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Sample records for feed system leak

  1. Leaking Chaotic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Tél, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous physical situations in which a hole or leak is introduced in an otherwise closed chaotic system. The leak can have a natural origin, it can mimic measurement devices, and it can also be used to reveal dynamical properties of the closed system. In this paper we provide an unified treatment of leaking systems and we review applications to different physical problems, both in the classical and quantum pictures. Our treatment is based on the transient chaos theory of open systems, which is essential because real leaks have finite size and therefore estimations based on the closed system differ essentially from observations. The field of applications reviewed is very broad, ranging from planetary astronomy and hydrodynamical flows, to plasma physics and quantum fidelity. The theory is expanded and adapted to the case of partial leaks (partial absorption/transmission) with applications to room acoustics and optical microcavities in mind. Simulations in the lima .con family of billiards illustrate...

  2. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  3. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  4. A hydrogen leak detection system for aerospace and commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary W.; Makel, D. B.; Jansa, E. D.; Patterson, G.; Cova, P. J.; Liu, C. C.; Wu, Q. H.; Powers, W. T.

    1995-10-01

    Leaks on the space shuttle while on the launch pad have generated interest in hydrogen leak monitoring technology. Microfabricated hydrogen sensors are being fabricated at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) and tested at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC). These sensors have been integrated into hardware and software designed by Aerojet. This complete system allows for multipoint leak monitoring designed to provide leak source and magnitude information in real time. The monitoring system processes data from the hydrogen sensors and presents the operator with a visual indication of the leak location and magnitude. Although the leak monitoring system was designed for hydrogen propulsion systems, the possible applications of this monitoring system are wide ranged. This system is in operation in an automotive application which requires high sensitivity to hydrogen.

  5. The International Space Station 2B Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) Leak: An Operational History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vareha, Anthony N.

    2014-01-01

    As early as 2004, the Photovoltaic Thermal Control System (PVTCS) for the International Space Station's 2B electrical power channel began slowly leaking ammonia overboard. Initially, the operations strategy was "feed the leak," a strategy successfully put into action via Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) during the STS-134 Space Shuttle mission. This recharge was to have allowed for continued power channel operation into 2014 or 2015, at which point another EVA would have been required. In mid-2012, the leak rate increased from 1.5lbm/year to approximately 5lbm/year. As a result, an EVA was planned and executed within a 5 week timeframe to drastically alter the architecture of the PVTCS via connection to an adjacent dormant thermal control system. This EVA, US EVA 20, was successfully executed on November 1, 2012 and left the 2B PVTCS in a configuration where the system was now being adequately cooled via a different radiator than what the system was designed to utilize. Data monitoring over the next several months showed that the isolated radiator had not been leaking, and the system itself continued to leak steadily until May 9th, 2013. It was on this day that the ISS crew noticed the visible presence of ammonia crystals escaping from the 2B channel's truss segment, signifying a rapid acceleration of the leak from 5lbm/year to 5lbm/day. Within 48 hours of the crew noticing the leak, US EVA 21 was in progress to replace the coolant pump - the only remaining replaceable leak source. This was successful, and telemetry monitoring has shown that indeed the coolant pump was the leak source and was thus isolated from the running 2B PVTCS. This paper will explore the management of the 2B PVTCS leak from the operations perspective.

  6. Resilience to leaking--dynamic systems modeling of information security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Leaking of confidential material is a major threat to information security within organizations and to society as a whole. This insight has gained traction in the political realm since the activities of Wikileaks, which hopes to attack 'unjust' systems or 'conspiracies'. Eventually, such threats to information security rely on a biologistic argument on the benefits and drawbacks that uncontrolled leaking might pose for 'just' and 'unjust' entities. Such biological metaphors are almost exclusively based on the economic advantage of participants. Here, I introduce a mathematical model of the complex dynamics implied by leaking. The complex interactions of adversaries are modeled by coupled logistic equations including network effects of econo-communication networks. The modeling shows, that there might arise situations where the leaking envisioned and encouraged by Wikileaks and the like can strengthen the defending entity (the 'conspiracy'). In particular, the only severe impact leaking can have on an organization seems to originate in the exploitation of leaks by another entity the organization competes with. Therefore, the model suggests that leaks can be used as a `tactical mean' in direct adversary relations, but do not necessarily increase public benefit and societal immunization to 'conspiracies'. Furthermore, within the model the exploitation of the (open) competition between entities seems to be a more promising approach to control malicious organizations : divide-et-impera policies triumph here.

  7. Resilience to Leaking — Dynamic Systems Modeling of Information Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Kay

    2012-01-01

    Leaking of confidential material is a major threat to information security within organizations and to society as a whole. This insight has gained traction in the political realm since the activities of Wikileaks, which hopes to attack ‘unjust’ systems or ‘conspiracies’. Eventually, such threats to information security rely on a biologistic argument on the benefits and drawbacks that uncontrolled leaking might pose for ‘just’ and ‘unjust’ entities. Such biological metaphors are almost exclusively based on the economic advantage of participants. Here, I introduce a mathematical model of the complex dynamics implied by leaking. The complex interactions of adversaries are modeled by coupled logistic equations including network effects of econo-communication networks. The modeling shows, that there might arise situations where the leaking envisioned and encouraged by Wikileaks and the like can strengthen the defending entity (the ‘conspiracy’). In particular, the only severe impact leaking can have on an organization seems to originate in the exploitation of leaks by another entity the organization competes with. Therefore, the model suggests that leaks can be used as a `tactical mean’ in direct adversary relations, but do not necessarily increase public benefit and societal immunization to ‘conspiracies’. Furthermore, within the model the exploitation of the (open) competition between entities seems to be a more promising approach to control malicious organizations : divide-et-impera policies triumph here. PMID:23227151

  8. Resilience to leaking--dynamic systems modeling of information security.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    Full Text Available Leaking of confidential material is a major threat to information security within organizations and to society as a whole. This insight has gained traction in the political realm since the activities of Wikileaks, which hopes to attack 'unjust' systems or 'conspiracies'. Eventually, such threats to information security rely on a biologistic argument on the benefits and drawbacks that uncontrolled leaking might pose for 'just' and 'unjust' entities. Such biological metaphors are almost exclusively based on the economic advantage of participants. Here, I introduce a mathematical model of the complex dynamics implied by leaking. The complex interactions of adversaries are modeled by coupled logistic equations including network effects of econo-communication networks. The modeling shows, that there might arise situations where the leaking envisioned and encouraged by Wikileaks and the like can strengthen the defending entity (the 'conspiracy'. In particular, the only severe impact leaking can have on an organization seems to originate in the exploitation of leaks by another entity the organization competes with. Therefore, the model suggests that leaks can be used as a `tactical mean' in direct adversary relations, but do not necessarily increase public benefit and societal immunization to 'conspiracies'. Furthermore, within the model the exploitation of the (open competition between entities seems to be a more promising approach to control malicious organizations : divide-et-impera policies triumph here.

  9. FUZZY INFERENCE BASED LEAK ESTIMATION IN WATER PIPELINES SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Lavanya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pipeline networks are the most widely used mode for transporting fluids and gases around the world. Leakage in this pipeline causes harmful effects when the flowing fluid/gas is hazardous. Hence the detection of leak becomes essential to avoid/minimize such undesirable effects. This paper presents the leak detection by spectral analysis methods in a laboratory pipeline system. Transient in the pressure signal in the pipeline is created by opening and closing the exit valve. These pressure variations are captured and power spectrum is obtained by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT method and Filter Diagonalization Method (FDM. The leaks at various positions are simulated and located using these methods and the results are compared. In order to determine the quantity of leak a 2 × 1 fuzzy inference system is created using the upstream and downstream pressure as input and the leak size as the output. Thus a complete leak detection, localization and quantification are done by using only the pressure variations in the pipeline.

  10. Methane Leaks from Natural Gas Systems Follow Extreme Distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Adam R; Heath, Garvin A; Cooley, Daniel

    2016-11-15

    Future energy systems may rely on natural gas as a low-cost fuel to support variable renewable power. However, leaking natural gas causes climate damage because methane (CH4) has a high global warming potential. In this study, we use extreme-value theory to explore the distribution of natural gas leak sizes. By analyzing ∼15 000 measurements from 18 prior studies, we show that all available natural gas leakage data sets are statistically heavy-tailed, and that gas leaks are more extremely distributed than other natural and social phenomena. A unifying result is that the largest 5% of leaks typically contribute over 50% of the total leakage volume. While prior studies used log-normal model distributions, we show that log-normal functions poorly represent tail behavior. Our results suggest that published uncertainty ranges of CH4 emissions are too narrow, and that larger sample sizes are required in future studies to achieve targeted confidence intervals. Additionally, we find that cross-study aggregation of data sets to increase sample size is not recommended due to apparent deviation between sampled populations. Understanding the nature of leak distributions can improve emission estimates, better illustrate their uncertainty, allow prioritization of source categories, and improve sampling design. Also, these data can be used for more effective design of leak detection technologies.

  11. High Altitude Aerial Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard T. Wainner; Mickey B. Frish; B. David Green; Matthew C. Laderer; Mark G. Allen; Joseph R. Morency

    2006-12-31

    The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective and power-efficient advanced standoff sensing technology able to detect and quantify, from a high-altitude (> 10,000 ft) aircraft, natural gas leaking from a high-pressure pipeline. The advanced technology is based on an enhanced version of the Remote Methane Leak Detector (RMLD) platform developed previously by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI). The RMLD combines a telecommunications-style diode laser, fiber-optic components, and low-cost DSP electronics with the well-understood principles of Wavelength Modulation Spectroscopy (WMS), to indicate the presence of natural gas located between the operator and a topographic target. The transceiver transmits a laser beam onto a topographic target and receives some of the laser light reflected by the target. The controller processes the received light signal to deduce the amount of methane in the laser's path. For use in the airborne platform, we modified three aspects of the RMLD, by: (1) inserting an Erbium-doped optical fiber laser amplifier to increase the transmitted laser power from 10 mW to 5W; (2) increasing the optical receiver diameter from 10 cm to 25 cm; and (3) altering the laser wavelength from 1653 nm to 1618 nm. The modified RMLD system provides a path-integrated methane concentration sensitivity {approx}5000 ppm-m, sufficient to detect the presence of a leak from a high capacity transmission line while discriminating against attenuation by ambient methane. In ground-based simulations of the aerial leak detection scenario, we demonstrated the ability to measure methane leaks within the laser beam path when it illuminates a topographic target 2000 m away. We also demonstrated simulated leak detection from ranges of 200 m using the 25 cm optical receiver without the fiber amplifier.

  12. Leaks in the internal water supply piping systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Great water losses in the internal plumbing of a building lead to the waste of money for a fence, purification and supply of water volumes in excess. This does not support the concept of water conservation and resource saving lying today in the basis of any building’s construction having plumbing. Leakage means unplanned of water losses systems in domestic water supply systems (hot or cold as a result of impaired integrity, complicating the operation of a system and leading to high costs of repair and equipment restoration. A large number of leaks occur in old buildings, where the regulatory service life of pipelines has come to an end, and the scheduled repair for some reason has not been conducted. Steel pipelines are used in the systems without any protection from corrosion and they get out of order. Leakages in new houses are also not uncommon. They usually occur as a result of low-quality adjustment of the system by workers. It also important to note the absence of certain skills of plumbers, who don’t conduct the inspections of in-house systems in time. Sometimes also the residents themselves forget to keep their pipeline systems and water fittings in their apartment in good condition. Plumbers are not systematically invited for preventive examinations to detect possible leaks in the domestic plumbing. The amount of unproductive losses increases while simultaneous use of valve tenants, and at the increase of the number of residents in the building. Water leaks in the system depend on the amount of water system piping damages, and damages of other elements, for example, water valves, connections, etc. The pressure in the leak area also plays an important role.

  13. Optoelectronic leak detection system for monitoring subsea structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, D.,; Costello, L.; McStay, D.

    2010-04-01

    Leak detection and monitoring on subsea structures is an area of increasing interest for the detection and monitoring of production and control fluids for the oil and gas industry. Current techniques such as capacitive (dielectric) based measurement or passive acoustic systems have limitations and we report here an optoelectronic solution based upon fluorescence spectroscopy to provide a permanent monitoring solution. We report here a new class of optoelectronic subsea sensor for permanent, real time monitoring of hydrocarbon production systems. The system is capable of detecting small leaks of production or hydraulic fluid (ppm levels) over distances of 4-5 meters in a subsea environment. Ideally systems designed for such applications should be capable of working at depths of up to 3000m unattended for periods of 20+ years. The system uses advanced single emitter LED technology to meet the challenges of lifetime, power consumption, spatial coverage and delivery of a cost effective solution. The system is designed for permanent deployment on Christmas tree (XT), subsea processing systems (SPS) and associated equipment to provide enhanced leak detection capability.

  14. Management of Leaks in Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawls, G

    2006-04-27

    A systematic approach to manage hydrogen leakage from components is presented. Methods to evaluate the quantity of hydrogen leakage and permeation from a system are provided by calculation and testing sensitivities. The following technology components of a leak management program are described: (1) Methods to evaluate hydrogen gas loss through leaks; (2) Methods to calculate opening areas of crack like defects; (3) Permeation of hydrogen through metallic piping; (4) Code requirements for acceptable flammability limits; (5) Methods to detect flammable gas; (6) Requirements for adequate ventilation in the vicinity of the hydrogen system; (7) Methods to calculate dilution air requirements for flammable gas mixtures; and (8) Concepts for reduced leakage component selection and permeation barriers.

  15. Safe Detection System for Hydrogen Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, Robert A. [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beshay, Manal [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)

    2012-02-29

    Hydrogen is an "environmentally friendly" fuel for future transportation and other applications, since it produces only pure ("distilled") water when it is consumed. Thus, hydrogen-powered vehicles are beginning to proliferate, with the total number of such vehicles expected to rise to nearly 100,000 within the next few years. However, hydrogen is also an odorless, colorless, highly flammable gas. Because of this, there is an important need for hydrogen safety monitors that can warn of hazardous conditions in vehicles, storage facilities, and hydrogen production plants. To address this need, IOS has developed a unique intrinsically safe optical hydrogen sensing technology, and has embodied it in detector systems specifically developed for safety applications. The challenge of using light to detect a colorless substance was met by creating chemically-sensitized optical materials whose color changes in the presence of hydrogen. This reversible reaction provides a sensitive, reliable, way of detecting hydrogen and measuring its concentration using light from low-cost LEDs. Hydrogen sensors based on this material were developed in three completely different optical formats: point sensors ("optrodes"), integrated optic sensors ("optical chips"), and optical fibers ("distributed sensors") whose entire length responds to hydrogen. After comparing performance, cost, time-to-market, and relative market need for these sensor types, the project focused on designing a compact optrode-based single-point hydrogen safety monitor. The project ended with the fabrication of fifteen prototype units, and the selection of two specific markets: fuel cell enclosure monitoring, and refueling/storage safety. Final testing and development of control software for these markets await future support.

  16. Leak detection and localization system through acoustics; Sistema de deteccao e localizacao de vazamentos por acustica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Julio [Aselco Automacao, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    Acoustic Leak Detection Systems (ALDS) are used on both liquid and gas pipelines as well as multi-phase flow pipelines to detect leaks quickly and provide a means of limiting product loss. The real-time acoustic signal is continuously compared against signature leak profiles for the particular operating and geometric conditions. These profiles were developed from a database established from over 20 years of experimental and field leak tests. This technique not only drastically reduces the false alarm rate, but also significantly improves the sensitivity and leak location accuracy. This system will also detect leaks with shut-in flow (zero flow rate in the pipeline). With the use of GPS (Global Positioning System) it not only improves leak location accuracy, but also allows for continuous leak detection during the loss of communications. (author)

  17. Emergency membrane contactor based absorption system for ammonia leaks in water treatment plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Jiahui; FANG Xuliang; HE Yiliang; JIN Qiang

    2008-01-01

    Because of the suspected health risks of trihalomethanes (THMs), more and more water treatment plants have replaced traditionalchlorine disinfection process with chloramines but often without the proper absorption system installed in the case of ammonia leaksin the storage room. A pilot plant membrane absorption system was developed and installed in a water treatment plant for this purpose.Experimentally determined contact angle, surface tension, and corrosion tests indicated that the sulfuric acid was the proper choice as the absorbent for leaking ammonia using polypropylene hollow fiber membrane contactor. Effects of several operating conditionson the mass transfer coefficient, ammonia absorption, and removal efficiency were examined, including the liquid concentration,liquid velocity, and feed gas concentration. Under the operation conditions investigated, the gas absorption efficiency over 99.9%was achieved. This indicated that the designed pilot plant membrane absorption system was effective to absorb the leaking ammonia in the model storage room. The removal rate of the ammonia in the model storage room was also experimentally and theoretically foundto be primarily determined by the ammonia suction flow rate from the ammonia storage room to the membrane contactor. The ammoniaremoval rate of 99.9% was expected to be achieved within 1.3 h at the ammonia gas flow rate of 500 m3/h. The success of the pilot plantmembrane absorption system developed in this study illustrated the potential of this technology for ammonia leaks in water treatmentplant, also paved the way towards a larger scale application.

  18. Cryogenic Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusby, Brian S.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Collins, Jacob A.

    2011-01-01

    The Propulsion Systems Branch at NASA s Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) has developed a parametric analytical tool to address the need to rapidly predict heat leak into propellant distribution lines based on insulation type, installation technique, line supports, penetrations, and instrumentation. The Propellant Feed System Analytical Tool (PFSAT) will also determine the optimum orifice diameter for an optional thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to counteract heat leak into the feed line and ensure temperature constraints at the end of the feed line are met. PFSAT was developed primarily using Fortran 90 code because of its number crunching power and the capability to directly access real fluid property subroutines in the Reference Fluid Thermodynamic and Transport Properties (REFPROP) Database developed by NIST. A Microsoft Excel front end user interface was implemented to provide convenient portability of PFSAT among a wide variety of potential users and its ability to utilize a user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI) developed in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The focus of PFSAT is on-orbit reaction control systems and orbital maneuvering systems, but it may be used to predict heat leak into ground-based transfer lines as well. PFSAT is expected to be used for rapid initial design of cryogenic propellant distribution lines and thermodynamic vent systems. Once validated, PFSAT will support concept trades for a variety of cryogenic fluid transfer systems on spacecraft, including planetary landers, transfer vehicles, and propellant depots, as well as surface-based transfer systems. The details of the development of PFSAT, its user interface, and the program structure will be presented.

  19. Towards aerial natural gas leak detection system based on TDLAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuyang; Zhou, Tao; Jia, Xiaodong

    2014-11-01

    Pipeline leakage is a complex scenario for sensing system due to the traditional high cost, low efficient and labor intensive detection scheme. TDLAS has been widely accepted as industrial trace gas detection method and, thanks to its high accuracy and reasonable size, it has the potential to meet pipeline gas leakage detection requirements if it combines with the aerial platform. Based on literature study, this paper discussed the possibility of applying aerial TDLAS principle in pipeline gas leak detection and the key technical foundation of implementing it. Such system is able to result in a high efficiency and accuracy measurement which will provide sufficient data in time for the pipeline leakage detection.

  20. The effects of air leaks on solar air heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkin, R.; Cash, M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to determine the effects of leakages in collector and duct work on the system performance of a typical single-family residence solar air heating system. Positive (leakage out) and negative (leakage in) pressure systems were examined. Collector and duct leakage rates were varied from 10 to 30 percent of the system flow rate. Within the range of leakage rates investigated, solar contribution to heated space and domestic hot water loads was found to be reduced up to 30 percent from the no-leak system contribution with duct leakage equally divided between supply and return duct; with supply duct leakage greater than return leakage a reduction of up to 35 percent was noted. The negative pressure system exhibited a reduction in solar contribution somewhat larger than the positive pressure system for the same leakage rates.

  1. Ultra high vacuum pumping system and high sensitivity helium leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1997-01-01

    An improved helium leak detection method and apparatus are disclosed which increase the leak detection sensitivity to 10.sup.-13 atm cc s.sup.-1. The leak detection sensitivity is improved over conventional leak detectors by completely eliminating the use of o-rings, equipping the system with oil-free pumping systems, and by introducing measured flows of nitrogen at the entrances of both the turbo pump and backing pump to keep the system free of helium background. The addition of dry nitrogen flows to the system reduces backstreaming of atmospheric helium through the pumping system as a result of the limited compression ratios of the pumps for helium.

  2. System for Steam Leak Detection by using CCTV Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Young Chul; Lee, Min Soo; Choi, Hui Ju [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Ki Sung; Jeon, Hyeong Seop [SAEAN.Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    There are many pipes in the secondary cooling systems of nuclear power plants and coal-fired power plants. In these pipes, high pressure fluids are moving with at high velocity, which can cause steam leakage due to pipe thinning. Steam leakage is one of the major issues for the structural fracture of pipes. Therefore, a method to inspect a large area of piping systems quickly and accurately is needed. Steam leakage is almost invisible, because the flow has very high velocity and pressure. Therefore, it is very difficult to detect a steam leakage. In this paper, we proposed the method for detecting steam leakage using image signal processing. Our basic idea comes from a heat shimmer, which shines with a soft light that looks as if it is being shaken slightly. To test the performance of this technique, experiments have been performed for a steam generator. Results show that the proposed technique is quite powerful for steam leak detection

  3. Idiopathic Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yardimci, Bulent; Kazancioglu, Rumeyza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS) is rarely seen, and presents with recurrent episodes of hypotension, shock, hemoconcentration, and hypoproteinemia. The main pathology is the dysfunction of the vascular endothelium, and it is characterized by an increase of capillary permeability that is accompanied by the loss of intravascular fluid and protein. Case Presentation We present a 58-year-old female who presented with peripheral edema, leg pain, and syncope at the emergency department. Interestingly demyemilising neuropathy, which is a rare finding, ensued on day 4. She is still being treated using intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Conclusions The early signs and symptoms of ISCLS may be subtle; therefore the diagnosis can easily be missed and prompt treatment of the syndrome may be postponed. Thus, the clinician must consider ISCLS in differential diagnosis in cases of hypotension, hemoconcentration, and hypoalbuminemia. PMID:27195144

  4. Distributed Leak Detection System Using Structure-Borne Noise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned spacecraft are vulnerable to air leaks caused by micrometeorite and space debris impact. The ability to detect and quickly locate and mitigate a pressure...

  5. Distributed Leak Detection System Using Structure-Borne Noise Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned spacecraft are vulnerable to air leaks caused by micrometeoroid and space debris impact. The ability to detect and quickly locate and mitigate a pressure...

  6. Compartment Syndrome as a Result of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwadwo Kyeremanteng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To describe a single case of Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS with a rare complication of compartment syndrome. Patient. Our patient is a 57-year-old male, referred to our hospital due to polycythemia (hemoglobin (Hgb of 220 g/L, hypotension, acute renal failure, and bilateral calf pain. Measurements and Main Results. The patient required bilateral forearm, thigh, and calf fasciotomies during his ICU stay and continuous renal replacement therapy was instituted following onset of acute renal failure and oliguria. Ongoing hemodynamic (Norepinephrine and Milrinone infusion and respiratory (ventilator support in the ICU was provided until resolution of intravascular fluid extravasation. Conclusions. SCLS is an extremely rare disorder characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability, which causes shift of volume and protein from the intravascular space to the interstitial space. Patients present with significant hypotension, hemoconcentration, hypovolemia, and oliguria. Severe edema results from leakage of fluid and proteins into tissue. The most important part of treatment is maintaining stable hemodynamics, ruling out other causes of shock and diligent monitoring for complications. Awareness of the clinical syndrome with the rare complication of compartment syndrome may help guide investigations and diagnoses of these critically ill patients.

  7. Multiple-Feature Extracting Modules Based Leak Mining System Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Ying-Chiang; Pan, Jen-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Over the years, human dependence on the Internet has increased dramatically. A large amount of information is placed on the Internet and retrieved from it daily, which makes web security in terms of online information a major concern. In recent years, the most problematic issues in web security have been e-mail address leakage and SQL injection attacks. There are many possible causes of information leakage, such as inadequate precautions during the programming process, which lead to the leakage of e-mail addresses entered online or insufficient protection of database information, a loophole that enables malicious users to steal online content. In this paper, we implement a crawler mining system that is equipped with SQL injection vulnerability detection, by means of an algorithm developed for the web crawler. In addition, we analyze portal sites of the governments of various countries or regions in order to investigate the information leaking status of each site. Subsequently, we analyze the database structure and content of each site, using the data collected. Thus, we make use of practical verification in order to focus on information security and privacy through black-box testing. PMID:24453892

  8. Mobile Sensor Networks for Leak and Backflow Detection in Water Distribution Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Suresh, M. Agumbe

    2014-05-01

    Leak and backflow detection are essential aspects of Water Distribution System (WDS) monitoring. Most existing solutions for leak/backflow detection in WDSs focus on the placement of expensive static sensors located strategically. In contrast to these, we propose a solution whereby mobile sensors (i.e., their movement aided only by the inherent water flow in the system) detect leaks/backflow. Information about the leaks/backflow is collected from the sensors either by physically capturing them, or through wireless communication. Specifically, we propose models to maximize leak/backflow detection given a cost constraint (a limit on the number of sensors). Through extensive simulations, we demonstrate the superior performance of our proposed solution when compared with the state of the art solutions (e.g., algorithms/protocols and analysis).

  9. Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor Primary System Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Vikram Naginbhai; Ware, Arthur Gates; Atwood, Corwin Lee; Sattison, Martin Blaine; Hartley, Robert Scott; Hsu, C.

    1999-08-01

    This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system leaks in terms of their number of rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection systems. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.

  10. Assessment of Field Experience Related to Pressurized Water Reactor Primary System Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. G. Ware; C. Hsu (USNRC); C. L. Atwood; M. B. Sattison; R. S. Hartley (INEEL); V. N. Shah

    1999-02-01

    This paper presents our assessment of field experience related to pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary system leaks in terms of their number and rates, how aging affects frequency of leak events, the safety significance of such leaks, industry efforts to reduce leaks, and effectiveness of current leak detection systems. We have reviewed the licensee event reports to identify the events that took place during 1985 to the third quarter of 1996, and reviewed related technical literature and visited PWR plants to analyze these events. Our assessment shows that USNRC licensees have taken effective actions to reduce the number of leak events. One main reason for this decreasing trend was the elimination or reportable leakages from valve stem packing after 1991. Our review of leak events related to vibratory fatigue reveals a statistically significant decreasing trend with age (years of operation), but not in calendar time. Our assessment of worldwide data on leakage caused by thermal fatigue cracking is that the fatigue of aging piping is a safety significant issue. Our review of leak events has identified several susceptible sites in piping having high safety significance; but the inspection of some of these sites is not required by the ASME Code. These sites may be included in the risk-informed inspection programs.

  11. Detection and location of leaks in district heating steam systems: Survey and review of current technology and practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupperman, D.S.; Raptis, A.C.; Lanham, R.N.

    1992-03-01

    This report presents the results of a survey undertaken to identify and characterize current practices for detecting and locating leaks in district heating systems, particular steam systems. Currently used technology and practices are reviewed. In addition, the survey was used to gather information that may be important for the application of acoustic leak detection. A few examples of attempts to locate leaks in steam and hot water pipes by correlation of acoustic signals generated by the leaks are also discussed.

  12. Microelectromechanical System-Based Internally Unpowered Leak-Pressure Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for a miniature pressure-leak sensor, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Microelectromechanical System-based...

