements. TCE dehalogenation and H{sub 2} evolution were decelerated by reduced ionic strength, addition of polyelectrolytes, temperature reduction, the presence of dissolved oxygen and reduced particle content. The partitioning of released electrons between reactions with the contaminant vs. with water (selectivity) was low, independent of the tested conditions. Basically out of hundred electrons that were released via nZVI oxidation only 3.1 ± 1.4 were used for TCE dehalogenation. Even lower selectivities were observed at TCE concentrations below 3.5 mg l{sup −1}, hence particle modifications and/or combination of nZVI with other remediation technologies seem to be necessary to reach target concentrations for remediation. Our results suggest that selectivity is particle intrinsic and not as much condition dependent, hence particle synthesis and potential particle modifications of nZVI particles may be more important for optimization of the pollutant degradation rate, than tested environmental conditions. - Highlights: • We investigated the degradation kinetics of trichloroethene by zerovalent nanoiron particles. • Electron efficiency of the tested particles was very low (about 3%). • The tested environmental conditions had no significant influence on the degradation kinetics and electron efficiency. • We conclude that particle type is more

  20. DENSE GAS FRACTION AND STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY VARIATIONS IN THE ANTENNAE GALAXIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigiel, F. [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, A. K. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 W 18th Street, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Blitz, L. [Department of Astronomy, Radio Astronomy Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bolatto, A. D. [Department of Astronomy and Laboratory for Millimeter-Wave Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Da Cunha, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rosolowsky, E. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Sandstrom, K. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Usero, A., E-mail: bigiel@uni-heidelberg.de [Observatorio Astronomico Nacional, Alfonso XII 3, E-28014, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-12-20

    We use the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) millimeter interferometer to map the Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038/39), tracing the bulk of the molecular gas via the {sup 12}CO(1–0) line and denser molecular gas via the high density transitions HCN(1–0), HCO{sup +}(1–0), CS(2–1), and HNC(1–0). We detect bright emission from all tracers in both the two nuclei and three locales in the overlap region between the two nuclei. These three overlap region peaks correspond to previously identified “supergiant molecular clouds.” We combine the CARMA data with Herschel infrared (IR) data to compare observational indicators of the star formation efficiency (star formation rate/H{sub 2} ∝ IR/CO), dense gas fraction (HCN/CO), and dense gas star formation efficiency (IR/HCN). Regions within the Antennae show ratios consistent with those seen for entire galaxies, but these ratios vary by up to a factor of six within the galaxy. The five detected regions vary strongly in both their integrated intensities and these ratios. The northern nucleus is the brightest region in millimeter-wave line emission, while the overlap region is the brightest part of the system in the IR. We combine the CARMA and Herschel data with ALMA CO data to report line ratio patterns for each bright point. CO shows a declining spectral line energy distribution, consistent with previous studies. HCO{sup +} (1–0) emission is stronger than HCN (1–0) emission, perhaps indicating either more gas at moderate densities or higher optical depth than is commonly seen in more advanced mergers.

  1. Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhoven, Sarah; Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-02-01

    Insects receive increasing attention as an alternative protein-rich food source for humans. Producing edible insects on diets composed of organic by-products could increase sustainability. In addition, insect growth rate and body composition, and hence nutritional quality, can be altered by diet. Three edible mealworm species Tenebrio molitor L., Zophobas atratus Fab. and Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer were grown on diets composed of organic by-products originating from beer brewing, bread/cookie baking, potato processing and bioethanol production. Experimental diets differed with respect to protein and starch content. Larval growth and survival was monitored. Moreover, effects of dietary composition on feed conversion efficiency and mealworm crude protein and fatty acid profile were assessed. Diet affected mealworm development and feed conversion efficiency such that diets high in yeast-derived protein appear favourable, compared to diets used by commercial breeders, with respect to shortening larval development time, reducing mortality and increasing weight gain. Diet also affected the chemical composition of mealworms. Larval protein content was stable on diets that differed 2-3-fold in protein content, whereas dietary fat did have an effect on larval fat content and fatty acid profile. However, larval fatty acid profile did not necessarily follow the same trend as dietary fatty acid composition. Diets that allowed for fast larval growth and low mortality in this study led to a comparable or less favourable n6/n3 fatty acid ratio compared to control diets used by commercial breeders. In conclusion, the mealworm species used in this study can be grown successfully on diets composed of organic by-products. Diet composition did not influence larval protein content, but did alter larval fat composition to a certain extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Annual variations in the solar energy conversion efficiency in a willow coppice stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noronha-Sannervik, A.; Kowalik, P.

    2003-01-01

    Productivity of an experimental willow coppice forest located at Uppsala, Sweden, was monitored between 1985 and 1994. The 2.7 ha stand was planted in 1984 with a density of 20 000 cuttings per ha and was harvested three times. During the monitored period, the annual stem wood production and the cumulated values of total solar radiation during the growing season, were measured. The conversion of incoming solar radiation into stem biomass was evaluated and the results show that the solar energy conversion efficiency (ECE), for the first and fourth year of the cutting cycle, is, on average, 64% of the ECE for the second and third year of the cutting cycle. It is discussed that the low ECE of 1-year-old shoots is related to a delay in leaf canopy development at the beginning of the growing season and lack of weed control after harvest. For the 4-years-old shoots, the low ECE, is believed to be related to the increased shoot and stool mortality caused by the self-thinning process ongoing in the willow stand. It is recommended that the harvesting interval should be based on the specific development of the stand and more attention should be paid to weed control, especially in the first growing season after harvest

  3. Variation in water-use efficiency and its relation to carbon isotope ratio in cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saranga, Y.; Flash, I.; Yakir, D.

    1998-01-01

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is often exposed to drought, which adversely affects both yield and quality. Improved water-use efficiency (WUE = total dry matter produced or yield harvested / water used) is expected to reduce these adverse effects. Genetic variability in WUE and its association with photosynthetic rate and carbon isotope ratio (13C/12C) in cotton are reported in this paper. WUE of six cotton cultivars--G. hirsutum L., G. barbadense L., and an interspecific F1 hybrid (G. hirsutum x G. barbadense, ISH), was examined under two irrigation regimes in two field trials. The greatest WUE was obtained by two G. hirsutum cultivars (2.55 g dry matter or 1.12 g seed-cotton L-1 H2O) the ISH obtained similar or somewhat lower values, and that G. barbadense cultivars and one G. hirsutum cultivar exhibited the lowest values (2.1 g dry matter or 0.8 to 0.85 g seed-cotton L-1 H2O). These results indicate that different cotton cultivars may have evolved different environmental adaptations that affect their WUE. Photosynthetic rate was correlated with WUE in only a few cases emphasizing the limitation of this parameter as a basis for estimating crop WUE. Under both trials WUE was positively correlated with carbon isotope ratio, indicating the potential of this technique as a selection criterion for improving cotton WUE

  4. Simulating forest productivity along a neotropical elevational transect: temperature variation and carbon use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marthews, T.; Malhi, Y.; Girardin, C.; Silva-Espejo, J.; Aragão, L.; Metcalfe, D.; Rapp, J.; Mercado, L.; Fisher, R.; Galbraith, D.; Fisher, J.; Salinas-Revilla, N.; Friend, A.; Restrepo-Coupe, N.; Williams, R.

    2012-04-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms controlling the magnitude and sign of carbon components in tropical forest ecosystems is important for reliable estimation of this important regional component of the global carbon cycle. We used the JULES vegetation model to simulate all components of the carbon balance at six sites along an Andes-Amazon transect across Peru and Brazil and compared the results to published field measurements. In the upper montane zone the model predicted a vegetation dieback, indicating a need for better parameterisation of cloud forest vegetation. In the lower montane and lowland zones simulated ecosystem productivity and respiration were predicted with reasonable accuracy, although not always within the error bounds of the observations. Model-predicted carbon use efficiency in this transect surprisingly did not increase with elevation, but remained close to the 'temperate' value 0.5. This may be explained by elevational changes in the balance between growth and maintenance respiration within the forest canopy, as controlled by both temperature- and pressure-mediated processes.

  5. Variation in the response of an Arctic top predator experiencing habitat loss: feeding and reproductive ecology of two polar bear populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D; Regehr, Eric V; Douglas, David C; Durner, George; Derocher, Andrew E; Thiemann, Gregory W; Budge, Suzanne M

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have experienced substantial changes in the seasonal availability of sea ice habitat in parts of their range, including the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas. In this study, we compared the body size, condition, and recruitment of polar bears captured in the Chukchi and Bering Seas (CS) between two periods (1986-1994 and 2008-2011) when declines in sea ice habitat occurred. In addition, we compared metrics for the CS population 2008-2011 with those of the adjacent southern Beaufort Sea (SB) population where loss in sea ice habitat has been associated with declines in body condition, size, recruitment, and survival. We evaluated how variation in body condition and recruitment were related to feeding ecology. Comparing habitat conditions between populations, there were twice as many reduced ice days over continental shelf waters per year during 2008-2011 in the SB than in the CS. CS polar bears were larger and in better condition, and appeared to have higher reproduction than SB bears. Although SB and CS bears had similar diets, twice as many bears were fasting in spring in the SB than in the CS. Between 1986-1994 and 2008-2011, body size, condition, and recruitment indices in the CS were not reduced despite a 44-day increase in the number of reduced ice days. Bears in the CS exhibited large body size, good body condition, and high indices of recruitment compared to most other populations measured to date. Higher biological productivity and prey availability in the CS relative to the SB, and a shorter recent history of reduced sea ice habitat, may explain the maintenance of condition and recruitment of CS bears. Geographic differences in the response of polar bears to climate change are relevant to range-wide forecasts for this and other ice-dependent species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Variation in the response of an Arctic top predator experiencing habitat loss: Feeding and reproductive ecology of two polar bear populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Karyn D.; Regehr, Eric V.; Douglas, David C.; Durner, George M.; Derocher, Andrew E.; Thiemann, Gregory W.; Budge, Suzanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) have experienced substantial changes in the seasonal availability of sea ice habitat in parts of their range, including the Beaufort, Chukchi, and Bering Seas. In this study, we compared the body size, condition, and recruitment of polar bears captured in the Chukchi and Bering Seas (CS) between two periods (1986–1994 and 2008–2011) when declines in sea ice habitat occurred. In addition, we compared metrics for the CS population 2008–2011 with those of the adjacent southern Beaufort Sea (SB) population where loss in sea ice habitat has been associated with declines in body condition, size, recruitment, and survival. We evaluated how variation in body condition and recruitment were related to feeding ecology. Comparing habitat conditions between populations, there were twice as many reduced ice days over continental shelf waters per year during 2008–2011 in the SB than in the CS. CS polar bears were larger and in better condition, and appeared to have higher reproduction than SB bears. Although SB and CS bears had similar diets, twice as many bears were fasting in spring in the SB than in the CS. Between 1986–1994 and 2008–2011, body size, condition, and recruitment indices in the CS were not reduced despite a 44-day increase in the number of reduced ice days. Bears in the CS exhibited large body size, good body condition, and high indices of recruitment compared to most other populations measured to date. Higher biological productivity and prey availability in the CS relative to the SB, and a shorter recent history of reduced sea ice habitat, may explain the maintenance of condition and recruitment of CS bears. Geographic differences in the response of polar bears to climate change are relevant to range-wide forecasts for this and other ice-dependent species.

  7. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO 2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  8. Bayesian estimation of direct and correlated responses to selection on linear or ratio expressions of feed efficiency in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Varley, Patrick Francis; Jensen, Just

    2018-01-01

    meat percentage (LMP) along with the derived traits of RFI and FCR; and (3) deriving Bayesian estimates of direct and correlated responses to selection on RFI, FCR, ADG, ADFI, and LMP. Response to selection was defined as the difference in additive genetic mean of the selected top individuals, expected......, respectively. Selection against RFIG showed a direct response of − 0.16 kg/d and correlated responses of − 0.16 kg/kg for FCR and − 0.15 kg/d for ADFI, with no effect on other production traits. Selection against FCR resulted in a direct response of − 0.17 kg/kg and correlated responses of − 0.14 kg/d for RFIG......, − 0.18 kg/d for ADFI, and 0.98% for LMP. Conclusions: The Bayesian methodology developed here enables prediction of breeding values for FCR and RFI from a single multi-variate model. In addition, we derived posterior distributions of direct and correlated responses to selection. Genetic parameter...

  9. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  10. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  11. Efficient inference of population size histories and locus-specific mutation rates from large-sample genomic variation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Wang, Y X Rachel; Song, Yun S

    2015-02-01

    With the recent increase in study sample sizes in human genetics, there has been growing interest in inferring historical population demography from genomic variation data. Here, we present an efficient inference method that can scale up to very large samples, with tens or hundreds of thousands of individuals. Specifically, by utilizing analytic results on the expected frequency spectrum under the coalescent and by leveraging the technique of automatic differentiation, which allows us to compute gradients exactly, we develop a very efficient algorithm to infer piecewise-exponential models of the historical effective population size from the distribution of sample allele frequencies. Our method is orders of magnitude faster than previous demographic inference methods based on the frequency spectrum. In addition to inferring demography, our method can also accurately estimate locus-specific mutation rates. We perform extensive validation of our method on simulated data and show that it can accurately infer multiple recent epochs of rapid exponential growth, a signal that is difficult to pick up with small sample sizes. Lastly, we use our method to analyze data from recent sequencing studies, including a large-sample exome-sequencing data set of tens of thousands of individuals assayed at a few hundred genic regions. © 2015 Bhaskar et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. Genotypic variation in transpiration efficiency, carbon-isotope discrimination and carbon allocation during early growth in sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgona, J.M.; Farquhar, G.D.; Hubick, K.T.; Rawson, H.M.; Downes, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Transpiration efficiency of dry matter production (W), carbon-isotope discrimination (Δ) and dry matter partitioning were measured on six sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes grown for 32 days in a glasshouse. Two watering regimes, one well watered (HW) and the other delivering half the water used by the HW plants (LW), were imposed. Four major results emerged from this study: Three was significant genotypic variation in W in sunflower and this was closely reflected in Δ for both watering treatments; the low watering regime caused a decrease in Δ but no change in W; nonetheless the genotypic ranking for either Δ or W was not significantly altered by water stress; a positive correlation between W and biomass accumulation occurred among genotypes of HW plants; ρ, the ratio of total plant carbon content to leaf area, was positively correlated with W and negatively correlated with Δ. These results are discussed with reference to the connection between transpiration efficiency and plant growth, indicating that Δ can be used to select for W among young sunflower plants. However, selection for W may be accompanied by changes in other important plant growth characteristics such as ρ. 19 refs., 4 figs

  13. Nitrogen use efficiency and crop production: Patterns of regional variation in the United States, 1987-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaney, Dennis P; Howarth, Robert W; Hong, Bongghi

    2018-04-17

    National-level summaries of crop production and nutrient use efficiency, important for international comparisons, only partially elucidate agricultural dynamics within a country. Agricultural production and associated environmental impacts in large countries vary significantly because of regional differences in crops, climate, resource use and production practices. Here, we review patterns of regional crop production, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), and major inputs of nitrogen to US crops over 1987-2012, based on the Farm Resource Regions developed by the Economic Research Service (USDA-ERS). Across the US, NUE generally decreased over time over the period studied, mainly due to increased use in mineral N fertilizer above crop N requirements. The Heartland region dominates production of major crops and thus tends to drive national patterns, showing linear response of crop production to nitrogen inputs broadly consistent with an earlier analysis of global patterns of country-scale data by Lassaletta et al. (2014). Most other regions show similar responses, but the Eastern Uplands region shows a negative response to nitrogen inputs, and the Southern Seaboard shows no significant relationship. The regional differences appear as two branches in the response of aggregate production to N inputs on a cropland area basis, but not on a total area basis, suggesting that the type of scaling used is critical under changing cropland area. Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is positively associated with fertilizer as a percentage of N inputs in four regions, and all regions considered together. NUE is positively associated with crop N fixation in all regions except Northern Great Plains. It is negatively associated with manure (livestock excretion); in the US, manure is still treated largely as a waste to be managed rather than a nutrient resource. This significant regional variation in patterns of crop production and NUE vs N inputs, has implications for environmental quality and

  14. Inclusion of anti-phospholipase A2 antibody to backgrounding diets on performance, feed efficiency, in vitro fermentation, and the acute-phase response of growing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-01-01

    In Exp. 1, individual performance and daily DMI was measured on 70 crossbred weaned calves during a 70-d period using a GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada) at the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center Feed Efficiency Facility (FEF). Calves were fed a low-concentrate (LC) growing diet, blocked by weight and sex, and then randomly assigned to pens to receive either no additional supplement (CON; n = 35) or receive a supplement of anti-phospholipase A2 antibody (aPLA2) at an inclusion rate of 0.6% of the diet DM (n = 35). After the 70-d feed efficiency (FE) trial (Phase 1), calves were loaded into a commercial livestock trailer and were driven for approximately 1,600 km during 24 h. Upon return to the FEF (Phase 2), calves were relocated to the same pens and groups and received the same diets and treatments for 28 d. Blood samples from each calf were collected on d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 relative to initiation of transportation and were analyzed for determination of concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin. In Phase 1, initial BW (242.0 ± 3.7 kg; P = 0.92), BW at d 70 (313.0 ± 4.1 kg; P = 0.79), and ADG (1.01 ± 0.02 kg; P = 0.95) were similar between treatments. However, daily DMI was greater (P = 0.01) for CON (9.18 ± 0.15 kg) than aPLA2 (8.53 ± 0.15 kg). In addition, residual feed intake was greater (P = 0.002) for CON (0.389 ± 0.110 kg/d) than aPLA2 calves (-0.272 ± 0.110 kg/d). In Phase 2, after transportation, there were no differences between treatments on BW loss due to transportation shrink (26.0 ± 0.6 kg; P = 0.86), BW at d 28 (339.0 ± 4.1 kg; P = 0.72), ADG (1.28 ± 0.03 kg/d; P = 0.72), G:F (0.164 ± 0.004; P = 0.83), and concentrations of plasma haptoglobin (0.08 ± 0.02 mg/mL; P = 0.41). However, concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin were greater (P calves (14.3 ± 0.3 mg/dL) compared to aPLA2 calves (13.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL). In Exp. 2, the effects of aPLA2 inclusion on LC and

  15. Effect of Weaning Age on Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood-biochemical Parameters in Droughtmaster Crossbred Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Guo, Feng; Diao, Qi-Yu; Tu, Yan; Si, Bing-Wen; Xing, Yu-Chuan; Huang, De-Jun

    2017-11-03

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weaning age on intake, performance, nutrition metabolism and serum parameters of beef calves. 60 head of Droughtmaster crossbred calves were assigned to 5 groups with 12 calves in each group. The calves in control Group were remained with the dams till the 22-week age, while the calves weaned at 28d (4w), 42 d(6w), 56 d(8w) and 70 d(10w) of age were sent to Group 4W, Group6W, Group 8Wand Group 10W separately, and then they were fed on milk replacer (MR) till the 22-week age. DMI of calves in Group 4W was significantly lower than that in the rest groups from w17 to 22 (Pfeed efficiency of the calves were higher in the Group 4W and 6W than that in Group 6W and 8W from 11 to 13w (P0.05). Calves in Group 4W and 6W had lower body weight than that in the Group 8W and Group 10W and control group at 10-week age (Pcalves in Group 6W had no significant difference of body weight with that in control group, Group 8W and 10W(P0.05). Calve in Group 6W had higher final body weight and total gain than that in Group 4W, but no difference of total gain with that in Group 8W, 10W and control group. And weaning calve at age of 6-week age brought higher feed efficiency and average daily gain from w14 to 22, and higher DM and OM digestibility at w21. It is concluded that the weaning of calves at 6 weeks of age gave positive results.

