WorldWideScience

Sample records for feed tank transfer

  1. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover. Also, DOE and PC responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements are presented for two cases (i.e., tank modifications occurring before tank turnover and tank modification occurring after tank turnover). Finally, records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor are presented.

  2. Feed tank transfer requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1998-09-16

    This document presents a definition of tank turnover; DOE responsibilities; TWRS DST permitting requirements; TWRS Authorization Basis (AB) requirements; TWRS AP Tank Farm operational requirements; unreviewed safety question (USQ) requirements; records and reporting requirements, and documentation which will require revision in support of transferring a DST in AP Tank Farm to a privatization contractor for use during Phase 1B.

  3. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  4. Evaluating Feed Delivery Performance in Scaled Double-Shell Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kearn P.; Thien, Michael G.

    2013-11-07

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOCs' ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP WAC Data Quality Objectives must be demonstrated. The tank mixing and feed delivery must support both TOC and WTP operations. The tank mixing method must be able to remove settled solids from the tank and provide consistent feed to the WTP to facilitate waste treatment operations. Two geometrically scaled tanks were used with a broad spectrum of tank waste simulants to demonstrate that mixing using two rotating mixer jet pumps yields consistent slurry compositions as the tank is emptied in a series of sequential batch transfers. Testing showed that the concentration of slow settling solids in each transfer batch was consistent over a wide range of tank operating conditions. Although testing demonstrated that the concentration of fast settling solids decreased by up to 25% as the tank was emptied, batch-to-batch consistency improved as mixer jet nozzle velocity in the scaled tanks increased.

  5. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  6. 49 CFR 230.115 - Feed water tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Feed water tanks. 230.115 Section 230.115... Tenders Steam Locomotive Tanks § 230.115 Feed water tanks. (a) General provisions. Tanks shall be... for tank wells or tank hose and shall be maintained in a manner that allows the unobstructed flow...

  7. Heat transfer correlations in mantle tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Knudsen, Søren

    2005-01-01

    Small solar domestic hot water systems are best designed as low flow systems based on vertical mantle tanks. Theoretical investigations of the heat transfer in differently designed vertical mantle tanks during different operation conditions have been carried out. The investigations are based...... of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water in all levels of the tank. The heat transfer analysis showed that the heat transfer near the mantle inlet port between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the walls surrounding the mantle is in the mixed convection regime, and as the distance from...... the inlet increases, natural convection starts to dominate. The heat transfer between the wall of the inner hot water tank and the domestic water is governed by natural convection. The results of the CFD-calculations are used to determine improved heat transfer correlations based on dimensionless analysis...

  8. Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

  9. Double Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GRAVES, C.E.

    2000-03-22

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Transfer Piping Subsystem that supports the first phase of waste feed delivery. This subsystem transfers waste between transfer-associated structures (pits) and to the River Protection Project (RPP) Privatization Contractor Facility where it will be processed into an immobilized waste form. This specification is intended to be the basis for new projects/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

  10. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-09-22

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant.

  11. Evaluation of 241-AZ tank farm supporting phase 1 privatization waste feed delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1998-11-19

    This evaluation is one in a series of evaluations determining the process needs and assessing the adequacy of existing and planned equipment in meeting those needs at various double-shell tank farms in support of Phase 1 privatization. A number of tank-to-tank transfers and waste preparation activities are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractor in support of Phase 1 privatization. The scope of this evaluation is limited to process needs associated with 241-AZ tank farm during the Phase 1 privatization.

  12. Application of ''Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for Low-Activity waste feed batch X'' to specific feed batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JO, J.

    1999-02-23

    This document addresses the characterization needs of tanks as set forth in the ''Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X'' Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Certa and Jo 1998). The primary purpose of this document is to collect existing data and identify the data needed to determine whether or not the feed source(s) are appropriate for a specific batch before transfer is made to the feed staging tanks. To answer these questions, the existing tank data must be collected and a detailed review performed. If the existing data are insufficient to complete a full comparison, additional data must be obtained from the feed source(s). Additional information requirements need to be identified and formally documented, then the source tank waste must be sampled or resampled and analyzed. Once the additional data are obtained, the data shall be incorporated into the existing database for the source tank and a reevaluation of the data against the DQO must be made.

  13. Trade study for the feed tank fill status issue for low-activity waste feed issue 19D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1998-05-18

    This document identifies and evaluates alternatives that will provide DOE-RL sufficient information from which a decision can be negotiated regarding the Project Hanford Management Contractor team`s use of tanks 241-AP-106 and -108 versus the private contractors need to upgrade them for their purposes. The desired alternatives to be evaluated and the measures for comparison were selected in a separate meeting with the customer (RL). These are defined in the sections that follow. The following summarizes the results of this study. More detailed explanations of the results can be found later in Section 6.0 of the document. Relinquishing the use of tanks early increases the programmatic risk when compared to the baseline via the following areas: (1) Tank Space -- The amount of usable tank space decreases. This also impacts the amount of spare and contingency space available. (2) Waste Transfer Complexity -- The complexity of tankfarm transfers increases. As double-shell tank (DST) space becomes limited, the number and interdependency of waste transfers increases. (3) Float -- Float time for low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging operations decreases. (4) Waste Segregation -- The segregation of tank wastes may be violated.

  14. Simulation of Gravity Feed Oil for Areoplane Fuel Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y. G.; Liu, Z. X.; Huang, S. Q.; Xu, T.

    Generally, it has two different ways for fuel transfer for areoplane, the simplest one is by gravity, and another is by pumps. But the simplest one mighte change to the vital method in some situation, such as electrical and mechanical accident. So the study of gravity feed oil is aslo important. Past calculations assumed that, under gravity feed, only one fuel tank in aircraft supplies the fuel needed for preventing extremely serious accident to happen. Actually, gravity feed oil is a transient process, all fuel tanks compete for supplying oil and there must have several fuel tanks offering oil simultaneously. The key problems to calculate gravity feed oil are the sumulation of the multiple-branch and transient process. Firstly, we presented mathematical models for oil flow through pipes, non-working pupms and check valves, ect. Secondly, On the basis of flow network theory and time difference method, we established a new calculation method for gravity feed oil of aeroplane fuel system. This model can solve the multiple-branch and transient process simulation of gravity feed oil. Our method takes into consideration all fuel tanks and therefore, we believe, our method is intrinsically superior to traditional methods and is closer to understanding the real seriousness of the oil supply situation. Finally, we give a numerical example using the new method for a certain type of aircraft under gravity feed. achieved the variations of oil level and flow mass per second of each oil tanks which showed in Figures below. These variations show preliminarily that our proposed method of calculations is satisfactory.

  15. WASTE CONDITIONING FOR TANK HEEL TRANSFER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

    1999-01-01

    This report summarizes the research carried out at Florida International University's Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) for the fiscal year 1998 (FY98) under the Tank Focus Area (TFA) project ''Waste Conditioning for Tank Slurry Transfer.'' The objective of this project is to determine the effect of chemical and physical properties on the waste conditioning process and transfer. The focus of this research consisted in building a waste conditioning experimental facility to test different slurry simulants under different conditions, and analyzing their chemical and physical properties. This investigation would provide experimental data and analysis results that can make the tank waste conditioning process more efficient, improve the transfer system, and influence future modifications to the waste conditioning and transfer system. A waste conditioning experimental facility was built in order to test slurry simulants. The facility consists of a slurry vessel with several accessories for parameter control and sampling. The vessel also has a lid system with a shaft-mounted propeller connected to an air motor. In addition, a circulation system is connected to the slurry vessel for simulant cooling and heating. Experimental data collection and analysis of the chemical and physical properties of the tank slurry simulants has been emphasized. For this, one waste slurry simulant (Fernald) was developed, and another two simulants (SRS and Hanford) obtained from DOE sites were used. These simulants, composed of water, soluble metal salts, and insoluble solid particles, were used to represent the actual radioactive waste slurries from different DOE sites. The simulants' chemical and physical properties analyzed include density, viscosity, pH, settling rate, and volubility. These analyses were done to samples obtained from different experiments performed at room temperature but different mixing time and strength. The

  16. Preliminary Assessment of the Hanford Tank Waste Feed Acceptance and Product Qualification Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, C. C.; Adamson, Duane J.; Herman, D. T.; Peeler, David K.; Poirier, Micheal R.; Reboul, S. H.; Stone, M. E.; Peterson, Reid A.; Chun, Jaehun; Fort, James A.; Vienna, John D.; Wells, Beric E.

    2013-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Environmental Management (EM) is engaging the national laboratories to provide the scientific and technological rigor to support EM program and project planning, technology development and deployment, project execution, and assessment of program outcomes. As an early demonstration of this new responsibility, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have been chartered to implement a science and technology program addressing Hanford Tank waste feed acceptance and product qualification. As a first step, the laboratories examined the technical risks and uncertainties associated with the planned waste feed acceptance and qualification testing for Hanford tank wastes. Science and technology gaps were identified for work associated with 1) feed criteria development with emphasis on identifying the feed properties and the process requirements, 2) the Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) process qualification program, and 3) the WTP HLW glass product qualification program. Opportunities for streamlining the accetpance and qualification programs were also considered in the gap assessment. Technical approaches to address the science and technology gaps and/or implement the opportunities were identified. These approaches will be further refined and developed as strong integrated teams of researchers from national laboratories, contractors, industry, and academia are brought together to provide the best science and technology solutions. Pursuing the identified approaches will have immediate and long-term benefits to DOE in reducing risks and uncertainties associated with tank waste removal and preparation, transfers from the tank farm to the WTP, processing within the WTP Pretreatment Facility, and in producing qualified HLW glass products. Additionally, implementation of the identified opportunities provides the potential for long-term cost savings given the anticipated

  17. DEMONSTRATION OF MIXING AND TRANSFERRING SETTLING COHESIVE SLURRY SIMULANTS IN THE AY-102 TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D.; Gauglitz, P.

    2012-01-03

    In support of Hanford's feed delivery of high level waste (HLW) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), pilot-scale testing and demonstrations with simulants containing cohesive particles were performed as a joint collaboration between Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) staff. The objective of the demonstrations was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants, and the resulting non-Newtonian rheology, have on tank mixing and batch transfer of large and dense seed particles. The work addressed the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance in a pilot-scale system. Kaolin slurries with a range of wt% concentrations to vary the Bingham yield stress were used in all the non-Newtonian simulants. To study the effects of just increasing the liquid viscosity (no yield stress) on mixing and batch transfers, a glycerol/water mixture was used. Stainless steel 100 micron particles were used as seed particles due to their density and their contrasting color to the kaolin and glycerol. In support of Hanford's waste certification and delivery of tank waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked by Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing and transferring tank waste in a Double Shell Tank (DST) to the WTP Receipt Tank. The work addresses the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance. This work is follow-on to the previous tasks 'Demonstration of Mixer Jet Pump Rotational Sensitivity on Mixing and Transfers of the AY-102 Tank' and 'Demonstration of Simulated Waste Transfers from Tank AY-102 to the Hanford Waste Treatment Facility'. The cohesive simulants were investigated and selected jointly by SRNL and PNNL and a white paper was written on this evaluation. The testing and

  18. Simulant Development for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Mixing and Waste Feed Delivery Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Tran, Diana N.; Buchmiller, William C.

    2012-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Projection manages the River Protection Project, which has the mission to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms (Certa et al. 2011). Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) is responsible for a primary objective of this mission which is to retrieve and transfer tank waste to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). A mixing and sampling program with four separate demonstrations is currently being conducted to support this objective and also to support activities in a plan for addressing safety concerns identified by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board related to the ability of the WTP to mix, sample, and transfer fast settling particles. Previous studies have documented the objectives, criteria, and selection of non-radioactive simulants for these four demonstrations. The identified simulants include Newtonian suspending liquids with densities and viscosities that span the range expected in waste feed tanks. The identified simulants also include non-Newtonian slurries with Bingham yield stress values that span a range that is expected to bound the Bingham yield stress in the feed delivery tanks. The previous studies identified candidate materials for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian suspending fluids, but did not provide specific recipes for obtaining the target properties and information was not available to evaluate the compatibility of the fluids and particles or the potential for salt precipitation at lower temperatures. The purpose of this study is to prepare small batches of simulants in advance of the demonstrations to determine specific simulant recipes, to evaluate the compatibility of the liquids and particles, and to determine if the simulants are stable for the potential range of test temperatures. The objective of the testing, which is focused primarily on the Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, is to determine the composition of

  19. Simulant Development for Hanford Double-Shell Tank Mixing and Waste Feed Delivery Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Tran, Diana N.; Buchmiller, William C.

    2012-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of River Projection manages the River Protection Project, which has the mission to retrieve and treat the Hanford tank waste for disposal and close the tank farms (Certa et al. 2011). Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) is responsible for a primary objective of this mission which is to retrieve and transfer tank waste to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). A mixing and sampling program with four separate demonstrations is currently being conducted to support this objective and also to support activities in a plan for addressing safety concerns identified by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board related to the ability of the WTP to mix, sample, and transfer fast settling particles. Previous studies have documented the objectives, criteria, and selection of non-radioactive simulants for these four demonstrations. The identified simulants include Newtonian suspending liquids with densities and viscosities that span the range expected in waste feed tanks. The identified simulants also include non-Newtonian slurries with Bingham yield stress values that span a range that is expected to bound the Bingham yield stress in the feed delivery tanks. The previous studies identified candidate materials for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian suspending fluids, but did not provide specific recipes for obtaining the target properties and information was not available to evaluate the compatibility of the fluids and particles or the potential for salt precipitation at lower temperatures. The purpose of this study is to prepare small batches of simulants in advance of the demonstrations to determine specific simulant recipes, to evaluate the compatibility of the liquids and particles, and to determine if the simulants are stable for the potential range of test temperatures. The objective of the testing, which is focused primarily on the Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, is to determine the composition of

  20. CFD Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. This study uses first-principles based CFD methodology to compute heat transfer from the tank wall to the cryogenic fluids and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between the tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between the tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that the commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over-predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  1. Oxygen transfer in circular surface aeration tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Achanta Ramakrishna; Patel, Ajey Kumar; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2009-06-01

    Surface aeration systems employed in activated sludge plants are the most energy-intensive units of the plants and typically account for a higher percentage of the treatment facility's total energy use. The geometry of the aeration tank imparts a major effect on the system efficiency. It is said that at optimal geometric conditions, systems exhibits the maximum efficiency. Thus the quantification of the optimal geometric conditions in surface aeration tanks is needed. Optimal geometric conditions are also needed to scale up the laboratory result to the field installation. In the present work, experimental studies have been carried out on baffled and unbaffled circular surface aeration tanks to ascertain the optimal geometric conditions. It is found that no optimal geometric conditions exist for the liquid/water depth in circular surface aeration tanks; however, for design purposes, a standard value has been assumed. Based on the optimal geometric conditions, a scale-up equation has been developed for the baffled circular surface aeration tanks.

  2. Study of Heat Transfer in Ice-storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anding He; Huanqun Qian; Zhihua Hu; Fangde Zhou

    2001-01-01

    The heat transfer process of ice formation on the outside of coil pipe in the ice storage tank with glycol solution as the second refrigerant was studied in this paper analytically and experimentally. A model was developed for the charging process and the conduction shape factor was applied. Also, the result obtained from the model was compared with the experimental data, both data were in agreement. The simple model is useful for the operation, design and optimization of the ice storage tank.

  3. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-04-05

    Tank 241-SY-101 waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from Tank 241-SY-101 to Tank 241-SY-102. The results of the hazards evaluation were compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. Revision 1 of this document deletes hazardous conditions no longer applicable to the current waste transfer design and incorporates hazardous conditions related to the use of an above ground pump pit and overground transfer line. This document is not part of the AB and is not a vehicle for requesting authorization of the activity; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The AB Control Decision process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  4. Gas-Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Tank Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yawalkar, Archis A.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Volumetric gas—liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) data available in the literature for larger tanks (T = 0.39 m to 2.7 m) have been analyzed on the basis of relative dispersion parameter, N/Ncd. It was observed that at a given superficial gas velocity (VG), kLa values were approximately the same

  5. Gas–Liquid Mass Transfer Coefficient in Stirred Tank Reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yawalkar, Archis A.; Heesink, Albertus B.M.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Pangarkar, Vishwas G.

    2002-01-01

    Volumetric gas–liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) data available in the literature for larger tanks (T = 0.39 m to 2.7 m) have been analyzed on the basis of relative dispersion parameter, N/Ncd. It was observed that at a given superficial gas velocity (VG), kLa values were approximately the same

  6. Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2007-10-01

    The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of “Envelopes,” each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward.

  7. 46 CFR 153.434 - Heat transfer coils within a tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heat transfer coils within a tank. 153.434 Section 153... Cargo Temperature Control Systems § 153.434 Heat transfer coils within a tank. When a cargo tank... the heat transfer fluid at a pressure greater than the pressure exerted on the heating or...

  8. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  9. Applying rotary jet heads for mixing and mass transfer in a forced recirculation tank reactor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Grotkjær, Thomas; Hummer, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    An approximation to an ideally mixed tank reactor can be obtained by vigorous stirring with mechanical mixers. For an aerated reactor the gas dispersion contributes to the mixing process. Mixing can also be achieved by recirculation of a portion of the liquid through either an internal...... or an external loop.In this study, we determine mixing times in water and CMC solutions and oxygen mass transfer coefficients in water for a tank reactor system where a small fraction of the total liquid volume is rapidly circulated through an external loop and injected through the nozzles of rotary jet heads...... at 1-9 bar gauge pressure into the bulk liquid. Liquid feed can be added to the bulk volume or it may be injected into the pressurized recirculation loop. Gas is always fed to the recirculation loop, and the heat of reaction is removed in a plate-type heat exchanger inserted in the recirculation loop...

  10. Hazard evaluation for transfer of waste from tank 241-SY-101 to tank 241-SY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    1999-02-12

    Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) waste level growth is an emergent, high priority issue. The purpose of this document is to record the hazards evaluation process and document potential hazardous conditions that could lead to the release of radiological and toxicological material from the proposed transfer of a limited quantity (approximately 100,000 gallons) of waste from SY-101 to 241-SY-102 (SY-102). The results of the hazards evaluation will be compared to the current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Basis for Interim Operation (HNF-SD-WM-BIO-001, 1998, Revision 1) to identify any hazardous conditions where Authorization Basis (AB) controls may not be sufficient or may not exist. Comparison to LA-UR-92-3196, A Safety Assessment for Proposed Pump Mixing Operations to Mitigate Episodic Gas Releases in Tank 241-SY-101, was also made in the case of transfer pump removal activities. This document is not intended to authorize the activity or determine the adequacy of controls; it is only intended to provide information about the hazardous conditions associated with this activity. The Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process will be used to determine the adequacy of controls and whether the proposed activity is within the AB. This hazard evaluation does not constitute an accident analysis.

  11. Social interactions can affect feeding behaviour of fish in tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooijman, S. A. L. M.

    2009-08-01

    Fish from the same clutch of eggs, so of the same age and family, can differ substantially in size after some time in a tank as result of social interactions. On the basis of computer simulation studies I here demonstrate that it is possible to mimic this empirical observation using the rules of the standard Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) model, supplemented with a simple stochastic module for interaction between individuals that have identical parameters. The remarkable result is that length-at-age of two individuals in a tank where the number of food particles is kept constant closely follows von Bertalanffy growth curves with very different parameters, while in reality the individuals have identical parameters. The empirical observation demonstrates that fish are close to the supply end of the supply-demand spectrum and that age-based models for growth don't apply to supply systems. The significance of the result is discussed.

  12. Analytical Results from Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) Samples HTF-16-6 and HTF-16-40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-23

    Two samples from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) were analyzed by SRNL, HTF-16-6 and HTF-16-40. Multiple analyses of these samples indicate a general composition almost identical to that of the Salt Batch 8-B feed and the Tank 21H sample results.

  13. RHEOLOGICAL AND ELEMENTAL ANALYSES OF SIMULANT SB5 SLURRY MIX EVAPORATOR-MELTER FEED TANK SLURRIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.

    2010-02-08

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will complete Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) processing in fiscal year 2010. DWPF has experienced multiple feed stoppages for the SB5 Melter Feed Tank (MFT) due to clogs. Melter throughput is decreased not only due to the feed stoppage, but also because dilution of the feed by addition of prime water (about 60 gallons), which is required to restart the MFT pump. SB5 conditions are different from previous batches in one respect: pH of the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product (9 for SB5 vs. 7 for SB4). Since a higher pH could cause gel formation, due in part to greater leaching from the glass frit into the supernate, SRNL studies were undertaken to check this hypothesis. The clogging issue is addressed by this simulant work, requested via a technical task request from DWPF. The experiments were conducted at Aiken County Technology Laboratory (ACTL) wherein a non-radioactive simulant consisting of SB5 Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product simulant and frit was subjected to a 30 hour SME cycle at two different pH levels, 7.5 and 10; the boiling was completed over a period of six days. Rheology and supernate elemental composition measurements were conducted. The caustic run exhibited foaming once, after 30 minutes of boiling. It was expected that caustic boiling would exhibit a greater leaching rate, which could cause formation of sodium aluminosilicate and would allow gel formation to increase the thickness of the simulant. Xray Diffraction (XRD) measurements of the simulant did not detect crystalline sodium aluminosilicate, a possible gel formation species. Instead, it was observed that caustic conditions, but not necessarily boiling time, induced greater thickness, but lowered the leach rate. Leaching consists of the formation of metal hydroxides from the oxides, formation of boric acid from the boron oxide, and dissolution of SiO{sub 2}, the major frit component. It is likely that the observed precipitation of Mg

  14. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  15. Recycle Waste Collection Tank (RWCT) simulant testing in the PVTD feed preparation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrigo, G.P.; Daume, J.T.; Halstead, S.D.; Myers, R.L.; Beckette, M.R.; Freeman, C.J.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-03-01

    (This is part of the radwaste vitrification program at Hanford.) RWCT was to routinely receive final canister decontamination sand blast frit and rinse water, Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank bottoms, and melter off-gas Submerged Bed Scrubber filter cake. In order to address the design needs of the RWCT system to meet performance levels, the PNL Vitrification Technology (PVTD) program used the Feed Preparation Test System (FPTS) to evaluate its equipment and performance for a simulant of RWCT slurry. (FPTS is an adaptation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility feed preparation system and represents the initially proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed preparation system designed by Fluor-Daniel, Inc.) The following were determined: mixing performance, pump priming, pump performance, simulant flow characterization, evaporator and condenser performance, and ammonia dispersion. The RWCT test had two runs, one with and one without tank baffles.

  16. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BLACKER, S.M.

    2000-04-13

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented.

  17. HIGH-LEVEL WASTE FEED CERTIFICATION IN HANFORD DOUBLE-SHELL TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIEN MG; WELLS BE; ADAMSON DJ

    2010-01-14

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's River Protection Project (RPP) mission modeling and WTP facility modeling assume that individual 3785 cubic meter (l million gallon) HLW feed tanks are homogenously mixed, representatively sampled, and consistently delivered to the WTP. It has been demonstrated that homogenous mixing ofHLW sludge in Hanford DSTs is not likely achievable with the baseline design thereby causing representative sampling and consistent feed delivery to be more difficult. Inconsistent feed to the WTP could cause additional batch-to-batch operational adjustments that reduce operating efficiency and have the potential to increase the overall mission length. The Hanford mixing and sampling demonstration program will identify DST mixing performance capability, will evaluate representative sampling techniques, and will estimate feed batch consistency. An evaluation of demonstration program results will identify potential mission improvement considerations that will help ensure successful mission completion. This paper will discuss the history, progress, and future activities that will define and mitigate the mission risk.

  18. 46 CFR 153.957 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... safely transfer liquid cargo in bulk or to safely clean cargo tanks; (2) Each transfer of liquid cargo in... or cleaning cargo tanks. 153.957 Section 153.957 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks. (a) The owner and operator of the vessel, and his...

  19. Captive sea turtle rearing inventory, feeding, and water chemistry in sea turtle rearing tanks at NOAA Galveston 1995-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The database contains daily records of sea turtle inventories by species feeding rates type of food fed sick sea turtles sea turtles that have died log of tanks...

  20. CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL HEAT TRANSFER IN MANTLE TANKS USED IN LOW FLOW SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of vertical mantle tanks for solar domestic hot water systems have been carried out. Differently designed mantle tanks have been evaluated in a laboratory test facility and a transient three-dimensional CFD-model of one of the mantle tanks is developed...... in the CFD-program CFX 4.1. The model is validated against the experimental tests and good agreement between measured and calculated results are achieved. The results from the CFD-calculations are used to illustrate the thermal behaviour and the fluid dynamics in the mantle and in the inner tank. The CFD......-calculations are used to carry out a detailed analysis of the heat transfer from the solar collector fluid to the wall of the inner tank. The analysis has resulted in a local Nusselt-Rayleigh correlation for the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid and the wall of the inner tank....

  1. Fecundity studies of the African catifshClarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fed Coppens feed and Unical aqua feed in circular concrete tanks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Victor Oscar Eyo; Albert Philip Ekanem; Vincent Ajom Ajom

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To determine and compare the fecundity ofClarias gariepinus (C. gariepinus) fed with Unical aqua feed and Coppens feeds in concrete tanks, including the nature of relationship that exist between fecundity and morphometric indices of fish such as total length and total weight. Methods:An experiment was conducted for 6 months in the fish farm of University of Calabar with two triplicate groups of 50C. gariepinus post-fingerlings. The experimental fish weighing (0.50 ± 0.02) kg were stocked in concrete tanks (circular) of 16.63 m2area. The tanks were labelled A1, A2, A3, B1, B2 and B3. Fish in tank A1, A2 and A3 were fed with Coppens feed and fish in tanks B1, B2 and B3 were fed with Unical aqua feed. Feeding was done twice daily (9:00 and 16:00) at 3% of their body weight. Results: Mean fecundity ofC. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed (68 366.67 ± 15 966. 29) eggs varied significantly (P 0.05) thanC. gariepinus fed with Unical aqua feed (50.37% ± 1.29 %). Water quality parameters including ammonia (mg/L), pH, water temperature (°C) and dissolved oxygen (mg/L) fell within the recommended range for the culture of fresh water fish. Conclusions: Fecundity ofC. gariepinus reared in concrete tank was significantly influenced by the experimental feed. Therefore, on the bases of affordability and availability to farmers, Unical aqua feed is more economical and is recommended as a cost-effective cultivation of femaleC. gariepinus broodstock.

  2. TRANSIENT HEAT TRANSFER ANALYSIS FOR SRS RADIOACTIVE TANK OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2013-06-27

    The primary objective of the present work is to perform a heat balance study for type-I waste tank to assess the impact of using submersible mixer pumps during waste removal. The temperature results calculated by the model will be used to evaluate the temperatures of the slurry waste under various tank operating conditions. A parametric approach was taken to develop a transient model for the heat balance study for type-I waste tanks such as Tank 11, during waste removal by SMP. The tank domain used in the present model consists of two SMP's for sludge mixing, one STP for the waste removal, cooling coil system with 36 coils, and purge gas system. The sludge waste contained in Tank 11 also has a decay heat load of about 43 W/m{sup 3} mainly due to the emission of radioactive gamma rays. All governing equations were established by an overall energy balance for the tank domain, and they were numerically solved. A transient heat balance model used single waste temperature model, which represents one temperature for the entire waste liquid domain contained in the tank at each transient time.

  3. Characterization of the ORNL MVST Waste Tanks After Transfer of Sludge from BVEST, GAAT, and OHF Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.M.

    2001-03-23

    Over the last several years most of the sludge and liquid from the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL has been transferred and consolidated in the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST). The contents of the MVST tanks at the time the sludge samples were collected for this report included the original inventory in the MVSTs along with the sludge and liquid from the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST), Old Hydrofracture (OHF) tanks, and most of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). During the spring and summer of 2000 the MVST composite sludge was sampled and characterized to validate the radiochemical content and to ensure regulatory compliance. This report only discusses the analytical characterization of the sludge from the MVST waste tanks (except for W-29 and W-30). The isotopic data presented in this report supports the position that fissile isotopes of uranium ({sup 233}U and {sup 235}U) and plutonium ({sup 239}Pu and {sup 241}Pu) were ''denatured'' as required by the administrative controls stated in the ORNL LLLW waste acceptance criteria (WAC). In general, the MVST sludge was found to be hazardous by RCRA characteristics based on total analysis of chromium, mercury, and lead. Also, the alpha activity due to transuranic isotopes was well above the 100 nCi/g limit for TRU waste. The characteristics of the MVST sludge relative to the WIPP WAC limits for fissile gram equivalent, plutonium equivalent activity, and thermal power from decay heat, were estimated from the data in this report and found to be far below the upper boundary for any of the remote-handled transuranic waste (RH-TRU) requirements for disposal of the waste in WIPP.

  4. Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Extraction of Heat Transfer Coefficient in Cryogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H. Q.; West, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Current reduced-order thermal model for cryogenic propellant tanks is based on correlations built for flat plates collected in the 1950's. The use of these correlations suffers from: inaccurate geometry representation; inaccurate gravity orientation; ambiguous length scale; and lack of detailed validation. The work presented under this task uses the first-principles based Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique to compute heat transfer from tank wall to the cryogenic fluids, and extracts and correlates the equivalent heat transfer coefficient to support reduced-order thermal model. The CFD tool was first validated against available experimental data and commonly used correlations for natural convection along a vertically heated wall. Good agreements between the present prediction and experimental data have been found for flows in laminar as well turbulent regimes. The convective heat transfer between tank wall and cryogenic propellant, and that between tank wall and ullage gas were then simulated. The results showed that commonly used heat transfer correlations for either vertical or horizontal plate over predict heat transfer rate for the cryogenic tank, in some cases by as much as one order of magnitude. A characteristic length scale has been defined that can correlate all heat transfer coefficients for different fill levels into a single curve. This curve can be used for the reduced-order heat transfer model analysis.

  5. 1/6TH SCALE STRIP EFFLUENT FEED TANK-MIXING RESULTS USING MCU SOLVENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this task was to determine if mixing was an issue for the entrainment and dispersion of the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU) solvent in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Strip Effluent Feed Tank (SEFT). The MCU strip effluent stream containing the Cs removed during salt processing will be transferred to the DWPF for immobilization in HLW glass. In lab-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing, mixing of the solvent in the dilute nitric acid solution proved problematic, and the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to perform scaled SEFT mixing tests to evaluate whether the problem was symptomatic of the lab-scale set-up or of the solvent. The solvent levels tested were 228 and 235 ppm, which represented levels near the estimated DWPF solvent limit of 239 ppm in 0.001M HNO{sub 3} solution. The 239 ppm limit was calculated by Norato in X-CLC-S-00141. The general approach for the mixing investigation was to: (1) Investigate the use of fluorescent dyes to aid in observing the mixing behavior. Evaluate and compare the physical properties of the fluorescent dyed MCU solvents to the baseline Oak Ridge CSSX solvent. Based on the data, use the dyed MCU solvent that best approximates the physical properties. (2) Use approximately a 1/6th linear scale of the SEFT to replicate the internal configuration for DWPF mixing. (3) Determine agitator speed(s) for scaled testing based on the DWPF SEFT mixing speed. (4) Perform mixing tests using the 1/6th SEFT and determine any mixing issues (entrainment/dispersion, accumulation, adhesion) through visual observations and by pulling samples to assess uniformity. The mixing tests used MCU solvent fabricated at SRNL blended with Risk Reactor DFSB-K43 fluorescent dye. This dyed SRNL MCU solvent had equivalent physical properties important to mixing as compared to the Oak Ridge baseline solvent, blended easily with the MCU solvent, and provided an excellent visual aid.

  6. Experimental study of heat transfer in a HVMLI cryogenic tank after SCLIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G. F.; Li, X. D.; Wang, R. S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the worst accidents that may occur in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum (SCLIV). The influence of SCLIV on the heat transfer characteristics in a HVMLI cryogenic tank has been researched experimentally in this paper. A test rig was built up and experiments were conducted using LN2 as the test medium. Some important phenomena and heat transfer characteristics in a vacuum-lost LN2 HVMLI cryogenic tank have been obtained. The effects of the insulation layer numbers and the initial liquid level on venting rate and heat flux leaking into the cryogenic liquid as well as the temperatures of wall and liquid have been analyzed and discussed for a LN2 HVMLI cryogenic tank after SCLIV in this paper.

  7. Numerical simulation on heat transfer characteristics of the storage tank for concentrating solar power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianjun Mao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Concentrating solar power plant coupling with energy storage is a new and emerging technology, which can solve two issues, that is, low flux density and intermittent of solar energy. Heat transfer characteristics of the storage tank in this system have a key effect on the system’s efficiency and cost. In this article, the heat transfer performance of a phase change thermal storage tank has been proposed, and the temperature distribution and liquid fraction of phase change material in the tank has numerically been investigated. The results show that the temperature increases with the increasing charge time. The results also show that there is a phase change process at the charge time of 200 min, and no phase change for the charge time of 250 and 300 min. The results of this article can provide a reference for future design and optimal operation of the storage tank in concentrating solar power plant.

  8. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  9. Transfer of chemicals from feed to animal products: The use of transfer factors in risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeman, W.R.; Berg, K.J. van den; Houben, G.F.

    2007-01-01

    The human risk assessment of feed contaminants has often been hampered by a lack of knowledge concerning their behaviour when consumed by livestock. To gain a better understanding of the transfer of contaminants from animal feed to animal products, a meta-analysis of public literature was made. Data

  10. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF) LABORATORY GERMANIUM OXIDE USE ON RECYCLE TRANSFERS TO THE H-TANK FARM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C.; Laurinat, J.

    2011-08-15

    When processing High Level Waste (HLW) glass, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) cannot wait until the melt or waste glass has been made to assess its acceptability, since by then no further changes to the glass composition and acceptability are possible. Therefore, the acceptability decision is made on the upstream feed stream, rather than on the downstream melt or glass product. This strategy is known as 'feed forward statistical process control.' The DWPF depends on chemical analysis of the feed streams from the Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) and the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) where the frit plus adjusted sludge from the SRAT are mixed. The SME is the last vessel in which any chemical adjustments or frit additions can be made. Once the analyses of the SME product are deemed acceptable, the SME product is transferred to the Melter Feed Tank (MFT) and onto the melter. The SRAT and SME analyses have been analyzed by the DWPF laboratory using a 'Cold Chemical' method but this dissolution did not adequately dissolve all the elemental components. A new dissolution method which fuses the SRAT or SME product with cesium nitrate (CsNO{sub 3}), germanium (IV) oxide (GeO{sub 2}) and cesium carbonate (Cs{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) into a cesium germanate glass at 1050 C in platinum crucibles has been developed. Once the germanium glass is formed in that fusion, it is readily dissolved by concentrated nitric acid (about 1M) to solubilize all the elements in the SRAT and/or SME product for elemental analysis. When the chemical analyses are completed the acidic cesium-germanate solution is transferred from the DWPF analytic laboratory to the Recycle Collection Tank (RCT) where the pH is increased to {approx}12 M to be released back to the tank farm and the 2H evaporator. Therefore, about 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2}/year will be diluted into 1.4 million gallons of recycle. This 2.5 kg/yr of GeO{sub 2} may increase to 4 kg/yr when improvements are

  11. Modeling and analysis of chill and fill processes for the cryogenic storage and transfer engineering development unit tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; LeClair, A. C.

    2016-03-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center, is a cryogenic fluid management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article comprises a flight-like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen (LH2) in a test-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with LH2 as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during the summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. The Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program, an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the LH2 supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The test setup, modeling description, and comparison of model predictions with the test data are presented.

  12. DEMONSTRATION OF MIXING AND TRANSFERRING SETTLING COHESIVE SLURRY SIMULANTS IN THE AY-102 TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, D.

    2011-08-04

    In support of Hanford's waste certification and delivery of tank waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked by the Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) to evaluate the effectiveness of mixing and transferring tank waste in a Double Shell Tank (DST) to the WTP Receipt Tank. The work discussed in this report (Phase III) address the impacts cohesive simulants have on mixing and batch transfer performance. The objective of the demonstrations performed in Phase III was to determine the impact that cohesive particle interactions in the simulants have on tank mixing using 1/22{sup nd} scale mixing system and batch transfer of seed particles. This testing is intended to provide supporting evidence to the assumption that Hanford Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) testing in water is conservative. The batch transfers were made by pumping the simulants from the Mixing Demonstration Tank (MDT) to six Receipt Tanks (RTs), and the consistency in the amount of seed particles in each batch was compared. Tests were conducted with non-Newtonian cohesive simulants with Bingham yield stress ranging from 0.3 Pa to 7 Pa. Kaolin clay and 100 {mu}m stainless steel seed particles were used for all the non-Newtonian simulants. To specifically determine the role of the yield stress on mixing and batch transfer, tests were conducted with a Newtonian mixture of glycerol and water with at viscosity of 6.2 cP that was selected to match the Bingham consistency (high shear rate viscosity) of the higher yield stress kaolin slurries. The water/glycerol mixtures used the same 100 {mu}m stainless steel seed particles. For the transfer demonstrations in Phase III, the mixer jet pumps were operated either at 10.0 gpm (28 ft/s nozzle velocity, U{sub o}D=0.63 ft{sup 2}/s) or 8.0 gpm (22.4 ft/s nozzle velocity, U{sub o}D=0.504 ft{sup 2}/s). All batch transfers from the MDT to the RTs were made at 0.58 gpm (MDT suction

  13. Heat Transfer Analysis of Passive Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchanger under Natural Convection Condition in Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiming Men

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the heat transfer calculation of the Passive Residual Heat Removal Heat Exchanger (PRHR HX, experiments on the heat transfer of C-shaped tube immerged in a water tank were performed. Comparisons of different correlation in literatures with the experimental data were carried out. It can be concluded that the Dittus-Boelter correlation provides a best-estimate fit with the experimental results. The average error is about 0.35%. For the tube outside, the McAdams correlations for both horizontal and vertical regions are best-estimated. The average errors are about 0.55% for horizontal region and about 3.28% for vertical region. The tank mixing characteristics were also investigated in present work. It can be concluded that the tank fluid rose gradually which leads to a thermal stratification phenomenon.

  14. Mass transfer and power characteristics of stirred tank with Rushton and curved blade impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiyam Tamphasana Devi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Present work compares the mass transfer coefficient (kLa and power draw capability of stirred tank employed with Rushton and curved blade impeller using computational fluid dynamics (CFD techniques in single and double impeller cases. Comparative analysis for different boundary conditions and mass transfer model has been done to assess their suitability. The predicted local kLa has been found higher in curved blade impeller than the Rushton impeller, whereas stirred tank with double impeller does not show variation due to low superficial gas velocity. The global kLa predicted has been found higher in curved blade impeller than the Rushton impeller in double and single cases. Curved blade impeller also exhibits higher power draw capability than the Rushton impeller. Overall, stirred tank with curved blade impeller gives higher efficiency in both single and double cases than the Rushton turbine

  15. Characterization and Analyses of Valves, Feed Lines and Tanks used in Propellant Delivery Systems at NASA SSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Harry M.; Coote, David J.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin

    2006-01-01

    Accurate modeling of liquid rocket engine test processes involves assessing critical fluid mechanic and heat and mass transfer mechanisms within a cryogenic environment, and accurately modeling fluid properties such as vapor pressure and liquid and gas densities as a function of pressure and temperature. The Engineering and Science Directorate at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center has developed and implemented such analytic models and analysis processes that have been used over a broad range of thermodynamic systems and resulted in substantial improvements in rocket propulsion testing services. In this paper, we offer an overview of the analyses techniques used to simulate pressurization and propellant fluid systems associated with the test stands at the NASA John C. Stennis Space Center. More specifically, examples of the global performance (one-dimensional) of a propellant system are provided as predicted using the Rocket Propulsion Test Analysis (RPTA) model. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analyses utilizing multi-element, unstructured, moving grid capability of complex cryogenic feed ducts, transient valve operation, and pressurization and mixing in propellant tanks are provided as well.

  16. Improving heat transfer in stirred tanks cooled by helical coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.C.P. Pedrosa

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Stirred Tank Reactors are extensively used in chemical industries. When they are used for highly exothermic reactions, jackets or coils are employed for heat removal. Internal coils can be either helical or axial and they considerably affect the flow inside the reactor because they impose an additional resistance to flow circulation. The aim of this work is to show that the design of vessels cooled by helical coils can be further improved. The design of these reactors follows very much the geometry proposed by Oldshue and Gretton (1954, and some minor modifications in the coil arrangements are likely to improve internal circulation inside these vessels mainly in the region between coils and wall of the vessel. Results show a gain in performance when small alterations are made specially in the shape of the coil arrangement.

  17. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-15-119, 127) Surface, Subsurface and Tank 43H (HTF-43-15-116, 117 and 118) Surface, Feed Pump Suction and Jet Suction Subsurface Supernatant Samples in Support of Enrichment, Corrosion Control and Salt Batch Planning Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-17

    Compositional feed limits have been established to ensure that a nuclear criticality event for the 2H and 3H Evaporators is not possible. The Enrichment Control Program (ECP) requires feed sampling to determine the equivalent enriched uranium content prior to transfer of waste other than recycle transfers (requires sampling to determine the equivalent enriched uranium at two locations in Tanks 38H and 43H every 26 weeks) The Corrosion Control Program (CCP) establishes concentration and temperature limits for key constituents and periodic sampling and analysis to confirm that waste supernate is within these limits. This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 38H and 43H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the ECP, the CCP, and the Salt Batch 10 Planning Program.

  18. Applying rotary jet heads for mixing and mass transfer in a forced recirculation tank reactor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordkvist, Mikkel; Grotkjær, Thomas; Hummer, J.S.

    2003-01-01

    An approximation to an ideally mixed tank reactor can be obtained by vigorous stirring with mechanical mixers. For an aerated reactor the gas dispersion contributes to the mixing process. Mixing can also be achieved by recirculation of a portion of the liquid through either an internal...... at 1-9 bar gauge pressure into the bulk liquid. Liquid feed can be added to the bulk volume or it may be injected into the pressurized recirculation loop. Gas is always fed to the recirculation loop, and the heat of reaction is removed in a plate-type heat exchanger inserted in the recirculation loop...

  19. Tank Waste Transport, Pipeline Plugging, and the Prospects for Reducing the Risk of Waste Transfers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2001-09-27

    This report provides an overview of the capabilities and limitations of some current models being applied to the analysis of waste transfers; identifies the modeling capabilities needed to reduce the risk of pipeline plugging during tank waste transfers; and summarizes ongoing, planned, and future work needed to add these capabilities. Development of improved waste transport modeling tools with these capabilities will also help with waste transfer planning and evaluation, process control, and diagnosis of plugging events. Other potential applications include evaluation of waste-mixing scenarios, analysis of waste transfer stability, analysis of waste-unplugging alternatives, minimization of water addition, maximization of system availability, evaluation of risk-reduction strategies, and evaluation of cost-reduction strategies.

  20. Determination of Erosion/Corrosion Rates in Hanford Tank Farms Radioactive Waste Transfer System Pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Girardot, C. L.; Wilson, E. R.; Page, J. A.; Engeman, J. K.; Gunter, J. R.; Johnson, J. M.; Baide, D. G.; Cooke, G. A.; Larson, J. D.; Castleberry, J. L.; Boomer, K. D.

    2015-11-05

    The twenty-eight double-shell underground radioactive waste storage tanks at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site near Richland, WA are interconnected by the Waste Transfer System network of buried steel encased pipelines and pipe jumpers in below-grade pits. The pipeline material is stainless steel or carbon steel in 51 mm to 152 mm (2 in. to 6 in.) sizes. The pipelines carry slurries ranging up to 20 volume percent solids and supernatants with less than one volume percent solids at velocities necessary to prevent settling. The pipelines, installed between 1976 and 2011, were originally intended to last until the 2028 completion of the double-shell tank storage mission. The mission has been subsequently extended. In 2010 the Tank Operating Contractor began a systematic evaluation of the Waste Transfer System pipeline conditions applying guidelines from API 579-1/ASME FFS-1 (2007), Fitness-For-Service. Between 2010 and 2014 Fitness-for-Service examinations of the Waste Transfer System pipeline materials, sizes, and components were completed. In parallel, waste throughput histories were prepared allowing side-by-side pipeline wall thinning rate comparisons between carbon and stainless steel, slurries and supernatants and throughput volumes. The work showed that for transfer volumes up to 6.1E+05 m3 (161 million gallons), the highest throughput of any pipeline segment examined, there has been no detectable wall thinning in either stainless or carbon steel pipeline material regardless of waste fluid characteristics or throughput. The paper describes the field and laboratory evaluation methods used for the Fitness-for-Service examinations, the results of the examinations, and the data reduction methodologies used to support Hanford Waste Transfer System pipeline wall thinning conclusions.

  1. Modeling Xenon Tank Pressurization using One-Dimensional Thermodynamic and Heat Transfer Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, Ryan P.; Tomsik, Thomas M.

    2017-01-01

    As a first step in understanding what ground support equipment (GSE) is required to provide external cooling during the loading of 5,000 kg of xenon into 4 aluminum lined composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), a modeling analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel. The goals of the analysis were to predict xenon temperature and pressure throughout loading at the launch facility, estimate the time required to load one tank, and to get an early estimate of what provisions for cooling xenon might be needed while the tanks are being filled. The model uses the governing thermodynamic and heat transfer equations to achieve these goals. Results indicate that a single tank can be loaded in about 15 hours with reasonable external coolant requirements. The model developed in this study was successfully validated against flight and test data. The first data set is from the Dawn mission which also utilizes solar electric propulsion with xenon propellant, and the second is test data from the rapid loading of a hydrogen cylindrical COPV. The main benefit of this type of model is that the governing physical equations using bulk fluid solid temperatures can provide a quick and accurate estimate of the state of the propellant throughout loading which is much cheaper in terms of computational time and licensing costs than a Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis while capturing the majority of the thermodynamics and heat transfer.

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF A PRECIPITATE REACTOR FEED TANK (PRFT) SAMPLE FROM THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY (DWPF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Bannochie, C.