  13. Flight Testing of an Advanced Airborne Natural Gas Leak Detection System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawn Lenz; Raymond T. Lines; Darryl Murdock; Jeffrey Owen; Steven Stearns; Michael Stoogenke

    2005-10-01

    ITT Industries Space Systems Division (Space Systems) has developed an airborne natural gas leak detection system designed to detect, image, quantify, and precisely locate leaks from natural gas transmission pipelines. This system is called the Airborne Natural Gas Emission Lidar (ANGEL) system. The ANGEL system uses a highly sensitive differential absorption Lidar technology to remotely detect pipeline leaks. The ANGEL System is operated from a fixed wing aircraft and includes automatic scanning, pointing system, and pilot guidance systems. During a pipeline inspection, the ANGEL system aircraft flies at an elevation of 1000 feet above the ground at speeds of between 100 and 150 mph. Under this contract with DOE/NETL, Space Systems was funded to integrate the ANGEL sensor into a test aircraft and conduct a series of flight tests over a variety of test targets including simulated natural gas pipeline leaks. Following early tests in upstate New York in the summer of 2004, the ANGEL system was deployed to Casper, Wyoming to participate in a set of DOE-sponsored field tests at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC). At RMOTC the Space Systems team completed integration of the system and flew an operational system for the first time. The ANGEL system flew 2 missions/day for the duration for the 5-day test. Over the course of the week the ANGEL System detected leaks ranging from 100 to 5,000 scfh.

  14. Analytical study of the performance of a geomembrane leak detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugli, Francesco; Mahler, Claudio Fernando

    2016-05-01

    The electrical detection of leaks in geomembranes is a method that allows identifying leakage of contaminants in lined facilities (e.g. sanitary landfills, pollutant ponds, etc.). The procedure in the field involves placing electrodes above and below the geomembrane, to generate an electrical current, which in turn engenders an electric potential distribution in the protective layer (generally a clayey soil). The electric potential will be greater in areas with higher current density, i.e. near leaks. In this study, we combined models from the literature to carry out a parametric analysis to identify the variables that most influence the amplitude of the electrical signals produced by leaks. The basic hypothesis is that the electrical conduction phenomena in a liner system could be depicted by a direct current circuit. After determining the value of the current at the leak, we calculated the electric potential distribution according to the model of Darilek and Laine. This enabled analysing the sensitivity of the parameters, which can be useful in the design of landfills and facilitate the location of leaks. This study showed that geomembranes with low electrical resistance (owing to low thickness, low resistivity, or extensive area) can hinder the leak detection process. In contrast, low thickness and high resistivity of the protection layer magnify the leak signal.

  15. The genetic-algorithm-enhanced blind system identification for water distribution pipeline leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping

    2007-07-01

    The conventional leak location is based on the correlation of leak acoustic signals acquired spatially separately. By correlation, the time lag is estimated for localizing the leakage. In these methods, the detection distance is a prerequisite that has to be known beforehand. However, in practice, this prerequisite is not always satisfied. In this case, the correlation-based methods are not feasible. Actually, the acquired signals contain the characteristics related to the acoustic propagation channels; thus the blind system identification strategy is applied to estimate the transmission performances of acoustic channels. Then the times due to the propagation of the leak source signal travelling from the leak point to sensors are determined. In this way, for leak location, the detection distance is no longer a prerequisite. In blind system identification, due to the long impulse responses of the leak acoustic channels, the channels are inevitably ill conditioned and sensitive to the initial values. To overcome the ill conditions, the overlap-save and cross-correlation fitting techniques are utilized to identify the long impulse sequences under a built constraint. In order to avoid converging to the local minima, the genetic algorithm is used to minimize the cost functions. The practical detection results show the validity of the proposed scheme.

  16. Real-Time Model-Based Leak-Through Detection within Cryogenic Flow Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M.; Figueroa, F.

    2015-01-01

    The timely detection of leaks within cryogenic fuel replenishment systems is of significant importance to operators on account of the safety and economic impacts associated with material loss and operational inefficiencies. Associated loss in control of pressure also effects the stability and ability to control the phase of cryogenic fluids during replenishment operations. Current research dedicated to providing Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) coverage of such cryogenic replenishment systems has focused on the detection of leaks to atmosphere involving relatively simple model-based diagnostic approaches that, while effective, are unable to isolate the fault to specific piping system components. The authors have extended this research to focus on the detection of leaks through closed valves that are intended to isolate sections of the piping system from the flow and pressurization of cryogenic fluids. The described approach employs model-based detection of leak-through conditions based on correlations of pressure changes across isolation valves and attempts to isolate the faults to specific valves. Implementation of this capability is enabled by knowledge and information embedded in the domain model of the system. The approach has been used effectively to detect such leak-through faults during cryogenic operational testing at the Cryogenic Testbed at NASA's Kennedy Space Center.

  17. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  18. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal’s production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by­products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken. PMID:28507415

  19. Design of an Infrared Imaging System for Robotic Inspection of Gas Leaks in Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Rodriguez-Conejo

    2015-03-01

    The mobile platform where the gas sensing system is going to be implemented is a robot called TurtleBot. The control of the mobile base and of the inspection device is integrated in ROS architecture. The exploration system is based on the technique of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM that makes it possible to locate the gas leak in the map.

  20. Closeup of STS-26 Discovery, OV-103, orbital maneuvering system (OMS) leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Closeup of STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) nitrogen tetroxide gas leak was captured by a Cobra borescope and displayed on a video monitor. The borescope has a miniature videocamera at the end of a flexible rubber tube and is able to be maneuvered into other inaccessible locations.

  1. Leak before break evaluation for main steam piping system made of SA106 Gr.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Kyoung Mo; Jee, Kye Kwang; Pyo, Chang Ryul; Ra, In Sik [Korea Power Engineering Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-04-01

    The basis of the leak before break (LBB) concept is to demonstrate that piping will leak significantly before a double ended guillotine break (DEGB) occurs. This is demonstrated by quantifying and evaluating the leak process and prescribing safe shutdown of the plant on the basis of the monitored leak rate. The application of LBB for power plant design has reduced plant cost while improving plant integrity. Several evaluations employing LBB analysis on system piping based on DEGB design have been completed. However, the application of LBB on main steam (MS) piping, which is LBB applicable piping, has not been performed due to several uncertainties associated with occurrence of steam hammer and dynamic strain aging (DSA). The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the applicability of the LBB design concept to main steam lines manufactured with SA106 Gr.C carbon steel. Based on the material properties, including fracture toughness and tensile properties obtained from the comprehensive material tests for base and weld metals, a parametric study was performed as described in this paper. The PICEP code was used to determine leak size crack (LSC) and the FLET code was used to perform the stability assessment of MS piping. The effects of material properties obtained from tests were evaluated to determine the LBB applicability for the MS piping. It can be shown from this parametric study that the MS piping has a high possibility of design using LBB analysis.

  2. 40 CFR 264.196 - Response to leaks or spills and disposition of leaking or unfit-for-use tank systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Tank Systems § 264.196 Response to leaks or... flow or addition of wastes. The owner or operator must immediately stop the flow of hazardous waste... much of the waste as is necessary to prevent further release of hazardous waste to the environment and...

  3. Method and system for capturing hydrocarbons from a leaking oilwell at a predetermined seabed location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nauta Lemke, A.H.A.; Willemse, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for capturing hydrocarbons from a leaking oilwell at a predetermined seabed location, in which the steps are applied of: a. deploying a dome near the predetermined seabed location; b. moving the dome to the predetermined seabed location; c. capturing the hydrocarbons from the leaki

  4. Privacy Leaks through Data Hijacking Attack on Mobile Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Daojuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To persistently eavesdrop on the mobile devices, attackers may obtain the elevated privilege and inject malicious modules into the user devices. Unfortunately, the attackers may not be able to obtain the privilege for a long period of time since the exploitable vulnerabilities may be fixed or the malware may be removed. In this paper, we propose a new data hijacking attack for the mobile apps. By employing the proposed method, the attackers are only required to obtain the root privilege of the user devices once, and they can persistently eavesdrop without any change to the original device. Specifically, we design a new approach to construct a shadow system by hijacking user data files. In the shadow system, attackers possess the identical abilities to the victims. For instance, if a victim has logged into the email app, the attacker can also access the email server in the shadow system without authentication in a long period of time. Without reauthentication of the app, it is difficult for victims to notice the intrusion since the whole eavesdropping is performed on other devices (rather than the user devices. In our experiments, we evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed attack and the result demonstrates that even the Android apps released by the top developers cannot resist this attack. Finally, we discuss some approaches to defend the proposed attack.

  5. Design of an Infrared Imaging System for Robotic Inspection of Gas Leaks in Industrial Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Barber

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gas detection can become a critical task in dangerous environments that involve hazardous or contaminant gases, and the use of imaging sensors provides an important tool for leakage location. This paper presents a new design for remote sensing of gas leaks based on infrared (IR imaging techniques. The inspection system uses an uncooled microbolometer detector, operating over a wide spectral bandwidth, that features both low size and low power consumption. This equipment is boarded on a robotic platform, so that wide objects or areas can be scanned. The detection principle is based on the use of active imaging techniques, where the use of external IR illumination enhances the detection limit and allows the proposed system to operate in most cases independently from environmental conditions, unlike passive commercial approaches. To illustrate this concept, a fully radiometric description of the detection problem has been developed; CO2 detection has been demonstrated; and simulations of typical gas detection scenarios have been performed, showing that typical industrial leaks of CH4 are well within the detection limits. The mobile platform where the gas sensing system is going to be implemented is a robot called TurtleBot. The control of the mobile base and of the inspection device is integrated in ROS architecture. The exploration system is based on the technique of Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM that makes it possible to locate the gas leak in the map.

  6. Malignant Hemispheric Cerebral Infarction Associated with Idiopathic Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Miyata

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (ISCLS is a rare condition that is characterized by unexplained episodic capillary hyperpermeability due to a shift of fluid and protein from the intravascular to the interstitial space. This results in diffuse general swelling, fetal hypovolemic shock, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration. Although ISCLS rarely induces cerebral infarction, we experienced a patient who deteriorated and was comatose as a result of massive cerebral infarction associated with ISCLS. In this case, severe hypotensive shock, general edema, hemiparesis, and aphasia appeared after serious antecedent gastrointestinal symptoms. Progressive life-threatening ischemic cerebral edema required decompressive hemicraniectomy. The patient experienced another episode of severe hypotension and limb edema that resulted in multiple extremity compartment syndrome. Treatment entailed forearm and calf fasciotomies. Cerebral edema in the ischemic brain progresses rapidly in patients suffering from ISCLS. Strict control of fluid volume resuscitation and aggressive diuretic therapy may be needed during the post-leak phase of fluid remobilization.

  7. Implementing a Compressed Air System Leak Management Program at an Automotive Plant (Visteon's Monroe Plant)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-01-01

    The energy team at Visteon’s Monroe plant, formerly owned by Ford Motor Company, implemented an ongoing compressed air system leak management program. The team developed an approach that combined a traditional “find and fix” effort with an innovative implementation and marketing program. As a result of the leak management program, compressed air system consumption was reduced by more than 50% on a per production unit basis.

  8. Intelligent leak detection system for oil pipelines; Sistema inteligente para deteccao de vazamentos em dutos de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Ricardo Dantas Gadelha de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in an oil field is implementation of a software-based leak detection system on a multi-phase flow pipeline. This paper will discuss implementation of a leak detection system in a particular oil field using state-of-the-art signal processing techniques to apply to the data collected in a oil pipeline. This leak detection system is still in development and uses a more practical approach to the problem than traditional methods and was implemented on a PC under the Windows operating system. Windowing, joint time-frequency analysis and wavelets were considered to develop methods of detecting leaks by watching for the wavefront. The idea behind these techniques is to cut the signal of interest into several parts and then analyze the parts separately. It is impossible to know the exact frequency and the exact time of occurrence of the leak frequency in a signal. In other words, a leak signal can simply not be represented as a point in the time-frequency space. It is very important how one cuts the signal to implement the analysis. The wavelet transform or wavelet analysis is probably the most recent solution to overcome the shortcomings of the Fourier transform. So, this paper shows some tests and how these techniques are being implementing during the development of the system. (author)

  9. Reciprocating Feed System Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewek, Mary (Technical Monitor); Blackmon, James B.; Eddleman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The reciprocating feed system (RFS) is an alternative means of providing high pressure propellant flow at low cost and system mass, with high fail-operational reliability. The RFS functions by storing the liquid propellants in large, low-pressure tanks and then expelling each propellant through two or three small, high-pressure tanks. Each RFS tank is sequentially filled, pressurized, expelled, vented, and refilled so as to provide a constant, or variable, mass flow rate to the engine. This type of system is much lighter than a conventional pressure fed system in part due to the greatly reduced amount of inert tank weight. The delivered payload for an RFS is superior to that of conventional pressure fed systems for conditions of high total impulse and it is competitive with turbopump systems, up to approximately 2000 psi. An advanced version of the RFS uses autogenous pressurization and thrust augmentation to achieve higher performance. In this version, the pressurization gases are combusted in a small engine, thus making the pressurization system, in effect, part of the propulsion system. The RFS appears to be much less expensive than a turbopump system, due to reduced research and development cost and hardware cost, since it is basically composed of small high- pressure tanks, a pressurization system, and control valves. A major benefit is the high reliability fail-operational mode; in the event of a failure in one of the three tank-systems, it can operate on the two remaining tanks. Other benefits include variable pressure and flow rates, ease of engine restart in micro-gravity, and enhanced propellant acquisition and control under adverse acceleration conditions. We present a system mass analysis tool that accepts user inputs for various design and mission parameters and calculates such output values payload and vehicle weights for the conventional pressure fed system, the RFS, the Autogenous Pressurization Thrust Augmentation (APTA) RFS, and turbopump systems

  10. Infrared Camera System for Visualization of IR-Absorbing Gas Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Immer, Christopher; Cox, Robert

    2010-01-01

    embodiment would use a ratioed output signal to better represent the gas column concentration. An alternative approach uses a simpler multiplication of the filtered signal to make the filtered signal equal to the unfiltered signal at most locations, followed by a subtraction to remove all but the wavelength-specific absorption in the unfiltered sample. This signal processing can also reveal the net difference signal representing the leaking gas absorption, and allow rapid leak location, but signal intensity would not relate solely to gas absorption, as raw signal intensity would also affect the displayed signal. A second design choice is whether to use one camera with two images closely spaced in time, or two cameras with essentially the same view and time. The figure shows the two-camera version. This choice involves many tradeoffs that are not apparent until some detailed testing is done. In short, the tradeoffs involve the temporal changes in the field picture versus the pixel sensitivity curves and frame alignment differences with two cameras, and which system would lead to the smaller variations from the uncontrolled variables.

  11. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome as an Initial Presentation of ALK-Negative Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura S. Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS is a rare disease characterized by third spacing of plasma into the extravascular compartment, leading to anasarca, hemoconcentration, and hypovolemic shock. It has been rarely associated with lymphomas, and reports usually indicate that it occurs after antineoplastic treatment. We present the case of a patient with ALK-negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma who presented with SCLS as the initial manifestation of her lymphoma. The SCLS resolved with treatment of the malignancy with steroids and chemotherapy.

  12. CSF leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rarely). Drainage of CSF from the nose (rarely). Exams and Tests The health care provider will perform ... usually recommended. Drinking more fluids, especially drinks with caffeine, can help slow or stop the leak and ...

  13. Research and development of a high-temperature helium-leak detection system (joint research). Part 1 survey on leakage events and current leak detection technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Kawasaki, Kozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Urakami, Masao; Saisyu, Sadanori [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors (HTGR), the detection of leakage of helium at an early stage is very important for the safety and stability of operations. Since helium is a colourless gas, it is generally difficult to identify the location and the amount of leakage when very little leakage has occurred. The purpose of this R and D is to develop a helium leak detection system for the high temperature environment appropriate to the HTGR. As the first step in the development, this paper describes the result of surveying leakage events at nuclear facilities inside and outside Japan and current gas leakage detection technology to adapt optical-fibre detection technology to HTGRs. (author)

  14. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  15. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  16. Operational Philosophy Concerning Manned Spacecraft Cabin Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSimpelaere, Edward

    2011-01-01

    The last thirty years have seen the Space Shuttle as the prime United States spacecraft for manned spaceflight missions. Many lessons have been learned about spacecraft design and operation throughout these years. Over the next few decades, a large increase of manned spaceflight in the commercial sector is expected. This will result in the exposure of commercial crews and passengers to many of the same risks crews of the Space Shuttle have encountered. One of the more dire situations that can be encountered is the loss of pressure in the habitable volume of the spacecraft during on orbit operations. This is referred to as a cabin leak. This paper seeks to establish a general cabin leak response philosophy with the intent of educating future spacecraft designers and operators. After establishing a relative definition for a cabin leak, the paper covers general descriptions of detection equipment, detection methods, and general operational methods for management of a cabin leak. Subsequently, all these items are addressed from the perspective of the Space Shuttle Program, as this will be of the most value to future spacecraft due to similar operating profiles. Emphasis here is placed upon why and how these methods and philosophies have evolved to meet the Space Shuttle s needs. This includes the core ideas of: considerations of maintaining higher cabin pressures vs. lower cabin pressures, the pros and cons of a system designed to feed the leak with gas from pressurized tanks vs. using pressure suits to protect against lower cabin pressures, timeline and consumables constraints, re-entry considerations with leaks of unknown origin, and the impact the International Space Station (ISS) has had to the standard Space Shuttle cabin leak response philosophy. This last item in itself includes: procedural management differences, hardware considerations, additional capabilities due to the presence of the ISS and its resource, and ISS docking/undocking considerations with a

  17. In-service leak testing of district heating systems using dissolved tracer gas. Final report; Betriebsbegleitende Lecksuche mit geloestem Tracergas in Fernwaermesystemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergarten, A.; Althaus, W. [eds.

    1997-07-31

    The feasibility of in-service leak detection with dissolved tracer gas was investigated. Helium was selected as tracer gas because of its good diffusion characteristics, selective detectability at very low concentrations, inert and unproblematic behaviour within the district heating system, and good environmental compatibility. For a systematic investigation of the influencing parameters governing practical applications, a pipeline test field comprising about 240 m of KMR district heating pipelines and 61 controllable simulation leaks was constructed, and experiments using the new method were carried out. The required helium concentration amounts to a few grams of helium per cubic metre of district heating water. The water can be charged in the water preparation or feeding stage, and commercial detectors can be used. (orig./GL) [Deutsch] Zur Entwicklung einer betriebsbegleitenden Lecksuchmethode fuer erdverlegte Rohrleitungen wurden in einem Feasbility-Test die Machbarkeit der Tracergassuche mittels geloestem Spuergas bestaetigt. Als Tracergas wurde Helium aufgrund seines guenstigen Diffusionsverhaltens, seiner selektiven Nachweisbarkeit bei kleinsten Konzentrationen, seines inerten, unproblematischen Verhaltens im Fernwaermenetz und seiner guten Umweltvertraeglichkeit ausgewaehlt. Zur systematischen Untersuchung der Einflussparameter bei der Anwendung der Methode unter praxisnahen Bedingungen wurde ein Rohrleitungsversuchsfeld mit ca. 240 m KMR-Fernwaermeleitung und 61 regelbaren Simulationsleckagen aufgebaut und die neue Lecksuchmethode eingehend experimentell getestet. Die einzustellende Heliumkonzentration im Fernwaermewasser ist mit wenigen Gramm Helium je Kubikmeter Fernwaermewasser gering. Eine Vorrichtung fuer die empfohlene Beladung des gesamten Netzwasserinhalts kann in Wasseraufbereitung oder Nachspeisung des Netzes eingebunden werden. Zur Detektion koennen, marktverfuegbare Messgeraete verwendet werden. (orig./GL)

  18. A survey on the state-of-the-technique on software based pipeline leak detection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a general technical survey on software based leak detection systems (LDS), approaching its main technological features, the operational situations where they are feasible, and the scenarios within the Brazilian pipeline network. The decision on what LDS to choose for a given pipeline is a matter of cost, suitability and feasibility. A simpler low cost, less effective product, but with a fast installation and tuning procedure, may be more suitable for a given operational site (pipeline configuration, kind of fluid, quality of instrumentation and communication), than a complex, high cost, efficient product, but taking a long time to be properly installed. Some other may really have a level of complexity that will require a more sophisticated system. A few number of them will simply not be suitable to have a LDS: it may be caused by the poor quality or absence of instrumentation, or, the worst case, due to the lack of technology to approach that specific case, e. g., multiphase flow lines, or those lines that commonly operates in slack condition. It is intended to approach here the general state-of-the-technique and make some initial comments on the costs. (author)

  19. Deciding between compensated volume balance and real time transient models for pipeline leak detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baptista, Renan Martins [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas. Div. de Explotacao]. E-mail: renan@cenpes.petrobras.com.br

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes a technical procedure to assess a software based leak detection system (LDS), by deciding between a simpler low cost, less effective product, having a fast installation and tuning, and a complex one with high cost and efficiency, which however takes a long time to be properly installed. This is a common decision among the pipeline operating companies, considering that the majority of the lines are short, with single phase liquid flow (which may include batches), basic communication system and instrumentation. Service companies offer realistic solutions for liquid flow, but usually designed to big pipeline networks, flowing multiple batches and allowing multiple fluid entrances and deliveries. Those solutions are sometimes impractical to short pipelines, due to its high cost, as well as long tuning procedures, complex instrumentation, communication and computer requirements. It is intended to approach here the best solution according to its cost. In a practical sense, it means to differentiate the various LDS techniques. Those techniques are available in a considerable number, and they are still spreading, according to the different scenarios. However, two most known and worldwide implemented techniques hold the majority of the market: the Compensated Volume Balance (CVB), which is less accurate, reliable and robust, but cheaper, simpler and faster to install, and the Real Time Transient Model (RTTM), which is very reliable, accurate and robust, but expensive and complex. This work will describe a way to define whether one can use or not a CVB in a pipeline. (author)

  20. Whole new ball game : pipeline leak detection system undergoes first field trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsters, S.

    2007-07-15

    This article described an innovative and portable technology that detects leaks in oil and gas pipelines. Pure Technologies Ltd. completed the first field trial of its SoundPrint SmartBall, a free-swimming foam ball with an embedded sensor in an aluminum core that detects leaks as the ball moves through the pipe. The technology is based on the premise that sound is released when a pressurized fluid is escaping. The field trial was performed over 18 kilometres of a 10-inch crude oil pipeline in Texas. The SmartBall was first sent through a pipeline without any artificial leaks. It was then sent through a pipeline with an artificial leak constructed at one of the block valves. The SmartBall was able to detect the artificial leak from hundreds of metres away. The device was deployed and retrieved without incident by pipeline operations personnel using existing pigging infrastructure. It was determined that the device can detect leaks of less than 3.78 litres per minute at an operating pressure of 8.6 bars. The size of the SmartBall is generally between 50 to 80 per cent of the diameter of the pipeline and depends on other factors such as location of in-line vales, the size of the appurtenances through which the ball is inserted and retrieved and the presence of other lateral lines. The device records acoustic information as it travels in the pipe. Alternatively, transducers that emit an acoustic pulse can be installed on pipe appurtenances. The leaks can be located by analyzing the relative arrival time of pulses. The device can operate for up to 40 hours, enough to travel 100 kilometres in a single deployment. Pure Technologies is now working on getting this new technology accepted by the industry. 2 figs.

  1. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  2. Self pressuring HTP feed systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehead, J.

    1999-10-14

    Hydrogen peroxide tanks can be pressurized with decomposed HTP (high test hydrogen peroxide) originating in the tank itself. In rocketry, this offers the advantage of eliminating bulky and heavy inert gas storage. Several prototype self-pressurizing HTP systems have recently been designed and tested. Both a differential piston tank and a small gas-driven pump have been tried to obtain the pressure boost needed for flow through a gas generator and back to the tank. Results include terrestrial maneuvering tests of a prototype microsatellite, including warm gas attitude control jets.

  3. Analytical Assessment of the Reciprocating Feed System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddleman, David E.; Blackmon, James B.; Morton, Christopher D.

    2006-01-01

    A preliminary analysis tool has been created in Microsoft Excel to determine deliverable payload mass, total system mass, and performance of spacecraft systems using various types of propellant feed systems. These mass estimates are conducted by inserting into the user interface the basic mission parameters (e.g., thrust, burn time, specific impulse, mixture ratio, etc.), system architecture (e.g., propulsion system type and characteristics, propellants, pressurization system type, etc.), and design properties (e.g., material properties, safety factors, etc.). Different propellant feed and pressurization systems are available for comparison in the program. This gives the user the ability to compare conventional pressure fed, reciprocating feed system (RFS), autogenous pressurization thrust augmentation (APTA RFS), and turbopump systems with the deliverable payload, inert mass, and total system mass being the primary comparison metrics. Analyses of several types of missions and spacecraft were conducted and it was found that the RFS offers a performance improvement, especially in terms of delivered payload, over conventional pressure fed systems. Furthermore, it is competitive with a turbopump system at low to moderate chamber pressures, up to approximately 1,500 psi. Various example cases estimating the system mass and deliverable payload of several types of spacecraft are presented that illustrate the potential system performance advantages of the RFS. In addition, a reliability assessment of the RFS was conducted, comparing it to simplified conventional pressure fed and turbopump systems, based on MIL-STD 756B; these results showed that the RFS offers higher reliability, and thus substantially longer periods between system refurbishment, than turbopump systems, and is competitive with conventional pressure fed systems. This is primarily the result of the intrinsic RFS fail-operational capability with three run tanks, since the system can operate with just two run

  4. Sensitive hydrogen leak detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    1999-01-01

    A sensitive hydrogen leak detector system using passivation of a stainless steel vacuum chamber for low hydrogen outgassing, a high compression ratio vacuum system, a getter operating at 77.5 K and a residual gas analyzer as a quantitative hydrogen sensor.

  5. The {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} applicability in decision support system {open_quotes}strength{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torop, V.M.; Orynyak, I.V. [Institute for Problems of Strength, Kiev (Ukraine); Kutovoy, O.L. [Institute of Structure Integrity, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-04-01

    A software decision support system, STRENGTH, for application of leak before break analysis, is described. The background methodology and sample application are outlined. The program allows multioptional computation of loading parameters for different types of defects, and variable properties for metals and welded joints. Structural strength is assessed, and service life predictions are made. The program is used to analyze specific defects identified by nondestructive testing.