  16. Gravimetric phenotyping of whole plant transpiration responses to atmospheric vapour pressure deficit identifies genotypic variation in water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Annette C; Dodd, Ian C; Rothwell, Shane A; Jones, Ros; Tardieu, Francois; Draye, Xavier; Davies, William J

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in rapidly identifying genotypes with improved water use efficiency, exemplified by the development of whole plant phenotyping platforms that automatically measure plant growth and water use. Transpirational responses to atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and whole plant water use efficiency (WUE, defined as the accumulation of above ground biomass per unit of water used) were measured in 100 maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. Using a glasshouse based phenotyping platform with naturally varying VPD (1.5-3.8kPa), a 2-fold variation in WUE was identified in well-watered plants. Regression analysis of transpiration versus VPD under these conditions, and subsequent whole plant gas exchange at imposed VPDs (0.8-3.4kPa) showed identical responses in specific genotypes. Genotype response of transpiration versus VPD fell into two categories: 1) a linear increase in transpiration rate with VPD with low (high WUE) or high (low WUE) transpiration rate at all VPDs, 2) a non-linear response with a pronounced change point at low VPD (high WUE) or high VPD (low WUE). In the latter group, high WUE genotypes required a significantly lower VPD before transpiration was restricted, and had a significantly lower rate of transpiration in response to VPD after this point, when compared to low WUE genotypes. Change point values were significantly positively correlated with stomatal sensitivity to VPD. A change point in stomatal response to VPD may explain why some genotypes show contradictory WUE rankings according to whether they are measured under glasshouse or field conditions. Furthermore, this novel use of a high throughput phenotyping platform successfully reproduced the gas exchange responses of individuals measured in whole plant chambers, accelerating the identification of plants with high WUE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  18. The effect of dietary cation-anion difference concentration and cation source on milk production and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, M E; Weidman, A E; Erdman, R A

    2015-03-01

    Feed costs currently account for 55% or more of the total cost of milk production in US dairy herds, and dairy producers are looking for strategies to improve feed efficiency [FE; 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) per dry matter (DM) intake]. Increasing dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD; Na+K-Cl (mEq/kg of DM)] has been shown to increase milk production, FCM, and FE. However, the optimal DCAD concentration for maximal FE has yet to be determined. The objectives of this research were to test the effects of DCAD concentration and cation source on dairy FE. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (20 cows per experiment) were used in three 4×4 Latin square design experiments with 3-wk experimental periods. In experiments 1 and 2, we tested the effect of DCAD concentration: cows were fed a basal diet containing ~250 mEq/kg of DM DCAD that was supplemented with potassium carbonate at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mEq/kg of DM or 0, 125, 250, and 375 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In experiment 3, we tested the effect of cation source: sodium sesquicarbonate replaced 0, 33, 67, and 100% of the supplemental potassium carbonate (150 mEq/kg of DM DCAD). The DCAD concentration had no effect on milk production, milk protein concentration, or milk protein yield in experiments 1 and 2. Dry matter intake was not affected by DCAD concentration in experiment 1 or by cation source in experiment 3. However, DMI increased linearly with increasing DCAD in experiment 2. We detected a linear increase in milk fat concentration and yield with increasing DCAD in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting sodium sesquicarbonate for potassium carbonate in experiment 3. Increased milk fat concentration with increasing DCAD led to increases in 3.5% FCM in experiments 1 and 2. Maximal dairy FE was achieved at a DCAD concentration of 426 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting Na for K in experiment 3. The results of these experiments suggest that both DCAD concentration and the cation

  19. Seasonal and Topographic Variation in Net Primary Productivity and Water Use Efficiency in a Southwest Sky Island Fores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, P.; Minor, R. L.; Sanchez-Canete, E. P.; Potts, D. L.; Barron-Gafford, G.

    2016-12-01

    Western North American Forests represent an uncertain sink for atmospheric carbon. While understanding of the physical drivers of productivity in these forests has grown in the last decade, the relative influence of topographic position in the complex terrain of montane systems remains understudied. The high-latitude mixed conifer forest ecosystems of the southern Arizona Madrean Sky Islands are characterized by low precipitation, high annual variation in temperature, and heterogeneous topography. Eddy covariance measurements these forests show distinct seasonal trends due to temperature and bi-modal precipitation patterns, but these measurements are unable to resolve potential differences in physiological function on opposing north and south aspects within the footprint of the tower. Most of the year, north aspects receive less energy input due to the oblique angle of incoming solar radiation, leading to a divergence in soil moistures and temperatures. However, overall movement of energy and material is much higher on these north aspects on an annual basis. The implications of these differences for net primary productivity (NPP) and water use efficiency (WUE) are poorly addressed in the literature. We evaluated the relative control that topography has on the physical environment (soil moisture and temperature) and how these factors affect water stress, NPP, and WUE. We combined leaf-level measurements of photosynthesis and transpiration with other physiological and meteorological measurements to determine how the dominant vegetation functions as a result of microclimatic conditions. Initial results from the spring and summer measurement periods suggest topographical differences in microclimate, resulting in differences in NPP in the spring, but not the summer. Also, each of the three species on the same aspect responded differently to the same microclimatic conditions, underscoring interspecific variation at the site. How might these patterns change throughout an

  20. Variations of wood delta 13C and water-use efficiency of Abies alba during the last century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bert, D.; Leavitt, S.W.; Dupouey, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Variations of intrinsic water-use efficiency during the last century were investigated based on analysis of δ 13 C in tree rings of Abies alba from the Jura Mountains (eastern France). To separate the effects related to the age of the tree at the time the tree ring was formed from effects due to environmental changes, analyzed wood samples were extracted from a very large sample set including different tree ages and calendar dates of wood formation. For the first 75 yr of the life of Abies alba, δ 13 of wood holocellulose increases with the age of the tree from -24.4%o at age 15 to approximately -22.5%o at age 75. Between the ages of 75 and 150 values remain constant at -22.5%. Consequently, the effect of the tree age on isotopic discrimination has to be taken into account in studies on the long-term environmental effects on δ 13 in tree rings. Divergent trends of δ 13 during the last century were observed between tree rings formed at age 40 and bulk air data. The isotopic discrimination Δ varied insignificantly around a mean of 17.3%o between the 1860s and the 1930s. It then decreased to 15.8%o from the 1930s to the 1980s. Using these results and classical models of carbon discrimination, we calculated that the intrinsic water-use efficiency (A/g w , the ratio of CO 2 assimilation rate to stomatal conductance for water vapor), integrated over the year, has increased by 30% between the 1930s and the 1980s. These results, obtained at the level of mature trees, are consistent with the physiological effects of increasing CO 2 concentrations as observed in controlled experiments on young seedlings. They are consistent with the strong increases in radial growth observed for Abies alba in western Europe over the past decades. However, other long-term environmental changes such as increasing nitrogen deposition could cause similar effects. (author)

  1. Variation of inulin content, inulin yield and water use efficiency for inulin yield in Jerusalem artichoke genotypes under different water regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The information on genotypic variation for inulin content, inulin yield and water use efficiency of inulin yield (WUEi) in response to drought is limited. This study was to investigate the genetic variability in inulin content, inulin yield and WUEi of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) ...

  2. 14C measurement: effect of variations in sample preparation and storage on the counting efficiency for 14C using a carbo-sorb/permafluor E+ liquid scintillation cocktail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.J.; Milton, G.M.; Repta, C.J.W.

    1995-06-01

    The effect of variations in sample preparation and storage on the counting efficiency for 14 C using a Carbo-Sorb/PermafluorE+ liquid scintillation cocktail has been studied, and optimum conditions are recommended. (author). 2 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  3. Efficient multiple-trait association and estimation of genetic correlation using the matrix-variate linear mixed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlotte, Nicholas A; Eskin, Eleazar

    2015-05-01

    Multiple-trait association mapping, in which multiple traits are used simultaneously in the identification of genetic variants affecting those traits, has recently attracted interest. One class of approaches for this problem builds on classical variance component methodology, utilizing a multitrait version of a linear mixed model. These approaches both increase power and provide insights into the genetic architecture of multiple traits. In particular, it is possible to estimate the genetic correlation, which is a measure of the portion of the total correlation between traits that is due to additive genetic effects. Unfortunately, the practical utility of these methods is limited since they are computationally intractable for large sample sizes. In this article, we introduce a reformulation of the multiple-trait association mapping approach by defining the matrix-variate linear mixed model. Our approach reduces the computational time necessary to perform maximum-likelihood inference in a multiple-trait model by utilizing a data transformation. By utilizing a well-studied human cohort, we show that our approach provides more than a 10-fold speedup, making multiple-trait association feasible in a large population cohort on the genome-wide scale. We take advantage of the efficiency of our approach to analyze gene expression data. By decomposing gene coexpression into a genetic and environmental component, we show that our method provides fundamental insights into the nature of coexpressed genes. An implementation of this method is available at http://genetics.cs.ucla.edu/mvLMM. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  4. Genetic variation in transpiration efficiency and relationships between whole plant and leaf gas exchange measurements in Saccharum spp. and related germplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Phillip; Basnayake, Jaya; Inman-Bamber, Geoff; Lakshmanan, Prakash; Natarajan, Sijesh; Stokes, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-one genotypes of sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) or closely related germplasm were evaluated in a pot experiment to examine genetic variation in transpiration efficiency. Significant variation in whole plant transpiration efficiency was observed, with the difference between lowest and highest genotypes being about 40% of the mean. Leaf gas exchange measurements were made across a wide range of conditions. There was significant genetic variation in intrinsic transpiration efficiency at a leaf level as measured by leaf internal CO2 (Ci) levels. Significant genetic variation in Ci was also observed within subsets of data representing narrow ranges of stomatal conductance. Ci had a low broad sense heritability (Hb = 0.11) on the basis of single measurements made at particular dates, because of high error variation and genotype × date interaction, but broad sense heritability for mean Ci across all dates was high (Hb = 0.81) because of the large number of measurements taken at different dates. Ci levels among genotypes at mid-range levels of conductance had a strong genetic correlation (-0.92 ± 0.30) with whole plant transpiration efficiency but genetic correlations between Ci and whole plant transpiration efficiency were weaker or not significant at higher and lower levels of conductance. Reduced Ci levels at any given level of conductance may result in improved yields in water-limited environments without trade-offs in rates of water use and growth. Targeted selection and improvement of lowered Ci per unit conductance via breeding may provide longer-term benefits for water-limited environments but the challenge will be to identify a low-cost screening methodology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  5. Seasonal variations in the availability of fodder resources and practices of dairy cattle feeding among the smallholder farmers in Western Usambara Highlands, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleko, David; Ng, Wai-Tim; Msalya, George; Mwilawa, Angello; Pasape, Liliane; Mtei, Kelvin

    2018-05-08

    The aim of this study was to assess the seasonal effects on quantity and quality of fodder resources and associated utilization practices among smallholder dairy farmers in Western Usambara Highlands (WUHs) in Tanzania. The WUHs are among the major milk producing areas under smallholder dairy farming systems (SDFS) in Tanzania. Dry season fodder scarcity is a widespread problem affecting the East African SDFS and has been shown to contribute to over 40% reduction in milk yield. There is limited information with regard to seasonal fodder fluctuation and its effects on productivity of dairy cows in different landscape levels of Tanzania. Field and household surveys were conducted in 150 dairy cattle farming households from five villages in three wards located in WUHs. Survey data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21. In addition, remote sensing techniques were employed on gap-filled and smoothed Landsat data to generate land cover maps and bimonthly normalized difference vegetation index-time series for the 2009-2016. SDFS landscape was highly heterogeneous typified by crops, bushes, and forests. On average, the household landholding was 1.3 ha, while herd size was three cattle. About 87% of household land was devoted to crop growing with limited pasture along the farm margins and contour strips. Fodder scarcity was the major challenge during the dry season (July to October) as indicated by 87% of the respondents. On-farm fodder resources contributed most of the cattle diet (73%) while rangeland, forest, and purchased feed provided small amount. Natural pasture and napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) were the most important feeds in wet season while maize stover was most significant during the dry season. Maize stover was profusely stored for dry season feeding and neither silage nor hay making was practiced. The nutritional values of the fibrous feeds declined during the dry season, whereby the metabolizable energy and crude protein contents were 6.0 MJ/kg and

  6. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  7. On the efficient simulation of the left-tail of the sum of correlated log-normal variates

    KAUST Repository

    Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Rached, Nadhir B.; Kammoun, Abla; Tempone, Raul

    2018-01-01

    The sum of log-normal variates is encountered in many challenging applications such as performance analysis of wireless communication systems and financial engineering. Several approximation methods have been reported in the literature. However

  8. Peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of Aedes togoi and comparison with Anopheles sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Joon; Kang, Dooho; Lee, Seung Chul; Ha, Young-Ran

    2016-02-01

    Female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. Identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. Infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. However, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. The liquid-feeding behavior of Aedes togoi and Anopheles sinensis was comparatively investigated in conjunction with vector efficiency via micro-particle image velocimetry. The flow rates and ratio of the ejection volume of Aedes togoi were markedly higher than those of Anophels sinensis. These differences would influence pathogen re-ingestion. Wall shear stresses of these mosquito species were also clearly discriminatory affecting the infective rates of vector-borne diseases. The variations in volume of two pump chambers and diameter of proboscis of these mosquito species were compared to determine the differences in the liquid-feeding process. Liquid-feeding characteristics influence vector efficiency; hence, this study can elucidate the vector efficiency of mosquitoes and the vector-pathogen interactions and contribute to the development of strategies against vector-borne diseases.

  9. Genotype-dependent variation in the transpiration efficiency of plants and photosynthetic activity of flag leaves in spring barley under varied nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemińska, Anetta; Górny, Andrzej G

    2003-01-01

    In the study, spring barley genotypes of various origin and breeding history were found to show a broad genetic variation in the vegetative and generative measures of the whole-plant transpiration efficiency (TE), photosynthesis (A) and transpiration (E) rates of flag leaves, leaf efficiency of gas exchange (A/E) and stress tolerance (T) when grown till maturity in soil-pots under high and reduced NPK supplies. Broad-sense heritabilities for the characteristics ranged from 0.61 to 0.87. Significant genotype-nutrition interactions were noticed, constituting 19-23% of the total variance in TE measures. The results suggest that at least some 'exotic' accessions from Ethiopia, Syria, Morocco and/or Tibet may serve as attractive genetic sources of novel variations in TE, T and A for the breeding of barleys of improved adaptation to less favourable fertilisation.

  10. Seasonal variation in the biocontrol efficiency of bacterial wilt is driven by temperature-mediated changes in bacterial competitive interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, Zhong; Huang, Jianfeng; Yang, Tianjie; Jousset, Alexandre; Xu, Yangchun; Shen, Qirong; Friman, Ville Petri

    2017-01-01

    Microbe-based biocontrol applications hold the potential to become an efficient way to control plant pathogen disease outbreaks in the future. However, their efficiency is still very variable, which could be due to their sensitivity to the abiotic environmental conditions. Here, we assessed how

  11. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feed intake levels on digestibility, feed intake, growth, feed efficiency and .... phosphorus and crude protein (N X 6.25) according to the methods of the .... supported by a parallel relationship between the ME content of .... dilution by saliva.

  12. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  13. Variation in outcomes of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Adrian J; Ball, Kylie; Hesketh, Kylie D; McNaughton, Sarah A; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David A; Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age. A cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 mother/infant pairs from 62 existing first-time parent groups was conducted in 2008 in Melbourne, Australia. The intervention involved 6 × 2-hour dietitian-delivered sessions, DVD and written resources from infant age 4-15 months. Outcomes included infant diet (3 × 24 h diet recalls), physical activity (accelerometry), television viewing and body mass index. We tested for moderation by maternal education (with/without a University degree) and age (education and age. The intervention effects on vegetable (positive effect) and sweet snack consumption (negative effect) were greater in children with higher educated mothers while intervention effects on water consumption (positive effect) were greater in infants with lower educated mothers. The intervention was also more effective in increasing both vegetable and water consumption in infants with mothers aged education and age. Evidence of differential effects is important for informing more sensitively targeted/tailored approaches. © 2013.

  14. Ground Field-Based Hyperspectral Imaging: A Preliminary Study to Assess the Potential of Established Vegetation Indices to Infer Variation in Water-Use Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelech, E. A.; McGrath, J.; Pederson, T.; Bernacchi, C.

    2017-12-01

    Increases in the global average temperature will consequently induce a higher occurrence of severe environmental conditions such as drought on arable land. To mitigate these threats, crops for fuel and food must be bred for higher water-use efficiencies (WUE). Defining genomic variation through high-throughput phenotypic analysis in field conditions has the potential to relieve the major bottleneck in linking desirable genetic traits to the associated phenotypic response. This can subsequently enable breeders to create new agricultural germplasm that supports the need for higher water-use efficient crops. From satellites to field-based aerial and ground sensors, the reflectance properties of vegetation measured by hyperspectral imaging is becoming a rapid high-throughput phenotyping technique. A variety of physiological traits can be inferred by regression analysis with leaf reflectance which is controlled by the properties and abundance of water, carbon, nitrogen and pigments. Although, given that the current established vegetation indices are designed to accentuate these properties from spectral reflectance, it becomes a challenge to infer relative measurements of WUE at a crop canopy scale without ground-truth data collection. This study aims to correlate established biomass and canopy-water-content indices with ground-truth data. Five bioenergy sorghum genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) that have differences in WUE and wild-type Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsun) under irrigated and rainfed field conditions were examined. A linear regression analysis was conducted to determine if variation in canopy water content and biomass, driven by natural genotypic and artificial treatment influences, can be inferred using established vegetation indices. The results from this study will elucidate the ability of ground field-based hyperspectral imaging to assess variation in water content, biomass and water-use efficiency. This can lead to improved opportunities to

  15. Spatio-temporal variations in climate, primary productivity and efficiency of water and carbon use of the land cover types in Sudan and Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Muhammad; Elagib, Nadir Ahmed; Ribbe, Lars; Schneider, Karl

    2018-05-15

    The impact of climate variability on the Net Primary Productivity (NPP) of different land cover types and the reaction of NPP to drought conditions are still unclear, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This research utilizes public-domain data for the period 2000 through 2013 to analyze these aspects for several land cover types in Sudan and Ethiopia, as examples of data-scarce countries. Spatio-temporal variation in NPP, water use efficiency (WUE) and carbon use efficiency (CUE) for several land covers were correlated with variations in precipitation, temperature and drought at different time scales, i.e. 1, 3, 6 and 12months using Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) datasets. WUE and CUE were estimated as the ratios of NPP to actual evapotranspiration and NPP to Gross Primary Productivity (GPP), respectively. Results of this study revealed that NPP, WUE and CUE of the different land cover types in Ethiopia have higher magnitudes than their counterparts in Sudan. Moreover, they exhibit higher sensitivity to drought and variation in precipitation. Whereas savannah represents the most sensitive land cover to drought, croplands and permanent wetlands are the least sensitive ones. The inter-annual variation in NPP, WUE and CUE in Ethiopia is likely to be driven by a drought of time scale of three months. No statistically significant correlation was found for Sudan between the inter-annual variations in these indicators with drought at any of the time scales considered in the study. Our findings are useful from the view point of both food security for a growing population and mitigation to climate change as discussed in the present study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Feed in or certificates, competition or complementarity? Combining a static efficiency and a dynamic innovation perspective on the greening of the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, Atle; Gautesen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    European policy on the greening of the energy industry has been characterised by a debate between proponents of two apparent polar opposites, feed in tariffs and certificate markets. Different European countries have chosen both mechanisms and, as a consequence, the European Union has maintained a fairly pluralist position, abstaining from stricter harmonisation. Taking a dynamic innovation perspective on European energy industry, we argue that feed in tariffs and certificate markets should not be seen as competing alternatives, but rather as complementary regulatory instruments targeting subsequent steps in the product cycle, on the way from early technology-conceptualisation and development towards competitive positioning in mature energy markets. We see both policy instruments as necessary to achieve the extensive transformation towards sustainable development that is judged as important tools in the context of the global climate challenge

  17. Diversity and resilience of the wood?feeding higher termite Mironasutitermes shangchengensis gut microbiota in response to temporal and diet variations

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Su, Lijuan; Huang, Shi; Bo, Cunpei; Yang, Sen; Li, Yan; Wang, Fengqin; Xie, Hui; Xu, Jian; Song, Andong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Termites are considered among the most efficient bioreactors, with high capacities for lignocellulose degradation and utilization. Recently, several studies have characterized the gut microbiota of diverse termites. However, the temporal dynamics of the gut microbiota within a given termite with dietary diversity are poorly understood. Here, we employed 16S rDNA barcoded pyrosequencing analysis to investigate temporal changes in bacterial diversity and richness of the gut microbiota ...