    2014-05-12

    A sample of from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Precipitate Reactor Feed Tank (PRFT) was pulled and sent to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in June of 2013. The PRFT in DWPF receives Actinide Removal Process (ARP)/ Monosodium Titanate (MST) material from the 512-S Facility via the 511-S Facility. This 2.2 L sample was to be used in small-scale DWPF chemical process cell testing in the Shielded Cells Facility of SRNL. A 1L sub-sample portion was characterized to determine the physical properties such as weight percent solids, density, particle size distribution and crystalline phase identification. Further chemical analysis of the PRFT filtrate and dissolved slurry included metals and anions as well as carbon and base analysis. This technical report describes the characterization and analysis of the PRFT sample from DWPF. At SRNL, the 2.2 L PRFT sample was composited from eleven separate samples received from DWPF. The visible solids were observed to be relatively quick settling which allowed for the rinsing of the original shipping vials with PRFT supernate on the same day as compositing. Most analyses were performed in triplicate except for particle size distribution (PSD), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). PRFT slurry samples were dissolved using a mixed HNO3/HF acid for subsequent Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICPAES) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analyses performed by SRNL Analytical Development (AD). Per the task request for this work, analysis of the PRFT slurry and filtrate for metals, anions, carbon and base were primarily performed to support the planned chemical process cell testing and to provide additional component concentrations in addition to the limited data available from DWPF. Analysis of the insoluble solids portion of the PRFT slurry was aimed at detailed characterization of these solids (TGA, PSD

  3. Buoyant Response of the Tank 241-SY-101 Crust to Transfer and Back-Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CW Stewart

    1999-11-08

    The mixer pump installed in Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) in July 1993 has prevented the large buoyant displacement gas release events (BD GRE) it has historically exhibited. But the absence of periodic disruption from GREs and the action of mixing have allowed the crust to grow. The accelerated gas retention has resulted in over 30 inches of waste level growth and the flammable gas volume stored in the crust has become a hazard. To remediate gas retention in the crust and the potential for buoyant displacement gas releases from below the crust, SY-101 will be diluted in the fall of 1999 to dissolve a large fraction of the solids in the tank. The plan is to transfer waste out and back-dilute with water in several steps of about 100,000 gallons each. Back-dilution water may be added at the transfer pump inlet, the base of the mixer pump, and on top of the crust. The mixer pump will continue to be required to prevent formation of a deep nonconnective layer and resumption of BD GREs. Therefore, it is vital to ensure that the transfer and back-dilution processes do not significantly degrade the pump's effectiveness. Part of the strategy to avoid mixer pump degradation is to keep the base of the crust layer well above the pump inlet, which is 236 inches above the tank bottom. The maximum transfer for which an equal back-dilution is possible without sinking the crust is 90 kgal if water is injected at the 96-inch transfer pump inlet and 120 kgal for injection at the 9-inch mixer pump burrowing ring. To keep the crust base above the lowest observed elevation of 295 inches, transfer and back-dilution must be limited to 143 kgal and 80 kgal, respectively, for the 96-inch back-dilution and 175 kgal with a 112 kgal back-dilution using the 9-inch back-dilution elevation. These limits can be avoided by adding water to the top of the crust to dissolve the negatively buoyant layers. If 20 kgal of water is placed on top of the crust and the rest of the back-dilution is

  4. A STRUCTURAL INTEGRITY EVALUATION OF THE TANK FARM WASTE TRANSFER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.

    2006-03-09

    Radioactive supernate, salt, and/or sludge wastes (i.e., high level wastes) are confined in 49 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The waste is transported between tanks within and between the F and H area tank farms and other facilities on site via underground and a limited number of aboveground transfer lines. The Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (DOE-SR) performed a comprehensive assessment of the structural integrity program for the Tank Farm waste transfer system at the SRS. This document addresses the following issues raised during the DOE assessment: (1) Inspections of failed or replaced transfer lines indicated that the wall thickness of some core and jacket piping is less than nominal; (2) No corrosion allowance is utilized in the transfer line structural qualification calculations. No basis for neglecting corrosion was provided in the calculations; (3) Wall loss due to erosion is not addressed in the transfer line structural qualification calculations; and (4) No basis is provided for neglecting intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the transfer line structural qualification calculations. The common theme in most of these issues is the need to assess the potential for occurrence of material degradation of the transfer line piping. The approach used to resolve these issues involved: (1) Review the design and specifications utilized to construct and fabricate the piping system; (2) Review degradation mechanisms for stainless steel and carbon steel and determine their relevance to the transfer line piping; (3) Review the transfer piping inspection data; (4) Life estimation calculations for the transfer lines; and (5) A Fitness-For-Service evaluation for one of the transfer line jackets. The evaluation concluded that the transfer line system piping has performed well for over fifty years. Although there have been instances of failures of the stainless steel core pipe during off-normal service, no significant

  5. Values of Particle Size Particle Density & Slurry Viscosity to use in Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JEWETT, J R

    2002-01-30

    Recommended values have been developed for particle size distribution, particle density, and slurry viscosity that maybe used in slurry flow calculations that support the design of the piping system that is being modified to deliver Hanford wastes from the underground storage tanks to the planned Waste Treatment Plant for vitrification. The objective of this document is to provide recommended values for three waste properties to be used in a planned revision of the Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis. These properties are particle size distribution (PSD), particle density, and slurry viscosity. In this document, the results of laboratory and engineering studies will be collated and summarized to provide a succinct source of physical property data for use in the hydraulic analysis of the transfer system.

  6. Mass Transfer Coefficientin Stirred Tank for p-Cresol Extraction Process from Coal Tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, D. S.; Tyaningsih, D. S.; Afifah, S. N.

    2017-04-01

    Indonesia is a country that has a lot of coal resources. The Indonesian coal has a low caloric value. Pyrolysis is one of the process to increase the caloric value. One of the by-product of the pyrolysis process is coal tar. It contains a lot of aliphatic or aromatic compounds such asp-cresol (11% v/v). It is widely used as a disinfectant. Extractionof p-Cresol increases the economic value of waste of coal. The aim of this research isto study about mass tranfer coefficient in the baffled stirred tank for p-Cresolextraction from coal tar. Mass transfer coefficient is useful for design and scale up of industrial equipment. Extraction is conducted inthe baffled stirred tank equipped with a four-bladed axial impeller placed vertically in the vessel. Sample for each time processing (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30minutes) was poured into a separating funnel, settled for an hour and separated into two phases. Then the two phases were weighed. The extract phases and raffinate phases were analyzed by Spectronic UV-Vis. The result showed that mixing speed of p-Cresol extraction increasesthe yield of p-Cresol and the mass transfer coefficient. The highest yield of p-Cresol is 49.32% and the highest mass transfer coefficient is 4.757 x 10-6kg/m2s.

  7. An automated gas exchange tank for determining gas transfer velocities in natural seawater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schneider-Zapp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to advance understanding of the role of seawater surfactants in the air–sea exchange of climatically active trace gases via suppression of the gas transfer velocity (kw, we constructed a fully automated, closed air-water gas exchange tank and coupled analytical system. The system allows water-side turbulence in the tank to be precisely controlled with an electronically operated baffle. Two coupled gas chromatographs and an integral equilibrator, connected to the tank in a continuous gas-tight system, allow temporal changes in the partial pressures of SF6, CH4 and N2O to be measured simultaneously in the tank water and headspace at multiple turbulence settings, during a typical experimental run of 3.25 h. PC software developed by the authors controls all operations and data acquisition, enabling the optimisation of experimental conditions with high reproducibility. The use of three gases allows three independent estimates of kw for each turbulence setting; these values are subsequently normalised to a constant Schmidt number for direct comparison. The normalised kw estimates show close agreement. Repeated experiments with MilliQ water demonstrate a typical measurement accuracy of 4% for kw. Experiments with natural seawater show that the system clearly resolves the effects on kw of spatial and temporal trends in natural surfactant activity. The system is an effective tool with which to probe the relationships between kw, surfactant activity and biogeochemical indices of primary productivity, and should assist in providing valuable new insights into the air–sea gas exchange process.

  8. An automated gas exchange tank for determining gas transfer velocities in natural seawater samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Schneider-Zapp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to advance understanding of the role of seawater surfactants in the air–sea exchange of climatically active trace gases via suppression of the gas transfer velocity (kw, we constructed a fully automated, closed air–water gas exchange tank and coupled analytical system. The system allows water-side turbulence in the tank to be precisely controlled with an electronically operated baffle. Two coupled gas chromatographs and an integral equilibrator, connected to the tank in a continuous gas-tight system, allow temporal changes in the partial pressures of SF6, CH4 and N2O to be measured simultaneously in the tank water and headspace at multiple turbulence settings, during a typical experimental run of 3.25 h. PC software developed by the authors controls all operations and data acquisition, enabling the optimisation of experimental conditions with high reproducibility. The use of three gases allows three independent estimates of kw for each turbulence setting; these values are subsequently normalised to a constant Schmidt number for direct comparison. The normalised kw estimates show close agreement. Repeated experiments with Milli-Q water demonstrate a typical measurement accuracy of 4% for kw. Experiments with natural seawater show that the system clearly resolves the effects on kw of spatial and temporal trends in natural surfactant activity. The system is an effective tool with which to probe the relationships between kw, surfactant activity and biogeochemical indices of primary productivity, and should assist in providing valuable new insights into the air–sea gas exchange process.

  9. Analysis of tank 4 (FTF-4-15-22, 23) surface and subsurface supernatant samples in support of enrichment control, corrosion control and evaporator feed qualification programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-09

    This report provides the results of analyses on Savannah River Site Tank 4 surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program (CCP) and the Evaporator Feed Qualification (EFQ) Program. The purpose of the ECP sample taken from Tank 4 in August 2015 was to determine if the supernatant liquid would be “acceptable feed” to the 2H and 3H evaporator systems.

  10. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Holmes, Aimee E.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2013-09-18

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  11. Scaling Relationships Based on Scaled Tank Mixing and Transfer Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Holmes, Aimee E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Heredia-Langner, Alejandro [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lee, Kearn P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kelly, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the statistical analyses performed (by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for Washington River Protection Solutions) on data from 26 tests conducted using two scaled tanks (43 and 120 inches) in the Small Scale Mixing Demonstration platform. The 26 tests varied several test parameters, including mixer-jet nozzle velocity, base simulant, supernatant viscosity, and capture velocity. For each test, samples were taken pre-transfer and during five batch transfers. The samples were analyzed for the concentrations (lbs/gal slurry) of four primary components in the base simulants (gibbsite, stainless steel, sand, and ZrO2). The statistical analyses including modeling the component concentrations as functions of test parameters using stepwise regression with two different model forms. The resulting models were used in an equivalent performance approach to calculate values of scaling exponents (for a simple geometric scaling relationship) as functions of the parameters in the component concentration models. The resulting models and scaling exponents are displayed in tables and graphically. The sensitivities of component concentrations and scaling exponents to the test parameters are presented graphically. These results will serve as inputs to subsequent work by other researchers to develop scaling relationships that are applicable to full-scale tanks.

  12. Study on the heat transfer of high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation tank after sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G. F.; Li, X. D.; Wang, R. S.

    2010-10-01

    One of the worst accidents that may occur in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum (SCLIV). There is no doubt that the gases leaking into the insulation jacket have some influence on the heat transfer process of it. However, this issue has not been thoroughly studied so far. In this paper, a test rig was built up and experiments were conducted using a SCLIV cryogenic tank and with nitrogen, helium and air as the working medium, respectively. The venting rates of the tank and temperature in the insulation jacket were measured respectively after the three different gases leaking into the jacket. A heat transfer model describing the heat transfer process of a SCLIV tank was also presented. The calculated results using this model were compared against the experimental data. It is found that the heat transfer performance of the HVMLI cryogenic tank after SCLIV is strong relevant to the type of gas leaking into the insulation jacket.

  13. Investigation of methods to transfer heat from solar liquid-heating collectors to heat storage tanks. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horel, J. D.; de Winter, F.

    1978-04-20

    A study was made of the methods available to transfer heat from the collector to the water storage tank in water heating systems. In counterflow heat exchangers used in double loop water heating systems, it was found to be more important to use a high water flowrate than a high heat transfer fluid flowrate. It was earlier thought to be best to have matched WC/sub p/ (mass flowrate-specific heat) products in the loops. It was shown in this study that the water WC/sub p/ product should be about twice as large as that of the heat transfer fluid. It was found that neither the heat exchanger type nor the size was very critical, so that very simple criteria were adequate in determining optimum heat exchanger size. It was found that there is a definite system size below which one should use a traced tank or a coil in a tank. Equations and optimization criteria were developed for traced tanks or tanks with coils. At present, there is no quantitative understanding of liquid to liquid (direct contact) heat exchangers, though they are clearly quite effective. Draindown systems are discussed, and several appendices are included on heat transfer and other characteristics of fluid and of equipment.

  14. Pump Jet Mixing and Pipeline Transfer Assessment for High-Activity Radioactive Wastes in Hanford Tank 241-AZ-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y Onishi; KP Recknagle; BE Wells

    2000-08-09

    The authors evaluated how well two 300-hp mixer pumps would mix solid and liquid radioactive wastes stored in Hanford double-shell Tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) and confirmed the adequacy of a three-inch (7.6-cm) pipeline system to transfer the resulting mixed waste slurry to the AP Tank Farm and a planned waste treatment (vitrification) plant on the Hanford Site. Tank AZ-102 contains 854,000 gallons (3,230 m{sup 3}) of supernatant liquid and 95,000 gallons (360 m{sup 3}) of sludge made up of aging waste (or neutralized current acid waste). The study comprises three assessments: waste chemistry, pump jet mixing, and pipeline transfer. The waste chemical modeling assessment indicates that the sludge, consisting of the solids and interstitial solution, and the supernatant liquid are basically in an equilibrium condition. Thus, pump jet mixing would not cause much solids precipitation and dissolution, only 1.5% or less of the total AZ-102 sludge. The pump jet mixing modeling indicates that two 300-hp mixer pumps would mobilize up to about 23 ft (7.0 m) of the sludge nearest the pump but would not erode the waste within seven inches (0.18 m) of the tank bottom. This results in about half of the sludge being uniformly mixed in the tank and the other half being unmixed (not eroded) at the tank bottom.

  15. Mass transfer in stirred tank for phenolic extraction from coal tar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardhyanti, Dewi Selvia; Wibowo, Bahy; Rafiqi, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Coal production in Indonesia on 2014 reached 368.9 million tons. The used of coal utilization using pyrolysis process to produce coal tar is 15.8% by weight. Coal tar solution containing phenol as much as 8.06% (v / v) were extracted using a solvent of 80 % methanol. Time extraction is conducted for 30 minutes by making every 5 minutes. Samples are then separated to form two layers so that become layer of extract and raffinate. Extract and raffinate layer was then tested by using UV - Vis sektrofotometer so that the data obtained experimental results.The reserach about phenomenon and models of mass transfering and taking the phenol compound from coal tir is less. The result shows, the highest extracted of concentration phenol in 40°C, tank diameter 9cm, stirrer diameter 3,5cm, stirring speed of 250rpm and at 20 minutes extraction time got 2,35% concentration of phenol. Thus, the increasing temperature and stirred velocity will increase phenol concentration. In other hand, decreasing tank diameter will increase phenol concentration.

  16. Evaluation of oxygen transfer parameters of fine-bubble aeration system in plug flow aeration tank of wastewater treatment plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohong Zhou; Yuanyuan Wu; Hanchang Shi; Yanqing Song

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of the oxygen mass transfer of aerators under operational conditions in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is meaningful for the optimization of WWTP,however,scarce to best of our knowledge.Through analyzing a plug flow aeration tank in the Lucun WWTP,in Wuxi,China,the oxygenation capacity of fine-bubble aerators under process conditions have been measured insitu using the off-gas method and the non-steady-state method.The off-gas method demonstrated that the aerators in different corridors in the aeration tank of WWTP had significantly different oxygen transfer performance; furthermore,the aerators in the same corridor shared almost equal oxygen transfer performance over the course of a day.Results measured by the two methods showed that the oxygen transfer performance of fine-bubble aerators in the aeration tank decreased dramatically compared with that in the clean water.The loss of oxygen transfer coefficient was over 50% under low-aeration conditions (aeration amount < 0.67 Nm3/hr).However,as the aeration amount reached 0.96 Nm3/hr,the discrepancy of oxygen transfer between the process condition and clean water was negligible.The analysis also indicated that the non-steady-state and off-gas methods resulted in comparable estimates of oxygen transfer parameters for the aerators under process conditions.

  17. Modeling of Oxygen Transfer Correlations for Stirred Tank Bioreactor Agitated with Atypical Helical Ribbon Impeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd S. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Mixing filamentous fungi entails delicate balance between promoting high volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa while keeping low hydrodynamic stresses in the microenvironment of cultures. This study examined the oxygen transfer capability of a prototype low shear helical impeller as a potential replacement for the standard Rushton turbine. Approach: The dependence of kLa upon specific power uptake, superficial gas velocity and apparent viscosity were examined under coalescent, non-coalescent and viscous pseudoplastic fluids scenario using dynamic gassing out technique. Subsequently, collected data were treated under historical data design of response surface methodology. Results: Three empirical power law kLa correlations were developed for each fluid. Correlation comparison with literature models for single turbine agitation suggest higher kLa augmentation within 1.5-3.6 folds for helical impeller in distilled water and as high as 78% improvement in electrolytes fluid. However impeller performance is comparatively 10% lower against theoretical kLa of triple turbines arrangement for power uptake between 0-1600 W m-3. In case of carboxymethylcellulose, better oxygen transfer is expected for design with higher proportionality of impeller-to-tank internal diameter. Conclusions: Helical impeller performance as gas-liquid contactor is comparable to single and triple Rushtons turbines, with superficial gas velocity proved to be more influential than power uptake in non-viscous liquids and vice versa in viscous pseudoplastic fluids.

  18. Transfer of sludge radioactive of the storage tank to a tank of experimental in JCR Ispra (Italy); Transferencia de Fangos Radiactivos de un Tanque de Almacenamiento a un Tanque Experimental en el JRC de ISPRA (Italia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Martinez, J. T.; Verdu Company, G. J.; Pineda Rodriguez, S.

    2013-07-01

    The project consisted of designing an air transfer system for transferring from a 42 m{sup 3} tank called L1 to an experimental tank at the JRC Ispra (Italy). The transfer system should ensure that in case of breakage of the pipe, there would be no uncontrolled discharge to the environment at the same time the internal tank decontamination L1 is presented by through a decontamination technique with CO{sub 2} to a minimum level of Bq/cm{sup 2} 0.4 for α and β and 4 Bq/cm{sup 2} for minimizing liquid and solid waste.

  19. Hanford Tank Farms Waste Feed Flow Loop Phase VI: PulseEcho System Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Hopkins, Derek F.

    2012-11-21

    This document presents the visual and ultrasonic PulseEcho critical velocity test results obtained from the System Performance test campaign that was completed in September 2012 with the Remote Sampler Demonstration (RSD)/Waste Feed Flow Loop cold-test platform located at the Monarch test facility in Pasco, Washington. This report is intended to complement and accompany the report that will be developed by WRPS on the design of the System Performance simulant matrix, the analysis of the slurry test sample concentration and particle size distribution (PSD) data, and the design and construction of the RSD/Waste Feed Flow Loop cold-test platform.

  20. Evaluation of oxygen transfer parameters of fine-bubble aeration system in plug flow aeration tank of wastewater treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaohong; Wu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Hanchang; Song, Yanqing

    2013-02-01

    Knowledge of the oxygen mass transfer of aerators under operational conditions in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is meaningful for the optimization of WWTP, however, scarce to best of our knowledge. Through analyzing a plug flow aeration tank in the Lucun WWTP, in Wuxi, China, the oxygenation capacity of fine-bubble aerators under process conditions have been measured in-situ using the off-gas method and the non-steady-state method. The off-gas method demonstrated that the aerators in different corridors in the aeration tank of WWTP ha d significantly different oxygen transferperformance; furthermore, the aerators in the samecorridor shared almost equal oxygen transfer performance over the course of a day. Results measured by the two methods showed that the oxygen transfer performance of fine-bubble aerators in the aeration tank decreased dramatically compared with that in the clean water. The loss of oxygen transfer coefficient was over 50% under low-aeration conditions (aeration amount aeration amount reached 0.96 Nm3/hr, the discrepancy of oxygen transfer between the process condition and clean water was negligible. The analysis also indicated that the non-steady-state and off-gas methods resulted in comparable estimates of oxygen transfer parameters for the aerators under process conditions.

  1. Monitoring gas retention and slurry transport during the transfer of waste from Tank 241-C-106 to Tank 241-AY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, C.W.; Erian, F.F.; Meyer, P.A. [and others

    1997-07-01

    The retained gas volume can be estimated by several methods. All of these methods have significant uncertainties, but together they form a preponderance of evidence that describes the gas retention behavior of the tank. The methods are (1) an increase in nonconvective layer thickness; (2) a waste surface level rise (surface level effect [SLE] model); (3) the barometric pressure effect (BPE model); (4) direct void measurement; and (5) the consequences of the transfer process. The nonconvective layer thickness can be determined with sufficient accuracy to describe the overall waste configuration by means of temperature profiles or densitometer indications. However, the presence of a nonconvective layer does not necessarily indicate significant gas retention, and small changes in layer thickness that could quantify gas retention cannot be detected reliably with the methods available. The primary value of this measurement is in establishing the actual {open_quotes}fluffing factor{close_quotes} for thermal calculations. Surface level rise is not a useful measure of gas retention in Tank 241-C-106 (C-106) since the waste level fluctuates with regular makeup water additions. In Tank 241-AY-102 (AY-102) with the existing ventilation system it should be possible to determine the gas retention rate within 30-60% uncertainty from the surface level rise, should a significant rise be observed. The planned ventilation system upgrades in AY- 102 will greatly reduce the exhaust flow and the headspace humidity, and the evaporation rate should be significantly lower when transfers begin. This could reduce the uncertainty in gas retention rate estimates to around {+-} 10%.

  2. Fluidic Sampler. Tanks Focus Area. OST Reference No. 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-09-01

    Problem Definition; Millions of gallons of radioactive and hazardous wastes are stored in underground tanks across the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex. To manage this waste, tank operators need safe, cost-effective methods for mixing tank material, transferring tank waste between tanks, and collecting samples. Samples must be collected at different depths within storage tanks containing various kinds of waste including salt, sludge, and supernatant. With current or baseline methods, a grab sampler or a core sampler is inserted into the tank, waste is maneuvered into the sample chamber, and the sample is withdrawn from the tank. The mixing pumps in the tank, which are required to keep the contents homogeneous, must be shut down before and during sampling to prevent airborne releases. These methods are expensive, require substantial hands-on labor, increase the risk of worker exposure to radiation, and often produce nonrepresentative and unreproducible samples. How It Works: The Fluidic Sampler manufactured by AEA Technology Engineering Services, Inc., enables tank sampling to be done remotely with the mixing pumps in operation. Remote operation minimizes the risk of exposure to personnel and the possibility of spills, reducing associated costs. Sampling while the tank contents are being agitated yields consistently homogeneous, representative samples and facilitates more efficient feed preparation and evaluation of the tank contents. The above-tank portion of the Fluidic Sampler and the replacement plug and pipework that insert through the tank top are shown.

  3. Glass fabrication and analysis literature review and method selection for WTP waste feed qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-06-01

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) safety basis, technical basis, and design by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed Campaign prior to transfer from the Hanford Tank Farm to the WTP.

  4. Average Natural Convective Heat Transfer of Air-cooled Condensing Heat Exchanger of Emergency Cooldown Tank - Effect of Tube Banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huh, Seon Jeong; Lee, Hee Joon [Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Myoung Jun; Moon, Joo Hyung; Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Recently emergency cooldown tank(ECT) is a great concern of passive cooling system for the safety of nuclear reactor. After the operation of a conventional passive cooling system for an extended period, however, the water level falls as a result of the evaporation from the ECT, as steam is emitted from the open top of the tank. In this study, the effect of heat transfer area at the air cooled condensing heat exchanger was investigated by changing 5×5 tube banks into 4×4 and 3×3. Moreover, each of air-side natural convective heat transfer coefficient of tube banks was compared to existing correlations. This study presents the effect of heat transfer area at air-cooled condensing heat exchanger. As heat transfer area decreased, the temperature of outlet increased. In other words, the cooling performance got lower with the decrease of heat transfer area. In addition, the average natural convective heat transfer coefficient was 15.3 W/m{sup 2}/K from the 4×4 tube banks, and 4.92 W/m{sup 2}/K from the 3×3 tube banks, which had quite a large error more than 46% especially with the value of 4×4 tube banks compared to the value from correlation equation. Therefore, according to this result, it is needed to measure the local heat transfer coefficient of vertical cylinder more elaborately in further study.

  5. MIGRATION OF PHTHALATES FROM PLASTIC TANK TO VEGETABLE OIL AS A PART OF FEEDING MIXTURES USED FOR CHICKEN BROILERS FATTENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Suchý

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of phthalic acid esters (PAEs as di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP were measured in samples of rapeseed oil, which was used as a feed. First samples were collected during the production process and second after the storage in plastic tank (21 days. The results of measurements are that there is 2.93-10.10 mg PAEs.kg-1 in the oil before storage and 22.73-61.55 mg PAEs.kg-1 after storage. For the monitoring of distribution and accumulation of PAEs in animal tissues and organs (muscles, adipose tissue, skin and liver broiler chicks ROSS 308 were used. The chicks were divided into 4 groups (50 chicks each. All the chicks were fed by commercial diets (complete feed, KKS for broiler chicks (starter – BR1; grower – BR2 and finisher – BR3. The experimental diets were supplemented with vegetable oil (RO with low (group N or high (group V phthalate content, or animal fat with high phthalate content (group Z. Neither the control diets (K nor the grower (BR1 diets contained vegetable oil or animal fat. DBP and DEHP were found in all tissues of all chicks. The highest concentration of DBP of 1.28 1.00 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (an average value from 8 chicks was determined in the adipose tissue of V chicks. The highest concentration of DEHP of 3.27 2.87 mg.kg-1 of fresh sample (average of 8 chicks was also determined in the V group. doi:10.5219/49

  6. FEEDING INCIDENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE IN THE EARLY STAGE OF THE RED-SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara, IN RELATION TO TANK COLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara, is one of marine fish species targeted for mariculture in Japan. The artificial mass seedling production of these species has been largely successful. However, the survival is still unstable. The effect of tank colors on the feeding incidence, feeding proportion, growth and survival rates in the early stage of the red-spotted grouper were examined. The results showed the feeding incidence, feeding proportion, growth, and survival rates at different tank colors were highly significantly different (P<0.001. Post hoc multiple comparisons based on Tukey’s test showed significant differences (P<0.05 regarding feeding incidence between yellow (70.45% compared to white (55.83%, black (48.42%, green (41.67%, blue (35.17%, and red (32.50%. The highest feeding proportion (number of rotifer in the stomach/larvae was found at yellow (5.62, followed by white (2.47, black (1.97, green (1.92, blue (1.71, and red (1.28. The specific growth rate showed significant differences (P<0.05 were found at yellow (2.14% and white (1.84% compared to black (1.46%, green (1.20%, blue (1.15%, and red (1.13%. The survival rate at yellow color (1.22% was the highest, followed by white (1.09%, black (0.79%, green (0.57%, blue (0.38%, and red (0.37%. Yellow was suitable as tank wall color for rearing of red-spotted grouper larvae.

  7. Alternatives evaluation and decommissioning study on shielded transfer tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVore, J.R.; Hinton, R.R.

    1994-08-01

    The shielded transfer tanks (STTs) are five obsolete cylindrical shipping casks which were used to transport high specific activity radioactive solutions by rail during the 1960s and early 1970s. The STTs are currently stored at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under a shed roof. This report is an evaluation to determine the preferred alternative for the final disposition of the five STTs. The decommissioning alternatives assessed include: (1) the no action alternative to leave the STTs in their present location with continued surveillance and maintenance; (2) solidification of contents within the tanks and holding the STTs in long term retrievable storage; (3) sale of one or more of the used STTs to private industry for use at their treatment facility with the remaining STTs processed as in Alternative 4; and (4) removal of tank contents for de-watering/retrievable storage, limited decontamination to meet acceptance criteria, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal through the DOE contaminated scrap metal program, and returning the shielding lead to the ORNL lead recovery program because the smelting contractor cannot reprocess the lead. To completely evaluate the alternatives for the disposition of the STTs, the contents of the tanks must be characterized. Shielding and handling requirements, risk considerations, and waste acceptance criteria all require that the radioactive inventory and free liquids residual in the STTs be known. Because characterization of the STT contents in the field was not input into a computer model to predict the probable inventory and amount of free liquid. The four alternatives considered were subjected to a numerical scoring procedure. Alternative 4, smelting the STTs to recycle the metal after removal/de-watering of the tank contents, had the highest score and is, therefore, recommended as the preferred alternative. However, if a buyer for one or more STT could be found, it is recommended that Alternative 3 be reconsidered.

  8. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  9. Tank 241-BX-106: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-BX-106. (Waste from this tank shall be transferred to a double-shell tank.)

  10. Evaluation of mass-transfer and kinetic parameters for Rhodospirillum rubrum in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasson, K.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Gupta, A.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L. (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR (United States))

    The photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been evaluated for its ability to produce hydrogen from carbon monoxide and water in a continuous stirred tank reactor according to the water-gas shift reaction. An assessment of mass-transfer parameters and reaction kinetics was made for this sparingly soluble substrate system. Experiments were conducted in a nonsteady-state fashion with continuous liquid and gas flow, which allowed for separation of the mass-transfer and kinetic-limited regions. Based on the data obtained, mass-transfer coefficients for the system were determined, and a mathematical expression for the reaction kinetics was formulated. The results showed that the hydrogen production was inhibited by elevated levels of dissolved carbon monoxide in the liquid. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Proposed Feed Forward Correction for the CLIC Ring-To-Main-Linac Transfer Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Apsimon, Robert; Uythoven, Jan

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the design luminosity for the CLIC main beam an unprecedented degree of machine stability is required. Extremely stringent tolerances are placed on the damping ring extraction system in order to limit emittance growth along the ring-to-main-linac transfer line; particularly through the pre-linac betatron collimation system. In this paper we propose feed forward systems situated across the central arcs and turnaround loops of the transfer lines as an elegant solution to relax the damping ring extraction requirements as well as to significantly reduce emittance growth through the betatron collimation system. The optics for the beam position monitor and kicker regions are presented and the results of tracking simulations shown to verify the performance of the feed forward systems.

  12. A Phloem-Feeding Insect Transfers Bacterial Endophytic Communities between Grapevine Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiàn Lòpez-Fernàndez

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial endophytes colonize the inner tissues of host plants through the roots or through discontinuities on the plant surface, including wounds and stomata. Little is known regarding a possible role of insects in acquiring and transmitting non-phytopathogenic microorganisms from plant to plant, especially those endophytes that are beneficial symbionts providing plant protection properties and homeostatic stability to the host. To understand the ecological role of insects in the transmission of endophytic bacteria, we used freshly hatched nymphs of the American sap-feeding leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus (vector to transfer microorganisms across grapevine plants. After contact with the vector, sink plants were colonized by a complex endophytic community dominated by Proteobacteria, highly similar to that present in source plants. A similar bacterial community, but with a higher ratio of Firmicutes, was found on S. titanus. Insects feeding only on sink plants transferred an entirely different bacterial community dominated by Actinobacteria, where Mycobacterium sp., played a major role. Despite the fact that insects dwelled mostly on plant stems, the bacterial communities in plant roots resembled more closely those inside and on insects, when compared to those of above-ground plant organs. We prove here the potential of insect vectors to transfer entire endophytic bacterial communities between plants. We also describe the role of plants and bacterial endophytes in establishing microbial communities in plant-feeding insects.

  13. Transfer of fat-soluble pesticides from contaminated feed to poultry tissues and eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, D J

    2008-05-01

    1. Implementation of Good Manufacturing Practice and HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) in the production of poultry feed requires efficient tools for profiling risks associated with pesticide use in the production of crops for feed. 2. This paper describes a simple model that may be of use in the first tiers of risk profiling of feeds. 3. The model adequately reproduced the pattern of residues in fat and eggs of laying hens dosed with a selection of lipophilic pesticides that may be used in the production of crops for poultry feeds: deltamethrin, diflubenzuron, fipronil, lindane, piperonyl butoxide and spinosad. 4. Simulations suggest results derived from studies on laying chickens can be extrapolated to other laying birds. 5. Poultry meat production systems focus on maximising growth of birds giving rise to significant potential for dilution of residues that transfer to fat from feed. 6. Simulations of residues in fat of chickens, ducks, geese and turkeys exposed to a lipophilic pesticide with an elimination half-life of one day at 10 mg/kg body weight/d from hatching to typical market ages suggest residues in fat that are highest in turkeys > chickens > geese > ducks. 7. The model is of use in interpreting published dosing studies and predicting likely residues in birds at times after last exposure/dosing.

  14. Experimental investigation of the influence of different leaking gases on the heat transfer in a HVMLI cryogenic tank after SCLIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, M.; Wang, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presented an experimental investigation of the influence of different leaking gases on the heat transfer process in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank after sudden catastrophic loss of insulation vacuum (SCLIV). The experiments were conducted with the breakdown of the insulation vacuum with nitrogen, air, helium, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide and the gas mixture of argon and carbon dioxide. The maximum value of the venting rate and heat flux could be ordered as following: CO2 > O2 > Ar > the gas mixture > He > Air > N2, while the average value of the venting rate and heat flux could be ordered as following: O2 > Ar > He > the gas mixture > CO2 > Air > N2. The temperature distribution indicated that phase change heat transfer happened in the insulation jacket after the five different gases including air, argon, the gas mixture of argon and carbon dioxide, oxygen and carbon dioxide were introduced into the insulation jacket.

  15. A comparison of mass transfer coefficients between trickle-bed, hollow fiber membrane and stirred tank reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgill, James J; Atiyeh, Hasan K; Devarapalli, Mamatha; Phillips, John R; Lewis, Randy S; Huhnke, Raymond L

    2013-04-01

    Trickle-bed reactor (TBR), hollow fiber membrane reactor (HFR) and stirred tank reactor (STR) can be used in fermentation of sparingly soluble gasses such as CO and H2 to produce biofuels and bio-based chemicals. Gas fermenting reactors must provide high mass transfer capabilities that match the kinetic requirements of the microorganisms used. The present study compared the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (K(tot)A/V(L)) of three reactor types; the TBR with 3 mm and 6 mm beads, five different modules of HFRs, and the STR. The analysis was performed using O2 as the gaseous mass transfer agent. The non-porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) HFR provided the highest K(tot)A/V(L) (1062 h(-1)), followed by the TBR with 6mm beads (421 h(-1)), and then the STR (114 h(-1)). The mass transfer characteristics in each reactor were affected by agitation speed, and gas and liquid flow rates. Furthermore, issues regarding the comparison of mass transfer coefficients are discussed.

  16. HLW Feed Delivery AZ101 Batch Transfer to the Private Contractor Transfer and Mixing Process Improvements [Initial Release at Rev 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    2000-02-28

    The primary purpose of this business case is to provide Operations and Maintenance with a detailed transfer process review for the first High Level Waste (HLW) feed delivery to the Privatization Contractor (PC), AZ-101 batch transfer to PC. The Team was chartered to identify improvements that could be implemented in the field. A significant penalty can be invoked for not providing the quality, quantity, or timely delivery of HLW feed to the PC.

  17. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1999-02-24

    This report examines the feasibility of remediating ancillary equipment associated with the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. Ancillary equipment includes surface structures and equipment, process waste piping, ventilation components, wells, and pits, boxes, sumps, and tanks used to make waste transfers to/from the AX tanks and adjoining tank farms. Two remedial alternatives are considered: (1) excavation and removal of all ancillary equipment items, and (2) in-situ stabilization by grout filling, the 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a strawman in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tanks. This is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  18. Influence of heat transfer rates on pressurization of liquid/slush hydrogen propellant tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasmal, G. P.; Hochstein, J. I.; Hardy, T. L.

    1993-01-01

    A multi-dimensional computational model of the pressurization process in liquid/slush hydrogen tank is developed and used to study the influence of heat flux rates at the ullage boundaries on the process. The new model computes these rates and performs an energy balance for the tank wall whereas previous multi-dimensional models required a priori specification of the boundary heat flux rates. Analyses of both liquid hydrogen and slush hydrogen pressurization were performed to expose differences between the two processes. Graphical displays are presented to establish the dependence of pressurization time, pressurant mass required, and other parameters of interest on ullage boundary heat flux rates and pressurant mass flow rate. Detailed velocity fields and temperature distributions are presented for selected cases to further illuminate the details of the pressurization process. It is demonstrated that ullage boundary heat flux rates do significantly effect the pressurization process and that minimizing heat loss from the ullage and maximizing pressurant flow rate minimizes the mass of pressurant gas required to pressurize the tank. It is further demonstrated that proper dimensionless scaling of pressure and time permit all the pressure histories examined during this study to be displayed as a single curve.

  19. Final Report for the Erosion-Corrosion Anaysis of Tank 241-AW-02E Feed Pump Pit Jumpers B-2 and 1-4 Removed from Service in 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Jason S.

    2014-04-07

    This document is the final report summarizing the results in the examination of two pipe sections (jumpers) from the tank 241-AW-02E feed pump pit in the 241-AW tank farm. These pipe section samples consisted of jumper AW02E-WT-J-[B – 2] and jumper AW02E-WT-J-[1 – 4]. For the remainder of this report, these jumpers will be referred to as B – 2 and 1 – 4.

  20. Preventing Buoyant Displacement Gas Release Events in Hanford Double-Shell Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the predictive methods used to ensure that waste transfer operations in Hanford waste tanks do not create waste configurations that lead to unsafe gas release events. The gas release behavior of the waste in existing double-shell tanks has been well characterized, and the flammable gas safety issues associated with safe storage of waste in the current configuration are being formally resolved. However, waste is also being transferred between double-shell tanks and from single-shell tanks into double-shell tanks by saltwell pumping and sluicing that create new wastes and waste configurations that have not been studied as well. Additionally, planning is underway for various waste transfer scenarios to support waste feed delivery to the proposed vitrification plant. It is critical that such waste transfers do not create waste conditions with the potential for dangerous gas release events.

  1. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin from feed at cross-contamination levels to various poultry matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-09-01

    Residues of veterinary drugs and feed additives used extensively in animal husbandry are sometimes found in edible matrices. In this study, broilers received experimental feed, containing either flubendazole or tylosin, at cross-contamination levels of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% of the therapeutic dose to determine the transfer ratio of these molecules from feed to poultry matrices. Breast and thigh muscle and liver samples were collected during treatment and depletion periods and then analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The parent molecule flubendazole and its 2 major metabolites were quantified. After 3 to 5 d, a plateau phase was reached, and a few days after withdrawal of the experimental feed, a depletion of residues was noted. Significant difference between both muscle types was noted for flubendazole. Strong metabolization of flubendazole in the liver was seen. For tylosin, no residue concentrations above the limit of quantification could be detected in muscle. None of the residue concentrations for either molecule exceeded the corresponding maximum residue limits.

  2. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  3. Final Report For The Erosion And Corrosion Analysis Of Waste Transfer Primary Pipeline Sections From 241-SY Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, J. S.; Wyrwas, R. B.; Cooke, G. A.

    2012-10-04

    Three sections of primary transfer pipeline removed from the 241-SY Tank Farm in Hanford's 200 West area, labeled as SN-285, SN-286, and SN-278, were analyzed for the presence and amount of corrosion and erosion on the inside surface of the transfer pipe. All three sections of pipe, ranging in length between 6 and 8 in., were received at the 222-S Laboratory still in the pipe-in-pipe assembly. The annular spaces were filled with urethane foam injected into the pipes for as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) purposes. The 3-in. primary transfer pipes were first separated from the outer encasement, 6-in. pipes. The pipes were cut into small sections, or coupons, based upon the results of a non-destructive pipe wall thickness measurement which used an ultrasonic transducer. Following removal of the foam, the coupons were subjected to a series of analytical methods utilizing both optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to obtain erosion and corrosion information. The ultrasonic transducer analysis of the SN-285 primary pipe did not show any thinned locations in the pipe wall which were outside the expected range for the 3-in. schedule 40 pipe of 216 mils. A coupon was cut from the thinnest area on the pipe, and analysis of the inside surface, which was in contact with the tank waste, revealed a continuous layer of corrosion ~ 100 11m (4 mils) thick under a semi-continuous layer of tank waste residue ~ 20 11m (1 mil) thick. This residue layer was composed of an amorphous phase rich in chromium, magnesium, calcium, and chlorine. Small pits were detected throughout the inside pipe surface with depths up to ~ 50 11m (2 mils). Similarly, the SN-286 primary pipe did not show, by the ultrasonic transducer measurements, any thinned locations in the pipe wall which were outside the expected range for this pipe. Analysis of the coupon cut from the pipe section showed the presence of a tank waste layer containing sodium aluminate and phases rich in iron, calcium

  4. Evaluation of procedural learning transfer from a virtual environment to a real situation: a case study on tank maintenance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganier, Franck; Hoareau, Charlotte; Tisseau, Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Virtual reality opens new opportunities for operator training in complex tasks. It lowers costs and has fewer constraints than traditional training. The ultimate goal of virtual training is to transfer knowledge gained in a virtual environment to an actual real-world setting. This study tested whether a maintenance procedure could be learnt equally well by virtual-environment and conventional training. Forty-two adults were divided into three equally sized groups: virtual training (GVT® [generic virtual training]), conventional training (using a real tank suspension and preparation station) and control (no training). Participants then performed the procedure individually in the real environment. Both training types (conventional and virtual) produced similar levels of performance when the procedure was carried out in real conditions. Performance level for the two trained groups was better in terms of success and time taken to complete the task, time spent consulting job instructions and number of times the instructor provided guidance.

  5. Heat transfer in fuel oil storage tank at thermal power plants with local fuel heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznetsova Svetlana A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of mathematical modeling of the thermal control system in fuel oil storage, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the region, in the framework of models of incompressible viscous fluid are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of non-stationary Navier-Stokes equations, the energy equation and the heat equation with appropriate initial and boundary conditions. Takes into account the processes of heat exchange region considered with the environment. A comparative analysis of the dependence of average temperatures of oil in the volume of the tank on the time calculated by the simplified (balanced method and obtained as a result of numerical simulation are performed.

  6. Results For The Third Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-11-26

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  7. Results For The Fourth Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2014 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  8. Results for the second quarter 2014 tank 50 WAC slurry sample chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States)

    2014-09-04

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  9. Results For The Second Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical And Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J.

    2013-07-31

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Second Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Saltstone Facility Engineering (SFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  10. Transfer coefficient of 137Cs from feed to cow milk in tropical region Kaiga, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, R M; James, J P; Dileep, B N; Mulla, R M; Reji, T K; Ravi, P M; Hegde, A G; Sarkar, P K

    2012-04-01

    In the transport model for the prediction of the concentration of (137)Cs in milk, the transfer coefficient from feed to milk, F(m), is an important parameter. Site-specific transfer coefficient from feed to cow's milk, for (137)Cs in the Kaiga environment, a nuclear power station site in India, determined over a period of 10 y is presented in this paper. The value is determined from (137)Cs concentration in milk and grass samples of the Kaiga region and the result ranged from 6.43E-03 to 1.09E-02 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 8.0E-03 d l(-1). The result is compared with that for (40)K, determined concurrently at the same region and ranged from 3.06E-03 to 3.48E-03 d l(-1) with a geometric mean value of 3.26E-03 d l(-1). This parameter is quite useful in decision-making for implementing countermeasures during a large area contamination with (137)Cs in tropical areas like Kaiga.

  11. Buoyancy and Dissolution of the Floating Crust Layer in Tank 241-SY-101 During Transfer and Back-Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CW Stewart; JH Sukamto; JM Cuta; SD Rassat

    1999-11-22

    To remediate gas retention in the floating crust layer and the potential for buoyant displacement gas releases from below the crust, waste will be transferred out of Hanford Tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101) in the fall of 1999 and back-diluted with water in several steps of about 100,000 gallons each. To evaluate the effects of back-dilution on the crust a static buoyancy model is derived that predicts crust and liquid surface elevations as a function of mixing efficiency and volume of water added during transfer and back-dilution. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate the basic physics involved and verify the operation of the models. A dissolution model is also developed to evaluate the effects of dissolution of solids on crust flotation. The model includes dissolution of solids suspended in the slurry as well as in the crust layers. The inventory and location of insoluble solids after dissolution of the soluble fraction are also tracked. The buoyancy model is applied to predict the crust behavior for the first back-dilution step in SY-101. Specific concerns addressed include conditions that could cause the crust to sink and back-dilution requirements that keep the base of the crust well above the mixer pump inlet.

  12. Technology Transfer: A Think Tank Approach to Managing Innovation in the Public Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, J. W., Ed.; And Others

    This report reviews a joint attempt of the United States Forest Service and the Naval Service to enhance the utilization of research results and the new technologies through improved effectiveness of technology transfer efforts. It consists of an introduction by J. W. Creighton and seven papers: (1) "Management for Change" by P. A.…

  13. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  14. Modelling scenarios on feed-to-fillet transfer of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in future feeds to farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntssen, Marc H G; Sanden, Monica; Hove, Helge; Lie, Øyvind

    2016-11-01

    The salmon feed composition has changed the last decade with a replacement of traditionally use of fish oil and fishmeal diets with vegetable ingredients and the use decontaminated fish oils, causing reduced concentrations of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in farmed Norwegian Atlantic salmon. The development of novel salmon feeds has prompted the need for prediction on dioxins and dl-PCB concentrations in future farmed salmon. Prediction on fillet dioxins and dl-PCB concentrations from different feed composition scenarios are made using a simple one-compartmental transfer model based on earlier established dioxin and dl-PCB congener specific uptake and elimination kinetics rates. The model is validated with two independent feeding trials, with a significant linear correlation (r(2) = 0.96, y = 1.0x, p dioxin and dl-PCB concentrations from 1999 (1.05 ng WHO2005-TEQs kg(-1)ww) and 2013 (0.57 ng WHO2005-TEQs kg(-1)ww) are in line with the data observed in national surveillance programs of those years (1.1 and 0.52 ng WHO2005-TEQs kg(-1)ww, respectively). Future use of high replacement and decontaminated oils feeds gave predicted fillet concentrations of 0.27 ng WHO2005-TEQs kg(-1)ww, which is near the limit of quantification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bioaccumulation of Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes in Tetrahymena thermophila by Direct Feeding or Trophic Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Monika; Petersen, Elijah J; Buchholz, Bruce A; Orias, Eduardo; Holden, Patricia A

    2016-08-16

    Consumer goods contain multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) that could be released during product life cycles into the environment, where their effects are uncertain. Here, we assessed MWCNT bioaccumulation in the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila via trophic transfer from bacterial prey (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) versus direct uptake from growth media. The experiments were conducted using (14)C-labeled MWCNT ((14)C-MWCNT) doses at or below 1 mg/L, which proved subtoxic since there were no adverse effects on the growth of the test organisms. A novel contribution of this study was the demonstration of the ability to quantify MWCNT bioaccumulation at low (sub μg/kg) concentrations accomplished by employing accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). After the treatments with MWCNTs at nominal concentrations of 0.01 mg/L and 1 mg/L, P. aeruginosa adsorbed considerable amounts of MWCNTs: (0.18 ± 0.04) μg/mg and (21.9 ± 4.2) μg/mg bacterial dry mass, respectively. At the administered MWCNT dose of 0.3 mg/L, T. thermophila accumulated up to (0.86 ± 0.3) μg/mg and (3.4 ± 1.1) μg/mg dry mass by trophic transfer and direct uptake, respectively. Although MWCNTs did not biomagnify in the microbial food chain, MWCNTs bioaccumulated in the protozoan populations regardless of the feeding regime, which could make MWCNTs bioavailable for organisms at higher trophic levels.

  16. Preliminary low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.

    1996-02-05

    A Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan was prepared. The plan supports the Phase I privatization effort by providing recommendations that may influence the technical content of the final request for proposal, and the interface control documents for the turnover of two double-shell tanks (DST) to the private contractors for use as feed tanks and the transfer of supernate to these tanks. Additionally, the preliminary schedule of feed staging activities will be useful to both RL and the private bidders during the contract negotiation period. A revised feed staging plan will be issued in August 1996 reflecting anticipated changes in the request for proposal, resolution of issues identified in this report, and completion of additional work scope.