  6. Clinical and Pathological Findings of a Fatal Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (Clarkson Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancanaro, Andrea; Serafini, Francesco; Fantin, Giuseppe; Murer, Bruno; Cicardi, Marco; Bonanni, Luca; Dalla Vestra, Michele; Scanferlato, Mauro; Mazzanti, Giovanni; Presotto, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS) is a rare disorder with episodes of hypotension, hypoalbuminemia, and hemoconcentration. During attacks endothelial hyperpermeability results in leakage of plasma proteins into the interstitial space. Attacks vary in severity and may be lethal. A 49-year-old previously healthy man was admitted to hospital for hypovolemic shock, anasarca with pleuropericardial effusion, muscle fatigue, and oliguria occurring after a flu-like syndrome. Laboratory data showed an increase in hematocrit (65%), leucocytes (24.590 μ/L), creatinine (2.5 mg/dL), creatine phosphokinase (10.000 U/L), and a decrease in serum albumin (17 g/L) without proteinuria. Immunoglobulins of class G/λ monoclonal gammopathy were detected (1.3 g/L). The initial suspicions addressed to a protein-loosing syndrome or to an effort-related rhabdomyolysis. Initial therapy was based on steroids, albumin, and high molecular weight plasma expanders (hydroxyethyl starch). Because of high hematocrit, phlebotomy was also performed. The patient had complete clinical remission and a diagnosis of SCLS was finally made. He received prophylactic therapy with verapamil and theophylline that was self-stopped for intolerance (hypotension and tachycardia). He had a new crisis 2 days after a physical effort, and was admitted in intensive care unit. The patient died for severe hypovolemic shock with multiorgan failure and sudden cardiac arrest 15 hours after hospital admission. Postmortem investigation revealed massive interstitial edema of main organs with myocardial hyperacute ischemia. Studies on SCLS are limited for the rarity of the disease and its unpredictable course. Both prophylactic and acute crisis treatments are empirical and optimal management of severe attacks is still lacking. PMID:25738482

  7. Endothelial Expression of Endothelin Receptor A in the Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert C Sek

    Full Text Available Idiopathic systemic capillary leak syndrome (SCLS is a rare and potentially fatal vascular disorder characterized by reversible bouts of hypotension and edema resulting from fluid and solute escape into soft tissues. Although spikes in permeability-inducing factors have been linked to acute SCLS flares, whether or not they act on an inherently dysfunctional endothelium is unknown. To assess the contribution of endothelial-intrinsic mechanisms in SCLS, we derived blood-outgrowth endothelial cells (BOEC from patients and healthy controls and examined gene expression patterns. Ednra, encoding Endothelin receptor A (ETA-the target of Endothelin 1 (ET-1-was significantly increased in SCLS BOEC compared to healthy controls. Although vasoconstriction mediated by ET-1 through ETA activation on vascular smooth muscle cells has been well characterized, the expression and function of ETA receptors in endothelial cells (ECs has not been described. To determine the role of ETA and its ligand ET-1 in SCLS, if any, we examined ET-1 levels in SCLS sera and functional effects of endothelial ETA expression. ETA overexpression in EAhy926 endothelioma cells led to ET-1-induced hyper-permeability through canonical mechanisms. Serum ET-1 levels were elevated in acute SCLS sera compared to remission and healthy control sera, suggesting a possible role for ET-1 and ETA in SCLS pathogenesis. However, although ET-1 alone did not induce hyper-permeability of patient-derived BOEC, an SCLS-related mediator (CXCL10 increased Edrna quantities in BOEC, suggesting a link between SCLS and endothelial ETA expression. These results demonstrate that ET-1 triggers classical mechanisms of vascular barrier dysfunction in ECs through ETA. Further studies of the ET-1-ETA axis in SCLS and in more common plasma leakage syndromes including sepsis and filovirus infection would advance our understanding of vascular integrity mechanisms and potentially uncover new treatment strategies.

  8. MASS SPECTROMETER LEAK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, W.R.

    1960-10-18

    An improved valve is described for precisely regulating the flow of a sample fluid to be analyzed, such as in a mass spectrometer, where a gas sample is allowed to "leak" into an evacuated region at a very low, controlled rate. The flow regulating valve controls minute flow of gases by allowing the gas to diffuse between two mating surfaces. The structure of the valve is such as to prevent the corrosive feed gas from contacting the bellows which is employed in the operation of the valve, thus preventing deterioration of the bellows.

  9. Suggestions to leak prevention in Fortaleza's natural gas piping system; Sugestoes para a prevencao de vazamentos de gas natural canalizado na regiao metropolitana de Fortaleza

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teles, Marcus de Barros [Agencia Reguladora de Servicos Publicos Delegados do Estado do Ceara (ARCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Leaks are the bigger problem in health, safety and environmental when the subject is gas distribution piping systems. Specially in high density human regions, like in the majority districts of Fortaleza, safety have to be the higher priority to the gas company responsible for the gas distribution piping systems. Leaks are able to cause accidents or incidents, depending on the circumstances which they happen. In order to be control the situation and overcome the luck factor, leaks must be previously avoided by the application of some security requirements. This paper present some suggestions to natural gas leak prevention in the Fortaleza's metropolitan region pipeline systems. First, the piping systems are analysed, observing the risk regions. Then, safety actions and basic requirements to avoid pipe corrosion are presented in order to improve safety in the gas distribution piping systems of Fortaleza's metropolitan region. (author)

  10. Research overview of real-time monitoring system for micro leak of three-dimensional pipe network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaofeng WANG

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the key technical problems encountered by domestic and foreign scholars in building the real-time monitoring system for the micro leak of three-dimensional pipe networks, the paper classifies the problems into three aspects: 1 in the extraction of fault signal frequency, how to avoid the effect of the mixed echo stack and improve the delay estimation accuracy of the correlation; 2 in network bifurcation structure, how to discern the signal propagation path, and how to locate the leak source; 3 under the uncertainly delay in transmitting and receiving information data, how to ensure the time synchronization accuracy of the real-time monitoring system for the three-dimensional pipe network leakage. Through the comparison of the monitoring technologies for the pipe network leakage at home and abroad, it shows that the acoustic emission sensor network based three-dimensional pipeline leak real-time monitoring has great advantages in detecting the weak leakage of flammable and explosive gas/liquid transportation pipelines.

  11. Early tube leak detection system for steam boiler at KEV power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Firas B.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tube leakage in boilers has been a major contribution to trips which eventually leads to power plant shut downs. Training of network and developing artificial neural network (ANN models are essential in fault detection in critically large systems. This research focusses on the ANN modelling through training and validation of real data acquired from a sub-critical boiler unit. The artificial neural network (ANN was used to develop a compatible model and to evaluate the working properties and behaviour of boiler. The training and validation of real data has been applied using the feed-forward with back-propagation (BP. The right combination of number of neurons, number of hidden layers, training algorithms and training functions was run to achieve the best ANN model with lowest error. The ANN was trained and validated using real site data acquired from a coal fired power plant in Malaysia. The results showed that the Neural Network (NN with one hidden layers performed better than two hidden layer using feed-forward back-propagation network. The outcome from this study give us the best ANN model which eventually allows for early detection of boiler tube leakages, and forecast of a trip before the real shutdown. This will eventually reduce shutdowns in power plants.

  12. Advanced feed water distributing system for WWER 440 steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O.; Klinga, J. [Energovyzkum Ltd, Brno (Switzerland); Grazl, K. [Vitkovice s.c., Ostrava (Switzerland); Tischler, J.; Mihalik, M. [SEP Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice (Slovakia)

    1995-12-31

    The original designed feed water distributing system was replaced by an advanced one. The characteristics of both feed water distributing systems have been measured and evaluated. The paper deals with the problems of measurement and evaluation of both feed water distributing system characteristics and comparison of statistical data obtained. (orig.). 3 refs.

  13. A Novel Feature Extraction Method for Monitoring (Vehicular) Fuel Storage System Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-02

    optimization) based learning methods. Leak detection mechanism as part of an overall emission control strategy is gaining importance in recent...fundamentally different way of extracting information from the in-tank pressure signal stream as it is one of most critical parts of an overall redesign...signal procesing methods such as signal smoothing, clipping and flipping. Other common modifications may also include multiple scalers associated with

  14. Tetracycline-controlled transcriptional regulation systems:countermeasures to eliminate basal transgene leaks in Tet-based systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Dong; SUN Yan; GU Weiwang; CHEN Xigu

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the function of any given transgene(s) accurately in transgenic mice, and to produce credible transgenic animal models of various human diseases (precisely and realistically mimicking disease states), it is critical to be able to control gene expression in the animals conditionally. The ability to switch gene expression "on" or "off" in the restricted cells or tissue(s) at specific time(s)allows unprecedented flexibility for exploring gene function(s) in both the health and the disease. Pioneering work on inducible transgene expression has led to the development of a wide variety of controlled gene expression systems that meet this criterion. Among them, the tetracycline-inducible systems (e. g. Tet-off and Tet-on) have been widely, frequently and successfully employed in vitro and in vivo.These systems, however, are not always tight but leaky; sometimes the leakage is significant. In some circumstances, the resulting leak is acceptable, but in others, it is more problematic. Though these systems face this disadvantage, i.e. basal transgene leakage in vitro and in vivo, several approaches, including using improved versions (e. g. rtTA2S-M2 and rtTA2S-S2) of rtTA, tetracycline-controlled transcriptional silencer (tTS), an "ideal" minimal promoter in responsive components or combinations thereof, have been developed to avoid this limitation effectively. In this review we discuss the countermeasures available to eliminate basal transgene leakage from Tet-based systems.

  15. Current dependence of heat leak on the terminals in the superconducting DC transmission and distribution system of CASER-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Emoto, Masahiko; Hamabe, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Sataro; Hikichi, Yasuo; Minowa, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    Superconductivity can solve the energy problems in the world as energy saving technologies. In particular, superconducting direct current (DC) transmission and distribution (T&D) systems is promising, as it can be easily extended to large scale energy transmission systems for energy sharing. We are developing criogenic systems for effective cooling of superconducting T&D systems. In the cooling experiments with the 200 m-class superconducting DC T&D system at Chubu University (CASER-2), we have estimated the performance of the system. For example, our superconducting cable is connected to the outside at the terminals using Peltier current leads (PCLs). The PCL is composed of a thermoelectric material and a copper lead. Small thermal conductivity and large thermopower of the thermoelectric modules can effectively insulate the heat leak to the low temperature end. We measured the temperature along the current leads and the heat leak at the terminals. As current leads have an optimal shape factor, the optimum operation current exists. The current dependence of the system performance is discussed.

  16. Feed the Future Monitoring System Aggregate Data 2011-2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Feed the Future Monitoring System (FTFMS) is part of an interagency effort to consolidate U.S. Government (USG) reporting on Feed the Future activities. FTFMS...

  17. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants' oral feeding skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, R J

    2015-06-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a 'self-paced' feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants' oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). 'Feeders and growers' born between 26-29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1-2 and 6-8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants' RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants' true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance.

  18. Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome associated with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome. Use of transpulmonary thermodilution technique for volume management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS is a rare disorder characterized by increased capillary hyperpermeability leading to hypovolemic shock due to a markedly increased shift of fluid and protein from the intravascular to the interstitial space. Hemoconcentration, hypoalbuminemia and a monoclonal gammopathy are characteristic laboratory findings. Here we present a patient who suffered from SCLS with hypovolemic shock and compartment syndrome of both lower legs and thighs. Volume and catecholamine management was guided using transpulmonary thermodilution. Extended hemodynamic monitoring for volume and catecholamine management as well as monitoring of muscle compartment pressure is of crucial importance in SCLS patients.

  19. Reduction of the heat leak in superconducting system at half-wave-rectified current mode by peltier current lead

    CERN Document Server

    Yamaguchi, T; Nakamura, K; Yamaguchi, S; Hasegawa, Y

    2002-01-01

    Experiments of Peltier current lead (PCL) were performed by the way of half-wave-rectified current (HWRC) for an evaluation of the PCL system in the drive with the large-rippled current. The current ripple of the HWRC is large, and we discussed the cooling capability of the current ripple. The experimental results revealed that the temperature difference of the thermoelectric-element (TE) increased with the magnitude of the current in the PCL system, despite the large current ripple. Calorimetric measurements revealed that the PCL reduced the heat leak of 60% for the peak current 90A. We compared the PCL systems of the direct current (dc) mode and the HWRC mode. The results showed that the current dependence of the temperature difference in the HWRC mode did not match that of the dc mode, but those of the heat leak matched well. The performance of the Peltier cooling in the HWRC mode is reduced to be 2/pi time of the Seebeck coefficient for the dc mode by using the time-average method. (author)

  20. Reduction of the heat leak in superconducting system at half-wave-rectified current mode by peltier current lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Ohtaki, Naohiro; Nakamura, Keiji; Yamaguchi, Satarou [Chubu Univ., Kasugai, Aichi (Japan); Hasegawa, Yasuhiro [Saitama Univ., Saitama (Japan)

    2002-09-01

    Experiments of Peltier current lead (PCL) were performed by the way of half-wave-rectified current (HWRC) for an evaluation of the PCL system in the drive with the large-rippled current. The current ripple of the HWRC is large, and we discussed the cooling capability of the current ripple. The experimental results revealed that the temperature difference of the thermoelectric-element (TE) increased with the magnitude of the current in the PCL system, despite the large current ripple. Calorimetric measurements revealed that the PCL reduced the heat leak of 60% for the peak current 90A. We compared the PCL systems of the direct current (dc) mode and the HWRC mode. The results showed that the current dependence of the temperature difference in the HWRC mode did not match that of the dc mode, but those of the heat leak matched well. The performance of the Peltier cooling in the HWRC mode is reduced to be 2/{pi} time of the Seebeck coefficient for the dc mode by using the time-average method. (author)

  1. Feed Assist”- An Expert System on Balanced Feeding for Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.B Angadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate feeding is the major factor for low livestock productivity in India. In dairying, feed cost is a major input and feeding practices has to be improved to ensure profits. Still the small scale farmers are following traditional feeding practices and fail to address the complexities involved in ration formulation. To address the complexities in ration balancing based on the nutrient requirements for different categories of livestock, nutrient composition of wide range of feed resources and the cost - a number of expert systems have been developed. However existing expert systems have not been widely used by majority of small farmers due to lack of awareness, access and basic skills required to operate. To address these limitations, “Feed Assist” a farmer friendly expert system for balanced feeding of dairy animals at least cost has been developed using linear programming. “Feed Assist” does not require much expertise to operate and enables the farmers to formulate least cost rations for different categories of livestock using locally available feed resources.

  2. [Clinical analysis of 34 cases with sepsis and systemic capillary leak syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H X; Shi, X J; Liang, Y R; Shi, H D; Wang, H; Zhao, Y S

    2017-09-01

    Objective: To study the clinical characteristics of sepsis with systemic capillary leak syndrome(SCLS) and to evaluate the therapeutic effect and clinical significance of fluid therapy adjusted timely in these patients. Methods: The clinical data of 34 patients with sepsis and SCLS in the Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery ICU of General Hospital of People's Liberation Army General Hospital from July 2014 to January 2016 were retrospectively analyzed.There were 21 males and 13 females, aged from 21 to 74 years, with an average age of 56.3 years.Primary disease as follows: 18 cases with severe acute pancreatitis, 7 postoperative cases of subtotal hepatectomy, 5 postoperative cases of pancreatoduodenectomy, 4 postoperative cases of cholelithiasis.These patients were divided into survival group and death group according to their 28-day survival status.The clinical data including C-reactive protein(CRP), platelets (PLT), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), the level of arterial blood lactic acid(LAC), oxygenation index(PaO2/FiO2, OI), net fluid balance(NFB) and norepinephrine dosage(NE) were collected and compared between two groups at three different intervals(day 1-3, day 4-6, day 7-9). The measurement data and numeration data were statistically analyzed with t test and χ(2) test respectively to explore the inherent characteristics of the disease evolution and its clinical significance. Results: The survival group (n=23)and the death group(n=11)had no significant difference in the characteristics of basic clinical characters.The condition of the survival group and the death group were both in progress in 1-3 days period manifested as increased CRP(t=-0.473, P=0.640) and BNP levels(t=0.140, P=0.895), decreased PLT counts(t=-0.505, P=0.620) in the inflammatory response, decreased LAC(t=-1.008, P=0.320) and OI level (t=-2.379, P=0.020)in tissue perfusion index, and positive fluid balance(NFB: t=0.910, P=0.370), required NE(t=-0.853, P=0.400) to maintain effective

  3. Sample Delivery and Computer Control Systems for Detecting Leaks in the Main Engines of the Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Timothy P.; Naylor, Guy R.; Hritz, Richard J.; Barrett, Carolyn A.

    1997-01-01

    The main engines of the Space Shuttle use hydrogen and oxygen as the fuel and oxidant. The explosive and fire hazards associated with these two components pose a serious danger to personnel and equipment. Therefore prior to use the main engines undergo extensive leak tests. Instead of using hazardous gases there tests utilize helium as the tracer element. This results in a need to monitor helium in the ppm level continuously for hours. The major challenge in developing such a low level gas monitor is the sample delivery system. This paper discuss a system developed to meet the requirements while also being mobile. Also shown is the calibration technique, stability, and accuracy results for the system.

  4. Field tests and commercialization of natural gas leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, D.S.; Jeon, J.S.; Kim, K.D.; Cho, Y.A. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea)

    1999-09-01

    Objectives - (1) fields test of industrial gas leak detection monitoring system. (2) commericialization of residential gas leak detector. Contents - (1) five sets of gas leak detection monitoring system were installed at natural gas transmition facilities and tested long term stability and their performance. (2) improved residential gas leak detector was commercialised. Expected benefits and application fields - (1) contribution to the improvement of domestic gas sensor technology. (2) localization of fabrication technology for gas leak detectors. 23 refs., 126 figs., 37 tabs.

  5. Analysis and diagnosis for leaks in pre-hydrotreating feed/effluent heat exchanger of catalytic reformer%重整装置预加氢进料/产物换热器内漏分析与判断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺家培; 高秋云

    2011-01-01

    介绍了一种通过比较预加氢反应器进料与生成油换热器、汽提塔进料与塔底油换热器、汽提塔进料与分馏塔塔底油换热器以及预加氢进料与分馏塔顶油换热器油样中总硫含量的变化来分析与判断预加氢进料换热器内漏的方法.正常生产情况下,预加氢精制油中总硫的含量应该是比较低的.如果精制油中总硫质量分数超过0.5%,则或是催化剂活性下降,或是相关换热器发生内漏.利用这一特点,可进行预加氢进料/产物换热器内漏的分析与判断.此方法在中国石化青岛炼化预加氢装置上的运用情况表明,结果准确、简便,行之有效.%A method is presented for the analysis and diagnosis of the pre-hydrotreating feed/product heat exchanger leak through the analysis of the changes of sulfur content in pre-hydrotreating feed/product heat exchanger, stripping tower feed/bottom oil heat exchanger, stripping tower feed/bottom oil of fractionating tower heat exchanger, pre-hydrotreating feed/overhead oil of fractionating tower heat exchanger. In normal operating conditions, the total sulfur in pre-hydrotreated oil is lower. If sulfur in pre-hydrotreated oil exceeds 0.5 m%, it indicates that either the catalyst activity has fallen down or the leakage has occurred in the heat exchangers.The commercial application of this method in the pre-hydrotreating unit of Qingdao Refining & Chemical Co. ,Ltd proves that it is an effective and dependable and easy means for diagnosing heat exchanger leaks.

  6. Elevation profile influence at key contractual performance parameters for LDS (Leak Detection Systems) based on compensated volume balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebenberg, Lieb [TRANSNET Pipeline, Durban (South Africa); Bueno, David; Passos, Rafaela [KANOPUS Consulting, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    This paper describes and discusses procedures and correlations to estimate performance parameters for Leak Detection Systems based on Compensation Volume Balance, at the portions not usually covered by international standards (like, API RP 1130). These parameters include: minimum acceptable leakage to be detected, under steady state conditions, based on flow measurement uncertainty, observed for both pipeline head and tail; an actual flow rate uncertainty against the one informed by the flow meter manufacturer documentation; the reference flow rate for steady state conditions; and the sensitivity one may expect for the system against a given probability of false alarms (i.e., the ways to correlate reliability, the main performance parameter as per API RP 1130 and sensitivity, the second one). A question usually not considered is: how the elevation profile may affect some of these parameters. That is the second main objective addressed herein, with actual examples employed in a South African multi product pipeline. (author)

  7. Leak detection of thermal shield system in EAST cryostat%EAST装置大型低温杜瓦中内外冷屏系统的检漏

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雅婷; 王小明; 胡建生

    2015-01-01

    针对 EAST 装置大型低温杜瓦中内外冷屏系统存在的泄漏及对外真空室真空度的影响,采用氦质谱负压真空、正压真空及吸枪法相结合的方法,确定了多处泄漏点并分析了泄漏原因,通过修复使EAST外真空室低温运行时的压强﹤1×10-4Pa ,满足了EAST外真空室运行的需要。EAST内外冷屏系统的检漏方法和经验可以运用到大型、复杂的和具有狭小活动空间的真空系统检漏,尤其是对多管道、复杂材料的检漏具有一定的参考价值。%To solve the leakage of thermal shield system in EAST cryostat and its impact on pressure of cryogenic vacuum chamber, we adopted a combination method including vacuum leak detection, pressurized leak detection and sniffer leak detection. We found some leak parts and analyzed the cause of leakage. By mending the thermal shield system, the pressure of the cryogenic vacuum chamber is less than 1×10-4Pa at cryogenic state and meets the need of operation. The method and experience of EAST thermal shield system leak detection can be adopted to large-sized, complicated and narrow space vacuum system. Especially, the method and experience have a certain reference value in the leak detection of multi-pipeline and complicated material vacuum system.

  8. EBO feed water distribution system, experience gained from operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matal, O. [Energovyzkum, Brno (Switzerland); Schmidt, S.; Mihalik, M. [Atomove Elektrarne Bohunice, Jaslovske Bohunice (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Advanced feed water distribution systems of the EBO design have been installed into steam generators at Units 3 and 4 of the NPP Jaslovske Bohunice (VVER 440). Experiences gained from the operation of steam generators with the advanced feed water distribution systems are discussed in the paper. (orig.). 4 refs.

  9. Dual-frequency feed system for 26-meter antenna conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    New cassegrain feed cone assemblies were designed as part of the upgrade of three 26-meter diameter antennas to 34-meter diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) will provide both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers, with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas. Tasks involved in adding the X-band receiving capability and improving the S-band feed performance in support of Voyager and later missions described in.

  10. Development of a water leak detection system for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 2; General planning of sensor arrangement for active acoustic method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Kumagai, Hiromichi (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.)

    1994-04-01

    Development of a water leak detection system with short response time and high sensitivity for LMFBR steam generators is required to prevent failure propagation and to maintain structural integrity of steam generators. A new type of leak detection method, active acoustic method, which observes gas bubbles accompanying the leak using sonic waves is being developed. In this study, some series of experiments are carried out to investigate; (1) attenuation of sonic wave in a typical SG structure, (2) suitable method to attach waveguides to the SG shell, and (3) possibility of reflex method. Furthermore, a reference sensor arrangement for active acoustic method is selected based on the experimental results as the basis of future studies. (author).

  11. The Petrocarb pneumatic feeding system: A proven method for feeding particulate solids at controlled rates. [for coal gasification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, H.

    1977-01-01

    An outline of the principal features of the Petrocarb Pneumatic Feeding System is given. Early development and various commercial applications are included. It is concluded that the Petrocarb Injection System is capable of feeding dry solids into most of the processes being developed for utilizing coal.

  12. EXPLORING ANTECEDENT ENVIRONMENTAL AND ORGANIZATIONAL FACTORS TO USER-CAUSED INFORMATION LEAKS: A QUALITATIVE STUDY : 20. European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadasch, Frank; Mueller, Benjamin; Maedche, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Sensitive company information can leak to unauthorized parties in case employees do not perform effective protective measures while using application systems for their day-to-day tasks. To reduce the risks for such information leakage incidents, many companies oblige employees to follow information

  13. Leak detection capability in CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azer, N.; Barber, D.H.; Boucher, P.J. [and others

    1997-04-01

    This paper addresses the moisture leak detection capability of Ontario Hydro CANDU reactors which has been demonstrated by performing tests on the reactor. The tests confirmed the response of the annulus gas system (AGS) to the presence of moisture injected to simulate a pressure tube leak and also confirmed the dew point response assumed in leak before break assessments. The tests were performed on Bruce A Unit 4 by injecting known and controlled rates of heavy water vapor. To avoid condensation during test conditions, the amount of moisture which could be injected was small (2-3.5 g/hr). The test response demonstrated that the AGS is capable of detecting and annunciating small leaks. Thus confidence is provided that it would alarm for a growing pressure tube leak where the leak rate is expected to increase to kg/hr rapidly. The measured dew point response was close to that predicted by analysis.

  14. ISOLDE Off-line Gas Leak Upgrade

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Kristoffer Bested

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates gas injection system of the ISOLDE Off-line separator. A quadrupole mass spectrometer is used to analysis the composition of the gas. Based on these measurements a contamination of the injected gas is found and a system upgrade is purposed. Furthermore a calibration of the leak rate of the leak valve is made.

  15. DSS-13 S-/X-band microwave feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manshadi, F.

    1994-05-01

    The configuration, detail design, and performance of the dual S-/X-band microwave feed system for the new DSN beam-waveguide antenna, Deep Space Station (DSS) 13, are reported. By using existing spare components, reducing fabrication cost of new components by simplifying their design, and using new fabrication techniques and material, this DSS-13 feed system was implemented successfully with a small budget and a very tight schedule. Measured noise temperature gains of the feed system are 17.5 K for S-band (2200-2300 MHz) and 24.0 K for X-band (8200-8600 MHz), which agree very closely with the predicted performance.

  16. LOCATING LEAKS WITH ACOUSTIC TECHNOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many water distribution systems in this country are almost 100 years old. About 26 percent of piping in these systems is made of unlined cast iron or steel and is in poor condition. Many methods that locate leaks in these pipes are time-consuming, costly, disruptive to operations...

  17. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.

    approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed genes, co-expressed genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes, energy balance, nutrient......-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology...... partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....

  18. Design and Realization of Mineral Feeding SCADA System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The grinding process in concentration plants of the metallurgical industry is of great importantce.. A mineral feeding SCADA system in the grinding process was designed with the idea of integrating management and control functions. A detailed design and realization method of control and supervisory control levels in the system was introduced. At the control level, with an algorithm of a separate integrated PID, four mineral feeding machines are run in turn. The supervisory control level can generate process flow graphs, statistical report forms, historical trends and at the same time, it has the functions of alarm, system administration, user login, etc. After the mineral SCADA system has been started, the mineral feeding is very stable, the workstation completely supervises and controls the entire process of mineral feeding, and at the same time historical data is shown and questions can be answered conveniently. The system runs well in the MeiShan Concentration Plant of the Shanghai Bao Shan Steel Group.

  19. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  20. Analysis of Underground Storage Tanks System Materials to Increased Leak Potential Associated with E15 Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D [ORNL; Theiss, Timothy J [ORNL; Janke, Christopher James [ORNL; Pawel, Steven J [ORNL

    2012-07-01

    include model year 2001 light-duty vehicles, but specifically prohibited use in motorcycles and off-road vehicles and equipment. UST stakeholders generally consider fueling infrastructure materials designed for use with E0 to be adequate for use with E10, and there are no known instances of major leaks or failures directly attributable to ethanol use. It is conceivable that many compatibility issues, including accelerated corrosion, do arise and are corrected onsite and, therefore do not lead to a release. However, there is some concern that higher ethanol concentrations, such as E15 or E20, may be incompatible with current materials used in standard gasoline fueling hardware. In the summer of 2008, DOE recognized the need to assess the impact of intermediate blends of ethanol on the fueling infrastructure, specifically located at the fueling station. This includes the dispenser and hanging hardware, the underground storage tank, and associated piping. The DOE program has been co-led and funded by the Office of the Biomass Program and Vehicle Technologies Program with technical expertise from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The infrastructure material compatibility work has been supported through strong collaborations and testing at Underwriters Laboratories (UL). ORNL performed a compatibility study investigating the compatibility of fuel infrastructure materials to gasoline containing intermediate levels of ethanol. These results can be found in the ORNL report entitled Intermediate Ethanol Blends Infrastructure Materials Compatibility Study: Elastomers, Metals and Sealants (hereafter referred to as the ORNL intermediate blends material compatibility study). These materials included elastomers, plastics, metals and sealants typically found in fuel dispenser infrastructure. The test fuels evaluated in the ORNL study were SAE standard test fuel formulations used to assess material-fuel compatibility within a

  1. Sensors for Fluid Leak Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares Martinsanz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fluid leak detection represents a problem that has attracted the interest of researchers, but not exclusively because in industries and services leaks are frequently common. Indeed, in water or gas supplies, chemical or thermal plants, sea-lines or cooling/heating systems leakage rates can cause important economic losses and sometimes, what it is more relevant, environmental pollution with human, animal or plant lives at risk. This last issue has led to increased national and international regulations with different degrees of severity regarding environmental conservation.[...