  18. Economic impacts from energy efficiency programs - Variations in multiplier effects by program type and region. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardner, John; Skumatz, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that the value of omitted program effects - specifically non-energy benefits (NEBs) - represent a significant share of overall program impacts. One of the largest components of societal benefits is the direct and indirect economic and job creation effects stimulated by the investment in conservation on behalf of the program. The literature has indicated that the valuations assigned to this category of these categories can be large, but much of the literature overstates the impact of economic NEBs. We conducted extensive research to develop reliable and defensible estimates of these benefits categories. This study used input-output analysis to update the economic multipliers for NEBs in several ways. Net: Developed 'net' estimates of the multipliers (rather than 'gross' factors)Variations by Region: Estimated multipliers for multiple states and for the entire US; Variations by Program Type: Developed estimates based on different types or categories of programs (e.g weatherization vs. new construction vs. appliance programs, etc.), Variations in Baseline Assumptions: Different assumptions about where the expenditures are transferred 'from' for the net analysis (e.g. from 'generation', from a mixed market basket, etc.); and Variations over Time: Used data from multiple time periods to examine changes in the size of multipliers over time. We examined the results by state, by program type, and over time and found dramatic differences in the economic impacts by program type and territory under consideration. The results provide estimates of the economic impacts derived from the program; however, for communities or utilities with economic development goals, the results can be used to help select between program alternatives. The results are new, and the revised figures have been used to compute more reliable and tailored estimates of economic non-energy benefits that can be applied in regulatory tests

  19. Enhancement of Efficiency and Reduction of Grid Thickness Variation on Casting Process with Lean Six Sigma Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witantyo; Setyawan, David

    2018-03-01

    In a lead acid battery industry, grid casting is a process that has high defect and thickness variation level. DMAIC (Define-Measure-Analyse-Improve-Control) method and its tools will be used to improve the casting process. In the Define stage, it is used project charter and SIPOC (Supplier Input Process Output Customer) method to map the existent problem. In the Measure stage, it is conducted a data retrieval related to the types of defect and the amount of it, also the grid thickness variation that happened. And then the retrieved data is processed and analyzed by using 5 Why’s and FMEA method. In the Analyze stage, it is conducted a grid observation that experience fragile and crack type of defect by using microscope showing the amount of oxide Pb inclusion in the grid. Analysis that is used in grid casting process shows the difference of temperature that is too high between the metal fluid and mold temperature, also the corking process that doesn’t have standard. The Improve stage is conducted a fixing process which generates the reduction of grid variation thickness level and defect/unit level from 9,184% to 0,492%. In Control stage, it is conducted a new working standard determination and already fixed control process.

  20. Test post-weaning duration for performance, feed intake and feed efficiency in Nellore cattle Duração do período de avaliação pós-desmame para medidas de desempenho, consumo e eficiência alimentar em bovinos da raça Nelore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Michel de Castilhos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine optimum test duration for measuring performance, feed intake and feed efficiency. Sixty young Nellore bulls were submitted to feeding performance test and fed in individual pens to determine feed intake and performance over 112 days. Body weight was determined every 28 days, after fasting of water and feed for 16 hours. Changes in variance, relative variance and Pearson and Spearman correlations among data from shortened test periods (28, 56 and 84 days and full test period (112 days were used to determine optimum test duration. Test duration for average daily gain, dry matter intake, feed:gain ratio and residual feed intake could be shortened to 84, 28, 84 and 84 days, respectively, without reducing significantly the reliability of measurements for animals fed in individual pens.O objetivo neste estudo foi determinar o melhor período de avaliação para medidas de desempenho, consumo e eficiência alimentar. Durante 112 dias, 60 machos da raça Nelore, recém-desmamados, submetidos à prova de ganho de peso, foram alimentados em baias individuais para determinação do consumo alimentar e do desempenho. O peso corporal dos animais foi determinado a cada 28 dias, depois de jejum de 16 horas de líquidos e sólidos. As alterações na variância, variância relativa e correlações de Pearson e Spearman entre os dados dos períodos de avaliação reduzidos (28, 56 e 84 dias e período total (112 dias foram usados para determinar a melhor duração do período de avaliação. A duração do período de avaliação para ganho médio diário, consumo de matéria seca, conversão alimentar e consumo alimentar residual pode ser reduzida para 84, 28, 84 e 84 dias, respectivamente, pois tal redução não diminui significativamente a confiabilidade das avaliações em animais alimentados em baias individuais.

  1. Variation in water-use efficiency and delta-C-13 levels in eucalyptus-grandis clones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olbrich, BW

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available Water Status, Vol. 2. Centennial of Utah State University, 6 10 July, 1987, Logan, Utah, pp. 307--311. Hubick, K.T., Farquhar, G.D. and Shorter, R., 1986. Correlation between water-use efficiency and carbon isotope...

  2. Candidate Gene Identification of Feed Efficiency and Coat Color Traits in a C57BL/6J × Kunming F2 Mice Population Using Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuanxin; Soudy, Fathia; Xu, Zhong; Liao, Mingxing; Zhao, Shuhong; Li, Xinyun

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a very important trait in livestock industry. Identification of the candidate genes could be of benefit for the improvement of FE trait. Mouse is used as the model for many studies in mammals. In this study, the candidate genes related to FE and coat color were identified using C57BL/6J (C57) × Kunming (KM) F2 mouse population. GWAS results showed that 61 and 2 SNPs were genome-wise suggestive significantly associated with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI) traits, respectively. Moreover, the Erbin, Msrb2, Ptf1a, and Fgf10 were considered as the candidate genes of FE. The Lpl was considered as the candidate gene of FI. Further, the coat color trait was studied. KM mice are white and C57 ones are black. The GWAS results showed that the most significant SNP was located at chromosome 7, and the closely linked gene was Tyr. Therefore, our study offered useful target genes related to FE in mice; these genes may play similar roles in FE of livestock. Also, we identified the major gene of coat color in mice, which would be useful for better understanding of natural mutation of the coat color in mice.

  3. Candidate Gene Identification of Feed Efficiency and Coat Color Traits in a C57BL/6J × Kunming F2 Mice Population Using Genome-Wide Association Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency (FE is a very important trait in livestock industry. Identification of the candidate genes could be of benefit for the improvement of FE trait. Mouse is used as the model for many studies in mammals. In this study, the candidate genes related to FE and coat color were identified using C57BL/6J (C57 × Kunming (KM F2 mouse population. GWAS results showed that 61 and 2 SNPs were genome-wise suggestive significantly associated with feed conversion ratio (FCR and feed intake (FI traits, respectively. Moreover, the Erbin, Msrb2, Ptf1a, and Fgf10 were considered as the candidate genes of FE. The Lpl was considered as the candidate gene of FI. Further, the coat color trait was studied. KM mice are white and C57 ones are black. The GWAS results showed that the most significant SNP was located at chromosome 7, and the closely linked gene was Tyr. Therefore, our study offered useful target genes related to FE in mice; these genes may play similar roles in FE of livestock. Also, we identified the major gene of coat color in mice, which would be useful for better understanding of natural mutation of the coat color in mice.

  4. Intra-dance variation among waggle runs and the design of efficient protocols for honey bee dance decoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J. Couvillon

    2012-03-01

    Noise is universal in information transfer. In animal communication, this presents a challenge not only for intended signal receivers, but also to biologists studying the system. In honey bees, a forager communicates to nestmates the location of an important resource via the waggle dance. This vibrational signal is composed of repeating units (waggle runs that are then averaged by nestmates to derive a single vector. Manual dance decoding is a powerful tool for studying bee foraging ecology, although the process is time-consuming: a forager may repeat the waggle run 1- >100 times within a dance. It is impractical to decode all of these to obtain the vector; however, intra-dance waggle runs vary, so it is important to decode enough to obtain a good average. Here we examine the variation among waggle runs made by foraging bees to devise a method of dance decoding. The first and last waggle runs within a dance are significantly more variable than the middle run. There was no trend in variation for the middle waggle runs. We recommend that any four consecutive waggle runs, not including the first and last runs, may be decoded, and we show that this methodology is suitable by demonstrating the goodness-of-fit between the decoded vectors from our subsamples with the vectors from the entire dances.

  5. Interannual Variations of the Carbon Footprint and Carbon Eco-efficiency in Agro-ecosystem of Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    TIAN Zhi-hui; MA Xiao-yan; LIU Rui-han

    2015-01-01

    Suburban farmland ecosystems are known to be affected by intensive land use/cover change (LUCC) during the process of urbanization in Beijing. We investigated inter-annual changes in carbon sequestration, source, footprint, and eco-efficiency from 2004 to 2012 in the agro-ecosystem of suburban Beijing. Our findings indicated that: (1) Carbon sink increased 2.8 percent annually and the average annual carbon storage amount was 1 058 200 t, with food crops constituting the highest proportion at ...

  6. Influence of mitochondrial efficiency on beef lean color stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss of electrons in the electron transport chain has been implicated as a source of variation in feed efficiency of meat producing animals. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of electron loss during electron transport on beef lean color stability. Beef carcasses (n = 91) were...

  7. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Carbon and nitrogen elemental and isotopic ratios of filter-feeding bivalves along the French coasts: An assessment of specific, geographic, seasonal and multi-decadal variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briant, Nicolas; Savoye, Nicolas; Chouvelon, Tiphaine; David, Valérie; Rodriguez, Samuel; Charlier, Karine; Sonke, Jeroen E; Chiffoleau, Jean François; Brach-Papa, Christophe; Knoery, Joël

    2018-02-01

    Primary consumers play a key role in coastal ecosystems by transferring organic matter from primary producers to predators. Among them, suspension-feeders, like bivalve molluscs are widely used in trophic web studies. The main goal of this study was to investigate variations of C and N elemental and isotopic ratios in common bivalves (M. edulis, M. galloprovincialis, and C. gigas) at large spatial (i.e. among three coastal regions) and different temporal (i.e. from seasonal to multi-decadal) scales in France, in order to identify potential general or specific patterns and speculate on their drivers. The observed spatial variability was related to the trophic status of the coastal regions (oligotrophic Mediterranean Sea versus meso- to eutrophic English Channel and Atlantic ocean), but not to ecosystem typology (estuaries, versus lagoons versus bays versus littoral systems). Furthermore, it highlighted local specificities in terms of the origin of the POM assimilated by bivalves (e.g., mainly continental POM vs. marine phytoplankton vs. microphytobenthic algae). Likewise, seasonal variability was related both to the reproduction cycle for C/N ratios of Mytilus spp. and to changes in trophic resources for δ 13 C of species located close to river mouth. Multi-decadal evolution exhibited shifts and trends for part of the 30-year series with decreases in δ 13 C and δ 15 N. Specifically, shifts appeared in the early 2000's, likely linking bivalve isotopic ratios to a cascade of processes affected by local drivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. On the efficiency of treating singularities in triatomic variational vibrational computations. The vibrational states of H(+)3 up to dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szidarovszky, Tamás; Császár, Attila G; Czakó, Gábor

    2010-08-01

    Several techniques of varying efficiency are investigated, which treat all singularities present in the triatomic vibrational kinetic energy operator given in orthogonal internal coordinates of the two distances-one angle type. The strategies are based on the use of a direct-product basis built from one-dimensional discrete variable representation (DVR) bases corresponding to the two distances and orthogonal Legendre polynomials, or the corresponding Legendre-DVR basis, corresponding to the angle. The use of Legendre functions ensures the efficient treatment of the angular singularity. Matrix elements of the singular radial operators are calculated employing DVRs using the quadrature approximation as well as special DVRs satisfying the boundary conditions and thus allowing for the use of exact DVR expressions. Potential optimized (PO) radial DVRs, based on one-dimensional Hamiltonians with potentials obtained by fixing or relaxing the two non-active coordinates, are also studied. The numerical calculations employed Hermite-DVR, spherical-oscillator-DVR, and Bessel-DVR bases as the primitive radial functions. A new analytical formula is given for the determination of the matrix elements of the singular radial operator using the Bessel-DVR basis. The usually claimed failure of the quadrature approximation in certain singular integrals is revisited in one and three dimensions. It is shown that as long as no potential optimization is carried out the quadrature approximation works almost as well as the exact DVR expressions. If wave functions with finite amplitude at the boundary are to be computed, the basis sets need to meet the required boundary conditions. The present numerical results also confirm that PO-DVRs should be constructed employing relaxed potentials and PO-DVRs can be useful for optimizing quadrature points for calculations applying large coordinate intervals and describing large-amplitude motions. The utility and efficiency of the different algorithms

  10. Interannual Variations of the Carbon Footprint and Carbon Eco-efficiency in Agro-ecosystem of Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TIAN Zhi-hui

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Suburban farmland ecosystems are known to be affected by intensive land use/cover change (LUCC during the process of urbanization in Beijing. We investigated inter-annual changes in carbon sequestration, source, footprint, and eco-efficiency from 2004 to 2012 in the agro-ecosystem of suburban Beijing. Our findings indicated that: (1 Carbon sink increased 2.8 percent annually and the average annual carbon storage amount was 1 058 200 t, with food crops constituting the highest proportion at 80.4% of carbon storage in farmland ecosystems, of which maize contributed 68.5% as the largest constituent; (2 Carbon emission in the system showed a gradually decreasing trend, with agricultural chemicals as significant contributors. The annual average carbon emission was 276 000 tons in the Beijing farmland ecosystem, and decreased approximately 1.3 percent per year. The largest amount of carbon emissions came from agricultural chemicals at 85.4%, of which nitrogen fertilizer was the biggest contributor at 83.7%; ( 3 The carbon footprint also showed a decreasing trend along with an ecological surplus of carbon. The average carbon footprint was 5.71 hm2 in the Beijing farmland ecosystem with decreasing rate at 5.5% annually; however, the carbon surplus showed a downward trend due to reduction in the amount of arable land; (4 Finally, the increasing carbon sink capacity led to higher carbon eco-efficiency, with an annual average of 3.854 kg C·kg-1 CE, carbon sequestration was greater than the amount of carbon released. In summary, the agro-ecosystem in suburban Beijing has sustained a relatively high carbon eco-efficiency, and agricultural production continues to have high sustainability potential.

  11. Variation in the biochemical response to l-thyroxine therapy and relationship with peripheral thyroid hormone conversion efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midgley, John E M; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W; Hoermann, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Several influences modulate biochemical responses to a weight-adjusted levothyroxine (l-T4) replacement dose. We conducted a secondary analysis of the relationship of l-T4 dose to TSH and free T3 (FT3), using a prospective observational study examining the interacting equilibria between thyroid parameters. We studied 353 patients on steady-state l-T4 replacement for autoimmune thyroiditis or after surgery for malignant or benign thyroid disease. Peripheral deiodinase activity was calculated as a measure of T4–T3 conversion efficiency. In euthyroid subjects, the median l-T4 dose was 1.3 μg/kg per day (interquartile range (IQR) 0.94,1.60). The dose was independently associated with gender, age, aetiology and deiodinase activity (all P29 nmol/s revealed an increasing FT3–FT4 dissociation; the poorest converters showed the lowest FT3 levels in spite of the highest dose and circulating FT4 (P<0.001). An l-T4-related FT3–TSH disjoint was also apparent; some patients with fully suppressed TSH failed to raise FT3 above the median level. These findings imply that thyroid hormone conversion efficiency is an important modulator of the biochemical response to l-T4; FT3 measurement may be an additional treatment target; and l-T4 dose escalation may have limited success to raise FT3 appropriately in some cases. PMID:26335522

  12. Effects of Organic Load, pH, and EC Variations of Raw Wastewater and Weather Condition on the Efficiency of Yazd Stabilization Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Alireza Mozaheb

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of organic load, pH, and EC variations of raw wastewater as well as the effect of weather condition on organic removal in Yazd wastewater Stabilization Ponds (2007. During the course of this study, composite samples were collected from the inlet and outlet of the anaerobic pond and the final effluent to measure such quality parameters as BOD5, COD, TSS, EC, and pH.  BOD5, COD, TSS, and Fecal coliform removal efficiencies in the final effluent were found to be 64.9%, 44.9 %, 62.6 %, and 99.96%, respectively. No intestinal nematode egg was observed. Comparison of BOD5 and COD concentrations in the filtered and non-filtered samples showed that 52% of the BOD5 and 57% of the COD in the final effluent, respectively, were due to the presence of algal mass and organic suspended solids in the non-filtered samples. The results showed that variations in organic load, pH, EC as well as seasonal weather variations had no effects on organic removal and that the removal of BOD5 was almost constant. Effluent EC was higher than influent EC. This phenomenon can be related to the evaporation rate in wastewater stabilization ponds. The survey of algae in the final effluent showed that the major species of algae were Phytoconis, Chlorella, and Anabaena.

  13. Effect of creep feeding on average daily gain and weaning weight of calves and on reproductive efficiency of primiparous Nelore cows under grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, E.; Morais, M.G.; Andrade, V.J.; Rocha, E.D.S.; Silva, A.S.; Brito, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de bezerros em sistema de creep feeding, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, durante o período de amamentação, sobre o ganho médio diário (GMD), peso à desmama (PD) e taxa de gestação, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, utilizando 102 vacas Nelore (primíparas de baixa condição corporal ao início da estação de monta) e seus bezerros, divididos em dois grupos: T1 (n=52), não tratado e T2 (n=50), tratado com suplemento à base de 20% de PB e 75% de NDT. ...

  14. pH variation and influence in an autotrophic nitrogen removing biofilm system using an efficient numerical solution strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio Iglesias, Miguel; Valverde Perez, Borja

    2013-01-01

    A pH simulator consisting of an efficient numerical solver of a system of nine nonlinear equations was constructed and implemented in the modeling software MATLAB. The pH simulator was integrated in a granular biofilm model and used to simulate the pH profiles within granules performing...... the nitritation-anammox process for a range of operating points. The simulation results showed that pH profiles were consistently increasing with increasing depth into the granule, since the proton producing aerobic ammonium oxidizers (AOB) were located close to the granule surface.Despite this pH profile, more...... NH3 was available for AOB than for anaerobic ammonium oxidizers (AnAOB), located in the center of the granules. However, operating at a higher oxygen loading resulted in steeper changes in pH over the depth of the granule and caused the NH3 concentration profile to increase from the granule surface...

  15. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...