  17. High cell density fed-batch fermentations for lipase production: feeding strategies and oxygen transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehmin, M N I; Annuar, M S M; Chisti, Y

    2013-11-01

    This review is focused on the production of microbial lipases by high cell density fermentation. Lipases are among the most widely used of the enzyme catalysts. Although lipases are produced by animals and plants, industrial lipases are sourced almost exclusively from microorganisms. Many of the commercial lipases are produced using recombinant species. Microbial lipases are mostly produced by batch and fed-batch fermentation. Lipases are generally secreted by the cell into the extracellular environment. Thus, a crude preparation of lipases can be obtained by removing the microbial cells from the fermentation broth. This crude cell-free broth may be further concentrated and used as is, or lipases may be purified from it to various levels. For many large volume applications, lipases must be produced at extremely low cost. High cell density fermentation is a promising method for low-cost production: it allows a high concentration of the biomass and the enzyme to be attained rapidly and this eases the downstream recovery of the enzyme. High density fermentation enhances enzyme productivity compared with the traditional submerged culture batch fermentation. In production of enzymes, a high cell density is generally achieved through fed-batch operation, not through perfusion culture which is cumbersome. The feeding strategies used in fed-batch fermentations for producing lipases and the implications of these strategies are discussed. Most lipase-producing microbial fermentations require oxygen. Oxygen transfer in such fermentations is discussed.

  18. Fuel reprocessing tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonda, Sumitora

    1998-10-09

    A tank of the present invention for spent fuels comprises a stainless steel tank main body for storing a highly corrosive dissolving solution, a steam jet pump disposed to the inside of the tank main body for transferring the dissolving solution to the outside of the tank main body and pipelines connecting them. With such a constitution, abnormal abrasion and drag of mechanical parts are less caused. In addition, a cleaning nozzle and a cleaning liquid pipeline which eliminates clogging of a sucking port of the steam jet pump if clogging is caused by sludges are disposed thereby enabling to avoid possibility of clogging. (T.M.)

  19. Modeling Droplet Heat and Mass Transfer during Spray Bar Pressure Control of the Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) Tank in Normal Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartuzova, O.; Kassemi, M.

    2016-01-01

    A CFD model for simulating pressure control in cryogenic storage tanks through the injection of a subcooled liquid into the ullage is presented and applied to the 1g MHTB spray bar cooling experiments. An Eulerian-Lagrangian approach is utilized to track the spray droplets and capture the interaction between the discrete droplets and the continuous ullage phase. The spray model is coupled with the VOF model by performing particle tracking in the ullage, removing particles from the ullage when they reach the interface, and then adding their contributions to the liquid. A new model for calculating the droplet-ullage heat and mass transfer is developed. In this model, a droplet is allowed to warm up to the saturation temperature corresponding to the ullage vapor pressure, after which it evaporates while remaining at the saturation temperature. The droplet model is validated against the results of the MHTB spray-bar cooling experiments with 50% and 90% tank fill ratios. The predictions of the present T-sat based model are compared with those of a previously developed kinetic-based droplet mass transfer model. The predictions of the two models regarding the evolving tank pressure and temperature distributions, as well as the droplets' trajectories and temperatures, are examined and compared in detail. Finally, the ullage pressure and local vapor and liquid temperature evolutions are validated against the corresponding data provided by the MHTB spray bar mixing experiment.

  20. Tanks and Tank Troops

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    operational in the Bundeswehr. These include the well-known U.S. M113 APC, the HS-30 APC, developed by the Swiss company Hispano- Suiza , as well as the...powered by the Leyland L-60 engine, and the French AMX-30, powered by the Hispano- Suiza HS-110 engine. The new Japanese STB-6 tank (ඒ") is...of all foreign series-produced tank engines. A complete tank engine replacement can be performed in four hours. The Hispano- Suiza HS-110 engine

  1. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS -TBACT- DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEMS SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAAS CC; KOVACH JL; KELLY SE; TURNER DA

    2010-06-24

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste through the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilizaiton Plant (WTP).

  2. EVALUATION OF BEST AVAILABLE CONTROL TECHNOLOGY FOR TOXICS (TBACT) DOUBLE SHELL TANK FARMS PRIMARY VENTILATION SYSTEM SUPPORTING WASTE TRANSFER OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KELLY SE; HAASS CC; KOVACH JL; TURNER DA

    2010-06-03

    This report is an evaluation of Best Available Control Technology for Toxics (tBACT) for installation and operation of the Hanford double shell (DST) tank primary ventilation systems. The DST primary ventilation systems are being modified to support Hanford's waste retrieval, mixing, and delivery of single shell tank (SST) and DST waste throught the DST storage system to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP).

  3. Results for the Third Quarter 2014 Tank 50 WAC slurry sample: Chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Charles L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-08

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2014 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System.

  4. Continued Evaluation of the Pulse-Echo Ultrasonic Instrument for Critical Velocity Determination during Hanford Tank Waste Transfer Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Burns, Carolyn A.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Thien, Michael G.; Wooley, Theodore A.

    2012-04-01

    Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an extensive evaluation of the ability of three ultrasonic instruments to detect critical velocity for a broad range of simulated Hanford nuclear waste streams containing particles with mean particle sizes of >50 microns. Evaluations were perform using the pipe loop at the Process Development Laboratory – East (PDL-E) at PNNL that was designed and built to evaluate the pipeline plugging issue during slurry transfer operations at the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant. In 2011 the ability of the ultrasonic PulseEcho system to detect critical velocity continued to be evaluated using the PDL-E flow loop and new simulants containing high-density particles with a mean particle size of < 15 microns. The PDL-E flow loop was modified for the 2011 testing to include a new test section that contained 5-MHz and 10-MHz ultrasonic transducers non-invasively mounted to schedule 40 pipe. The test section also contained reference instrumentation to facilitate direct comparison of the real-time PulseEcho transducer responses with experimentally observed critical velocities. This paper presents the results from the 2011 PulseEcho evaluation using a variety of simulated Hanford nuclear waste streams that were selected to encompass the expected high-level waste feed properties.

  5. Surfactant control of gas transfer velocity along an offshore coastal transect: results from a laboratory gas exchange tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, R.; Schneider-Zapp, K.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the physical and biogeochemical controls of air-sea gas exchange is necessary for establishing biogeochemical models for predicting regional- and global-scale trace gas fluxes and feedbacks. To this end we report the results of experiments designed to constrain the effect of surfactants in the sea surface microlayer (SML) on the gas transfer velocity (kw; cm h-1), seasonally (2012-2013) along a 20 km coastal transect (North East UK). We measured total surfactant activity (SA), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and chlorophyll a (Chl a) in the SML and in sub-surface water (SSW) and we evaluated corresponding kw values using a custom-designed air-sea gas exchange tank. Temporal SA variability exceeded its spatial variability. Overall, SA varied 5-fold between all samples (0.08 to 0.38 mg L-1 T-X-100), being highest in the SML during summer. SML SA enrichment factors (EFs) relative to SSW were ˜ 1.0 to 1.9, except for two values (0.75; 0.89: February 2013). The range in corresponding k660 (kw for CO2 in seawater at 20 °C) was 6.8 to 22.0 cm h-1. The film factor R660 (the ratio of k660 for seawater to k660 for "clean", i.e. surfactant-free, laboratory water) was strongly correlated with SML SA (r ≥ 0.70, p ≤ 0.002, each n = 16). High SML SA typically corresponded to k660 suppressions ˜ 14 to 51 % relative to clean laboratory water, highlighting strong spatiotemporal gradients in gas exchange due to varying surfactant in these coastal waters. Such variability should be taken account of when evaluating marine trace gas sources and sinks. Total CDOM absorbance (250 to 450 nm), the CDOM spectral slope ratio (SR = S275 - 295/S350 - 400), the 250 : 365 nm CDOM absorption ratio (E2 : E3), and Chl a all indicated spatial and temporal signals in the quantity and composition of organic matter in the SML and SSW. This prompts us to hypothesise that spatiotemporal variation in R660 and its relationship with SA is a consequence of compositional

  6. Control of heat transfer in continuous-feeding Czochralski-silicon crystal growth with a water-cooled jacket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wenhan; Liu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    The continuous-feeding Czochralski method is an effective method to reduce the cost of single crystal silicon. By promoting the crystal growth rate, the cost can be reduced further. However, more latent heat will be released at the melt-crystal interface under a high crystal growth rate. In this study, a water-cooled jacket was applied to enhance the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Quasi-steady-state numerical calculation was employed to investigate the impact of the water-cooled jacket on the heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface. Latent heat released during the crystal growth process at the melt-crystal interface and absorbed during feedstock melting at the feeding zone was modeled in the simulations. The results show that, by using the water-cooled jacket, heat transfer in the growing crystal is enhanced significantly. Melt-crystal interface deflection and thermal stress increase simultaneously due to the increase of radial temperature at the melt-crystal interface. With a modified heat shield design, heat transfer at the melt-crystal interface is well controlled. The crystal growth rate can be increased by 20%.

  7. Development and Technology Transfer of the Syncro Blue Tube (Gabriel) Magnetically GuidedFeeding Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    pneumonias. Tube placement does not require costly fluroscopy or endoscopy. Any nurse who can place a nasogastric tube can place this feeding tube without...time required to secure FDA 510K 160787 clearance. FDA clearance was awarded August 9, 2016 for 510K160787 Table of Contents I. Introduction...small bowel feeding tube and developing a smaller version of the technology (8 Fr.). The basic design of the technology is to provide an easy and

  8. Tank characterization report for double-shell tank 241-AP-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LAMBERT, S.L.

    1999-02-23

    In April 1993, Double-Shell Tank 241-AP-102 was sampled to determine waste feed characteristics for the Hanford Grout Disposal Program. This Tank Characterization Report presents an overview of that tank sampling and analysis effort, and contains observations regarding waste characteristics, expected bulk inventory, and concentration data for the waste contents based on this latest sampling data and information on the history of the tank. Finally, this report makes recommendations and conclusions regarding tank operational safety issues.

  9. Transfer function-based modelling for voltage oscillation phenomena in PWM motor drives with long feeding cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Choel; Park, Ju H.

    2010-04-01

    In this article, a transfer function-based modelling is proposed to investigate voltage oscillation phenomena, i.e. over-voltage at the motor terminal, associated with pulse-width modulation (PWM) inverter-fed motor drives with long feeding cables. As such, the long feeding cable is assumed to be a distortionless transmission line; then, a bounce diagram and time-harmonic method are utilised to derive a simple model with a minimum computational burden that is easy to realise using the Matlab/Simulink software package. Furthermore, the model takes account of the inverter output and the motor terminal filters, which are commonly used to suppress the motor terminal over-voltage. The model accuracy is verified by a comparison with the circuit-oriented software, OrCAD/PSpice, simulation results.

  10. The relevance of gene transfer to the safety of food and feed derived from genetically modified (GM) plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van den Eede, G.; Aarts, H. J.; Buhk, H. J.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000, the thematic network ENTRANSFOOD was launched to assess four different topics that are all related to the testing or assessment of food containing or produced from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Each of the topics was linked to a European Commission (EC)-funded large shared cost...... action (see http://www.entransfood.com). Since the exchange of genetic information through horizontal (lateral) gene transfer (HGT) might play a more important role, in quantity and quality, than hitherto imagined, a working group dealing with HGT in the context of food and feed safety was established....... This working group was linked to the GMOBILITY project (GMOBILITY, 2003) and the results of the deliberations are laid down in this review paper. HGT is reviewed in relation to the potential risks of consuming food or feed derived from transgenic crops. First, the mechanisms for obtaining transgenic crops...

  11. 低温平底贮槽传热分析与设计%Analysis and Design of Heat Transfer in Flat Bottom Cryogenic Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛璞琳

    2013-01-01

    低温贮槽受到环境影响,外界热量会不可避免地传入低温贮槽内部,其日蒸发率直接关系到贮槽投产后的经济效益。行业标准JB/T 9077-1999《粉末普通绝热贮槽》中按照有效容积,分别给出了充满率、绝热厚度、日蒸发率等重要指标,通过计算机运算,分析了这些因素对传热的影响,及其与贮槽结构设计之间的关系,对规范中关于绝热厚度的规定进行了解读分析,同时探讨了充满率规定值存在的问题;并提出了如何提高贮槽费效比的设计思路。%The heat from the outside would inevitably introduce into the cryogenic tank ,when the cryogen-ic tank was influenced by the environment .Consequently , the economic benefit is directly related to the rate of evaporation after the tanks are put into production .The important indicators ,such as fullness rate , thermal insulation thickness ,daily evaporation rate and so on ,are given according to the industry standard JB/T 9077-1999 “Conventional Powder Insulation Tanks”.The affects of these indicators on heat trans-fer and the structure design of the cryogenic tank were analyzed through computer arithmetics .The provi-sion of specification for thermal insulation thickness was deeply analyzed;meanwhile , the problems that exist in the specified value of fullness rate were also discussed ,and the design idea about how to enhance the cost-benefit ratio of the cryogenic tank was proposed .

  12. Variation in the transfer of radionuclide to freshwater fish: phylogeny or feeding strategy?

    OpenAIRE

    Yankovich, T.; Beresford, N. A.; Wood, M.; Willey, N.

    2011-01-01

    For both terrestrial vascular plants and marine organisms if has been demonstrated the differences in radionuclide transfer between species can be related to their evolutionary history or phylogeny. Relationships between phylogeny and radionuclide transfer offer a potential approach to help to derive best estimate values if data for a given species-radionuclide are not available. In this paper we describe the analyses of data for radionuclide transfer to freshwater fish from a data base re...

  13. Improvement of the conversion of polystyrene to polyhydroxyalkanoate through the manipulation of the microbial aspect of the process: a nitrogen feeding strategy for bacterial cells in a stirred tank reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Miriam; Ward, Patrick G; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2007-11-01

    Pseudomonas putida CA-3 has been shown to accumulate the biodegradable plastic polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) when fed styrene or polystyrene pyrolysis oil as the sole carbon and energy source under nitrogen limiting growth conditions (67 mg nitrogen per litre at time 0). Batch fermentation of P. putida CA-3 grown on styrene or polystyrene pyrolysis oil in a stirred tank reactor yields PHA at 30% of the cell dry weight (CDW). The feeding of nitrogen at a rate of 1mg N/l/h resulted in a 1.1-fold increase in the percentage of CDW accumulated as PHA. An increase in the rate of nitrogen feeding up to 1.5mg N/l/h resulted in further increases in the percentage of the cell dry weight composed of PHA. However, feeding rates of 1.75 and 2mg N/l/h resulted in dramatic decreases in the percentage of cell dry weight composed of PHA. Interestingly nitrogen was not detectable in the growth medium after 16 h, in any of the growth conditions tested. A higher cell density was observed in cells supplied with nitrogen and thus further increases in the overall production of PHA were observed through nitrogen feeding. The highest yield of PHA was 0.28 g PHA per g styrene supplied with a nitrogen feeding rate of 1.5mg/l/h.

  14. EVALUATION OF FROST HEAVE ON WASTE TRANSFER LINES WITH SHALLOW DEPTHS IN DST (DOUBLE SHELL TANK) FARMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HAQ MA

    2009-05-12

    The purpose of this document is to evaluate the effect of frost heave on waste transfer lines with shallow depths in DST farms. Because of the insulation, well compacted sandy material around waste transfer lines, the type of sandy and gravel soil, and relatively low precipitation at Hanford site, it is concluded that waste transfer lines with one foot of soil covers (sandy cushion material and insulation) are not expected to undergo frost heave damaging effects.

  15. Effect of oxygen transfer rate on cellulases production in stirred tank and internal-loop airlift bioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Michelin, Michele; Mota,André; Silva,Daniel Pereira da; A.A. Vicente; Teixeira, J. A; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T. M.

    2013-01-01

    In an aerobic process, such as enzymes production by fungi, the oxygen supply into fermentation medium is an important factor in order to achieve good productivities. Oxygen has an important role in metabolism and microorganism growth, being of extreme importance the control of both the dissolved oxygen transfer rate into the bioreactor and the oxygen consumption by the microorganism [1,2]. Dissolved oxygen transfer rate can be analyzed and described by means of the mass transfer coefficient,...

  16. Comparative efficacy of Bentonite clay, activated charcoal and Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans in regulating the feed-to-tissue transfer of mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, Sheraz Ahmed; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Hassan, Zahoor Ul; Saleemi, Muhammad Kashif; Saqib, Muhammad; Khatoon, Aisha; Akhter, Masood

    2017-07-11

    Mycotoxins contamination in animal products and by-products is a persistent threat to the food and feed industry. The present study was designed to evaluate the comparative inhibitory effects of Bentonite (BN), activated charcoal (AC) and a newly discovered yeast, Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans (TM), against feed-to-tissue transfer of mycotoxins. A dose dependent increase as determined by HPLC, in the residues of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was exhibited in the groups of birds fed AFB1 and OTA alone. The dietary addition of BN and AC to AFB1-contaminated diets resulted in a 41-87% and 16-72% decrease in AFB1 residues in liver of the birds, respectively. However, this decrease was non-significant with addition of TM as AFB1 binder. A partial to non-significant protection was observed by dietary BN and AC, against OTA residues, while a significant decrease in OTA residues (38-84%) was noted in TM-OTA co-fed groups. The order of efficacy in terms of lowering AFB1 residues in the liver was BN > AC > TM, while against OTA it was TM > BN > AC. The findings of present study suggest that, based upon the nature of target mycotoxins, a mixture of multi-mycotoxins binders/detoxifiers should be incorporated in the animal feeds. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. The relevance of gene transfer to the safety of food and feed derived from genetically modified (GM) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Eede, G; Aarts, H; Buhk, H-J; Corthier, G; Flint, H J; Hammes, W; Jacobsen, B; Midtvedt, T; van der Vossen, J; von Wright, A; Wackernagel, W; Wilcks, A

    2004-07-01

    In 2000, the thematic network ENTRANSFOOD was launched to assess four different topics that are all related to the testing or assessment of food containing or produced from genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Each of the topics was linked to a European Commission (EC)-funded large shared cost action (see http://www.entransfood.com). Since the exchange of genetic information through horizontal (lateral) gene transfer (HGT) might play a more important role, in quantity and quality, than hitherto imagined, a working group dealing with HGT in the context of food and feed safety was established. This working group was linked to the GMOBILITY project (GMOBILITY, 2003) and the results of the deliberations are laid down in this review paper. HGT is reviewed in relation to the potential risks of consuming food or feed derived from transgenic crops. First, the mechanisms for obtaining transgenic crops are described. Next, HGT mechanisms and its possible evolutionary role are described. The use of marker genes is presented in detail as a special case for genes that may pose a risk. Furthermore, the exposure to GMOs and in particular to genetically modified (GM) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is discussed as part of the total risk assessment. The review finishes off with a number of conclusions related to GM food and feed safety. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview to assist risk assessors as well as regulators and the general public in understanding the safety issues related to these mechanisms.

  18. Simultaneously precise frequency transfer and time synchronization using feed-forward compensation technique via 120 km fiber link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Lu, Jinlong; Cui, Yifan; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xing; Tian, Xusheng; Ci, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Wu, Hong; Tang, Tingsong; Shi, Kebin; Zhang, Zhigang

    2015-12-22

    Precision time synchronization between two remote sites is desired in many applications such as global positioning satellite systems, long-baseline interferometry, coherent radar detection and fundamental physics constant measurements. The recently developed frequency dissemination technologies based on optical fiber link have improved the transfer instability to the level of 10(-19)/day at remote location. Therefore it is possible to keep clock oscillation at remote locations continuously corrected, or to reproduce a "virtual" clock on the remote location. However the initial alignment and the correction of 1 pps timing signal from time to time are still required, besides the highly stabilized clock frequency transfer between distant locations. Here we demonstrate a time synchronization based on an ultra-stable frequency transfer system via 120-km commercial fiber link by transferring an optical frequency comb. Both the phase noise compensation in frequency dissemination and temporal basis alignment in time synchronization were implemented by a feed-forward digital compensation (FFDC) technique. The fractional frequency instability was measured to be 6.18 × 10(-20) at 2000 s. The timing deviation of time synchronization was measured to be 0.6 ps in 1500 s. This technique also can be applied in multi-node fiber network topology.

  19. Simultaneously precise frequency transfer and time synchronization using feed-forward compensation technique via 120 km fiber link

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xing; Lu, Jinlong; Cui, Yifan; Zhang, Jian; Lu, Xing; Tian, Xusheng; Ci, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Wu, Hong; Tang, Tingsong; Shi, Kebin; Zhang, Zhigang

    2015-12-01

    Precision time synchronization between two remote sites is desired in many applications such as global positioning satellite systems, long-baseline interferometry, coherent radar detection and fundamental physics constant measurements. The recently developed frequency dissemination technologies based on optical fiber link have improved the transfer instability to the level of 10-19/day at remote location. Therefore it is possible to keep clock oscillation at remote locations continuously corrected, or to reproduce a “virtual” clock on the remote location. However the initial alignment and the correction of 1 pps timing signal from time to time are still required, besides the highly stabilized clock frequency transfer between distant locations. Here we demonstrate a time synchronization based on an ultra-stable frequency transfer system via 120-km commercial fiber link by transferring an optical frequency comb. Both the phase noise compensation in frequency dissemination and temporal basis alignment in time synchronization were implemented by a feed-forward digital compensation (FFDC) technique. The fractional frequency instability was measured to be 6.18 × 10-20 at 2000 s. The timing deviation of time synchronization was measured to be 0.6 ps in 1500 s. This technique also can be applied in multi-node fiber network topology.

  20. 14 CFR 23.957 - Flow between interconnected tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flow between interconnected tanks. 23.957... Fuel System § 23.957 Flow between interconnected tanks. (a) It must be impossible, in a gravity feed system with interconnected tank outlets, for enough fuel to flow between the tanks to cause an...

  1. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  2. Enhanced Waste Tank Level Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M.R.

    1999-06-24

    'With the increased sensitivity of waste-level measurements in the H-Area Tanks and with periods of isolation, when no mass transfer occurred for certain tanks, waste-level changes have been recorded with are unexplained.'

  3. Small RNAs from Bemisia tabaci are transferred to Solanum lycopersicum phloem during feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula J.M. Van Kleeff

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest to a broad range of host plants, including many economically important crops such as tomato. These insects serve as a vector for various devastating plant viruses. It is known that whiteflies are capable of manipulating host-defense responses, potentially mediated by effector molecules in the whitefly saliva. We hypothesized that, beside putative effector proteins, small RNAs (sRNA are delivered by B. tabaci into the phloem, where they may play a role in manipulating host plant defenses. There is already evidence to suggest that sRNAs can mediate the host-pathogen dialogue. It has been shown that Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold disease, takes advantage of the plant sRNA machinery to selectively silence host genes involved in defense signaling.Here we identified sRNAs originating from B. tabaci in the phloem of tomato plants on which they are feeding. sRNAs were isolated and sequenced from tomato phloem of whitefly-infested and control plants as well as from the nymphs themselves, control leaflets and from the infested leaflets. Using stem-loop RT-PCR, three whitefly sRNAs have been verified to be present in whitefly-infested leaflets that were also present in the whitefly-infested phloem sample. Our results show that whitefly sRNAs are indeed present in tomato tissues upon feeding, and they appear to be mobile in the phloem. Their role in the host-insect interaction can now be investigated.

  4. Small RNAs from Bemisia tabaci Are Transferred to Solanum lycopersicum Phloem during Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleeff, Paula J. M.; Galland, Marc; Schuurink, Robert C.; Bleeker, Petra M.

    2016-01-01

    The phloem-feeding whitefly Bemisia tabaci is a serious pest to a broad range of host plants, including many economically important crops such as tomato. These insects serve as a vector for various devastating plant viruses. It is known that whiteflies are capable of manipulating host-defense responses, potentially mediated by effector molecules in the whitefly saliva. We hypothesized that, beside putative effector proteins, small RNAs (sRNA) are delivered by B. tabaci into the phloem, where they may play a role in manipulating host plant defenses. There is already evidence to suggest that sRNAs can mediate the host-pathogen dialogue. It has been shown that Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mold disease, takes advantage of the plant sRNA machinery to selectively silence host genes involved in defense signaling. Here we identified sRNAs originating from B. tabaci in the phloem of tomato plants on which they are feeding. sRNAs were isolated and sequenced from tomato phloem of whitefly-infested and control plants as well as from the nymphs themselves, control leaflets, and from the infested leaflets. Using stem-loop RT-PCR, three whitefly sRNAs have been verified to be present in whitefly-infested leaflets that were also present in the whitefly-infested phloem sample. Our results show that whitefly sRNAs are indeed present in tomato tissues upon feeding, and they appear to be mobile in the phloem. Their role in the host-insect interaction can now be investigated. PMID:27933079

  5. Single Shell Tank (SST) Retrieval Project Plan for Tank 241-C-104 Retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DEFIGH PRICE, C.

    2000-09-20

    In support of the SST Interim Closure Project, Project W-523 ''Tank 241-C-104 Waste Retrieval System'' will provide systems for retrieval and transfer of radioactive waste from tank 241-C-104 (C-104) to the DST staging tank 241-AY-101 (AY-101). At the conclusion of Project W-523, a retrieval system will have been designed and tested to meet the requirements for Acceptance of Beneficial Use and been turned over to operations. Completion of construction and operations of the C-104 retrieval system will meet the recently proposed near-term Tri-Party Agreement milestone, M-45-03F (Proposed Tri-Party Agreement change request M-45-00-01A, August, 30 2000) for demonstrating limits of retrieval technologies on sludge and hard heels in SSTs, reduce near-term storage risks associated with aging SSTs, and provide feed for the tank waste treatment plant. This Project Plan documents the methodology for managing Project W-523; formalizes responsibilities; identifies key interfaces required to complete the retrieval action; establishes the technical, cost, and schedule baselines; and identifies project organizational requirements pertaining to the engineering process such as environmental, safety, quality assurance, change control, design verification, testing, and operational turnover.

  6. Care and Feeding of Transfer Students: a First-Semester Seminar Helps Students Thrive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, S.; Sparks, D. W.; Newman, J.

    2016-12-01

    Transfer students from community colleges make up a large and increasingly important part of undergraduate geology majors. These students transferring into a large university are regarded upperclassmen by themselves and the University, but in many ways their development stage is similar to freshmen. These students are also isolated because they are taking classes out of sequence, and not in a cohort. Difficulties in their first semester will affect the rest of their academic career, or even cut it short. The Department of Geology and Geophysics developed a mandatory seminar for transfer students in their first semester. The goals of this seminar are to develop relationships between students in the cohort and with faculty and staff, develop academic success skills and learn how to prepare for and pursue a career in geology and geophysics. Each class meeting starts with a family-style meal, during which academic advisor inquires about their week, encourages them to share any issues or questions that have arisen, and informs them about department events. Then the advisor, a member of the G&G faculty or a representative from campus resources (such as Academic Honor Council, Career Center, Center for Teaching Excellence, Academic Success Center) leads a discussion or gives a presentation. Topics include time management, tutor availability, academic coaching, career paths, research opportunities in the department, and employer expectations. Finally students write a short reflection about that week's meeting and their own experiences. There is also a geological field trip to introduce students to rocks in the field and to the build their relationships with each other and to create a strong transfer cohort. The transfer seminar has been a low-cost and effective strategy to help students thrive. Retention of transfer students beyond the first year has increased, GPA's increased, and significantly more students got involved in undergraduate research projects. Several

  7. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant full-scale feed preparation testing with water and process simulant slurries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaskill, J.R.; Larson, D.E.; Abrigo, G.P. [and others

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant was intended to convert selected, pretreated defense high-level waste and transuranic waste from the Hanford Site into a borosilicate glass. A full-scale testing program was conducted with nonradioactive waste simulants to develop information for process and equipment design of the feed-preparation system. The equipment systems tested included the Slurry Receipt and Adjustment Tank, Slurry Mix Evaporator, and Melter-Feed Tank. The areas of data generation included heat transfer (boiling, heating, and cooling), slurry mixing, slurry pumping and transport, slurry sampling, and process chemistry. 13 refs., 129 figs., 68 tabs.

  8. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  9. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2009-01-01

    on the natural buoyancy resulting in downward flow along the tank side walls due to heat loss of the tank and the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank......Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal stratification and natural convection in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank during standby periods are presented. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by heat loss are investigated...

  10. 19 CFR 151.44 - Storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Storage tanks. 151.44 Section 151.44 Customs... Storage tanks. (a) Plans and gauge tables. When petroleum or petroleum products subject to duty at a specific rate per barrel are imported in bulk in tank vessels and are to be transferred into shore...

  11. Novel approach for interlaboratory transfer of real-time PCR methods: detecting bovine meat and bone meal in feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Marta; Fumière, Olivier; Boix, Ana; Marien, Aline; Berben, Gilbert; von Holst, Christoph

    2009-07-01

    The availability of robust methods for the species-specific detection of meat and bone meal (MBM) in compound feedingstuffs is an important prerequisite to enforce current and upcoming European legislation on the use of processed animal proteins in animal nutrition. Among possible methods, those based on DNA turned out to be a reliable tool for this aim, since DNA is a quite thermostable molecule able to resist severe heat treatments applied in the manufacturing of animal meals. The application of such methods by control laboratories implies that the method has been validated including an assessment of its robustness. Successful transferability between laboratories is considered an important robustness criterion of the method. However, corresponding guidelines regarding the design of such a study relevant to this field are missing. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of an alternative concept that was applied to check for the transferability of a qualitative assay for the detection of banned MBM in feedingstuffs at trace level based on real-time PCR. The concept was based on an experimental nested design applying analysis of variance (ANOVA) that was conducted independently in two laboratories and which allows for establishing major factors influencing the result of analysis. Statistical assessment of the results confirmed the importance of the DNA extraction/purification step utilised, whereas the PCR step turned out to be a minor factor regarding the overall variability of the results. Furthermore, blind samples comprised of compound feed adulterated with MBM at 0.1% and blank compound feed were correctly classified as "positive" or "negative" samples, thus confirming fitness of purpose for the method. This approach can be of interest for other research groups working in the development of real-time PCR methods and in their use by control laboratories.

  12. Think Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    A new inspection robot from Solex Robotics Systems was designed to eliminate hazardous inspections of petroleum and chemical storage tanks. The submersible robot, named Maverick, is used to inspect the bottoms of tanks, keeping the tanks operational during inspection. Maverick is able to provide services that will make manual tank inspections obsolete. While the inspection is conducted, Maverick's remote human operators remain safe outside of the tank. The risk to human health and life is now virtually eliminated. The risk to the environment is also minimal because there is a reduced chance of spillage from emptying and cleaning the tanks, where previously, tons of pollutants were released through the process of draining and refilling.

  13. Theoretical Prediction of Volumetric Mass Transfer Coefficient (kLa for Designing an Aeration Tank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilles Hebrard

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this present paper is to propose a new theoretical prediction method of the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa occurring in a gas-liquid contactor based on the dissociation of the liquid-side mass transfer coefficient (kL and the interfacial area (a. The calculated results have been compared with those obtained with the experimental process in a small-scale bubble column. Tap water was used as liquid phase and an elastic membrane with a single orifice as gas sparger. Only the dynamic bubble regime was considered in this work (ReOR= 1501000 and We = 0.0024. This study has clearly shown that, whatever the operating conditions under test, the generated bubble diameters (dB, bubble frequency (fB and their associated rising velocities (UB were the important parameters in order to predict, not only the values of kLa, but also the values of a and of kL. Moreover, these obtained results could provide a better understanding of the parameters which influence the oxygen transfer mechanism in the aeration process. By using the correlations to estimate these bubble hydrodynamics (dB and UB, it diminishes times for measuring the associated mass transfer parameters and also their experimental complexities and errors.

  14. Thermal stratification in a hot water tank established by heat loss from the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents numerical investigations of thermal stratification in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank established by standby heat loss from the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are calculated by means of validated...... computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The measured heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is used as input to the CFD model. Parametric studies are carried out using the validated models to investigate the influence on thermal stratification of the tank by the downward flow...... and the corresponding upward flow in the central parts of the tank. Tank design parameters such as tank volume, height to diameter ratio and insulation and different initial conditions of the tank are investigated.It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced by the natural convection and how...

  15. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-10-11

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O&M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis.

  16. Radiocesium uptake, trophic transfer, and exposure in three estuarine fish with contrasting feeding habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Ke; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of different environmental factors on (137)Cs uptake in three subtropical estuarine fish, and the trophic transfer of (137)Cs in the fish from different preys. Our data showed that salinity, potassium, and temperature had appreciable effects on the dissolved uptake of (137)Cs in the fish, but no conclusive relationship was found between the effects of salinity and potassium concentration on the uptake. The dietary assimilation of (137)Cs was 51-55% in the omnivorous fish Siganus fuscescens when fed with macroalgae or bivalve tissues, and was much lower than those in carnivorous fish Sebastiscus marmoratus and Jarbua terapon (70-79%). Dietary pathway dominated the (137)Cs accumulation in the omnivorous and carnivorous fish, both of which exhibited strong potential to biomagnify (137)Cs from their preys. Using the biokinetic model, we demonstrated that salinity and temperature only had minor effects on the overall accumulation of (137)Cs in carnivorous species living in estuarine environment. Modeling calculation suggested that it would take 37-80 days for the fish to reach 95% of steady-state concentration, and lower somatic growth increased the time to reach steady-state in the fish.

  17. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AW-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AW-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

  18. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for the S-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-25

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on S-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

  19. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BX-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on BX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  20. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AY-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C H; Stroup, J L; Funk, J. W.

    1997-03-12

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AY-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

  1. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AP-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AP-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

  2. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AN-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Stroup, J.L.; Funk, J.W., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-03-06

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AN-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southeast Quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas.

  3. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for B-Tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on B-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  4. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for the SX-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-25

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on SX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

  5. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for C-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on C-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  6. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BY-Tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on BY-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  7. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for A-Tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on A-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  8. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for AX-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-06-28

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on AX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information,temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the northeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 East Area.

  9. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate of U-tank fram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-26

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature plots, liquid observation well plots, chemical analyte and radionuclide inventories for the Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for the Southwest Quadrant of the Hanford 200 West Area.

  10. Supporting document for the SW Quadrant Historical Tank Content Estimate for U-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical characterization information gathered on U-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate of the SW Quadrant at the Hanford 200 West Area.

  11. SINDA/FLUINT Stratified Tank Modeling for Cryrogenic Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakowski, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A general purpose SINDA/FLUINT (S/F) stratified tank model was created to simulate self-pressurization and axial jet TVS; Stratified layers in the vapor and liquid are modeled using S/F lumps.; The stratified tank model was constructed to permit incorporating the following additional features:, Multiple or singular lumps in the liquid and vapor regions of the tank, Real gases (also mixtures) and compressible liquids, Venting, pressurizing, and draining, Condensation and evaporation/boiling, Wall heat transfer, Elliptical, cylindrical, and spherical tank geometries; Extensive user logic is used to allow detailed tailoring - Don't have to rebuilt everything from scratch!!; Most code input for a specific case is done through the Registers Data Block:, Lump volumes are determined through user input:; Geometric tank dimensions (height, width, etc); Liquid level could be input as either a volume percentage of fill level or actual liquid level height

  12. Pad B Liquid Hydrogen Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Felicia

    2007-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center is home to two liquid hydrogen storage tanks, one at each launch pad of Launch Complex 39. The liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad B has a significantly higher boil off rate that the liquid hydrogen storage tank at Launch Pad A. This research looks at various calculations concerning the at Launch Pad B in an attempt to develop a solution to the excess boil off rate. We will look at Perlite levels inside the tank, Boil off rates, conductive heat transfer, and radiant heat transfer through the tank. As a conclusion to the research, we will model the effects of placing an external insulation to the tank in order to reduce the boil off rate and increase the economic efficiency of the liquid hydrogen storage tanks.

  13. ANALYSIS OF SAMPLES FROM TANK 6F CHEMICAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Fink, S.

    2010-02-02

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is preparing Tank 6F for closure. The first step in preparing the tank for closure is mechanical sludge removal. In mechanical sludge removal, personnel add liquid (e.g., inhibited water or supernate salt solution) to the tank to form a slurry. They mix the liquid and sludge with pumps, and transfer the slurry to another tank for further processing. Mechanical sludge removal effectively removes the bulk of the sludge from a tank, but is not able to remove all of the sludge. In Tank 6F, SRR estimated a sludge heel of 5,984 gallons remained after mechanical sludge removal. To remove this sludge heel, SRR performed chemical cleaning. The chemical cleaning included two oxalic acid strikes, a spray wash, and a water wash. SRR conducted the first oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 110,830 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F and mixed the contents of Tank 6F with two submersible mixer pumps (SMPs) for approximately four days. Following the mixing, they transferred 115,903 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. The SMPs were operating when the transfer started and were shut down approximately five hours after the transfer started. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 2,400 gallons of solids remained in the tank. SRR conducted the second oxalic acid strike as follows. Personnel added 28,881 gallons of 8 wt % oxalic acid to Tank 6F. Following the acid addition, they visually inspected the tank and transferred 32,247 gallons of Tank 6F material to Tank 7F. SRR collected a sample of the liquid from Tank 6F and submitted it to SRNL for analysis. Mapping of the tank following the transfer indicated that 3,248 gallons of solids remained in the tank. Following the oxalic acid strikes, SRR performed Spray Washing with oxalic acid to remove waste collected on internal structures, cooling coils, tank top internals, and tank

  14. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  15. Nitrogen tank

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    Wanted The technical file about the pressure vessel RP-270 It concerns the Nitrogen tank, 60m3, 22 bars, built in 1979, and installed at Point-2 for the former L3 experiment. If you are in possession of this file, or have any files about an equivalent tank (probably between registered No. RP-260 and -272), please contact Marc Tavlet, the ALICE Glimos.

  16. Use of Model-Based Nutrient Feeding for Improved Production of Artemisinin by Hairy Roots of Artemisia Annua in a Modified Stirred Tank Bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Nivedita; Srivastava, Ashok K

    2015-09-01

    Artemisinin has been indicated to be a potent drug for the cure of malaria. Batch growth and artemisinin production kinetics of hairy root cultures of Artemisia annua were studied under shake flask conditions which resulted in accumulation of 12.49 g/L biomass and 0.27 mg/g artemisinin. Using the kinetic data, a mathematical model was identified to understand and optimize the system behavior. The developed model was then extrapolated to design nutrient feeding strategies during fed-batch cultivation for enhanced production of artemisinin. In one of the fed-batch cultivation, sucrose (37 g/L) feeding was done at a constant feed rate of 0.1 L/day during 10-15 days, which led to improved artemisinin accumulation of 0.77 mg/g. The second strategy of fed-batch hairy root cultivation involved maintenance of pseudo-steady state sucrose concentration (20.8 g/L) during 10-15 days which resulted in artemisinin accumulation of 0.99 mg/g. Fed-batch cultivation (with the maintenance of pseudo-steady state of substrate) of Artemisia annua hairy roots was, thereafter, implemented in bioreactor cultivation, which featured artemisinin accumulation of 1.0 mg/g artemisinin in 16 days of cultivation. This is the highest reported artemisinin yield by hairy root cultivation in a bioreactor.

  17. Double Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-04-27

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery. This subsystem specification establishes the interface and performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during the design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem. The DST Monitor and Control Subsystem consists of the new and existing equipment that will be used to provide tank farm operators with integrated local monitoring and control of the DST systems to support Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). New equipment will provide automatic control and safety interlocks where required and provide operators with visibility into the status of DST subsystem operations (e.g., DST mixer pump operation and DST waste transfers) and the ability to manually control specified DST functions as necessary. This specification is intended to be the basis for new project/installations (W-521, etc.). This specification is not intended to retroactively affect previously established project design criteria without specific direction by the program.

  18. Technical bases for leak detection surveillance of waste storage tanks. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M.G.; Badden, J.J.

    1995-02-13

    This document provides the technical bases for specification limits, monitoring frequencies and baselines used for leak detection and intrusion (for single shell tanks only) in all single and double shell radioactive waste storage tanks, waste transfer lines, and most catch tanks and receiver tanks in the waste tank farms and associated areas at Hanford.

  19. Suppressive effect of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls transfer from feed to eggs of laying hens by activated carbon as feed additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Hiroyuki; Honda, Katsuhisa; Iwakiri, Ryoji; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Tanimura, Nobuhiko

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the suppressive effect of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) transfer from the feed to the eggs of laying hens by using activated carbon as a feed additive. Four groups of six hens (White Leghorn egg-layers; age, 11weeks) were housed as two control groups and two exposure groups for a period of 20weeks. Two control groups were fed with either the basal feed "Control" or basal feed additing activated carbon "Control+C". Another two exposure groups were fed with feed contaminated (about 6ng TEQ kg(-1) feed) by standard solutions of PCDDs/PCDFs and DL-PCBs "Exposure" alone and contaminated feed adding activated carbon "Exposure+C". There was no significant effect on each groups for the growth rate, biochemical blood components, and egg production: these were around the standard levels for poultry in general. Moreover the results in this study showed the availability of activated carbon as a feed additive owing to the reduction in the risk of food pollution by PCDDs/PCDFs and DL-PCBs. The concentration in the eggs of the Exposure group gradually increased following the start of egg-laying but reached a steady state after about 1month. In contrast, the concentration for the Exposure+C group was stationary and below the maximum EU level (6pgTEQg(-1)fat). In comparison to the Exposure group, the Exposure+C group showed a significant decline in the percentage of bioaccumulation into the egg. This reduction due to activated carbon was also observed in the muscle and abdominal fat. The reductions were compound- and congener-dependent for DL-PCBs as follows: PCDDs/PCDFs, non-ortho-PCBs, and mono-ortho-PCBs were more than 90%, 80%, and 50%, respectively, irrespective of the type of tissues. Fat soluble vitamin concentrations in the eggs of the Exposure+C group showed lower trends than the Exposure group. The γ-tocopherol and

  20. Results for the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 Tank 50H Salt Solution Sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-01-11

    In this memorandum, the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sample of Tank 50H salt solution are presented in tabulated form. The Fourth Quarter CY15 Tank 50H samples were obtained on October 29, 2015 and received at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) on October 30, 2015. The information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering for the transfer of aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Production Facility, where the waste will be treated and disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility. This memorandum compares results, where applicable, to Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) limits and targets. Data pertaining to the regulatory limits for Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) metals will be documented at a later time per the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP) for the Tank 50H saltstone task. The chemical and radionuclide contaminant results from the characterization of the Fourth Quarter Calendar Year 2015 (CY15) sampling of Tank 50H were requested by SRR personnel and details of the testing are presented in the SRNL Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan.

  1. Functional Analysis for Double Shell Tank (DST) Subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SMITH, D.F.

    2000-08-22

    This functional analysis identifies the hierarchy and describes the subsystem functions that support the Double-Shell Tank (DST) System described in HNF-SD-WM-TRD-007, System Specification for the Double-Shell Tank System. Because of the uncertainty associated with the need for upgrades of the existing catch tanks supporting the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) mission, catch tank functions are not addressed in this document. The functions identified herein are applicable to the Phase 1 WFD mission only.

  2. Underground Storage Tanks - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  3. Alternatives Generation and Analysis for Heat Removal from High Level Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS, W.L.

    2000-06-15

    This document addresses the preferred combination of design and operational configurations to provide heat removal from high-level waste tanks during Phase 1 waste feed delivery to prevent the waste temperature from exceeding tank safety requirement limits. An interim decision for the preferred method to remove the heat from the high-level waste tanks during waste feed delivery operations is presented herein.

  4. Analysis of Tank 13H (HTF-13-14-156, 157) Surface and Subsurface Supernatant Samples in Support of Enrichment Control, Corrosion Control and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. N. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Advanced Characterization and Processing

    2015-02-18

    The 2H Evaporator system includes mainly Tank 43H (feed tank) and Tank 38H (drop tank) with Tank 22H acting as the DWPF recycle receipt tank. The Tank 13H is being characterized to ensure that it can be transferred to the 2H evaporator. This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 13H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples to ensure compliance with the Enrichment Control Program (ECP), the Corrosion Control Program and Sodium Aluminosilicate Formation Potential in the Evaporator. The U-235 mass divided by the total uranium averaged 0.00799 (0.799 % uranium enrichment) for both the surface and subsurface Tank 13H samples. This enrichment is slightly above the enrichment for Tanks 38H and 43H, where the enrichment normally ranges from 0.59 to 0.7 wt%. The U-235 concentration in Tank 13H samples ranged from 2.01E-02 to 2.63E-02 mg/L, while the U-238 concentration in Tank 13H ranged from 2.47E+00 to 3.21E+00 mg/L. Thus, the U-235/total uranium ratio is in line with the prior 2H-evaporator ECP samples. Measured sodium and silicon concentrations averaged, respectively, 2.46 M and 1.42E-04 M (3.98 mg/L) in the Tank 13H subsurface sample. The measured aluminum concentration in Tanks 13H subsurface samples averaged 2.01E-01 M.

  5. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for B Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Johnson, E.D.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the B Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  6. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for A Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the A Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  7. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for BY Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200-East Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to the SSTs in the BY Tank Farm of the northeast quadrant of the 200 East Area. Nine appendices contain data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  8. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for S tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the Hanford Site 200 West Area underground single-shell tanks (SSTs). A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy (DOE) and Department of Defense (DOD) contractors. The historical data will supplement information gathered from in-tank core sampling activities that are currently underway. A tank history review that is accompanied by current characterization data creates a complete and reliable inventory estimate. Additionally, historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that are critical to characterization and post characterization activities. Complete and accurate tank waste characterizations are critical first steps for DOE and Westinghouse Hanford Company safety programs, waste pretreatment, and waste retrieval activities. The scope of this document is limited to all the SSTs in the S Tank Farm of the southwest quadrant of the 200 West Area. Nine appendices compile data on: tank level histories; temperature graphs; surface level graphs; drywell graphs; riser configuration and tank cross section; sampling data; tank photographs; unknown tank transfers; and tank layering comparison. 113 refs.

  9. Occurrence and potential transfer of mycotoxins in gilthead sea bream and Atlantic salmon by use of novel alternative feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nácher-Mestre, Jaime; Serrano, Roque; Beltrán, Eduardo; Pérez-Sánchez, Jaume; Silva, Joana; Karalazos, Vasileios; Hernández, Félix; Berntssen, Marc H G

    2015-06-01

    Plant ingredients and processed animal proteins (PAP) are suitable alternative feedstuffs for fish feeds in aquaculture practice, although their use can introduce contaminants that are not previously associated with marine salmon and gilthead sea bream farming. Mycotoxins are well known natural contaminants in plant feed material, although they also could be present on PAPs after fungi growth during storage. The present study surveyed commercially available plant ingredients (19) and PAP (19) for a wide range of mycotoxins (18) according to the EU regulations. PAP showed only minor levels of ochratoxin A and fumonisin B1 and the mycotoxin carry-over from feeds to fillets of farmed Atlantic salmon and gilthead sea bream (two main species of European aquaculture) was performed with plant ingredient based diets. Deoxynivalenol was the most prevalent mycotoxin in wheat, wheat gluten and corn gluten cereals with levels ranging from 17 to 814 and μg kg(-1), followed by fumonisins in corn products (range 11.1-4901 μg kg(-1) for fumonisin B1+B2+B3). Overall mycotoxin levels in fish feeds reflected the feed ingredient composition and the level of contaminant in each feed ingredient. In all cases the studied ingredients and feeds showed levels of mycotoxins below maximum residue limits established by the Commission Recommendation 2006/576/EC. Following these guidelines no mycotoxin carry-over was found from feeds to edible fillets of salmonids and a typically marine fish, such as gilthead sea bream. As far we know, this is the first report of mycotoxin surveillance in farmed fish species.