  2. Leak detection/verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krhounek, V.; Zdarek, J.; Pecinka, L. [Nuclear Research Institute, Rez (Czech Republic)

    1997-04-01

    Loss of coolant accident (LOCA) experiments performed as part of a Leak Before Break (LBB) analysis are very briefly summarized. The aim of these experiments was to postulate the leak rates of the coolant. Through-wall cracks were introduced into pipes by fatigue cycling and hydraulically loaded in a test device. Measurements included coolant pressure and temperature, quantity of leaked coolant, displacement of a specimen, and acoustic emission. Small cracks were plugged with particles in the coolant during testing. It is believed that plugging will have no effect in cracks with leak rates above 35 liters per minute. The leak rate safety margin of 10 is sufficient for cracks in which the leak rate is more than 5 liters per minute.

  3. Fiber Optic Sensors for Leak Detection and Condition Monitoring in Hydrogen Fuel Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR Phase I proposal addresses the need for explosion proof, sensitive and reliable hydrogen sensors for NASA and commercial hydrogen fuel systems. It also...

  4. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.;

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500. Blood samples will be collected for genotyping and plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, β...

  5. Effect of an automatic feeding system on growth performance and feeding behaviour of pigs reared outdoors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Fortina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine Mora Romagnola and 10 Large White x Mora Romagnola growing pigs were reared outdoors. In both groups ad libitum feed was provided. Conventional pigs received it twice a day, distributed in two long troughs. Inside the corral of the second group, an automatic station was set up for: feed distribution, pigs weighing, and control by an analog camera. Thus the self-feeders received feed ad libitum individually by the automatic system, divided into small quantities at meal times. During the experiment the analog camera was used over 24 hours each day, to collect pictures of pigs in order to investigate their behaviours. For each picture the day and hour, the number of visible pigs and their behaviours were recorded and a statistical analysis of data, which was expressed as hourly frequencies of behavioural elements, was performed. Moreover to highlight “active” and “passive” behaviours between the groups, two categories “Move” and “Rest” were created grouping some behavioural elements. With regard to performance, conventional pigs reached a higher total weight gain (56.1±2.42 kg vs 46.7±2.42 kg; P=0.0117. But the feed conversion index (FCI of both groups was similar. The self-feeders had consumed less feed than conventional animals. The feeding system seems to influence behaviours. The percentage of time spent in Eating activity differs (P<0.0001 between the self-fed (median 24.6% and conventional pigs (median 10.9%. The resulting more regular eating trend of self-feeders influenced the daily activities distribution. The behavioural category Rest (median: self-feeders 55.0% vs 71.4% conventional pigs was dominant, with conventional pigs becoming more restless, particularly at meal times. This type of feeding competition and aggressive behaviour did not happen in the self-feeders due to the feed distribution system. The self-feeder results showed that pigs eat at the automatic station both day and night. The animals perform on

  6. Automatic feed system for ultrasonic machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Noel C.

    1994-01-01

    Method and apparatus for ultrasonic machining in which feeding of a tool assembly holding a machining tool toward a workpiece is accomplished automatically. In ultrasonic machining, a tool located just above a workpiece and vibrating in a vertical direction imparts vertical movement to particles of abrasive material which then remove material from the workpiece. The tool does not contact the workpiece. Apparatus for moving the tool assembly vertically is provided such that it operates with a relatively small amount of friction. Adjustable counterbalance means is provided which allows the tool to be immobilized in its vertical travel. A downward force, termed overbalance force, is applied to the tool assembly. The overbalance force causes the tool to move toward the workpiece as material is removed from the workpiece.

  7. System of leak inspection of irradiated fuel; Sistema de inspeccion de fuga de combustible irradiado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfin L, A.; Castaneda J, G.; Mazon R, R.; Aguilar H, F. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: rmr@nuclear.inin.mx

    2007-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through the project RLA/04/18 Irradiated Fuel Management in Research reactors, recommended among other that the participant countries (Brazil, Argentina, Chile, Peru and Mexico), develop the sipping tool to generate registrations of the state that keep the irradiated fuels in the facilities of each country. The TRIGA Mark lll Reactor (RTMIII) Department, generated a project that it is based on the dimensions of the used fuel by the RTMIII, for design and to build an inspection system of irradiated fuel well known as SIPPING. This technique, provides a high grade of accuracy in the detection of gassy fission products or liquids that escape from the enveloping of fuels that have flaws or flights. The operation process of the SIPPING is carried out generating the migration of fission products through the creation of a pressure differential gas or vacuum to identify fuel assemblies failed by means of the detection of the xenon and/or krypton presence. The SIPPING system, is a device in revolver form with 4 tangential nozzles, which will discharge the fluid between the external surface of the enveloping of the fuel and the interior surface of the encircling one; the device was designed with independent pieces, with threaded joining and with stamps to impede flights of the fluid toward the exterior of the system. The System homogenizes and it distributes the fluid pressure so that the 4 nozzles work to equality of conditions, for what the device was designed in 3 pieces, an internal that is denominated revolver, one external that calls cover, and a joining called mamelon that will unite with the main encircling of the system. The detection of fission products in failed fuels, its require that inside the encircling one where the irradiated fuel element is introduced, be generated a pressure differential of gas or vacuum, and that it allows the samples extraction of water. For what generated a top for the encircling with the

  8. Research and application of natural gas leak emergency response system%天然气泄露应急处置系统研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔国刚; 李磊; 薛忠林; 彭传潘

    2012-01-01

    Typical diffusion H2S-containing gas leak, for example, the use of dynamic numerical simulation techniques to study the natural gas leaked diffusion model HYSPLIT software based on pollutant dispersion analysis software, the environmental database, the design database , construction database, emergency resource database data and combined with three-dimensional simulation technology, three-dimensional GIS software SkyLine based support platform, construction of three-dimensional GIS emergency response system, developed through the system leaked near topography leaked diffusion sphere of influence, residents of evacuation routes, emergency broadcast point will need to start the emergency plan query, locate and display features, to get H2S leak proliferation of the affected area of the gathering and transportation of natural gas or drilling systems in complex terrain and under different weather conditions, natural gas leak commanding departments provide accurate, fast and efficient data and technical support, sustainable development in order to ensure the safety and health of the high-sulfur gas field development and production.%以含H2S天然气泄漏典型扩散为例,采用动态数值模拟技术,在污染物扩散分析软件HYSPLIT软件基础上研究天然气泄露扩散模型,利用环境数据库、设计数据库、施工数据库、应急资源数据库等数据并结合三维模拟技术,以三维GIS软件SkyLine为基础支撑平台,建设三维GIS应急处置系统,通过系统开发实现泄露点附近的地形地貌、泄露扩散影响范围、居民疏散路线、需启动的应急广播点、应急预案等查询、定位及展示功能,以得到复杂地形及不同气象条件下天然气集输或钻采系统H2S泄漏扩散所影响的区域,在天然气泄漏后为指挥部门提供准确、快速、高效的数据及技术支持,以保证高含硫气田开发生产的安全和健康可持续发展.

  9. Rotary feeding system for metallic coating installation by electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stănescu, A.; Alecusan, A. M.; Dimitescu, A.

    2016-08-01

    The paper aims to present an alternative feeding system for metallic coatings lines by electrodeposition which lends itself to the circular arrangement of the cuvettes used in such plants. The novelty lies both, in the arrangement of the electrodeposition installation components and mechanical feeding and transport system for parts to be electrodeposited. The control and actuation system of this type of installation simplifies. Nevertheless, all these increase the system reliability and run lower maintenance costs, without adversely affecting the quality of the end product. The paper presents the justification for reducing the total energy consumption in the electrodeposition process, too.

  10. Assuring asset integrity through improving the accuracy of leakage source identification of a permanently installed subsea leak detection system using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Poungkrajorn, Tawan

    2015-01-01

    Environmental concerns and regulatory controls for oil and gas exploration and production activities have been increasing with the prospecting of deep-water fields and sensitive areas, such as the artic seas. To stop any incidents developing into critical events, subsea leak detection systems are required for a fast, cost-effective, and reasonable accurate method to not only detect the leakage substance (in this case methane), but also to identify its source and location. This thesis evaluate...

  11. 49 CFR 195.134 - CPM leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CPM leak detection. 195.134 Section 195.134... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.134 CPM leak detection. This section applies to each hazardous liquid... computational pipeline monitoring (CPM) leak detection system and each replaced component of an existing...

  12. 49 CFR 195.444 - CPM leak detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CPM leak detection. 195.444 Section 195.444... PIPELINE Operation and Maintenance § 195.444 CPM leak detection. Each computational pipeline monitoring (CPM) leak detection system installed on a hazardous liquid pipeline transporting liquid in...

  13. Harmonic-Resonance Analysis in a Maglev Feeding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeeda, Hidenori; Okui, Akinobu; Akagi, Hirofumi

    A feeding circuit for a superconducting magnetic levitation train system, or the so-called “maglev” consists of feeder cables and armature coils which show characteristics of a distributed-parameter line. Electric power is supplied to the cables and coils by PWM inverters whose output voltage contains a large amount of harmonics. As a result, a harmonic resonance may occur in the feeding circuit. Besides the above characteristics, the connecting point of sections (groups of armature coils) or the feeder cables length changes according to the movement of a maglev train, thus causing changes in the harmonic-resonance characteristics of the feeding circuit. This paper describes analytical results of the harmonic resonance in the feeding circuit for the maglev, with the focus on changes in the connecting point of sections and the feeder cables length.

  14. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A LOW-DENSITY BIOMASS FEEDING SYSTEM FOR FLUIDIZED BED GASIFIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Ghaly

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For efficient operation of a biomass gasifier, the biomass material must be fed continuously to the system. A feeding system for chopped straw and rice husk was designed, constructed and evaluated. It consisted of: a frame, a hopper, an auger, two agitators, a drive system and a power unit. Initial testing showed that wheat straw and rice husk, being highly cohesive materials, created tunnel flow and piping conditions. This occurs when the pressure above an impending dome of material is too small resulting in the creation of a stable dome and blockage of the discharge. In order to achieve good flow conditions, it was concluded that the hopper must operate under "mass outflow" and the material should not be allowed to build up along the flow channels. These objectives were achieved by the proper redesign of the hopper configuration, the installation of agitators in the hopper and use of an auger in the outlet duct leading into the gasifier. However, as the augur was used to move the biomass material from hopper to the gasifier, it was observed that hot gases leaked from the gasifier into the hopper and heat was also transmitted from the gasifier to the hopper though the augur shaft by conduction resulting in burning of biomass material in the hopper. Therefore, the augur shaft was fitted with copper tubing to serve as a water cooling system and the tapered section of the augur was fitted with a stainless steel section with water inlet and outlet to serve as a secondary cooling system. After, the system has been successfully modified for feeding wheat straw and rice husk, it was tested to determine the optimum operating conditions. Mass flow tests were performed with four sprocket combinations and four auger speeds. Increasing the auger speed and/or the lower agitator speed increased the straw output of the feeding system. However, increases in the upper agitator speed resulted in reduced mass flow of the material due to the mixing effect created

  15. Investigation on the sodium leak accident of Monju. Sodium leak test simulating the Monju leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, Kazuhito; Nishimura, Masahiro; Miyahara, Shinya; Miyake, Osamu; Tanabe, Hiromi [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center; Usami, Masayuki

    1996-11-01

    Sodium fire experiments were carried out two times using the Sodium Fire Test Rig (SOFT-1) in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp (PNC) as a part of works to research the cause of the accident in secondary main cooling system of Monju. The purposes of these experiments are to confirm the leak rate and leakage form of sodium from damaged thermometer, to confirm the damage to the piping insulating structure around the thermometer and to the flexible tube, and to compare the temperature history of the signal from the thermometer between the experiments and Monju. In the experiments 56({+-}2)g/sec was obtained as the leak rate under the condition of ensuring the leakage pass in the simulated thermometer. This leak rate was corrected to 53g/sec to take account of manufacturing error of the thermometer between the experiment and Monju. In calculation of this leak rate, it is assumed that the annulus size of thermometer well tip is a nominal distance and pressure value to the leakage sodium is 1.65kg/cm{sup 2}G, which was the maximum one during the leakage of Monju. The behavior of signal from the simulated thermometer was very similar to that of the damaged thermometer in Monju and it was confirmed this temperature history could be sufficiently explained by moving of the temperature contact position of the thermocouple following the runoff of leakage sodium. (J.P.N.)

  16. Behavioral pattern of Rohilkhandi kids under different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Kumari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study designed to evaluate the effect of different feeding systems on the behavior of local Rohilkhandi kids. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 growing goats (local goat of Rohilkhand region, weighing around 7-11 kg and aging 4-5 months, were used. These animals were kept in three groups. Group I was fed un-chopped green fodder in circular feeder (newly designed. Group II was fed un-chopped green fodder in linear feeder that was similar to the existing farm practice. Group III was fed chopped green fodder in linear feeder (modified version. Amount of concentrate and dry fodder fed was kept constant for all the three groups subject to equal increment in accordance with their increasing age. Adlibitum green fodder was made available to the animals. The experiment was conducted for 3 months. On-going behavior was recorded each day 4 h (2 h in the morning from 9:00 am to 11:00 am, after offering the feed, and same was repeated for 2 h in the afternoon, i.e., from 2:00 pm to 4:00 pm was made between 9 am and 5 pm. The individual behaviors, viz., feeding, drinking, lying down, ruminating, idling, butting, pressing, pushing, frontal clashing, and physical displacement at feed barrier (active and passive: Without physical contact of the goat were recorded using time-sampling method. Further, incidental activities such as defecation and urination were also recorded. Results: Among all the groups, butting, head to head, and pushing were the common agonistic behavior found but values did not differ significantly. The pushing while feeding was relatively less in Group II (0.22±0.04 min which differed significantly (p<0.05 from the other two groups. The idling time was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in Group II (1.68±0.21 as compared to Group I (4.67±0.52 and Group III (4.27±0.56. Time spent in rumination near the feeding trough as well as away from the feeding trough was also significantly higher in Group I (p<0.05 than the other

  17. Analysis of Complex Valve and Feed Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahuja, Vineet; Hosangadi, Ashvin; Shipman, Jeremy; Cavallo, Peter; Dash, Sanford

    2007-01-01

    A numerical framework for analysis of complex valve systems supports testing of propulsive systems by simulating key valve and control system components in the test loop. In particular, it is designed to enhance the analysis capability in terms of identifying system transients and quantifying the valve response to these transients. This system has analysis capability for simulating valve motion in complex systems operating in diverse flow regimes ranging from compressible gases to cryogenic liquids. A key feature is the hybrid, unstructured framework with sub-models for grid movement and phase change including cryogenic cavitations. The multi-element unstructured framework offers improved predictions of valve performance characteristics under steady conditions for structurally complex valves such as pressure regulator valve. Unsteady simulations of valve motion using this computational approach have been carried out for various valves in operation at Stennis Space Center such as the split-body valve and the 10-in. (approx.25.4-cm) LOX (liquid oxygen) valve and the 4-in. (approx.10 cm) Y-pattern valve (liquid nitrogen). Such simulations make use of variable grid topologies, thereby permitting solution accuracy and resolving important flow physics in the seat region of the moving valve. An advantage to this software includes possible reduction in testing costs incurred due to disruptions relating to unexpected flow transients or functioning of valve/flow control systems. Prediction of the flow anomalies leading to system vibrations, flow resonance, and valve stall can help in valve scheduling and significantly reduce the need for activation tests. This framework has been evaluated for its ability to predict performance metrics like flow coefficient for cavitating venturis and valve coefficient curves, and could be a valuable tool in predicting and understanding anomalous behavior of system components at rocket propulsion testing and design sites.

  18. Performance evaluation of PFBR wire type sodium leak detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijayakumar, G., E-mail: viju@igcar.gov.in [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Rajan, K.K.; Nashine, B.K.; Chandramouli, S. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Madhusoodanan, K. [Reactor Engineering Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Kalyanasundaram, P. [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2011-06-15

    , performance requirement of leak detection system as per codes, description of test facility, experimental procedure, test results of various experiments conducted and details of measurements made on contact resistance of detector after sodium leak. Paper also reviews the experiment conducted in CEA, Cadrache and compares with results of present experimental study.

  19. Feeding Our Immune System: Impact on Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Wolowczuk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous intestinal microflora and environmental factors, such as diet, play a central role in immune homeostasis and reactivity. In addition, microflora and diet both influence body weight and insulin-resistance, notably through an action on adipose cells. Moreover, it is known since a long time that any disturbance in metabolism, like obesity, is associated with immune alteration, for example, inflammation. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on how nutrients-derived factors (mostly focusing on fatty acids and glucose impact the innate and acquired immune systems, including the gut immune system and its associated bacterial flora. We will try to show the reader how the highly energy-demanding immune cells use glucose as a main source of fuel in a way similar to that of insulin-responsive adipose tissue and how Toll-like receptors (TLRs of the innate immune system, which are found on immune cells, intestinal cells, and adipocytes, are presently viewed as essential actors in the complex balance ensuring bodily immune and metabolic health. Understanding more about these links will surely help to study and understand in a more fundamental way the common observation that eating healthy will keep you and your immune system healthy.

  20. Compact and Integrated Liquid Bismuth Propellant Feed System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Stanojev, Boris; Korman, Valentin; Gross, Jeffrey T.

    2007-01-01

    Operation of Hall thrusters with bismuth propellant has been shown to be a promising path toward high-power, high-performance, long-lifetime electric propulsion for spaceflight missions [1]. There has been considerable effort in the past three years aimed at resuscitating this promising technology and validating earlier experimental results indicating the advantages of a bismuth-fed Hall thruster. A critical element of the present effort is the precise metering of propellant to the thruster, since performance cannot be accurately assessed without an accurate accounting of mass flow rate. Earlier work used a pre./post-test propellant weighing scheme that did not provide any real-time measurement of mass flow rate while the thruster was firing, and makes subsequent performance calculations difficult. The motivation of the present work is to develop a precision liquid bismuth Propellant Management System (PMS) that provides hot, molten bismuth to the thruster while simultaneously monitoring in real-time the propellant mass flow rate. The system is a derivative of our previous propellant feed system [2], but the present system represents a more compact design. In addition, all control electronics are integrated into a single unit and designed to reside on a thrust stand and operate in the relevant vacuum environment where the thruster is operating, significantly increasing the present technology readiness level of liquid metal propellant feed systems. The design of various critical components in a bismuth PMS are described. These include the bismuth reservoir and pressurization system, 'hotspot' flow sensor, power system and integrated control system. Particular emphasis is given to selection of the electronics employed in this system and the methods that were used to isolate the power and control systems from the high-temperature portions of the feed system and thruster. Open loop calibration test results from the 'hotspot' flow sensor are reported, and results of

  1. Simulation of Gravity Feed Oil for Areoplane Fuel Transfer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Y. G.; Liu, Z. X.; Huang, S. Q.; Xu, T.

    Generally, it has two different ways for fuel transfer for areoplane, the simplest one is by gravity, and another is by pumps. But the simplest one mighte change to the vital method in some situation, such as electrical and mechanical accident. So the study of gravity feed oil is aslo important. Past calculations assumed that, under gravity feed, only one fuel tank in aircraft supplies the fuel needed for preventing extremely serious accident to happen. Actually, gravity feed oil is a transient process, all fuel tanks compete for supplying oil and there must have several fuel tanks offering oil simultaneously. The key problems to calculate gravity feed oil are the sumulation of the multiple-branch and transient process. Firstly, we presented mathematical models for oil flow through pipes, non-working pupms and check valves, ect. Secondly, On the basis of flow network theory and time difference method, we established a new calculation method for gravity feed oil of aeroplane fuel system. This model can solve the multiple-branch and transient process simulation of gravity feed oil. Our method takes into consideration all fuel tanks and therefore, we believe, our method is intrinsically superior to traditional methods and is closer to understanding the real seriousness of the oil supply situation. Finally, we give a numerical example using the new method for a certain type of aircraft under gravity feed. achieved the variations of oil level and flow mass per second of each oil tanks which showed in Figures below. These variations show preliminarily that our proposed method of calculations is satisfactory.

  2. Cow feeding system versus milk utility for yoghurt manufacture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Jasińska

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. A cow feeding system had a significant effect on the basic parameters characterising milk technological usability. Milk from the Polish Black-and-White variety of the Holstein-Friesland cows kept in the Total Mixed Ration (TMR feeding system or on the traditional feeding regime was compared in terms of its utility for yoghurt manufacture. Material and methods. Milk samples, collected six times a year at about 2-month intervals, were assayed for density, acidity, and contents of fat, protein, and lactose. Dry matter and solid-not-fat (SNF contents were determined, as was the protein/fat ratio. Thermal stability of the milk was assessed with alcohol tests. The yoghurts manufactured (test yoghurts were assayed for acidity, acetaldehyde content, and hardness. The yoghurts were also subjected to sensory evaluation. Results. The cow feeding regime was found to have distinctly affected the composition and physico-chemical parameters of milk. Milk samples collected from cows fed in the traditional system contained more fat and dry matter than the milk yielded by the TMR-fed cattle. The latter produced milk that usually showed higher crude protein and casein contents, as well as higher SNF contents; in addition, the density of that milk was higher. Conclusions. The feeding regime did not affect, in any clear-cut way, the sensory characteristics of the test yoghurts. However, those yoghurts manufactured from the TMR-fed cow milk contained more acetaldehyde and, in most cases, showed higher hardness, compared to the yoghurts made from milk produced by the cows kept on the traditional feeding regime.

  3. Direct methanol feed fuel cell and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surampudi, Subbarao (Inventor); Frank, Harvey A. (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Chun, William (Inventor); Jeffries-Nakamura, Barbara (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Improvements to non acid methanol fuel cells include new formulations for materials. The platinum and ruthenium are more exactly mixed together. Different materials are substituted for these materials. The backing material for the fuel cell electrode is specially treated to improve its characteristics. A special sputtered electrode is formed which is extremely porous. The fuel cell system also comprises a fuel supplying part including a meter which meters an amount of fuel which is used by the fuel cell, and controls the supply of fuel based on said metering.

  4. Leaky Wave Enhanced Feeds for Multi-Beam Reflector Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Llombart, N.; Ettorre, M.; Maagt, P. de

    2011-01-01

    Abstract—This paper discusses the use of dielectric superlayers to shape the radiation pattern of focal plane feeds of a multi-beam reflector system. The shaping of the pattern is obtained by exciting a pair (TE/TM) of leaky waves that radiate incrementally as they propagate between the ground plane

  5. Fluid bed gasification pilot plant fuel feeding system evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, W.A.; Fonstad, T.; Pugsley, T.; Gerspacher, R. (Univ. of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada)), Email: wac132@mail.usask.ca; Wang Zhiguo (Saskatchewan Research Council, Saskatoon (Canada)), Email: zhiguo.wang@src.sk.ca

    2009-07-01

    Fluidized bed gasification (FBG) is a method for thermally converting solid biomass to a gaseous product termed syngas, which can be used as fuel for heat or electricity generation. Accurate and consistent feeding of biomass fuel into biomass FBG converters is a continuing, challenge, and was the subject of experimentation at the University of Saskatchewan biomass FBG pilot plant. The 2-conveyor feeding system for this pilot plant was tested using meat and bone meal (MBM) as feedstock, by conveying the feedstock through the system, and measuring the output rate as the fuel was discharged. The relationship between average mass-flowrate (F{sub M}) and conveyor speed (S) for the complete feeding system was characterized to be F{sub M}=0.2188S-0.42 for the tests performed. Testing of the metering conveyor coupled to the injection conveyor showed that operating these conveyors at drive synchronized speeds, air pulsed into the injection hopper, and 50 slpm injection air, produced the most consistent feed output rate. Hot fluidized bed tests followed, which showed that plugging of the injection nozzle occurred as bed temperatures increased past 700C, resulting in loss of fuel flow. The pneumatic injection nozzle was subsequently removed, and the system was found to perform adequately with it absent. (orig.)

  6. Systems genetics and genome-wide association approaches for analysis of feed intake, feed efficiency, and performance in beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santana, M. H. A.; Freua, M. C.; Do, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    and 943,577 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a genome-wide association analysis was performed for dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake with a Bayesian Lasso procedure. Genes within 50-kb SNPs, most relevant for explaining the genomic variance......Feed intake, feed efficiency, and weight gain are important economic traits of beef cattle in feed lots. In the present study, we investigated the physiological processes underlying such traits from the point of view of systems genetics. Firstly, using data from 1334 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle...... phenotypes and showed that almost all genomic variances were in the SNPs located in the intergenic and intronic regions. We further identified five main metabolic pathways related to ion transport, body composition, and feed intake control, which influenced the four phenotypes simultaneously. The systems...

  7. Research and development for the high-temperature helium-leak detection system (Joint research). Part 2. Development of temperature sensors using optical fibre for the HTTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakaba, Nariaki; Nakazawa, Toshio; Kawasaki, Kozo [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Urakami, Masao; Saisyu, Sadanori [Japan Atomic Power Co., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    In the second stage of the research and development for a high-temperature helium-leak detection system, the temperature sensor using optical fibres was studied. The sensor detects the helium leakage by the temperature increase surrounded optical fibre with or without heat insulator. Moreover, the applicability of high temperature equipments as the HTTR system was studied. With the sensor we detected 5.0-20.0 cm{sup 3}/s helium leakages within 60 minutes. Also it was possible to detect earlier when the leakage level is at 20.0 cm {sup 3}/s. (author)

  8. Probabilistic pipe fracture evaluations for leak-rate-detection applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, S.; Ghadiali, N.; Paul, D.; Wilkowski, G. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Regulatory Guide 1.45, {open_quotes}Reactor Coolant Pressure Boundary Leakage Detection Systems,{close_quotes} was published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in May 1973, and provides guidance on leak detection methods and system requirements for Light Water Reactors. Additionally, leak detection limits are specified in plant Technical Specifications and are different for Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) and Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). These leak detection limits are also used in leak-before-break evaluations performed in accordance with Draft Standard Review Plan, Section 3.6.3, {open_quotes}Leak Before Break Evaluation Procedures{close_quotes} where a margin of 10 on the leak detection limit is used in determining the crack size considered in subsequent fracture analyses. This study was requested by the NRC to: (1) evaluate the conditional failure probability for BWR and PWR piping for pipes that were leaking at the allowable leak detection limit, and (2) evaluate the margin of 10 to determine if it was unnecessarily large. A probabilistic approach was undertaken to conduct fracture evaluations of circumferentially cracked pipes for leak-rate-detection applications. Sixteen nuclear piping systems in BWR and PWR plants were analyzed to evaluate conditional failure probability and effects of crack-morphology variability on the current margins used in leak rate detection for leak-before-break.

  9. Multi-feed System for a Variable Profile Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinchuk, G. A.; Majorova, E. K.; Berlizev, I. V.

    A new design for the RATAN-600 radio telescope is discussed. A multi-channel receiving system, using the principles of phased feed arrays, is suggested for installation in the focal region of the secondary mirror. In such a hybrid system, the main reflecting surface with its rather large collecting area would provide the sensitivity and resolving power of the telescope, and the feed array would give a considerable increase in field of view. Several advantages of such a system, widely used in radar technique, could be applied to radio astronomy. Two version of the array configuration are considered: a one-dimensional version, using the existing secondary reflector, and a more complicated but more powerful two- or three-dimensional configuration. For the latter, we propose to use either the existing secondary reflector, or a new, specially shaped secondary.