  16. pH variation and influence in an autotrophic nitrogen removing biofilm system using an efficient numerical solution strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vangsgaard, Anna Katrine; Mauricio-Iglesias, Miguel; Valverde-Pérez, Borja; Gernaey, Krist V; Sin, Gürkan

    2013-01-01

    A pH simulator consisting of an efficient numerical solver of a system of nine nonlinear equations was constructed and implemented in the modeling software MATLAB. The pH simulator was integrated in a granular biofilm model and used to simulate the pH profiles within granules performing the nitritation-anammox process for a range of operating points. The simulation results showed that pH profiles were consistently increasing with increasing depth into the granule, since the proton-producing aerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were located close to the granule surface. Despite this pH profile, more NH3 was available for AOB than for anaerobic ammonium oxidizers, located in the center of the granules. However, operating at a higher oxygen loading resulted in steeper changes in pH over the depth of the granule and caused the NH3 concentration profile to increase from the granule surface towards the center. The initial value of the background charge and influent bicarbonate concentration were found to greatly influence the simulation result and should be accurately measured. Since the change in pH over the depth of the biofilm was relatively small, the activity potential of the microbial groups affected by the pH did not change more than 5% over the depth of the granules.

  17. Research of impact of kind resuperheat and structure of system regenerative feed water to thermodynamic efficiency of cycle with steam-coolant reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykova Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The first key problems of modern nuclear reactors are inability of closed nuclear cycle, problems with spent nuclear fuel, poor effectiveness of nuclear fuel and heat-exchange equipment usage. Dealing with problems consists in usage of fast-neutron reactors with steam coolant. Scientific men analyzed neutron-physical processes in steam-cooled fast reactor and consulted that creation of the reactor is viable. In consequence of low steam activation a single-loop steam cycle may be create. The cycle is easy and fool-proof. Core thermomechanical equipment has mastered and has relatively low metal content. Results of calculation are showing that nuclear unit with steam-coolant fast neutron reactor is more efficient than widely used unit with reactor VVER. Usage of simple scheme with four regenerative feedwater heaters the absolute efficiency ratio is more than 43%.

  18. Effect of different commercial feeds on growth and survival of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus fingerlings with mean weight 10.63±0.25 g were fed five different commercial diets for eight weeks to determine the most suitable and efficient feed for growth and survival under controlled environmental conditions. The diets used were Multi feed, Ajanla feed, Vital feed, Coppens feed and ARAC feed.

  19. Efficiency of ETV diagrams as diagnostic tools for long-term period variations. II. Non-conservative mass transfer, and gravitational radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanouris, N.; Kalimeris, A.; Antonopoulou, E.; Rovithis-Livaniou, H.

    2015-03-01

    gravitational radiation proved to be rather undetectable, except for systems with physical characteristics that only refer to cataclysmic variables. Conclusions: The monotonicity of the period variations and the curvature of the respective ETV diagrams depend strongly on the accretion mode and the degree of conservatism of the transfer process. Unlike the hot-spot effects, the Lagrangian points L2 and L3 support very efficient routes of strong angular momentum loss. It is further shown that escape of mass via the L3 point - when the donor is the less massive component - safely provides critical mass ratios above which the period is expected to decrease, no matter how intense the process is.

  20. Effects of season and inclusion of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and performance of nursing calves grazing native range in southeastern North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Gibson, M; Caton, J S

    2006-08-01

    Nine ruminally and duodenally cannulated (145 +/- 21 kg of initial BW; Exp. 1) and sixteen intact (181 +/- 36 kg of initial BW; Exp. 2), commercial, Angus, nursing, steer calves were used to evaluate the effects of advancing season and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, digestion, microbial efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and performance while grazing native rangeland. Calves were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a supplement containing 41% soybean meal, 26.25% wheat middlings, 26.25% soybean hulls, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (control) or a supplement containing 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles, 14.25% wheat middlings, 14.25% soybean hulls, 14% soybean meal, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (CDDGS). Calves were offered supplement individually (0.45% of BW) once daily. Three 15-d collection periods occurred in June, July, and August. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in OM intake, or OM, N, NDF, or ADF digestion between control calves and those fed CDDGS. Forage and total OM intake increased (P Calves consuming CDDGS had decreased (P intake (% of BW) was less for CDDGS compared with control calves, but there were no differences in performance or subsequent carcass composition between treatments. Inclusion of 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles in a creep supplement for nursing calves produced similar results compared with a control creep feed based on soybean meal, soybean hulls, and wheat middlings.

  1. Effect of chicken genotype on growth performance and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of chicken genotype on the growth performance, feed intake and feed efficiency of the progenies resulting from pure, straight and reciprocal cross of Giriraja (Gr) and Alpha chickens. Data obtained on body weight, body length, breast girth, keel length, feed intake and feed ...

  2. Novel feeding strategies for Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS2155 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dual behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose feed as function of the dilution rate near the critical specific growth rate (ì=0.25) is a bottleneck in industrial production, hence the need for more efficient feeding strategies. In this work novel feeding strategies have been generated and evaluated. For each feeding ...

  3. An efficient approach to characterizing and calculating carrier loss due to heating and barrier height variation in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Wu; Summers, H. D.

    2010-01-01

    It is important to determine quantitatively the internal carrier loss arising from heating and barrier height variation in a vertical-cavity surface-emitting quantum well laser (VCSEL). However, it is generally difficult to realize this goal using purely theoretical formulas due to difficulty in deriving the parameters relating to the quantum well structure. In this paper, we describe an efficient approach to characterizing and calculating the carrier loss due to the heating and the barrier height change in the VCSEL. In the method, the thermal carrier loss mechanism is combined with gain measurement and calculation. The carrier loss is re-characterized in a calculable form by constructing the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current using the measured gain data and then substituting them for the quantum well-related parameters in the formula. The result can be expressed as a product of an exponential weight factor linked to the barrier height change and the difference between the threshold current and gain detuning-related loss current. The gain variation at cavity frequency due to thermal carrier loss and gain detuning processes is measured by using an AlInGaAs–AlGaAs VCSEL structure. This work provides a useful approach to analysing threshold and loss properties of the VCSEL, particularly, gain offset design for high temperature operation of VCSELs. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  4. Spatial variations in drainage efficiency in a boreal wetland environment as a function of lidar and radar-derived deviations from the regional hydraulic gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, C.; Brisco, B.; Chasmer, L.; Devito, K.; Montgomery, J. S.; Patterson, S.; Petrone, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    The dense forest cover of the Western Boreal Plains of northern Alberta is underlain by a mix of glacial moraines, sandy outwash sediments and clay plains possessing spatially variable hydraulic conductivities. The region is also characterised by a large number of post-glacial surface depression wetlands that have seasonally and topographically limited surface connectivity. Consequently, drainage along shallow regional hydraulic gradients may be dominated either by variations in surface geology or local variations in Et. Long-term government lake level monitoring is sparse in this region, but over a decade of hydrometeorological monitoring has taken place around the Utikuma Regional Study Area (URSA), a research site led by the University of Alberta. In situ lake and ground water level data are here combined with time series of airborne lidar and RadarSat II synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data to assess the spatial variability of water levels during late summer period characterised by flow recession. Long term Lidar data were collected or obtained by the authors in August of 2002, 2008, 2011 and 2016, while seasonal SAR data were captured approximately every 24 days during the summers of 2015, 2016 and 2017. Water levels for wetlands exceeding 100m2 in area across a north-trending 20km x 5km topographic gradient north of Utikuma Lake were extracted directly from the lidar and indirectly from the SAR. The recent seasonal variability in spatial water levels was extracted from SAR, while the lidar data illustrated more long term trends associated with land use and riparian vegetation succession. All water level data collected in August were combined and averaged at multiple scales using a raster focal statistics function to generate a long term spatial map of the regional hydraulic gradient and scale-dependent variations. Areas of indicated high and low drainage efficiency were overlain onto layers of landcover and surface geology to ascertain causal relationships

  5. On the Efficient Simulation of the Distribution of the Sum of Gamma-Gamma Variates with Application to the Outage Probability Evaluation Over Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2017-01-26

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverberation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma- Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose robust importance sampling schemes that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimators satisfy the well-known bounded relative error criterion for both maximum ratio combining and equal gain combining cases. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  6. On the Efficient Simulation of the Distribution of the Sum of Gamma-Gamma Variates with Application to the Outage Probability Evaluation Over Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2016-06-01

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverbation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is intimately related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma-Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose a mean-shift importance sampling scheme that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of L-branch maximum ratio combining diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimator satisfies the well-known bounded relative error criterion, a well-desired property characterizing the robustness of importance sampling schemes, for both identically and non-identically independent distributed cases. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  7. On the Efficient Simulation of the Distribution of the Sum of Gamma-Gamma Variates with Application to the Outage Probability Evaluation Over Fading Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki; Ben Rached, Nadhir; Kammoun, Abla; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Tempone, Raul

    2016-01-01

    The Gamma-Gamma distribution has recently emerged in a number of applications ranging from modeling scattering and reverbation in sonar and radar systems to modeling atmospheric turbulence in wireless optical channels. In this respect, assessing the outage probability achieved by some diversity techniques over this kind of channels is of major practical importance. In many circumstances, this is intimately related to the difficult question of analyzing the statistics of a sum of Gamma-Gamma random variables. Answering this question is not a simple matter. This is essentially because outage probabilities encountered in practice are often very small, and hence the use of classical Monte Carlo methods is not a reasonable choice. This lies behind the main motivation of the present work. In particular, this paper proposes a new approach to estimate the left tail of the sum of Gamma-Gamma variates. More specifically, we propose a mean-shift importance sampling scheme that efficiently evaluates the outage probability of L-branch maximum ratio combining diversity receivers over Gamma-Gamma fading channels. The proposed estimator satisfies the well-known bounded relative error criterion, a well-desired property characterizing the robustness of importance sampling schemes, for both identically and non-identically independent distributed cases. We show the accuracy and the efficiency of our approach compared to naive Monte Carlo via some selected numerical simulations.

  8. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  9. Fasting and feeding variations of insulin requirements and insulin binding to erythrocytes at different times of the day in insulin dependent diabetics--assessed under the condition of glucose-controlled insulin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C T; Beyer, J; Schulz, G

    1986-07-01

    Nine insulin-dependent diabetic patients were examined for insulin requirement, counterregulatory hormones, and receptor binding during their connection to glucose-controlled insulin infusion system. They were of 103% ideal body weight. A diet of 45% carbohydrate, 20% protein and 35% fat was divided into three meals and three snacks averaging the daily calorie intake of 1859 kcal. Following an equilibrating phase of 14 hours after the connection to the glucose-controlled insulin infusion system the blood samples were taken at 0800, 1200 and 1800. The insulin infusion rate increased at 0300 in the early morning from 0.128 mU/kg/min to 0.221 mU/kg/min (P less than 0.02). The postprandial insulin infusion rate jumped from 0.7 U/h (0700-0800) to 7.5 U/h (0800-0900). The calorie related and carbohydrate related insulin demands after breakfast were also highest and declined after lunch respectively (1.16 uU/kg/min kj vs. 0.61 uU/kg/min kj, P less than 0.05 and 236 mU/g CHO vs. 129 mU/g CHO and 143 mU/g CHO). Of the counterregulatory hormones the cortisol showed a significant diurnal rhythm to insulin demands. The insulin tracer binding was higher at 0800 before breakfast than that at 1200 before lunch (P less than 0.05). The increased binding could be better attributed to receptor concentration change than to affinity change. The cause of insulin relative insensitivity in the morning could be due to altered liver response to the cortisol peak in type 1 diabetics. The preserved variation of insulin binding in our patients might be referred to feeding.

  10. Genetic variation in seedling water-use efficiency of Patagonian Cypress populations from contrasting precipitation regimes assessed through carbon isotope discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastorino, M. J.; Aparicio, A. G.; Marchelli, P.; Gallo, L. A.

    2012-11-01

    Water-use efficiency (WUE) is a physiological parameter that plays a significant role in the evolutionary dynamics of many forest tree species. It can be estimated indirectly through carbon isotope discrimination (A). In general, plants of more arid origins have lower values of A. In order to study the degree of genetic control of this parameter and the genetic variation in A of Patagonian Cypress seedlings, three Argentinean natural populations chosen to represent two contrasting precipitation regimes were sampled in a common garden trial. The dry situation was represented by two neighboring marginal forest patches from the steppe, while the humid condition was represented by a population with 1,200 mm higher mean annual precipitation. Height (H) and A were measured in 246 five-year-old seedlings from 41 open-pollinated families. The factor family had a significant effect on both variables; however heritability for A was found not to be significant in two out of the three populations. This could be explained by low sample size in one of them and by a real evolutionary effect in the other. An inverse association between H and A was verified, which is interpreted as evidence of an adaptation process at the intra-population level. The studied populations were not shown to discriminate carbon isotopes differently; hence evidence of adaptation to current environmental conditions could not be obtained. On the other hand, the arid populations proved to be quite different in terms of genetic variation, which seems to be the consequence of genetic drift and isolation. (Author) 49 refs.

  11. Feeding habits and comparative feeding rates of three southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food utilization by three arboreal squirrels was studied with regard to feeding habits and efficiency, food preferences and chemical analyses of the food. Food selected in the field by the two forest subspecies the Ngoye red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus ornatus and the Tonga red squirrel, P. p. tongensis are listed.

  12. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  13. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  14. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  15. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  16. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  17. Quantitative variation in water-use efficiency across water regimes and its relationship with circadian, vegetative, reproductive, and leaf gas-exchange traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Christine E; Ewers, Brent E; McClung, C Robertson; Lou, Ping; Weinig, Cynthia

    2012-05-01

    Drought limits light harvesting, resulting in lower plant growth and reproduction. One trait important for plant drought response is water-use efficiency (WUE). We investigated (1) how the joint genetic architecture of WUE, reproductive characters, and vegetative traits changed across drought and well-watered conditions, (2) whether traits with distinct developmental bases (e.g. leaf gas exchange versus reproduction) differed in the environmental sensitivity of their genetic architecture, and (3) whether quantitative variation in circadian period was related to drought response in Brassica rapa. Overall, WUE increased in drought, primarily because stomatal conductance, and thus water loss, declined more than carbon fixation. Genotypes with the highest WUE in drought expressed the lowest WUE in well-watered conditions, and had the largest vegetative and floral organs in both treatments. Thus, large changes in WUE enabled some genotypes to approach vegetative and reproductive trait optima across environments. The genetic architecture differed for gas-exchange and vegetative traits across drought and well-watered conditions, but not for floral traits. Correlations between circadian and leaf gas-exchange traits were significant but did not vary across treatments, indicating that circadian period affects physiological function regardless of water availability. These results suggest that WUE is important for drought tolerance in Brassica rapa and that artificial selection for increased WUE in drought will not result in maladaptive expression of other traits that are correlated with WUE.

  18. An Efficient Power Regeneration and Drive Method of an Induction Motor by Means of an Optimal Torque Derived by Variational Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Kaoru; Ogata, Kenji; Kato, Toshiji

    When the motor speed is reduced by using a regenerative brake, the mechanical energy of rotation is converted to the electrical energy. When the regenerative torque is large, the corresponding current increases so that the copper loss also becomes large. On the other hand, the damping effect of rotation increases according to the time elapse when the regenerative torque is small. In order to use the limited energy effectively, an optimal regenerative torque should be discussed in order to regenerate electrical energy as much as possible. This paper proposes a design methodology of a regenerative torque for an induction motor to maximize the regenerative electric energy by means of the variational method. Similarly, an optimal torque for acceleration is derived in order to minimize the energy to drive. Finally, an efficient motor drive system with the proposed optimal torque and the power storage system stabilizing the DC link voltage will be proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed methods are illustrated by both simulations and experiments.

  19. Effect of temperature, salinity, and food availability on the growth and food-conversion efficiency of postlarval pinfish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, D.S.; Boyd, M.T.; DeVane, J.C. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Growth rate, feeding rate, and food-conversion efficiency of postlarval pinfish, Lagodon rhomboides, were measured under various combinations of temperature, salinity, and food availability. Data were analyzed by multiple regression and presented as response surfaces. Temperature accounted for most of the variation in maximum feeding rate. Temperature and feeding rate accounted for over 90 percent of the observed variation in growth rate. Salinity effects were more important in predicting growth efficiency than in predicting growth rate. Because a feeding--temperature interaction affects growth and because the effect of thermal effluents on food availability is unknown, it is impossible at this time to predict whether thermal alteration of the environment would increase or decrease growth of pinfish

  20. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...... in otolith opacity, but the effect was minor compared to that of variations in ambient temperature. The combined influence of these effects, which both act on fish metabolism, are most likely controlling the seasonal opacity changes observed in wild fish. Our results help explain the variations seen in fish...

  1. Estimates of variance components for postweaning feed intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed efficiency is of major economic importance in beef production. The objective of this work was to evaluate alternative measures of feed efficiency for use in genetic evaluation. To meet this objective, genetic parameters were estimated for the components of efficiency. These parameters were then used in multiple-trait ...

  2. Genetic Variation of Morphological Traits and Transpiration in an Apple Core Collection under Well-Watered Conditions: Towards the Identification of Morphotypes with High Water Use Efficiency.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Lopez

    Full Text Available Water use efficiency (WUE is a quantitative measurement which improvement is a major issue in the context of global warming and restrictions in water availability for agriculture. In this study, we aimed at studying the variation and genetic control of WUE and the respective role of its components (plant biomass and transpiration in a perennial fruit crop. We explored an INRA apple core collection grown in a phenotyping platform to screen one-year-old scions for their accumulated biomass, transpiration and WUE under optimal growing conditions. Plant biomass was decompose into morphological components related to either growth or organ expansion. For each trait, nine mixed models were evaluated to account for the genetic effect and spatial heterogeneity inside the platform. The Best Linear Unbiased Predictors of genetic values were estimated after model selection. Mean broad-sense heritabilities were calculated from variance estimates. Heritability values indicated that biomass (0.76 and WUE (0.73 were under genetic control. This genetic control was lower in plant transpiration with an heritability of 0.54. Across the collection, biomass accounted for 70% of the WUE variability. A Hierarchical Ascendant Classification of the core collection indicated the existence of six groups of genotypes with contrasting morphology and WUE. Differences between morphotypes were interpreted as resulting from differences in the main processes responsible for plant growth: cell division leading to the generation of new organs and cell elongation leading to organ dimension. Although further studies will be necessary on mature trees with more complex architecture and multiple sinks such as fruits, this study is a first step for improving apple plant material for the use of water.

  3. Genetic Variation of Morphological Traits and Transpiration in an Apple Core Collection under Well-Watered Conditions: Towards the Identification of Morphotypes with High Water Use Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Gerardo; Pallas, Benoît; Martinez, Sébastien; Lauri, Pierre-Éric; Regnard, Jean-Luc; Durel, Charles-Éric; Costes, Evelyne

    2015-01-01

    Water use efficiency (WUE) is a quantitative measurement which improvement is a major issue in the context of global warming and restrictions in water availability for agriculture. In this study, we aimed at studying the variation and genetic control of WUE and the respective role of its components (plant biomass and transpiration) in a perennial fruit crop. We explored an INRA apple core collection grown in a phenotyping platform to screen one-year-old scions for their accumulated biomass, transpiration and WUE under optimal growing conditions. Plant biomass was decompose into morphological components related to either growth or organ expansion. For each trait, nine mixed models were evaluated to account for the genetic effect and spatial heterogeneity inside the platform. The Best Linear Unbiased Predictors of genetic values were estimated after model selection. Mean broad-sense heritabilities were calculated from variance estimates. Heritability values indicated that biomass (0.76) and WUE (0.73) were under genetic control. This genetic control was lower in plant transpiration with an heritability of 0.54. Across the collection, biomass accounted for 70% of the WUE variability. A Hierarchical Ascendant Classification of the core collection indicated the existence of six groups of genotypes with contrasting morphology and WUE. Differences between morphotypes were interpreted as resulting from differences in the main processes responsible for plant growth: cell division leading to the generation of new organs and cell elongation leading to organ dimension. Although further studies will be necessary on mature trees with more complex architecture and multiple sinks such as fruits, this study is a first step for improving apple plant material for the use of water.