  10. A methodology to define the flow rate and pressure requirements for transfer of double-shell tank waste slurries. Strategy plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Liljegren, L.M.

    1993-04-01

    This document presents an analysis of the pressure drop and flow rate double-shell tank slurries. Experiments to requirements for transport of characterize the transport of double-shell tank slurries through piping networks and to resuspend materials that settle during pump outages are proposed. Reported values of physical properties of double-shell tank slurries were analyzed to evaluate the flow regimes that are likely to occur during transport. The results of these evaluations indicate that the slurry will be pseudohomogeneous during transport and that the slurry rheology is sufficiently non-Newtonian to affect both the pressure drop achieved during transport and the critical Reynolds number. The transport data collected in the non-Newtonian experiment will be used to determine whether a non-Newtonian correlation developed by Hanks (1978) adequately describes the experimental results.

  11. An adjustment method of transferring liquid among tanks automatically to reach the re-balance of the ship%液舱导移自动控制系统调节船体平衡方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许明春; 唐猛

    2009-01-01

    本文目的是通过液舱导移的方式实现船体平衡被破坏后的再平衡.本文利用船体结构有限元分析中的自动调整方法建立船体平衡模型.在选定液舱导移方案后,根据舰船静力学相关知识进行船体平衡的理论分析和计算,推导出液舱导移过程中参数之间的关系,并根据这些参数关系以及单容水箱液位控制模型,以LabVIEW为平台进行液舱导移和整个船体平衡调节过程的仿真.通过计算机仿真和物理实验说明,在一定条件下,通过液舱导移的方式可实现船体平衡被破坏后的再平衡.%The purpose of this paper is to reach the re-balance of the ship through the adjustment method of transferring liquid among tanks automatically when the balance posture is changed,and also to demonstrate the balance-adjustment process and the process of transferring liquid among tanks on LabVIEW. First,a ship model was built in the light of the calculation method of adjusting automatically the afloat condition for the ship in the FE direct analysis. Secondly,after selecting a scheme of how to transfer liquid among tanks,the theoretical analysis and the calculation about the ship balance through the static mechanical knowledge of warship was investigated,and then the relationship of related parameters in the system of liquid-transfer among tanks was established. Lastly,based on the relationship,it is easy to describe the process of ship blanance adjustment. the simulation results based on virtual instrument on LabVIEW shows the adjuement scheme is reasonable to control the ship posture for balance purpose.

  12. Results for the First, Second, and Third Quarter Calendar Year 2015 Tank 50H WAC slurry samples chemical and radionuclide contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-02-18

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the Calendar Year (CY) 2015 First, Second, and Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50H for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) & Saltstone Facility Engineering (D&S-FE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50H to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50H Waste Characterization System. Previous memoranda documenting the WAC analyses results have been issued for these three samples.

  13. Thermal Stratification in Vertical Mantle Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren; Furbo, Simon

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that it is important to have a high degree of thermal stratification in the hot water storage tank to achieve a high thermal performance of SDHW systems. This study is concentrated on thermal stratification in vertical mantle tanks. Experiments based on typical operation conditions...... are carried out to investigate how the thermal stratification is affected by different placements of the mantle inlet. The heat transfer between the solar collector fluid in the mantle and the domestic water in the inner tank is analysed by CFD-simulations. Furthermore, the flow pattern in the vertical mantle...... tank is investigated....

  14. Integral Radiator and Storage Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A.; Miller, John R.; Jakupca, Ian; Sargi,Scott

    2007-01-01

    A simplified, lightweight system for dissipating heat of a regenerative fuel- cell system would include a heat pipe with its evaporator end placed at the heat source and its condenser end integrated into the wall of the regenerative fuel cell system gas-storage tanks. The tank walls act as heat-radiating surfaces for cooling the regenerative fuel cell system. The system was conceived for use in outer space, where radiation is the only physical mechanism available for transferring heat to the environment. The system could also be adapted for use on propellant tanks or other large-surface-area structures to convert them to space heat-radiating structures. Typically for a regenerative fuel cell system, the radiator is separate from the gas-storage tanks. By using each tank s surface as a heat-radiating surface, the need for a separate, potentially massive radiator structure is eliminated. In addition to the mass savings, overall volume is reduced because a more compact packaging scheme is possible. The underlying tank wall structure provides ample support for heat pipes that help to distribute the heat over the entire tank surface. The heat pipes are attached to the outer surface of each gas-storage tank by use of a high-thermal conductance, carbon-fiber composite-material wrap. Through proper choice of the composite layup, it is possible to exploit the high longitudinal conductivity of the carbon fibers (greater than the thermal conductivity of copper) to minimize the unevenness of the temperature distribution over the tank surface, thereby helping to maximize the overall heat-transfer efficiency. In a prototype of the system, the heat pipe and the composite wrap contribute an average mass of 340 g/sq m of radiator area. Lightweight space radiator panels have a mass of about 3,000 g/sq m of radiator area, so this technique saves almost 90 percent of the mass of separate radiator panels. In tests, the modified surface of the tank was found to have an emissivity of 0

  15. Influence of methanol/sorbitol co-feeding rate on pAOX1 induction in a Pichia pastoris Mut+ strain in bioreactor with limited oxygen transfer rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carly, F; Niu, H; Delvigne, F; Fickers, P

    2016-04-01

    High Pichia pastoris biomass density could be obtained using high co-feeding rate of methanol and sorbitol in a fed-batch or continuous culture, while further higher feeding rate finally leads to oxygen limitation in bioreactor. In the literature, there is lack of report about AOX1 promoter regulation with regard to dissolved oxygen level (DO). Therefore, in this work, chemostat cultures were performed to investigate the cell growth, metabolism and regulation of the AOX1 promoter (pAOX1) regarding co-feeding rate of optimized methanol/sorbitol mixture (methanol fraction 0.60 C-mol/C-mol) using a P. pastoris Mut+/pAOX1-lacZ strain. The oxygen transfer rates (OTR) in bioreactor were kept in the range of typical values of large bioreactor, i.e., 4-8 g/(L h) if DO equals 30 % saturation or 5-10 g/(L h) if DO nears zero. For DO >0, an increase of the carbon fed led to an increase of pAOX1 induction. By contrast, when dissolved oxygen was completely depleted, methanol accumulated, causing a 30 % decrease of pAOX1 induction. However, this decrease is more likely to be lined to methanol accumulation than to low level of dissolved oxygen (Methanol/sorbitol co-feeding allowed cells to adapt to oxygen transient limitations that often occur at industrial scale with reduced effect on pAOX1 induction. The optimal feeding rate tested here was 6.6 mmol C (DCW h)(-1) at an OTR of 8.28 g O2(L h)(-1) with over fivefold pAOX1 induction (probably directly associated with target protein productivity) compared with previous work.

  16. Supporting document for the North East Quandrant Historical Tank Content Estimate Report for BX-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1994-06-01

    This supporting document provides historical in-depth characterization information gathered on BX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate Report of the NE Quandrant and the Hanford 200 East Areas.

  17. Supporting document for the north east quadrant historical tank content estimate report for AX-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information gathered in AX-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate Report of the NE Quadrant and the Hanford 200 East Areas.

  18. Supporting document for the north east quadrant historical tank content estimate report for C-Tank Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Walsh, A.C.

    1994-06-01

    This Supporting Document provides historical in-depth characterization information gathered on C-Tank Farm, such as historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, sampling data, and drywell and liquid observation well data for Historical Tank Content Estimate Report of the NE Quadrant and the Hanford 200 East Areas.

  19. Phase I high-level waste pretreatment and feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1996-02-05

    This document provides the preliminary planning basis for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a sufficient quantity of high-level waste feed to the privatization contractor during Phase I. By this analysis of candidate high-level waste feed sources, the initial quantity of high-level waste feed totals more than twice the minimum feed requirements. The flexibility of the current infrastructure within tank farms provides a variety of methods to transfer the feed to the privatization contractor`s site location. The amount and type of pretreatment (sludge washing) necessary for the Phase I processing can be tailored to support the demonstration goals without having a significant impact on glass volume (i.e., either inhibited water or caustic leaching can be used).

  20. Radiotracer investigation in gold leaching tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagadu, C P K; Akaho, E H K; Danso, K A; Stegowski, Z; Furman, L

    2012-01-01

    Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) is a classical method to investigate performance of chemical reactors. In the present investigation, the radioactive tracer technique was used to measure the RTD of aqueous phase in a series of gold leaching tanks at the Damang gold processing plant in Ghana. The objective of the investigation was to measure the effective volume of each tank and validate the design data after recent process intensification or revamping of the plant. I-131 was used as a radioactive tracer and was instantaneously injected into the feed stream of the first tank and monitored at the outlet of different tanks. Both sampling and online measurement methods were used to monitor the tracer concentration. The results of measurements indicated that both the methods provided identical RTD curves. The mean residence time (MRT) and effective volume of each tank was estimated. The tanks-in-series model with exchange between active and stagnant volume was used and found suitable to describe the flow structure of aqueous phase in the tanks. The estimated effective volume of the tanks and high degree of mixing in tanks could validate the design data and confirmed the expectation of the plant engineer after intensification of the process.

  1. Simple characterisation of solar DHW tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the project is to compare different methods used for testing small solar domestic hot water tanks. A small hot water tank is tested at three different European laboratories by means of the test methods normally used at the laboratories. The tank is marketed in Denmark.The test carried...... out at the Department for Buildings and Energy compromises determination of the heat loss coefficient for the tank and the heat transfer coefficient for the auxiliary helix. A dynamic test is performed and a simulation model of the tank is made and validated against measured energy quantities...... and temperatures. The annual thermal performance for a solar domestic hot water system based on the tested tank is calculated. Further, proposal for a future test on mixing during draw-off as well as proposal for a maximum acceptable mixing during draw-off is given....

  2. Results for the Third Quarter 2013 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Third Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time.1 Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminates unless noted in this section. 59Ni, 94Nb, 247Cm, 249Cf, and 251Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations.2 However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL.3 Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits4 compared with the Saltstone WAC.1 The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. Finally, the low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  3. Results for the Fourth Quarter 2012 Tank 50 WAC Slurry Sample: Chemical and Radionuclide Contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, Christopher J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-30

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2012 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC).1 Information from this characterization will be used by Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The concentration of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC Limits and Targets, unless noted in this section. Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits5 compared with the Saltstone WAC1. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. Diisooctyl adipate (or diisooctyl hexanedioate) was measured at 1.30E+00 mg/L in one of two replicate measurements conducted on an at-depth sample.a The organic analysis of the at-depth sample was conducted at the request of SRR.4 This analyte was below the detection limit in the surface sample. The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species.

  4. Nested Fixed Depth Fluidic Sampler and At Tank Analysis System Deployment Strategy and Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REICH, F.R.

    2000-02-01

    Under the Hanford Site River Protection Project (RPP) privatization strategy, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of River Protection (ORP) requires the CH2M Hill Hanford Group, Inc. (CHG) to supply tank waste to the privatization contractor, BNFL Inc. (BNFL), for separation and/or treatment and immobilization (vitrification). Three low-activity waste (LAW) specification envelopes represent the range of liquid waste types in the large, Hanford Site underground waste storage tanks. The CHG also is expected to supply high-level waste (HLW) separation and/or treatment and disposal. The HLW envelope is an aqueous slurry of insoluble suspended solids (sludge). The Phase 1 demonstration will extend over 24 years (1996 through 2019) and will be used to resolve technical uncertainties. About one-tenth of the total Hanford Site tank waste, by mass, will be processed during this period. This document provides a strategy and top-level implementation plan for demonstrating and deploying an alternative sampling technology. The alternative technology is an improvement to the current grab sampling and core sampling approaches that are planned to be used to support the RPP privatization contract. This work also includes adding the capability for some at-tank analysis to enhance the potential of this new technology to meet CHG needs. The first application is to LAW and HLW feed staging for privatization; the next is to support cross-site waste transfer from 200 West Area tanks.

  5. 49 CFR 172.331 - Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.331 Section 172.331 Transportation Other Regulations... packagings other than portable tanks, cargo tanks, tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a) Each...

  6. Chemical composition of Hanford Tank SY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birnbaum, E.; Agnew, S.; Jarvinen, G.; Yarbro, S.

    1993-12-01

    The US Department of Energy established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) to safely manage and dispose of the radioactive waste, both current and future, stored in double-shell and single-shell tanks at the Hanford sites. One major program element in TWRS is pretreatment which was established to process the waste prior to disposal using the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant. In support of this program, Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed a conceptual process flow sheet which will remediate the entire contents of a selected double-shelled underground waste tank, including supernatant and sludge, into forms that allow storage and final disposal in a safe, cost-effective and environmentally sound manner. The specific tank selected for remediation is 241-SY-102 located in the 200 West Area. As part of the flow sheet development effort, the composition of the tank was defined and documented. This database was built by examining the history of liquid waste transfers to the tank and by performing careful analysis of all of the analytical data that have been gathered during the tank`s lifetime. In order to more completely understand the variances in analytical results, material and charge balances were done to help define the chemistry of the various components in the tank. This methodology of defining the tank composition and the final results are documented in this report.

  7. Preliminary assessment of blending Hanford tank wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Kurath, D.E.

    1993-03-01

    A parametric study of blending Hanford tank wastes identified possible benefits from blending wastes prior to immobilization as a high level or low level waste form. Track Radioactive Components data were used as the basis for the single-shell tank (SST) waste composition, while analytical data were used for the double-shell tank (DST) composition. Limiting components were determined using the existing feed criteria for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) and the Grout Treatment Facility (GTF). Results have shown that blending can significantly increase waste loading and that the baseline quantities of immobilized waste projected for the sludge-wash pretreatment case may have been drastically underestimated, because critical components were not considered. Alternatively, the results suggest further review of the grout feed specifications and the solubility of minor components in HWVP borosilicate glass. Future immobilized waste estimates might be decreased substantially upon a thorough review of the appropriate feed specifications.

  8. TANK 7 CHARACTERIZATION AND WASHING STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, D.; Pareizs, J.; Click, D.

    2010-02-04

    A 3-L PUREX sludge sample from Tank 7 was characterized and then processed through a series of inhibited water washes to remove oxalate, sodium, and other soluble ions. Current plans use Tank 7 as one of the feed sources for Sludge Batch 7 (SB7). Tank 7 is high in oxalate due to the oxalic acid cleaning of the sludge heels from Tanks 5 and 6 and subsequent transfer to Tank 7. Ten decant and nine wash cycles were performed over a 47 day period at ambient temperature. Initially, seven decants and seven washes were completed based on preliminary estimates of the number of wash cycles required to remove the oxalate in the sludge. After reviewing the composition data, SRNL recommended the completion of 2 or 3 more decant/wash cycles to ensure all of the sodium oxalate had redissolved. In the first 7 washes, the slurry oxalate concentration was 12,300 mg/kg (69.6% oxalate removal compared to 96.1% removal of the other soluble ions). After all ten decants were complete, the slurry oxalate concentration was 3,080 mg/kg (89.2% oxalate removal compared to 99.0% of the other soluble ions). The rate of dissolution of oxalate increased significantly with subsequent washes until all of the sodium oxalate had been redissolved after seven decant/wash cycles. The measured oxalate concentrations agreed very well with LWO predictions for washing of the Tank 7 sample. Highlights of the analysis and washing of the Tank 7 sample include: (1) Sodium oxalate was detected in the as-received filtered solids. 95% of the oxalate was insoluble (undissolved) in the as-received slurry. (2) No sodium oxalate was detected in the post-wash filtered solids. (3) Sodium oxalate is the last soluble species that redissolves during washing with inhibited water. In order to significantly reduce the sodium oxalate concentration, the sludge must be highly washed, leaving the other soluble anions and cations (including sodium) very low in concentration. (4) The post-wash slurry had 1% of the soluble anions

  9. Studies on scaled models for gas entrainment in the surge tank of LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramdasu, D.; Shivakumar, N.S.; Padmakumar, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Vaidyanathan, G. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Rammohan, S.; Sreekala, S.K.; Manikandan, S.; Saseendran, S. [Fluid Control Research Institute, Palghat (India)

    2007-07-01

    This paper presents the studies carried out in the different scale models of Surge tank used in the secondary circuit of Liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Surge tank acquires importance because of its ability to take care of pressure surges in case of a sodium water reaction in Steam Generators (SG). The blanket of argon cover gas above the sodium free surface in the surge tank acts as a cushion for the surges. At the same time, argon gas is a source of entrainment into the sodium which is undesirable from the consideration of effective heat transfer in Inter mediate Heat Exchanger and SG, cavitation in pumps and operational problems of continuous feed and bleed of cover gas, thus leading to unfavourable reactor operating conditions. To investigate the phenomenon of gas entrainment in surge tank, hydraulic experiments were conducted in water using 1/38, 1/32, 1/22 and 1/12 scale models with Froude similarity. The minimum height of liquid column required to avoid gas entrainment was determined using different types of internal devices. Experiments were carried out in the 5/8 scale model to confirm the results of the smaller scale models. It was found that free surface height to avoid gas entrainment varies for different scale models. The combination of Pepper pot with ring plate was found to be the most effective in avoiding gas entrainment at H/D equals 1.28 where H is the height of liquid column in the tank from tank bottom and D is the inner diameter of surge tank.

  10. Safety evaluation for packaging transport of LSA-II liquids in MC-312 cargo tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlstrom, R.F.

    1996-09-11

    This safety evaluation for packaging authorizes the onsite transfer of bulk LSA-II radioactive liquids in the 222-S Laboratory Cargo Tank and Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility Cargo Tanks (which are U.S. Department of Transportation MC-312 specification cargo tanks) from their operating facilities to tank farm facilities.

  11. ICPP tank farm closure study. Volume 2: Engineering design files

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    Volume 2 contains the following topical sections: Tank farm heel flushing/pH adjustment; Grouting experiments for immobilization of tank farm heel; Savannah River high level waste tank 20 closure; Tank farm closure information; Clean closure of tank farm; Remediation issues; Remote demolition techniques; Decision concerning EIS for debris treatment facility; CERCLA/RCRA issues; Area of contamination determination; Containment building of debris treatment facility; Double containment issues; Characterization costs; Packaging and disposal options for the waste resulting from the total removal of the tank farm; Take-off calculations for the total removal of soils and structures at the tank farm; Vessel off-gas systems; Jet-grouted polymer and subsurface walls; Exposure calculations for total removal of tank farm; Recommended instrumentation during retrieval operations; High level waste tank concrete encasement evaluation; Recommended heavy equipment and sizing equipment for total removal activities; Tank buoyancy constraints; Grout and concrete formulas for tank heel solidification; Tank heel pH requirements; Tank cooling water; Evaluation of conservatism of vehicle loading on vaults; Typical vault dimensions and approximately tank and vault void volumes; Radiological concerns for temporary vessel off-gas system; Flushing calculations for tank heels; Grout lift depth analysis; Decontamination solution for waste transfer piping; Grout lift determination for filling tank and vault voids; sprung structure vendor data; Grout flow properties through a 2--4 inch pipe; Tank farm load limitations; NRC low level waste grout; Project data sheet calculations; Dose rates for tank farm closure tasks; Exposure and shielding calculations for grout lines; TFF radionuclide release rates; Documentation of the clean closure of a system with listed waste discharge; and Documentation of the ORNL method of radionuclide concentrations in tanks.

  12. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked...

  13. Double Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BAFUS, R.R.

    2000-11-03

    This specification revises the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied during design of the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Monitor and Control Subsystem that supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  14. Double Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem Specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RASMUSSEN, J.H.

    2000-05-03

    This specification establishes the performance requirements and provides references to the requisite codes and standards to be applied to the Double-Shell Tank (DST) Process Waste Sampling Subsystem which supports the first phase of Waste Feed Delivery.

  15. Investigation of flammable gas and thermal safety issues for retrieval of waste from Tank 241-AN-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caley, S.M.; Stewart, C.W.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Cuta, J.M.; Mahoney, L.A.; Panisko, F.E.

    1998-09-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to identify and resolve some of the flammable gas and thermal safety issues potentially associated with the retrieval of waste from Tank 241-AN-105 (AN-105), which is the first double-shell tank scheduled for waste retrieval at Hanford. The planned retrieval scenario includes the following steps in AN-105: (1) degas the tank using two submerged mixing pumps, (2) turn off the mixer pump(s) and allow any suspended solids to settle, (3) decant the supernatant to the intermediate feed staging tank(s) (IFSTs) (AP-102 and/or AP-104) using water/caustic dilution at the transfer pump inlet, (4) add the remaining dilution water/caustic to the slurry remaining in AN-105, (5) mix the tank with the mixer pump(s) until the soluble solids dissolve, (6) turn off the mixer pump(s) and let the insoluble solids settle, and (7) decant the new supernatant to the IFST(s), leaving the insoluble solids behind. Three waste retrieval safety issues are addressed in this report. They are (1) the controlled degassing of AN-105 to ensure that the headspace remains <25% of the lower flammability limit (LFL), (2) an assessment of how dissolved gas (mainly ammonia) released during the transfer of the supernatant in AN-105 to the IFSTs and the water/caustic dilution of the remaining slurry in AN-105 will affect the flammability in these tanks; and (3) an assessment of the maximum waste temperatures that might occur in AN-105 during retrieval operations.

  16. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  17. AX Tank Farm tank removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SKELLY, W.A.

    1998-10-14

    This report considers the feasibility of exposing, demolishing, and removing underground storage tanks from the 241-AX Tank Farm at the Hanford Site. For the study, it was assumed that the tanks would each contain 360 ft{sup 3} of residual waste (corresponding to the one percent residual Inventory target cited in the Tri-Party Agreement) at the time of demolition. The 241-AX Tank Farm is being employed as a ''strawman'' in engineering studies evaluating clean and landfill closure options for Hanford single-shell tank farms. The report is one of several reports being prepared for use by the Hanford Tanks Initiative Project to explore potential closure options and to develop retrieval performance evaluation criteria for tank farms.

  18. TANK WASTE RETRIEVAL LESSONS LEARNED AT THE HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DODD, R.A.

    2006-01-17

    One of the environmental remediation challenges facing the nation is the retrieval and permanent disposal of approximately 90 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Hanford Site is located in southeastern Washington State and stores roughly 60% of this waste. An estimated 53 million gallons of high-level, transuranic, and low-level radioactive waste is stored underground in 149 single-shell tanks (SSTs) and 28 newer double-shell tanks (DSTs) at the Hanford Site. These SSTs range in size from 55,000 gallons to 1,000,000 gallon capacity. Approximately 30 million gallons of this waste is stored in SSTs. The SSTs were constructed between 1943 and 1964 and all have exceeded the nominal 20-year design life. Sixty-seven SSTs are known or suspected to have leaked an estimated 1,000,000 gallons of waste. The risk of additional SST leakage has been greatly reduced by removing more than 3 million gallons of interstitial liquids and supernatant and transferring the waste to the DST system since 1997 as part of the interim stabilization program. Retrieval of SST saltcake and sludge waste is underway to further reduce risks and stage feed materials for the Hanford Site Waste Treatment Plant. This paper presents lessons learned from retrieval of tank waste at the Hanford Site and discusses how this information is used to optimize retrieval system efficiency, improve overall cost effectiveness of retrieval operations, and ensure that HFFACO requirements are met.

  19. TRANSFER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Chemistry Department, Kenyatta University, P. 0. Box 43844 ... harvester (X) [L 2] in a manner consistent with the following Forster equation for long range energy transfer [3-7]. .... sensitive foods, chemical reactors and essences. Recently we ...

  20. TANK48 CFD MODELING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2011-05-17

    -phase model. The modeling results show that the flow patterns driven by four pump operation satisfy the solid suspension requirement, and the average solid concentration at the plane of the transfer pump inlet is about 12% higher than the tank average concentrations for the 70 inch tank level and about the same as the tank average value for the 29 inch liquid level. When one of the four pumps is not operated, the flow patterns are satisfied with the minimum suspension velocity criterion. However, the solid concentration near the tank bottom is increased by about 30%, although the average solid concentrations near the transfer pump inlet have about the same value as the four-pump baseline results. The flow pattern results show that although the two-pump case satisfies the minimum velocity requirement to suspend the sludge particles, it provides the marginal mixing results for the heavier or larger insoluble materials such as MST and KTPB particles. The results demonstrated that when more than one jet are aiming at the same position of the mixing tank domain, inefficient flow patterns are provided due to the highly localized momentum dissipation, resulting in inactive suspension zone. Thus, after completion of the indexed solids suspension, pump rotations are recommended to avoid producing the nonuniform flow patterns. It is noted that when tank liquid level is reduced from the highest level of 70 inches to the minimum level of 29 inches for a given number of operating pumps, the solid mixing efficiency becomes better since the ratio of the pump power to the mixing volume becomes larger. These results are consistent with the literature results.

  1. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  2. HANFORD TANK CLEANUP UPDATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BERRIOCHOA MV

    2011-04-07

    Access to Hanford's single-shell radioactive waste storage tank C-107 was significantly improved when workers completed the cut of a 55-inch diameter hole in the top of the tank. The core and its associated cutting equipment were removed from the tank and encased in a plastic sleeve to prevent any potential spread of contamination. The larger tank opening allows use of a new more efficient robotic arm to complete tank retrieval.

  3. Development of a hot water tank simulation program with improved prediction of thermal stratification in the tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Jianhua; Furbo, Simon; Yue, Hongqiang

    2015-01-01

    A simulation program SpiralSol was developed in previous investigations to calculate thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water (SDHW) system with a hot water tank with a built-in heat exchanger spiral [1]. The simulation program is improved in the paper in term of prediction of thermal...... stratification in the tank. The transient fluid flow and heat transfer in the hot water tank during cooling caused by standby heat loss are investigated by validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations. Detailed CFD investigations are carried out to determine the influence of thickness and material...... property of the tank wall on thermal stratification in the tank. It is elucidated how thermal stratification in the tank is influenced by the natural convection and how the heat loss from the tank sides will be distributed at different levels of the tank at different thermal conditions. The existing...

  4. F-AREA PUMP TANK 1 MIXING ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamburello, D; Richard Dimenna, R; Si Lee, S

    2008-11-05

    The F-area pump tanks are used to transfer supernate, sludge, and other materials. In any transfer, the solution must stay well mixed without allowing particulate matter to settle out of the liquid and, thus, accumulate in the bottom of the pump tank. Recently, the pulse jet mixing in F-area Pump Tank 1 (FPT1) has been decommissioned. An analysis of the liquid transfer through FPT1 has been performed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods to assess whether or not the velocities throughout the tank will remain high enough to keep all particulate suspended using only transfer and recirculation pumps. The following paragraph is an abbreviated synopsis of the transfer procedure for FPT1 [1, 2]. Prior to a transfer, FPT1 begins to be filled with inhibited water through the inlet transfer line (TI). When the tank liquid level reaches 52.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the recirculation pump (RI and RO) is activated. At a tank liquid level of 72.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom, the outlet transfer line (TO) is activated to reduce the liquid level in FPT1 and transfer inhibited water to H-area Pump Tank 7 (HPT7). The liquid level is reduced down to 39.5 inches, with an allowable range from 37.5 to 41.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. HPT7 goes through a similar procedure as FPT1 until both have tank liquid levels of approximately 39.5 inches above the absolute tank bottom. The transfer of inhibited water continues until a steady-state has been reached in both pump tanks. At this point, the supernate/sludge transfer begins with a minimum flow rate of 70 gpm and an average flow rate of 150 gpm. After the transfer is complete, the pump tanks (both FPT1 and HPT7) are pumped down to between 20.5 and 22.5 inches (above absolute bottom) and then flushed with 25,000 gallons of inhibited water to remove any possible sludge heal. After the flushing, the pump tanks are emptied. Note that the tank liquid level is measured using diptubes. Figure 2

  5. Energy storage-boiler tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubb, T. A.; Nemecek, J. J.; Simmons, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Activities performed in an effort to demonstrate heat of fusion energy storage in containerized salts are reported. The properties and cycle life characteristics of a eutectic salt having a boiling point of about 385 C (NaCl, KCl, Mg Cl2) were determined. M-terphenyl was chosen as the heat transfer fluid. Compatibility studies were conducted and mild steel containers were selected. The design and fabrication of a 2MWh storage boiler tank are discussed.

  6. Conceptual design report for tank farm restoration and safe operations, project W-314

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, S.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-02

    This Conceptual Design Report (CDR) presents the conceptual level design approach that satisfies the established technical requirements for Project W-314, `Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations.` The CDR also addresses the initial cost and schedule baselines for performing the proposed Tank Farm infrastructure upgrades. The scope of this project includes capital improvements to Hanford`s existing tank farm facilities(primarily focused on Double- Shell Tank Farms) in the areas of instrumentation/control, tank ventilation, waste transfer, and electrical systems.

  7. Simulant Development for Hanford Tank Farms Double Valve Isolation (DVI) Valves Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.

    2012-12-21

    Leakage testing of a representative sample of the safety-significant isolation valves for Double Valve Isolation (DVI) in an environment that simulates the abrasive characteristics of the Hanford Tank Farms Waste Transfer System during waste feed delivery to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is to be conducted. The testing will consist of periodic leak performed on the DVI valves after prescribed numbers of valve cycles (open and close) in a simulated environment representative of the abrasive properties of the waste and the Waste Transfer System. The valve operations include exposure to cycling conditions that include gravity drain and flush operation following slurry transfer. The simulant test will establish the performance characteristics and verify compliance with the Documented Safety Analysis. Proper simulant development is essential to ensure that the critical process streams characteristics are represented, National Research Council report “Advice on the Department of Energy's Cleanup Technology Roadmap: Gaps and Bridges”

  8. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF TANK F FLUSH SOLUTION ON H-CANYON EVAPORATOR OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2010-09-13

    Previous chemical analysis of a sample from the liquid heel found in Tank F of the High Activity Drain (HAD) system in F/H laboratory revealed the presence of n-paraffin, tributyl phosphate (TBP), Modifier from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) process and a vinyl ester resin that is very similar to the protective lining on Tank F. Subsequent analyses detected the presence of a small amount of diisopropylnaphthalene (DIN) (major component of Ultima Gold{trademark} AB liquid scintillation cocktail). Indications are that both vinyl ester resin and DIN are present in small amounts in the flush solution. The flush solution currently in the LR-56S trailer likely has an emulsion which is believed to contain a mixture of the reported organic species dominated by TBP. An acid treatment similar to that proposed to clear the HAD tank heel in F/H laboratory was found to allow separation of an organic phase from the cloudy sample tested by SRNL. Mixing of that clear sample did re-introduce some cloudiness that did not immediately clear but that cloudiness is attributed to the DIN in the matrix. An organic phase does quickly separate from the cloudy matrix allowing separation by a box decanter in H-Canyon prior to transfer to the evaporator feed tank. This separation should proceed normally as long as the emulsion is broken-up by acidification.

  9. Theoretical comparison between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon; Bales, Chris

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have shown that solar combisystems based on bikini tanks for low energy houses perform better than solar domestic hot water systems based on mantle tanks. Tank-in-tank solar combisystems are also attractive from a thermal performance point of view. In this paper......, theoretical comparisons between solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank solar combisystems are presented....

  10. Tank characterization report: Tank 241-C-109

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borshiem, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Single-shell tank 241-C-109 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in September 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-109 were conducted to support the resolution of the ferrocyanide unreviewed safety question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and consent Order (Tri- Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. This report describes this analysis.

  11. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2010 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE: CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANT RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M

    2011-02-22

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2010 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC). Information from this characterization will be used by Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The concentrations of the reported chemical and radioactive contaminants were less than their respective WAC targets or limits unless noted in this section. (2) The reported detection limits for {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm and {sup 249}Cf are above the requested limits from Reference 2. However, they are below the limits established in Reference 3. (3) There is an estimated concentration of trimethylbenzene (2.25 mg/L). This is not a WAC analyte, but it is the first time this organic compound has been detected in a quarterly WAC sample from Tank 50. (4) The reported detection limit for Norpar 13 is greater than the limit from Table 4 and Attachment 8.2 of the WAC. (5) The reported detection limit for Isopar L is greater than the limit from Table 3 of the WAC. (6) Isopar L and Norpar 13 have limited solubility in aqueous solutions making it difficult to obtain consistent and reliable sub-samples. The values reported in this memo are the concentrations in the sub-sample as detected by the GC/MS; however, the results may not accurately represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50.

  12. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2011-08-15

    'The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste feed delivery to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Hall (2008) includes WTP acceptance criteria that describe physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be certified as acceptable before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST. The objectives of Washington River Protection Solutions' (WRPS) Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project are to understand and demonstrate the DST sampling and batch transfer performance at multiple scales using slurry simulants comprised of UDS particles and liquid (Townson 2009). The SSMD project utilizes geometrically scaled DST feed tanks to generate mixing, sampling, and transfer test data. In Phase 2 of the testing, RPP-49740, the 5-part simulant defined in RPP-48358 was used as the waste slurry simulant. The Phase 2 test data are being used to estimate the expected performance of the prototypic systems in the full-scale DSTs. As such, understanding of the how the small-scale systems as well as the simulant relate to the full-scale DSTs and actual waste is required. The focus of this report is comparison of the size and density of the 5-part SSMD simulant to that of the Hanford waste. This is accomplished by computing metrics for particle mobilization, suspension, settling, transfer line intake, and pipeline transfer from the characterization of the 5-part SSMD simulant and characterizations of the Hanford waste. In addition, the effects of the suspending fluid characteristics on the test results are considered, and a computational fluid dynamics tool useful to quantify uncertainties from simulant selections is discussed.'

  13. Tank evaluation system shielded annular tank application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freier, D.A.

    1988-10-04

    TEST (Tank Evaluation SysTem) is a research project utilizing neutron interrogation techniques to analyze the content of nuclear poisons and moderators in tank shielding. TEST experiments were performed on an experimental SAT (Shielded Annular Tank) at the Rocky Flats Plant. The purpose of these experiments was threefold: (1) to assess TEST application to SATs, (2) to determine if Nuclear Safety inspection criteria could be met, and (3) to perform a preliminary calibration of TEST for SATs. Several experiments were performed, including measurements of 11 tank shielding configurations, source-simulated holdup experiments, analysis of three detector modes, resolution studies, and TEST scanner geometry experiments. 1 ref., 21 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. Tank 241-Z-361 process and characterization history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, S.A.

    1998-08-06

    An Unreviewed Safety Question (Wagoner, 1997) was declared based on lack of adequate authorization basis for Tank 241-Z-361 in the 200W Area at Hanford. This document is a summary of the history of Tank 241-Z-361 through December 1997. Documents reviewed include engineering files, laboratory notebooks from characterization efforts, waste facility process procedures, supporting documents and interviews of people`s recollections of over twenty years ago. Records of transfers into the tank, past characterization efforts, and speculation were used to estimate the current condition of Tank 241-Z-361 and its contents. Information about the overall waste system as related to the settling tank was included to help in understanding the numbering system and process relationships. The Plutonium Finishing Plant was built in 1948 and began processing plutonium in mid-1949. The Incinerator (232-Z) operated from December 1961 until May 1973. The Plutonium Reclamation Facility (PRF, 236-Z) began operation in May 1964. The Waste Treatment Facility (242-Z) operated from August 1964 until August 1976. Waste from some processes went through transfer lines to 241-Z sump tanks. High salt and organic waste under normal operation were sent to Z-9 or Z-18 cribs. Water from the retention basin may have also passed through this tank. The transfer lines to 241-Z were numbered D-4 to D-6. The 241-Z sump tanks were numbered D-4 through D-8. The D-4, 5, and 8 drains went to the D-6 sump tank. When D-6 tank was full it was transferred to D-7 tank. Prior to transfer to cribs, the D-7 tank contents was sampled. If the plutonium content was analyzed to be more than 10 g per batch, the material was (generally) reprocessed. Below the discard limit, caustic was added and the material was sent to the cribs via the 241-Z-361 settling tank where solids settled out and the liquid overflowed by gravity to the cribs. Waste liquids that passed through the 241-Z-361 settling tank flowed from PFP to ground in

  15. Significance of physicochemical forms of storage in microalgae in predicting copper transfer to filter-feeding oysters (Crassostrea gigas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiard-Triquet, Claude; Berthet, Brigitte; Joux, Lamia; Perrein-Ettajani, Hanane

    2006-02-01

    Copper distribution has been examined in two microalgae (Haslea ostrearia, Diatom; Tetraselmis suecica, Prasinophyceae) exposed to Cu at 30 microg/L(-1). Exchangeable copper linked at the cell surface was desorbed using 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonate as complexing agent. Then, incorporated copper was separated between soluble and insoluble fractions. In addition, algae were resuspended in acid solutions, the pHs of which covered the range existing in the digestive tract of bivalves. Considering that the soluble fraction is the most easily transferred in the food chain and that exchangeable Cu is easily desorbed, the percentages of Cu potentially available in microalgae have been assessed. These percentages have been compared with those retained in oysters Crassostrea gigas fed with contaminated microalgae in previous studies. In H. ostrearia, the potentially available fraction of Cu (90%) was very similar to the percentage retained by oysters (93%) when the bivalves were acclimated to this food for 3 weeks. Only half (21%) of the potentially available Cu of T. suecica (42%) was readily assimilated in oysters after 3 weeks. This is in agreement with the results of the desorption tests at physiological pHs which showed that only 15-25% of Cu was lost, despite solubilization of other constituents of T. suecica as demonstrated by the decrease in their dry weight. Bioavailability determined from metal speciation in food allows a relevant prediction of the trophic transfer in the case of H. ostrearia, but caution is recommended in generalizing this mode of assessment as shown in the case of T. suecica.

  16. Case Study in Corporate Memory Recovery: Hanford Tank Farms Miscellaneous Underground Waste Storage Tanks - 15344

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, D. J.; Johnson, J. M.; Turknett, J. C.; Barnes, T. J.; Duncan, K. G.

    2015-01-07

    In addition to managing the 177 underground waste storage tanks containing 212,000 m3 (56 million gal) of radioactive waste at the U. S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site 200 Area Tank Farms, Washington River Protection Solutions LLC is responsible for managing numerous small catch tanks and special surveillance facilities. These are collectively known as “MUSTs” - Miscellaneous Underground Storage Tanks. The MUSTs typically collected drainage and flushes during waste transfer system piping changes; special surveillance facilities supported Tank Farm processes including post-World War II uranium recovery and later fission product recovery from tank wastes. Most were removed from service following deactivation of the single-shell tank system in 1980 and stabilized by pumping the remaining liquids from them. The MUSTs were isolated by blanking connecting transfer lines and adding weatherproofing to prevent rainwater entry. Over the next 30 years MUST operating records were dispersed into large electronic databases or transferred to the National Archives Regional Center in Seattle, Washington. During 2014 an effort to reacquire the historical bases for the MUSTs’ published waste volumes was undertaken. Corporate Memory Recovery from a variety of record sources allowed waste volumes to be initially determined for 21 MUSTs, and waste volumes to be adjusted for 37 others. Precursors and symptoms of Corporate Memory Loss were identified in the context of MUST records recovery.

  17. Effect of concentrate supplementation during the dry period on colostrum quality and effect of colostrum feeding regimen on passive transfer of immunity, calf health, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A; Ashfield, A; Earley, B; Welsh, M; Gordon, A; McGee, M; Morrison, S J

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of (1) supplementing concentrates to multiparous Holstein cows during the dry period on colostral and milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration; and (2) feeding calves colostrum at either 5 or 10% of their body weight (BW) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance. Holstein multiparous cows (n=37) were assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments during an 8-wk dry period: (1) offered ad libitum grass silage only (GS) or (2) offered ad libitum access to the same grass silage plus concentrate [total mixed ration in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], providing a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day (GSC). Both treatment groups were offered identical levels of mineral and vitamin supplementation. Calves from these cows were weighed immediately after birth and fed either 5% (5BW) or 10% (10BW) of their BW in colostrum from their own dams within 2.5h of birth. Calves in the 10BW group received their second feed of colostrum from first-milking colostrum. Concentrate supplementation during the dry period had no effect on colostral IgG concentration, first-milking IgG yield, or fat, protein, and lactose contents. However, cows in GSC produced a greater mean milk yield over the first 8 milkings compared with cows in the GS group. Concentrate supplementation had no effect on calf BW or BW gain, serum IgG, or apparent efficiency of absorption (AEA) at 24h after birth. However, offspring from the GSC group had fewer cases of enteritis during the first 56d of life compared with offspring from the GS group. Calves in the 10BW group had greater mean serum IgG concentration for the first 3d following birth; however, at 24h after birth, we observed no treatment effect on AEA. The rate of enteritis was greater for calves in the 5BW treatment compared with 10BW. The colostrum-feeding regimen had no effect on BW gain or on the incidence of pneumonia among calf treatment groups. In conclusion, concentrate supplementation

  18. Think tanks in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Nørgaard Kristensen, Nete

    2016-01-01

    outside the media. The study shows that the two largest and oldest think tanks in Denmark, the liberal think tank CEPOS and the social democratic think tank ECLM, are very active and observable in the media; that the media’s distribution of attention to these think tanks, to some extent, confirms a re......Though think tanks have a long history internationally, they have especially in recent years come to play an increasingly important role in both policy-formulation and public debate. In this article, we analyse the growing presence of think tanks in a Danish context during the 2000s and the first...... half of the 2010s, because in this national setting think tanks are still a relatively new phenomenon. Based on theories of mediatization and de-corporatization, we present 1) an analysis of the visibility of selected Danish think tanks in the media and 2) an analysis of their political networks...

  19. OPTIMISATION OF MANTLE TANKS FOR LOW FLOW SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1996-01-01

    A model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle of a mantle tank has been developed. The model is validated by means of measurements with varying operational conditions for different designed mantle tanks. The model has been implemented in an existing detailed mathematical...... programme that simulates the thermal behaviour of low flow SDHW systems. The yearly thermal performance of low flow SDHW systems with different designed mantle tanks has been calculated. The influence of the mantle tank design on the thermal performance is investigated by means of the calculations...... with the programme and by means of tests of three SDHW systems with different designed mantle tanks. Based on the investigations design rules for mantle tanks are proposed. The model, describing the heat transfer coefficients in the mantle is approximate. In addition, the measurements have revealed...

  20. Tank 241-TX-118 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-12-09

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-118.

  1. Tank 241-TX-105 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, WHC 222-S Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-TX-105.

  2. Tank 241-BX-104 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, B.C.

    1994-12-14

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and PNL tank vapor program. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of vapor samples from tank 241-BX-104.

  3. Structural evaluation of W-211 flexible receiver platforms and tank pit walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivastava, H.P.

    1997-11-03

    This document is a structural analysis of the Flexible Receiver Platforms and the tank-pit wall during removal of equipment and during a accidental drop of that equipment. The platform and the pit walls must withstand a accidental drop of a mixer and transfer pumps in specific pits in tanks 102-AP and 104-AP. A mixer pump will be removed from riser 11 in pit 2A on tank 241-AP-102. A transfer pump will be removed from riser 13 in pit 2D on tank 241-AP-102 and another transfer pump will be removed from riser 3A in pit 4A on tank 241-AP-104.

  4. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  5. Tank 241-AZ-101 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-06

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, A revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process. Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information``. This document satisfies that requirement for Tank 241-AZ-101 (AZ-101) sampling activities. Tank AZ-101 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The contents of Tank AZ-101, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,630 kL (960 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-101 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 132 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,500 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.87 meters.

  6. Tank 241-AZ-102 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-02-06

    The Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board has advised the DOE to concentrate the near-term sampling and analysis activities on identification and resolution of safety issues. The Data Quality Objective (DQO) process was chosen as a tool to be used in the resolution of safety issues. As a result, a revision in the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) milestone M-44 has been made, which states that ``A Tank Characterization Plan (TCP) will also be developed for each double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) using the DQO process ... Development of TCPs by the DQO process is intended to allow users to ensure their needs will be met and that resources are devoted to gaining only necessary information``. This document satisfies that requirement for tank 241-AZ-102 (AZ-102) sampling activities. Tank AZ-102 is currently a non-Watch List tank, so the only DQOs applicable to this tank are the safety screening DQO and the compatibility DQO, as described below. The current contents of Tank AZ-102, as of October 31, 1994, consisted of 3,600 kL (950 kgal) of dilute non-complexed waste and aging waste from PUREX (NCAW, neutralized current acid waste). Tank AZ-102 is expected to have two primary layers. The bottom layer is composed of 360 kL of sludge, and the top layer is composed of 3,240 kL of supernatant, with a total tank waste depth of approximately 8.9 meters.

  7. WWTP Process Tank Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jesper

    hydrofoil shaped propellers. These two sub-processes deliver the main part of the supplied energy to the activated sludge tank, and for this reason they are important for the mixing conditions in the tank. For other important processes occurring in the activated sludge tank, existing models and measurements...

  8. Requirements Verification Report AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System for Project W-314 Tank Farm Restoration and Safe Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCGREW, D.L.

    1999-09-28

    This Requirements Verification Report (RVR) for Project W-314 ''AN Farm to 200E Waste Transfer System'' package provides documented verification of design compliance to all the applicable Project Development Specification (PDS) requirements. Additional PDS requirements verification will be performed during the project's procurement, construction, and testing phases, and the RVR will be updated to reflect this information as appropriate.

  9. Reactor models for a series of continuous stirred tank reactors with a gas-liquid-solid leaching system: Part II. Gas-transfer control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papangelakis, V. G.; Demopoulos, G. P.

    1992-12-01

    This article is the second in a three-article series devoted to the development of comprehensive three-phase steady-state reactor models. In this article in particular, model equations are developed for the case of a leaching reactor operating under pure gas-transfer control. That is, the transfer of a gaseous reactant at the g-1 interface is considered to be the controlling step of the process rather than the particle dissolution reaction itself. For the derivation of the appropriate model equations, the gas-transfer capacity of the reactor is coupled with the particle dissolution kinetics. Two model versions are developed. In model version 1, the dissolved gas is assumed to be distributed equally among all particles. On the basis of this assumption, a gastransfer control-shrinking core model (GTC-SCM) equation is formulated which, along with the segregated flow model, helps to calculate the conversion of the solid phase. The size distribution of the particles at the exit of the reactor is computed via a mass-particle size density (PSD) function derived with the use of the population balance model (PBM). In model version 2, the dissolved gas is assumed to be distributed among particles in proportion to their surface area. Using the PBM, equations are developed suitable for the calculation of the total specific surface area of the reacting solids and their conversion. Single as well as multiple parallel leaching reactions are considered in developing the two model versions.

  10. Modeling of gas-liquid mass transfer in a stirred tank bioreactor agitated by a Rushton turbine or a new pitched blade impeller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelves, Ricardo; Dietrich, A; Takors, Ralf

    2014-03-01

    A combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and population balance model (PBM) approach has been applied to simulate hydrodynamics and mass transfer in a 0.18 m(3) gas-liquid stirred bioreactor agitated by (1) a Rushton turbine, and (2) a new pitched blade geometry with rotating cartridges. The operating conditions chosen were motivated by typical settings used for culturing mammalian cells. The effects of turbulence, rotating flow, bubbles breakage and coalescence were simulated using the k-ε, multiple reference frame (MRF), Sliding mesh (SM) and PBM approaches, respectively. Considering the new pitched blade geometry with rotating aeration microspargers, [Formula: see text] mass transfer was estimated to be 34 times higher than the conventional Rushton turbine set-up. Notably, the impeller power consumption was modeled to be about 50 % lower. Independent [Formula: see text] measurements applying the same operational conditions confirmed this finding. Motivated by these simulated and experimental results, the new aeration and stirring device is qualified as a very promising tool especially useful for cell culture applications which are characterized by the challenging problem of achieving relatively high mass transfer conditions while inserting only low stirrer energy.