  10. A Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (Clarkson Syndrome) in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Case Report in an Out-of-Hospital Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand Bechu, Manon; Rouget, Antoine; Recher, Christian; Azoulay, Elie; Bounes, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) is a rare disease with poor prognosis, characterized by the occurrence of mucocutaneous and visceral edema with hypotension, hemoconcentration, and unexpected hypoalbuminemia. The disease can be idiopathic (Clarkson syndrome) or secondary to other diseases and treatments. We describe this syndrome in a prehospitalized, 63-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and an idiopathic form of SCLS manifesting as hypovolemic shock. Initial care is hospitalization in intensive care. In addition to etiological treatment if fluid replacement is necessary, treatment must be closely monitored for secondary overload complications. Catecholamine rather than arrhythmogenic support may be associated. PMID:27069700

  11. A Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (Clarkson Syndrome in a Patient with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: A Case Report in an Out-of-Hospital Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manon Durand Bechu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS is a rare disease with poor prognosis, characterized by the occurrence of mucocutaneous and visceral edema with hypotension, hemoconcentration, and unexpected hypoalbuminemia. The disease can be idiopathic (Clarkson syndrome or secondary to other diseases and treatments. We describe this syndrome in a prehospitalized, 63-year-old patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and an idiopathic form of SCLS manifesting as hypovolemic shock. Initial care is hospitalization in intensive care. In addition to etiological treatment if fluid replacement is necessary, treatment must be closely monitored for secondary overload complications. Catecholamine rather than arrhythmogenic support may be associated.

  12. Fugitive methane emissions from leak-prone natural gas distribution infrastructure in urban environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrick, Margaret F; Ackley, Robert; Sanaie-Movahed, Bahare; Tang, Xiaojing; Phillips, Nathan G

    2016-06-01

    Fugitive emissions from natural gas systems are the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. and contribute to the risk of explosions in urban environments. Here, we report on a survey of CH4 emissions from 100 natural gas leaks in cast iron distribution mains in Metro Boston, MA. Direct measures of CH4 flux from individual leaks ranged from 4.0 - 2.3 × 10(4) g CH4•day(-1). The distribution of leak size is positively skewed, with 7% of leaks contributing 50% of total CH4 emissions measured. We identify parallels in the skewed distribution of leak size found in downstream systems with midstream and upstream stages of the gas process chain. Fixing 'superemitter' leaks will disproportionately stem greenhouse gas emissions. Fifteen percent of leaks surveyed qualified as potentially explosive (Grade 1), and we found no difference in CH4 flux between Grade 1 leaks and all remaining leaks surveyed (p = 0.24). All leaks must be addressed, as even small leaks cannot be disregarded as 'safely leaking.' Key methodological impediments to quantifying and addressing the impacts of leaking natural gas distribution infrastructure involve inconsistencies in the manner in which gas leaks are defined, detected, and classified. To address this need, we propose a two-part leak classification system that reflects both the safety and climatic impacts of natural gas leaks.

  13. Multiphase feeding program for broilers can replace traditional system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Hauschild

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Broilers are traditionally managed with feeding programs that often consist of three or four phases. In this study we investigated whether a multiphase feeding program (14 phases of broilers based on the optimal mix of two feeds could replace a traditional four phase system while maintaining broiler performance. To evaluate this prposed program we measured variables of performance, carcass yield, and nitrogen excretion. In addition, we determined if the multiphase feeding program (14 phases would be equally effective regardless of bird gender. A total of 480 day-old Cobb chicks were used, with an average weight of 44.74 ± 0.16 g (females and 44.71 ± 0.11 g (males. The birds were distributed in a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design. Each treatment consisted of six replicates with 20 animals per experimental unit. Results were analyzed separately in two periods (1–21 and 22–42 days as determined by slaughter date, as well as for the entire growth period (1–42 days. The multiphase program led to improvements in final body weight and average daily weight gain, in addition to an increase in breast yield.

  14. Active Stand-off Detection of Gas Leaks Using a Short Range Hard-target Backscatter Differential Optical Absorption System Based on a Quantum Cascade Laser Transmitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Thomas, Benjamin; Castillo, Paulo; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2016-06-01

    Fugitive gas emissions from agricultural or industrial plants and gas pipelines are an important environmental concern as they can contribute to the global increase of greenhouse gas concentration. Moreover, they are also a security and safety concern because of possible risk of fire/explosion or toxicity. This study presents gas concentration measurements using a quantum cascade laser open path system (QCLOPS). The system retrieves the pathaveraged concentration of N2O and CH4 by collecting the backscattered light from a scattering target. The gas concentration measurements have a high temporal resolution (68 ms) and are achieved at sufficient range (up to 40 m, ~ 130 feet) with a detection limit of 2.6 ppm CH4 and 0.4 ppm for N2O. Given these characteristics, this system is promising for mobile/multidirectional remote detection and evaluation of gas leaks. The instrument is monostatic with a tunable QCL emitting at ~ 7.7 μm wavelength range. The backscattered radiation is collected by a Newtonian telescope and focused on an infrared light detector. Puffs of N2O and CH4 are released along the optical path to simulate a gas leak. The measured absorption spectrum is obtained using the thermal intra-pulse frequency chirped DFB QCL and is analyzed to obtain path averaged gas concentrations.

  15. A new integrated slot element feed array for multibeam systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid; Johansson, Joakim F.; Kollberg, Erik L.

    1986-01-01

    A feed array consisting of constant width slot antennas (CWSA), fed from a block containing fin-line transitions, has been developed. The array has a two-dimensional configuration, with five elements each on five parallel substrates. Beamwidths are compatible with use in f/D = 1.0 multibeam systems, with optimum taper. Array element spacings are close to a factor of two smaller than for other typical arrays, and spillover efficiency is about 65 percent.

  16. Detection of interstate liquids pipeline leaks: Feasibility evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, R.N.; Senum, G.I.

    1998-10-20

    The approximately 200,000-mile fuel pipeline system in the US operates at flow rates up to 2.5 {times} 10{sup 6} gallons per hour (GPH). Most commercial technologies only provide on-line leak detection at about 0.3% of flow rate, i.e., about 7,500 GPH or larger. Detection of leaks at about 1 GPH or so is desirable both from a regulatory and leak-prevention standpoint. Brookhaven`s commercially-accepted perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology for underground leak detection of utility industry dielectric fluids at leak rates less than 0.1 GPH, with new enhancements, will be able to cost-effectively detect fuel pipeline system leaks to about 1 GPH--3 orders-of-magnitude better than any on-line system. The magnitude of detected leaks would be calculable as well. Proposed mobile surveys (such as those used periodically in the gas pipeline industry) at about 110 to 120 miles per day would allow such small leaks to be detected at 10-ppb tagging levels (less than $1,500 of PFT for a 48-hour tag at the maximum transport rate) under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions. Smaller leaks could be detected by proportionately larger tagging concentrations. Leaks would be pinpointed by subsequent conventional barholing and vapor analyses. There are no health nor safety issues associated with the use of the proposed technological approach nor any consequential environmental impacts associated with the proposed magnitudes of PFT tagging.

  17. Feed intake and performance of growing lambs raised on concentrate-based diets under cafeteria feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A B; Bodas, R; Fernández, B; López-Campos, O; Mantecón, A R; Giráldez, F J

    2007-03-01

    Two trials were undertaken to study the effects of cafeteria feeding systems on the feed intake, animal performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Trial 1 was designed to compare conventional and cafeteria feeding systems in terms of the growth of individually reared lambs. For this assay, 26 weaned Merino lambs (15.5 ± 0.20 kg live weight) were assigned to three dietary treatment groups: (1) a control group fed barley straw and commercial concentrate under a conventional feeding system, (2) group W100S, fed soya-bean meal, whole barley grain and a mineral-vitamin supplement under a cafeteria feeding system, and (3) group W100S-T, fed as in the W100S treatment but allowing the lambs an initial training period so they could learn to identify a number of feeds. The feeding system had no significant effect ( P>0.05) on either average daily live-weight gain, carcass weight, or carcass conformation. The food conversion ratio was lower ( P cafeteria-reared animals (2.9 ± 0.16 v. 2.5 ± 0.08 g dry-matter intake per g average daily gain) than those of the control group. This might be related to the higher crude protein intake seen in the cafeteria groups (150 ± 5.6 v. 208 ± 12.5 g per animal per day; P cafeteria and conventional feeding system were compared in terms of the growth of feedlot lambs. Two hundred weaned Merino lambs (13.1 ± 0.10 kg) were divided into two experimental groups: (1) a control group, offered commercial concentrate and barley straw, and (2) a cafeteria group fed the same diet as W100ST in trial 1. The average daily gain (282 ± 5.8 and 309 ± 6.5; P cafeteria than in the control group. Whereas neither carcass conformation nor fatness were affected by the feeding system, the dressing percentage was slightly higher ( P>0.001) in the conventional than in the cafeteria system lambs.The use of cafeteria systems for fattening lambs can improve the feed conversion efficiency and body growth rate over those

  18. Performance comparison of TDR-based systems for permanent and diffused detection of water content and leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, A.; De Benedetto, E.; Cannazza, G.; Huebner, C.; Trebbels, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the performance of three time domain reflectometry (TDR) instruments (with different hardware architectures, specifications and costs) is comparatively assessed. The goal is to evaluate the performance of low-cost TDR instrumentation, in view of the development of a completely permanent TDR-based monitoring solution, wherein the costs of the instrument is so low, that it can be left on-site, even unguarded, and controlled remotely. Without losing generality, the applications considered for the comparative experiments are the TDR-based detection of leaks in underground pipes and, more in general, of soil water content variations. For this reason, both laboratory and in-the-field experiments are carried out by comparatively using three TDR instruments, in conjunction with wire-like sensing elements (SEs).

  19. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-04-02

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford`s underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis.

  20. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  1. Aspects of leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chivers, T.C. [Berkeley Technology Centre, Glos (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    A requirement of a Leak before Break safety case is that the leakage from the through wall crack be detected prior to any growth leading to unacceptable failure. This paper sets out to review some recent developments in this field. It does not set out to be a comprehensive guide to all of the methods available. The discussion concentrates on acoustic emission and how the techniques can be qualified and deployed on operational plant.

  2. Escape dynamics through a continuously growing leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Tamás; Vanyó, József

    2017-06-01

    We formulate a model that describes the escape dynamics in a leaky chaotic system in which the size of the leak depends on the number of the in-falling particles. The basic motivation of this work is the astrophysical process, which describes the planetary accretion. In order to study the dynamics generally, the standard map is investigated in two cases when the dynamics is fully hyperbolic and in the presence of Kolmogorov-Arnold-Moser islands. In addition to the numerical calculations, an analytic solution to the temporal behavior of the model is also derived. We show that in the early phase of the leak expansion, as long as there are enough particles in the system, the number of survivors deviates from the well-known exponential decay. Furthermore, the analytic solution returns the classical result in the limiting case when the number of particles does not affect the leak size.

  3. Recent Progress in Technology of Leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, H. K.; Kim, S. H.; Cho, J. W.; Joo, Y. S.; Yang, D. J

    2005-07-15

    It is very important to check for leakage points of fluids and gases on primary pressure boundary of nuclear power plants in order to maintain and manage various structures safely. Even though much investigation has been performed by a number of researchers, there are a lot of problems to detect the leakage under some areas to which people can not approach. In particular, it is certainly necessary to find the leakage point in order to repair and replace the pressure boundaries. In this report, the basic principle and application situations for the development of the leak detection system which can detect micro-leaks are introduced. As the technologies and performances of recent sensors have been improving, the application range of leak detection has been increasing steadily. Therefore the sensor technologies written in this report will be able to contribute to nuclear safety to detect the leakage rate and the leakage point with an on-line monitoring system in the near future.

  4. Design of wide- band gas leak infrared imaging detection system%宽波段气体泄漏红外成像检测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家琨; 顿雄; 金明磊; 金伟其; 王霞; 夏润秋

    2014-01-01

    有毒有害气体的泄漏不仅污染环境,而且威胁人民生命财产安全,世界各国都非常重视快速有效的气体泄漏检测技术的研究和仪器开发。针对这一问题,提出了宽波段气体泄漏红外成像检测系统设计方案,主要包括宽波段红外光学镜头尧子波段滤光片及切换装置尧宽波段非制冷焦平面探测器尧视频处理及系统控制电路等组成部分,充分利用非制冷探测器的无光谱选择特性,结合热图像非均匀性校正和数字细节增强处理算法,实现了对不同种类气体泄漏的高灵敏度检测,提供了适合人眼判断的气体泄漏视频图像显示结果。整个系统具有可检测气体种类多尧检测范围大速度快尧气体泄漏痕迹明显增强尧系统便携性突出尧成本相对较低等特点。%The leakage of toxic or hazardous gases not only pollutes the environment, but also threatens people’s lives and property safety. Many countries attach great importance to the rapid and effective gas leak detection technology and instrument development. To address this issue, a wide- band gas leak IR imaging detection system design was proposed, mainly including wide- band IR optical lens, the sub- band filters and switching device, wide- band Uncooled Focal Plane Array (UFPA) detector, video processing and system control circuit, which takes full advantage of the spectrally non- selective characteristic of the uncooled focal plane array detector. The system can sensitively detect and visualize a considerable number of different kinds of gases, which are not visible to the naked eyes, by using the IR image non-uniformity correction technology and Digital Detail Enhancement (DDE) technology. The resulting gas leak video easy to be observed for the human eye was provided. Many advantages are commendable, such as scanning a wide range simultaneously, locating the leaking source quickly, visualizing the gas plume intuitively, and

  5. CENTRAL CONVEYING & AUTO FEEDING SYSTEMS FOR AN INJECTION MOLDING SHOP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays injection molding is probably the most important method of Processing of consumer and industrial goods, and is performed everywhere in the world. The developing of injection molding becomes a competition from day to day. This Process now integrated with computer control make the production better in quality and Better quantity. The trends of producing a plastics product in injection molding industries are recently changing from traditional method to using the FEA analysis. For injection molding industries, time and cost is very important aspects to consider because these two aspectswill directly related to the profits at a company. The next issue toconsider, to get the best parameter for the injection molding process, plastics has been waste. Through the experiment, operator will use large amount of plastics material to get the possibly parameters to setup the machine.To produce the parts with better quality and quantity these molding defects are the major obstacles in achieving the targets with quality & quantity. Various defects like Short shot, colour streaks and low productivity rates are associated with the material mixing and feeding as molded plastics are often a blend of two or more materials. Colors (master batch and other additives are often mixed (blended with the raw plastic material prior to the molding process in molding plants. So it is very necessary to work out auto blending and auto feeding of plasticgranules to the machine hopper. This paper will cover the studyof automatic blending unit & central conveying system for plasticgranule feeding to machine & will help in optimizing the injection molding process.

  6. Variable leak gas source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A variable leak gas source and a method for obtaining the same which includes filling a quantity of hollow glass micro-spheres with a gas, storing said quantity in a confined chamber having a controllable outlet, heating said chamber above room temperature, and controlling the temperature of said chamber to control the quantity of gas passing out of said controllable outlet. Individual gas filled spheres may be utilized for calibration purposes by breaking a sphere having a known quantity of a known gas to calibrate a gas detection apparatus.

  7. Improved mixing and sampling systems for vitrification melter feeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes the methods used and results obtained during the progress of the study of waste slurry mixing and sampling systems during fiscal year 1977 (FY97) at the Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) at Florida International University (FIU). The objective of this work is to determine optimal mixing configurations and operating conditions as well as improved sampling technology for defense waste processing facility (DWPF) waste melter feeds at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Most of the research on this project was performed experimentally by using a tank mixing configuration with different rotating impellers. The slurry simulants for the experiments were prepared in-house based on the properties of the DOE sites` typical waste slurries. A sampling system was designed to withdraw slurry from the mixing tank. To obtain insight into the waste mixing process, the slurry flow in the mixing tank was also simulated numerically by applying computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods. The major parameters investigated in both the experimental and numerical studies included power consumption of mixer, mixing time to reach slurry uniformity, slurry type, solids concentration, impeller type, impeller size, impeller rotating speed, sampling tube size, and sampling velocities. Application of the results to the DWPF melter feed preparation process will enhance and modify the technical base for designing slurry transportation equipment and pipeline systems. These results will also serve as an important reference for improving waste slurry mixing performance and melter operating conditions. These factors will contribute to an increase in the capability of the vitrification process and the quality of the waste glass.

  8. HIGH RESOLUTION RESISTIVITY LEAK DETECTION DATA PROCESSING & EVALUATION MEHTODS & REQUIREMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHOFIELD JS

    2007-10-04

    This document has two purposes: {sm_bullet} Describe how data generated by High Resolution REsistivity (HRR) leak detection (LD) systems deployed during single-shell tank (SST) waste retrieval operations are processed and evaluated. {sm_bullet} Provide the basic review requirements for HRR data when Hrr is deployed as a leak detection method during SST waste retrievals.

  9. Propellant Feed System for Swirl-Coaxial Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, David Christopher (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A propellant feed system for swirl-coaxial injection of a liquid propellant includes a reservoir having a bottom plate and at least one tube originating in the bottom plate and extending therefrom. The tube has rectangular slits defined in and distributed tangentially and evenly about a portion of the tube that is disposed in the bottom plate. Drain holes are provided in the bottom plate and tunnels are defined in the bottom plate. Each tunnel fluidly couples one of the drain holes to a corresponding one of the rectangular slits. Each tunnel includes (i) a bend of at least 90.degree., and (ii) a straight portion leading to its corresponding rectangular slit wherein the straight portion is at least five times as long as a hydraulic diameter of the corresponding rectangular slit.

  10. Analysis of motion on agile shell-feeding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Since cannon drum of agile shell-feeding system rotates frequently and intermittently, its motion must be steady. Outline of driving cam determines the motion of cannon drum, so it is necessary to select the proper outline of cam. Through analysis of parabolic outline and cycloid outline of the cams, the outline that combines the two curves is obtained. According to the demand of production,the value of the outline is revised, and then the method of fitting curve is used to get the expression of the angle of cam and the displacement of the driven part. Through analyzing the motion of the cannon drum, it is suggested that the angle of the cam is proportion to the displacement of the driven part. The cam with the specially derived outline can move steadily.

  11. Performance of Layers Supplemented with Either Complete Feed or Diets in Cafeteria Feeding System Under Semi-scavenging Condition in a Tropical Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Chamali; Roy, Bimol Chandra; Ranvig, Hans; Riise, Jens Christian; Iwamoto, Hisao; Tabata, Shoji

    2008-01-01

    1. Egg production ability and its economical aspect were compared among the hens kept under semi-scavenging condition on two feeding systems with four supplementary levels. Commercial balanced feed and cafeteria feeding diet were fed the hens at 40 g, 60 g, 80 g and 120 g/day respectively. Cafeteria feeding diet was composed of 70% mixed feed (40% broken rice, 20% rice polish and 10% wheat bran), 27% soybean meal and 3% oyster shell. 2. The mean feed residue was 4-8 g/day in the hens fed 40...

  12. Morphology of the feeding system in agamid lizards: ecological correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrel, A; Aerts, P; Fret, J; de Vree, F

    1999-04-01

    The interaction of organismal design with ecology, and its evolutionary development are the subject of many functional and ecomorphological studies. Many studies have shown that the morphology and mechanics of the masticatory apparatus in mammals are adapted to diet. To investigate the relations between diet and the morphological and physiological properties of the lizard jaw system, a detailed analysis of the structure of the jaw apparatus was undertaken in the insectivorous lizard Plocederma stellio and in closely related herbivorous lizards of the genus Uromastix. The morphological and physiological properties of the jaw system in P. stellio and U. aegyptius were studied by means of dissections, light microscopy, histochemical characterisations, and in vivo stimulation experiments. The skull of Uromastix seems to be built for forceful biting (high, short snout). Additionally, the pterygoid muscle is modified in P. stellio, resulting in an additional force component during static biting. Stimulation experiments indicate that jaw muscles in both species are fast, which is supported by histochemical stainings. However, the oxidative capacity of the jaw muscles is larger in Uromastix. Contraction characteristics and performance of the feeding system (force output) are clearly thermally dependent. We conclude that several characteristics of the jaw system (presence of extra portion of the pterygoid muscle, large oxidative capacity of jaw muscles) in Uromastix may be attributed to its herbivorous diet. Jaw muscles, however, are still faster than expected. This is presumably the result of trade-offs between the thermal characteristics of the jaw adductors and the herbivorous lifestyle of these animals.

  13. Performance evaluation of PRIDE UNDA system with pyroprocessing feed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Su Jung; Seo, Hee; Lee, Chaehun; Ahn, Seong-Kyu; Park, Se-Hwan; Ku, Jeong-Hoe

    2017-04-01

    The PRIDE (PyRoprocessing Integrated inactive DEmonstration) is an engineering-scale pyroprocessing test-bed facility that utilizes depleted uranium (DU) instead of spent fuel as a process material. As part of the ongoing effort to enhance pyroprocessing safeguardability, UNDA (Unified Non-Destructive Assay), a system integrating three different non-destructive assay techniques, namely, neutron, gamma-ray, and mass measurement, for nuclear material accountancy (NMA) was developed. In the present study, UNDA's NMA capability was evaluated by measurement of the weight, (238)U mass, and U enrichment of oxide-reduction-process feed material (i.e., porous pellets). In the (238)U mass determination, the total neutron counts for porous pellets of six different weights were measured. The U enrichment of the porous pellets, meanwhile, was determined according to the gamma spectrums acquired using UNDA's NaI-based enrichment measurement system. The results demonstrated that the UNDA system, after appropriate corrections, could be used in PRIDE NMA applications with reasonable uncertainty. It is expected that in the near future, the UNDA system will be tested with next-step materials such as the products of the oxide-reduction and electro-refining processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 40 CFR 63.1024 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1024 Section 63.1024... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 2 Standards § 63.1024 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical, but not later than 15...

  15. 40 CFR 65.105 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 65.105 Section 65.105... FEDERAL AIR RULE Equipment Leaks § 65.105 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner or operator shall repair each leak detected as soon as practical but not later than 15 calendar days after it...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1005 - Leak repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... successful repair of the leak. (3) Maximum instrument reading measured by Method 21 of 40 CFR part 60... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leak repair. 63.1005 Section 63.1005... Standards for Equipment Leaks-Control Level 1 § 63.1005 Leak repair. (a) Leak repair schedule. The owner...

  17. Real time detection of leaks in non-compressible fluid flow systems: a time series approach; Deteccao em tempo real de vazamentos em redes de escoamento para fluidos incompressiveis: uma abordagem em series temporais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cesar Augusto Fernandes de [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Lab. SDV - Dutos]. E-mail: jlm@eq.ufrj.br

    2002-06-01

    Algorithms were developed for real time detection, estimation and location of leaks in flow systems operating with non-compressible fluids. Process inputs and outputs are assumed to be available by means of field sensing, treated through historical time series reconciliation and storage. The process presented herein was built as a pseudo stationary system for process data generation at the selected variables: nodal pressures, flow rates in pipes and input and output nodes. The procedure consists in generating data series during the occurrence of programmed events and use them during the training of ARX/ARMAX structure MIMO predictors, with constant update. A sudden leak is detected by a statistically significant instant deviation between a group of predictions and the measures of the process associated with the predictors' answers. Once the event is identified, the next step is to locate and estimate its size using another group of predictors trained through simulated process data of known leak events. These predictors use leak parameters (i.e., its location and orifice diameter) as additional inputs so that estimation can be performed in order to predict real answers to the process that are being deviated from the original predictions monitored during the manifestation of the event. (author)

  18. Hoist technology of a new agile naval gun shell-feeding system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO A-ni; LIU He-ping; SONG Hong-xia; HU Sheng-hai; ZHANG Jia-tai

    2006-01-01

    Shell-feeding velocity is an important factor affecting naval gun shooting capacity. An agile shell-feeding system was designed to ensure quick implementation of the shell-feeding task. Based on composition of the agile shell-feeding system, hoist technology was studied. Working principles were discussed and the hydraulic pressure system of the hoist was constructed. The hydraulic pressure cylinder and the accumulator were analyzed and calculated. Finally, PRO/E and ADAMS were used to simulate the hoist and its hydraulic system. It was found that this type of virtual prototype provides a good method to actualize a physical prototype.

  19. DETECTION OF INTERSTATE LIQUIDS PIPELINE LEAKS: FEASIBILITY EVALUATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DIETZ,R.N.

    1998-10-20

    The approximately 200,000-mile fuel pipeline system in the U.S. operates at flow rates up to 2.5 x 10{sup 6}gallons per hour (GPH). Most commercial technologies only provide on-line leak detection at about 0.3% of flow rate, i.e., about 7,500 GPH or larger. Detection of leaks at about 1 GPH or so is desirable both from a regulatory and leak-prevention standpoint. Brookhaven's commercially-accepted perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) technology for underground leak detection of utility industry dielectric fluids at leak rates less than 0.1 GPH, with new enhancements, will be able to cost-effectively detect fuel pipeline system leaks to about 1 GPH--3 orders-of-magnitude better than any on-line system. The magnitude of detected leaks would be calculable as well. Proposed mobile surveys (such as those used periodically in the gas pipeline industry) at about 110 to 120 miles per day would allow such small leaks to be detected at 10-ppb tagging levels (less than $1,500 of PFT for a 48-hour tag at the maximum transport rate) under worst-case meteorological dispersion conditions. Smaller leaks could be detected by proportionately larger tagging concentrations. Leaks would be pinpointed by subsequent conventional barholing and vapor analyses. There are no health nor safety issues associated with the use of the proposed technological approach nor any consequential environmental impacts associated with the proposed magnitudes of PFT tagging.

  20. Correlator data analysis for the array feed compensation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, B.; Fort, D.; Vilnrotter, V.

    1994-05-01

    The real-time array feed compensation system is currently being evaluated at DSS 13. This system recovers signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) loss due to mechanical antenna deformations by using an array of seven Ka-band (33.7-GHz) horns to collect the defocused signal fields. The received signals are downconverted and digitized, in-phase and quadrature samples are generated, and combining weights are applied before the samples are recombined. It is shown that when optimum combining weights are employed, the SNR of the combined signal approaches the sum of the channel SNR's. The optimum combining weights are estimated directly from the signals in each channel by the Real-Time Block 2 (RTB2) correlator; since it was designed for very-long-baseline interferometer (VLBI) applications, it can process broadband signals as well as tones to extract the required weight estimates. The estimation algorithms for the optimum combining weights are described for tones and broadband sources. Data recorded in correlator output files can also be used off-line to estimate combiner performance by estimating the SNR in each channel, which was done for data taken during a Jupiter track at DSS 13.

  1. Automatic recovery from resource exhaustion exceptions by collecting leaked resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi-ying DAI; Xiao-guang MAO; Li-qian CHEN; Yan LEI

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of garbage collectors, programmers must manually manage non-memory fi nite system resources such as fi le descriptors. Resource leaks can gradually consume all available resources and cause programs to raise resource exhaustion exceptions. However, programmers commonly provide no effective recovery approach for resource exhaustion exceptions, which often causes programs to halt without completing their tasks. In this paper, we propose to automatically recover programs from resource exhaustion exceptions caused by resource leaks. We transform programs to catch resource exhaustion exceptions, collect leaked resources, and then retry the failure code. A resource collector is designed to identify leaked resources and safely release them. We implement our approach for Java programs. Experimental results show that our approach can successfully handle resource exhaustion exceptions caused by reported resource leaks and allow programs to complete their tasks with an average execution time increase of 2.52%and negligible bytecode size increase.

  2. Fatal Primary Capillary Leak Syndrome in a Late Preterm Newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulihova, Katarina; Prochazkova, Martina; Semberova, Jana; Janota, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Primary capillary leak syndrome is a rare disease of unknown etiology, characterized by episodes of vascular collapse and plasma extravasation, which may lead to multiple organ failure. Primary capillary leak is extremely rare in children. The authors report a case of a late preterm newborn with fatal capillary leak syndrome of unknown etiology, manifesting as hypotension unresponsive to treatment, extravasation leading to generalised edema, disseminated intravascular coagulation and finally, multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Aggressive volumotherapy and a combination of inotropes and high doses of terlipressin did not influence systemic vascular collapse and plasma extravasation. The newborn developed multiple organ failure and died on day 27 of life. Investigations performed failed to reveal any specific cause of capillary leak. This is the first report of a fatal primary capillary leak syndrome in a newborn.