  4. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING TIME ON FEED UTILIZATION BY SIAMESE CATFISH, Pangasius hypophthalmus JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Meilisza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Siamese catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus at juvenile stage is used as ornamental fish by fish hobbies because of their beautiful shape and movement. Feeding time is a part of feeding management to get the best and effective strategy on feed input. This study aimed to determine the growth of Siamese catfish juvenile by looking at the influence of feeding time on feed utilization. The average individual weight of juveniles used was ± 3.2 g stocked 15 fish per aquarium equipped with recirculation system. Two level factors in the factorial design consisted of 4 feeding times (at 8:00, at 12:00, at 16:00, and as control (8:00, 12:00, 16:00 and feeding level (45 g feed kg-1 fish, 90 g feed kg-1 fish. Interaction between feeding time and feeding level resulting eight types of treatments research, namely A (8/45, B (12/45, C (16/45, D (8:12:16/45, E (8:12:16/90, F (8/90, G (12/90, and H (16/90. The results showed that feeding time had significant effect on the specific growth rate, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratio and were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05. Besides feeding time control (treatments D and E, treatment C also showed the highest of specific growth rate (2.03%, protein efficiency ratio (1.46, and the lowest feed conversion ratio (1.85.

  5. Use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assays for predicting and improving the safety and efficiency of feeding ruminants on tanniniferous tree foliage: Achievements, result implications, and future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: h.makkar@iaea.org

    2005-08-19

    The utilization of unconventional feed resources holds great relevance to developing countries, where the main constraint to livestock development is the scarcity and fluctuation of the quality and quantity of the year-around animal feed supply. There is a serious shortage in concentrated animal feeds such as soybean, cottonseed and groundnut meals, etc. In addition, the human population is increasingly rapidly and arable land is decreasing, due to solid degradation, urbanization and industrialization. Production of grain in developing countries is mostly for human consumption. Novel approaches through the utilization of tree leaves, agro-industrial by-products, aquatic sources are required to bridge the gap between supply and demand of feeds. As the demand for food rises, including that of animal origin, unconventional feed resources including tanninferous plants must play an increasingly important part in the diet of animals, in particular for ruminants in smallholder farming systems in developing countries.

  6. Use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assays for predicting and improving the safety and efficiency of feeding ruminants on tanniniferous tree foliage: Achievements, result implications, and future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of unconventional feed resources holds great relevance to developing countries, where the main constraint to livestock development is the scarcity and fluctuation of the quality and quantity of the year-around animal feed supply. There is a serious shortage in concentrated animal feeds such as soybean, cottonseed and groundnut meals, etc. In addition, the human population is increasingly rapidly and arable land is decreasing, due to solid degradation, urbanization and industrialization. Production of grain in developing countries is mostly for human consumption. Novel approaches through the utilization of tree leaves, agro-industrial by-products, aquatic sources are required to bridge the gap between supply and demand of feeds. As the demand for food rises, including that of animal origin, unconventional feed resources including tanninferous plants must play an increasingly important part in the diet of animals, in particular for ruminants in smallholder farming systems in developing countries

  7. Effect Of Feed Restriction On Growth Performance And Economy Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dietary treatments consisted of providing feed ad libitum (ull fed) and two feed restriction treatments restrictingeedng 80 % of ad libitum ... A cost – benefit analysis was utilized for the economy of production. ... Feed efficiency was improved by restriction followed with re-alimentation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  8. Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovskaya, Ekaterina; Turkovskaya, Olga

    2010-05-01

    Estimation of the efficiency of hydrocarbon mineralization in soil by measuring CO2-emission and variations in the isotope composition of carbon dioxide E. Dubrovskaya1, O. Turkovskaya1, A. Tiunov2, N. Pozdnyakova1, A. Muratova1 1 - Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, RAS, Saratov, 2 - A.N. Severtsov Institute of Ecology and Evolution, RAS, Moscow, Russian Federation Hydrocarbon mineralization in soil undergoing phytoremediation was investigated in a laboratory experiment by estimating the variation in the 13С/12С ratio in the respired СО2. Hexadecane (HD) was used as a model hydrocarbon pollutant. The polluted soil was planted with winter rye (Secale cereale) inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense strain SR80, which combines the abilities to promote plant growth and to degrade oil hydrocarbon. Each vegetated treatment was accompanied with a corresponding nonvegetated one, and uncontaminated treatments were used as controls. Emission of carbon dioxide, its isotopic composition, and the residual concentration of HD in the soil were examined after two and four weeks. At the beginning of the experiment, the CO2-emission level was higher in the uncontaminated than in the contaminated soil. After two weeks, the quantity of emitted carbon dioxide decreased by about three times and did not change significantly in all uncontaminated treatments. The presence of HD in the soil initially increased CO2 emission, but later the respiration was reduced. During the first two weeks, nonvegetated soil had the highest CO2-emission level. Subsequently, the maximum increase in respiration was recorded in the vegetated contaminated treatments. The isotope composition of plant material determines the isotope composition of soil. The soil used in our experiment had an isotopic signature typical of soils formed by C3 plants (δ13C,-22.4‰). Generally, there was no significant fractionation of the carbon isotopes of the substrates metabolized by the

  9. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to: i evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts, two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI, ME (MEI and NE (NEI intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively. Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001 than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001 for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d. However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49 or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13, thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377 and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113 was less (p<0.001 for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150, therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  10. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  11. Feeding, evaluating, and controlling rumen function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Ian J; Golder, Helen M; Hall, Mary Beth

    2014-11-01

    Achieving optimal rumen function requires an understanding of feeds and systems of nutritional evaluation. Key influences on optimal function include achieving good dry matter intake. The function of feeds in the rumen depends on other factors including chemical composition, rate of passage, degradation rate of the feed, availability of other substrates and cofactors, and individual animal variation. This article discusses carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism in the rumen, and provides practical means of evaluation of rations in the field. Conditions under which rumen function is suboptimal (ie, acidosis and bloat) are discussed, and methods for control examined. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Characteristics of lipids and their feeding value in swine diets

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Brian J.; Kellner, Trey A.; Shurson, Gerald C.

    2015-01-01

    In livestock diets, energy is one of the most expensive nutritional components of feed formulation. Because lipids are a concentrated energy source, inclusion of lipids are known to affect growth rate and feed efficiency, but are also known to affect diet palatability, feed dustiness, and pellet quality. In reviewing the literature, the majority of research studies conducted on the subject of lipids have focused mainly on the effects of feeding presumably high quality lipids on growth perform...

  13. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2014-01-01

    Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individu...

  14. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  18. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  19. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  2. Variation in the carbon and oxygen isotope composition of plant biomass and its relationship to water-use efficiency at the leaf- and ecosystem-scales in a northern Great Plains grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Lawrence B; Farquhar, Graham D

    2014-02-01

    Measurements of the carbon (δ(13) Cm ) and oxygen (δ(18) Om ) isotope composition of C3 plant tissue provide important insights into controls on water-use efficiency. We investigated the causes of seasonal and inter-annual variability in water-use efficiency in a grassland near Lethbridge, Canada using stable isotope (leaf-scale) and eddy covariance measurements (ecosystem-scale). The positive relationship between δ(13) Cm and δ(18) Om values for samples collected during 1998-2001 indicated that variation in stomatal conductance and water stress-induced changes in the degree of stomatal limitation of net photosynthesis were the major controls on variation in δ(13) Cm and biomass production during this time. By comparison, the lack of a significant relationship between δ(13) Cm and δ(18) Om values during 2002, 2003 and 2006 demonstrated that water stress was not a significant limitation on photosynthesis and biomass production in these years. Water-use efficiency was higher in 2000 than 1999, consistent with expectations because of greater stomatal limitation of photosynthesis and lower leaf ci /ca during the drier conditions of 2000. Calculated values of leaf-scale water-use efficiency were 2-3 times higher than ecosystem-scale water-use efficiency, a difference that was likely due to carbon lost in root respiration and water lost during soil evaporation that was not accounted for by the stable isotope measurements. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The Efficiency of Supplementing Mondia Whytei, Maize Germ, Lucerne and Dairy Meal on Feed Intake, milk Production and body Weight Changes in Dual Purpose goats fed on Basal Diet of Rhodes Grass Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wekesa, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to exploit the productive potential of milk producing animal, supplementation is a prerequisite. However due to low purchasing power of most small scale dairy farmers some farmers use what is locally available as supplements of Mondia whytei, maize germ, lucerne and dairy meal were fed to dual purpose lactating goats in a completely randomised design. The basal diet was Rhodes grass hay. Chemical composition of feeds was done. Crude protein, CP in Mondia leaves was 187 g kg -1 DM while calcium was 69.1 g kg -1 DM. Mondia whytei is a plant which mainly grows in forests and has many valuable uses including its use as a livestock feed. It has been claimed that when farmers in western Kenya feed Mondia roots to their lactating cows there is an increase in milk production. It is against this background that this work was undertaken to compare the potential of Mondia whytei roots and leaves with other conventional feed supplements. Response to Mondia roots was quite low. There was no significant difference in rumen pH levels over time between treatments. It is recommended that more work be done on Mondia whytei to determine its potential as a feed supplement and to continue monitoring its use on-farm including its feeding methods used by farmers in western Kenya

  4. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  5. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  6. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  7. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. maternity hospital in South West England. 218 breast feeds (160 mother-infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. the tool has more explanation than other tools to remind those supporting breast-feeding women about the components of an efficient breast feed. There was good internal reliability for the final 4-item BBAT (Cronbach's alpha=0.668) and the midwives who used it showed a high correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.782). Midwives were able to score a breast feed consistently using the BBAT and felt that it helped them with advice to mothers about improving positioning and attachment to make breast feeding less painful, particularly with a tongue-tied infant. The tool showed strong correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy, indicating that more efficient breast feeding technique is associated with increased confidence in breast feeding an infant. the BBAT is a concise breast feeding assessment tool facilitating accurate, rapid breast feeding appraisal, and targeting breast feeding advice to mothers acquiring early breast feeding skills or for those experiencing problems with an older infant. Accurate assessment is essential to ensure enhanced breast feeding efficiency and increased maternal self-confidence. the BBAT could be used both clinically and in research to target advice to improve breast feeding efficacy. Further research is needed to establish its wider usefulness. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Two-loop feed water control system in BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Takashi; Watanabe, Takao; Hirose, Masao.

    1982-01-01

    In the process of the start-up and shutdown of BWR plants, the operation of changing over feed pumps corresponding to plant output is performed. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the automatic changeover system for feed pumps, which minimizes the variation of water level in reactors and is easy to operate. The three-element control system with the water level in reactors, the flow rate of main steam and the flow rate of feed water as the input is mainly applied, but long time is required for the changeover of feed pumps. The two-loop feed control system can control simultaneously two pumps being changed over, therefore it is suitable to the automatic changeover control system for feed pumps. Also it is excellent for the control of the recirculating valves of feed pumps. The control characteristics of the two-loop feed water control system against the external disturbance which causes the variation of water level in reactors were examined. The results of analysis by simulation are reported. The features of the two-loop feed water control system, the method of simulation and the evaluation of the two-loop feed water control system are described. Its connection with a digital feed water recirculation control system is expected. (Kako, I.)

  9. Reduce in Variation and Improve Efficiency of Target Volume Delineation by a Computer-Assisted System Using a Deformable Image Registration Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, K.S. Clifford; Bhide, Shreerang FRCR; Chen, Hansen; Asper, Joshua PAC; Bush, Steven; Franklin, Gregg; Kavadi, Vivek; Liengswangwong, Vichaivood; Gordon, William; Raben, Adam; Strasser, Jon; Koprowski, Christopher; Frank, Steven; Chronowski, Gregory; Ahamad, Anesa; Malyapa, Robert; Zhang Lifei; Dong Lei

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether a computer-assisted target volume delineation (CAT) system using a deformable image registration approach can reduce the variation of target delineation among physicians with different head and neck (HN) IMRT experiences and reduce the time spent on the contouring process. Materials and Methods: We developed a deformable image registration method for mapping contours from a template case to a patient case with a similar tumor manifestation but different body configuration. Eight radiation oncologists with varying levels of clinical experience in HN IMRT performed target delineation on two HN cases, one with base-of-tongue (BOT) cancer and another with nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC), by first contouring from scratch and then by modifying the contours deformed by the CAT system. The gross target volumes were provided. Regions of interest for comparison included the clinical target volumes (CTVs) and normal organs. The volumetric and geometric variation of these regions of interest and the time spent on contouring were analyzed. Results: We found that the variation in delineating CTVs from scratch among the physicians was significant, and that using the CAT system reduced volumetric variation and improved geometric consistency in both BOT and NPC cases. The average timesaving when using the CAT system was 26% to 29% for more experienced physicians and 38% to 47% for the less experienced ones. Conclusions: A computer-assisted target volume delineation approach, using a deformable image-registration method with template contours, was able to reduce the variation among physicians with different experiences in HN IMRT while saving contouring time

  10. Variations of the Functional Brain Network Efficiency in a Young Clinical Sample within the Autism Spectrum: A fNIRS Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanwei Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder with dimensional behavioral symptoms and various damages in the structural and functional brain. Previous neuroimaging studies focused on exploring the differences of brain development between individuals with and without autism spectrum disorders (ASD. However, few of them have attempted to investigate the individual differences of the brain features among subjects within the Autism spectrum. Our main goal was to explore the individual differences of neurodevelopment in young children with Autism by testing for the association between the functional network efficiency and levels of autistic behaviors, as well as the association between the functional network efficiency and age. Forty-six children with Autism (ages 2.0–8.9 years old participated in the current study, with levels of autistic behaviors evaluated by their parents. The network efficiency (global and local network efficiency were obtained from the functional networks based on the oxy-, deoxy-, and total-Hemoglobin series, respectively. Results indicated that the network efficiency decreased with age in young children with Autism in the deoxy- and total-Hemoglobin-based-networks, and children with a relatively higher level of autistic behaviors showed decreased network efficiency in the oxy-hemoglobin-based network. Results suggest individual differences of brain development in young children within the Autism spectrum, providing new insights into the psychopathology of ASD.

  11. Seasonal Variability of Mesozooplankton Feeding Rates on Phytoplankton in Subtropical Coastal and Estuarine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mianrun Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how mesozooplankton assemblages influenced phytoplankton in coastal and estuarine waters, we carried out a monthly investigation on mesozooplankton composition at two contrasting stations of Hong Kong coastal and estuarine waters and simultaneously conducted bottle incubation feeding experiments. The assemblage of mesozooplankton was omnivorous at both stations with varying carnivory degree (the degree of feeding preference of protozoa and animal food to phytoplankton and the variations of carnivory degree were significantly associated with microzooplankton biomass (ciliates for the coastal station, both ciliates and dinoflagellates for the estuarine stations and physical environmental parameters (primarily salinity. High carnivory was primarily due to high composition of noctilucales, Corycaeus spp., Oithona spp. and Acartia spp. Results of feeding experiments showed that grazing impacts on phytoplankton ranged from −5.9 to 17.7%, while the mean impacts were just <4% at both stations. The impacts were size-dependent, by which mesozooplankton consumed around 9% of large-sized phytoplankton while indirectly caused an increase of 4% of small-sized phytoplankton. Mesozooplankton clearance rate on phytoplankton, calculated from the log response of chlorophyll a concentrations by the introduction of bulk grazers after 1-day incubation, was significantly reduced by increasing carnivory degree of the mesozooplankton assemblage. The mechanism for the reduction of mesozooplankton clearance rate with increasing carnivory degree was primarily due to less efficient of filtering feeding and stronger trophic cascades due to suppression of microzooplankton. The feeding rates of mesozooplankton on microzooplankton were not obtained in this study, but the trophic cascades indirectly induced by mesozooplankton carnivorous feeding can be observed by the negative clearance rate on small-sized phytoplankton. Overall, the main significance of

  12. Real time monitoring of powder blend bulk density for coupled feed-forward/feed-back control of a continuous direct compaction tablet manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ravendra; Román-Ospino, Andrés D; Romañach, Rodolfo J; Ierapetritou, Marianthi; Ramachandran, Rohit

    2015-11-10

    The pharmaceutical industry is strictly regulated, where precise and accurate control of the end product quality is necessary to ensure the effectiveness of the drug products. For such control, the process and raw materials variability ideally need to be fed-forward in real time into an automatic control system so that a proactive action can be taken before it can affect the end product quality. Variations in raw material properties (e.g., particle size), feeder hopper level, amount of lubrication, milling and blending action, applied shear in different processing stages can affect the blend density significantly and thereby tablet weight, hardness and dissolution. Therefore, real time monitoring of powder bulk density variability and its incorporation into the automatic control system so that its effect can be mitigated proactively and efficiently is highly desired. However, real time monitoring of powder bulk density is still a challenging task because of different level of complexities. In this work, powder bulk density which has a significant effect on the critical quality attributes (CQA's) has been monitored in real time in a pilot-plant facility, using a NIR sensor. The sensitivity of the powder bulk density on critical process parameters (CPP's) and CQA's has been analyzed and thereby feed-forward controller has been designed. The measured signal can be used for feed-forward control so that the corrective actions on the density variations can be taken before they can influence the product quality. The coupled feed-forward/feed-back control system demonstrates improved control performance and improvements in the final product quality in the presence of process and raw material variations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enteral feeding practices in preterm infants in South Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Optimal feeding regimens in babies weighing <1 000 g have not been established, and wide variations occur. In South Africa. (SA) this situation is complicated by varied resource constraints. Objective. To determine the preterm enteral feeding practices of paediatricians in SA. Methods. We invited 288 ...

  14. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  15. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  16. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  17. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  18. Genomic dissection and prediction of feed intake and residual feed intake traits using a longitudinal model in F2 chickens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begli, Hakimeh Emamgholi; Torshizi, Rasoul vaez; Masoudi, Ali Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency trait s (FETs) ar e import ant economic indicators in poultry production. Because feed intake (FI) is a time -dependent variable, longitudinal models can provide insights into the genetic basis of FET variation over time. It is expected that the application of longitudinal models a...