  11. Runtime and Pressurization Analyses of Propellant Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry M.; Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Lee, Chung P.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-element unstructured CFD has been utilized at NASA SSC to carry out analyses of propellant tank systems in different modes of operation. The three regimes of interest at SSC include (a) tank chill down (b) tank pressurization and (c) runtime propellant draw-down and purge. While tank chill down is an important event that is best addressed with long time-scale heat transfer calculations, CFD can play a critical role in the tank pressurization and runtime modes of operation. In these situations, problems with contamination of the propellant by inclusion of the pressurant gas from the ullage causes a deterioration of the quality of the propellant delivered to the test article. CFD can be used to help quantify the mixing and propellant degradation. During tank pressurization under some circumstances, rapid mixing of relatively warm pressurant gas with cryogenic propellant can lead to rapid densification of the gas and loss of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon can cause serious problems during testing because of the resulting decrease in propellant flow rate. With proper physical models implemented, CFD can model the coupling between the propellant and pressurant including heat transfer and phase change effects and accurately capture the complex physics in the evolving flowfields. This holds the promise of allowing the specification of operational conditions and procedures that could minimize the undesirable mixing and heat transfer inherent in propellant tank operation. It should be noted that traditional CFD modeling is inadequate for such simulations because the fluids in the tank are in a range of different sub-critical and supercritical states and elaborate phase change and mixing rules have to be developed to accurately model the interaction between the ullage gas and the propellant. We show a typical run-time simulation of a spherical propellant tank, containing RP-1 in this case, being pressurized with room-temperature nitrogen at 540 R. Nitrogen

  12. Evaluation of the educational technology "Caring for dependent people" by family caregivers in changes and transfers of patients and tube feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Lumini Landeiro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the contributions of interactive educational technology "Caring for Dependent People" in the development of knowledge to family caregivers of dependent people in a household context and their satisfaction in its use. Method: quasi-experimental study, not randomized, of the before and after type, with a convenience sample of 65 family caregivers, from two Medicine services of a hospital in Porto, Portugal. The Control Group consisted of 33 family caregivers and the Experimental Group of 32, identified by consecutive sampling. The experimental group had access to educational technology at home. Data were collected by socio-demographic, satisfaction and evaluation of knowledge questionnaire, about how to feed by nasogastric tube, positioning and transferring the dependent person. The assessment in both groups had two moments: initial, during hospitalization and one month after discharge. Results: the experimental group had a larger increase in knowledge related to the use of the educational technology. In the control group the knowledge did not differ in the two evaluation time points. Conclusion: these results confirm the improvement of interactive educational technologies and in the training of family caregivers to care for dependents. This technology successfully met the technical quality and learning needs of caregivers, and was considered easy and stimulating.

  13. Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    The emergence of more think tanks in recent decades has spawned some interest in how they function and impact policy-making in the European Union and its member states. So far however few empirical studies of think tanks have been carried out and think tanks have mainly been studied...... in their national contexts. Questions regarding patterns and differences in think tank organisations and functions across countries have largely been left unanswered. This paper advances a definition and research design that uses different expert roles to categorise think tanks. A sample of 34 think tanks from...... Brussels, Denmark and Germany are categorised according to different expert roles in a pilot analysis. As the analysis is sensitive to the interpretation and weight given to different indicators, besides from picturing the think tank landscape, the analysis is intended to trigger a discussion of how...

  14. 49 CFR 179.400-17 - Inner tank piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inner tank piping. 179.400-17 Section 179.400-17 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...-17 Inner tank piping. (a) Product lines. The piping system for vapor and liquid phase transfer...

  15. Solar combi system based on a mantle tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2007-01-01

    . The thermal performance of the solar combisystem is compared to the thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system based on a mantle tank. In the experimental study, tank temperatures and the heat transfer coefficient for the top mantle for a discharge test is determined. The investigations showed...

  16. Tank 241-SY-101 push mode core sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CONNER, J.M.

    1998-10-09

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for push mode core samples from tank 241-SY-101 (SY-101). It is written in accordance with Data Quality Objective to Support Resolution of the Flammable Gas Safety Issue (Bauer 1998), Low Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives (Wiemers and Miller 1997 and DOE 1998), Data Quality Objectives for TWRS Privatization Phase I: Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X (Certa 1998), and the Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (Dukelow et al. 1995). The Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis document (Brown et al. 1998) indicates that these issues apply to tank SY-101 for this sampling event. Brown et al. also identifies high-level waste, regulatory, pretreatment and disposal issues as applicable issues for this tank. However, these issues will not be addressed via this sampling event.

  17. Effectiveness of Aquaflor (50% florfenicol) administered in feed to control mortality associated with Streptococcus iniae in tilapia at a commercial tilapia production facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaikowski, Mark P.; Schleis, Susan M.; Leis, Eric; Lasee, Becky A.; Endris, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of Aquaflor (florfenicol; FFC) to control mortality caused by Streptococcus iniae in tilapia was evaluated under field conditions. The trial was initiated following presumptive diagnosis of S. iniae infection in a mixed group of fingerling (mean, 4.5 g) Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus and a hybrid of Nile Tilapia×Blue Tilapia O. aureus. Diagnoses included mortality in source tank; examination of clinical signs and presence or absence of gram-positive cocci in brain, and collection of samples for microbiological review and disease confirmation of 60 moribund fish. Following presumptive diagnosis, tilapia (83/tank) were randomly transferred to each of 20 test tanks receiving the same water as the source tank (test tank water was not reused). Tilapia were offered either nonmedicated control feed or FFC-medicated feed (FFC at 15 mg/kg body weight/d; 10 tanks per regimen) for 10 consecutive days followed by a 14-d observation period during which only the nonmedicated control feed was offered. Streptococcus iniae was presumptively identified during pretreatment necropsy and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction assay; S. iniae was confirmed in samples taken during the dosing period but was not detected during the postdosing period. The FFC disk diffusion zone of inhibition ranged from 29 to 32 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration of FFC ranged from 2 to 4 μg/mL for the S. iniae isolates collected. Survival of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group was significantly greater at 14 d posttreatment than that of the nonmedicated controls. The odds of tilapia assigned to the FFC-dose group surviving to the end of the postdosing period were 1.34 times the odds of survival of tilapia assigned to the nonmedicated control group. There were no clinically apparent adverse effects associated with the administration of FFC-medicated feed in this study.

  18. Supporting document for the historical tank content estimate for SY-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.

    1997-08-12

    The purpose of this historical characterization document is to present the synthesized summaries of the historical records concerning the physical characteristics, radiological, and chemical composition of mixed wastes stored in underground double-shell tanks and the physical condition of these tanks. The double-shell tanks are located on the United States Department of Energy`s Hanford Site, approximately 25 miles northwest or Richland, Washington. The document will be used to assist in characterizing the waste in the tanks in conjunction with the current program of sampling and analyzing the tank wastes. Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) developed computer models that used the historical data to attempt to characterize the wastes and to generate estimates of each tank`s inventory. A historical review of the tanks may reveal anomalies or unusual contents that could be critical to characterization and post characterization activities. This document was developed by reviewing the operating plant process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical data from numerous resources. These resources were generated by numerous contractors from 1945 to the present. Waste characterization, the process of describing the character or quality of a waste, is required by Federal law (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA]) and state law (Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations). Characterizing the waste is necessary to determine methods to safely retrieve, transport, and/or treat the wastes.

  19. Tank 241-BY-108 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-10

    Tank BY-108 headspace gas and vapor samples were collected and analyzed to help determine the potential risks to tank farm workers due to fugitive emissions from the tank. Tank BY-108 is on the Ferrocyanide Watch List. Samples were collected from Tank BY-108 using the vapor sampling system (VSS) on october 27, 1994 by WHC Sampling and Mobile Laboratories. The tank headspace temperature was determined to be 25.7 C. Air from the Tank BY-108 headspace was withdrawn via a 7.9 m-long heated sampling probe mounted in riser 1, and transferred via heated tubing to the VSS sampling manifold. All heated zones of the VSS were maintained at approximately 50 C. Sampling media were prepared and analyzed by WHC, Oak Ridge National Laboratories, and Pacific Northwest Laboratories. The 40 tank air samples and 2 ambient air control samples collected are listed in Table X-1 by analytical laboratory. Table X-1 also lists the 14 trip blanks and 2 field blanks that accompanied the samples.

  20. DEPOSITION TANK CORROSION TESTING FOR ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING POST OXALIC ACID DESTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2011-08-29

    An Enhanced Chemical Cleaning (ECC) process is being developed to aid in the high level waste tank closure at the Savannah River Site. The ECC process uses an advanced oxidation process (AOP) to destroy the oxalic acid that is used to remove residual sludge from a waste tank prior to closure. The AOP process treats the dissolved sludge with ozone to decompose the oxalic acid through reactions with hydroxyl radicals. The effluent from this oxalic acid decomposition is to be sent to a Type III waste tank and may be corrosive to these tanks. As part of the hazardous simulant testing that was conducted at the ECC vendor location, corrosion testing was conducted to determine the general corrosion rate for the deposition tank and to assess the susceptibility to localized corrosion, especially pitting. Both of these factors impact the calculation of hydrogen gas generation and the structural integrity of the tanks, which are considered safety class functions. The testing consisted of immersion and electrochemical testing of A537 carbon steel, the material of construction of Type III tanks, and 304L stainless steel, the material of construction for transfer piping. Tests were conducted in solutions removed from the destruction loop of the prototype ECC set up. Hazardous simulants, which were manufactured at SRNL, were used as representative sludges for F-area and H-area waste tanks. Oxalic acid concentrations of 1 and 2.5% were used to dissolve the sludge as a feed to the ECC process. Test solutions included the uninhibited effluent, as well as the effluent treated for corrosion control. The corrosion control options included mixing with an inhibited supernate and the addition of hydroxide. Evaporation of the uninhibited effluent was also tested since it may have a positive impact on reducing corrosion. All corrosion testing was conducted at 50 C. The uninhibited effluent was found to increase the corrosion rate by an order of magnitude from less than 1 mil per year (mpy

  1. A novel milliliter-scale chemostat system for parallel cultivation of microorganisms in stirred-tank bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmideder, Andreas; Severin, Timm Steffen; Cremer, Johannes Heinrich; Weuster-Botz, Dirk

    2015-09-20

    A pH-controlled parallel stirred-tank bioreactor system was modified for parallel continuous cultivation on a 10 mL-scale by connecting multichannel peristaltic pumps for feeding and medium removal with micro-pipes (250 μm inner diameter). Parallel chemostat processes with Escherichia coli as an example showed high reproducibility with regard to culture volume and flow rates as well as dry cell weight, dissolved oxygen concentration and pH control at steady states (n=8, coefficient of variation bioreactor on a liter-scale. Thus, parallel and continuously operated stirred-tank bioreactors on a milliliter-scale facilitate timesaving and cost reducing steady state studies with microorganisms. The applied continuous bioreactor system overcomes the drawbacks of existing miniaturized bioreactors, like poor mass transfer and insufficient process control.

  2. 固体颗粒对搅拌罐中气液传质的影响%Influence of Solid Particles on Gas-liquid Mass Transfer in a Stirred Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙作良; 韩冰; Louhi-Kultanen Marjatta

    2015-01-01

    在带有Rushton搅拌桨的搅拌罐中,研究了恒定温度和恒定气体流量条件下不同粒径的固体颗粒和搅拌速率对气液传质速率的影响.结果表明:固体体积分数小于0.08%,时,石英砂(41.1,µm和640,µm)对气液体积传质系数kLa没有影响;而对于碳酸钙颗粒(5.07,µm),当其体积分数大于0.4%,时,kLa 随着固体含量的增加而增大.通过对实验数据的拟合,得到一个含有功率输入、浆液有效黏度、颗粒粒径和固含量的半经验公式,该公式能够很好地表达颗粒对气液传质的影响.%Gas-liquid mass transfer in a stirred tank was studied with a Rushton impeller. Mass transfer rate was investigated using various concentration of different-sized solid particles,as well as different rotation speed at a constant temperature and gas flow rate. When the solid volume fraction was less than 0.08%,no effect of quartz sands(41.1,µm and 640,µm)on the volumetric mass transfer kLa was observed. However,kLa was increased when the solid volume fraction of calcium carbonate particles(5.07,µm)was above 0.4%,. A semi-empirical equation of specific power input,effective viscosity of slurry,particle size,and solid loading was obtained by fitting the experimental data. This equation can successfully describe the effect of particles on gas-liquid mass transfer.

  3. RESULTS FOR THE FOURTH QUARTER 2013 TANK 50 WAC SLURRY SAMPLE CHEMICAL AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C.

    2014-04-01

    This report details the chemical and radionuclide contaminant results for the characterization of the 2013 Fourth Quarter sampling of Tank 50 for the Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) in effect at that time. Information from this characterization will be used by DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering (DSFE) to support the transfer of low-level aqueous waste from Tank 50 to the Salt Feed Tank in the Saltstone Facility in Z-Area, where the waste will be immobilized. This information is also used to update the Tank 50 Waste Characterization System. The following conclusions are drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: SRR WAC targets or limits were met for all analyzed chemical and radioactive contaminants unless noted in this section. {sup 59}Ni, {sup 94}Nb, {sup 247}Cm, {sup 249}Cf, and {sup 251}Cf are above the requested SRR target concentrations. However, they are below the detection limits established by SRNL. Norpar 13 and Isopar L have higher detection limits compared with the Saltstone WAC. The data provided in this report is based upon the concentrations in the sub-sample, and due to the limited solubility of these materials in aqueous solution, may not represent the concentrations of the analytes in Tank 50. The low insoluble solids content increases the measurement uncertainty for insoluble species. The semivolatile organic analysis (SVOA) method employed in the measurement of Norpar 13 and tributyl phosphate (TBP) has resulted in the erroneous reporting of a variety of small chain alcohols, including 4-methyl-3-hexanol and 5-methyl-3-hexanol, in previous quarterly sample reports. It has now been determined that these alcohols are an artifact of the sample preparation. Further work is being conducted in SRNL to delineate the conditions that produce these alcohols, and these findings will be reported separately.

  4. 33 CFR 157.15 - Slop tanks in tank vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Slop tanks in tank vessels. 157... (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.15 Slop tanks in tank vessels. (a) Number....

  5. 46 CFR 153.935 - Opening of tanks and cargo sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., except: (1) To clean a tank; (2) To transfer a cargo that Table 1 allows in a containment system having... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Opening of tanks and cargo sampling. 153.935 Section 153... Vessel Safety § 153.935 Opening of tanks and cargo sampling. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b)...

  6. 76 FR 13313 - Hazardous Materials: Cargo Tank Motor Vehicle Loading and Unloading Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... cargo transfer hoses on an adjacent tank car resulted in the release of chlorine. Three plant employees... of the explosion propelled a 300-pound tank car dome housing about \\1/3\\ mile away from the tank car... repaired fill hose and began to unload the gas from his 8,000-gallon tanker truck. In less than a...

  7. 49 CFR 174.63 - Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank car tanks. 174.63 Section 174.63 Transportation Other....63 Portable tanks, IM portable tanks, IBCs, Large Packagings, cargo tanks, and multi-unit tank...

  8. Cause of metering error in shore-tank custody transfer of refined oil and Solutions%成品油岸罐交接计量误差的产生原因及应对措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓林

    2012-01-01

    Source of errors caused by tanks, dipsticks, thermometers, density meters and other measuring instruments in the static measurement of refined oil shore-tanks as well as measuring methods for oil height, temperature, density, etc. is analyzed and effective solutions are proposed. It is pointed out that multi-point sampling and multi-point temperature measurement should be used before and after loading to respectively measure oil temperature and density, and corresponding standards in the operations should be strictly complied with. Meanwhile, it is necessary to strengthen management of measuring instruments and conduct professional training about operation methods for operators. Calculation results show that the above improvement measures can reduce the measurement deviation by 0.5 ‰~4 ‰, thus greatly reducing measuring disputes caused by human operation errors. In addition, it is recommended to give priority to the use of mass flowmeter as the main custody transfer method of refined oils if available.%对成品油岸罐静态计量中的储油罐、量油尺、温度计、密度计等计量器具,以及测量油品高度、温度、密度等方法所导致的误差原因进行了分析,并提出有效的解决措施:在装船前后采用多点采样、多点测温的方式,分别测量罐内油品的温度和密度,在操作中严格遵守相应规范,同时加强对各种计量器具的管理和操作人员操作方法的专业培训.测算结果表明,通过以上改进措施可减少计量偏差0.5‰~4‰,从而大大减小人为操作误差引起的计量纠纷.同时,建议在有条件的情况下,优先考虑使用质量流量计作为成品油交接主要的计量方式.

  9. 周期性边界条件对浮顶储罐原油传热过程的影响规律%Effect of periodic boundary conditions on heat transfer process of crude oil in floating roof storage tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙巍; 成庆林; 王沛迪; 李玉春; 孙海英

    2016-01-01

    随着石油储备需求的增加,油罐规模正向大型化以及能适应极限工况的方向发展。准确掌握罐内油品温度场的变化规律,对于保障油库安全经济运行具有重要意义。针对太阳辐射、大气温度等储罐环境的周期性变化条件,运用传热学相关理论,建立了大型双盘浮顶储罐非稳态传热过程的理论模型,通过对模型区域进行离散化得到边界节点的向前差分方程,在确定罐内原油物性参数、储罐传热系数以及边界热通量的基础上,研究得出储罐原油温度场的数值模拟方法。对大庆某10×104 m3浮顶储罐的应用分析表明,罐顶温降速率随着太阳辐射强度以及大气温度的降低而增大;罐壁温降速率受太阳辐射影响较小,随大气温度的降低而增大;罐底近似于绝热,温降速率受外界环境影响较小,研究结果可为优化大型浮顶罐的储存工艺设计及生产管理提供一定的理论支持。%With the increase in demand for oil storage,the scale of tanks are developing towards the direction of large scale and better adaptability to extreme working conditions. The change of oil temperature field inside the tank should be accurately grasped, which is of great significance to guarantee safe and economical operation of oil depot. Aiming at the periodic change conditions of tank ambient conditions such as solar radiation, atmospheric temperature andetc., a theoretical model of the unsteady-state heat transfer process of large double-deck floating roof tank is established by using the theory of heat transfer, and the forward difference equations of boundary point are obtained by model region discretion. On basis of determining the physical properties of crude oil in the storage tank, heat transfer coefficient of the tank as well as the heat flux density of boundary, the numerical stimulation method of temperature field in the tank can be studied. The analysis and

  10. Enhancement of Oxygen Mass Transfer and Gas Holdup Using Palm Oil in Stirred Tank Bioreactors with Xanthan Solutions as Simulated Viscous Fermentation Broths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaila Mohd Sauid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa is an important parameter in bioreactors handling viscous fermentations such as xanthan gum production, as it affects the reactor performance and productivity. Published literatures showed that adding an organic phase such as hydrocarbons or vegetable oil could increase the kLa. The present study opted for palm oil as the organic phase as it is plentiful in Malaysia. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of viscosity, gas holdup, and kLa on the xanthan solution with different palm oil fractions by varying the agitation rate and aeration rate in a 5 L bench-top bioreactor fitted with twin Rushton turbines. Results showed that 10% (v/v of palm oil raised the kLa of xanthan solution by 1.5 to 3 folds with the highest kLa value of 84.44 h−1. It was also found that palm oil increased the gas holdup and viscosity of the xanthan solution. The kLa values obtained as a function of power input, superficial gas velocity, and palm oil fraction were validated by two different empirical equations. Similarly, the gas holdup obtained as a function of power input and superficial gas velocity was validated by another empirical equation. All correlations were found to fit well with higher determination coefficients.

  11. Fuel Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    structures b) - Equal thermic inertia c) - Equal fluid volume d) - Equal pressure variation on both wings at the change of the room temperature - This...individual fuel sections. Each fuel section is further ccmpartmentated by metall tank shear walls and tank floors into three individual fuel cells to...plate Dy a stretch forming process, and the metallic tank floors . The air intake segments extend from one bulkhead to the other, thus reducing assembly

  12. Effects of In-Feed Copper, Chlortetracycline, and Tylosin on the Prevalence of Transferable Copper Resistance Gene, tcrB, Among Fecal Enterococci of Weaned Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amachawadi, Raghavendra G; Scott, H Morgan; Vinasco, Javier; Tokach, Mike D; Dritz, Steve S; Nelssen, Jim L; Nagaraja, Tiruvoor G

    2015-08-01

    Heavy metals, such as copper, are increasingly supplemented in swine diets as an alternative to antibiotics to promote growth. Enterococci, a common gut commensal, acquire plasmid-borne, transferable copper resistance (tcrB) gene-mediated resistance to copper. The plasmid also carried resistance genes to tetracyclines and macrolides. The potential genetic link between copper and antibiotic resistance suggests that copper supplementation may exert a selection pressure for antimicrobial resistance. Therefore, a longitudinal study was conducted to investigate the effects of in-feed copper, chlortetracycline, and tylosin alone or in combination on the selection and co-selection of antimicrobial-resistant enterococci. The study included 240 weaned piglets assigned randomly to 6 dietary treatment groups: control, copper, chlortetracycline, tylosin, copper and chlortetracycline, and copper and tylosin. Feces were collected before (day 0), during (days 7, 14, 21), and after (days 28 and 35) initiating treatment, and enterococcal isolates were obtained from each fecal sample and tested for genotypic and phenotypic resistance to copper and antibiotics. A total of 2592 enterococcal isolates were tested for tcrB by polymerase chain reaction. The overall prevalence of tcrB-positive enterococci was 14.3% (372/2592). Among the tcrB-positive isolates, 331 were Enterococcus faecium and 41 were E. faecalis. All tcrB-positive isolates contained both erm(B) and tet(M) genes. The median minimum inhibitory concentration of copper for tcrB-negative and tcrB-positive enterococci was 6 and 18 mM, respectively. The majority of isolates (95/100) were resistant to multiple antibiotics. In conclusion, supplementing copper or antibiotics alone did not increase copper-resistant enterococci; however, supplementing antibiotics with copper increased the prevalence of the tcrB gene among fecal enterococci of piglets.

  13. Tank waste remediation system simulation analysis retrieval model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-09-30

    The goal of simulation was to test tll(., consequences of assumptions. For the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model, l@lie specific assumptions are primarily defined with respect to waste processing arid transfer timing. The model tracks 73 chem1913ical constituents from underground waste tanks to glass; yet, the detailed (@hemistrv and complete set of unit operations of the TWRS process flow sheet are represented only at the level necessary to define the waste processing and transfer logic and to estimate the feed composition for the treatment facilities. Tlierefor(,, the model should net be regarded as a substitute for the TWRS process flow sheet. Pra(!ticallv the model functions as a dyrt(imic extension of the flow sheet model. I I The following sections present the description, assunipt@ions, architecture, arid evalua- tion of the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model. Section 2 describes the model in terms of an overview of the processes represented. Section 3 presents the assumptions for the simulation model. Specific assumptions 9.tt(l parameter values used in the model are provided for waste retrieval, pretreatment, low-level waste (LLNN7) immobilization, and high-level waste (HLW) immobilization functions. Section 4 describes the model in terms of its functional architec- rare to d(@fine a basis for a systematic evaluation of the model. Finally, Section 5 documents an independent test and evaluation of the niodel`s performance (i.e., the verification and validation). Additionally, Appendix A gives a complete listing of the tank inventory used. Appendix B documents the verification and validation plan that was used for the (Section 5) evaluation work. A description and listing of all the model variables is given in Appendix C along with a complete source listing.

  14. Hanford tanks initiative plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, K.E.

    1997-07-01

    Abstract: The Hanford Tanks Initiative (HTI) is a five-year project resulting from the technical and financial partnership of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Waste Management (EM-30) and Office of Science and Technology Development (EM-50). The HTI project accelerates activities to gain key technical, cost performance, and regulatory information on two high-level waste tanks. The HTI will provide a basis for design and regulatory decisions affecting the remainder of the Tank Waste Remediation System`s tank waste retrieval Program.

  15. Tank waste remediation system mission analysis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acree, C.D.

    1998-01-09

    This document describes and analyzes the technical requirements that the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) must satisfy for the mission. This document further defines the technical requirements that TWRS must satisfy to supply feed to the private contractors` facilities and to store or dispose the immobilized waste following processing in these facilities. This document uses a two phased approach to the analysis to reflect the two-phased nature of the mission.

  16. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  17. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  18. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    1999-05-04

    The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan updates the operating scenario and plans for the delivery of feed to BNFL Inc., retrieval of waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases I and II of the privatization of the Tank Waste Remediation System. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent tank-by-tank inventory and sludge washing data. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the impact or benefits of proposed changes to the BNFL Inc. contract and to evaluate a risk-based SST retrieval strategy.

  19. Hydroxide depletion in dilute supernates stored in waste tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1985-10-10

    Free hydroxide ion in dilute supernates are depleted by reaction with atmospheric carbon dioxide to form bicarbonate and carbonate species and by reaction with acidic compounds formed by the radiolytic decomposition of tetraphenylborate salts. A model of the kinetics and thermodynamics of absorption of carbon dioxide in the waste tanks has been developed. Forecasts of the rate of hydroxide depletion and the requirements for sodium hydroxide to maintain technical standards have been made for the washed sludge and washed precipitate storage tanks. Hydroxide depletion is predicted to have a minimal impact on sludge processing operations. However, in-tank precipitation and downstream DWPF operations are predicted to be significantly affected by hydroxide depletion in Tank 49H. The installation of a carbon dioxide scrubber on Tank 49H may be justified in view of the decrease in alkali content and variation in the melter feed.

  20. Management assessment of tank waste remediation system contractor readiness to proceed with phase 1B privatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honeyman, J.O.

    1998-01-09

    This Management Assessment of Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Contractor Readiness to Proceed With Phase 1B Privatization documents the processes used to determine readiness to proceed with tank waste treatment technologies from private industry, now known as TWRS privatization. An overall systems approach was applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and disposal mission of the TWRS Project. The systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. Since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farms organizational structure and configurations, work scope, and costs has become part of the culture within the TWRS Project. An analysis of the programmatic, management, and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, personnel, and hardware will be on-line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) team to support initiation of waste processing by the private contractors in June 2002 and to receive immobilized waste shortly thereafter. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the private contractor Requests for Proposal were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined.

  1. Modeling and Analysis of Chill and Fill Processes for the EDU Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayat, A.; Cartagena, W.; Majumdar, A. K.; Leclair, A. C.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's future missions may require long-term storage and transfer of cryogenic propellants. The Engineering Development Unit (EDU), a NASA in-house effort supported by both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Glenn Research Center (GRC), is a Cryogenic Fluid Management (CFM) test article that primarily serves as a manufacturing pathfinder and a risk reduction task for a future CFM payload. The EDU test article, comprises a flight like tank, internal components, insulation, and attachment struts. The EDU is designed to perform integrated passive thermal control performance testing with liquid hydrogen in a space-like vacuum environment. A series of tests, with liquid hydrogen as a testing fluid, was conducted at Test Stand 300 at MSFC during summer of 2014. The objective of this effort was to develop a thermal/fluid model for evaluating the thermodynamic behavior of the EDU tank during the chill and fill processes. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), an MSFC in-house general-purpose computer program for flow network analysis, was utilized to model and simulate the chill and fill portion of the testing. The model contained the liquid hydrogen supply source, feed system, EDU tank, and vent system. The modeling description and comparison of model predictions with the test data will be presented in the final paper.

  2. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  3. Tank characterization report for Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCenso, A.T.; Amato, L.C. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States); Winters, W.I. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-06-09

    This tank characterization report presents an overview of Double-Shell Tank 241-SY-102 (hereafter, Tank 241-SY-102) and its waste contents. It provides estimated concentrations and inventories for the waste components based on the latest sampling and analysis activities and background tank information. This report describes the results of three sampling events. The first core sample was taken in October 1988. The tank supernate and sludge were next core sampled in February and March of 1990 (Tingey and Sasaki 1995). A grab sample of the supernate was taken in March of 1994. Tank 241-SY-102 is in active service and can be expected to have additional transfers to and from the tank that will alter the composition of the waste. The concentration and inventory estimates reported in this document no longer reflect the exact composition of the waste but represent the best estimates based on the most recent and available data. This report supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order Milestone M-44-08 (Ecology, EPA, DOE 1994).

  4. Data Observations on Double Shell Tank (DST) Flammable Gas Watch List Tank Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEDENGREN, D.C.

    2000-09-28

    This report provides the data from the retained gas sampler, void fraction instrument, ball rheometer, standard hydrogen monitoring system, and other tank data pertinent to gas retention and release behavior in the waste stored in double-shelled Flammable Gas Watch List tanks at Hanford. These include tanks 241-AN-103,241-AN-104, 241-AN-105, 241-AW-101, 241-SY-101, and 241-SY-103. The tanks and the waste they contain are described in terms of fill history and chemistry. The results of mixer pump operation and recent waste transfers and back-dilution in SY-101 are also described. In-situ measurement and monitoring systems are described and the data are summarized under the categories of thermal behavior, waste configuration and properties, gas generation and composition, gas retention and historical gas release behavior.

  5. SINGLE-SHELL TANKS LEAK INTEGRITY ELEMENTS/SX FARM LEAK CAUSES AND LOCATIONS - 12127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENETZ TJ; WASHENFELDER D; JOHNSON J; GIRARDOT C

    2012-01-25

    leak detection. In-tank parameters can include temperature of the supernatant and sludge, types of waste, and chemical determination by either transfer or sample analysis. Ex-tank information can be assembled from many sources including design media, construction conditions, technical specifications, and other sources. Five conditions may have contributed to SX Farm tank liner failure including: tank design, thermal shock, chemistry-corrosion, liner behavior (bulging), and construction temperature. Tank design did not apparently change from tank to tank for the SX Farm tanks; however, there could be many unknown variables present in the quality of materials and quality of construction. Several significant SX Farm tank design changes occurred from previous successful tank farm designs. Tank construction occurred in winter under cold conditions which could have affected the ductile to brittle transition temperature of the tanks. The SX Farm tanks received high temperature boiling waste from REDOX which challenged the tank design with rapid heat up and high temperatures. All eight of the leaking SX Farm tanks had relatively high rate of temperature rise. Supernatant removal with subsequent nitrate leaching was conducted in all but three of the eight leaking tanks prior to leaks being detected. It is possible that no one characteristic of the SX Farm tanks could in isolation from the others have resulted in failure. However, the application of so many stressors - heat up rate, high temperature, loss of corrosion protection, and tank design - working jointly or serially resulted in their failure. Thermal shock coupled with the tank design, construction conditions, and nitrate leaching seem to be the overriding factors that can lead to tank liner failure. The distinction between leaking and sound SX Farm tanks seems to center on the waste types, thermal conditions, and nitrate leaching.

  6. Rainwater tank drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byard, Roger W

    2008-11-01

    Drowning remains a significant cause of accidental death in young children. The site of drowning varies among communities and is influenced by cultural and geographic factors, including the availability of particular water sources. The drowning deaths of a twin two-year-old brother and sister in a rainwater tank are reported to demonstrate specific issues that may arise. Ladders, vegetation and trellises may provide access to tanks and should be removed. Secure child-proof access points should also be installed, particularly on in-ground tanks (given the ready accessibility of the latter). As there has been a recent trend in Australia to install more domestic rainwater tanks, the number of childhood rainwater tank drownings and near-drownings will need to be monitored by forensic pathologists and child death review committees to ensure that this has not led to the introduction of a new hazard into the home environment.

  7. Tank characterization reference guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Lorenzo, D.S.; DiCenso, A.T.; Hiller, D.B.; Johnson, K.W.; Rutherford, J.H.; Smith, D.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Simpson, B.C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Characterization of the Hanford Site high-level waste storage tanks supports safety issue resolution; operations and maintenance requirements; and retrieval, pretreatment, vitrification, and disposal technology development. Technical, historical, and programmatic information about the waste tanks is often scattered among many sources, if it is documented at all. This Tank Characterization Reference Guide, therefore, serves as a common location for much of the generic tank information that is otherwise contained in many documents. The report is intended to be an introduction to the issues and history surrounding the generation, storage, and management of the liquid process wastes, and a presentation of the sampling, analysis, and modeling activities that support the current waste characterization. This report should provide a basis upon which those unfamiliar with the Hanford Site tank farms can start their research.

  8. Commercial Submersible Mixing Pump For SRS Tank Waste Removal - 15223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, Mike [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Herbert, James E. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Scheele, Patrick W. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The Savannah River Site Tank Farms have 45 active underground waste tanks used to store and process nuclear waste materials. There are 4 different tank types, ranging in capacity from 2839 m3 to 4921 m3 (750,000 to 1,300,000 gallons). Eighteen of the tanks are older style and do not meet all current federal standards for secondary containment. The older style tanks are the initial focus of waste removal efforts for tank closure and are referred to as closure tanks. Of the original 51 underground waste tanks, six of the original 24 older style tanks have completed waste removal and are filled with grout. The insoluble waste fraction that resides within most waste tanks at SRS requires vigorous agitation to suspend the solids within the waste liquid in order to transfer this material for eventual processing into glass filled canisters at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). SRS suspends the solid waste by use of recirculating mixing pumps. Older style tanks generally have limited riser openings which will not support larger mixing pumps, since the riser access is typically 58.4 cm (23 inches) in diameter. Agitation for these tanks has been provided by four long shafted standard slurry pumps (SLP) powered by an above tank 112KW (150 HP) electric motor. The pump shaft is lubricated and cooled in a pressurized water column that is sealed from the surrounding waste in the tank. Closure of four waste tanks has been accomplished utilizing long shafted pump technology combined with heel removal using multiple technologies. Newer style waste tanks at SRS have larger riser openings, allowing the processing of waste solids to be accomplished with four large diameter SLPs equipped with 224KW (300 HP) motors. These tanks are used to process the waste from closure tanks for DWPF. In addition to the SLPs, a 224KW (300 HP) submersible mixer pump (SMP) has also been developed and deployed within older style tanks. The SMPs are product cooled and

  9. Marking of burbot Lota lota (L. juveniles using commercial feed as a vector of fluorochrome application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stańczak

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of restocking is an important element of sustainable fishery. In restocking programmes, where larvae and juveniles are used mass marking is carried out with non-toxic dyes such as fluorochromes transferred into the fish body by immersion or with feed. The experiment was carried out to assess the possibility of using commercial feed supplemented Alizarin Red S (ARS as an alternative non-invasive method for the mass marking of burbot fry. Fish of an average body weight of 1.8 (± 0.2 g were reared in separated 10 dm3 tanks and fed for 10 days with extruded feed supplemented ARS in six concentrations, i.e. 0 (control, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 g fluorochrome per kg of feed at a daily dose of 5% of biomass. During the next 15 days fish were fed commercial feed without ARS. After 25 days of rearing 30 individuals were sampled from each group, euthanized and total length and wet body weight of each fish were determined. Next, the sampled fish were preserved in 70% ethyl alcohol. Then otoliths were excised from the fish and analysed under a fluorescence microscope to identify fluorescent tags. Marked individuals were identified in each analysed group provided with feed supplemented ARS. The highest rate of marked fish (100% was found in the group that received 40 g ARS per kg of feed, and the lowest (73.3% in the group that received 60 g ARS per kg of feed. Supplementation of feed with ARS had no negative effect on the survival rate and growth parameters (mean body weight and total body length of burbot. The results suggest that ARS applied in commercial feed (40 g/kg for about 7-10 days is an effective method for marking burbot fry and can be recommended in fishery practice.

  10. Tank 29 salt removal method using slurry pump agitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parish, W.R.

    1993-11-30

    This report outlines a plan for removing salt from Tank 29. The plan is based, in part, upon the experience gained in the removal of salt from Tank 19 and sludge from Tank 16. Tank 19 was the first tank in which slurry pumps were used during salt dissolution. Salt in Tank 29 will be dissolved to form a nearly saturated salt solution. The goal of Waste Removal is to remove the salt from the tank and deliver it to In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) at a concentration greater than 6.7 molar Na{sup +} (including dilution from transfer steam) to meet ITP requirements. (The amount of wash water used in ITP will be enough to dilute 6.7 molar Na{sup +} salt solution to 5 molar Na{sup +} required for the precipitation step). The solution will be sent to (ITP) for precipitation of soluble cesium and strontium (radioactive elements). The precipitate will be transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) for final disposal. A USQD (Unreviewed Safety Question Determination) for criticality safety issue resolution will be completed prior to salt removal.

  11. Tank 241-C-203: Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D.

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-203.

  12. Tank 241-C-204 Tank Characterization Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-06

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. Scope of this plan is to provide guidance for sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-C-204.

  13. Tank 241-SX-115 tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, L.M.

    1995-04-24

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Project, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-S Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-SX-115.

  14. Tank 241-TY-104 Tank characterization plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreiber, R.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-15

    This document is a plan which serves as the contractual agreement between the Characterization Program, Sampling Operations, and WHC 222-C Laboratory. The scope of this plan is to provide guidance for the sampling and analysis of samples for tank 241-TY-104.

  15. Tank Farm Contractor Operation and Utilization Plan [SEC 1 Thru 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KIRKBRIDE, R.A.

    2000-04-19

    This document updates the operating scenario and plans for feed delivery to BNFL Inc. of retrieval and waste from single-shell tanks, and the overall process flowsheets for Phases 1 and 2 of the River Protection Project. The plans and flowsheets are updated with the most recent guidance from ORP and tank-by-tank inventory. The results provide the technical basis for the RTP-2 planning effort. Sensitivity cases were run to evaluate the effect of changes on key parameters.

  16. Preliminary Feed Test Algorithm for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant product composition control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Feed Test Algorithm (FTA) will test the acceptability (conformance with requirements) of process batches in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Although requirements and constraints will be imposed on properties of the material in the melter and the resulting glass, the FTA must test acceptability while the batch is still in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), i.e., before material is transferred to the Melter Feed Tank. Hence, some properties upon which requirements will be imposed must be estimated from data available on the feed slurry. The major type of data to be used in this estimation is feed composition, usually expressed in terms of nine oxide mass fractions and a catchall tenth category, Others. Uncertainties are inherent in the HWVP process. The two major or types of uncertainty are composition uncertainty (that related to measurement and estimation of feed composition and other quantities) and model uncertainty (uncertainty inherent in the models developed to relate melt/glass properties to feed composition). Types of uncertainties, representation of uncertainty, and a method for combining uncertainties are discussed. The FTA must account for these uncertainties in testing acceptability; hence it must be statistical in nature. Three types of statistical intervals (confidence, prediction, and tolerance) are defined, and their roles in acceptance testing are discussed.

  17. Results of Retrieval Studies with Waste from Tank 241-C-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' ROURKE, J.F.

    2000-02-08

    Laboratory studies were performed on samples of waste from Tank 241-C-104. Physical property data was gathered to develop engineering plans for retrieval operations. Chemical composition data was collected to verify the ability to meet contract feed specifications.

  18. Computational Analyses of Pressurization in Cryogenic Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Lee, Chun P.; Field, Robert E.; Ryan, Harry

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical framework utilizing multi-element unstructured CFD and rigorous real fluid property routines has been developed to carry out analyses of propellant tank and delivery systems at NASA SSC. Traditionally CFD modeling of pressurization and mixing in cryogenic tanks has been difficult primarily because the fluids in the tank co-exist in different sub-critical and supercritical states with largely varying properties that have to be accurately accounted for in order to predict the correct mixing and phase change between the ullage and the propellant. For example, during tank pressurization under some circumstances, rapid mixing of relatively warm pressurant gas with cryogenic propellant can lead to rapid densification of the gas and loss of pressure in the tank. This phenomenon can cause serious problems during testing because of the resulting decrease in propellant flow rate. With proper physical models implemented, CFD can model the coupling between the propellant and pressurant including heat transfer and phase change effects and accurately capture the complex physics in the evolving flowfields. This holds the promise of allowing the specification of operational conditions and procedures that could minimize the undesirable mixing and heat transfer inherent in propellant tank operation. In our modeling framework, we incorporated two different approaches to real fluids modeling: (a) the first approach is based on the HBMS model developed by Hirschfelder, Beuler, McGee and Sutton and (b) the second approach is based on a cubic equation of state developed by Soave, Redlich and Kwong (SRK). Both approaches cover fluid properties and property variation spanning sub-critical gas and liquid states as well as the supercritical states. Both models were rigorously tested and properties for common fluids such as oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen etc were compared against NIST data in both the sub-critical as well as supercritical regimes.

  19. SRS Tank 38H and 43H Supernate Foaming Studies and Tank 38H Reel Tape Solids Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Restivo, M. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Martino, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-12-04

    Radioactive waste samples retrieved from Savannah River Site (SRS) Tanks 38H and 43H (concentrate receipt and feed tanks, respectively, for the 2H Evaporator system) were evaluated with regard to their tendency to form foams during air sparging. This work was conducted due to recent processing issues and outages in the evaporator that were believed to have resulted from sample foaming. The samples evaluated for foam formation included supernate collected in April of 2014 (near the time of the evaporator outage) as well as historical samples available within the SRNL shielded cells facility. The April samples included one Tank 43H surface sample (HTF-43-14-42), one Tank 43H sub-surface sample (HTF-43-14-43), and one Tank 38H (HTF-38-14-41) surface sample. In addition, two Tank 43H samples (HTF-43-14-8 and HTF-43-14-9) and one Tank 38H sample (HTF-38-14-6) were also evaluated along with a blended sample of various historical Tank 38H and 43H samples. Characterization results for the April samples are also provided. The composition of the samples was similar to historical evaporator system samples received at SRNL.

  20. 解读TANKED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    品牌为重、创造为先,Tanked racing用不走“寻常路”给国内众多同行们生动地上了一课。通过持续近四年的高速成长,Tanked racingE成为中国头盔业翘楚,然而Tanked racing并不局限于此,因为未来的舞台还很大。

  1. influence of tanks liner material on water quality and growth of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR A O AKINWOLE

    Keywords : Aquaculture, Liners, Fish Farming, Tank, Clarias gariepinus ... to focus on urban cities where a sizable number of educated population resides . ... feeding and changing the water of the tanks to monitor dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, ... Concentration of alkalinity, nitrite and ammonia were measured using the Hach.

  2. Tank Farm Waste Transfer Compatibility Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FOWLER, K.D.

    2000-07-12

    The compatibility program described in this document formalizes the process for determining waste compatibility. The primary goal of the program is to ensure that sufficient controls are in place to prevent the formation of incompatible mixtures during future operations. The process described involves characterizing waste, comparing characteristics with criteria, resolving potential incompatibilities and documenting the process.

  3. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2011-09-01

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  4. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2012-07-10

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  5. Simulation Research of Vaporization and Pressure Variation in a Cryogenic Propellant Tank at the Launch Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Liang, Guo-zhu

    2013-12-01

    In order to improve depiction of pressure variation and investigate the interrelation among the physical processes in propellant tanks, a 2D axial symmetry Volume-of-Fluid (VOF) CFD model is established to simulate a large-sized liquid propellant tank when the rocket is preparing for launch with propellant loaded at the launch site. The numerical model is considered with propellant free convection, heat transfer between the tank and the external environment, thermal exchange between propellant and inner tank wall surfaces, gas compressibility, and phase change modeled under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. Vaporization rate of the vented LH2 tank and prediction of pressure change in the tank pressurized with GHe are obtained through simulation. We analysis the distributions of phase, temperature, and velocity vectors to reveal interactions among the propellant's own convection motion, heat transfer and phase change. The results show that the vaporization rate is mainly affected by heat leaks though the tank wall when the tank is vented, but it does not completely accord with the trend of the leakage because of convection motion and temperature nonuniformity of the liquid propellant in the tank. We also find that the main factors on pressure variation in the pressurized tank are the heat transfer on the tank wall surface bonding the ullage and propellant vaporization which has comparatively less influence.

  6. 3D simulation for the influence of a feed baffle on the density current behaviors caused by temperature in a radial sedimentation tank%辐流式沉淀池挡板尺寸对温差异重流水力特性影响的三维模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏文礼; 白朝伟; 刘玉玲

    2016-01-01

    在冬季或夏季,沉淀池内进水与池内水的温差将导致异重流现象,从而影响池内流态及流速.本文选取Realizable k-ε湍流模型,通过设置池内水与进水的不同温度,对进口处两种不同挡板形式的辐流式沉淀池冬季与夏季工况下异重流的演变规律进行三维数值模拟.结果表明:夏季低温水进入池内产生下异重流,而冬季高温水进入池内产生上异重流;夏季高流速水流在沉淀池底部,产生逆时针旋流,冬季高流速水流在沉淀池上部,产生较大的顺时针旋流.长挡板形式下的辐流式沉淀池对冬季产生的上异重流的影响更为明显,使得池内速度场更加均匀.%In summer or winter,temperature differences between the inflow water and the water in a pool will cause density flow phenomenon,whereby affecting flow pattern and flow speed in a Radial Sedimentation Tank.The Realizable k-εmodel is used to carry out 3D numerical simula-tion of density current evolution regulation under the operational conditions by setting different temperatures between the inflow water and the water in the tank with two different forms of feed baffles near the inlet in summer or winter.The results show that:low-temperature inflow water can produce gravity flow in bottom region in summer while high-temperature inflow water pro-duces the gravity flow in top region in winter;the higher velocity water is in bottom region of sedimentation pond,and counterclockwise vortex is obviously formed in summer,while higher ve-locity water is in top region of sedimentation pond ,clockwise vortex is obviously formed in win-ter.The impact of the longer baffle on the density currents in winter is more obvious,and make velocity field more uniform in the tank.

  7. Ocean Technology Development Tank

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The new SWFSC laboratory in La Jolla incorporates a large sea- and fresh-water Ocean Technology Development Tank. This world-class facility expands NOAA's ability to...

  8. Sonar Tank Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Sonar Tank Facility permits low cost initial 'wet' testing and check out prior to full scale deployment at sea. It can manage controlled conditions calibration...

  9. Tank waste characterization basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T.M.

    1996-08-09

    This document describes the issues requiring characterization information, the process of determining high priority tanks to obtain information, and the outcome of the prioritization process. In addition, this document provides the reasoning for establishing and revising priorities and plans.

  10. 49 CFR 179.401 - Individual specification requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. 179.401 Section 179.401 Transportation Other... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid... requirements applicable to inner tanks for cryogenic liquid tank car tanks. ...

  11. TANK CAR CONSTRUCTION REFINMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Soberzhansjkyj

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase of volume and load-carrying capacity of tank cars is an urgent task for improving the efficiency of transportation of liquid bulk cargoes. Variants of the constructive and technical approaches, which allow increasing the specified indices, are considered. After the analysis the most rational constructive scheme meeting the modern requirements for tank cars and allowing to raise their productivity is chosen.