  3. Optimal pressure sensor placement for leak localisation using a relaxed isolation index : application to the Barcelona water network

    OpenAIRE

    Cugueró Escofet, Miquel Àngel; Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Quevedo Casín, Joseba Jokin; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquim

    2015-01-01

    Water distribution networks are large complex systems that are affected by leaks, which often entail high costs and may severely jeopardize the overall water distribution performance. Successful leak localisation is paramount in order to minimize the impact of these leaks when occurring. Sensor placement is a key issue in the leak localisation process, since the overall performance and success of the leak isolation method highly depends on the choice of the sensors gathering data from the net...

  4. The effects of feeding commercial feed formulated for semi-intensive systems on Litopenaeus vannamei production and its profitability in a hyper-intensive biofloc-dominated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Braga

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the production of Litopenaeus vannamei in a high density biofloc-dominated system using two commercial feeds; a less expensive feed (US$0.99 kg−1 formulated for semi-intensive systems and the more expensive (US$1.75 kg−1 which was designed for hyper-intensive systems. A 67-days study was conducted in six 40 m3 lined with Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer membrane raceways (RWs filled with mixture of seawater (22 m3, and biofloc-rich water (18 m3. Each RW was stocked (500 shrimp m−3 using juveniles (2.66 g produced from Taura-Resistant and Fast-Growth breeding lines. The study was composed of two feed treatments with three replicates each; the cheaper feed (SI-35 contained 35% crude protein (CP, 7% lipid and 4% fiber while the more expensive one (HI-35 had the same levels of CP and lipid but only 2% fiber. The SI-35 treatment required more solids removal, oxygen, and bicarbonate supplementation than the HI-35 treatment. Weekly growth, total biomass, yield were significantly lower in the SI-35 treatment, whereas feed conversion ratio was higher. The economic analysis indicates that both feeds would be commercially viable, nevertheless, the less-expensive feed financially underperformed the other.

  5. Basic Characteristics of New Developed Higher-Voltage Direct-Current Power-Feeding Prototype System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babasaki, Tadatoshi; Tanaka, Toshimitsu; Tanaka, Toru; Nozaki, Yousuke; Aoki, Tadahito; Kurokawa, Fujio

    High efficiency power feeding systems are effective solutions for reducing the ICT power consumption with reducing power consumption of the ICT equipment and cooling systems. A higher voltage direct current (HVDC) power feeding system prototype was produced. This system is composed of a rectifier equipment, power distribution unit, batteries, and the ICT equipment. The configuration is similar to a -48V DC power supply system. The output of the rectifier equipment is 100kW, and the output voltage is 401.4V. This paper present the configuration of the HVDC power feeding system and discuss its basic characteristics in the prototype system.

  6. Creation of an Exergetic Based Leak Detection and Diagnosis Methodology for Automotive Carbon Dioxide Air Conditioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. B. Bailey

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Carbon dioxide automotive air conditioning (AC systems have been under development for over a decade. Although the AC system construction is important, a reliable refrigerant leakage detection system is also vital. A detailed thermodynamic simulation model and fault detection and diagnosis (FDD system, with proposed validation plans, has been developed at Rochester Institute of Technology. A discussion of simulation models that have been developed for various compressors and heat exchangers is presented; they are compared to actual AC systems to develop a realistic experimental setup. Assumptions from previous work are examined and improved.

    • Portions of this paper were previously published in the ECOS'05 and ECOS'07 conference proceedings.

  7. Rapid, Vehicle-Based Identification of Location and Magnitude of Urban Natural Gas Pipeline Leaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fischer, Joseph C; Cooley, Daniel; Chamberlain, Sam; Gaylord, Adam; Griebenow, Claire J; Hamburg, Steven P; Salo, Jessica; Schumacher, Russ; Theobald, David; Ham, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Information about the location and magnitudes of natural gas (NG) leaks from urban distribution pipelines is important for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions and optimizing investment in pipeline management. To enable rapid collection of such data, we developed a relatively simple method using high-precision methane analyzers in Google Street View cars. Our data indicate that this automated leak survey system can document patterns in leak location and magnitude within and among cities, even without wind data. We found that urban areas with prevalent corrosion-prone distribution lines (Boston, MA, Staten Island, NY, and Syracuse, NY), leaked approximately 25-fold more methane than cities with more modern pipeline materials (Burlington, VT, and Indianapolis, IN). Although this mobile monitoring method produces conservative estimates of leak rates and leak counts, it can still help prioritize both leak repairs and replacement of leak-prone sections of distribution lines, thus minimizing methane emissions over short and long terms.

  8. Improvement of multi-parameter-based feed-forward coagulant dosing control systems with feed-back functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Ratnaweera, H

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant dosing control in drinking and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is often limited to flow proportional concepts. The advanced multi-parameter-based dosing control systems have significantly reduced coagulant consumption and improved outlet qualities. Due to the long retention time in separation stages, these models are mostly based on feed-forward (FF) models. This paper demonstrates the improvement of such models with feed-back (FB) concepts with simplifications, making it possible to use even in systems with long separation stages. Full-scale case studies from a drinking water treatment plant and a WWTP are presented. The model qualities were improved by the dosage adjustment of the FB model, ranging from 66% to 197% of the FF model. Hence, the outlet qualities became more stable and coagulant consumption was further reduced in the range of 3.7%-15.5%.

  9. A Study of Anti-leak System based on File Protection%一种基于文件保护的防泄密系统研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘思超; 张梓雄; 韩惠良; 孙国梓

    2013-01-01

    This article has carried on the analysis regarding the data security problem in the system, from the ifle protection perspective provides a solution, the design and implementation of a practical LAN ifle security control system, which realize the administrator can control only in a security system that a trusted host for editing and conifdential documents, to protect the stronger ability to prevent conifdential documents or data leaked. A trusted host security technology as well as the transparent encryption driver, the control end, the system administrator is analyzed.%文章对于系统中的数据安全问题进行了分析,从文件保护的角度提供了一种解决方案,设计与实现了一个具有实用性的局域网内文件安全管控系统,即实现管理员可以控制的仅能够在指定的受信主机上进行机密文件的编辑与修改的安全系统,达到更强的防止机密文件或者数据被泄露的保护能力。文章还对系统中的管理员控制端、受信主机安全技术以及透明加解密驱动程序等进行了分析。

  10. Nonlinear mathematical models for simulation modeling of dynamic processes in feed systems of cutter loaders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbatov, P.A.; Plyungin, A.V. (Donetskii Politekhnicheskii Institut (USSR))

    1990-12-01

    Presents calculation methods and mathematical models of dynamic processes that occur in feed systems of cutter loaders with rigid pulling elements. Characteristics of dynamic interactions between driving wheels and the working section of the pulling system are taken into account. Mathematical models are given that describe the dynamic operation of the feed system. A method for calculation of a hydraulic vibration compensating system and its mathematical model is presented. Effectiveness of the vibration compensating system is discussed. 2 refs.

  11. Leak testing of cryogenic components - problems and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S P; Pandarkar, S P; Unni, T G; Sinha, A K; Mahajan, K; Suthar, R L [Centre for Design and Manufacture, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)], E-mail: sushils@barc.gov.in

    2008-05-01

    A prototype of Cold Neutron Source (CNS) for Dhruva Reactor is being manufactured at Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM), BARC, Mumbai for validating the mechanical and thermal engineering design aspects, besides checking the integrity of all joints and components at low temperature, 77K. Task of a Cold Neutron Source is to generate cold neutrons by cooling down the thermal neutrons, which are originally produced in a nuclear research reactor. The complete Cold Neutron Source system comprises a complex arrangement of moderator pot, transfer line (piping), pumps, refrigerators, storage tanks, a heat exchanger and associated controls and instrumentation. The heart of the system is moderator pot in which water (moderator) is cooled down by Liquid Nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) being circulated through an annular cavity machined on the walls of the pot. Transfer lines for LN{sub 2} basically consist of two concentric Stainless Steel flexible pipes, which are joined to the inlet and outlet Aluminium tubes of the moderator pot through transition joints. Leak in any component may result in loss of liquid Nitrogen, degradation of vacuum, which in turn may affect the heat removal efficiency of the source. Hence, leak testing was considered a very important quality control tool and all joints and components were subjected to helium leak test using mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD) at cryogenic temperature. During one of the earlier experiments, flow of LN{sub 2} through inner flexible pipe of the transfer line resulted in rise of pressure in the vacuum annulus and sweating on the outer flexible pipe. After investigations it was found that large thermal stress compounded with mechanical stress resulted in cracks in the inner pipe. Accordingly design was modified to get leak proof transfer line assembly. Further, during leak testing of thin wall moderator pot, gross leak was observed on the outer jacket welded joint. Leak was so large that even a small amount of Helium gas in

  12. ISS Ammonia Leak Detection Through X-Ray Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan; Barthelmy, Scott; Skinner, Gerry

    2013-01-01

    Ammonia leaks are a significant concern for the International Space Station (ISS). The ISS has external transport lines that direct liquid ammonia to radiator panels where the ammonia is cooled and then brought back to thermal control units. These transport lines and radiator panels are subject to stress from micrometeorites and temperature variations, and have developed small leaks. The ISS can accommodate these leaks at their present rate, but if the rate increased by a factor of ten, it could potentially deplete the ammonia supply and impact the proper functioning of the ISS thermal control system, causing a serious safety risk. A proposed ISS astrophysics instrument, the Lobster X-Ray Monitor, can be used to detect and localize ISS ammonia leaks. Based on the optical design of the eye of its namesake crustacean, the Lobster detector gives simultaneously large field of view and good position resolution. The leak detection principle is that the nitrogen in the leaking ammonia will be ionized by X-rays from the Sun, and then emit its own characteristic Xray signal. The Lobster instrument, nominally facing zenith for its astrophysics observations, can be periodically pointed towards the ISS radiator panels and some sections of the transport lines to detect and localize the characteristic X-rays from the ammonia leaks. Another possibility is to use the ISS robot arm to grab the Lobster instrument and scan it across the transport lines and radiator panels. In this case the leak detection can be made more sensitive by including a focused 100-microampere electron beam to stimulate X-ray emission from the leaking nitrogen. Laboratory studies have shown that either approach can be used to locate ammonia leaks at the level of 0.1 kg/day, a threshold rate of concern for the ISS. The Lobster instrument uses two main components: (1) a microchannel plate optic (also known as a Lobster optic) that focuses the X-rays and directs them to the focal plane, and (2) a CCD (charge

  13. Leak testing of cryogenic components — problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S. P.; Pandarkar, S. P.; Unni, T. G.; Sinha, A. K.; Mahajan, K.; Suthar, R. L.

    2008-05-01

    A prototype of Cold Neutron Source (CNS) for Dhruva Reactor is being manufactured at Centre for Design and Manufacture (CDM), BARC, Mumbai for validating the mechanical and thermal engineering design aspects, besides checking the integrity of all joints and components at low temperature, 77K. Task of a Cold Neutron Source is to generate cold neutrons by cooling down the thermal neutrons, which are originally produced in a nuclear research reactor. The complete Cold Neutron Source system comprises a complex arrangement of moderator pot, transfer line (piping), pumps, refrigerators, storage tanks, a heat exchanger and associated controls and instrumentation. The heart of the system is moderator pot in which water (moderator) is cooled down by Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) being circulated through an annular cavity machined on the walls of the pot. Transfer lines for LN2 basically consist of two concentric Stainless Steel flexible pipes, which are joined to the inlet and outlet Aluminium tubes of the moderator pot through transition joints. Leak in any component may result in loss of liquid Nitrogen, degradation of vacuum, which in turn may affect the heat removal efficiency of the source. Hence, leak testing was considered a very important quality control tool and all joints and components were subjected to helium leak test using mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD) at cryogenic temperature. During one of the earlier experiments, flow of LN2 through inner flexible pipe of the transfer line resulted in rise of pressure in the vacuum annulus and sweating on the outer flexible pipe. After investigations it was found that large thermal stress compounded with mechanical stress resulted in cracks in the inner pipe. Accordingly design was modified to get leak proof transfer line assembly. Further, during leak testing of thin wall moderator pot, gross leak was observed on the outer jacket welded joint. Leak was so large that even a small amount of Helium gas in the vicinity of the

  14. ALIBABA, an assistance system for the detection of confinement leaks in a PWR reactor; ALIBABA, un systeme d`aide a la detection des voies de fuites du confinement sur un reacteur a eau sous pression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bedier, P.O.; Libmann, M. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Mecanique et de Technologie

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the Crisis Technical Center (CTC) of the French Institute for Nuclear Protection and Safety (IPSN) is to estimates the consequences of a given nuclear accident on the populations and the environment. ALIBABA is a data processing tool available at the CTC and devoted to the detection of confinement leaks in 900 MWe PWR reactors using the activity values measured by the captors of the installation. The heart of this expert system is a structural and functional representation of the different components directly involved in the leak detection (isolating valves, ventilation systems, electric boards etc..). This tool can manage the availability of each component to make qualitative and quantitative balance-sheets. This paper presents the ALIBABA software, an industrial prototype realized with the SPIRAL knowledge base systems generator at the CEA Reactor Studies and Applied Mathematics Service (SERMA) and commercialized by CRIL-Ingenierie Society. It describes the techniques used for the modeling of PWR systems and for the visualization of the survey. The functionality of the man-machine interface is discussed and the means used for the validation of the software are summarized. (J.S.). 6 refs.

  15. Management factors affecting aggression in dynamic group housing systems with electronic sow feeding - a field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L S; Bertelsen, D; Jensen, K H

    1999-01-01

    material and starting the feeding cycle in the evening for overnight feeding may improve behaviour in dynamic group housing systems with ESF. However, the benefits of starting the feeding cycle in the evening may depend on low disturbance in daytime from other management procedures......A series of 24-h video studies on four commercial Danish pig herds investigated the behaviour of pregnant sows kept in dynamic groups (72 to 200 sows) with electronic sow feeding (ESF). The herds mainly differed with respect to provision of a layer of unchopped straw as bedding material...

  16. System Genetics and Transcriptomic of Feed Efficiency in Nordic Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna; Løvendahl, Peter;

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking...... transcriptomics differences to important attributes or traits related to dairy cattle feed efficiency. Twenty cows (10 Jersey; 10 Holstein Friesian) will be used in the experiment. These two groups of breeds will be divided into two feed efficiency groups depending on their feed efficiency status which...... are of high or low efficiency. mRNA will be extracted from liver biopsies samples for RNA-sequencing which will be performed on the Illumina HiSeq2500 (AROS, Denmark). Blood samples will be collected for genotyping as well as plasma. Plasma will be extracted from the blood for analysis of glucose, NEFA, β...

  17. The pump and leak steady-state concept with a variety of regulated leak pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, E K

    2001-01-01

    found that the passive ion leaks play an active role in cell volume control. (iii) The use of isotopes and Ussing's famous flux ratio equation provided an ingenious instrument for distinguishing the various transport routes. We used this to identify the Na,K,2Cl cotransport system as accounting...

  18. Design of vacuum leak testing management system for spacecraft component test%航天器部件真空检漏试验管理系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪力; 郑江滨; 闫荣鑫; 张海英

    2012-01-01

    The design method of the vacuum leak testing management system for spacecraft components is discussed in this paper.The vacuum leak testing management system for spacecraft components is an essential subsystem of the special environment test management system for spacecraft components.According to the requirements of the vacuum leak testing management system for spacecraft components and the software development process, the test processes are analyzed and the overall structure and various functionality modules are designed.The testing management system is divided into three mutually supporting levels: the user service tier, the business logic tier and the data resources tier.There are seven functional modules in the spacecraft component vacuum leak testing management system, including the test task management, the personal task management, the test data management, the test file management, the test resource management, the configuration management and the system management.This system would be helpful to a more efficient and reasonable management of vacuum leak testing for spacecraft components.%航天器部件真空检漏试验管理系统是航天器件特殊环境试验管理系统的一个重要组成部分.文章根据航天器部件真空检漏试验管理的需求,结合软件设计开发流程规范,对试验技术流程进行了分析,设计出系统总体框架和功能模块:系统总体框架分为数据资源层、业务逻辑层和客户层;功能模块分为试验任务管理模块、个人任务管理模块、试验数据管理模块、试验归档管理模块、试验资源管理模块、基础配置管理模块和系统管理模块.该试验管理系统将使航天器部件真空检漏试验管理工作更加高效、合理.

  19. Blood feeding of Ornithodoros turicata larvae using an artificial membrane system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial membrane system was adapted to feed Ornithodoros turicata larvae from a laboratory colony using defibrinated swine blood. Aspects related to larval feeding and molting to the 1st nymphal instar were evaluated. Fifty-five percent of all larvae exposed to the artificial membrane in two e...

  20. Microorganisms in the rumen and reticulum of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed two different feeding systems

    OpenAIRE

    Franzolin,Raul; Wright, André-Denis G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The community of microorganisms in the rumen and reticulum is influenced by feeding as well as the species and geographical distribution of ruminant animals. Bacteria, methanogenic archaea and ciliate protozoa existing in the rumen and reticulum were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and light microscopy in buffalo in two feeding systems, grazing and feedlot. ...

  1. Evolution of Family Enterprises of Feed and Veterinary Drugs and Introduction of Professional Manager System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; LIANG; Zhongming; SHEN

    2015-01-01

    Overall socio-economic development of urban and rural areas and laying solid foundation for agricultural and rural development are closely connected with sustainable development of family enterprises of feed and veterinary drugs.This paper analyzed evolution stages and three-ring administration mode of family enterprises of feed and veterinary drugs and discussed the inevitable requirement for introducing perfect professional manager system.

  2. Application of the gas production technique to feed evaluation systems for ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, J.; Kebreab, E.; Bannink, A.; France, J.; Lopez, S.

    2005-01-01

    A range of feed evaluation techniques is available to predict the nutritional value of ruminant feedstuffs. The aim of this paper was to critically evaluate use of gas production (GP) data as inputs to current feed evaluation systems, as well as to mechanistic rumen models. Topics discussed include

  3. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  4. Local Leak Detection and Health Monitoring of Pressurized Tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt; Witherow, William; Korman, Valentin; Sinko, John; Hendrickson, Adam

    2011-01-01

    An optical gas-detection sensor safely monitors pressurized systems (such as cryogenic tanks) and distribution systems for leaks. This sensor system is a fiber-coupled, solid optical body interferometer that allows for the miniaturized sensing element of the device to be placed in the smallest of recesses, and measures a wide range of gas species and densities (leaks). The deflection of the fringe pattern is detected and recorded to yield the time-varying gas density in the gap. This technology can be used by manufacturers or storage facilities with toxic, hazardous, or explosive gases. The approach is to monitor the change in the index of refraction associated with low-level gas leaks into a vacuum environment. The completion of this work will provide NASA with an enabling capability to detect gas system leaks in space, and to verify that pressurized systems are in a safe (i.e. non-leaking) condition during manned docking and transit operations. By recording the output of the sensor, a time-history of the leak can be constructed to indicate its severity. Project risk is mitigated by having several interferometric geometries and detection techniques available, each potentially leveraging hardware and lessons learned to enhance detectability.

  5. System for leaks inspection in a nuclear plant by means of a mobile robot; Sistema para inspeccion de fugas en una planta nuclear por medio de un robot movil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez S, R.; Segovia de los Rios, J.A. [ININ, Km. 36.5 Carretera Mexico-Toluca, Salazar, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)]. E-mail: ramses@nuclear.inin.mx

    2004-07-01

    In this work a supervision system that could allow to carry out the detection of leaks of vapor in pipe lines, using a mobile robot Pioneer 2 -D Xe, which is controlled by means of an external micro controller 68HC912B32 programmed in Forth and using diffuse control to travel a road by means of the one to follow one lines painted in the floor is described. The robot takes in his superior part, a thermographic camera that allows to determine if leaks of vapor exist in pipes and a dosemeter to measure the present radiation levels in the place, besides a video camera. This way, the personnel, can make sure of having a propitious situation to make the maintenance of the facilities. (Author)

  6. In-service helium leak testing of vacuum furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anis; Tripathi, S. K.; Sawant, P. S.; Mukharjee, D.; Shah, B. K.

    2012-11-01

    Helium leak detection of vacuum furnaces and equipments used for processing of nuclear material is generally carried out by utilizing vacuum spray technique. In this technique helium leak detector is connected to the furnace, back ground reading is noted and helium gas is sprayed on all the suspected joints. Any increase in back ground is noted as leak signal. Processing of Zirconium alloy cladded fuel pins is carried out in vacuum furnace of about 3 meter length and 500 mm inside diameter. Furnace is connected with two numbers of rotary vacuum pump and one number of diffusion pump for creating vacuum (1 × 10-6 torr) inside the furnace. It is desirable that furnace should have good vacuum and best possible leak tightness during dynamic and static vacuum. During dynamic vacuum at higher temperature although required vacuum is achieved the furnace may have fine leakage through which air may enter and cause oxidation of clad tube leading to change in its coloration. This change in coloration will cause rejection of fuel element. Such fine leakages may not be reflected in the dynamic vacuum of the system at high temperature. During trial run change in coloration of outside surface of clad tube was observed although dynamic vacuum of the furnace was in the range of 1×10-6 torr range. To eliminate such possibilities of oxidation due to fine leakages in the system, it was decided to carry out in-service leak testing of the furnace. Helium leak testing of the furnace was carried out by using vacuum spray method and leaks observed were repaired and furnace was retested to ensure the leak tightness. The in-service helium leak testing of the furnace helped in maintaining its leak tightness during service under dynamic vacuum and prevent oxidation of fuel element. This paper describes the techniques of in- service helium leak testing, it's importance for detection of fine leak under dynamic vacuum and discusses details of the testing method and result obtained.

  7. Design of wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2016-07-01

    Premature infants often cannot successfully and coordinately complete their oral feeding. Mature sucking, swallowing, and respiration activities are crucial indicators for the survival of newborn infants. Due to the vulnerability and unobvious muscle activities of premature infants, current clinical care givers mainly depend on the subjective behavioral observation of infants during oral feeding. There is still lack of an integrated oral feeding monitoring system to objectively and quantifiably monitor the related physiological parameters of premature infants. In this study, a wireless multi-parameter monitoring system for oral feeding of premature infants was proposed to monitor the sucking-swallowing-respiratory activities and the heart rate variability to provide quantitative indices of oral feeding. Here, a novel sucking pressure sensing module was also developed to monitor the premature infant's sucking pressure under oral feeding to avoid the immersion influence of milk. The experimental results showed that the proposed system detected the related physiological parameters of premature infants during oral feeding effectively and may provide an objective clinical evaluation tool for oral feeding ability and safety of premature infants in the future.

  8. Launch Vehicle Performance with Solid Particle Feed Systems for Atomic Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of launch vehicle Gross Liftoff Weight (GLOW) using high energy density atomic propellants with solid particle feed systems was conducted. The analyses covered several propellant combinations, including atoms of aluminum (Al), boron (B). carbon (C), and hydrogen (H) stored in a solid cryogenic particle, with a cryogenic liquid as the carrier fluid. Several different weight percents (wt%) for the liquid carrier were investigated and the gross lift off weight (GLOW) of the vehicles using the solid particle feed systems were compared with a conventional 02/H2 propellant vehicle. The potential benefits and effects of feed systems using solid particles in a liquid cryogenic fluid are discussed.

  9. System Genetics and Transcriptomic of Feed Efficiency in Nordic Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna; Løvendahl, Peter

    , energy balance, nutrient partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules.......-hydroxybutyrates (BHB), Triacylglyceride (TAG) and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake (RFI) and Kleiber Ratio (KR) based on daily feed or dry matter intake (DMI), body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical......-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed (DE) genes, co-expressed (CE) genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes...

  10. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber Siddiqui Shahnawaz

    2016-01-02

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydraulic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydraulics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydraulic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydraulic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on

  11. Development and characterization of 3D-printed feed spacers for spiral wound membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Amber; Farhat, Nadia; Bucs, Szilárd S; Linares, Rodrigo Valladares; Picioreanu, Cristian; Kruithof, Joop C; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kidwell, James; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-03-15

    Feed spacers are important for the impact of biofouling on the performance of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems. The objective of this study was to propose a strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of feed spacers by numerical modeling, three-dimensional (3D) printing of feed spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator (MFS) studies. The results of numerical modeling on the hydrodynamic behavior of various feed spacer geometries suggested that the impact of spacers on hydrodynamics and biofouling can be improved. A good agreement was found for the modeled and measured relationship between linear flow velocity and pressure drop for feed spacers with the same geometry, indicating that modeling can serve as the first step in spacer characterization. An experimental comparison study of a feed spacer currently applied in practice and a 3D printed feed spacer with the same geometry showed (i) similar hydrodynamic behavior, (ii) similar pressure drop development with time and (iii) similar biomass accumulation during MFS biofouling studies, indicating that 3D printing technology is an alternative strategy for development of thin feed spacers with a complex geometry. Based on the numerical modeling results, a modified feed spacer with low pressure drop was selected for 3D printing. The comparison study of the feed spacer from practice and the modified geometry 3D printed feed spacer established that the 3D printed spacer had (i) a lower pressure drop during hydrodynamic testing, (ii) a lower pressure drop increase in time with the same accumulated biomass amount, indicating that modifying feed spacer geometries can reduce the impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance. The combination of numerical modeling of feed spacers and experimental testing of 3D printed feed spacers is a promising strategy (rapid, low cost and representative) to develop advanced feed spacers aiming to reduce the impact of

  12. Imaging spectrometer for fugitive gas leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    1999-12-01

    Under contract to the U.S. Air Force and Navy, Pacific Advanced Technology has developed a very sensitive infrared imaging spectrometer that can perform remote imaging and spectro-radiometry. One of the most exciting applications for this technology is in the remote monitoring of smoke stack emissions and fugitive leaks. To date remote continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems have not been approved by the EPA, however, they are under consideration. If the remote sensing technology is available with the sensitivity to monitor emission at the required levels and man portable it can reduce the cost and improve the reliability of performing such measurements. Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) believes that it currently has this technology available to industry. This paper will present results from a field test where gas vapors during a refueling process were imaged and identified. In addition images of propane from a leaking stove will be presented. We at PAT have developed a real time image processing board that enhances the signal to noise ratio of low contrast gases and makes them easily viewable using the Image Multispectral Sensing (IMSS) imaging spectrometer. The IMSS imaging spectrometer is the size of a camcorder. Currently the data is stored in a Notebook computer thus allowing the system to be easily carried into power plants to look for fugitive leaks. In the future the IMSS will have an embedded processor and DSP and will be able to transfer data over an Ethernet link.

  13. Application of Dual Model to Animal Feed Formulation Optimizing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Ben-hai; LUO Qing-yao; PANG Zhi-hong

    2003-01-01

    This study introduced a dual model on an original linear programming to obtain those shadowprices of resources that take part in optimizing. Of feed formulation, the shadow prices of nutrient resourcesshow their influencing degree on a diet last cost when increasing or decreasing expected diet nutrient values.The higher the shadow price of one nutrient resource, the more obvious its influencing action on a diet lastcost. When the shadow price of a kind of resource equals "zero", it means that reaching of this nutrient valuedoes not have influence on a special diet last cost within a particular value range. At the same time, this paperdiscussed the future development direction of feed formulation optimizing techniques in China.