  19. Feed efficiency in Mangalarga Marchador foals fed diet supplemented with probiotics or phytase Eficiência alimentar de potros da raça Mangalarga Marchador alimentados com dieta suplementada com probióticos ou fitase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Silva de Moura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effect of probiotic or phytase supplementation on dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion (FC in 24 Mangalarga Marchador foals (16 males, 8 females, with 241.6 ± 23.2 days of age, and 216.7 ± 27.8 kg of body weight (BW. The study lasted 28 days, the first 23 days for diet and handling adaptation, and the last five days for feces collection. The basal diet consisted of Cynodon pasture and pelleted concentrate (1.2 kg/100 kg BW, as well as water and mineral salt ad libitum. Treatments groups were assigned as follows: basal diet (control; basal diet + 5 g/day of live yeast culture (10(9 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae; basal diet + 2 g/day of live bacteria (10(8 CFU/g of B. bifidum, E. faecium, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and yeast culture (10(5 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae; and basal diet + 1250 FTU/day of phytase. Pasture DMI was estimated with an external marker (LIPE™ associated with cecal in situ digestibility of dry matter. All foals were randomized, by replicated, using a 4 × 2 factorial, and results were compared using Student t-test, taking into consideration the effect of initial BW as covariate for the percentage DMI per BW. Among foals, DMI varied from 2.4 to 2.8% BW, with foals supplemented with live bacteria and yeast having lower DMI (total diet and forage. All animals had an ADG of 0.33 kg/day, and foals supplemented with live bacteria and yeast had FC 32.42 to 43.83% lower than foals supplemented with phytase or fed only basal diet. The phytase dose of 205 FTU/kg DM in the basal diet had no effects. Probiotic composed of live bacteria and yeast culture improved feed efficiency of forage and can be used as a nutritional strategy to maintain body condition in foals during the dry season.O trabalho foi realizado visando avaliar a influência da suplementação de probióticos ou fitase sobre o consumo diário de matéria seca (CMS, o ganho de peso diário (GPD e a conversão alimentar

  20. Effectivity of Aloe vera bioactives as feed additive for broilers reared on deep litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P Sinurat

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available There are plenty of Indonesian plants contain usefull bioactive components. One of them is Aloe vera. Previous experiment showed that Aloe vera bioactives reduced aerob bacteria in the intestinal and improved feed efficiency in broilers reared in cages. The results however, gave some variations, may be due to variation in rearing the chickens. Two experiments were carried out to study the effectivity of Aloe vera bioactives as feed additives for broilers reared on deep litter. In the first study, six experimental diets in mash form were formulated, i.e.: Control (K; K + antibiotic; K + 0.50 g/kg dry Aloe vera (LBK; K + 1.00 g/kg LBK; K + anthraquinone; K + Aloe vera in semi-liquid form. The amount of semi liquid Aloe vera and the anthraquinone were equally to 1.00 g LBK/kg. Results showed that antibiotic improved body weight gain 6.10% and feed efficiency 5.50% better than the control, although statistically not significant (P>0.05. Aloe vera bioactives in low doses (0.50 g/kg also improved weight gain (6.30% and feed efficiency (5.20% similar to the antibiotic. However, Aloe vera in high doses and anthraquinone (equal to 1.00 g/kg diet did not improve performance of broilers. There were no significant changes on carcass yield, abdominal fat levels, weight of liver, gizard and gastro intestinal tract due to any feed additives tested. The second experiment were carried out to study the effectivity of feed additives when included in crumble diets. Six experimental diets, i.e.: Control (K, K + antibiotic, K + Semi-liquid Aloe vera (equal to 1.00g dry Aloe vera/kg, K + 0.50 g dry Aloe vera/kg, K + 1.00 g dry Aloe vera/kg, K + 0.50 g dry Aloe vera + 0.50 g Curcuma xanthorrhiza meal/kg. All diets were fed in crumble form. Results showed that chickens fed with feed additives (antibiotic or Aloe vera bioactives have a significantly (P<0.05 higher body weight gain and feed efficiency than those fed with control diet. The best weight gain was achieved by

  1. Seasonal and within-canopy variation in shoot-scale resource-use efficiency trade-offs in a Norway spruce stand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, Lasse; Räntfors, Mats; Wallin, Göran

    2015-11-01

    Previous leaf-scale studies of carbon assimilation describe short-term resource-use efficiency (RUE) trade-offs where high use efficiency of one resource requires low RUE of another. However, varying resource availabilities may cause long-term RUE trade-offs to differ from the short-term patterns. This may have important implications for understanding canopy-scale resource use and allocation. We used continuous gas exchange measurements collected at five levels within a Norway spruce, Picea abies (L.) karst., canopy over 3 years to assess seasonal differences in the interactions between shoot-scale resource availability (light, water and nitrogen), net photosynthesis (An ) and the use efficiencies of light (LUE), water (WUE) and nitrogen (NUE) for carbon assimilation. The continuous data set was used to develop and evaluate multiple regression models for predicting monthly shoot-scale An . These models showed that shoot-scale An was strongly dependent on light availability and was generally well described with simple one- or two-parameter models. WUE peaked in spring, NUE in summer and LUE in autumn. However, the relative importance of LUE for carbon assimilation increased with canopy depth at all times. Our results suggest that accounting for seasonal and within-canopy trade-offs may be important for RUE-based modelling of canopy carbon uptake. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford-13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades

  3. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  4. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  8. Decapsulated brine shrimp cysts - an ideal feed for shrimps in aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    Feeding experiments have been carried out with Metapenaeus monoceros using different stages of Artemia salina as feed. The importance of using decapsulated cysts to obtain greater food conversion efficiency has been indicated...

  9. Effects of oils on feed mildew and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Qi, Ming; Huang, Yakuan; Guo, Jiao; Zhang, Jiacai; Li, Chong; Zhang, Niya; Sun, Lvhui; Qi, Desheng

    2017-08-01

    This study was performed to determine the effects of oils on feed mildew and feed quality. Under different moisture content conditions (10%, 13% and 16%), the basal feeds were supplemented with 4%, 6%, 8%, 10% and 12% soybean oil. In addition, at different moisture content levels (10%, 13% and 16%), the basal feed was supplemented with 12% of various types of oil (soybean, peanut, corn and fish). Subsequently, a mixed mold spore suspension was added. The feed samples were incubated at 28°C, and the total mold, water activity (Aw), moisture, acid value, crude protein (CP), crude lipid (CL), crude ash (CA) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE) levels were determined at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. The results showed no significant variations in the feed moisture, CP, CL, CA and NEF contents. However, the acid value gradually increased in the feed samples with an extended incubation time and increasing initial moisture. The feed moisture content was a critical factor controlling feed mildew, and high levels of oil supplementation caused an elevated Aw. Additionally, peanut oil promoted mold growth in feed. These results provide a reference for the production and scientific management of formulated feed. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. The effect of feeding frequency on growth performance and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to investigate the effects of different feeding frequencies on the growth, feed efficiency and specific growth rate (%) of juvenile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, weight 16.44±0.22 g) rearing in cold sea water conditions (5.8 to 9.3°C; 17 to 18 ppt). Fish were fed on a commercial feed to the apparent ...

  11. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-10-01

    Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP). This study was conducted to determine feed water productivity (FWP) and LWP in the MCL system. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP. Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity (WP) were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land (GL) analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL. These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most. A linear relationship between the proportion of CR in livestock feed and FWP was evident, but the relationship with LWP was not likely linear. As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of

  12. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  13. Salt-induced variation in some potential physiochemical attributes of two genetically diverse spring wheat (triticum aestivum L.) cultivars: photosynthesis and photosystem II efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.A.; Ashraf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Variation in salt tolerance potential of two contrasting wheat cultivars (salt tolerant S-24 and moderately salt sensitive MH-97) at different growth stages was observed when these wheat cultivars were exposed to salinity stress in hydroponic culture. Salinity caused a marked reduction in photosynthetic pigments, transpiration and photos synthetic rates, and stomatal conductance at early growth stages in both wheat cultivars, being more prominent in cv. MH-97. In addition, a marked salt-induced alteration was observed in different attributes of chlorophyll fluorescence. On the basis of physiological characterization of these two wheat cultivars at different growth stages, it was inferred that cv. S-24 exhibited higher salinity tolerance at all growth stages in terms of less salinity-induced degradation of photosynthetic pigments, higher photosynthetic rates, maintenance of photosystem II under salinity stress as compared to that in cv. MH-97. In view of the results presented here, it is evident that wheat plants were prone to adverse effects of salinity at early growth stages as compared to later growth stages. (author)

  14. Investigating the Influence of Box-Constraints on the Solution of a Total Variation Model via an Efficient Primal-Dual Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Langer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of adding a box-constraint to the minimization of functionals consisting of a data-fidelity term and a total variation regularization term. In particular, we show that in certain applications an additional box-constraint does not effect the solution at all, i.e., the solution is the same whether a box-constraint is used or not. On the contrary, i.e., for applications where a box-constraint may have influence on the solution, we investigate how much it effects the quality of the restoration, especially when the regularization parameter, which weights the importance of the data term and the regularizer, is chosen suitable. In particular, for such applications, we consider the case of a squared L 2 data-fidelity term. For computing a minimizer of the respective box-constrained optimization problems a primal-dual semi-smooth Newton method is presented, which guarantees superlinear convergence.

  15. Segmentation editing improves efficiency while reducing inter-expert variation and maintaining accuracy for normal brain tissues in the presence of space-occupying lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deeley, M A; Chen, A; Cmelak, A; Malcolm, A; Jaboin, J; Niermann, K; Yang, Eddy S; Yu, David S; Datteri, R D; Noble, J; Dawant, B M; Donnelly, E; Moretti, L

    2013-01-01

    Image segmentation has become a vital and often rate-limiting step in modern radiotherapy treatment planning. In recent years, the pace and scope of algorithm development, and even introduction into the clinic, have far exceeded evaluative studies. In this work we build upon our previous evaluation of a registration driven segmentation algorithm in the context of 8 expert raters and 20 patients who underwent radiotherapy for large space-occupying tumours in the brain. In this work we tested four hypotheses concerning the impact of manual segmentation editing in a randomized single-blinded study. We tested these hypotheses on the normal structures of the brainstem, optic chiasm, eyes and optic nerves using the Dice similarity coefficient, volume, and signed Euclidean distance error to evaluate the impact of editing on inter-rater variance and accuracy. Accuracy analyses relied on two simulated ground truth estimation methods: simultaneous truth and performance level estimation and a novel implementation of probability maps. The experts were presented with automatic, their own, and their peers’ segmentations from our previous study to edit. We found, independent of source, editing reduced inter-rater variance while maintaining or improving accuracy and improving efficiency with at least 60% reduction in contouring time. In areas where raters performed poorly contouring from scratch, editing of the automatic segmentations reduced the prevalence of total anatomical miss from approximately 16% to 8% of the total slices contained within the ground truth estimations. These findings suggest that contour editing could be useful for consensus building such as in developing delineation standards, and that both automated methods and even perhaps less sophisticated atlases could improve efficiency, inter-rater variance, and accuracy. (paper)

  16. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n ...... of inflammation and SAA supplementation decreased the pro-inflammatory interferon-gamma response and improved protein utilisation, as measured by PU, whereas supplementation with both Trp and SAA improved feed conversion ratio....... interferon-gamma regardless of dietary Trp or day of sampling (P = 0.043). Increasing dietary SAA decreased plasma urea (PU) levels on Days 5, 8 and 14 (P

  17. Gut Transcriptome Analysis Shows Different Food Utilization Efficiency by the Grasshopper Oedaleous asiaticus (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xunbing; McNeill, Mark Richard; Ma, Jingchuan; Qin, Xinghu; Tu, Xiongbing; Cao, Guangchun; Wang, Guangjun; Nong, Xiangqun; Zhang, Zehua

    2017-08-01

    Oedaleus asiaticus B. Bienko is a persistent pest occurring in north Asian grasslands. We found that O. asiaticus feeding on Stipa krylovii Roshev. had higher approximate digestibility (AD), efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), and efficiency of conversion of digested food (ECD), compared with cohorts feeding on Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel, Artemisia frigida Willd., or Cleistogenes squarrosa (Trin.) Keng. Although this indicated high food utilization efficiency for S. krylovii, the physiological processes and molecular mechanisms underlying these biological observations are not well understood. Transcriptome analysis was used to examine how gene expression levels in O. asiaticus gut are altered by feeding on the four plant species. Nymphs (fifth-instar female) that fed on S. krylovii had the largest variation in gene expression profiles, with a total of 88 genes significantly upregulated compared with those feeding on the other three plants, mainly including nutrition digestive genes of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid digestion. GO and KEGG enrichment also showed that feeding S. krylovii could upregulate the nutrition digestion-related molecular function, biological process, and pathways. These changes in transcripts levels indicate that the physiological processes of activating nutrition digestive enzymes and metabolism pathways can well explain the high food utilization of S. krylovii by O. asiaticus. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... button, close the clamp on the feeding set, disconnect the extension set from the button, and close ... Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and ... breast pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  9. Relationships between phenotypic variation in osmotic adjustment, water-use efficiency, and drought tolerance of seven cultivars of Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Inostroza

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Lotus corniculatus L. is a perennial forage legume species highly-adapted to growth under drought conditions. However, the genetic and physiological mechanisms involved in its adaptive capacity have not been elucidated. The role of osmotic adjustment (OA and water-use efficiency (WUE on the drought tolerance of L. corniculatus was studied in a greenhouse experiment. Seven cultivars of different origin were subjected to two contrasting treatments of available soil water: No water stress (NWS and with water stress (WWS. Xylem water potential (Ψx, osmotic potential (Ψπ, pressure potential (Ψp, relative water content (RWC, stomatal conductance (g s, shoot DM production, water transpiration (T, and WUE (shoot DM/T were measured. Water treatments significantly (P < 0.05 affected plant water status, which was reflected in reduced Ψx, RWC, g s, and transpiration rate in the WWS treatment compared with the NWS treatment. All cultivars showed a high capacity for OA under WWS treatment because Ψπ decreased by approximately 60% and Ψp increased by approximately 30%, compared with the NWS treatment. Cultivars with a higher solute accumulation (low Ψπ value had the lowest DM production under WWS treatment. In contrast, WUE varied greatly among cultivars and was positively associated (R² = 0.88; P < 0.01 with DM production under drought conditions.

  10. Physiological Responses, Growth Rate and Blood Metabolites Under Feed Restriction and Thermal Exposure in Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Hooda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the cumulative effect of thermal stress and feed restriction in kids. Twelve kids of Alpine x Beetle cross were divided into two groups. Group 1 served as control and group 2 was put on restricted feeding and exposed at 40, 42 and 44oC. Body weights of both groups were similar before thermal exposure and feed restriction. Body weight of group 1 increased significantly and were higher than group 2 throughout the experiment. Body weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were comparable in both groups after removal of thermal stress and switching over to ad libitum feeding (42-63 days. Body weights of group 2 remained lower than group 1, the losses in body weights of group 2 could not be compensated and there was approximately 25% loss in body weight at the end of experiment. Physiological responses of group 2 were significantly lower before exposure to high temperature but increased significantly after exposure at temperature 40, 42 and 44oC and the increase was in commensurate with the increase in exposure temperature. Blood glucose, total protein, albumin and serum enzymes decreased significantly on exposure at higher temperature and differences were higher in feed restricted group. T3, T4 and cortisol concentration were similar in both groups before feed restriction and thermal stress. T3, T4 concentration decreased while cortisol concentration increased significantly after exposure to high temperature. Variations in plasma enzymes, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT were not significant before feed restriction and thermal stress. The activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase decreased whereas that of SGOT and SGPT increased significantly on exposure at temperature 40oC and subsequent changes at temperature 42 and 44oC were not significant. The study indicated that animals of group 2 experienced more stress as observed by significant alteration in body

  11. Effects of loading rate and temperature on anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge in a high frequency feeding system, looking in particular at stability and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Li, Hao; Wang, Gaojun; Wang, Xiaochang

    2017-08-01

    A continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with a high feeding frequency (HFF) of once every 15min was employed in order to ease the loading shock frequently occurred in digester with a low feeding frequency. The effects of the organic loading rate (OLR) and temperature on the co-digestion of food waste and waste activated sludge was evaluated in a 302-day long-term experiment. Due to the high hydrolysis rate, the maximum CH 4 yield in a thermophilic reactor was 407mL CH 4 /gVS added , a value that was significantly higher than the 350mL CH 4 /gVS added that occurred in a mesophilic reactor. Although the alkalinity declined when HRT was shorted than 10d, caused by the decrease of conversion ratio from protein to ammonium, the increase of specific methanogenic activity helped HFF system to achieve stable performance at an OLR of 11.2 (HRT 7.5d) and 30.2gVS/L/d (HRT 3d) under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Efeito do creep feeding sobre o desempenho de bezerros e a eficiência reprodutiva de primíparas Nelore, em pastejo Effect of creep feeding on average daily gain and weaning weight of calves and on reproductive efficiency of primiparous Nelore cows under grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nogueira

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de bezerros em sistema de creep feeding, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, durante o período de amamentação, sobre o ganho médio diário (GMD, peso à desmama (PD e taxa de gestação, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, utilizando 102 vacas Nelore (primíparas de baixa condição corporal ao início da estação de monta e seus bezerros, divididos em dois grupos: T1 (n=52, não tratado e T2 (n=50, tratado com suplemento à base de 20% de PB e 75% de NDT. O consumo médio diário estimado no período foi 0,61kg de suplemento/bezerro/dia. Observaram-se diferenças entre T1 e T2 quanto ao PD (P0,05. A suplementação em creep feeding pode aumentar o GMD e o PD de bezerros Nelore, sem alterar a taxa de gestação de primíparas que iniciam a estação de monta com baixa condição corporal.The effect of creep feeding on average daily gain (ADG and weaning weight (WW of calves and pregnancy rate of dams was evaluated in Nelore cattle on Brachiaria Brizantha pasture. In a complete randomized design, calves were divided into two treatments: T1, the control group and T2, in which calves were provided a supplemental diet containing 20% CP and 75% TDN from 92 days after birth until weaning. The 102 primiparous cows were in low body condition at beginning of breeding season. Average daily consumption of the creep ration was 0.61kg per calf. WW averaged 155.10±2.72kg and 163.80±2.53 and for T1 and T2 calves, respectively (P0.05. Thus, creep feeding can improve WW and preweaning ADG of Nelore calves but may not affect pregnancy rate of primiparous cows in low body condition at the start of the mating.

  13. Development of feeding strategy for ruminant livestock by nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, H.; Cetinkaya, N.

    2002-01-01

    In tropical and subtropical areas crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts are used for feeding ruminant livestock under limited or zero grazing conditions. In order to increase feeding efficiency and livestock productivity supplementation are essential to meet deficient nutrients fbr the diets. For the assessment the impact by supplements or supplementation for feed utilization efficiency nuclear techniques like isotope dilution method are unique for the purpose. For the evaluation the impact by supplementation or supplements by various nitrogen sources together with salts and minerals for energy utilization efficiency carbon-14 labelled acetate was used for tracer to measure outflow rates for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from rumen by Angora goat bucks.The supplemented diets led to increased VFAs outflow rates from rumen. The conclusion was that ruminant diets composed by crop residues and agro-industrial by-products need supplementation for deficient nutrients to increase feed energy utilization efficiency by ruminant livestock

  14. Simulation assessment of continuous simulating moving bed chromatography process with partial feed and new strategy with partial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial Feed simulating moving bed (SMB has proved to be more efficient in binary separation performance (purity, recovery, productivity because of its two additional degrees of freedom, namely feed length and feed time, as compared to classical SMB process. The binary separation of dextran T6 and fructose with linear isotherm is modeled with Aspen Chromatography simulator in a four zone SMB with one column per zone for both normal-feed and Partial Feed. Increase in number of feed length and feed time in the cycle plays a very important role in the separation performance with Partial Feed. In addition, the effect of mode of operation (early or late introduction of increase in number of feed length in the cycle on product purity and recovery is also investigated. Furthermore, the binary separation system is designed with the safety margin method and the optimum operating parameters for simulation are calculated with triangle theory. Finally, a new strategy with Partial Feed is developed, showing improved separation performance relative to the basic four-zone SMB with regard to extract stream purity and recovery. The results of the proposed study can served as a useful summary of Partial Feed operation.