  12. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  13. TANK 5 SAMPLING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrettos, N; William Cheng, W; Thomas Nance, T

    2007-11-26

    Tank 5 at the Savannah River Site has been used to store high level waste and is currently undergoing waste removal processes in preparation for tank closure. Samples were taken from two locations to determine the contents in support of Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) development for chemical cleaning. These samples were obtained through the use of the Drop Core Sampler and the Snowbank Sampler developed by the Engineered Equipment & Systems (EES) group of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL).

  14. Differential Draining of Parallel-Fed Propellant Tanks in Morpheus and Apollo Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurlbert, Eric; Guardado, Hector; Hernandez, Humberto; Desai, Pooja

    2015-01-01

    Parallel-fed propellant tanks are an advantageous configuration for many spacecraft. Parallel-fed tanks allow the center of gravity (cg) to be maintained over the engine(s), as opposed to serial-fed propellant tanks which result in a cg shift as propellants are drained from tank one tank first opposite another. Parallel-fed tanks also allow for tank isolation if that is needed. Parallel tanks and feed systems have been used in several past vehicles including the Apollo Lunar Module. The design of the feedsystem connecting the parallel tank is critical to maintain balance in the propellant tanks. The design must account for and minimize the effect of manufacturing variations that could cause delta-p or mass flowrate differences, which would lead to propellant imbalance. Other sources of differential draining will be discussed. Fortunately, physics provides some self-correcting behaviors that tend to equalize any initial imbalance. The question concerning whether or not active control of propellant in each tank is required or can be avoided or not is also important to answer. In order to provide data on parallel-fed tanks and differential draining in flight for cryogenic propellants (as well as any other fluid), a vertical test bed (flying lander) for terrestrial use was employed. The Morpheus vertical test bed is a parallel-fed propellant tank system that uses passive design to keep the propellant tanks balanced. The system is operated in blow down. The Morpheus vehicle was instrumented with a capacitance level sensor in each propellant tank in order to measure the draining of propellants in over 34 tethered and 12 free flights. Morpheus did experience an approximately 20 lb/m imbalance in one pair of tanks. The cause of this imbalance will be discussed. This paper discusses the analysis, design, flight simulation vehicle dynamic modeling, and flight test of the Morpheus parallel-fed propellant. The Apollo LEM data is also examined in this summary report of the

  15. STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF SMALL SCALE MIXING DEMONSTRATION SAMPLING AND BATCH TRANSFER PERFORMANCE - 12093

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREER DA; THIEN MG

    2012-01-12

    The ability to effectively mix, sample, certify, and deliver consistent batches of High Level Waste (HLW) feed from the Hanford Double Shell Tanks (DST) to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) presents a significant mission risk with potential to impact mission length and the quantity of HLW glass produced. DOE's Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has previously presented the results of mixing performance in two different sizes of small scale DSTs to support scale up estimates of full scale DST mixing performance. Currently, sufficient sampling of DSTs is one of the largest programmatic risks that could prevent timely delivery of high level waste to the WTP. WRPS has performed small scale mixing and sampling demonstrations to study the ability to sufficiently sample the tanks. The statistical evaluation of the demonstration results which lead to the conclusion that the two scales of small DST are behaving similarly and that full scale performance is predictable will be presented. This work is essential to reduce the risk of requiring a new dedicated feed sampling facility and will guide future optimization work to ensure the waste feed delivery mission will be accomplished successfully. This paper will focus on the analytical data collected from mixing, sampling, and batch transfer testing from the small scale mixing demonstration tanks and how those data are being interpreted to begin to understand the relationship between samples taken prior to transfer and samples from the subsequent batches transferred. An overview of the types of data collected and examples of typical raw data will be provided. The paper will then discuss the processing and manipulation of the data which is necessary to begin evaluating sampling and batch transfer performance. This discussion will also include the evaluation of the analytical measurement capability with regard to the simulant material used in the demonstration tests. The

  16. BLENDING STUDY FOR SRR SALT DISPOSITION INTEGRATION: TANK 50H SCALE-MODELING AND COMPUTER-MODELING FOR BLENDING PUMP DESIGN, PHASE 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.; Fowley, M.

    2011-05-26

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where 300,000-800,000 gallons of salt solution will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. Blending requires the miscible salt solutions from potentially multiple source tanks per batch to be well mixed without disturbing settled sludge solids that may be present in a Blend Tank. Disturbing solids may be problematic both from a feed quality perspective as well as from a process safety perspective where hydrogen release from the sludge is a potential flammability concern. To develop the necessary technical basis for the design and operation of blending equipment, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) completed scaled blending and transfer pump tests and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. A 94 inch diameter pilot-scale blending tank, including tank internals such as the blending pump, transfer pump, removable cooling coils, and center column, were used in this research. The test tank represents a 1/10.85 scaled version of an 85 foot diameter, Type IIIA, nuclear waste tank that may be typical of Blend Tanks used in SDI. Specifically, Tank 50 was selected as the tank to be modeled per the SRR, Project Engineering Manager. SRNL blending tests investigated various fixed position, non-rotating, dual nozzle pump designs, including a blending pump model provided by the blend pump vendor, Curtiss Wright (CW). Primary research goals were to assess blending times and to evaluate incipient sludge disturbance for waste tanks. Incipient sludge disturbance was defined by SRR and SRNL as minor blending of settled sludge from the tank bottom into suspension due to blending pump operation, where

  17. OCCURRENCE & CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN HANFORD SITE WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STOCK, L.M.; MEACHAM, J.E.

    2004-07-29

    Volatile and semivolatile organic compounds continuously evolve from the waste tanks at the Hanford Site. Some are identical to the compounds originally transferred to tanks and others are formed through interdependent chemical and radiolytic reactions. This document provides a technical basis for understanding the chemical consequences of long term storage, sluicing, the addition of chemicals, and the prediction of other organic compounds that may be present in the wastes.

  18. CFD simulations of filling and emptying of hydrogen tanks

    OpenAIRE

    MELIDEO DANIELE; BARALDI DANIELE; ACOSTA IBORRA BEATRIZ; ORTIZ CEBOLLA RAFAEL; MORETTO PIETRO

    2016-01-01

    During the filling of hydrogen tanks high temperatures can be generated inside the vessel because of the gas compression while during the emptying low temperatures can be reached because of the gas expansion. The design temperature range goes from 40 C to 85 C. Temperatures outside that range could affect the mechanical properties of the tank materials. CFD analyses of the filling and emptying processes have been performed in the HyTransfer project. To assess the accuracy of the CFD model the...

  19. Tank 241-C-106 waste retrieval sluicing system process control plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carothers, K.G.

    1998-07-25

    Project W-320 has installed the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System at the 200 East Area on the Hanford Site to retrieve the sludge from single-shell tank 241-C-106 and transfer it into double-shell tank 241-AY-102. Operation of the WRSS process will resolve the high-heat safety issue for tank 241-C-106 and demonstrate a technology for the retrieval of single-shell tank wastes. This process control plan coordinates the technical operating requirements (primarily mass transfer, temperature, and flammable gas) for the sluicing operation and provides overall technical guidance for the retrieval activity.

  20. Sludge mobilization with submerged nozzles in horizontal cylindrical tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hylton, T.D.; Cummins, R.L.; Youngblood, E.L.; Perona, J.J.

    1995-10-01

    The Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) and the evaporator service tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are used for the collection and storage of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). Wastes collected in these tanks are typically acidic when generated and are neutralized with sodium hydroxide to protect the tanks from corrosion; however, the high pH of the solution causes the formation of insoluble compounds that precipitate. These precipitates formed a sludge layer approximately 0.6 to 1.2 m (2 to 4 ft) deep in the bottom of the tanks. The sludge in the MVSTs and the evaporator service tanks will eventually need to be removed from the tanks and treated for final disposal or transferred to another storage facility. The primary options for removing the sludge include single-point sluicing, use of a floating pump, robotic sluicing, and submerged-nozzle sluicing. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the feasibility of submerged-nozzle sluicing in horizontal cylindrical tanks and (2) obtain experimental data to validate the TEMPEST (time-dependent, energy, momentun, pressure, equation solution in three dimensions) computer code.

  1. Hybrid Composite Cryogenic Tank Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid lightweight composite tank has been created using specially designed materials and manufacturing processes. The tank is produced by using a hybrid structure consisting of at least two reinforced composite material systems. The inner composite layer comprises a distinct fiber and resin matrix suitable for cryogenic use that is a braided-sleeve (and/or a filamentwound layer) aramid fiber preform that is placed on a removable mandrel (outfitted with metallic end fittings) and is infused (vacuum-assisted resin transfer molded) with a polyurethane resin matrix with a high ductility at low temperatures. This inner layer is allowed to cure and is encapsulated with a filamentwound outer composite layer of a distinct fiber resin system. Both inner and outer layer are in intimate contact, and can also be cured at the same time. The outer layer is a material that performs well for low temperature pressure vessels, and it can rely on the inner layer to act as a liner to contain the fluids. The outer layer can be a variety of materials, but the best embodiment may be the use of a continuous tow of carbon fiber (T-1000 carbon, or others), or other high-strength fibers combined with a high ductility epoxy resin matrix, or a polyurethane matrix, which performs well at low temperatures. After curing, the mandrel can be removed from the outer layer. While the hybrid structure is not limited to two particular materials, a preferred version of the tank has been demonstrated on an actual test tank article cycled at high pressures with liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen, and the best version is an inner layer of PBO (poly-pphenylenebenzobisoxazole) fibers with a polyurethane matrix and an outer layer of T-1000 carbon with a high elongation epoxy matrix suitable for cryogenic temperatures. A polyurethane matrix has also been used for the outer layer. The construction method is ideal because the fiber and resin of the inner layer has a high strain to failure at cryogenic

  2. Characterization of DWPF recycle condensate tank materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    A Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Recycle Condensate Tank (RCT) sample was delivered to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for characterization with particular interest in the concentration of I-129, U-233, U-235, total U, and total Pu. Since a portion of Salt Batch 8 will contain DWPF recycle materials, the concentration of I-129 is important to undertand for salt batch planning purposes. The chemical and physical characterizations are also needed as input to the interpretation of future work aimed at determining the propensity of the RCT material to foam, and methods to remediate any foaming potential. According to DWPF the Tank Farm 2H evaporator has experienced foaming while processing DWPF recycle materials. The characterization work on the RCT samples has been completed and is reported here. The composition of the Sludge Batch 8 (SB8) RCT material is largely a low base solution of 0.2M NaNO2 and 0.1M NaNO3 with a small amount of formate present. Insoluble solids comprise only 0.05 wt.% of the slurry. The solids appear to be largely sludge-like solids based on elemental composition and SEM-EDS analysis. The sample contains an elevated concentration of I-129 (38x) and substantial 59% fraction of Tc-99, as compared to the incoming SB8 Tank 40 feed material. The Hg concentration is 5x, when compared to Fe, of that expected based on sludge carryover. The total U and Pu concentrations are reduced significantly, 0.536 wt.% TS and 2.42E-03 wt.% TS, respectively, with the fissile components, U-233, U-235, Pu-239, and Pu-241, an order of magnitude lower in concentration than those in the SB8 Tank 40 DWPF feed material. This report will be revised to include the foaming study requested in the TTR and outlined in the TTQAP when that work is concluded.

  3. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiyam T. Devi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Impeller submergence governs the performance of mixing tanks employed in oxygen transfer operation. Present work experimentally investigates the effect of impeller submergence depths on oxygen transfer and corresponding power consumption. It has been found that at higher range of impeller submergence, mixing tanks consume less power and gives higher values of oxygen transfer coefficient. Optimal range of submergence depth is 0.7 to 0.9 times the impeller diameter. Copyright ©2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved.(Received: 4th March 2011; Revised: 12nd July 2011; Accepted: 14th July 2011[How to Cite: T.T. Devi, A.P. Sinha, M. Thakre, and B. Kumar. (2011. Impeller Submergence Depth for Stirred Tanks. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (2: 123-128. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.2.826.123-128 || or local: http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/826] | View in 

  4. 搅拌式光生物反应器培养海带配子体细胞:不同脉冲补料方式的研究%Photolithotrophic Cultivation of Laminaria japonica Gametophyte Cells in Stirred Tank Photobioreactors: Studies in Different Pulse Feeding Modes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈思晔; 齐瀚实

    2008-01-01

    以批次培养为对照,研究了7种脉冲补料方式对搅拌式光生物反应器中培养大型褐藻海带配子体细胞生长和培养液内氮磷营养盐消耗的影响,并首次探讨了脉冲补料方式下不同补料时间点和补料量的影响作用.培养条件设定为50 mg DCW (细胞干重)/L接种密度、培养液为改良的APSW人工海水、光强60μE/m2.s、光周期16/8h L/D、通气速率和搅拌速率分别为50ml/min和100r/min.结果表明少量补料利于细胞对氮磷的协同吸收,进而利于生物量扩增.当培养液内氮磷富足或耗尽时补料对于生物量大量生产效果甚微,可能由于氮磷吸收变缓、其储存现象显著,或是其吸收协同性降低.当细胞生长至对数中期开始频繁补加少量氮磷营养盐,即维持培养液内氮磷浓度在各自起始浓度的1/3至1/2之间,对生物量生产最有效,生物量增长倍数高达12.270倍.%Photoautotrophic gametophyte cells of the brown macroalgae Laminaria japonica were cultivated in 500ml stirred tank photobioreactors under seven pulse feeding modes and one batch mode.It is the first time for the study of effects of the feeding time points and feeding quantity on macroalgal cell growth and nutrient consumption.Results showed that, with inoculum density of 50mg DCW/L, in modified APSW artificial seawater medium at 13℃, light intensity of 60μE/m2.s, light cycle of 16/8h L/D, aeration rate of 50ml/min, and agitation speed of 100r/min, feeding the culture with small nutrient quantity was beneficial for the synchronization between nitrate and phosphate absorption, and further for biomass production.Feeding when ambient nutrient was abundant or depleted was quite weak for large amount of biomass accumulation, which might be due to the slowing nutrient absorption, nutrient storage, or the divergence absorption between nitrate and phosphate.Feeding nutrient frequently with small quantity from mid-exponential growth of macroalgal cells

  5. Engineering Task Plan for the Integrity Assessment Examination of Double Contained Receiver Tanks (DCRT) Catch Tanks and Ancillary facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECKER, D.L.

    2000-05-23

    This Engineering Task Plan (ETP) presents the integrity assessment examination of three DCRTs, seven catch tanks, and two ancillary facilities located in the 200 East and West Areas of the Hanford Site. The integrity assessment examinations, as described in this ETP, will provide the necessary information to enable the independently qualified registered professional engineer (IQRPE) to assess the condition and integrity of these facilities. The plan is consistent with the Double-Shell Tank Waste Transfer Facilities Integrity Assessment Plan.

  6. In-Tank Elutriation Test Report And Independent Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, H. H.; Adamson, D. J.; Qureshi, Z. H.; Steeper, T. J.

    2011-04-13

    grown in size over a period of decades. 2. The radionuclides were apparently either in the form of soluble compounds, like cesium, or micrometer sized particles of actinide oxides or hydroxides. 3. After the initial tank retrieval the tank contained cobble which is not conducive to elutriation. Only after the tank contents were treated with thousands of gallons of 50 wt% caustic, were the solids converted to sand which is compatible with elutriation. Discussions between SRNL and PNNL resulted in plans to test elutriation in two phases; in Phase 1 particles would be separated by differences in settling velocity in an existing scaled tank with its associated hardware and in Phase 2 additional hardware, such as a hydrocyclone, would be added downstream to separate slow settling partciels from liquid. Phase 1 of in-tank elutriation was tested for Proof of Principle in theEngineering Development Laboratory of SRNL in a 41" diameter, 87 gallon tank. The tank had been previously used as a 1/22 scale model of Hanford Waste Tank AY-102. The objective of the testing was to determine which tank operating parameters achieved the best separation between fast- and slow-settling particles. For Phase 1 testing a simulated waste tank supernatant, slow-settling particles and fast-settling particles were loaded to the scaled tank. Because this was a Proof of Principle test, readily available solids particles were used that represented fast-settling and slow-settling particles. The tank contents were agitated using rotating mixer jet pumps (MJP) which suspended solids while liquids and solids were drawn out of the tank with a suction tube. The goal was to determine the optimum hydraulic operating conditions to achieve clean separation in which the residual solids in the tank were nearly all fast-settling particles and the solids transferred out of the tank were nearly all slow-settling particles. Tests were conducted at different pump jet velocities, suction tube diameters and suction tube

  7. Optimization of Saltcake Removal Flowsheet at SRS through Incorporation of Testing and In-Tank Waste Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Adam G. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States); Tihey, John R. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC., Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Saltcake removal at SRS may be performed for several reasons: to provide space for evaporator operation (i.e., to precipitate more salt in the drop tank), to provide feed for salt processing (i.e. immobilize the waste), or to remove the salt for tank closure. Many different salt dissolution techniques have been employed in the 40 years that SRS has been performing salt removal, from a basic “Add, Sit, Remove” method (water is added on top of the saltcake and time is allowed for diffusion), to performing interstitial liquid removal, or using mixing devices to promote contact with the liquid. Lessons learned from previous saltcake removal campaigns, in addition to testing and modeling, have led to opportunities for improvements to the overall saltcake removal process. This includes better understanding of salt properties and behavior during dissolution; the primary concerns for salt dissolution are the release of radiolytic hydrogen and criticality prevention (post-dissolution). Recent developments in salt dissolution include the reuse of dilute supernate and a semi-continuous dissolution (SCD) process, where low volume mixing eductors are used to deliver water near the surface of the saltcake at the same rate as the salt solution is removed and transferred to a receipt tank.

  8. Material selection for Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larrick, A.P.; Blackburn, L.D.; Brehm, W.F.; Carlos, W.C.; Hauptmann, J.P. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Danielson, M.J.; Westerman, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Divine, J.R. [ChemMet Ltd., West Richland, WA (United States); Foster, G.M. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the history of the materials selection for the US Department of Energy`s high-level waste carbon steel storage tanks. It also provides an evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the evaluation of the materials for the construction of new tanks at the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. The evaluation included a materials matrix that summarized the critical design, fabrication, construction, and corrosion resistance requirements: assessed. each requirement: and cataloged the advantages and disadvantages of each material. This evaluation is based on the mission of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility. On the basis of the compositions of the wastes stored in Hanford waste tanks, it is recommended that tanks for the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility be constructed of ASME SA 515, Grade 70, carbon steel.

  9. Transfer of the coccidiostats monensin and lasalocid from feed at cross-contamination levels to whole egg, egg white and egg yolk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Huyghebaert, G; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Croubels, S; Daeseleire, E

    2012-01-01

    Recent legislation has addressed the unavoidable carry-over of coccidiostats and histomonostats in feed, which may lead to the presence of residues of these compounds in eggs. In this study, laying hens received cross-contaminated feed at a ratio of 2.5%, 5% and 10% of the therapeutic dose of monensin and lasalocid for broilers. The eggs were collected during the treatment and depletion period and were analysed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The different egg matrices were separated and analysed during the plateau phase. High lasalocid concentrations, which exceeded the maximum residue level, and low monensin concentrations were found in whole egg. Plateau levels were reached at days 7-9 for lasalocid and at days 3-5 for monensin. For lasalocid, the highest concentrations were measured in egg yolk; residue concentrations in egg white were very low.

  10. POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B

    2007-03-29

    High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of

  11. Dwelling Water Tanks in Diyarbakir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ceylan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In this connection, the object of this study has been to identify and compare the microbiological contamination and residue chlorine levels in the main network water that is taken from the Dicle Dam and distributed in Diyarbakir Province Centre and in the tanks of dwellings that use this water as well as the effects of the maintenance, hygiene, and physical conditions of these tanks on microbiological contamination. METHODS: Water samples were taken from both the tank input side network water and tank output side tank waters of 200 dwellings with water tanks in Diyarbakir city centre (tank entrance network side water for 200 and tank output side tank water for 200 within the framework of the research study. RESULTS: Coliform bacteria were detected in 35% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 52.0% percent of the tank output side water samples. Faecal coliform bacteria were not detected in tank entrance side network water samples, but they existed in 2.5% of the tank output side water samples. Free residue chlorine level was found to be over 0.2 ppm in 67% of tank entrance side network water samples and in 35% of the tank output side water samples. Coliform bacteria were detected in 95.5% of the tank entrance side network water samples, of which free residue chlorine level were below 0.2 ppm. Total germ growth was detected in 52.0% of the tank entrance side network water samples and in 67.5% of the tank output side water samples. The most frequently isolated bacteria both in tank entrance side network and tank output side water samples were found to be Bacillus spp. Bacillus type bacteria were found in 48% of tank entrance side network water samples and 57.5% of the tank output side water samples. Filamentous fungi were prevalent in 8% of all the samples examined within the study and the most commonly isolated filamentous fungi were Aspergillus spp (5.5% and Penicillum spp (2.5%. Water tanks of dwellings contain more

  12. Inerting ballast tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baes, Gabriel L.; Bronneberg, Jos [SBM Offshore, AA Schiedam (Netherlands); Barros, Maria A.S.D. de [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This report expands upon the work conducted by SBM Offshore to develop a tank preservation treatment, which is intended to achieve a service life of 30 years. This work focuses on the corrosion problems, in the ballast tanks, based on new built hulls, both for the Gas Exploration Market, the FLNG - Floating Liquefied Natural Gas, and for the Oil Exploration market - FPSO's - Floating Production Storage and offloading Units. Herein, the corrosion rate input comes from the various references related to the process of nitrogen injection, which is expected to extend the vessel's time life. The essential elements of this solution comprise the deoxygenation process, corrosion models, coating effects, tests from laboratory, shipboard tests, corrosion institutes and regulations applicable to the operation. The best corrosion protection system for ballast tanks area combines a coating system and an inert gas system. The condition of the tanks will be dependent upon the level of protection applied to the steel structure, including, but not limited to coating, cathodic protection, etc. There is a need for products which extend the life time. It is not sufficient, only have good theoretical base for the corrosion and an excellent treatment system. In addition, the design of the ships structure must also eliminate the presence of local stress concentrations which can result in fatigue cracking and rupture of the protective coating barrier starting the corrosion. As a direct result of this, more problems in corrosion can be mitigated, vessels can have a better corrosion performance with less maintenance and repairs to coating systems in ballast tanks. Furthermore ships will be positively impacted operationally due to less frequent dry docking. There is a huge potential in the application of inert gas to combat the corrosion rate inside the ballast tanks, one of the most corrosive environments on earth. This application can have a direct impact on vessel structure

  13. Evaluation of the educational technology "Caring for dependent people" by family caregivers in changes and transfers of patients and tube feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landeiro, Maria José Lumini; Peres, Heloísa Helena Ciqueto; Martins, Teresa Vieira

    2016-08-18

    to assess the contributions of interactive educational technology "Caring for Dependent People" in the development of knowledge to family caregivers of dependent people in a household context and their satisfaction in its use. quasi-experimental study, not randomized, of the before and after type, with a convenience sample of 65 family caregivers, from two Medicine services of a hospital in Porto, Portugal. The Control Group consisted of 33 family caregivers and the Experimental Group of 32, identified by consecutive sampling. The experimental group had access to educational technology at home. Data were collected by socio-demographic, satisfaction and evaluation of knowledge questionnaire, about how to feed by nasogastric tube, positioning and transferring the dependent person. The assessment in both groups had two moments: initial, during hospitalization and one month after discharge. the experimental group had a larger increase in knowledge related to the use of the educational technology. In the control group the knowledge did not differ in the two evaluation time points. these results confirm the improvement of interactive educational technologies and in the training of family caregivers to care for dependents. This technology successfully met the technical quality and learning needs of caregivers, and was considered easy and stimulating. avaliar os contributos da tecnologia educacional interativa "Cuidar de Pessoas Dependentes" no desenvolvimento de conhecimentos aos familiares cuidadores de pessoas dependentes, no contexto domiciliário e a satisfação no seu uso. estudo quasi-experimental, não randomizado, do tipo antes e depois, com amostra de conveniência constituída por 65 familiares cuidadores, de dois Serviços de Medicina de um hospital do Porto, Portugal. O Grupo Controle foi constituído por 33 familiares cuidadores e o Grupo Experimental por 32, identificados por amostragem consecutiva. O grupo experimental teve Acesso à tecnologia educacional

  14. TANK SPACE OPTIONS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIS WL; AHRENDT MR

    2009-08-11

    Since this report was originally issued in 2001, several options proposed for increasing double-shell tank (DST) storage space were implemented or are in the process of implementation. Changes to the single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval schedule, completion of DST space saving options, and the DST space saving options in progress have delayed the projected shortfall of DST storage space from the 2007-2011 to the 2018-2025 timeframe (ORP-11242, River Protection Project System Plan). This report reevaluates options from Rev. 0 and includes evaluations of new options for alleviating projected restrictions on SST waste retrieval beginning in 2018 because of the lack of DST storage space.

  15. Safety evaluation for packaging transportation of equipment for tank 241-C-106 waste sluicing system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmus, D.B.

    1994-08-25

    A Waste Sluicing System (WSS) is scheduled for installation in nd waste storage tank 241-C-106 (106-C). The WSS will transfer high rating sludge from single shell tank 106-C to double shell waste tank 241-AY-102 (102-AY). Prior to installation of the WSS, a heel pump and a transfer pump will be removed from tank 106-C and an agitator pump will be removed from tank 102-AY. Special flexible receivers will be used to contain the pumps during removal from the tanks. After equipment removal, the flexible receivers will be placed in separate containers (packagings). The packaging and contents (packages) will be transferred from the Tank Farms to the Central Waste Complex (CWC) for interim storage and then to T Plant for evaluation and processing for final disposition. Two sizes of packagings will be provided for transferring the equipment from the Tank Farms to the interim storage facility. The packagings will be designated as the WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings throughout the remainder of this Safety Evaluation for Packaging (SEP). The WSSP-1 packagings will transport the heel and transfer pumps from 106-C and the WSSP-2 packaging will transport the agitator pump from 102-AY. The WSSP-1 and WSSP-2 packagings are similar except for the length.

  16. Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-30

    Figure 5.2.4 – Teen / Twenty Berm Bays from Tank 11 Corner Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 63 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical...5.3.9 Pump Discharge Pressure Measurement Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 76 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical Report...chamber pressure Improved Polyurethane Storage Tank Performance Page 173 of 197 FY2009 Final Technical Report Seaman Corporation could not be

  17. COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS MODELING OF SCALED HANFORD DOUBLE SHELL TANK MIXING - CFD MODELING SENSITIVITY STUDY RESULTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JACKSON VL

    2011-08-31

    The primary purpose of the tank mixing and sampling demonstration program is to mitigate the technical risks associated with the ability of the Hanford tank farm delivery and celtification systems to measure and deliver a uniformly mixed high-level waste (HLW) feed to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Uniform feed to the WTP is a requirement of 24590-WTP-ICD-MG-01-019, ICD-19 - Interface Control Document for Waste Feed, although the exact definition of uniform is evolving in this context. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling has been used to assist in evaluating scaleup issues, study operational parameters, and predict mixing performance at full-scale.

  18. Estimating Residual Solids Volume In Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Jason L.; Worthy, S. Jason; Martin, Bruce A.; Tihey, John R.

    2014-01-08

    The Savannah River Site liquid waste system consists of multiple facilities to safely receive and store legacy radioactive waste, treat, and permanently dispose waste. The large underground storage tanks and associated equipment, known as the 'tank farms', include a complex interconnected transfer system which includes underground transfer pipelines and ancillary equipment to direct the flow of waste. The waste in the tanks is present in three forms: supernatant, sludge, and salt. The supernatant is a multi-component aqueous mixture, while sludge is a gel-like substance which consists of insoluble solids and entrapped supernatant. The waste from these tanks is retrieved and treated as sludge or salt. The high level (radioactive) fraction of the waste is vitrified into a glass waste form, while the low-level waste is immobilized in a cementitious grout waste form called saltstone. Once the waste is retrieved and processed, the tanks are closed via removing the bulk of the waste, chemical cleaning, heel removal, stabilizing remaining residuals with tailored grout formulations and severing/sealing external penetrations. The comprehensive liquid waste disposition system, currently managed by Savannah River Remediation, consists of 1) safe storage and retrieval of the waste as it is prepared for permanent disposition; (2) definition of the waste processing techniques utilized to separate the high-level waste fraction/low-level waste fraction; (3) disposition of LLW in saltstone; (4) disposition of the HLW in glass; and (5) closure state of the facilities, including tanks. This paper focuses on determining the effectiveness of waste removal campaigns through monitoring the volume of residual solids in the waste tanks. Volume estimates of the residual solids are performed by creating a map of the residual solids on the waste tank bottom using video and still digital images. The map is then used to calculate the volume of solids remaining in the waste tank. The

  19. 高真空多层绝热容器真空丧失后传热研究综述%Review on investigation of heat transfer after a loss of insulating vacuum on a HVMLI cryogenic tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢高峰; 汪荣顺; 魏蔚

    2011-01-01

    One of the worst accidents that may occur in a high - vacuum - multilayer - insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum, which may cause serious accident. The studies on the sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum for the HVMLI cryogenic tank were summarized, and the future study trends were discussed and developed.%高真空多层绝热低温容器突然的真空丧失可能会引发重大的安全事故.文中综述了国内外研究者在高真空多层绝热低温容器突然的真空丧失方面的研究成果,并对未来的研究方向进行了讨论和展望.

  20. Tank System Integrated Model: A Cryogenic Tank Performance Prediction Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Hedayat, A.; Hastings, L. J.; Sutherlin, S. G.; Schnell, A. R.; Moder, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate predictions of the thermodynamic state of the cryogenic propellants, pressurization rate, and performance of pressure control techniques in cryogenic tanks are required for development of cryogenic fluid long-duration storage technology and planning for future space exploration missions. This Technical Memorandum (TM) presents the analytical tool, Tank System Integrated Model (TankSIM), which can be used for modeling pressure control and predicting the behavior of cryogenic propellant for long-term storage for future space missions. Utilizing TankSIM, the following processes can be modeled: tank self-pressurization, boiloff, ullage venting, mixing, and condensation on the tank wall. This TM also includes comparisons of TankSIM program predictions with the test data andexamples of multiphase mission calculations.

  1. Engineering study of tank fill options for landfill closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skelly, W.A.

    1996-09-27

    To prepare single-shell tanks for closure, it will be necessary to piece some type of load- bearing fill material inside the tanks to support the domes. Provision of internal support permits the simplifying assumption that the combined weight of the dome, the existing operational soil cover, and the surface barrier will eventually transfer to and be carried by the fill. This engineering study provides descriptions and evaluations of four alternative concepts for fitting and stabilizing nominally empty SSTs with fill materials. For this study it is assumed that 99 percent (or more) of tank wastes will be retrieved before closure is undertaken. The alternatives are: Gravel: tanks would be fitted with crushed aggregate using a rotating stinger apparatus installed in the central riser; Grout: tanks would be fitted with a pumpable, ex-situ mixed grout formulation; Hybrid: tanks would be fitted first with coarse aggregate, then with grout, producing a pre-placed aggregate concrete material; or Concrete: tank. would be filled with a highly-flowable, ex-situ mixed concrete formulation.

  2. Evaluation of ISDP Batch 2 Qualification Compliance to 512-S, DWPF, Tank Farm, and Saltstone Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, A.

    2010-05-05

    The purpose of this report is to document the acceptability of the second macrobatch (Salt Batch 2) of Tank 49H waste to H Tank Farm, DWPF, and Saltstone for operation of the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP). Tank 49 feed meets the Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) requirements specified by References 11, 12, and 13. Salt Batch 2 material is qualified and ready to be processed through ARP/MCU to the final disposal facilities.

  3. Engineering study of 50 miscellaneous inactive underground radioactive waste tanks located at the Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman-Pollard, J.R.

    1994-03-02

    This engineering study addresses 50 inactive underground radioactive waste tanks. The tanks were formerly used for the following functions associated with plutonium and uranium separations and waste management activities in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site: settling solids prior to disposal of supernatant in cribs and a reverse well; neutralizing acidic process wastes prior to crib disposal; receipt and processing of single-shell tank (SST) waste for uranium recovery operations; catch tanks to collect water that intruded into diversion boxes and transfer pipeline encasements and any leakage that occurred during waste transfer operations; and waste handling and process experimentation. Most of these tanks have not been in use for many years. Several projects have, been planned and implemented since the 1970`s and through 1985 to remove waste and interim isolate or interim stabilize many of the tanks. Some tanks have been filled with grout within the past several years. Responsibility for final closure and/or remediation of these tanks is currently assigned to several programs including Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS), Environmental Restoration and Remedial Action (ERRA), and Decommissioning and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Closure (D&RCP). Some are under facility landlord responsibility for maintenance and surveillance (i.e. Plutonium Uranium Extraction [PUREX]). However, most of the tanks are not currently included in any active monitoring or surveillance program.

  4. Analysis Method of Transient Temperature Field for Fuel Tank of High-Altitude Large UAV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Ai; Liang Chen; Xiaojing Xu; Shiyu Liu; Zhenwen Hu; Xinlin Xia

    2016-01-01

    Based on the analysis of factors affecting transient temperature field of aircraft fuel tank and coupled heat transfer mechanism, a mathematical model of transient coupled heat transfer, including the dynamic change of fuel quality, the internal heat transfer, the external aerodynamic convection and the radiation heat transfer, is established. Taking the aerodynamic convection and radiation heat transfer outside the tank as the third kinds of thermal boundary conditions for the thermal analysis of the fuel tank, calculation of internal and external coupling heat of fuel tank is decoupled. Thermal network method combined with hierarchical dynamic grid is used to deal with the fuel consumption, and carry on the heat transfer analysis of the fuel tank. The numerical method for the transient temperature field of aircraft fuel tank is established. Through the simulation calculation, the transient temperature distribution of the fuel tank under different flight conditions is obtained, and the influence of the fuel mass and the external thermal environment on the temperature field is analyzed.

  5. Safety analysis report for the gunite and associated tanks project remediation of the South Tank Farm, facility 3507, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1998-02-01

    The South Tank Farm (STF) is a series of six, 170,000-gal underground, domed storage tanks, which were placed into service in 1943. The tanks were constructed of a concrete mixture known as gunite. They were used as a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste System for the collection, neutralization, storage, and transfer of the aqueous portion of the radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes produced as part of normal facility operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The last of the tanks was taken out of service in 1986, but the tanks have been shown by structural analysis to continue to be structurally sound. An attempt was made in 1983 to empty the tanks; however, removal of all the sludge from the tanks was not possible with the equipment and schedule available. Since removal of the liquid waste in 1983, liquid continues to accumulate within the tanks. The in-leakage is believed to be the result of groundwater dripping into the tanks around penetrations in the domes. The tanks are currently being maintained under a Surveillance and Maintenance Program that includes activities such as level monitoring, vegetation control, High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filter leakage requirement testing/replacement, sign erection/repair, pump-out of excessive liquids, and instrument calibration/maintenance. These activities are addressed in ORNL/ER-275.

  6. HLW flowsheet material balance for DWPF rad operation with Tank 51 sludge and ITP Cycle 1 precipitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-04-19

    This document presents the details of the Savannah River Plant Flowsheet for the Rad Operation with Tank Sludge and ITP Cycle 1 Precipitate. Topics discussed include: material balance; radiolysis chemistry of tank precipitates; algorithm for ESP washing; chemistry of hydrogen and ammonia generation in CPC; batch sizes for processing feed; and total throughput of a streams during one cycle of operation.

  7. Do Fish Enhance Tank Mixing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Michael R.; Laursen, Jesper; Craig, Steven R.

    2005-01-01

    The design of fish rearing tanks represents a critical stage in the development of optimal aquaculture systems, especially in the context of recirculating systems. Poor hydrodynamics can compromise water quality, waste management and the physiology and behaviour of fish, and thence, production...... potential and operational profitability. The hydrodynamic performance of tanks, therefore, represents an important parameter during the tank design process. Because there are significant complexities in combining the rigid principles of hydrodynamics with the stochastic behaviour of fish, however, most data...... upon tank hydrokinetics has been derived using tanks void of fish. Clearly, the presence of randomly moving objects, such as fish, in a water column will influence not only tank volumes by displacing water, but due to their activity, water dynamics and associated in-tank processes. In order...

  8. Radiological and toxicological analyses of tank 241-AY-102 and tank 241-C-106 ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Himes, D.A.

    1998-08-11

    The high heat content solids contained in Tank 241-C-106 are to be removed and transferred to Tank 241-AY-102 by sluicing operations, to be authorized under project W320. While sluicing operations are underway, the state of these tanks will be transformed from unagitated to agitated. This means that the partition fraction which describes the aerosol content of the head space will increase from IE-10 to IE-8 (see WHC-SD-WM-CN062, Rev. 2 for discussion of partition fractions). The head spare will become much more loaded with suspended material. Furthermore, the nature of this suspended material can change significantly: sluicing could bring up radioactive solids which normally would lay under many meters of liquid supernate. It is assumed that the headspace and filter aerosols in Tank 241-AY-102 are a 90/10 liquid/solid split. It is further assumed that the sluicing line, the headspace in Tank 241-C-106, and the filters on Tank 241-C-106 contain aerosols which are a 67/33 liquid/solid split. The bases of these assumptions are discussed in Section 3.0. These waste compositions (referred to as mitigated compositions) were used in Attachments 1 through 4 to calculate survey meter exposure rates per liter of inventory in the various system components. Three accident scenarios are evaluated: a high temperature event which melts or burns the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; an overpressure event which crushes and blows out the HEPA filters and causes releases from other system components; and an unfiltered release of tank headspace air. The initiating event for the high temperature release is a fire caused by a heater malfunction inside the exhaust dust or a fire outside the duct. The initiating event for the overpressure event could be a steam bump which over pressurizes the tank and leads to a blowout of the HEPA filters in the ventilation system. The catastrophic destruction of the HEPA filters would release a fraction of the accumulated

  9. Tank characterization report for single-shell tank 241-C-110. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benar, C.J.

    1997-06-14

    One of the major functions of the Tank Waste Remediation System (IWRS) is to characterize wastes in support of waste management and disposal activities at the Hanford Site. Analytical data from sampling and analysis, along with other available information about a tank, are compiled and maintained in a tank characterization report (TCR). This report and its appendixes serve as the TCR for single-shell tank 241-C-110. The objectives of this report are to use characterization data in response to technical issues associated with 241-C-110 waste and to provide a standard characterization of this waste in terms of a best-basis inventory estimate. Supporting data and information are contained in the appendixes. This report also supports the requirements of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order milestone M-44-05. Characterization information presented in this report originated from sample analyses and known historical sources. While only the results from recent sample events will be used to fulfill the requirements of the data quality objectives (DQOs), other information can be used to support or question conclusions derived from these results. Historical information for tank 241-C-110 are provided included surveillance information, records pertaining to waste transfers and tank operations, and1124 expected tank contents derived from a process knowledge model. The sampling events are listed, as well as sample data obtained before 1989. The results of the 1992 sampling events are also reported in the data package. The statistical analysis and numerical manipulation of data used in issue resolution are reported in Appendix C. Appendix D contains the evaluation to establish the best basis for the inventory estimate and the statistical analysis performed for this evaluation. A bibliography that resulted from an in-depth literature search of all known information sources applicable to tank 241-C-110 and its respective waste types is contained in Appendix E

  10. Crowder/grader units improve harvest efficiency in large circular tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of larger and deeper tanks can reduce building, labor and other aquaculture production costs. However, the ability to grade and transfer large numbers of fish is more challenging when using large tanks. At The Conservation Fund Freshwater Institute, the authors have developed and evaluated i...

  11. 46 CFR 153.981 - Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. 153.981 Section 153.981 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... Transfer Procedures § 153.981 Leaving room in tank for cargo expansion. The person in charge of...

  12. Basis for Selection of a Residual Waste Retrieval System for Gunite and Associated Tank W-9 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.E

    2000-10-23

    Waste retrieval and transfer operations at the Gunite{trademark} and Associated Tanks (GAATs) Remediation Project have been successfully accomplished using the Tank Waste Retrieval System. This system is composed of the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm, Houdini Vehicle, Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System, Hose Management Arm, and Sludge Conditioning System. GAAT W-9 has been used as a waste-consolidation and batch-transfer tank during the retrieval of sludges and supernatants from the seven Gunite tanks in the North and South tank farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Tank W-9 was used as a staging tank for the transfers to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs). A total of 18 waste transfers from W-9 occurred between May 25, 1999, and March 30, 2000. Most of these transfers were accomplished using the PulsAir Mixer to mobilize and mix the slurry and a submersible retrieval-transfer pump to transfer the slurry through the Sludge Conditioning System and the {approx}1-mile long, 2-in.-diam waste-transfer line to the MVSTs. The transfers from W-9 have consisted of low-solids-content slurries with solids contents ranging from {approx}2.8 to 6.8 mg/L. Of the initial {approx}88,000 gal of wet sludge estimated in the GAATs, a total of {approx}60,451 gal have been transferred to the MVSTs via tank W-9 as of March 30, 2000. Once the waste-consolidation operations and transfers from W-9 to the MVSTs are completed, the remaining material in W-9 will be mobilized and transferred to the active waste system, Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tank W-23. Tank W-23 will serve as a batch tank for the final waste transfers from tank W-9 to the MVSTs. This report provides a summary of the requirements and recommendations for the final waste retrieval system for tank W-9, a compilation of the sample analysis data for the sludge in W-9, and brief descriptions of the various waste-retrieval system concepts that were considered for this task. The recommended residual waste retrieval

  13. Basis for Selection of a Residual Waste Retrieval System for Gunite and Associated Tank W-9 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, B.E

    2000-10-23

    Waste retrieval and transfer operations at the Gunite{trademark} and Associated Tanks (GAATs) Remediation Project have been successfully accomplished using the Tank Waste Retrieval System. This system is composed of the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm, Houdini Vehicle, Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System, Hose Management Arm, and Sludge Conditioning System. GAAT W-9 has been used as a waste-consolidation and batch-transfer tank during the retrieval of sludges and supernatants from the seven Gunite tanks in the North and South tank farms at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Tank W-9 was used as a staging tank for the transfers to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs). A total of 18 waste transfers from W-9 occurred between May 25, 1999, and March 30, 2000. Most of these transfers were accomplished using the PulsAir Mixer to mobilize and mix the slurry and a submersible retrieval-transfer pump to transfer the slurry through the Sludge Conditioning System and the {approx}1-mile long, 2-in.-diam waste-transfer line to the MVSTs. The transfers from W-9 have consisted of low-solids-content slurries with solids contents ranging from {approx}2.8 to 6.8 mg/L. Of the initial {approx}88,000 gal of wet sludge estimated in the GAATs, a total of {approx}60,451 gal have been transferred to the MVSTs via tank W-9 as of March 30, 2000. Once the waste-consolidation operations and transfers from W-9 to the MVSTs are completed, the remaining material in W-9 will be mobilized and transferred to the active waste system, Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tank W-23. Tank W-23 will serve as a batch tank for the final waste transfers from tank W-9 to the MVSTs. This report provides a summary of the requirements and recommendations for the final waste retrieval system for tank W-9, a compilation of the sample analysis data for the sludge in W-9, and brief descriptions of the various waste-retrieval system concepts that were considered for this task. The recommended residual waste retrieval

  14. Transfer of flubendazole and tylosin at cross contamination levels in the feed to egg matrices and distribution between egg yolk and egg white.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Delahaut, P; Pierret, G; De Backer, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-05-01

    Chemical residues may be present in eggs from laying hens' exposure to drugs or contaminants. These residues may pose risks to human health. In this study, laying hens received experimental feed containing flubendazole or tylosin at cross contamination levels of 2.5, 5, and 10% of the therapeutic dose. Eggs were collected daily and analysis of the whole egg, egg white, and egg yolk was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Highest concentrations of the parent molecule flubendazole, as well as the hydrolyzed and the reduced metabolite, were detected in egg yolk. Residue concentrations of the parent molecule were higher compared with those of the metabolites in all egg matrices. No tylosin residue concentrations were detected above the limit of quantification for all concentration groups and in all egg matrices. Neither molecule exceeded the set maximum residue limits.

  15. 27 CFR 25.145 - Tanks, vehicles, and vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Marks, Brands, and Labels § 25.145 Tanks, vehicles, and... mark each tank, tank car, tank truck, tank ship, barge, or deep tank of a vessel in accordance...

  16. Theoretical study of solar combisystems based on bikini tanks and tank-in-tank stores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdanshenas, Eshagh; Furbo, Simon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems have been studied theoretically. The aim of the paper is to study which of these two solar combisystem designs is suitable for different houses. The thermal performance of solar combisystems based on the two...... different heat storage types is compared. Design/methodology/approach - The thermal performance of Low flow bikini solar combisystems and high flow tank-in-tank solar combisystems is calculated with the simulation program TRNSYS. Two different TRNSYS models based on measurements were developed and used....... Findings - Based on the calculations it is concluded that low flow solar combisystems based on bikini tanks are promising for low energy buildings, while solar combisystems based on tank-in-tank stores are attractive for the houses with medium heating demand and old houses with high heating demand...

  17. Hanford Tank Farms Waste Certification Flow Loop Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Scott, Paul A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Wells, Beric E.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Denslow, Kayte M.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.

    2010-01-01

    A future requirement of Hanford Tank Farm operations will involve transfer of wastes from double shell tanks to the Waste Treatment Plant. As the U.S. Department of Energy contractor for Tank Farm Operations, Washington River Protection Solutions anticipates the need to certify that waste transfers comply with contractual requirements. This test plan describes the approach for evaluating several instruments that have potential to detect the onset of flow stratification and critical suspension velocity. The testing will be conducted in an existing pipe loop in Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s facility that is being modified to accommodate the testing of instruments over a range of simulated waste properties and flow conditions. The testing phases, test matrix and types of simulants needed and the range of testing conditions required to evaluate the instruments are described

  18. Liquefied Natural Gas Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Chicago Bridge & Iron Company's tanks and associated piping are parts of system for transferring liquefied natural gas from ship to shore and storing it. LNG is a "cryogenic" fluid meaning that it must be contained and transferred at very low temperatures, about 260 degrees below Fahrenheit. Before the LNG can be pumped from the ship to the storage tanks, the two foot diameter transfer pipes must be cooled in order to avoid difficulties associated with sharp differences of temperature between the supercold fluid and relatively warm pipes. Cooldown is accomplished by sending small steady flow of the cryogenic substance through the pipeline; the rate of flow must be precisely controlled or the transfer line will be subjected to undesirable thermal stress.

  19. Potential transfer of neurotoxic amino acid β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) from mother to infant during breast-feeding: Predictions from human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Marie; Ersson, Lisa; Brandt, Ingvar; Bergström, Ulrika

    2017-04-01

    β-N-methylamino-alanine (BMAA) is a non-protein amino acid produced by cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates. BMAA has potential to biomagnify in a terrestrial food chain, and to bioaccumulate in fish and shellfish. We have reported that administration of [(14)C]l-BMAA to lactating mice and rats results in a mother to off-spring transfer via the milk. A preferential enantiomer-specific uptake of [(14)C]l-BMAA has also been demonstrated in differentiated murine mammary epithelium HC11 cells. These findings, together with neurotoxic effects of BMAA demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo, highlight the need to determine whether such transfer could also occur in humans. Here, we used four cell lines of human origin to examine and compare the transport of the two BMAA enantiomers in vitro. The uptake patterns of [(14)C]l- and [(14)C]d-BMAA in the human mammary MCF7 cell line were in agreement with the results in murine HC11 cells, suggesting a potential secretion of BMAA into human breast milk. The permeability coefficients for both [(14)C]l- and [(14)C]d-BMAA over monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells supported an efficient absorption from the human intestine. As a final step, transport experiments confirmed that [(14)C]l-and [(14)C]d-BMAA can be taken up by human SHSY5Y neuroblastoma cells and even more efficiently by human U343 glioblastoma cells. In competition experiments with various amino acids, the ASCT2 specific inhibitor benzylserine was the most effective inhibitor of [(14)C]l-BMAA uptake tested here. Altogether, our results suggest that BMAA can be transferred from an exposed mother, via the milk, to the brain of the nursed infant. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E. [and others

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work.