  14. Wireless Monitoring System for Oral-Feeding Evaluation of Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Ting; Wang, Yu-Lin; Wang, Chen-An; Ko, Mei-Ju; Fang, Wai-Chi; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-10-01

    The oral feeding disorder is one of the important indicators for the high risk group of neurodevelopment delay. The procedure of oral feeding requires the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing activities, and it is the most complex sensorimotor process for newborn infants. Premature infants often uneasily complete the procedure of oral feeding. However, the evaluation of the oral feeding disorders and severity are usually dependent on the subjective clinical experience of the physician. Monitoring the sucking-swallowing-breathing activities directly is difficult for preterm infants. In this study, a wireless monitoring system for oral-feeding evaluation of full term and preterm infants was proposed to objectively and quantitatively evaluate the coordination of suck-swallow-respiration function during oral feeding. Moreover, the ratios of the swallowing and breathing event numbers to the sucking event number were defined to evaluate the coordination of suck-swallow-respiration function during oral feeding. Finally, the system performance was validated and the coordination of suck-swallow-respiration function for full term and preterm infants during oral feeding was also investigated.

  15. The Demonstration of a Robotic External Leak Locator on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naids, Adam; Rossetti, Dino; Bond, Tim; Johnson, Brien; Huang, Alvin; Deal, Alexandra; Fox, Katie; Heiser, Michael; Hartman, William; Mikatarian, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) and all currently conceivable future manned spacecraft are susceptible to mission impacts due to fluid/gas leaks to the exterior environment. For example, there is a well-known risk of ammonia leaks from the ISS External Thermal Control System loops and currently no method to locate them. It was, therefore, critical to develop a method for detecting and locating leaks to preserve vehicle health. The Robotic External Leak Locator (RELL) was developed and deployed to the ISS to provide this capability. An on-orbit validation and demonstration was successfully completed in December 2016 and leak locating operations occurred in February 2017. This paper discusses the results of those exercises including measurements of the environment around ISS, detection of the small ammonia leak and implementation of leak locating methodologies.

  16. Dynamic modeling in compressible flow systems for application in real time leak detection; Modelagem dinamica em redes de escoamento compressivel para aplicacoes a deteccao de vazamentos em tempo real

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pires Neto, Joaquim Pamponet [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica. Lab. SDV - Dutos]. E-mail: joaquim@copene.com.br

    2002-06-01

    It is remarkable how there are hardly any computer tools that can build a transient behavioral analysis of process variables in a compressible flow, especially during starting and shutdown of plant. From this scenario, a modeling and dynamic simulation of compressible flow systems was built, and a computer method for detecting leaks in real time was presented. The phenomenon model is based on moment and continuity equations in transient basis. Unidimensional and isentropic natural gas flow was considered. The set of differential equations is solved through numerical integrations in time, using Runge-Kutta methods, after applying the finite elements method to spatial continuum. The suggested method for detection of leaks is based on the self-regressive stochastic parametric model. The procedure consist in generating process transient input and output data series, such as nodal pressures and flow rates in pipes, during the occurrence of the events programmed by the dynamic simulator and use them during training of IMO predictors in RX model structure, with constant update. The manifestation of a leak is detected by the instant deviation, statistically significant and beyond safety limits, between a group of predictions and the corresponding process measures. (author)

  17. Identification of sewage leaks by active remote-sensing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldshleger, Naftaly; Basson, Uri

    2016-04-01

    The increasing length of sewage pipelines, and concomitant risk of leaks due to urban and industrial growth and development is exposing the surrounding land to contamination risk and environmental harm. It is therefore important to locate such leaks in a timely manner, to minimize the damage. Advances in active remote sensing Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) and Frequency Domain Electromagnetic (FDEM) technologies was used to identify leaking potentially responsible for pollution and to identify minor spills before they cause widespread damage. This study focused on the development of these electromagnetic methods to replace conventional acoustic methods for the identification of leaks along sewage pipes. Electromagnetic methods provide an additional advantage in that they allow mapping of the fluid-transport system in the subsurface. Leak-detection systems using GPR and FDEM are not limited to large amounts of water, but enable detecting leaks of tens of liters per hour, because they can locate increases in environmental moisture content of only a few percentage along the pipes. The importance and uniqueness of this research lies in the development of practical tools to provide a snapshot and monitoring of the spatial changes in soil moisture content up to depths of about 3-4 m, in open and paved areas, at relatively low cost, in real time or close to real time. Spatial measurements performed using GPR and FDEM systems allow monitoring many tens of thousands of measurement points per hectare, thus providing a picture of the spatial situation along pipelines and the surrounding. The main purpose of this study was to develop a method for detecting sewage leaks using the above-proposed geophysical methods, since their contaminants can severely affect public health. We focused on identifying, locating and characterizing such leaks in sewage pipes in residential and industrial areas.

  18. Effects of birth weight and feeding system on fattening performance and feeding behaviour of Karayaka male lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yildirim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To determine effects of birth weight (BtW and feeding system on fattening performance and behavioural responses of lambs, after birth 28 Karayaka male lambs were divided into two BtW groups, namely a low BtW (4.1±0.06 kg and high BtW (5.0±0.09 kg. After weaning (90 days of age, seven lambs in each of these groups were fed individually ad libitum with total mixed ratio (TMR, consisted of 80% of a compound feed and 20% of roughage based on a dry matter basis (140 g crude protein and 2550 kcal ME/kg and the other seven lambs were fed on the same ingredients as that of TMR but each ingredient was put in separate troughs (free choice feeding, FCF. Therefore the lambs were distributed into four groups according to 2 (low vs high BtW × 2 (TMR vs FCF factorial design. Live weight gains and intakes of dry matter, feedstuffs and nutrients of the lambs were affected by the FCF, but not by the BtW and their interaction. The daily weight gain (P<0.01, intakes of soybean meal and corn (P<0.01, dry matter (P<0.05, protein and energy (P<0.01 of FCF-fed lambs were higher than those of TMR-fed lambs. FCF-fed lambs consumed less alfalfa hay, wheat bran and barley than TMR-fed lambs (P<0.01. The FCF increased rumination (P<0.01 and tend to rest more (P<0.05 compared to the TMR. The study suggests that FCF system can assist in enhancing the live weight gain by promoting the protein and energy intakes and by improving the welfare of lambs. 

  19. Nutritional, technological and managerial parameters for precision feeding to enhance feed nutrient utilization and productivity in different dairy cattle production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Empel, van Mireille; Makkar, H.P.S.; Dijkstra, J.; Lund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Increased future demand of animal products as well as competition between food, feed and fuel, require efficient utilization of feed resources to strengthen environmental, economic and social sustainability of livestock systems. The objective of this review is to summarize current knowledge on preci

  20. Chemical and texture characteristics and sensory properties of “mozzarella” cheese from different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rubino

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was describing the chemical composition, the rheological characteristics and the sensory properties of “mozzarella” cheese produced with milk from buffalos fed with different diets. The study involved two farms and four feeding systems. In farm C, one group was mostly fed with Ryegrass Hay (RH and the other group with Ryegrass Silage (RS. In farm T, instead, one group was mostly fed with Corn Silage (CS and the other one with a Sorghum Silage (SS. In summer, three cheesemakings, for each farm and for each feeding system, were carried out at C.R.A. of Bella. In each farm, data were processed by the analysis of variance in order to compare the effects of two feeding systems. Some parameters of chemical and texture characteristics and sensory properties were influenced by the feeding system. Results were remarkable for the DOP products.

  1. Advanced Numerical Tools for Design and Analysis of In-Space, Valve and Feed Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In-space valves for the main fuel and oxidizer feed systems are required to provide precise control, wide throttling range and handle rapid on-off control. These...

  2. Pneumatic Planetary Regolith Feed System for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, James G.; Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I.; Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project requires a regolith feed system that can transfer lunar regolith several meters vertically into a chemical reactor for oxygen production on the moon.

  3. Microorganisms in the rumen and reticulum of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) fed two different feeding systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Franzolin, Raul; Wright, André-Denis G

    2016-01-01

    .... Bacteria, methanogenic archaea and ciliate protozoa existing in the rumen and reticulum were evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction and light microscopy in buffalo in two feeding systems, grazing and feedlot...

  4. Evaluation of an Interferometric Sensor for In-Space Detection of Gas Leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Korman, Valentin; Sinko, John; Hendrickson, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Space mission planning often involves long-term storage of volatile liquids or high-pressure gases. These may include cryogenic fuels and oxidizers, high-pressure gases, and life-support-critical consumables. The risk associated with the storage of fluids and gases in space systems has long been an issue and the ability to retain these fluids is often tied to mission success. A leak in the storage or distribution system can cause many different problems, including a simple, but mission endangering, loss of inventory or, in severe cases, unbalanced thrust loads on a flight vehicle. Cryogenic propellants are especially difficult to store, especially over a long duration. The propellant can boil off and be lost through the insulating walls of the tank or simple thermal cycling of the fittings, valves, and propellant feed lines may unseat seals allowing the fluid to escape. Current NASA missions call for long-duration in-space storage of propellants, oxidizers, and life support supplies. Leaks of a scale detectable through a pressure drop in the storage tank are often catastrophic and have long been the focus of ground-based mitigation efforts where redundant systems are often employed. However, there is presently no technology available for detecting and monitoring low-level, but still mission-endangering, gas leaks in space. Standard in-space gas detection methods either have a very limited pressure range over which they operate effectively or are limited to certain gases. Mass spectrometer systems are able to perform the detection tasks, but their size, mass and use of high voltage, which could potentially lead to an arc that ignites a combustible propellent, severely limit their usefulness in a space system. In this paper, we present results from testing of the light-based interferometric gas monitoring and leak detection sensor shown in Fig. 1. The output of the sensor is an interference fringe pattern that is a function of the gas density, and commensurate index

  5. Estimation of leak rate through circumferential cracks in pipes in nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jai Hak Park

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The leak before break (LBB concept is widely used in designing pipe lines in nuclear power plants. According to the concept, the amount of leaking liquid from a pipe should be more than the minimum detectable leak rate of a leak detection system before catastrophic failure occurs. Therefore, accurate estimation of the leak rate is important to evaluate the validity of the LBB concept in pipe line design. In this paper, a program was developed to estimate the leak rate through circumferential cracks in pipes in nuclear power plants using the Henry–Fauske flow model and modified Henry–Fauske flow model. By using the developed program, the leak rate was calculated for a circumferential crack in a sample pipe, and the effect of the flow model on the leak rate was examined. Treating the crack morphology parameters as random variables, the statistical behavior of the leak rate was also examined. As a result, it was found that the crack morphology parameters have a strong effect on the leak rate and the statistical behavior of the leak rate can be simulated using normally distributed crack morphology parameters.

  6. 340 Facility secondary containment and leak detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1995-01-31

    This document presents a preliminary safety evaluation for the 340 Facility Secondary Containment and Leak Containment system, Project W-302. Project W-302 will construct Building 340-C which has been designed to replace the current 340 Building and vault tank system for collection of liquid wastes from the Pacific Northwest Laboratory buildings in the 300 Area. This new nuclear facility is Hazard Category 3. The vault tank and related monitoring and control equipment are Safety Class 2 with the remainder of the structure, systems and components as Safety Class 3 or 4.

  7. Technical note: Data loggers are a valid method for assessing the feeding behavior of dairy cows using the Calan Broadbent Feeding System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczel, P D; Klaiber, L M; Thibeau, S S; Dann, H M

    2012-08-01

    Assessing feeding behavior is important in understanding the effects of nutrition and management on the well-being of dairy cows. Historically, collection of these data from cows fed with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH) required the labor-intensive practices of direct observation or video review. The objective of this study was to evaluate the agreement between the output of a HOBO change-of-state data logger (Onset Computer Corp., Bourne, MA), mounted to the door shell and latch plate, and video data summarized with continuous sampling. Data (number of feed bin visits per day and feeding time in minutes per day) were recorded with both methods from 26 lactating cows and 10 nonlactating cows for 3 d per cow (n=108). The agreement of the data logger and video methods was evaluated using the REG procedure of SAS to compare the mean response of the methods against the difference between the methods. The maximum allowable difference (MAD) was set at ±3 for bin visits and ±20 min for feeding time. Ranges for feed bin visits (2 to 140 per d) and feeding time (28 to 267 min/d) were established from video data. Using the complete data set, agreement was partially established between the data logger and video methods for feed bin visits, but not established for feeding time. The complete data set generated by the data logger was screened to remove visits of a duration ≤3 s, reflecting a cow unable to enter a feed bin (representing 7% of all data) and ≥5,400 s, reflecting a failure of the data logger to align properly with its corresponding magnetic field (representing <1% of all data). Using the resulting screened data set, agreement was established for feed bin visits and feeding time. For bin visits, 4% of the data was beyond the MAD. For feeding time, 3% of the data was beyond the MAD and 74% of the data was ±1 min. The insignificant P-value, low coefficient of determination, and concentration of the data within the MAD

  8. Influence of Motion Errors of Feed Drive Systems on Machined Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kentaro; Sato, Ryuta; Shirase, Keiichi

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the relationship between the dynamic motion errors of feed drive systems and the machined surfaces. To achieve this purpose, a simulation method for a machined surface by peripheral milling is proposed. In the proposed method, the motion errors of a feed drive system and the machined surface are simulated based on tool diameter, number of flutes, spindle speed, and feed speed. In addition, to clarify the correctness of the proposed method, actual cutting tests are carried out. In the cutting tests, the control parameters of the machine tool are intentionally changed to obtain the motion errors. As the results of the cutting tests, it is confirmed that the influence of the motion errors of feed drive systems on machined surface can be predicted by the proposed simulation method. The relationship between the motion errors and machined surfaces is also examined based on the simulations.

  9. Farming Systems Research and Livestock Feed Development : the case of a project on feeding of crop residues in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiere, J.B.; Kiran Singh,; Boer, de A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Increased use of prime agricultural land for cropping and non-agricultural uses in many tropical countries implies that crop residues become more important as a source of feed for livestock. Traditionally, much research on crop residue feeding was done by focusing on laboratory measurements of feed

  10. Investigation into the Flow Properties of Coarse Solid Fuels for Use in Industrial Feed Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Craven

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Material feeding and handling systems have been cited as one of the most common causes of process downtime where thermochemical conversion processes are concerned. New and emerging fuels come in a variety of forms, and if such fuels are to be deployed widely it is imperative that material feeding and handling systems are designed appropriately. This study proposes an approach for designing material feeding and handling systems for use with coarse solid fuels. The data obtained from this study indicates particle size to be one of the key issues affecting the flowability of bulk solids further to the uniformity in particle shape. Coarse bulk solid samples were shown to flow more freely than their milled and pulverised counterparts, generating higher degrees of flowability. The results from this study were also applied to a new feed system used for feeding solid fuels to high pressure processes named the Hydraulic Lock Hopper. In this study the Hydraulic Lock Hopper demonstrated the feeding of wood pellets, torrefied spruce pellets, and ground anthracite coal grains against a pressure of 25 barg in two modes of operation. Energy savings compared to conventional lock hopper systems were recorded in the region of 80%.

  11. Effect of different commercial feed spacers on biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane systems: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-06-01

    Feed spacers and hydrodynamics have been found relevant for the impact of biofouling on performance in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems.The objectives of this study on biofouling development were to determine the impact of (i) linear flow velocity and bacterial cell load, (ii) biomass location and (iii) various feed spacer geometries as applied in practice as well as a modified geometry spacer.A three-dimensional mathematical model for biofouling of feed spacer channels including hydrodynamics, solute mass transport and biofilm formation was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB software.Results of this study indicate that the feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biofilm formation can be reduced by using thicker and/or modified feed spacer geometry and/or a lower flow rate in the feed channel. The increase of feed channel pressure drop by biomass accumulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the location of biomass. Results of numerical simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, indicating that this micro-scale mechanistic model is representative for practice. The developed model can help to understand better the biofouling process of spiral-wound RO and NF membrane systems and to develop strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Frequency Tunable Antennas and Novel Phased Array Feeding Networks for Next Generation Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Avser, Bilgehan

    2015-01-01

    The thesis presents three dual-band frequency tunable antennas for carrier aggregation systems and two new feeding networks for reducing the number of phase shifters in limited-scan arrays. First, single- and dual-feed, dual-frequency, low-profile antennas with independent frequency tuning using varactor diodes are presented. The dual-feed planar inverted F-antenna (PIFA) has two operating frequencies which are independently tuned at 0.7--1.1 GHz and at 1.7--2.3 GHz with better than −10 dB im...

  13. Influence of Crack Morphology on Leak Before Break Margins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weilin Zang (Inspecta Technology AB, Stockholm (SE))

    2007-11-15

    The purpose of the project is to evaluate the deterministic LBB-margins for different pipe systems in a Swedish PWR-plant and using different crack morphology parameters. Results: - The influence of crack morphology on Leak Before Break (LBB) margins is studied. The subject of the report is a number of LBB-submittals to SKI where deterministic LBB-margins are reported. These submittals typically uses a surface roughness of 0.0762 mm (300 microinch) and number of turns equal to zero and an in-house code for the leak rate evaluations. The present report has shown that these conditions give the largest LBB-margins both in terms of the quotient between the critical crack length and the leakage crack size and for the leak rate margin. - Crack morphology parameters have a strong influence on the leak rate evaluations. Using the SQUIRT code and more recent recommendations for crack morphology parameters, it is shown that in many cases the evaluated margins, using 1 gpm as the reference leak rate detection limit, are below the safety factor of 2 on crack size and 10 on leak rate, which is generally required for LBB approval. - The effect of including weld residual stresses on the LBB margins is also investigated. It is shown that for the two examples studied, weld residual stresses were important for the small diameter thin wall pipe whereas it was negligible for the large diameter thick wall pipe which had a self-balanced weld residual stress distribution

  14. Variable gas leak rate valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eernisse, Errol P. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Gary D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1976-01-01

    A variable gas leak rate valve which utilizes a poled piezoelectric element to control opening and closing of the valve. The gas flow may be around a cylindrical rod with a tubular piezoelectric member encircling the rod for seating thereagainst to block passage of gas and for reopening thereof upon application of suitable electrical fields.

  15. Studies on injector pump-ultrasonic nebulizer feeding sample system for MPT-AES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Guodong; Hang Songbai; Yu Aimin

    2006-01-01

    The feeding-sample system used by microwave plasma torch atomic emission spectroscopy(MPT-AES)is the pneumatic nebulization system;its efficiency,however,is not good.A newly built injector pump-ultrasonic nebulizer combination feeding-sample system has been designed.Its performance was tested and compared with that of the pneumatic nebulization system.It can be concluded that the newly built feeding-sample system can increase the spectral line intensity by about two to three times and decrease the detection limit by about 2 to 10 times.Moreover,this newly built system can reduce the time taken washing the sample cell from 30 rain or so to about 10 rain.

  16. Technical note: Data loggers are a valid method for assessing the feeding behavior of dairy cows using the Calan Broadbent Feeding System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Krawczel, P D; Klaiber, L M; Thibeau, S S; Dann, H M

    2012-01-01

    .... Historically, collection of these data from cows fed with a Calan Broadbent Feeding System (American Calan Inc., Northwood, NH) required the labor-intensive practices of direct observation or video review...

  17. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-10-11

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O&M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis.

  18. Presidential Leaks: Rhetoric and Mediated Political Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Keith V.

    1989-01-01

    Argues that presidential leaks constitute rhetorical acts, enabling administrations to exercise a variety of rhetorically potent options not afforded by the public forum. Proposes a typology of presidential leaks and analyzes their rhetorical functions, benefits, and liabilities. (MM)

  19. Stochastic Consequence Analysis for Waste Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HEY, B.E.

    2000-05-31

    This analysis evaluates the radiological consequences of potential Hanford Tank Farm waste transfer leaks. These include ex-tank leaks into structures, underneath the soil, and exposed to the atmosphere. It also includes potential misroutes, tank overflow

  20. Anastomotic leaks after bariatric surgery: it is the host response that matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sabah, Salman; Ladouceur, Martin; Christou, Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Anastomotic leaks after bariatric surgery can lead to severe complications and adverse outcomes. We tested the hypothesis that not all patients with an anastomotic leak after bariatric surgery present with clinical symptoms and that their outcome is dependent on the aggressiveness of the host inflammatory response. This was a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected clinical data from 2384 bariatric surgeries from 1983 to 2006. All anastomotic leaks were identified from the database, and the vital signs, hematologic and biochemical data, mode of diagnosis, treatment, and outcome were recorded and analyzed. We identified 55 anastomotic leaks (2.3%) at a median of 4 days (range 1-26) after surgery. In 37 patients (67.3%), the leaks were identified at a median of 5 days (range 1-26) postoperatively because of clinical signs and symptoms of a systemic inflammatory response (SIRS leaks). In contrast, in 18 patients (32.7%), the leaks were identified at a median of 1.5 days (range 1-16) postoperatively only after routine contrast studies (non-SIRS leaks). Treatment included antibiotics and open drainage in 41.8%, laparoscopic drainage in 21.8%, computed tomography-guided drainage in 12.7%, conservative treatment in 14.5%, and other in 9.2%. All 6 deaths (4 men and 2 women, 10.9%) occurred in the SIRS group. Using logistic regression analysis, temperature (inflammatory response) and body mass index were independent predictors of mortality. The results of our study have shown that one third of patients with anastomotic leaks after bariatric surgery present with minimal clinical symptoms (non-SIRS) and are only detected if contrast studies are performed. Such leaks are unlikely to lead to death. Two thirds of patients with anastomotic leaks present with a systemic inflammatory response to the leak. Such leaks require urgent treatment that might not always prevent death.

  1. Functional evolution of the feeding system in rodents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip G Cox

    Full Text Available The masticatory musculature of rodents has evolved to enable both gnawing at the incisors and chewing at the molars. In particular, the masseter muscle is highly specialised, having extended anteriorly to originate from the rostrum. All living rodents have achieved this masseteric expansion in one of three ways, known as the sciuromorph, hystricomorph and myomorph conditions. Here, we used finite element analysis (FEA to investigate the biomechanical implications of these three morphologies, in a squirrel, guinea pig and rat. In particular, we wished to determine whether each of the three morphologies is better adapted for either gnawing or chewing. Results show that squirrels are more efficient at muscle-bite force transmission during incisor gnawing than guinea pigs, and that guinea pigs are more efficient at molar chewing than squirrels. This matches the known diet of nuts and seeds that squirrels gnaw, and of grasses that guinea pigs grind down with their molars. Surprisingly, results also indicate that rats are more efficient as well as more versatile feeders than both the squirrel and guinea pig. There seems to be no compromise in biting efficiency to accommodate the wider range of foodstuffs and the more general feeding behaviour adopted by rats. Our results show that the morphology of the skull and masticatory muscles have allowed squirrels to specialise as gnawers and guinea pigs as chewers, but that rats are high-performance generalists, which helps explain their overwhelming success as a group.

  2. Effects of feed loading on nitrogen balances and fish performance in replicated recirculating aquaculture systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2012-01-01

    /L at steady state, and the concentration of nitrogenous compounds and organic matter were all positively correlated to feed loading.The TAN loading to the RAS from the specific feed type was assessed in a separate mass-balance study and used as input in a descriptive mathematical model (AQUASIM® software......This study investigated the effects of applying four fixed feed loadings to three replicated recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) on water quality changes, nitrogenous balances and growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).Feed loadings ranged from 1.6 to 6.3kgfeed/m3 make......) developed to simulate processes affecting N mass-balances in the RAS. Nitrification kinetic rate constants were applied to the biofilter, and fractions of nitrifiers in suspended solids in the water phase were estimated based on existing information from waste water treatment processes. Two model scenarios...

  3. Recycle Waste Collection Tank (RWCT) simulant testing in the PVTD feed preparation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrigo, G.P.; Daume, J.T.; Halstead, S.D.; Myers, R.L.; Beckette, M.R.; Freeman, C.J.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-03-01

    (This is part of the radwaste vitrification program at Hanford.) RWCT was to routinely receive final canister decontamination sand blast frit and rinse water, Decontamination Waste Treatment Tank bottoms, and melter off-gas Submerged Bed Scrubber filter cake. In order to address the design needs of the RWCT system to meet performance levels, the PNL Vitrification Technology (PVTD) program used the Feed Preparation Test System (FPTS) to evaluate its equipment and performance for a simulant of RWCT slurry. (FPTS is an adaptation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility feed preparation system and represents the initially proposed Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant feed preparation system designed by Fluor-Daniel, Inc.) The following were determined: mixing performance, pump priming, pump performance, simulant flow characterization, evaporator and condenser performance, and ammonia dispersion. The RWCT test had two runs, one with and one without tank baffles.

  4. Dry Coal Feed System and Multi-Element Injector Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Sprouse; Fred Widman; Alan Darby

    2006-08-30

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine technology to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. One key feature of the PWR concept is the use of an ultra-dense phase feed system to provide dry coal to the multi-element injector. This report describes the layout, test procedures, instrumentation and data acquisition requirements for an ultradense phase multi-element injector and feed system to be operated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC).

  5. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  6. 40 CFR 63.148 - Leak inspection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... inspections for visible, audible, or olfactory indications of leaks. (2) If the vapor collection system or... provisions. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (k) of this section, for each vapor collection system, closed-vent system, fixed roof, cover, or enclosure required to comply with this section, the owner...

  7. Leak signature space: an original representation for robust leak location in water distribution networks

    OpenAIRE

    Casillas, Myrna V.; Garza-Castañón, Luis E.; Vicenç Puig; Adriana Vargas-Martinez

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an original model-based scheme for leak location using pressure sensors in water distribution networks is introduced. The proposed approach is based on a new representation called the Leak Signature Space (LSS) that associates a specific signature to each leak location being minimally affected by leak magnitude. The LSS considers a linear model approximation of the relation between pressure residuals and leaks that is projected onto a selected hyperplane. This new approach allo...

  8. Nutritional, technological and managerial parameters for precision feeding to enhance feed nutrient utilization and productivity in different dairy cattle production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Empel, Mireille JM; Makkar, Harinder PS; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Increased future demand of animal products as well as competition between food, feed and fuel, require efficient utilization of feed resources to strengthen environmental, economic and social sustainability of livestock systems. The objective of this review is to summarize current knowledge...... on precision feeding (PF) and the relevance of PF approaches in dairy cattle production systems in developing countries. The concept of PF aims at achieving balanced nutrition (matching animal requirements with nutrient supply, preferably from locally available feed resources) to improve animal productivity...... and to reduce both the cost of production and environmental pollution. In addition to the supply of proper amounts of nutrients to the dairy cow using various methodologies and tools, approaches that enhance overall nutrient digestion and availability to the animal are also discussed as an integral part of PF...

  9. Leaking electricity in domestic appliances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, Alan; Rosen, Karen

    1999-05-01

    Many types of home electronic equipment draw electric power when switched off or not performing their principal functions. Standby power use (or ''leaking electricity'') for most appliances ranges from 1 - 20 watts. Even though standby use of each device is small, the combined standby power use of all appliances in a home can easily exceed 50 watts. Leaking electricity is already responsible for 5 to 10 percent of residential electricity use in the United States and over 10 percent in Japan. An increasing number of white goods also have standby power requirements. There is a growing international effort to limit standby power to around one watt per device. New and existing technologies are available to meet this target at little or no extra cost.