  15. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  16. Polymorphisms and haplotypes in the bovine neuropeptide Y, growth hormone receptor, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor 2, and uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 genes and their associations with measures of growth, performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, E L; Nkrumah, J D; Murdoch, B M; Li, C; Wang, Z; Fu, A; Moore, S S

    2008-01-01

    Genes that regulate metabolism and energy partitioning have the potential to influence economically important traits in farm animals, as do polymorphisms within these genes. In the current study, SNP in the bovine neuropeptide Y (NPY), growth hormone receptor (GHR), ghrelin (GHRL), uncoupling proteins 2 and 3 (UCP2 and UCP3), IGF2, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART), melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), and GH genes were evaluated for associations with growth, feed efficiency, and carcass merit in beef steers. In total, 24 SNP were evaluated for associations with these traits and haplotypes were constructed within each gene when 2 or more SNP showed significant associations. An A/G SNP located in intron 4 of the GHR gene had the largest effects on BW of the animals (dominance effect P GHRL gene tended to show effects on residual feed intake, FCR, and partial efficiency of growth (P < 0.10). The IGF2 SNP most strongly affected LM area (P < 0.01), back fat, ADG, and FCR (P < 0.05). The SNP in the CART, MC4R, POMC, GH, and CRH genes did not show associations at P < 0.05 with any of the traits. Although most of the SNP that showed associations do not cause amino acid changes, these SNP could be linked to other yet to be detected causative mutations or nearby QTL. It will be very important to verify these results in other cattle populations.

  17. A new approach to feed evaluation for ruminants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Verner Friis; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    1991-01-01

    Existing feed evaluation systems are based on empirical relationships and static models. However, digestion and metabolism are dynamic processes. Feed efficiency and product composition varies in relation to changes in feeding level and composition of the diet. Therefore, future feed formulation...... systems should be based on mechanistic and dynamic models that are descriptive of ruminant nutritional physiology. A model for calculating "truly" digested energy is proposed. This is a simplified model based on the assumptions of first-order kinetics (fractional rate constants and steady state conditions...

  18. Dairy farming: indoor v. pasture-based feeding

    OpenAIRE

    HOFSTETTER, P.; FREY, H.-J; GAZZARIN, C.; WYSS, U.; KUNZ, P.

    2017-01-01

    The current situation of volatile milk prices and rising costs of, e.g. grain and labour, suggests that it is worth studying productivity and efficiency in dairy farming. The objective of the current whole-system study, carried out in lowland Central Switzerland from 2007 to 2010, was to compare the performance, efficiency, land productivity and profitability of indoor-feeding (IF) dairy production with that of pasture-based feeding (PF) dairy production. An IF herd consisting of 11 Holstein-...

  19. Neutron monitor generated data distributions in quantum variational Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kussainov, A. S.; Pya, N.

    2016-08-01

    We have assessed the potential applications of the neutron monitor hardware as random number generator for normal and uniform distributions. The data tables from the acquisition channels with no extreme changes in the signal level were chosen as the retrospective model. The stochastic component was extracted by fitting the raw data with splines and then subtracting the fit. Scaling the extracted data to zero mean and variance of one is sufficient to obtain a stable standard normal random variate. Distributions under consideration pass all available normality tests. Inverse transform sampling is suggested to use as a source of the uniform random numbers. Variational Monte Carlo method for quantum harmonic oscillator was used to test the quality of our random numbers. If the data delivery rate is of importance and the conventional one minute resolution neutron count is insufficient, we could always settle for an efficient seed generator to feed into the faster algorithmic random number generator or create a buffer.

  20. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  1. Performance enhancement of implantable medical antenna using differential feed technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Bhattacharjee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The health care industry is continuously revolutionizing and advancing towards developing more efficient system suitable for human body. Today implantable devices have become a more interesting topic in health care services which primarily started with the pacemakers. Since then it is continuously evolving due to its non-invasive nature, instant monitoring and diagnosis, and periodic simulation. The main goal of these implantable devices is to efficiently monitor or inspect various ailments in the body and then transmits this to the server or base station. For proper communication between the implant and the base station, antenna design is of prime importance. In this paper MEMS based differentially fed dual band antenna has been proposed and can be used both in Medical Implant Communication Service (MICS band for transmission of data and industrial, scientific and medical (ISM band for wake-up purpose. The proposed antenna has been simulated for free space scenario and has been found to radiate in both MICS & ISM band with S11 of −17.62 dB and −14.31 dB respectively. Subsequently the antenna is inserted within a skin mimicking model with equivalent dielectric features and the results show variation in radiation characteristics between free space condition and within skin phantom. The design of the antenna has been optimized in such a way that minimum deviation occurs between the two conformal conditions. With the use of differential feeding technique performance of the antenna is quite enhanced in terms of various parameters when compared with single feed.

  2. Genetic variation in bovine milk fat composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    In her thesis, Stoop shows that there is considerable genetic variation in milk fat composition, which opens opportunities to improve milk fat composition by selective breeding. Short and medium chain fatty acids had high heritabilities, whereas variation due to herd (mainly feed effects) was

  3. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  4. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  5. Feed and organic matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  6. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  7. Visceral metabolism and efficiency of energy use by ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozloski Gilberto Vilmar

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The visceral system (liver and portal-drained viscera represents an interface between diet and the animal, and it acts as the main site of regulation of nutrients that are used for maintenance, growth, lactation, reproduction, and physical activities of animals. However the functions carried out by visceral organs have, however, a significant energetic cost and are influenced by a variety of factors, such as the level of feed intake and diet composition, among others. As a result, variable quantities of substances are metabolized by them and, thus, the pattern and the quantity of nutrients available to the peripheral tissues can be quite different from those absorbed at the intestinal lumen. Probably, the major source of variation in the efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy among feeds is associated mainly with visceral metabolism and it is unlikely that the ratio ketogenic/glucogenic of absorbed substances has determinant effect under physiological conditions.

  8. Factors affecting the technical efficiency of dairy farms in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egzon BAJRAMI

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A possible accession into the World Trade Organization (WTO and an expected membership in the European Union raise significant opportunities and challenges for the agricultural sector in Kosovo. As a result of these changes, the sector will have to improve efficiency and competitiveness. This research is motivated by the need to understand better the forces that drive competitiveness in the Kosovo dairy sector. This study estimates the technical efficiency (TE of 243 dairy farms in Kosovo and relates TE variation to farm size and other primary determinants of TE. A stochastic frontier production function is estimated using a two-stage procedure. Results reveal that concentrate feed intake, land use per cow, and the number of days cows had been kept on pasture have statistically significant impacts on milk productivity per cow. The mean technical efficiency of dairy farms was estimated at 0.72. The major determinants that increase efficiency are breed improvement, intensification of corn production on the farm, improving concentrate feed intake, and using free-range production systems. Given the results from the technical efficiency analysis, it is crucial for the Government of Kosovo to redesign their dairy policy—specifically their grant investment schemes—and target assistance on improving national herd genetics, promoting free range systems and expanding area planted in corn.

  9. Identification and isoforms specificity of barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain proteinaceous inhibitors of commercial feed protease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Protease is commonly used as feed additive. Ronozyme® ProAct, a subtilisin-like serine feed protease is different from the already characterized Bacillus subtilisin-like serine protease. When used in wheat and barley based feed, its degree of efficiency differs according to the cultivar in analys...

  10. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El din, M D; Farag, H; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab.

  11. Safety assessment of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed : production performance trails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El din, M. D.; Farag, H.; Borsa, Joseph; Guenter, Bill.

    1989-01-01

    Feed used to rear farm animals for human consumption has often been implicated as vehicle for dissemination of microbial pathogens that can adversely affect both animals or birds, and humans. Radiation pasteurization of animal feed to improve its microbiological quality should reduce the incidence of feed-borne infection (both clinical and subs clinical) in the herd or flock. This would result in safer food for the consumer, and improved economic performance of the production unit. This latter benefit is particularly important because it could directly offset the treating the feed. The likelihood of occurrence, as well as the magnitude, of any improved economic performance in the herd or flock consuming the irradiated feed must be determined experimentally. Accordingly, short term feeding tests were carried out to determine the effect of radiation pasteurization of poultry feed on growth performance of young chicks. Newly hatched white leghorn cacklers were used in the present studies to examine the effects of (i) control vs irradiated feed; and (ii) control vs stressed (transient chilled) birds. Feed consumption and pen weight were monitored for 21 days. Three experiments were conducted in the summer of 1989, using separate lots of commercially obtained feed ingredients for each experiment, In two of the three feeding tests there was a highly significant (p<.01) increase in feed conversion efficiency in the birds fed the irradiated feed. The magnitude of the increased efficiency was 2.4% and 2.8% in the two positive experiments. In one of the two positive experiments the feed contained antibiotics (Penicillin and Streptomycin) while the feed in other was antibiotic-free these results suggest that radiation pasteurization of poultry feed may have a beneficial effect on the feed conversion efficiency of the birds consuming that feed.8 tab

  12. Pigs experimentally infected with an enterotoxigenic strain of Escherichia coli have improved feed efficiency and indicators of inflammation with dietary supplementation of tryptophan and methionine in the immediate post-weaning period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capozzalo, Meeka M; Kim, Jae Cheol; Htoo, J.K.

    2017-01-01

    This experiment tested the hypothesis that pigs challenged with an enterotoxigenic strain of E. coli (ETEC) will improve performance by dietary supplementation of sulfur amino acids (SAA) and tryptophan (Trp) above the current recommended levels in the immediate post-weaning period. Male pigs (n...... arrangement of treatments with two levels of SID SAA : Lys ratio (0.52 vs 0.60) and two levels of SID Trp : Lys ratio (0.16 vs 0.24). Diets did not contain any antimicrobial compounds. Pigs were individually housed and were fed diets for 14 days after weaning. Pigs were infected with ETEC (3.44 × 108 CFU....../mL, serotype O149 : K91 : K88) on Days 5, 6, and 7 after weaning. Pigs were bled on Days 5, 8 and 14 and subsequently analysed for plasma levels of acute-phase proteins, urea, cytokines (Days 5 and 8 only) and amino acids (Days 5 and 8 only). Increasing Trp (P = 0.036) and SAA (P = 0.028) improved feed...

  13. Resource competition and an analytical model of zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, O L; Shugart, H H; O' Neill, R V; Booth, R S; McNaught, D C

    1975-01-01

    A new consumer-resource The model was developed with specific reference to zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton. In principle, the model can be extended to any terrestrial or aquatic community in which the consumers graze nearly randomly. It is assumed that the food as relatively little escape capabity. An attempt was made to derive the consumer-resource interaction term from first principles.A general form with clearly defined parameters that represent fundamental system processes such as consumer filtering rate. model parameters describes two known forms of feeding:(1): saturation feeding in which the rate remains constant above a given food density while the filtering rate decreases, and(2) inhibited feeding in which a decline appears at high food density. From an examination of the model's equilibrium equations for strongly similar zooplankton species feeding on similar phytoplankton species, the following conclusions were drawn. The competitive exclusion principle has only limited validity. For a community in which the consumers exhibit no intraspecific competition and have identical assimilation efficiency to death-rate ratios, e/d, any number of consumer species may, in fact, coexist and compete for the same food. The equations for a complex community composed of many consumer and food species can be reduced to a single equation with form identical to that of a single-consumer, single-food system. The standard competition coefficient, ..cap alpha.., of the Volterra equation is a poor measure of competition in nonlinear systems. It exhibits incongruous variations with changes in system parameters. In a community with no intraspecific competition, allcompetition coefficients are unity. In a community with intraspecific competition, the competition coefficients C/sub in/ tend to equalize as the number of food species increases, resulting in equal competitive strength of all consumer species in systems of the type studied.

  14. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, L J; Hayes, J; Rosen, J; Knight, P

    1999-01-01

    A method was developed to quantitate emamectin benzoate in fish feed at levels between 5 and 15 ppm. The active ingredient is extracted from 20 g medicated feed into aqueous-methanolic solvent by overnight shaking. A solid-phase extraction procedure using a 2 g C18 cartridge is then used to concentrate the active residue and remove interfering matrix components. The extracted drug and internal standard are eluted from the cartridge, evaporated to dryness, and reconstituted in methanol. A control feed sample and fortified control working standard are simultaneously prepared. Remaining interferences and sample analysis are further separated on a gradient liquid chromatographic system. Recovery of emamectin benzoate from fortified feeds ranged from 97 to 100%, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 1.2%. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated feeds resulted in CVs ranging from 2.3 to 4.2% and recoveries of 88 to 98% of label claim.

  15. Multivariate image analysis for quality inspection in fish feed production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg

    Aquaculture is today one of the fastest growing food producing sectors in the world. Access to good and effective fish feed is a condition for optimised and sustainable aquaculture activity. In the aquaculture industry it is of utmost importance that the fish get feed of proper size and nutrition....... The colour appearance of fish products is important for customers. Salmonid fish get their red colour from a natural pigment called astaxanthin. To ensure a similar red colour of fish in aquaculture astaxanthin is used as an additive coated on the feed pellets. Astaxanthin can either be of natural origin......, or synthesised chemically. Common for both types is that they are relatively expensive in comparison to the other feed ingredients. This thesis investigates multi-variate data collection for visual inspection and optimisation of industrial production in the fish feed industry. Quality parameters focused on here...

  16. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  18. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  19. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  1. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  2. New feed ingredients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  3. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  4. Variation of Transpiration Efficiency in Sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining freshwater resources, increasing population, and growing demand for biofuels pose new challenges for agriculture research. To meet these challenges, the concept “Blue Revolution” was proposed to improve water productivity in agriculture--“More Crop per Drop”. Sorghum is the fifth most imp...

  5. Variation in transpiration efficiency in sorghum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declining freshwater resources, increasing population, and growing demand for biofuels pose new challenges for agriculture research. To meet these challenges, the concept “Blue Revolution” was proposed to improve water productivity in agriculture--“More Crop per Drop”. Sorghum is the fifth most imp...

  6. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) fry. ... Weight gain, specific growth rate and gross food conversion ratio were significantly affected by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  7. Design scheme of automatic feeding equipment of domestic uranium chemical concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Jinming; Wang Chao; Peng Jinhui; Zhang Libo

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve problems by artificial feeding mode with low work efficiency, large intensity manual labor and environmental pollution in domestic uranium concentrate purification process, the design scheme of automatic feeding device was set up, including work flow sheet, composition of automatic equipment and operation. By application of automatic feeding equipment, the feeding speed can be greatly increased, labor force can be reduced, and harm to workman health can be decreased. (authors)

  8. Growth performance of fingerlings of the Indian major carp, Catla catla (Ham.) fed with feeds supplemented with different seaweeds

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kotnala, S.; Dhar, P.; Das, Partha; Chatterji, A.

    . Sci. & Technol. Vol. 18 (2) 2010 The most essential and major operational input in successful aquaculture is the feed and hence cheap and nutritionally balanced effective artificial feeds need to be developed. From historical times, carrageen..., and efficient feed for a better growth of carps. Since foraging carps readily accept artificial pelleted feeds under any culture conditions, Catla catla belonging to the same group was selected to study the performance of feed developed in his study...

  9. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  10. Responsive Feeding: Implications for Policy and Program Implementation12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, Patrice L.; Pelto, Gretel H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine responsive feeding as a nutrition intervention, with an emphasis on the development and incorporation of responsive feeding into policies and programs over the last 2 decades and recommendations for increasing the effectiveness of responsive feeding interventions. A review of policy documents from international agencies and high-income countries reveals that responsive feeding has been incorporated into nutrition policies. Official guidelines from international agencies, nongovernmental organizations, and professional organizations often include best practice recommendations for responsive feeding. Four potential explanations are offered for the rapid development of policies related to responsive feeding that have occurred despite the relatively recent recognition that responsive feeding plays a critical role in child nutrition and growth and the paucity of effectiveness trials to determine strategies to promote responsive feeding. Looking to the future, 3 issues related to program implementation are highlighted: 1) improving intervention specificity relative to responsive feeding; 2) developing protocols that facilitate efficient adaptation of generic guidelines to national contexts and local conditions; and 3) development of program support materials, including training, monitoring, and operational evaluation. PMID:21270361

  11. Effects of feeding different varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) straws with concentrate supplement on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of Arsi-Bale sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegi, Teklu; Tolera, Adugna; Wamatu, Jane; Animut, Getachew; Rischkowsky, Barbara

    2017-12-19

    A study was conducted to evaluate the varietal differences among faba bean straws and also to assess the potentials of faba bean straws supplemented with concentrate fed at the rate 70% straws and 30% concentrate mixture on feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and carcass characteristics of the animals. Forty yearling Arsi-Bale sheep with initial body weight of 19.85+0.29 kg (mean + SD were grouped in a randomized complete block design into eight blocks of five animals each based on their initial body weight. Straws include in the study were from Mosisa (T1M), Walki (T2W), Degaga (T3D), Shallo (T4S) and local (T5L) varieties of faba bean and concentrate (2:1 ratio of wheat bran to "noug" seed cake). The experiment consisted of seven days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trials followed by evaluation of carcass parameters at the end. Local variety had lower (Pdigestibility. The apparent digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of sheep fed Walki and Mosisa straws were higher than (P0.05) by variety of the faba bean straws. There is significant varietal differences between faba bean straws both in quality and quantity. Similarly, significant variation observed among sheep in feed intake, digestibility, body weight gain and feed conversion efficiency among sheep fed different straws of faba bean varieties with concentrate supplement. Based on these results, Walki and Mosisa varieties could be recommended as pulse crop rotation with cereals in the study area.

  12. Feeding motivation as a personality trait in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus): role of serotonergic neurotransmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, P.I.M.; Martins, C.I.M.; Höglund, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Consistent individual variation in behaviour and physiology (i.e. animal personality or coping style) has emerged as a central topic in many biological disciplines. Yet, underlying mechanisms of crucial personality traits like feeding behaviour in novel environments remain unclear. Comparative...... to determine to what degree brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, serotonin) activity pertains to this aspect of animal personality, as a correlate to feed anticipatory behaviour and recovery of feed intake after transfer to a novel environment. Crucial to the definition of animal personality, a strong degree...... of individual consistency in different measures of feeding behaviour (feeding latency and feeding score), was demonstrated. Furthermore, low serotonergic activity in the hypothalamus was highly correlated with a personality characterized by high feeding motivation, with feeding motivation represented...

  13. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  14. Radiation technology and feed production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radiation technology to prepare feeds and feed additions for cattle of non-feed vegetable blends is considered.Physicochemical foundations of radiation-chemical processes, possibilities of the use of various radiation devices are given. Data on practical realization of the technology are presented and prospects of its introduction to solve the tasks put forward by the USSR program on feed production are analyzed

  15. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  16. Dynamic Study of Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger Addition on Double Bed Configuration Ammonia Reactor System within Varied Quenching Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is one of the most important industrial commodity due to its wide function. Ammonia synthesis reaction is an exotermic reaction. Therefore, Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger (FEHE is added to increase thermal efficiency. However, FEHE could lead the process to experience hysteresis phenomenon due to interaction between equipments as one steady state T feed could result several T outlet. Hysteresis phenomenon may result asset losses like explosion, leakage, and loosing material integrity. Double bed reactor configuration allows us to use several operating parameters as variation to overcome hysteresis. In this review, quenching ratio was chosen to be that varied parameter. This study aims to determine how quenching ratio affects hysteresis zone by utilizing Aspen Hysys® V8.8 as simulation tool. Simulation showed that quenching ratio would narrow hysteresis zone yet increased extinction temperature that lower the conversion. Conversion profile showed that 0.2 quenching ratio got the highest conversion for system with bed volume ratio 2:1 while total volume was 30 m3. However, the feed temperature was fallen at hysteresis zone. Dynamic simulation showed that highest conversion feed temperature (10%ΔTf above extinct temperature was still able to preserve stability with descending temperature approach. Hysteresis itself started to occur at 1.7%ΔTf above extinct temperature

  17. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  18. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  19. Gene expression profiling reveals candidate genes related to residual feed intake in duodenum of laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T; Huang, L; Ren, J; Chen, L; Tian, Y; Huang, Y; Zhang, H; Du, J; Lu, L

    2017-12-01

    Feed represents two-thirds of the total costs of poultry production, especially in developing countries. Improvement in feed efficiency would reduce the amount of feed required for production (growth or laying), the production cost, and the amount of nitrogenous waste. The most commonly used measures for feed efficiency are feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI). As a more suitable indicator assessing feed efficiency, RFI is defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on maintenance and growth or laying. However, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown. Identifying molecular mechanisms explaining divergence in RFI in laying ducks would lead to the development of early detection methods for the selection of more efficient breeding poultry. The objective of this study was to identify duodenum genes and pathways through transcriptional profiling in 2 extreme RFI phenotypes (HRFI and LRFI) of the duck population. Phenotypic aspects of feed efficiency showed that RFI was strongly positive with FCR and feed intake (FI). Transcriptomic analysis identified 35 differentially expressed genes between LRFI and HRFI ducks. These genes play an important role in metabolism, digestibility, secretion, and innate immunity including (), (), (), β (), and (). These results improve our knowledge of the biological basis underlying RFI, which would be useful for further investigations of key candidate genes for RFI and for the development of biomarkers.