  1. Waste Tank Size Determination for the Hanford River Protection Project Cold Test, Training, and Mockup Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Wells, Beric E.; Kuhn, William L.

    2001-03-30

    The objective of the study was to determine the minimum tank size for the Cold Test Facility process testing of Hanford tank waste. This facility would support retrieval of waste in 75-ft-diameter DSTs with mixer pumps and SSTs with fluidic mixers. The cold test model will use full-scale mixer pumps, transfer pumps, and equipment with simulated waste. The study evaluated the acceptability of data for a range of tank diameters and depths and included identifying how the test data would be extrapolated to predict results for a full-size tank.

  2. Tank characterization data report: Tank 241-C-112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.; Borsheim, G.L.; Jensen, L.

    1993-09-01

    Tank 241-C-112 is a Hanford Site Ferrocyanide Watch List tank that was most recently sampled in March 1992. Analyses of materials obtained from tank 241-C-112 were conducted to support the resolution of the Ferrocyanide Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) and to support Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) Milestone M-10-00. Analysis of core samples obtained from tank 241-C-112 strongly indicates that the fuel concentration in the tank waste will not support a propagating exothermic reaction. Analysis of the process history of the tank as well as studies of simulants provided valuable information about the physical and chemical condition of the waste. This information, in combination with the analysis of the tank waste, sup ports the conclusion that an exothermic reaction in tank 241-C-112 is not plausible. Therefore, the contents of tank 241-C-112 present no imminent threat to the workers at the Hanford Site, the public, or the environment from its forrocyanide inventory. Because an exothermic reaction is not credible, the consequences of this accident scenario, as promulgated by the General Accounting Office, are not applicable.

  3. Numerical Investigation of Effective Heat Conductivity of Fluid in Charging Process of Thermal Storage Tank

    OpenAIRE

    Taheri, H.; Schmidt, F. P.; Gabi, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical case study of heat transfer mechanisms during the charging process of a stratified thermal storage tank applied in a specific adsorption heat pump cycle. The effective thermal conductivity of the heat transfer fluid during the charging process is analyzed through CFD simulations using Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (URANS). The aim of the study is to provide an equivalent thermal conductivity for a one-dimensional storage tank model to be us...

  4. Tank Characterization Report for Double Shell Tank (DST) 241-AN-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS, M.R.

    2000-03-23

    This report interprets information about the tank answering a series of six questions covering areas such as information drivers, tank history, tank comparisons, disposal implications, data quality and quantity, and unique aspects of the tank.

  5. Industrial thermoforming simulation of automotive fuel tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesche, S. aus der [Kautex Textron GmbH and Co., Bonn (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    An industrial thermoforming simulation with regard to automotive plastic fuel tanks is presented including all relevant process stages. The radiative and conductive heat transfer during the reheat stage, the deformation and stress behaviour during the forming stage, and the final cooling stage are simulated. The modelling of the thermal and rheological behaviour of the involved material is investigated in greater detail. By means of experimental data it is found that modelling of the phase transition during the process is highly important for predicting correct wall thickness distributions. (author)

  6. Review of Waste Retrieval Sluicing System Operations and Data for Tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Carothers, Kelly G.; Damschen, Dennis W.; Kuhn, William L.; Lechelt, Jeanne A.; Sathyanarayana, Kurabalakota; Stauffer, Leslie A.

    2000-09-26

    Sluicing operations were performed to retrieve high-heat sludge from single-shell tank 241-C-106 and transfer it to double-shell tank 241-AY-102 using the Waste Retrieval Sluicing System. This eliminated the high-heat safety issue for C-106 and demonstrated a technology for retrieval of single-shell tank waste. Both AY-102 and C-106 were monitored during the waste transfer operations, providing a clear picture of general trends in each tank. Specific issues addressed were evaluation of the data for evidence of flammable gas accumulation in AY-102 and thermal performance of AY-102 under the increasing heat load.

  7. Results Of Routine Strip Effluent Hold Tank, Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank, Caustic Wash Tank And Caustic Storage Tank Samples From Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit During Macrobatch 6 Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T. B.

    2014-01-02

    Strip Effluent Hold Tank (SEHT), Decontaminated Salt Solution Hold Tank (DSSHT), Caustic Wash Tank (CWT) and Caustic Storage Tank (CST) samples from the Interim Salt Disposition Project (ISDP) Salt Batch (“Macrobatch”) 6 have been analyzed for 238Pu, 90Sr, 137Cs, and by Inductively Coupled Plasma Emission Spectroscopy (ICPES). The Pu, Sr, and Cs results from the current Macrobatch 6 samples are similar to those from comparable samples in previous Macrobatch 5. In addition the SEHT and DSSHT heel samples (i.e. ‘preliminary’) have been analyzed and reported to meet NGS Demonstration Plan requirements. From a bulk chemical point of view, the ICPES results do not vary considerably between this and the previous samples. The titanium results in the DSSHT samples continue to indicate the presence of Ti, when the feed material does not have detectable levels. This most likely indicates that leaching of Ti from MST has increased in ARP at the higher free hydroxide concentrations in the current feed.

  8. Process Control Plan for Tank 241-SY-101 Surface Level Rise Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-09-28

    The tank 241-SY-101 transfer system was conceived and designed to address the immediate needs presented by rapidly changing waste conditions in tank 241-SY-101. Within the last year or so, the waste in this tank has exhibited unexpected behavior (Rassat et al. 1999) in the form of rapidly increasing crust growth. This growth has been brought about by a rapidly increasing rate of gas entrapment within the crust. It has been conceived that the lack of crust agitation beginning upon the advent of mixer pump operations may have set-up a more consolidated, gas impermeable barrier when compared to a crust regularly broken up by the prior buoyant displacement events within the tank. As a result, a series of level-growth remediation activities have been developed for tank 241-SY-101. The initial activities are also known as near-term crust mitigation. The first activity of near-term mitigation is to perform the small transfer of convective waste from tank 241-SY-101 into tank 241-SY-102. A 100 kgal transfer represents about a 10% volume reduction allowing a 10% water in-tank dilution. Current thinking holds that this should be enough to dissolve nitrite solids in the crust and perhaps largely eliminate gas retention problem in the crust (Raymond 1999).

  9. 46 CFR 154.420 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.420 Section 154.420 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Integral Tanks § 154.420 Tank design. (a) The structure of an integral tank must meet the deep tank scantling...

  10. 46 CFR 154.439 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.439 Section 154.439 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type A § 154.439 Tank design. An independent tank type A must meet the deep tank standard of...

  11. 27 CFR 25.35 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 25.35 Section 25.35... TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Construction and Equipment Equipment § 25.35 Tanks. Each stationary tank, vat, cask... contents of tanks or containers in lieu of providing each tank or container with a measuring device....

  12. 49 CFR 230.116 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oil tanks. 230.116 Section 230.116 Transportation... Locomotive Tanks § 230.116 Oil tanks. The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free... adjacent to the fuel supply tank or in another safe location; (b) Closes automatically when tripped...

  13. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 23.1013 Section 23.1013... tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank must be installed to— (1) Meet the requirements of § 23.967 (a...) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with...

  14. 49 CFR 238.423 - Fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel tanks. 238.423 Section 238.423 Transportation....423 Fuel tanks. (a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at...

  15. CORRELATION OF EXPERIMENTAL AND THEORETICAL DATA FOR MANTLE TANKS USED IN LOW FLOW SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical investigations of mantle tanks for SDHW systems have been carried out. Five differently designed mantle tanks have been tested in a laboratory test facility. A transient three-dimensional CFD-model of one of the tested mantle tanks is made in the CFD-program CFX 4.......1. The model is validated against the experimental tests, and good agreement between measured and calculated results is achieved. The results from the CFD-calculations are used to illustrate the thermal behaviour and the fluid dynamics in the mantle and in the hot water tank. With the CFD......-calculations, a detailed analysis of the heat transfer from the solar collector fluid to the wall of the hot water tank is performed. The analysis has resulted in a correlation for the heat transfer between the solar collector fluid and the wall of the hot water....

  16. Accountability Tanks Calibration Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendelberger, James G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Salazar, William Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Finstad, Casey Charles [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-25

    MET-1 utilizes tanks to store plutonium in solution. The Nuclear Material Control & Accountability group at LANL requires that MET-1 be able to determine the amount of SNM remaining in solution in the tanks for accountability purposes. For this reason it is desired to determine how well various operators may read the volume of liquid left in the tank with the tank measurement device (glass column or slab). The accuracy of the measurement is then compared to the current SAFE-NMCA acceptance criteria for lean and rich plutonium solutions to determine whether or not the criteria are reasonable and may be met.

  17. Development of smart solar tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop smart solar tanks. A smart solar tank is a tank in which the domestic water can bee heated both by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply system heats up the hot-water tank from the top and the water volume heated...... by the auxiliary energy supply system is fitted to the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. In periods with a large hot-water demand the volume is large, in periods with a small hot-water demand the volume is small. Based on measurements and calculations the advantage of smart SDHW systems is visualised....

  18. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  19. Alternatives generation and analysis for double-shell tank primary ventilation systems emissions control and monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEDERBURG, J.P.

    1999-09-30

    This AGA addresses the question: ''What equipment upgrades, operational changes, and/or other actions are required relative to the DST tanks farms' ventilation systems to support retrieval, staging (including feed sampling), and delivery of tank waste to the Phase I private contractor?'' Issues and options for the various components within the ventilation subsystem affect each other. Recommended design requirements are presented and the preferred alternatives are detailed.

  20. Mathematical model of the Savannah River Site waste tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, F.G. III.

    1991-07-15

    A mathematical model has been developed to simulate operation of the waste tank farm and the associated evaporator systems at the Savannah River Site. The model solves material balance equations to predict the volumes of liquid waste, salt, and sludge for all of the tanks within each of the evaporator systems. Additional logic is included to model the behavior of waste tanks not directly associated with the evaporators. Input parameters include the Material Management Plan forecast of canyon operations, specification of other waste sources for the evaporator systems, evaporator operating characteristics, and salt and sludge removal schedules. The model determines how the evaporators will operate, when waste transfers can be made, and waste accumulation rates. Output from the model includes waste tank contents, summaries of systems operations, and reports of space gain and the remaining capacity to store waste materials within the tank farm. Model simulations can be made to predict waste tank capacities on a daily basis for up to 20 years. The model is coded as a set of three computer programs designed to run on either IBM compatible or Apple Macintosh II personal computers.

  1. Process control plan for tank 241-SY-101 surface level rise remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ESTEY, S.D.

    1999-06-29

    The tank 241-SY-101 transfer system was conceived and designed to address the immediate needs presented by rapidly changing waste conditions in tank 241-SY-101. Within the past year or so, the waste in this tank has exhibited unexpected behavior in the form of rapidly increasing crust growth. The Process Control Plan (PCP), HNF-4264, was written to translate high-level guidance and regulatory criteria and express it in terms of operating instructions for the waste transfer system. These controls include: (1) Tank Farm Operations Administrative Controls developed in response to DOE-ORP direction reg,arding supplemental controls placed upon tank 241-SY-101 surface level rise remediation activities specifically involving waste transfer activities. (2) Authorization Basis controls (Basis for Interim Operation (BIO)/Technical Safety Requirements (TSRs)) and supplemental DOE direction. (3) Environmental, Industrial Hygiene and Safety controls. (4) Operating Specification Document (OSD) controls. (5) Good operating practices. Included in the document are descriptions of tank conditions, waste conditions, major equipment, and a high-level overview of the system and the line-ups in which it operates. Primarily, the PCP addresses how the waste transfer will be managed, defining the monitoring and control methods including material balances to determine the progress and to define completion criteria for the transfer. The actual plant modifications and waste transfer will be authorized and controlled by plant procedures.

  2. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) acceptance evaluation. Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Diprete, D. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Pareizs, J. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a composition expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  3. Sludge batch 9 (SB9) accepance evaluation: Radionuclide concentrations in tank 51 SB9 qualification sample prepared at SRNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Diprete, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pareizs, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    Presented in this report are radionuclide concentrations required as part of the program of qualifying Sludge Batch 9 (SB9) for processing in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The SB9 material is currently in Tank 51 and has been washed and prepared for transfer to Tank 40. The acceptance evaluation needs to be completed prior to the transfer of the material in Tank 51 to Tank 40. The sludge slurry in Tank 40 has already been qualified for DWPF processing and is currently being processed as Sludge Batch 8 (SB8). The radionuclide concentrations were measured or estimated in the Tank 51 SB9 Washed Qualification Sample prepared at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). This sample was prepared from a three liter sample of Tank 51 sludge slurry (HTF-51-15-81) taken on July 23, 2015. The sample was delivered to SRNL where it was initially characterized in the Shielded Cells. Under the direction of Savannah River Remediation (SRR) it was then adjusted per the Tank Farm washing strategy as of October 20, 2015. This final slurry now has a compositioniv expected to be similar to that of the slurry in Tank 51 after final preparations have been made for transfer of that slurry to Tank 40.

  4. Tank waste remediation system operation and utilization plan,vol. I {ampersand} II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, R.A.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) is in the first stages of contracting with private companies for the treatment and immobilization of tank wastes. The components of tank waste retrieval, treatment, and immobilization have been conceived in two phases (Figure 1.0-1). To meet RL's anticipated contractual requirements, the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) companies will be required to provide waste feeds to the private companies consistent with waste envelopes that define the feeds in terms of quantity, and concentration of both chemicals and radionuclides. The planning that supports delivery of the feed must be well thought out in four basic areas: (1) Low-activity waste (LAW)/high-level waste (HLW) feed staging plans. How is waste moved within the existing tanks to deliver waste that corresponds to the defined feed envelopes to support the Private Contractor's processing schedule and processing rate? (2) Single-shell tank (SST) retrieval sequence. How are Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones for SST retrieval integrated into the Phase I processing to set the stage for Phase II processing to complete the mission? (3) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flowsheet. How do materials flow from existing tank inventories through: (1) blending and pretreatment functions in the double-shell tanks (DSTs), (2) contractor processing facilities, and (3) stored waste forms (Figure 1.0-2); (4) Storage and disposal of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) and immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) product. How is the ILAW and IHLW product received from the private companies, the ILAW disposed onsite, and the IHLW stored onsite until final disposal?

  5. Historical tank content estimate for the southeast quadrant of the Hanford 200 Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This document provides historical evaluations of the radioactive and mixed waste stored in the Hanford site underground double-shell tanks. A Historical Tank Content Estimate has been developed by reviewing the process histories, waste transfer data, and available physical and chemical characterization data from various Department of Energy and Department of Defense contractors. The historical data will supplement information that is currently being gathered from core sampling. Historical waste transfer and level data, tank physical information, temperature data, and sampling data have been compiled for this report and supporting documents.

  6. Structural Dimensions, Fabrication, Materials, and Operational History for Types I and II Waste Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B.J.

    2000-08-16

    Radioactive waste is confined in 48 underground storage tanks at the Savannah River Site. The waste will eventually be processed and transferred to other site facilities for stabilization. Based on waste removal and processing schedules, many of the tanks, including those with flaws and/or defects, will be required to be in service for another 15 to 20 years. Until the waste is removed from storage, transferred, and processed, the materials and structures of the tanks must maintain a confinement function by providing a leak-tight barrier to the environment and by maintaining acceptable structural stability during design basis event which include loading from both normal service and abnormal conditions.

  7. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  8. [High Pressure Gas Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Rolando

    2002-01-01

    Four high-pressure gas tanks, the basis of this study, were especially made by a private contractor and tested before being delivered to NASA Kennedy Space Center. In order to insure 100% reliability of each individual tank the staff at KSC decided to again submit the four tanks under more rigorous tests. These tests were conducted during a period from April 10 through May 8 at KSC. This application further validates the predictive safety model for accident prevention and system failure in the testing of four high-pressure gas tanks at Kennedy Space Center, called Continuous Hazard Tracking and Failure Prediction Methodology (CHTFPM). It is apparent from the variety of barriers available for a hazard control that some barriers will be more successful than others in providing protection. In order to complete the Barrier Analysis of the system, a Task Analysis and a Biomechanical Study were performed to establish the relationship between the degree of biomechanical non-conformities and the anomalies found within the system on particular joints of the body. This relationship was possible to obtain by conducting a Regression Analysis to the previously generated data. From the information derived the body segment with the lowest percentage of non-conformities was the neck flexion with 46.7%. Intense analysis of the system was conducted including Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA), Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), and Barrier Analysis. These analyses resulted in the identification of occurrences of conditions, which may be becoming hazardous in the given system. These conditions, known as dendritics, may become hazards and could result in an accident, system malfunction, or unacceptable risk conditions. A total of 56 possible dendritics were identified. Work sampling was performed to observe the occurrence each dendritic. The out of control points generated from a Weighted c control chart along with a Pareto analysis indicate that the dendritics "Personnel not

  9. 33 CFR 157.208 - Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank vessels: Submission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks... MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels General § 157.208 Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations Manual for foreign tank...

  10. Tank Waste Remediation System Tank Waste Analysis Plan. FY 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haller, C.S.; Dove, T.H.

    1994-11-01

    This documents lays the groundwork for preparing the implementing the TWRS tank waste analysis planning and reporting for Fiscal Year 1995. This Tank Waste Characterization Plan meets the requirements specified in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, better known as the Tri-Party Agreement.

  11. MODELING ANALYSIS FOR GROUT HOPPER WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-04

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along

  12. MODELING ANALYSIS FOR GROUT HOPPER WASTE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.

    2012-01-04

    The Saltstone facility at Savannah River Site (SRS) has a grout hopper tank to provide agitator stirring of the Saltstone feed materials. The tank has about 300 gallon capacity to provide a larger working volume for the grout nuclear waste slurry to be held in case of a process upset, and it is equipped with a mechanical agitator, which is intended to keep the grout in motion and agitated so that it won't start to set up. The primary objective of the work was to evaluate the flow performance for mechanical agitators to prevent vortex pull-through for an adequate stirring of the feed materials and to estimate an agitator speed which provides acceptable flow performance with a 45{sup o} pitched four-blade agitator. In addition, the power consumption required for the agitator operation was estimated. The modeling calculations were performed by taking two steps of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling approach. As a first step, a simple single-stage agitator model with 45{sup o} pitched propeller blades was developed for the initial scoping analysis of the flow pattern behaviors for a range of different operating conditions. Based on the initial phase-1 results, the phase-2 model with a two-stage agitator was developed for the final performance evaluations. A series of sensitivity calculations for different designs of agitators and operating conditions have been performed to investigate the impact of key parameters on the grout hydraulic performance in a 300-gallon hopper tank. For the analysis, viscous shear was modeled by using the Bingham plastic approximation. Steady state analyses with a two-equation turbulence model were performed. All analyses were based on three-dimensional results. Recommended operational guidance was developed by using the basic concept that local shear rate profiles and flow patterns can be used as a measure of hydraulic performance and spatial stirring. Flow patterns were estimated by a Lagrangian integration technique along

  13. Development Of A Macro-Batch Qualification Strategy For The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment And Immobilization Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, Connie C.

    2013-09-30

    following: Collection and characterization of samples for relevant process analytes from the tanks to be blended during the staging process; Initiation of qualification activities earlier in the staging process to optimize the campaign composition through evaluation from both a processing and glass composition perspective; Definition of the parameters that are important for processing in the WTP facilities (unit operations) across the anticipated range of wastes and as they relate to qualification-scale equipment; Performance of limited testing with simulants ahead of the waste feed qualification sample demonstration as needed to determine the available processing window for that campaign; and Demonstration of sufficient mixing in the staging tank to show that the waste qualification sample chemical and physical properties are representative of the transfers to be made to WTP. Potential flowcharts for derivatives of the Hanford waste feed qualification process are also provided in this report. While these recommendations are an extension of the existing WTP waste qualification program, they are more in line with the processes currently performed for SRS. The implementation of these processes at SRS has been shown to offer flexibility for processing, having identified potential processing issues ahead of the qualification or facility processing, and having provided opportunity to optimize waste loading and throughput in the DWPF.

  14. FY 2000 Saltcake Dissolution and Feed Stability Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Weber, C.F.; Welch, T.D.; Jewett, J.R.

    2000-07-31

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) continues to work closely with the Office of River Protection (ORP) to better understand the chemistry involved with the retrieval, transport, and pretreatment of nuclear wastes at Hanford. Since a private contractor is currently responsible for the pretreatment and immobilization activities in this remediation effort, the TFA has concentrated on saltcake dissolution and waste transport at the request of the ORP. Researchers at Hanford have performed a series of dissolution experiments on actual saltcake samples. Staff members at Mississippi State University (MSU) continue to model the dissolution results with the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), which is used extensively by ORP personnel. Several ways to improve the predictive capabilities of the ESP were identified. Since several transfer lines at Hanford have become plugged, TFA tasks at AEA Technologies, Florida International University (FIU), MSU, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are investigating the behavior of the supernatants and slurries during transport. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques is used to study the transport chemistry. This effort is expected to develop process control tools for waste transfer. The results from these TFA tasks were presented to ORP personnel during the FY 2000 Saltcake Dissolution and Feed Stability Workshop, which was held on May 16-17 in Richland, Washington. The minutes from this workshop are provided in this report.

  15. Hanford waste tank cone penetrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seda, R.Y.

    1995-12-01

    A new tool is being developed to characterize tank waste at the Hanford Reservation. This tool, known as the cone penetrometer, is capable of obtaining chemical and physical properties in situ. For the past 50 years, this tool has been used extensively in soil applications and now has been modified for usage in Hanford Underground Storage tanks. These modifications include development of new ``waste`` data models as well as hardware design changes to accommodate the hazardous and radioactive environment of the tanks. The modified cone penetrometer is scheduled to be deployed at Hanford by Fall 1996. At Hanford, the cone penetrometer will be used as an instrumented pipe which measures chemical and physical properties as it pushes through tank waste. Physical data, such as tank waste stratification and mechanical properties, is obtained through three sensors measuring tip pressure, sleeve friction and pore pressure. Chemical data, such as chemical speciation, is measured using a Raman spectroscopy sensor. The sensor package contains other instrumentation as well, including a tip and side temperature sensor, tank bottom detection and an inclinometer. Once the cone penetrometer has reached the bottom of the tank, a moisture probe will be inserted into the pipe. This probe is used to measure waste moisture content, water level, waste surface moisture and tank temperature. This paper discusses the development of this new measurement system. Data from the cone penetrometer will aid in the selection of sampling tools, waste tank retrieval process, and addressing various tank safety issues. This paper will explore various waste models as well as the challenges associated with tank environment.

  16. Static Stress Analysis of Security Injection Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The static structural analysis of the security injection tank is made to make sure whether the tank can withstand concerned loads or not on all conditions conforming to concerned code prescripts and design requirements. The tanks

  17. Oil Storage Facilities - Storage Tank Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — A Storage Tank Location is a DEP primary facility type, and its sole sub-facility is the storage tank itself. Storage tanks are aboveground or underground, and are...

  18. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  19. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula...

  20. Modelling of baffled stirred tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlstedt, H.; Lahtinen, M. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The three-dimensional flow field of a baffled stirred tank has been calculated using four different turbulence models. The tank is driven by a Rushton-type impeller. The boundary condition for the impeller region has been given as a source term or by calculating the impeller using the sliding mesh technique. Calculated values have been compared with measured data. (author)

  1. Solitons in a wave tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, A. C.

    1984-09-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment is intended for lecture demonstrations.

  2. Cleaning Validation of Fermentation Tanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Satu; Friis, Alan; Wirtanen, Gun

    2008-01-01

    Reliable test methods for checking cleanliness are needed to evaluate and validate the cleaning process of fermentation tanks. Pilot scale tanks were used to test the applicability of various methods for this purpose. The methods found to be suitable for validation of the clenlinees were visula o...

  3. Solitons in a wave tank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M.; Smith, H.; Scott, Alwyn C.

    1984-01-01

    A wave tank experiment (first described by the nineteenth-century engineer and naval architect John Scott Russell) relates a linear eigenvalue problem from elementary quantum mechanics to a striking feature of modern nonlinear wave theory: multiple generation of solitons. The tank experiment...

  4. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    in opportunity structures that are mediated by historically constituted institutions in knowledge regimes. The paper distinguishes between four different strategies, the authoritative, the collaborative, the agenda-setting and the competitive strategy that are distinguished by the relations think tanks have...... to established institutions and power in public policy. On the basis of the hypothesis that more competitive think tanks have emerged due to lower opportunity costs, the paper investigates how ‘competitive’ think tank strategies have been used in Germany, Denmark, the EU-institutions in Brussels...... and in the United Kingdom from 2000 to 2012. The findings contradict the hypothesis that the competitive think tank strategy is the dominant or even a common strategy across the cases under investigation. The competitive strategy is particularly rare among EU and German think tanks. As such the paper challenges...

  5. Surplus yeast tank failing catastrophically

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2016-01-01

    GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air. T....... The accident described in this article serves to illustrate that care should be taken if a tank originally designed for atmospheric pressure is modified to operate at slight overpressure.......GOOD REASON FOR CAUTION I A large surplus yeast tank shot into the air leaving the floor plate and the contents behind. Although not designed for overpressure, the tank was kept at “very slight overpressure” to suppress nuisance foaming. The brewery was unaware of the hazards of compressed air...

  6. In-tank photo analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorvick, C.A.; Baird, D.B.; Heasler, P.G. [and others

    1995-09-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) of photographs showing the interior of a single shell tank (SST) at the Hanford site. This report shows that in-tank photos can be used to create a plan-view map of the waste surface inside a tank, and that measuring the elevation of the waste surface from the photos is possible, but not accurate enough to be useful at this time. In-tank photos were acquired for Tanks BX111 and T111. The BX111 photos were used to create the waste surface map and to measure the waste surface elevation. T111 photos were used to measure the waste surface elevation. Uncertainty analyses of the mapping and surface elevation are included to show the accuracy of the calculations for both methods.

  7. PILOT-SCALE TESTING OF THE SUSPENSION OF MST, CST, AND SIMULATED SLUDGE SLURRIES IN A SLUDGE TANK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Qureshi, Z.; Restivo, M.; Steeper, T.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.

    2011-08-02

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Following strontium, actinide, and cesium removal, the concentrated solids will be transported to a sludge tank (i.e., monosodium titanate (MST)/sludge solids to Tank 42H or Tank 51H and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) to Tank 40H) for eventual transfer to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST, CST, and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the pump requirements for mixing MST and CST with sludge in a sludge tank and to determine whether segregation of particles occurs during settling. Tank 40H and Tank 51H have four Quad Volute pumps; Tank 42H has four standard pumps. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of Tank 40H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 40H. The pump locations correspond to the current locations in Tank 40H (Risers B2, H, B6, and G). The pumps are pilot-scale Quad Volute pumps. Additional settling tests were conducted in a 30 foot tall, 4 inch inner diameter clear column to investigate segregation of MST, CST, and simulated sludge particles during settling.

  8. Supporting document for the Southeast Quadrant historical tank content estimate report for SY-tank farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddis, L.A.; Consort, S.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Historical Tank Content Estimate of the Southeast Quadrant provides historical evaluations on a tank by tank basis of the radioactive mixed wastes stored in the underground double-shell tanks of the Hanford 200 East and West Areas. This report summarizes historical information such as waste history, temperature profiles, psychrometric data, tank integrity, inventory estimates and tank level history on a tank by tank basis. Tank Farm aerial photos and in-tank photos of each tank are provided. A brief description of instrumentation methods used for waste tank surveillance are included. Components of the data management effort, such as Waste Status and Transaction Record Summary, Tank Layer Model, Supernatant Mixing Model, Defined Waste Types, and Inventory Estimates which generate these tank content estimates, are also given in this report.

  9. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  10. Potential uses of gut weed Enteromorpha spp. as a feed for herbivorous fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anh, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Hien, Tran Thi Thanh; Hai, Tran Ngoc

    2013-01-01

    Three separate experiments were performed to assess the potential use of gut weeds Enteromorpha spp. as a food source for herbivorous fish. The fresh or dried gut weeds were used as a direct feed to replace commercial feed in an alternative approach for feeding spotted seat (Scatophagus argus), red tilapia (Oreochromis sp.), and giant gourami (Osphronemus goramy) juveniles for 60 days, 45 days, and 56 days, respectively. Four feeding regimes were applied to triplicate tanks and fish was fed daily either commercial feed or gut weed: (1) single commercial feed everyday as a control treatment, (2) single gut weed daily and 2 alternative feeding regimes where (3) 1 day commercial feed and 1 consecutive day gut weed or and (4) 2 consecutive days gut weed. The results indicated that survival of experimental fish was not affected by the feeding treatments. Growth performance of the S. argus fed single gut weed was not significantly different from the control group (P>0.05). Growth rates of Oreochromis sp. and O. goramy in the alternative feeding treatments were comparable to the control treatment. Application of the combined feeding regimes, feed conversion ratio could be reduced from 26.1 to 57.8%. These results indicated that fresh and dried gut weed can be used as a feed to substitute commercial feed for herbivorous fish. Moreover, using gut weeds as a feed could improve water quality in the rearing tanks.

  11. Tank-automotive robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Gerald R.

    1999-07-01

    To provide an overview of Tank-Automotive Robotics. The briefing will contain program overviews & inter-relationships and technology challenges of TARDEC managed unmanned and robotic ground vehicle programs. Specific emphasis will focus on technology developments/approaches to achieve semi- autonomous operation and inherent chassis mobility features. Programs to be discussed include: DemoIII Experimental Unmanned Vehicle (XUV), Tactical Mobile Robotics (TMR), Intelligent Mobility, Commanders Driver Testbed, Collision Avoidance, International Ground Robotics Competition (ICGRC). Specifically, the paper will discuss unique exterior/outdoor challenges facing the IGRC competing teams and the synergy created between the IGRC and ongoing DoD semi-autonomous Unmanned Ground Vehicle and DoT Intelligent Transportation System programs. Sensor and chassis approaches to meet the IGRC challenges and obstacles will be shown and discussed. Shortfalls in performance to meet the IGRC challenges will be identified.

  12. Fabrication of a Sludge-Conditioning System for Processing Legacy Wastes from the Gunite and Associated Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randolph, J. D.; Lewis, B. E.; Farmer, J. R.; Johnson, M. A.

    2000-08-01

    The Sludge Conditioning System (SCS) for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAATs) is designed to receive, monitor, characterize and process legacy waste materials from the South Tank Farm tanks in preparation for final transfer of the wastes to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs), which are located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The SCS includes (1) a Primary Conditioning System (PCS) Enclosure for sampling and particle size classification, (2) a Solids Monitoring Test Loop (SMTL) for slurry characterization, (3) a Waste Transfer Pump to retrieve and transfer waste materials from GAAT consolidation tank W-9 to the MVSTs, (4) a PulsAir Mixing System to provide mixing of consolidated sludges for ease of retrieval, and (5) the interconnecting piping and valving. This report presents the design, fabrication, cost, and fabrication schedule information for the SCS.

  13. Development of a computer code to predict a ventilation requirement for an underground radioactive waste storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.J.; Dalpiaz, E.L. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Computer code, WTVFE (Waste Tank Ventilation Flow Evaluation), has been developed to evaluate the ventilation requirement for an underground storage tank for radioactive waste. Heat generated by the radioactive waste and mixing pumps in the tank is removed mainly through the ventilation system. The heat removal process by the ventilation system includes the evaporation of water from the waste and the heat transfer by natural convection from the waste surface. Also, a portion of the heat will be removed through the soil and the air circulating through the gap between the primary and secondary tanks. The heat loss caused by evaporation is modeled based on recent evaporation test results by the Westinghouse Hanford Company using a simulated small scale waste tank. Other heat transfer phenomena are evaluated based on well established conduction and convection heat transfer relationships. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Successful Integration & Deployment of Technologies Results in Remediated Underground Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billingsley, K.; Bolling, D.

    2002-02-27

    This paper presents an overview of the underground technologies deployed during the cleanup of nine large underground storage tanks (USTs) that contained residual radioactive sludge, liquid low-level waste (LLLW), and other debris. The Gunite Tanks Remediation Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was successfully completed in 2001, ending with the stabilization of the USTs and the cleanup of the South Tank Farm. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project was the first of its kind completed in the United States of America. The Project integrated robotic and remotely operated technologies into an effective tank waste retrieval system that safely retrieved more than 348 m3 (92,000 gal) of radioactive sludge and 3.15E+15 Bq (85,000 Ci) of radioactive contamination from the tanks. The Project successfully transferred over 2,385 m3 (630,000 gal) of waste slurry to ORNL's active tank waste management system. The project team avoided over $120 Million in costs and shortened the original baseline schedule by over 10 years. Completing the Gunite Tanks Remediation Project eliminated the risks posed by the aging USTs and the waste they contained, and avoid the $400,000 annual costs associated with maintaining and monitoring the tanks.

  15. Precise measurement of liquid petroleum tank volume based on data cloud analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jintao; Liu, Ziyong; Zhang, Long; Guo, Ligong; Bao, Xuesong; Tong, Lin

    2010-08-01

    Metal tanks are generally used for the measurement of liquid petroleum products for fiscal or custody transfer application. One tank volume precise measurement method based on data cloud analysis was studied, which was acquired by laser scanning principle. Method of distance measurement by laser phase shift and angular measurement by optical grating were applied to acquire coordinates of points in tank shell under the control of a servo system. Direct Iterative Method (DIM) and Section Area Method (SAM) were used to process measured data for vertical and horizontal tanks respectively. In comparison experiment, one 1000m3 vertical tank and one 30m3 horizontal tank were used as test objects. In the vertical tank experiment, the largest measured radius difference between the new laser method and strapping method (international arbitrary standard) is 2.8mm. In the horizontal tank experiment, the calibration result from laser scanning method is more close to reference than manual geometric method, and the mean deviation in full-scale range of the former and latter method are 75L and 141L respectively; with the increase of liquid level, the relative errors of laser scanning method and manual geometric method become smaller, and the mean relative errors are 0.6% and 1.5% respectively. By using the method discussed, the calibration efficiency of tank volume can be improved.

  16. Thermal stratification in LH2 tank of cryogenic propulsion stage tested in ISRO facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, M.; Raj, R. Edwin; Narayanan, V.

    2017-02-01

    Liquid oxygen and hydrogen are used as oxidizer and fuel respectively in cryogenic propulsion system. These liquids are stored in foam insulated tanks of cryogenic propulsion system and are pressurized using warm pressurant gas supplied for tank pressure maintenance during cryogenic engine operation. Heat leak to cryogenic propellant tank causes buoyancy driven liquid stratification resulting in formation of warm liquid stratum at liquid free surface. This warm stratum is further heated by the admission of warm pressurant gas for tank pressurization during engine operation. Since stratified layer temperature has direct bearing on the cavitation free operation of turbo pumps integrated in cryogenic engine, it is necessary to model the thermal stratification for predicting stratified layer temperature and mass of stratified liquid in tank at the end of engine operation. These inputs are required for estimating the minimum pressure to be maintained by tank pressurization system. This paper describes configuration of cryogenic stage for ground qualification test, stage hot test sequence, a thermal model and its results for a foam insulated LH2 tank subjected to heat leak and pressurization with hydrogen gas at 200 K during liquid outflow at 38 lps for engine operation. The above model considers buoyancy flow in free convection boundary layer caused by heat flux from tank wall and energy transfer from warm pressurant gas etc. to predict temperature of liquid stratum and mass of stratified liquid in tank at the end of engine operation in stage qualification tests carried out in ISRO facility.

  17. Experiment on heat transfer and temperature distribution of insulation jacket in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation cryogenic tank after sudden, catastrophic loss of insulation vacuum%高真空多层绝热低温容器完全真空丧失后传热及绝热夹层内温度分布规律实验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢高峰; 朱鸣; 汪荣顺

    2011-01-01

    在搭建了高真空多层绝热低温容器完全真空丧失传热研究实验台的基础上,分别利用干燥氮气、二氧化碳、氧气、氦气及空气为破空介质,进行了高真空多层绝热低温容器发生完全真空丧失事故后的传热实验研究.实验中通过流量计和温度采集系统测得了高真空多层绝热低温容器在发生完全真空丧失事故后的排放率和绝热夹层内的温度分布规律.实验结果表明,导入高真空多层绝热低温容器绝热夹层的气体种类对其完全真空丧失后的传热过程有很大的影响.%A test rig for high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation( HVMLI) cryogenic tank was built up and experiments were conducted on a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulation vacuum ( SCLIV) cryogenic tank by using gases of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, oxygen, helium and air as leaking medium respectively. The venting rates and temperature in the insulation jacket were measured after five kinds of gas leaking into it. The results show that the type of gas leaking into the vacuum interlayer has great influence on the process of heat transfer after when the loss of vacuum happens.

  18. 49 CFR 180.519 - Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other... of Tank Cars § 180.519 Periodic retest and inspection of tank cars other than single-unit tank car... devices must be retested periodically as specified in Retest Table 1 of paragraph (b)(5) of this...

  19. A 400,000 lb crude oil storage tank was moved on an 11 in. air blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-03-01

    The British patented-system used to move the 55,000 bbl tank at the Cushing, Okla., tank farm of Getty Oil Co. uses the same airlift principle employed by various hovercraft. Representatives from 20 pipeline and oil companies watched the move, which placed the tank 22 ft higher and 600 ft away from its former location, to improve its gravity flow rate, an improvement spurred by greater crude demands placed on Cushing Terminal. Two 425 hp air compressors were attached to the tank's shell and produced 130,000 cu ft/min of air. The airflow was directed beneath the tank through a segmented skirt fixed to the circumference of the tank's base. Less than 0.5 psi air pressure across the tank floor was needed to lift the tank. Four large D-7 tractors pulled and guided the tank up the incline onto its new pad, where the vessel was rotated into alignment for piping connections. Preliminary rig-up, grading, and pad preparation took six days, but actual tank relocation required only two hours. Getty's Cushing terminal feeds to the 20 in. dia Osage pipeline that serves Getty's El Dorado, Kans., refinery as well as other carriers.

  20. Tank characterization report for double shell tank 241-AP-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelman, W.D., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-07

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-AP-104. This report supports the requirements of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  1. Tank vapor mitigation requirements for Hanford Tank Farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakestraw, L.D.

    1994-11-15

    Westinghouse Hanford Company has contracted Los Alamos Technical Associates to listing of vapors and aerosols that are or may be emitted from the High Level Waste (HLW) tanks at Hanford. Mitigation requirements under Federal and State law, as well as DOE Orders, are included in the listing. The lists will be used to support permitting activities relative to tank farm ventilation system up-grades. This task is designated Task 108 under MJB-SWV-312057 and is an extension of efforts begun under Task 53 of Purchase Order MPB-SVV-03291 5 for Mechanical Engineering Support. The results of that task, which covered only thirty-nine tanks, are repeated here to provide a single source document for vapor mitigation requirements for all 177 HLW tanks.

  2. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-S-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1996-09-19

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-S-107. This report supports the requirements of Tri- Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  3. Tank characterization report for single shell tank 241-S-107

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, B.C.

    1996-09-19

    This document summarizes the information on the historical uses, present status, and the sampling and analysis results of waste stored in Tank 241-S-107. This report supports the requirements of Tri- Party Agreement Milestone M-44-09.

  4. Tank characterization report for single-shell Tank B-201

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heasler, P.G.; Remund, K.M.; Tingey, J.M.; Baird, D.B.; Ryan, F.M.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize the waste in single shell Tank B-201. Characterization includes the determination of the physical, chemical (e.g., concentrations of elements and organic species), and radiological properties of the waste. These determinations are made using analytical results from B-201 core samples as well as historical information about the tank. The main objective is to determine average waste properties: but in some cases, concentrations of analytes as a function of depth were also determined. This report also consolidates the available historical information regarding Tank B-201, arranges the analytical information from the recent core sampling in a useful format, and provides an interpretation of the data within the context of what is known about the tank.

  5. Ecodesign of Liquid Fuel Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gicevska, Jana; Bazbauers, Gatis; Repele, Mara

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the study is a 10 litre liquid fuel tank made of metal and used for fuel storage and transportation. The study dealt with separate life cycle stages of this product, compared environmental impacts of similar fuel tanks made of metal and plastic, as well as analysed the product's end-of-life cycle stage, studying the waste treatment and disposal scenarios. The aim of this study was to find opportunities for improvement and to develop proposals for the ecodesign of 10 litre liquid fuel tank.

  6. [Death in a relaxation tank].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupp, Wolf; Simon, Karl-Heinz; Bohnert, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Complete relaxation can be achieved by floating in a darkened, sound-proof relaxation tank filled with salinated water kept at body temperature. Under these conditions, meditation exercises up to self-hypnosis may lead to deep relaxation with physical and mental revitalization. A user manipulated his tank, presumably to completely cut off all optical and acoustic stimuli and accidentally also covered the ventilation hole. The man was found dead in his relaxation tank. The findings suggested lack of oxygen as the cause of death.

  7. The Gunite and Associated Tanks Remediation Project Tank Waste Retrieval Performance and Lessons Learned, vol. 1 [of 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, BE

    2003-10-07

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Remediation Project was the first of its kind performed in the United States. Robotics and remotely operated equipment were used to successfully transfer almost 94,000 gal of remote-handled transuranic sludge containing over 81,000 Ci of radioactive contamination from nine large underground storage tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The sludge was transferred with over 439,000 gal of radioactive waste supernatant and {approx}420,500 gal of fresh water that was used in sluicing operations. The GAATs are located in a high-traffic area of ORNL near a main thoroughfare. A phased and integrated approach to waste retrieval operations was used for the GAAT Remediation Project. The project promoted safety by obtaining experience from low-risk operations in the North Tank Farm before moving to higher-risk operations in the South Tank Farm. This approach allowed project personnel to become familiar with the tanks and waste, as well as the equipment, processes, procedures, and operations required to perform successful waste retrieval. By using an integrated approach to tank waste retrieval and tank waste management, the project was completed years ahead of the original baseline schedule, which resulted in avoiding millions of dollars in associated costs. This report is organized in two volumes. Volume 1 provides information on the various phases of the GAAT Remediation Project. It also describes the different types of equipment and how they were used. The emphasis of Volume 1 is on the description of the tank waste retrieval performance and the lessons learned during the GAAT Remediation Project. Volume 2 provides the appendixes for the report, which include the following information: (A) Background Information for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Operable Unit; (B) Annotated Bibliography; (C) Comprehensive Listing of the Sample Analysis Data from the GAAT Remediation Project; (D) GAAT Equipment Matrix; and (E) Vendor List

  8. SLUDGE RETRIEVAL FROM HANFORD K WEST BASIN SETTLER TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERPENBECK EG; LESHIKAR GA

    2011-01-13

    In 2010, an innovative, remotely operated retrieval system was deployed to successfully retrieve over 99.7% of the radioactive sludge from ten submerged tanks in Hanford's K-West Basin. As part of K-West Basin cleanup, the accumulated sludge needed to be removed from the 0.5 meter diameter by 5 meter long settler tanks and transferred approximately 45 meters to an underwater container for sampling and waste treatment. The abrasive, dense, non-homogeneous sludge was the product of the washing process of corroded nuclear fuel. It consists of small (less than 600 micron) particles of uranium metal, uranium oxide, and various other constituents, potentially agglomerated or cohesive after 10 years of storage. The Settler Tank Retrieval System (STRS) was developed to access, mobilize and pump out the sludge from each tank using a standardized process of retrieval head insertion, periodic high pressure water spray, retraction, and continuous pumping of the sludge. Blind operations were guided by monitoring flow rate, radiation levels in the sludge stream, and solids concentration. The technology developed and employed in the STRS can potentially be adapted to similar problematic waste tanks or pipes that must be remotely accessed to achieve mobilization and retrieval of the sludge within.

  9. Transferring superfluid helium in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Peter

    1986-01-01

    A simple thermodynamic model of a transfer system for resupplying liquid helium in space is presented, with application to NASA projects including the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, the Large Deployable Reflector, and the Hubble Space Telescope. The relations between different thermodynamic regimes that can be expected in the transfer line are used to study the relative efficiencies of various possible transfer techniques. Low heat leak into the transfer line, particularly at point sources such as the coupling, is necesssary for efficient transfer of liquid helium, and proper selection of supply tank temperature is important during helium resupply.

  10. Development of RF System Model for CERN Linac2 Tanks

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, G; Vretenar, M; Kumar, G; Agarwal, V

    2010-01-01

    An RF system model has been created for the CERN Linac2 Tanks. RF systems in this linac have both single and double feed architectures. The main elements of these systems are: RF power amplifier, main resonator, feed-line and the amplitude and phase feedback loops. The model of the composite system is derived by suitably concatenating the models of these individual sub-systems. For computational efficiency the modeling has been carried out in the base band. The signals are expressed in in-phase - quadrature domain, where the response of the resonator is expressed using two linear differential equations, making it valid for large signal conditions. MATLAB/SIMULINK has been used for creating the model. The model has been found useful in predicting the system behaviour, especially during the transients. In the paper we present the details of the model, highlighting the methodology, which could be easily extended to multiple feed RF systems.

  11. Tank 241-AZ-101 and Tank 241-AZ-102 Airlift Circulator Operation Vapor Sampling and Analysis Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TEMPLETON, A.M.

    1999-12-07

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) identifies characterization objectives pertaining to sample collection, laboratory analytical evaluation, and reporting requirements for vapor samples obtained during the operation of the tank 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 airlift circulators (ALCs) and during the initial operation (''bump'') of the tank 241-AZ-101 mixer pumps. The purpose of the ALC operation is to support portions of the operational test procedure (OTP) for Project W-030 (OTP-W030-001) and to perform functional test in support of Project W-151. Project W-030 is the 241-A-702 ventilation upgrade project (241-142-702) and Project W-151 is the 241-AZ-101 Mixer Pump Test. The functional tests will check the operability of the tank 241-AZ-101 ALCs. Process Memo's No. 2E98-082 and No. 2E99-001 (LMHC 1999a, LMHC 1999b) direct the operation of the ALCs and the Industrial Hygiene monitoring respectively. A series of tests will be conducted in which the ALCs in tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 will be operated at different air flow rates. Vapor samples will be obtained to determine constituents that may be present in the tank headspace during ALC operation at tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 as the waste is disturbed. During the testing, vapor samples will be obtained from the headspace of tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 via the unused port on the standard hydrogen monitoring system (SHMS). In addition the last two vapor samples will be collected from the headspace of tank 241-AZ-101 during the operation of the mixer pumps. Each mixer pump will be operated for approximately 5 minutes. Results will be used to provide the waste feed delivery program with environmental air permitting data for tank waste disturbing activities. Because of radiological concerns, the samples will be filtered for particulates. It is recognized that this may remove some organic compounds. The following sections provide the general methodology and procedures to be used in the

  12. 46 CFR 154.446 - Tank design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank design. 154.446 Section 154.446 Shipping COAST... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Independent Tank Type B § 154.446 Tank design. An independent tank type B must meet the calculations under §...

  13. 40 CFR 265.1085 - Standards: Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Tanks. 265.1085 Section 265... FACILITIES Air Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 265.1085 Standards: Tanks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant emissions from tanks...

  14. 40 CFR 63.685 - Standards: Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Tanks. 63.685 Section 63... Standards: Tanks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air emissions from tanks for.... (b) The owner or operator shall control air emissions from each tank subject to this section...

  15. 27 CFR 24.167 - Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tanks. 24.167 Section 24... TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Construction and Equipment § 24.167 Tanks. (a) General. All tanks on wine premises... the intended purpose. Each tank used for wine operations will be located, constructed, and equipped...

  16. 7 CFR 58.218 - Surge tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Surge tanks. 58.218 Section 58.218 Agriculture....218 Surge tanks. If surge tanks are used for hot milk, and temperatures of product including foam being held in the surge tank during processing, is not maintained at a minimum of 150 °F, then two...

  17. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 25.1013 Section 25.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  18. 14 CFR 27.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 27.1013 Section 27.1013... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1013 Oil tanks. Each oil tank must be... space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and where used...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tanks. 29.1013 Section 29.1013... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1013 Oil tanks. (a) Installation. Each oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank...

  20. 40 CFR 264.1084 - Standards: Tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards: Tanks. 264.1084 Section 264... Emission Standards for Tanks, Surface Impoundments, and Containers § 264.1084 Standards: Tanks. (a) The provisions of this section apply to the control of air pollutant emissions from tanks for which §...

  1. 7 CFR 58.320 - Brine tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brine tanks. 58.320 Section 58.320 Agriculture....320 Brine tanks. Brine tanks used for the treating of parchment liners shall be constructed of... liners. The tank should also be provided with a satisfactory drainage outlet....

  2. The Politics of Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    of a typology of think tanks, quantitative data and interviews with think tank practitioners, the interplay between state and market dynamics and the development of different types of think tanks is analysed. Although think tanks develop along different institutional trajectories, it is concluded that the Anglo...

  3. Underground Storage Tanks in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Underground storage tank (UST) sites which store petroleum in Iowa. Includes sites which have been reported to DNR, and have active or removed underground storage...

  4. Assessment of single-shell tank residual-liquid issues at Hanford Site, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, K.S.; Stout, L.A.; Napier, B.A.; Reisenauer, A.E.; Landstrom, D.K.

    1983-06-01

    This report provides an assessment of the overall effectiveness and implications of jet pumping the interstitial liquids (IL) from single-shell tanks at Hanford. The jet-pumping program, currently in progress at Hanford, involves the planned removal of IL contained in 89 of the 149 single-shell tanks and its transfer to double-shell tanks after volume reduction by evaporation. The purpose of this report is to estimate the public and worker doses associated with (1) terminating pumping immediately, (2) pumping to a 100,000-gal limit per tank, (3) pumping to a 50,000-gal limit per tank, and (4) pumping to the maximum practical liquid removal level of 30,000 gal. Assessment of the cost-effectiveness of these various levels of pumping in minimizing any undue health and safety risks to the public or worker is also presented.

  5. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summary of Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies for FY 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-06-07

    Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  6. Concrete material characterization reinforced concrete tank structure Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, B. V.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) Project position on the concrete mechanical properties needed to perform design/analysis calculations for the MWTF secondary concrete structure. This report provides a position on MWTF concrete properties for the Title 1 and Title 2 calculations. The scope of the report is limited to mechanical properties and does not include the thermophysical properties of concrete needed to perform heat transfer calculations. In the 1970's, a comprehensive series of tests were performed at Construction Technology Laboratories (CTL) on two different Hanford concrete mix designs. Statistical correlations of the CTL data were later generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratories (PNL). These test results and property correlations have been utilized in various design/analysis efforts of Hanford waste tanks. However, due to changes in the concrete design mix and the lower range of MWTF operating temperatures, plus uncertainties in the CTL data and PNL correlations, it was prudent to evaluate the CTL data base and PNL correlations, relative to the MWTF application, and develop a defendable position. The CTL test program for Hanford concrete involved two different mix designs: a 3 kip/sq in mix and a 4.5 kip/sq in mix. The proposed 28-day design strength for the MWTF tanks is 5 kip/sq in. In addition to this design strength difference, there are also differences between the CTL and MWTF mix design details. Also of interest, are the appropriate application of the MWTF concrete properties in performing calculations demonstrating ACI Code compliance. Mix design details and ACI Code issues are addressed in Sections 3.0 and 5.0, respectively. The CTL test program and PNL data correlations focused on a temperature range of 250 to 450 F. The temperature range of interest for the MWTF tank concrete application is 70 to 200 F.

  7. Tank Waste Transport Stability: Summaries of Hanford Slurry and Salt-Solution Studies in FY 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, T.D.

    2002-07-08

    This report is a collection of summary articles on FY 2000 studies of slurry transport and salt-well pumping related to Hanford tank waste transfers. These studies are concerned with the stability (steady, uninterrupted flow) of tank waste transfers, a subset of the Department of Energy (DOE) Tanks Focus Area Tank (TFA) Waste Chemistry effort. This work is a collaborative effort of AEA Technology plc, the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory at Mississippi State University (DIAL-MSU), the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology at Florida International University (HCET-FIU), Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC), and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The purpose of this report is to provide, in a single document, an overview of these studies to help the reader identify contacts and resources for obtaining more detailed information and to help promote useful interchanges between researchers and users. Despite over 50 years of experience in transporting radioactive tank wastes to and from equipment and tanks at the Department of Energy's Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge sites, waste slurry transfer pipelines and process piping become plugged on occasion. At Hanford, several tank farm pipelines are no longer in service because of plugs. At Savannah River, solid deposits in the outlet line of the 2H evaporator have resulted in an unplanned extended downtime. Although waste transfer criteria and guidelines intended to prevent pipeline plugging are in place, they are not always adequate. To avoid pipeline plugging in the future, other factors that are not currently embodied in the transfer criteria may need to be considered. The work summarized here is being conducted to develop a better understanding of the chemical and waste flow dynamics during waste transfer. The goal is to eliminate pipeline plugs by improving analysis and engineering tools in the field that incorporate this understanding.

  8. Technology Evaluation for Conditioning of Hanford Tank Waste Using Solids Segregation and Size Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restivo, Michael L.; Stone, M. E.; Herman, D. T.; Lambert, Daniel P.; Duignan, Mark R.; Smith, Gary L.; Wells, Beric E.; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2014-04-24

    The Savannah River National Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory team performed a literature search on current and proposed technologies for solids segregation and size reduction of particles in the slurry feed from the Hanford Tank Farm. The team also investigated technology research performed on waste tank slurries, both real and simulated, and reviewed academic theory applicable to solids segregation and size reduction. This review included text book applications and theory, commercial applications suitable for a nuclear environment, research of commercial technologies suitable for a nuclear environment, and those technologies installed in a nuclear environment, including technologies implemented at Department of Energy facilities. Information on each technology is provided in this report along with the advantages and disadvantages of the technologies for this application. Any technology selected would require testing to verify the ability to meet the High-Level Waste Feed Waste Acceptance Criteria to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant Pretreatment Facility.

  9. Pressurization and expulsion of a flightweight liquid hydrogen tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandresar, N. T.; Stochl, R. J.

    1993-01-01

    Experimental results are presented for pressurization and expulsion of a flight-weight 4.89 cu m liquid hydrogen storage tank under normal gravity conditions. Pressurization and expulsion times are parametrically varied to study the effects of longer transfer times expected in future space flight applications. It is found that the increase in pressurant consumption with increased operational time is significant at shorter pressurization or expulsion durations and diminishes as the duration lengthens. Gas-to-wall heat transfer in the ullage is the dominant mode of energy exchange, with more than 50 percent of the pressurant energy being lost to tank wall heating in expulsions and the long duration pressurizations. Advanced data analysis will require a multidimensional approach combined with improved measurement capabilities of liquid-vapor interfacial transport phenomena.

  10. Effects of scalding method and sequential tanks on broiler processing wastewater loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of scalding time and temperature, and sequential scalding tanks was evaluated based on impact to poultry processing wastewater (PPW) stream loading rates following the slaughter of commercially raised broilers. On 3 separate weeks (trials), broilers were obtained following feed withdrawa...

  11. 46 CFR 153.970 - Cargo transfer piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo transfer piping. 153.970 Section 153.970 Shipping... § 153.970 Cargo transfer piping. The person in charge of cargo transfer shall ensure that: (a) Cargo is transferred to or from a cargo tank only through the tankship's cargo piping system; (b) Vapor not returned...

  12. 9 CFR 322.3 - Transferring products for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transferring products for export. 322... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION EXPORTS 1 § 322.3 Transferring products for export. When inspected and passed products for export are transferred from tank cars to other containers on vessels, such transfer shall be...

  13. Tank 241-C-109 vapor sampling and analysis tank characterization report. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huckaby, J.L.

    1995-05-31

    This report presents the details of the Hanford waste tank characterization study for tank C-109. The drivers and objectives of the waste tank headspace vapor sampling and analysis were in accordance with procedures that were presented in other reports.

  14. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-11-11

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed.

  15. W-314, waste transfer alternative piping system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-04-30

    It is proposed that the reliability, operability, and flexibility of the Retrieval Transfer System be substantially upgraded by replacing the planned single in-farm pipeline from the AN-AY-AZ-(SY) Tank Farm Complex to the AP Farm with three parallel pipelines outside the tank farms. The proposed system provides simplified and redundant routes for the various transfer missions, and prevents the risk of transfer gridlock when the privatization effort swings into full operation.

  16. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original

  17. ANNUAL RADIOACTIVE WASTE TANK INSPECTION PROGRAM 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, B.; Waltz, R.

    2010-06-21

    Aqueous radioactive wastes from Savannah River Site (SRS) separations and vitrification processes are contained in large underground carbon steel tanks. Inspections made during 2009 to evaluate these vessels and other waste handling facilities along with evaluations based on data from previous inspections are the subject of this report. The 2009 inspection program revealed that the structural integrity and waste confinement capability of the Savannah River Site waste tanks were maintained. All inspections scheduled per LWO-LWE-2008-00423, HLW Tank Farm Inspection Plan for 2009, were completed. All Ultrasonic measurements (UT) performed in 2009 met the requirements of C-ESG-00006, In-Service Inspection Program for High Level Waste Tanks, Rev. 1, and WSRC-TR-2002-00061, Rev.4. UT inspections were performed on Tank 29 and the findings are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00559, Tank Inspection NDE Results for Fiscal Year 2009, Waste Tank 29. Post chemical cleaning UT measurements were made in Tank 6 and the results are documented in SRNL-STI-2009-00560, Tank Inspection NDE Results Tank 6, Including Summary of Waste Removal Support Activities in Tanks 5 and 6. A total of 6669 photographs were made and 1276 visual and video inspections were performed during 2009. Twenty-Two new leaksites were identified in 2009. The locations of these leaksites are documented in C-ESR-G-00003, SRS High Level Waste Tank Leaksite Information, Rev.4. Fifteen leaksites at Tank 5 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Five leaksites at Tank 6 were documented during tank wall/annulus cleaning activities. Two new leaksites were identified at Tank 19 during waste removal activities. Previously documented leaksites were reactivated at Tanks 5 and 12 during waste removal activities. Also, a very small amount of additional leakage from a previously identified leaksite at Tank 14 was observed.

  18. Systems engineering study: tank 241-C-103 organic skimming,storage, treatment and disposal options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klem, M.J.

    1996-10-23

    This report evaluates alternatives for pumping, storing, treating and disposing of the separable phase organic layer in Hanford Site Tank 241-C-103. The report provides safety and technology based preferences and recommendations. Two major options and several varations of these options were identified. The major options were: 1) transfer both the organic and pumpable aqueous layers to a double-shell tank as part of interim stabilization using existing salt well pumping equipment or 2) skim the organic to an above ground before interim stabilization of Tank 241-C-103. Other options to remove the organic were considered but rejected following preliminary evaluation.

  19. Safety evaluation for packaging for 1720-DR sodium-filled tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercado, M.S.

    1996-03-09

    Preparations are under way to sell the sodium stored in the 1720-DR tank in the 1720-DR building. This will require that the tank, as well as the 1720-DR facility, be moved to the 300 Area, so that the sodium may be melted and transferred into a railroad tanker car. Because the sodium is a hazardous material and is being shipped in a nonspecification packaging, a safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) is required. This SEP approves the sodium-filled tank for a single shipment from the 105-DR area to the 300 Area.

  20. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Tank Rapid Chill and Fill Testing for the Advanced Shuttle Upper Stage Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flachbart, R. H.; Hedayat, A.; Holt, K. A.; Sims, J.; Johnson, E. F.; Hastings, L. J.; Lak, T.

    2013-01-01

    Cryogenic upper stages in the Space Shuttle program were prohibited primarily due to a safety risk of a 'return to launch site' abort. An upper stage concept addressed this concern by proposing that the stage be launched empty and filled using shuttle external tank residuals after the atmospheric pressure could no longer sustain an explosion. However, only about 5 minutes was allowed for tank fill. Liquid hydrogen testing was conducted within a near-ambient environment using the multipurpose hydrogen test bed 638.5 ft3 (18m3) cylindrical tank with a spray bar mounted longitudinally inside. Although the tank was filled within 5 minutes, chilldown of the tank structure was incomplete, and excessive tank pressures occurred upon vent valve closure. Elevated tank wall temperatures below the liquid level were clearly characteristic of film boiling. The test results have substantial implications for on-orbit cryogen transfer since the formation of a vapor film would be much less inhibited due to the reduced gravity. However, the heavy tank walls could become an asset in normal gravity testing for on-orbit transfer, i.e., if film boiling in a nonflight weight tank can be inhibited in normal gravity, then analytical modeling anchored with the data could be applied to reduced gravity environments with increased confidence.

  1. Engineering evaluation of alternatives: Managing the assumed leak from single-shell Tank 241-T-101

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H. [ICF Kaiser Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Jenkins, C. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-02-01

    At mid-year 1992, the liquid level gage for Tank 241-T-101 indicated that 6,000 to 9,000 gal had leaked. Because of the liquid level anomaly, Tank 241-T-101 was declared an assumed leaker on October 4, 1992. SSTs liquid level gages have been historically unreliable. False readings can occur because of instrument failures, floating salt cake, and salt encrustation. Gages frequently self-correct and tanks show no indication of leak. Tank levels cannot be visually inspected and verified because of high radiation fields. The gage in Tank 241-T-101 has largely corrected itself since the mid-year 1992 reading. Therefore, doubt exists that a leak has occurred, or that the magnitude of the leak poses any immediate environmental threat. While reluctance exists to use valuable DST space unnecessarily, there is a large safety and economic incentive to prevent or mitigate release of tank liquid waste into the surrounding environment. During the assessment of the significance of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid level gage readings, Washington State Department of Ecology determined that Westinghouse Hanford Company was not in compliance with regulatory requirements, and directed transfer of the Tank 241-T-101 liquid contents into a DST. Meanwhile, DOE directed WHC to examine reasonable alternatives/options for safe interim management of Tank 241-T-101 wastes before taking action. The five alternatives that could be used to manage waste from a leaking SST are: (1) No-Action, (2) In-Tank Stabilization, (3) External Tank Stabilization, (4) Liquid Retrieval, and (5) Total Retrieval. The findings of these examinations are reported in this study.

  2. Waste volume reduction factors for potential 242-A evaporator feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sederburg, J.P.

    1995-05-04

    Double-shell tank (DST) storage space requirements have been shown to be highly dependent on the end point of 242-A operations. Consequences to the DST of various waste volumes, and concentrations, are evaluated. Only waste streams that are currently planned to be stored in the DST system before the year 2004 are discussed. As of January 1, 1995, approximately 27-million L (7.2-million gal) of dilute wastes are stored in the DSTs available for evaporator processing. Waste streams planned to be transferred to the DSTs before December 31, 2004, are identified. The DST volume for storing slurry from these wastes is presented in this document. At a final slurry specific gravity of -1.35, 22.5-million L (5.93-million gal) of DST space would be needed on December 31, 2004, to store the product from evaporator processing of these feedstocks. The expected volume needed if the resultant slurry were concentrated to the traditional double-shell slurry feed (DSSF) phase boundary (a specific gravity of {approximately}1.5) would be 17.7-million L (4.67-million gal). An additional 4.8-million L (1.26-million gal) is therefore needed if these wastes are concentrated to a specific gravity of 1.35 instead of the DSSF limit.

  3. Project management plan for Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 sluicing. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, D.R.

    1994-07-01

    A major mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the permanent disposal of Hanford Site defense wastes by utilizing safe, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective disposal methods that meet applicable regulations. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Program was established at the Hanford Site to manage and control activities specific to the remediation of safety watch list tanks, including high-heat-producing tanks, and for the ultimate characterization, retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal of the low- and high-level fractions of the tank waste. Project W-320, Tank 241-C-106 Sluicing, provides the methodology, equipment, utilities, and facilities necessary for retrieving the high-heat waste from single-shell tank (SST) 24-C-106. Project W-320 is a fiscal year (FY) 1993 expense-funded major project, and has a design life of 2 years. Retrieval of the waste in tank 241-C-106 will be accomplished through mobilization of the sludge into a pumpable slurry using past-practice sluicing. The waste is then transferred directly to a double-shell tank for interim storage, subsequent pretreatment, and eventual disposal. A detailed description of the management organization and responsibilities of all participants is presented in this document.

  4. Potential radiological exposure rates resulting from hypothetical dome failure at Tank W-10

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The main plant area at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contains 12 buried Gunite tanks that were used for the storage and transfer of liquid radioactive waste. Although the tanks are no longer in use, they are known to contain some residual contaminated sludges and liquids. In the event of an accidental tank dome failure, however unlikely, the liquids, sludges, and radioactive contaminants within the tank walls themselves could create radiation fields and result in above-background exposures to workers nearby. This Technical Memorandum documents a series of calculations to estimate potential radiological exposure rates and total exposures to workers in the event of a hypothetical collapse of a Gunite tank dome. Calculations were performed specifically for tank W-10 because it contains the largest radioactivity inventory (approximately half of the total activity) of all the Gunite tanks. These calculations focus only on external, direct gamma exposures for prescribed, hypothetical exposure scenarios and do not address other possible tank failure modes or routes of exposure. The calculations were performed with established, point-kernel gamma ray modeling codes.

  5. Septic tank additive impacts on microbial populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, S; Hoover, M T; Clark, G H; Gumpertz, M; Wollum, A G; Cobb, C; Strock, J

    2008-01-01

    Environmental health specialists, other onsite wastewater professionals, scientists, and homeowners have questioned the effectiveness of septic tank additives. This paper describes an independent, third-party, field scale, research study of the effects of three liquid bacterial septic tank additives and a control (no additive) on septic tank microbial populations. Microbial populations were measured quarterly in a field study for 12 months in 48 full-size, functioning septic tanks. Bacterial populations in the 48 septic tanks were statistically analyzed with a mixed linear model. Additive effects were assessed for three septic tank maintenance levels (low, intermediate, and high). Dunnett's t-test for tank bacteria (alpha = .05) indicated that none of the treatments were significantly different, overall, from the control at the statistical level tested. In addition, the additives had no significant effects on septic tank bacterial populations at any of the septic tank maintenance levels. Additional controlled, field-based research iswarranted, however, to address additional additives and experimental conditions.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION OF TANK 17 RESIDUAL WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Entremont, P; Thomas Caldwell, T

    1997-09-22

    Plans are to close Tank 17, a type IV waste tank in the F-area Tank Farm, by filling it with pumpable backfills. Most of the waste was removed from the tank in the late 1980s, and the remainder of the waste was removed in a short spray washing campaign that began on 11 April 1997. More details on the planned closure can be found in the Closure Plan for the High-Level Waste (HLW) Tanks and the specific closure module for Tank 17. To show that closure of the tank is environmentally sound, a performance evaluation has been performed for Tank 17. The performance evaluation projected the concentration of contaminants at various locations and times after closure. This report documents the basis for the inventories of contaminants that were used in the Tank 17 performance evaluation.

  7. 241-AP Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2014-04-04

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AP tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AP tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AP tank farm, the sixth double-shell tank farm constructed, tank bottom flatness, refractory material quality, post-weld stress relieving, and primary tank bottom weld rejection were improved.

  8. 241-AY-101 Tank Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.

    2013-08-26

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for tank 241-AY-101. The construction history of tank 241-AY-101 has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In tank 241-AY-101, the second double-shell tank constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction reoccurred. The overall extent of similary and affect on tank 241-AY-101 integrity is described herein.

  9. 241-AW Tank Farm Construction Extent of Condition Review for Tank Integrity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Travis J.; Gunter, Jason R.; Reeploeg, Gretchen E.

    2013-11-19

    This report provides the results of an extent of condition construction history review for the 241-AW tank farm. The construction history of the 241-AW tank farm has been reviewed to identify issues similar to those experienced during tank AY-102 construction. Those issues and others impacting integrity are discussed based on information found in available construction records, using tank AY-102 as the comparison benchmark. In the 241-AW tank farm, the fourth double-shell tank farm constructed, similar issues as those with tank 241-AY-102 construction occured. The overall extent of similary and affect on 241-AW tank farm integrity is described herein.

  10. CFD simulation of local and global mixing time in an agitated tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liangchao; Xu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The Issue of mixing efficiency in agitated tanks has drawn serious concern in many industrial processes. The turbulence model is very critical to predicting mixing process in agitated tanks. On the basis of computational fluid dynamics(CFD) software package Fluent 6.2, the mixing characteristics in a tank agitated by dual six-blade-Rushton-turbines(6-DT) are predicted using the detached eddy simulation(DES) method. A sliding mesh(SM) approach is adopted to solve the rotation of the impeller. The simulated flow patterns and liquid velocities in the agitated tank are verified by experimental data in the literature. The simulation results indicate that the DES method can obtain more flow details than Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes(RANS) model. Local and global mixing time in the agitated tank is predicted by solving a tracer concentration scalar transport equation. The simulated results show that feeding points have great influence on mixing process and mixing time. Mixing efficiency is the highest for the feeding point at location of midway of the two impellers. Two methods are used to determine global mixing time and get close result. Dimensionless global mixing time remains unchanged with increasing of impeller speed. Parallel, merging and diverging flow pattern form in the agitated tank, respectively, by changing the impeller spacing and clearance of lower impeller from the bottom of the tank. The global mixing time is the shortest for the merging flow, followed by diverging flow, and the longest for parallel flow. The research presents helpful references for design, optimization and scale-up of agitated tanks with multi-impeller.

  11. Data Quality Objectives for Tank Farms Waste Compatibility Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANNING, D.L.

    1999-07-02

    There are 177 waste storage tanks containing over 210,000 m{sup 3} (55 million gal) of mixed waste at the Hanford Site. The River Protection Project (RPP) has adopted the data quality objective (DQO) process used by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) (EPA 1994a) and implemented by RPP internal procedure (Banning 1999a) to identify the information and data needed to address safety issues. This DQO document is based on several documents that provide the technical basis for inputs and decision/action levels used to develop the decision rules that evaluate the transfer of wastes. A number of these documents are presently in the process of being revised. This document will need to be revised if there are changes to the technical criteria in these supporting documents. This DQO process supports various documents, such as sampling and analysis plans and double-shell tank (DST) waste analysis plans. This document identifies the type, quality, and quantity of data needed to determine whether transfer of supernatant can be performed safely. The requirements in this document are designed to prevent the mixing of incompatible waste as defined in Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-040. Waste transfers which meet the requirements contained in this document and the Double-Shell Tank Waste Analysis Plan (Mulkey 1998) are considered to be compatible, and prevent the mixing of incompatible waste.

  12. Reciprocating Feed System Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewek, Mary (Technical Monitor); Blackmon, James B.; Eddleman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The reciprocating feed system (RFS) is an alternative means of providing high pressure propellant flow at low cost and system mass, with high fail-operational reliability. The RFS functions by storing the liquid propellants in large, low-pressure tanks and then expelling each propellant through two or three small, high-pressure tanks. Each RFS tank is sequentially filled, pressurized, expelled, vented, and refilled so as to provide a constant, or variable, mass flow rate to the engine. This type of system is much lighter than a conventional pressure fed system in part due to the greatly reduced amount of inert tank weight. The delivered payload for an RFS is superior to that of conventional pressure fed systems for conditions of high total impulse and it is competitive with turbopump systems, up to approximately 2000 psi. An advanced version of the RFS uses autogenous pressurization and thrust augmentation to achieve higher performance. In this version, the pressurization gases are combusted in a small engine, thus making the pressurization system, in effect, part of the propulsion system. The RFS appears to be much less expensive than a turbopump system, due to reduced research and development cost and hardware cost, since it is basically composed of small high- pressure tanks, a pressurization system, and control valves. A major benefit is the high reliability fail-operational mode; in the event of a failure in one of the three tank-systems, it can operate on the two remaining tanks. Other benefits include variable pressure and flow rates, ease of engine restart in micro-gravity, and enhanced propellant acquisition and control under adverse acceleration conditions. We present a system mass analysis tool that accepts user inputs for various design and mission parameters and calculates such output values payload and vehicle weights for the conventional pressure fed system, the RFS, the Autogenous Pressurization Thrust Augmentation (APTA) RFS, and turbopump systems

  13. Influence of sludge properties and hydraulic loading on the performance of secondary settling tanks--full-scale operational results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestner, R J; Günthert, F Wolfgang

    2004-01-01

    Full-scale investigations at a WWTP with a two-stage secondary settling tank process revealed relationships between significant operating parameters and performance in terms of effluent suspended solids concentration. Besides common parameters (e.g. surface overflow rate and sludge volume loading rate) feed SS concentration and flocculation time must be considered. Concentration of the return activated sludge may help to estimate the performance of existing secondary settling tanks.

  14. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  15. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  16. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  17. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  18. Flammable gas tank waste level reconcilliation for 241-SX-102

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevick, C.H.; Gaddie, L.A.

    1997-06-23

    Fluoro Dynel Northwest (FDNW) was authorized to address flammable gas issues by reconciling the unexplained surface level increases in Tank 24 1-S-1 1 1 (S-I 1 1, typical). The trapped gas evaluation document (ref 1) states that Tank SX-102 exceeds the 25% of the lower flammable limit (FL) criterion (ref 2), based on a surface level rise evaluation. The Waste Storage Tank Status and Leak Detection Criteria document, commonly referred to as the ``Wallet Report`` is the basis for this letter report (ref 3). The Wallet Report is also a part of the trapped gas evaluation document criteria. The Wallet Report contains various tank information, including: physical information, status, levels, and dry wells, see Appendix A. The unexplained waste level rises were attributed to the production and retention of gas in the column of waste corresponding to the unacquainted for surface level rise. From 1973 through 1980, the Wallet Report tracked Tank S- 102 transfers and reported a net cumulative change of 19.95 in. This surface level increase is from an unknown source or is unacquainted for. Duke Engineering and Services Hanford (DASH) and Leached Martin Hanford Corporation (LMHC) are interested in determining the validity of the unexplained surface level changes reported in the 0611e Wallet Report based upon other corroborative sources of data. The purpose of this letter report is to assemble detailed surface level and waste addition data from daily tank records, logbooks, and other corroborative data that indicate surface levels, and to reconcile the cumulative unacquainted for surface level changes as shown in the Wallet Report from 1973 through 1980.

  19. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants' oral feeding skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, R J

    2015-06-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a 'self-paced' feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants' oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). 'Feeders and growers' born between 26-29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1-2 and 6-8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants' RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants' true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance.

  20. Tank Waste Disposal Program redefinition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.; Augustine, C.A.; Cahill, M.A.; Garfield, J.S.; Johnson, M.E.; Kupfer, M.J.; Meyer, G.A.; Roecker, J.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Holton, L.K.; Hunter, V.L.; Triplett, M.B. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1991-10-01

    The record of decision (ROD) (DOE 1988) on the Final Environmental Impact Statement, Hanford Defense High-Level, Transuranic and Tank Wastes, Hanford Site, Richland Washington identifies the method for disposal of double-shell tank waste and cesium and strontium capsules at the Hanford Site. The ROD also identifies the need for additional evaluations before a final decision is made on the disposal of single-shell tank waste. This document presents the results of systematic evaluation of the present technical circumstances, alternatives, and regulatory requirements in light of the values of the leaders and constitutents of the program. It recommends a three-phased approach for disposing of tank wastes. This approach allows mature technologies to be applied to the treatment of well-understood waste forms in the near term, while providing time for the development and deployment of successively more advanced pretreatment technologies. The advanced technologies will accelerate disposal by reducing the volume of waste to be vitrified. This document also recommends integration of the double-and single-shell tank waste disposal programs, provides a target schedule for implementation of the selected approach, and describes the essential elements of a program to be baselined in 1992.

  1. The Liquid Sustainer Build-up Time Impact on the Emptying Spacecraft Fuel Tank in Free Orbiting Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Sapozhnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trouble-free operation of liquid rocket engines (LRE depends, among other factors, on the nonstop supply of liquid rocket fuel components in the fuel tank feed line with continuous flow.This condition becomes especially relevant for the aerial vehicles (AV in orbital (suborbital environment. With a little filled fuel tanks discontinuity of flow may occur because of pressurizing gas blow-by in the feed line as a result of the funnel generation (with or without vortex formation and so-called phenomenon of dynamic failure of the interface "liquid-gas”.The paper presents a mathematical model of the process of emptying tank initially a little filled and having a reduced level of the gravity acceleration. Using the developed mathematical model a parametric study has been conducted to find how stabilization rate of liquid flow effects on the volume of drained liquid. The computational experiment defines gas blow-by points in the feed line and propellant residuals, depending on the flow rate, physical properties of the fuel components, residual value of the acceleration, and diameter of the feed line.As a result, an effect is discovered that previously has been never mentioned in publications on research of the emptying processes of the aircraft fuel tanks, namely: with abrupt bootstrap of the flow rate a blow-by of gas occurs at the initial stage of emptying tank. In this case, to ensure LRE trouble-free operation there is a need in a special inner-tank device to prevent premature blow-by of pressurizing gas in the tank feed line.

  2. Lightweight Tanks for Storing Liquefied Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Single-walled, jacketed aluminum tanks have been conceived for storing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in LNG-fueled motor vehicles. Heretofore, doublewall steel tanks with vacuum between the inner and outer walls have been used for storing LNG. In comparison with the vacuum- insulated steel tanks, the jacketed aluminum tanks weigh less and can be manufactured at lower cost. Costs of using the jacketed aluminum tanks are further reduced in that there is no need for the vacuum pumps heretofore needed to maintain vacuum in the vacuum-insulated tanks.

  3. In-tank recirculating arsenic treatment system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Patrick V.; Dwyer, Brian P.; Krumhansl, James L.; Chwirka, Joseph D.

    2009-04-07

    A low-cost, water treatment system and method for reducing arsenic contamination in small community water storage tanks. Arsenic is removed by using a submersible pump, sitting at the bottom of the tank, which continuously recirculates (at a low flow rate) arsenic-contaminated water through an attached and enclosed filter bed containing arsenic-sorbing media. The pump and treatment column can be either placed inside the tank (In-Tank) by manually-lowering through an access hole, or attached to the outside of the tank (Out-of-Tank), for easy replacement of the sorption media.

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF A SMART SOLAR TANK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Andersen, Elsa

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations of small SDHW systems based on so-called smart solar tanks are presented. A smart solar tank is a hot water tank in which the domestic water can both be heated by solar collectors and by an auxiliary energy supply system. The auxiliary energy supply....... The investigations showed that the yearly thermal performance of small SDHW systems can be increased by up to about 30 % if a smart solar tank is used instead of a traditional solar combi tank. The thermal increase is strongly influenced by the hot water consumption and consumption pattern. Recommendations...... for future development of smart solar tanks are given....

  5. Old hydrofracture facility tanks contents removal action operations plan at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Volume 1: Text. Volume 2: Checklists and work instructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    This Operations Plan summarizes the operating activities for transferring contents of five low-level (radioactive) liquid waste storage tanks associated with the Old Hydrofracture Facility (OHF) to the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) for secure storage. The transfer will be accomplished through sluicing and pumping operations which are designed to pump the slurry in a closed circuit system using a sluicing nozzle to resuspend the sludge. Once resuspended, the slurry will be transferred to the MVST. The report documenting the material transfer will be prepared after transfer of the tank materials has been completed. The OBF tanks contain approximately 52,600 gal (199,000 L) of low-level radioactive waste consisting of both sludge and supernatant. This material is residual from the now-abandoned grout injection operations conducted from 1964 to 1980. Total curie content is approximately 30,000 Ci. A sluicing and pumping system has been specifically designed for the OHF tanks contents transfer operations. This system is remotely operated and incorporates a sluicing nozzle and arm (Borehole Miner) originally designed for use in the mining industry. The Borehole Miner is an in-tank device designed to deliver a high pressure jet spray via an extendable nozzle. In addition to removing the waste from the tanks, the use of this equipment will demonstrate applicability for additional underground storage tank cleaning throughout the U.S. Department of Energy complex. Additional components of the complete sluicing and pumping system consist of a high pressure pumping system for transfer to the MVST, a low pressure pumping system for transfer to the recycle tank, a ventilation system for providing negative pressure on tanks, and instrumentation and control systems for remote operation and monitoring.

  6. first tank of Linac 1

    CERN Multimedia

    This was the first tank of the linear accelerator Linac1, the injection system for the Proton Synchrotron, It ran for 34 years (1958 - 1992). Protons entered at the far end and were accelerated between the copper drift tubes by an oscillating electromagnetic field. The field flipped 200 million times a second (200 MHz) so the protons spent 5 nanoseconds crossing a drift tube and a gap. Moving down the tank, the tubes and gaps had to get longer as the protons gained speed. The tank accelerated protons from 500 KeV to 10 MeV. Linac1 was also used to accelerate deutrons and alpha particles for the Intersecting Storage Rings and oxygen and sulpher ions for the Super Proton Synchrotron heavy ion programme.

  7. Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Catalyst Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, M.J.

    2001-06-04

    The Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team identified Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP) as an alternative to replace the In-Tank Precipitation Facility at the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy discontinued operation of the In-Tank Precipitation facility due to the potential for catalytic decomposition of sodium tetraphenylborate. The STTP applies the same process chemistry for removal of cesium from the radioactive wastes but at a controlled lower temperature and in a smaller facility that offers engineering features to mitigate potential for a catalytic reaction. However, additional understanding of the catalytic reaction, through further experimental investigation, is needed to better define the potential for a reaction to occur in the proposed facility.

  8. ICPP Tank Farm systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, W.B.; Beer, M.J.; Cukars, M.; Law, J.P.; Millet, C.B.; Murphy, J.A.; Nenni, J.A.; Park, C.V.; Pruitt, J.I.; Thiel, E.C.; Ward, F.S.; Woodard, J.

    1994-01-01

    During the early years (1950--1965) of Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) operations, eleven, 300,000-gallon waste storage tanks were constructed. A project was in progress to replace these aging tanks; however, since fuel reprocessing has been curtailed at ICPP, it is not clear that the new tanks are required. The Department of Energy (DOE) requested a systems engineering evaluation to determine the need for the new tanks. Over 100 alternatives were identified during a facilitated team meeting using Value Engineering techniques. After eliminating any ideas which clearly could not meet the requirements, the remaining ideas were combined into nine basic cases with five sub cases. These fourteen cases were then carefully defined using two methods. First, each case was drawn graphically to show waste processing equipment interfaces and time constraints where they existed or were imposed. Second, each case was analyzed using a time-dependent computer simulation of ICPP waste management activities to determine schedule interactions, liquid storage requirements, and solid waste quantities. Based on the evaluation data, the team developed the following recommendations: Install and operate the high-level liquid waste evaporator; minimize liquid waste generation as much as possible within the constraints of required ICPP operational, safety, and environmental commitments; bring a Waste Immobilization Facility on line by 2008 or earlier; operate NWCF as required to alleviate the need for new tank farm capacity; maximize the concentration of Na and K in the calcine to minimize the final amount of waste requiring immobilization; avoid using Bin Set 7 for calcine storage, if possible, to reduce future calcine retrieval and D&D costs; and use WM-190 for liquid waste storage and one of the pillar and panel vaulted tanks as the spare.

  9. The Subscale Orbital Fluid Transfer Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meserole, J. S.; Collins, Frank G.; Jones, Ogden; Antar, Basil; Menzel, Reinhard; Gray, Perry

    1989-01-01

    The Center for Advanced Spacecraft Propulsion (CASP) is a subcontractor to Boeing Aerospace Corporation to provide support for the concept definition and design of a subscale orbital fluid transfer experiment (SOFTE). SOFTE is an experiment that will look at the fluid mechanics of the process of transfer of a saturated fluid between two tanks. The experiment will be placed in two get away special (GAS) can containers; the tanks will be in one container and the power and electronics will be in a second container. Since GAS cans are being used, the experiment will be autonomous. The work during the present year consisted of examining concepts for visual observation of the fluid transfer process, methods for accurately metering the amount of fluid transferred between the two tanks, possible test fluids, and materials for the elastomeric diaphragm.

  10. Results of Hg speciation testing on tanks 30, 32, and 37 depth samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bannochie, C. J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-30

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked with preparing and shipping samples for Hg speciation by Eurofins Frontier Global Sciences, Inc. in Seattle, WA on behalf of the Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Mercury Task Team. The twelfth shipment of samples was designated to include 3H evaporator system Tank 30, 32, and 37 depth samples. The Tank 30 depth sample (HTF-30-15-70) was taken at 190 inches from the tank bottom and the Tank 32 depth sample (HTF-32-15-68) was taken at 89 inches from the tank bottom and both were shipped to SRNL on June 29, 2015 in an 80 mL stainless steel dip bottles. The Tank 37 surface sample (HTF-37-15-94) was taken around 253.4 inches from the tank bottom and shipped to SRNL on July 21, 2015 in an 80 mL stainless steel dip bottle. All samples were placed in the SRNL Shielded Cells and left unopened until intermediate dilutions were made on July 24, 2015 using 1.00 mL of sample diluted to 100.00 mL with deionized H2O. A 30 mL Teflon® bottle was rinsed twice with the diluted tank sample and then filled leaving as little headspace as possible. It was immediately removed from the Shielded Cells and transferred to refrigerated storage where it remained at 4 °C until final dilutions were made on October 20. A second portion of the cells diluted tank sample was poured into a shielded polyethylene bottle and transferred to Analytical Development for radiochemical analysis data needed for Hazardous Material Transportation calculations.

  11. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission key enabling assumptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1998-01-05

    An overall systems approach has been applied to develop action plans to support the retrieval and immobilization waste disposal mission. The review concluded that the systems and infrastructure required to support the mission are known. Required systems are either in place or plans have been developed to ensure they exist when needed. The review showed that since October 1996 a robust system engineering approach to establishing integrated Technical Baselines, work breakdown structures, tank farm structure and configurations and work scope and costs has been established itself as part of the culture within TWRS. An analysis of the programmatic, management and technical activities necessary to declare readiness to proceed with execution of the mission demonstrates that the system, people and hardware will be on line and ready to support the private contractors. The systems approach included defining the retrieval and immobilized waste disposal mission requirements and evaluating the readiness of the TWRS contractor to supply waste feed to the private contractors in June 2OO2. The Phase 1 feed delivery requirements from the Private Contractor Request for Proposals were reviewed. Transfer piping routes were mapped out, existing systems were evaluated, and upgrade requirements were defined. Technical Basis Reviews were completed to define work scope in greater detail, cost estimates and associated year by year financial analyses were completed. TWRS personnel training, qualifications, management systems and procedures were reviewed and shown to be in place and ready to support the Phase 1B mission. Key assumptions and risks that could negatively impact mission success were evaluated and appropriate mitigative actions plans were planned and scheduled.

  12. Tank calibration; Arqueacao de tanques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Ana [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This work relates the analysis of the norms ISO (International Organization for Standardization) for calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks used in fiscal measurement, established on Joint Regulation no 1 of June 19, 2000 between the ANP (National Agency of Petroleum) and the INMETRO (National Institute of Metrology, Normalization and Industrial Quality). In this work a comparison between norms ISO and norms published by the API (American Petroleum Institute) and the IP (Institute of Petroleum) up to 2001 was made. It was concluded that norms ISO are wider than norms API, IP, and INMETRO methods in the calibration of vertical cylindrical tanks. (author)

  13. TANK SPACE ALTERNATIVES ANALYSIS REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TURNER DA; KIRCH NW; WASHENFELDER DJ; SCHAUS PS; WODRICH DD; WIEGMAN SA

    2010-04-27

    This report addresses the projected shortfall of double-shell tank (DST) space starting in 2018. Using a multi-variant methodology, a total of eight new-term options and 17 long-term options for recovering DST space were evaluated. These include 11 options that were previously evaluated in RPP-7702, Tank Space Options Report (Rev. 1). Based on the results of this evaluation, two near-term and three long-term options have been identified as being sufficient to overcome the shortfall of DST space projected to occur between 2018 and 2025.

  14. Small crumbled diet versus powdered diet in restricted feeding management of juvenile Nile tilapia - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i2.16767

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Nacélio Oliveira-Segundo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The pellet size of the diet can affect both fish growth performance and the water quality of the rearing units. The present work assessed the effects of feeding juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L. a small crumbled diet (SCD; 0.8 mm on water quality and growth performance. Fish were reared for six weeks in twenty 250-L polyethylene outdoor tanks at a density of 10 juveniles tank-1 (40 fish m-3. There were two feeding rates (standard and restricted and two types of artificial fish diet (powdered and SCD. The standard feeding rates were reduced by 30% for restricted feeding. The concentrations of free CO2, reactive phosphorus, total ammonia nitrogen (TAN and nitrite were higher in the full-fed tanks relative to the restricted-fed tanks. In the standard feeding rate groups, those tanks fed SCD had lower TAN and nitrite concentrations than tanks fed a powdered diet. The final body weight and specific growth rate of fish fed a restricted SCD were higher than the full-fed tanks. The higher levels of food waste in the powdered-diet tanks lead to impairment of fish growth performance.  

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DWPF FLOWSHEET IN THE SRNL SHIELDED CELLS WITH TANK 40 AND H CANYON NEPTUNIUM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pareizs, J; Bradley Pickenheim, B; Cj Bannochie, C; Michael Stone, M

    2009-04-28

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is currently processing Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) from Tank 40. SB5 contains the contents of Tank 51 from November 2008, qualified by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the heel in Tank 40 remaining from Sludge Batch 4. Current Liquid Waste Operations (LWO) plans are to (1) decant supernatant from Tank 40 to remove excess liquid caused by a leaking slurry pump and (2) receive a Np stream from H Canyon It should be noted that the Np stream contains significant nitrate requiring addition of nitrite to Tank 40 to maintain a high nitrite to nitrate ratio for corrosion control. SRNL has been requested to qualify the proposed changes; determine the impact on DWPF processability in terms of hydrogen generation, rheology, etc.; evaluate antifoam addition strategy; and evaluate mercury stripping. Therefore, SRNL received a 3 L sample of Tank 40 following the transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40 (Tank Farm Sample HTF-40-08-157 to be used in testing and to perform the required Waste Acceptance Product Specifications radionuclide analyses). Based on Tank Farm projections, SRNL decanted a portion* of the sample, added sodium nitrite, and added a Np solution from H Canyon representative of the Np to be dispositioned to Tank 40 (neutralized to 0.6 M excess hydroxide). The resulting material was used in a DWPF Chemical Process Cell (CPC) demonstration -- a Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) cycle and a Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) cycle. Preliminary data from the demonstration has been reported previously. This report includes discussion of these results and additional results, including comparisons to Tank Farm projections and the SB5 demonstration.

  16. Out-of-tank evaporator demonstration: Tanks focus area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-11-01

    Approximately 100 million gal of liquid waste is stored in underground storage tanks (UST)s at the Hanford Site, Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Savannah River Site (SRS), and Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This waste is radioactive with a high salt content. The US Department of Energy (DOE) wants to minimize the volume of radioactive liquid waste in USTs by removing the excess water. This procedure conserves tank space; lowers the cost of storage; and reduces the volume of wastes subsequently requiring separation, immobilization, and disposal. The Out-of-Tank Evaporator Demonstration (OTED) was initiated to test a modular, skid-mounted evaporator. A mobile evaporator system manufactured by Delta Thermal Inc. was selected. The evaporator design was routinely used in commercial applications such as concentrating metal-plating wastes for recycle and concentrating ethylene glycol solutions. In FY 1995, the skid-mounted evaporator system was procured and installed in an existing ORNL facility (Building 7877) with temporary shielding and remote controls. The evaporator system was operational in January 1996. The system operated 24 h/day and processed 22,000 gal of Melton Valley Storage Tank (MVST) supernatant. The distillate contained essentially no salts or radionuclides. Upon completion of the demonstration, the evaporator underwent decontamination testing to illustrate the feasibility of hands-on maintenance and potential transport to another DOE facility. This report describes the process and the evaporator, its performance at ORNL, future plans, applications of this technology, cost estimates, regulatory and policy considerations, and lessons learned.

  17. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  18. Lightweight, Composite Cryogenic Tank Structures Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm has developed and qualified strong, all-composite LOX tanks for launch vehicles. Our new 42-inch diameter tank design weighs 486 lbs and burst without...

  19. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  20. Increased Cost of Motor Activity and Heat Transfer between Non-Shivering Thermogenesis, Motor Activity, and Thermic Effect of Feeding in Mice Housed at Room Temperature – Implications in Pre-Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, Patrick C.; Blais, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The components of energy expenditure, total metabolic rate (TMR), resting metabolic rate (RMR), thermogenic response to feeding (TEF), activity, and cost of activity were measured in fed and fasted mice housed at 22 and 30°C. Mice housed at 22°C had more than two times larger TMR and RMR. Mice at 22°C were less active when fasted but more active when fed. Cost of activity was nearly doubled in the fasted and in the fed state. Analysis of the short-term relation between TMR, RMR, and bouts of activity showed that, at 22°C, the bouts of activity induced a decrease in the intensity of RMR that reflected the reduced need for thermal regulation induced by the heat released from muscular contraction. This phenomenon induced a considerable underestimation of TEF and prevented its reliable measurement when mice were housed at 22°C. Correlation between TMR and activity measured across time in individual mice was very strong at both 22 and 30°C, but the correlation measured across mice was much weaker at 30°C and no longer significant at 22°C. We suspect that this phenomenon was due to the fact that RMR is a much more reliable predictor of TMR than activity. RMR is more variable at 22°C than at 30°C because of heat transfers between thermal regulation and heat released by other discontinuous processes, such as activity and TEF. Therefore, more noise is introduced into the correlations performed across multiple mice between TMR and activity at 22°C. On the other hand, it should be kept in mind that the doubling of TMR and RMR at 22°C is fueled by an increased non-shivering thermogenesis that can obviously modify how the mouse responds to pharmacological and nutritional challenges. Taken together, these results suggest that in pre-clinical studies, mice should be housed in conditions where thermal regulation is limited as is generally the case in humans. However, the increased sensitivity of mice to small changes in ambient temperature can also be used as a