  20. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  1. The animal feed and energy conservation properties of Avotan (Avoparcin)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, C W [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom); O` Beirne, P [Cyanamid (United Kingdom) Ltd. (United Kingdom). Animal Health Div.

    1994-12-31

    AVOTAN, avoparcin is a glycopeptide antibiotic manufactured by Cyanamid (UK) via the fermentation of a strain of Streptomyces candidus. The gross energy requirement of manufacturing avoparcin is calculated and compared with the gross energy savings of feed utilisation when used in animal feeding regimes for broiler chickens, pigs, beef cattle and dairy cows for milk production. Avoparcin improves farm animal production in terms of liveweight gains and feed conversion efficiency. So, by conserving animal feed it conserves the energy which would have been expended to produce that animal feed. The energy savings thus calculated range from one to two orders of magnitude on an energy ratio basis and so are very significant. The widespread use of avoparcin in world agriculture is therefore very beneficial in an energy conservation context. (Author)

  2. Development of electromagnetic filtration in the feed water circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, L.

    1980-01-01

    Electromagnetic filtration in the feed water circuit of the steam generators in nuclear power plants is efficient towards insoluble corrosion products. The principle of electromagnetic filtration is shortly recalled and the results of corresponding development work are summarized. The magnitude of water volumes to be treated on the two priviledged parts of the circuit are estimated. These parts are on the feed water tank level and on the blow-down of the steam generator. The practical applications are discussed [fr

  3. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  4. Cup feeding versus other forms of supplemental enteral feeding for newborn infants unable to fully breastfeed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Anndrea; New, Karen; Davies, Mark W

    2016-08-31

    months of age; proportion not fully feeding at hospital discharge; proportion not fully breastfeeding at three months of age; proportion not fully breastfeeding at six months of age; average time per feed (minutes); length of stay; and physiological events of instability such as bradycardia, apnoea, and low oxygen saturation. For continuous variables such as weight gain, mean differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were reported. For categorical outcomes such as mortality, the relative risks (RR) and 95% CIs were reported. The experimental intervention was cup feeding and the control intervention was bottle feeding in all five studies included in this review. One study reported weight gain as g/kg/day and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (MD -0.60, 95% CI -3.21 to 2.01); while a second study reported weight gain in the first seven days as grams/day and also showed no statistically significant difference between the two groups (MD -0.10, 95% CI -0.36 to 0.16). There was substantial variation in results for the majority of breastfeeding outcomes, except for not breastfeeding at three months (three studies) (typical RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.97) which favoured cup feeding. Where there was moderate heterogeneity meta-analysis was performed: not breastfeeding at six months (two studies) (typical RR 0.83, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.95); not fully breastfeeding at hospital discharge (four studies) (typical RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.71).Two studies reported average time to feed which showed no difference between the two groups. Two studies assessed length of hospital stay and there was considerable variation in results and in the direction of effect. Only one study has reported gestational age at discharge, which showed no difference between the two groups (MD -0.10, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.34). As the majority of infants in the included studies are preterm infants, no recommendations can be made for cup feeding term infants due to the lack of

  5. Wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandari, Hanumanth Rao; Sankarasubramanian, G; Kumar, A Praveen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the existing feeds in use at the GMRT Observatory and details the ongoing development of next generation wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT. The existing feeds include: feed with folded thick dipoles (for 150 MHz), dipole-disc feed (for 325 MHz), dual-band coaxial feed (for 233 MHZ and 610 MHz), and corrugated horn feed (for 1400–1450 MHz). The new broadband feeds covered in this paper are: cone-dipole feeds for 250–500 and 500–1000 MHz, wideband horn feed for 550–900 MHz, and dual ring feed for 130–260 MHz. Design techniques and performance results for these are described.

  6. Effects of feed process variables on Hanford Vitrification Plant performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Peterson, M.E.; Wagner, R.N.

    1987-01-01

    As a result of nuclear defense activities, high-level liquid radioactive wastes have been generated at the Hanford Site for over 40 yr. The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being proposed to immobilize these wastes in a waste form suitable for disposal in a geologic repository. Prior to vitrification, the waste will undergo several conditioning steps before being fed to the melter. The effect of certain process variables on the resultant waste slurry properties must be known to assure processability of the waste slurry during feed preparation. Of particular interest are the rheological properties, which include the yield stress and apparent viscosity. Identification of the rheological properties of the slurry is required to adequately design the process equipment used for feed preparation (agitators, mixing tanks, concentrators, etc.). Knowledge of the slurry rheological properties is also necessary to establish processing conditions and operational limits for maximum plant efficiency and reliability. A multivariable study was performed on simulated HWVP feed to identify the feed process variables that have a significant impact on rheology during processing. Two process variables were evaluated in this study: (a) the amount of formic acid added to the feed and (b) the degree of shear encountered by the feed during processing. The feed was physically and rheologically characterized at various stages during feed processing

  7. HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE

    OpenAIRE

    VARMA, VIJAYA KRUSHNA

    2012-01-01

    Varma designed ultra modern and high efficiency turbines which can use gas, steam or fuels as feed to produce electricity or mechanical work for wide range of usages and applications in industries or at work sites. Varma turbine engines can be used in all types of vehicles. These turbines can also be used in aircraft, ships, battle tanks, dredgers, mining equipment, earth moving machines etc, Salient features of Varma Turbines. 1. Varma turbines are simple in design, easy to manufac...

  8. Serotonin Drives Predatory Feeding Behavior via Synchronous Feeding Rhythms in the Nematode Pristionchus pacificus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misako Okumura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behaviors in a wide range of animals are regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin, although the exact neural circuits and associated mechanism are often unknown. The nematode Pristionchus pacificus can kill other nematodes by opening prey cuticles with movable teeth. Previous studies showed that exogenous serotonin treatment induces a predatory-like tooth movement and slower pharyngeal pumping in the absence of prey; however, physiological functions of serotonin during predation and other behaviors in P. pacificus remained completely unknown. Here, we investigate the roles of serotonin by generating mutations in Ppa-tph-1 and Ppa-bas-1, two key serotonin biosynthesis enzymes, and by genetic ablation of pharynx-associated serotonergic neurons. Mutations in Ppa-tph-1 reduced the pharyngeal pumping rate during bacterial feeding compared with wild-type. Moreover, the loss of serotonin or a subset of serotonergic neurons decreased the success of predation, but did not abolish the predatory feeding behavior completely. Detailed analysis using a high-speed camera revealed that the elimination of serotonin or the serotonergic neurons disrupted the timing and coordination of predatory tooth movement and pharyngeal pumping. This loss of synchrony significantly reduced the efficiency of successful predation events. These results suggest that serotonin has a conserved role in bacterial feeding and in addition drives the feeding rhythm of predatory behavior in Pristionchus.

  9. Efficacy of Blood Sources and Artificial Blood Feeding Methods in Rearing of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) for Sterile Insect Technique and Incompatible Insect Technique Approaches in Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Nayana Gunathilaka; Tharaka Ranathunge; Lahiru Udayanga; Wimaladharma Abeyewickreme

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Selection of the artificial membrane feeding technique and blood meal source has been recognized as key considerations in mass rearing of vectors. Methodology Artificial membrane feeding techniques, namely, glass plate, metal plate, and Hemotek membrane feeding method, and three blood sources (human, cattle, and chicken) were evaluated based on feeding rates, fecundity, and hatching rates of Aedes aegypti. Significance in the variations among blood feeding was investigated by one...

  10. Modification of feeding circuits in the evolution of social behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Eva K; O'Connell, Lauren A

    2017-01-01

    Adaptive trade-offs between foraging and social behavior intuitively explain many aspects of individual decision-making. Given the intimate connection between social behavior and feeding/foraging at the behavioral level, we propose that social behaviors are linked to foraging on a mechanistic level, and that modifications of feeding circuits are crucial in the evolution of complex social behaviors. In this Review, we first highlight the overlap between mechanisms underlying foraging and parental care and then expand this argument to consider the manipulation of feeding-related pathways in the evolution of other complex social behaviors. We include examples from diverse taxa to highlight that the independent evolution of complex social behaviors is a variation on the theme of feeding circuit modification. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. A comparative study of wire feeding and powder feeding in direct diode laser deposition for rapid prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Waheed Ul Haq [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: w.syed@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Pinkerton, Andrew J. [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Li Lin [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-15

    Metal powder feeding has been used widely in various rapid prototyping and tooling processes such as direct laser deposition (DLD) and layered engineered net shaping (LENS) to achieve near net shape accuracy. Although powder recycling has been practiced, the material usage efficiency has been very low (normally below 30%). This study compares the process characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of wire- and powder-feed DLD. A 1.5 kW diode laser is used to build multiple layer parts, which are compared and analysed in terms of surface finish, microstructure and deposition efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy are used for the material characterisation. The microstructure of samples from both the methods is similar, with some porosity found in powder-feed components, but the surface finish and material usage efficiency is better for wire-feed samples. The deposition angle is found to be critical in the case of wire feeding and the characteristics of different feed angles are explored. Possible reasons for the different characteristics of the two deposition techniques are discussed.

  12. Effect of culture methods on individual variation in the growth of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus within a cohort and family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tianlong; Zhang, Libin; Zhang, Tao; Bai, Yucen; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-07-01

    There is substantial individual variation in the growth rates of sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus individuals. This necessitates additional work to grade the seed stock and lengthens the production period. We evaluated the influence of three culture methods (free-mixed, isolated-mixed, isolated-alone) on individual variation in growth and assessed the relationship between feeding, energy conversion efficiency, and individual growth variation in individually cultured sea cucumbers. Of the different culture methods, animals grew best when reared in the isolated-mixed treatment (i.e., size classes were held separately), though there was no difference in individual variation in growth between rearing treatment groups. The individual variation in growth was primarily attributed to genetic factors. The difference in food conversion efficiency caused by genetic differences among individuals was thought to be the origin of the variance. The level of individual growth variation may be altered by interactions among individuals and environmental heterogeneity. Our results suggest that, in addition to traditional seed grading, design of a new kind of substrate that changes the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers would effectively enhance growth and reduce individual variation in growth of sea cucumbers in culture.

  13. Variational principles

    CERN Document Server

    Moiseiwitsch, B L

    2004-01-01

    This graduate-level text's primary objective is to demonstrate the expression of the equations of the various branches of mathematical physics in the succinct and elegant form of variational principles (and thereby illuminate their interrelationship). Its related intentions are to show how variational principles may be employed to determine the discrete eigenvalues for stationary state problems and to illustrate how to find the values of quantities (such as the phase shifts) that arise in the theory of scattering. Chapter-by-chapter treatment consists of analytical dynamics; optics, wave mecha

  14. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  15. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  16. Parental Feeding Style and Pediatric Obesity in Latino Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliszewski, Genevieve; Gillette, Meredith Dreyer; Brown, Chris; Cowden, John D

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric obesity has become an epidemic in the United States. Previous research has shown that parenting factors related to feeding style affect child weight and that Latino families are especially at risk for pediatric obesity. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the relationship between parental feeding style and child body mass index (BMI) in Latino families. Latino parents of children between the ages of 2 and 8 ( N = 124) completed a survey on parental feeding styles, acculturation, and demographics. The outcome variable was child BMI. Among respondents, 89% were mothers, 72% were overweight or obese, and 40% reported an indulgent feeding style. Children had a mean age of 59 months ( SD = 23.8) and a mean BMI z score of 0.77 ( SD = 1.14). A demanding parental feeding style was associated with lower child BMI z score, r = -.179, p parents' feeding behaviors. Future research is warranted in the area of ethnic variations of parenting and how these affect feeding and obesity in this highly vulnerable population.

  17. Improved production efficiency in cattle to reduce their carbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Keywords: Methane, global warming, greenhouse gas, crossbreeding, residual feed intake, feed efficiency. #Corresponding ... improved production per constant unit, crossbreeding and selection for residual feed intake. ... convert such a measure into kg calf produced per kg CO2 equivalent (CH4 can be converted to a CO2.

  18. Conformable variational iteration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Acan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we introduce the conformable variational iteration method based on new defined fractional derivative called conformable fractional derivative. This new method is applied two fractional order ordinary differential equations. To see how the solutions of this method, linear homogeneous and non-linear non-homogeneous fractional ordinary differential equations are selected. Obtained results are compared the exact solutions and their graphics are plotted to demonstrate efficiency and accuracy of the method.

  19. Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-06-01

    Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI₁) or from the current data (REI₂). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI₁, 0.30 for REI₂, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI₁: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI₁: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI₁ was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI₁: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Feeding strategies on certified organic dairy farms in Wisconsin and their effect on milk production and income over feed costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, C A; Wattiaux, M; Dutreuil, M; Gildersleeve, R; Keuler, N S; Cabrera, V E

    2014-07-01

    , respectively). Breeds other than Holstein were used more prevalently on farms in clusters 2 and 4. Results indicated extreme variation in animal breed, structure, and feeding strategies among Wisconsin organic dairy farms. Feeding strategies appeared to be major determinants of RHA and IOFC. These findings may serve current organic and transition farmers when considering feeding management changes needed to meet organic pasture rule requirements or dealing with dietary supplementation challenges. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Feeding and energetics of the great scallop, Pecten maximus, through a DEB model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, Romain; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Jean, Fred; Emmery, Antoine; Strand, Øivind; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    We developed a full life-cycle bioenergetic model for the great scallop Pecten maximus relying on the concepts of the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. The covariation method was implemented to estimate the parameters of a standard DEB model. Such models are able to predict various metabolic processes from a food availability marker and temperature in the environment. However, suspension-feeders are likely to feed on various trophic sources, from microalgae cells to detritus. They are also able to sort and select food particles very efficiently, depending on their size, energetic value or quality. The present model includes a mechanistic description of the feeding processes, based on Kooijman's Synthesizing Unit principle which allows to deal with several food sources. Moreover we tested the hypothesis of a differential selectivity between two potential substrates (phytoplankton cell and the remaining particulate organic matter). Simulations of shell length, daily shell growth rate, dry weight and gonado-somatic index (GSI) variations were realized and compared to field data from a monitoring conducted in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) for six years. The model shows its capacity to efficiently reproduce all life history traits of the wild great scallops. Predicted length data were estimated to the nearest millimeter. The fit of simulated weights to observed data was very satisfactory. GSI predictions were also in accordance with observations but improvements are required to better capture the sharp increase of gametogenesis at the beginning of the year. Finally, results bring evidences that P. maximus is actually preferentially feed on living algae cells rather than on the rest of organic particles.

  2. Automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.; Bona, F.; Dejachy, G.

    1963-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device has been developed (and used) in the framework of corrosion tests realized with constantly renewed uranium hexafluoride. The issue was to feed liquid nitrogen to a large capacity metallic trap in order to condensate uranium hexafluoride at the exit of the corrosion chambers. After having studied various available devices, a feeding device has been specifically designed to be robust, secure and autonomous, as well as ensuring a high liquid nitrogen flowrate and a highly elevated feeding frequency. The device, made of standard material, has been used during 4000 hours without any problem [fr

  3. Achieving Body Weight Adjustments for Feeding Status and Pregnant or Non-Pregnant Condition in Beef Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gionbelli, Mateus P.; Duarte, Marcio S.; Valadares Filho, Sebastião C.; Detmann, Edenio; Chizzotti, Mario L.; Rodrigues, Felipe C.; Zanetti, Diego; Gionbelli, Tathyane R. S.; Machado, Marcelo G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements. Objectives Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation. Methods and Findings Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant) were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG), which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows. Conclusions Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status. PMID:25793770

  4. Feeding premature neonate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  5. Feed, energy and protein intakes of horses - A review of Finnish feeding trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Saastamoinen

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feed, energy and protein intakes of horses engaged in different performances by reviewing results and data concerning feed consumption in 17 feeding trials with a total 356 horses, conducted between 1972 and 1992. The dry matter intake was found to average 1.6-1.8% of body weight for working horses and pregnant mares, and 2-3.5% for lactating mares. According to the results most of the exercising horses could be fed with energy and protein amounts currently recommended for moderate work. In Standardbred trotters, the average energy intake corresponded to the current requirements for light work. The individual variation in energy consumption among horses engaged in work of the same intensity was considerable, and seemed to be larger for Finnhorses than for warmblooded horses. The establishment of new nutrient requirements and feeding recommendations separately for trotters and riding horses of these two breeds, i.e. Finnhorses and warmblooded horses, seems justified.

  6. Breast feeding in Kelantan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Hussein, H B

    1977-04-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding is investigated in relation to duration of breastfeeding without supplementation and the age when solids were first introduced in the infant's diet. The study also evaluates the awareness of the mothers of the benefits of breast milk. 461 mothers were interviewed in May 1976 by 3 doctors including the author. 95% (438) were found to breastfeed their babies at least once or twice a day. However, only 18% (86) of the mothers were fully breastfeeding up to 3 months and 9% (45) were breastfeeding without added solids up to 6 months. A disappointing finding was the introduction of solid foods by 78% (351) of the mothers before the end of the 3rd month; of these, 117 or 25% have introduced the solids as early as the 1st 6 months. Only 5% (23) were artificially feeding their infants. 86% (399) agreed that breast milk was the best milk for their children but only 277 (59%) agreed that infection occurs less frequently in breastfed than bottlefed children. 65% (302) were aware that solids should be introduced after 6 months to the infant's diet. Only 48% (222) were aware that a well-balanced diet is essential for an adequate supply of breast milk. Although 50% (232) reported that they were advised by nurses or bidans to breastfeed their children, only 37% (172) were given instructions on the technique of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding programs launched by the Ministry of Health should promote breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months duration and discourage early complement feeding and introduction of solids to infants less than 6 months of age.

  7. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Broekhoven, Van Sarah; Huis, Van Arnold; Loon, Van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from byproducts of food

  8. Plasma concentrations of acyl-ghrelin are associated with average daily gain and feeding behavior in grow-finish pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding behavior is an important component of growth and feed efficiency in swine. Acyl-ghrelin is a peptide produced in the stomach that is orexigenic. The role of ghrelin in regulating feeding behavior in swine under commercial conditions is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine ...

  9. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  10. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean daily live mass gain was, however, 174 g/day (20,5%) more for the Large White boars and feed conversion16,5% ... of protein and fat in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed ..... regulation of growth and production.

  11. Session 1: Public health nutrition. Breast-feeding practices in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2008-11-01

    Breast-feeding is the superior infant feeding method from birth, with research consistently demonstrating its numerous short- and long-term health benefits for both mother and infant. As a global recommendation the WHO advises that mothers should exclusively breast-feed for the first 6-months of life, thus delaying the introduction of solids