  10. INVARIANT SYSTEM OF THE STEAM-DRUM BOILER FEED AUTOMATIC REGULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. T. Kulakov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the controlling system structure, law of control, and optimal parameters for the regulator dynamic settings exercise, under principal influences, substantial effect on quality of the transient processes of water-level change in the shell of the boiler. At the present moment, techniques of design by analysis for the optimal regulating systems allow improving quality of the transient processes. Applying the method of structural-parametrical optimization and the invariance theory render it possible to significantly improve quality of the boiler-shell water level maintaining by means of changing the system structure and optimizing the feed automatic-control system dynamic settings. However, this becomes attainable at the expense of increasing the control-action maximum magnitude with the feeding water rate. At the same time, the indicator of the latter should be less than the control-action value of the typical threeelement control of the feed-regulation system as this directly links to the boiler equipment safety, the drum metal and the feed-water economizer longevity. For removal of this shortcoming, the paper proposes to form in parallel to the real inertial region of the controlled member its dynamic simulation which allows separating the equivalent external disturbance without having to measure it. And to limit the compensation device output to the control-action value of the typical three-element control system of the automatic feed-regulation. This leads to the maximum control-action magnitude decrease, besides, the external-disturbances execution time remains unchanged. Altogether, under all the influences, the authors report of receiving substantial improvement of regulation quality as compared with the typical three-element automatic feed-regulation system

  11. Integrated systems of producing feed and ethanol from fractionated maize silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganesh, D.; Mowat, D.N.

    1985-01-01

    Systems were designed, simulated and analyzed to assess the economic feasibility of producing ethanol from high-moisture grain, gradually separated from mature whole-plant maize silage. The residual stover fraction containing some grain fines was fed, along with ethanol production by-products (stillage or maize gluten feed), to growing steers. Three systems were compared. In the control, regular maize silage was fed to growing steers with extra maize harvested later and sold as grain for cash. In one alternative (system 2), the separated grain fraction was processed to ethanol and stillage at a local farmer-cooperative plant. In another alternative (system 3), the grain fraction was transferred to a regional industrial plant for wet milling to ethanol, corn gluten-feed and other products. System comparisons were based on estimating gross costs per farm during 1980 to 1982, minus credits for products such as grain maize (control) and ethanol (alternative systems). System 3 was the more attractive alternative. When ethanol was valued at wholesale prices for regular leaded gasoline, these costs were similar in 1981 and 1982 for System 3 and the control. Further refinements of a separation unit, and detailed assessment of the feeding value of the stover fraction plus stillage or corn gluten feed, are warranted. 17 references.

  12. Static and Dynamic Characteristic Simulation of Feed System Driven by Linear Motor in High Speed Computer Numerical Control Lathe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zeqing

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to design the feed system of high speed Computer Numerical Control (CNC lathe, the static and dynamic characteristics of feed system driven by linear motor in high speed CNC lathe were analyzed. The slide board was taking as the main moving part of the feed system, and the guide rail was the main support component of the linear motor feed system. The mechanical structure static stiffness of feed system is researched through the slide board statics analysis. The simulation results show that the maximum deformation of the slide board occurs in the middle of the slide board where the linear motor is placed. The linear motor feed system control model was established based on analysis of high-speed linear feed system control principle, and the linear motor feed system transfer function was established, and servo dynamic stiffness factors were analyzed. The control parameters of the servo system and actuating mechanism parameters of feed system on the effect of the linear motor servo dynamic stiffness were analyzed using MATLAB software. The simulation results show that the position loop proportional gain, speed loop proportional gain and speed loop integral response time are the biggest influence factors on servo dynamic stiffness. The displacement response is reduced under the cutting interference force step inputting, the servo dynamic stiffness is increased, the number of system oscillation is also reduced, and the system tends to be stable.  

  13. Ultrasonic characterisation of B. femoris from Iberian pigs of different genetics and feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niñoles, L; Mulet, A; Ventanas, S; Benedito, J

    2011-10-01

    Ultrasonic velocity was used to characterise the differences in composition and texture of Biceps Femoris muscles from four batches of pigs of different genetics (Iberian and Iberian × Duroc) and feeding systems ("montanera" and concentrate). Significant differences (p<0.05) were found for the ultrasonic velocity in samples with different genetics and feeding systems. These differences were dependent on the temperature of the measurements and were related to the intramuscular fat content (IMF) of the samples and, therefore, to the meat quality. The ultrasonic velocities at 0 and 20 °C were related to the IMF (R=0.77 and 0.65, respectively). A discriminant analysis, including ultrasonic velocity at temperatures from 0 to 20 °C, allowed 87.0% of the samples to be correctly classified in the batches. Therefore, ultrasonics could be useful in the characterisation and differentiation of B. femoris muscles of Iberian pigs with different genetics and from different feeding systems.

  14. Research of novel oscillating wire feeding system using the AC servo motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世彦; 于志; 刘喆

    2003-01-01

    With the background of the control of additional mechanical force droplet transfer in MIG/MAG welding, regarding the AC servo motor as core, a novel oscillating wire feeding system has been developed with excellent performances of control and dynamic acceleration which is tested. System constitution and operation principle are introduced in this paper. Influences of parameters on dynamic acceleration performance are analyzed and discussed emphatically, such as oscillating frequency, oscillating amplitude and draw-back speed. Experimental result indicates that according to the technique of welding control, the novel wire feeding system responds rapidly to various kinds of control orders of wire feeding and draw-back, and realizes flexible control of welding wire axial movement, including dynamic shifting,oscillating and so on.

  15. Effect of feeding systems on aromatic characteristics of buffalo mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Di Napoli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to evaluated the effect of feeding systems (hay vs ray-grass silage on volatile compounds profiles of mozzarella cheese. Three mozzarella cheese making trials for each experimental group were conducted at our dairy technology laboratory. Mozzarella cheese was manufactured from whole raw water buffalo milk with the addition of natural starter. Volatile compounds were extracted by “purge and trap” system coupled to a gas chromatograph and detected operating with a mass-selective detector (Ciccioli et al., 2004 A total of 84 compounds of the following chemical families were detected: hydrocarbons, fatty acids, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones and terpenes. The data overall indicated difference between the aromatic profiles of mozzarella cheese as consequence of feeding systems. Thus, differences in mozzarella cheese flavour are primarily caused by concentration differences of a common set of flavour compounds, rather than by the occurrence of compounds uniquely associated with a particular feed.

  16. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  17. Hanford Tank Farms Waste Feed Flow Loop Phase VI: PulseEcho System Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denslow, Kayte M.; Bontha, Jagannadha R.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ; Hopkins, Derek F.

    2012-11-21

    This document presents the visual and ultrasonic PulseEcho critical velocity test results obtained from the System Performance test campaign that was completed in September 2012 with the Remote Sampler Demonstration (RSD)/Waste Feed Flow Loop cold-test platform located at the Monarch test facility in Pasco, Washington. This report is intended to complement and accompany the report that will be developed by WRPS on the design of the System Performance simulant matrix, the analysis of the slurry test sample concentration and particle size distribution (PSD) data, and the design and construction of the RSD/Waste Feed Flow Loop cold-test platform.

  18. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faidy, C. [EDF SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  19. Chaos control via feeding switching in an omnivory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Joydev; Pal, Nikhil; Samanta, Sudip; Venturino, Ezio; Khan, Q J A

    2015-12-01

    Tanabe and Namba (Ecology, 86, 3411-3414) studied a three species Lotka-Volterra model with omnivory and explored that omnivory can create chaos. It is well documented that predator switching is a similar biological phenomenon to omnivory and likely to occur simultaneously. In the present paper, the tri-trophic Lotka-Volterra food web model with omnivory and predator switching is re-investigated. We observe that if we incorporate predator switching in the system and the intensity of predator switching increases above a threshold value, then the system will be stable from chaotic dynamics. To study the global dynamics of the system extensive numerical simulations are performed. Our analytical and numerical results suggest that predator switching mechanism enhances the stability and the persistence of a food chain system.

  20. An Experimental Study on the Driving System of Vibratory Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Han

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of vibratory transmission system, and concentrates on its driving technology. Vibratory feeder is used to transfer parts from one place to another by vibration which plays an important role in assembly automation. Decoupled vibratory feeder (DVF is a novel feeder which can be excited in two mutual perpendicular directions. In decoupled vibratory feeder system (DVFS, vibration angle, frequency and waveform of driving signals can be easily adjusted in software way, as well as the phase angle between vertical vibration and horizontal vibration, so DVFS has a great superiority. Up to now, two DVFS prototypes have been successfully developed, but the driving technology cannot meet the demands of parts’ smooth moving. The electromagnet, the core of the drive system, should be optimized in its external dimensions and drive performance. And we fabricate a series of electromagnets. To test electromagnet performance, a test system has been designed. Presently, two researches on the electromagnet driving circuit have been made in our laboratory. One method is to receive analog signal from D/A output, then drive electromagnet through power amplifier. The other method actually is to use a switching circuit controlled by PWM technology. In this paper, we used the latter method in the test system and control system. The author makes experience about influencing factors of the electromagnetic force and gets some data. Also, the controller has greatly improved the performance of vibratory feeder.

  1. Effects of feeding and rearing systems on growth, carcass composition and meat quality in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebret, B

    2008-10-01

    Animal growth performance and quality of pork depend on the interactive effects of pig genotype, rearing conditions, pre-slaughter handling, and carcass and meat processing. This paper focuses on the effects of feeding and rearing systems (feeding level and diet composition, housing, production system, etc.) on growth performance, carcass composition, and eating and technological qualities of pork. The feeding level and protein : energy ratio can be used to manipulate growth rate or composition of weight gain. Restricted feed allowance strongly reduces growth rate and carcass fatness and also intramuscular fat (IMF) level, resulting in decreased meat tenderness or juiciness. Expression of compensatory growth due to restricted followed by ad libitum feeding modifies the composition of weight gain at both carcass and muscle levels, and may improve meat tenderness due to higher in vivo protein turnover. Decreasing the protein : energy ratio of the diet actually increases IMF and improves eating quality, but gives fatter carcasses. In contrast, a progressive reduction in the protein : energy ratio leads to similar carcass composition at slaughter but with higher IMF. Technological meat traits (pH1, pHu, colour, drip loss) are generally not affected by the level or protein : energy in feed. Modification of fatty acid composition and antioxidant level in meat can be obtained through diet supplementations (e.g. vegetable sources with high n-3 fatty acids), thereby improving the nutritional quality of pork. Influences of pig rearing system on animal performance, carcass and meat traits result from interactive effects of housing (floor type, space allowance, ambient temperature, physical activity), feeding level and genotype in specific production systems. Indoor enrichment (more space, straw bedding) generally increases growth rate and carcass fatness, and may improve meat juiciness or flavour through higher IMF. Outdoor rearing and organic production system have various

  2. Robust design of feedback feed-forward iterative learning control based on 2D system theory for linear uncertain systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhifu; Hu, Yueming; Li, Di

    2016-08-01

    For a class of linear discrete-time uncertain systems, a feedback feed-forward iterative learning control (ILC) scheme is proposed, which is comprised of an iterative learning controller and two current iteration feedback controllers. The iterative learning controller is used to improve the performance along the iteration direction and the feedback controllers are used to improve the performance along the time direction. First of all, the uncertain feedback feed-forward ILC system is presented by an uncertain two-dimensional Roesser model system. Then, two robust control schemes are proposed. One can ensure that the feedback feed-forward ILC system is bounded-input bounded-output stable along time direction, and the other can ensure that the feedback feed-forward ILC system is asymptotically stable along time direction. Both schemes can guarantee the system is robust monotonically convergent along the iteration direction. Third, the robust convergent sufficient conditions are given, which contains a linear matrix inequality (LMI). Moreover, the LMI can be used to determine the gain matrix of the feedback feed-forward iterative learning controller. Finally, the simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed schemes.

  3. Modular Thruster and Feeding System for Micro-Satellite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louwerse, M.C.; Jansen, Henricus V.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The miniaturization of space applicable devices by means of micro system technology (MST) is pursued by many research groups. MST devices are often designed as stand alone and require individual packaging which makes them still quite large. Focusing on the integration of several MST components has

  4. Thermal Integration of a Liquid Acquisition Device into a Cryogenic Feed System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Bolshinskiy, L. G.; Schunk, R. G.; Martin, A. K.; Eskridge, R. H.; Frenkel, A.; Grayson, G.; Pendleton, M. L.

    2011-01-01

    Primary objectives of this effort were to define the following: (1) Approaches for quantification of the accumulation of thermal energy within a capillary screen liquid acquisition device (LAD) for a lunar lander upper stage during periods of up to 210 days on the lunar surface, (2) techniques for mitigating heat entrapment, and (3) perform initial testing, data evaluation. The technical effort was divided into the following categories: (1) Detailed thermal modeling of the LAD/feed system interactions using both COMSOL computational fluid device and standard codes, (2) FLOW-3D modeling of bulk liquid to provide interfacing conditions for the LAD thermal modeling, (3) condensation conditioning of capillary screens to stabilize surface tension retention capability, and (4) subscale testing of an integrated LAD/feed system. Substantial progress was achieved in the following technical areas: (1) Thermal modeling and experimental approaches for evaluating integrated cryogen LAD/feed systems, at both the system and component levels, (2) reduced gravity pressure control analyses, (3) analytical modeling and testing for capillary screen conditioning using condensation and wicking, and (4) development of rapid turnaround testing techniques for evaluating LAD/feed system thermal and fluid integration. A comprehensive effort, participants included a diverse cross section of representatives from academia, contractors, and multiple Marshall Space Flight Center organizations.

  5. Locating a leaking crack by safe stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, C.E.; Sagat, S. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.); Shek, G.K.; Graham, D.B.; Durand, M.A. (Ontario Hydro, Toronto, ON (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    A few Zr-2.5 Nb alloy pressure tubes in CANDU nuclear reactors have leaked through cracks that have grown by delayed hydride cracking (DHC). In some instances, tubes contained confirmed leaks that were leaking at a rate too low for precise identification of the leaking channel. Controlled stimulation of DHC can be used to help locate these leaks by extending the crack and increasing the leak rate without approaching crack instability. In the event of a leak being detected, a plant operator can gain time for leak location by a heating and unloading manoeuvre that will arrest crack growth and increase the critical crack length. This manoeuvre increases the safety margin against tube rupture. If required, the operator can then stimulate cracking in a controlled manner to aid in leak identification. Sequences of temperature and load manoeuvres for safe crack stimulation have been found by laboratory tests on dry specimens and the efficacy of the process has been demonstrated, partly in a power reactor, and partly in a full-scale simulation of a leaking pressure tube. (author).

  6. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION LABORATORY TESTING WITH INTERIM PRETREATMENT SYSTEM FEEDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING DL

    2008-09-17

    The fractional crystallization process was developed as a pretreatment method for saltcake waste retrieved from Hanford single-shell tanks (SST). The process separates the retrieved SST waste into a high-level waste stream containing the bulk of the radionuclides and a low-activity waste stream containing the bulk of the nonradioactive sodium salts. The Interim Pretreatment System project shifted the focus on pretreatment planning from SST waste to double-shell tank waste.

  7. A generic method to analyse yield gaps in feed-crop livestock systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Aart

    2017-01-01

    Global livestock production is expected to increase in future decades, and expansion of the agricultural area for feed production is not desired. Hence, increasing livestock production per unit agricultural area is essential. The bio-physical scope to increase production of livestock systems with

  8. Analytical modelling of waveguide mode launchers for matched feed reflector systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palvig, Michael Forum; Breinbjerg, Olav; Meincke, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Matched feed horns aim to cancel cross polarization generated in offset reflector systems. An analytical method for predicting the mode spectrum generated by inclusions in such horns, e.g. stubs and pins, is presented. The theory is based on the reciprocity theorem with the inclusions represented...

  9. Feeding Behavior of Aplysia: A Model System for Comparing Cellular Mechanisms of Classical and Operant Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2006-01-01

    Feeding behavior of Aplysia provides an excellent model system for analyzing and comparing mechanisms underlying appetitive classical conditioning and reward operant conditioning. Behavioral protocols have been developed for both forms of associative learning, both of which increase the occurrence of biting following training. Because the neural…

  10. Feed-milk-manure nitrogen relationships in global dairy production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powell, J.M.; Macleod, M.; Vellinga, Th.V.; Opio, C.; Falcucci, A.; Tempio, G.; Steinfeld, H.; Gerber, P.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) inputs from fertilizer, biologically-fixed N, feed, and animal manure sustain productive agriculture. Agricultural systems are limited however in their ability to incorporate N into products, and environmental N losses may become local, regional and global concerns. The anticipated incr

  11. Reflex feed system for dual frequency antenna with frequency cutoff means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R. W. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A reflex feed system is described for a dual frequency antenna such as one which transmits and receives both S and X band signals. The dichroic plate, normally employed for directing X band radiation away from the X band horn, is replaced by a flange about the opening of the X band horn.

  12. Control of vacuum induction brazing system for sealing of instrumentation feed-through

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung Ho Ahn; Jintae Hong; Chang Young Joung; Ka Hae Kim; Sung Ho Heo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    The integrity of instrumentation cables is an important performance parameter in addition to the sealing performance in the brazing process. An accurate brazing control was developed for the brazing of the instrumentation feed-through in the vacuum induction brazing system in this paper. The experimental results show that the accurate brazing temperature control performance is achieved by the developed control scheme. Consequently, the sealing performances of the instrumentation feed-through and the integrities of the instrumentation cables were satisfied after brazing. (authors)

  13. Livestock and feed water productivity in the mixed crop-livestock system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekele, M; Mengistu, A; Tamir, B

    2017-02-22

    Recently with limited information from intensified grain-based farming systems in developed countries, livestock production is challenged as being huge consumer of freshwater. The smallholder mixed crop-livestock (MCL) system which is predominant in developing countries like Ethiopia, is maintained with considerable contributions of crop residues (CR) to livestock feeding. Inclusion of CR is expected to reduce the water requirement for feed production resulting improvement in livestock water productivity (LWP). This study was conducted to determine feed water productivity (FWP) and LWP in the MCL system. A multistage sampling procedure was followed to select farmers from different wealth status. Wealth status dictated by ownership of key farm resources such as size of cropland and livestock influenced the magnitude of livestock outputs, FWP and LWP. Significant difference in feed collected, freshwater evapotranspired, livestock outputs and water productivity (WP) were observed between wealth groups, where wealthier are relatively more advantaged. Water productivity of CR and grazing land (GL) analyzed separately showed contrasting differences where better-off gained more on CR, whereas vice versa on GL. These counterbalancing of variations may justify the non-significant difference in total FWP between wealth groups. Despite observed differences, low WP on GL indicates the need of interventions at all levels. The variation in WP of CR is attributed to availability of production factors which restrained the capacity of poor farmers most. A linear relationship between the proportion of CR in livestock feed and FWP was evident, but the relationship with LWP was not likely linear. As CR are inherently low in digestibility and nutritive values which have an effect on feed conversion into valuable livestock products and services, increasing share of CR beyond an optimum level is not a viable option to bring improvements in livestock productivity as expressed in terms of

  14. Concept of a self-pressurized feed system for liquid rocket engines and its fundamental experiment results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Jun; Okaya, Shunichi; Igoh, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Junichiro

    2017-04-01

    A new propellant feed system referred to as a self-pressurized feed system is proposed for liquid rocket engines. The self-pressurized feed system is a type of gas-pressure feed system; however, the pressurization source is retained in the liquid state to reduce tank volume. The liquid pressurization source is heated and gasified using heat exchange from the hot propellant using a regenerative cooling strategy. The liquid pressurization source is raised to critical pressure by a pressure booster referred to as a charger in order to avoid boiling and improve the heat exchange efficiency. The charger is driven by a part of the generated pressurization gas using a closed-loop self-pressurized feed system. The purpose of this study is to propose a propellant feed system that is lighter and simpler than traditional gas pressure feed systems. The proposed system can be applied to all liquid rocket engines that use the regenerative cooling strategy. The concept and mathematical models of the self-pressurized feed system are presented first. Experiment results for verification are then shown and compared with the mathematical models.

  15. 基于太阳能充电的无线远程监控氯气泄漏系统%Wireless Remote Monitor System of Detecting the Leaking of Chlorine Gas Based on Solar Energy Charging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金辉; 周巧娣; 徐勤利; 蒋科学; 陈文华

    2013-01-01

    根据工业用氯气的量大以及罐体存储的需求,选用基于GSM的远程监控系统对氯气泄漏进行检测.用太阳能电池板实现白天对系统供电以及对锂电池充电,夜晚完全由锂电池对供电.系统微控制器选用MSP430,以达到超低功耗的功能.对于氯气泄漏的信号采集使用CL2-A1电化学式氯气传感器,实现到对泄漏氯气快速检测做出反应的效果.该设计具有适用范围广,通用性强,能现场以及远程报警等优点.%Based on the large amount of chlorine for industrial use and storage of tank requirements, GSM-based remote monitoring system is selected to detect chlorine leaks. During the day the system uses solar panels as the system power supply and battery charger, but lithium-powered by night. In order to achieve ultra-low power consumption features, system uses ultra-low power microcontroller's MSP430. For acquisition of chlorine leakage signal, CL2 - Al Electrochemical chlorine sensor is used in the design, in order to achieve a rapid detection of chlorine leak response effect. The design has advantages of wide range of application, versatility, and can site and remote alarm.

  16. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  17. Sheepmeat flavor and the effect of different feeding systems: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Peter J; Frank, Damian; Singh, Tanoj K; Young, Owen A; Warner, Robyn D

    2013-04-17

    Lamb has a unique flavor, distinct from other popular red meats. Although flavor underpins lamb's popularity, it can also be an impediment to consumer acceptance. Lack of familiarity with sheepmeat flavor itself can be a barrier for some consumers, and undesirable feed-induced flavors may also compromise acceptability. Against the backdrop of climate uncertainty and unpredictable rainfall patterns, sheep producers are turning to alternatives to traditional grazing pasture systems. Historically, pasture has been the predominant feed system for lamb production in Australia and around the world. It is for this reason that there has been a focus on "pastoral" flavor in sheep meat. Pasture-associated flavors may be accepted as "normal" by consumers accustomed to meat from pasture-fed sheep; however, these flavors may be unfamiliar to consumers of meat produced from grain-fed and other feed systems. Over the past few decades, studies examining the impacts of different feeds on lamb meat quality have yielded variable consumer responses ranging from "no effect" to "unacceptable", illustrating the diverse and sometimes inconsistent impacts of different forages on sheepmeat flavor. Despite considerable research, there is no consensus on which volatiles are essential for desirable lamb aroma and how they differ compared to other red meats, for example, beef. In contrast, comparatively little work has focused specifically on the nonvolatile taste components of lamb flavor. Diet also affects the amount of intramuscular fat and its fatty acid composition in the meat, which has a direct effect on meat juiciness and texture as well as flavor, and its release during eating. The effect of diet is far from simple and much still needs to be learned. An integrated approach that encompasses all input variables is required to better understand the impact of the feed and related systems on sheepmeat flavor. This review brings together recent research findings and proposes some novel

  18. Lunar Regolith Simulant Feed System for a Hydrogen Reduction Reactor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R. P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III

    2009-01-01

    One of the goals of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) on the moon is to produce oxygen from the lunar regolith which is present in the form of Ilmenite (FeTi03) and other compounds. A reliable and attainable method of extracting some of the oxygen from the lunar regolith is to use the hydrogen reduction process in a hot reactor to create water vapor which is then condensed and electrolyzed to obtain oxygen for use as a consumable. One challenge for a production system is to reliably acquire the regolith with an excavator hauler mobility platform and then introduce it into the reactor inlet tube which is raised from the surface and above the reactor itself. After the reaction, the hot regolith (-1000 C) must be expelled from the reactor for disposal by the excavator hauler mobility system. In addition, the reactor regolith inlet and outlet tubes must be sealed by valves during the reaction in order to allow collection of the water vapor by the chemical processing sub-system. These valves must be able to handle abrasive regolith passing through them as well as the heat conduction from the hot reactor. In 2008, NASA has designed and field tested a hydrogen reduction system called ROxygen in order to demonstrate the feasibility of extracting oxygen from lunar regolith. The field test was performed with volcanic ash known as Tephra on Mauna Kea volcano on the Big Island of Hawai'i. The tephra has similar properties to lunar regolith, so that it is regarded as a good simulant for the hydrogen reduction process. This paper will discuss the design, fabrication, operation, test results and lessons learned with the ROxygen regolith feed system as tested on Mauna Kea in November 2008.

  19. The Anti-leak Password Management System based on Bluetooth and NFC%基于蓝牙和NFC的防泄露密码使用管理系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严志涛; 徐梦霖; 吴潇岛; 赵辉

    2013-01-01

    With the widespread use of passwords, users have to remember a large number of complicated passwords. It is more and more dififcult to remember and enter them. This paper proposes a design of the anti-leak password management system based on Bluetooth and NFC in order to help users remember and enter numerous passwords. This system uses NFC authentication, key distribution mechanism similar to KDC (Key Distribution Center), loss report mechanism and so on to guarantee password security. The test results indicate that this system can help users remember and enter a large number of passwords effectively, and the security mechanism such as loss report mechanism can protect passwords from being leaked.%随着密码使用越来越广泛,用户需要记忆大量复杂的密码来保证安全,密码的记忆和输入变得越来越困难。为此,文章提出了一种基于蓝牙NFC的防泄露密码使用管理系统的设计,帮助用户记忆大量密码以及方便输入,并采用NFC(近场通讯)身份验证、类似于KDC(密钥分配中心)的密钥分配机制、挂失机制等安全机制来保证用户的密码安全。测试结果表明该系统能有效地帮助用户记忆大量密码以及快捷地进行密码的输入,并用挂失等安全机制有效地保证用户的密码不被泄露。

  20. Integrative role of the histaminergic system in feeding and taste perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay of many endogenous substances, such as peptides and neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Histamine is a neurotransmitter which expresses an anorectic effect on food intake via histamine H(1) receptors. The histaminergic system exists downstream of leptin, a satiety factor secreted from white adipose tissue. Because direct stimulation of the histaminergic system by histamine H(3)-inverse agonists or antagonists can normalize the obese phenotype in which animal models with exogenous leptin resistance, which resembles human obesity, the potential roles of histamine H(3) receptors as a therapeutic target now draw attention. Histaminergic activity is enhanced during feeding, and an oral somatic sensation is thought to affect histaminergic activity while blood glucose levels do not. In addition, gustatory information can modulate histaminergic activity by two mechanisms: by physiological excitation of the chorda tympani nerve, one of the taste nerves and by emotions elicited by taste perception, i.e., taste palatability. Particularly, aversive and hazardous taste stimuli tonically facilitate histaminergic activity, suggesting that the histaminergic system is involved in the response to harmful stimuli. Together with recent findings, it is postulated that the histaminergic system responds to both mechanical and chemical sensory input from the oral cavity during feeding and is exerted as a part of the danger response system.

  1. Integrative role of the histaminergic system in feeding and taste perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko eIshizuka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay of many endogenous substances, such as peptides and neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. Histamine is a neurotransmitter which expresses an anorectic effect on food intake via histamine H1 receptors. The histaminergic system exists downstream of leptin, a satiety factor secreted from white adipose tissue. Because direct stimulation of the histaminergic system by histamine H3-inverse agonists or antagonists can normalize the obese phenotype in which animal models with exogenous leptin resistance, which resembles human obesity, the potential roles of histamine H3 receptors as a therapeutic target now draw attention. Histaminergic activity is enhanced during feeding, and an oral somatic sensation is thought to affect histaminergic activity while blood glucose levels do not. In addition, gustatory information can modulate histaminergic activity by two mechanisms: by physiological excitation of the chorda tympani nerve, one of the taste nerves, and by emotions elicited by taste perception, i.e. taste palatability. Particularly, aversive and hazardous taste stimuli tonically facilitate histaminergic activity, suggesting that the histaminergic system is involved in the response to harmful stimuli. Together with recent findings, it is postulated that the histaminergic system responds to both mechanical and chemical sensory input from the oral cavity during feeding and is exerted as a part of the danger response system.

  2. Dynamics of digestive proteolytic system during blood feeding of the hard tick Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sojka Daniel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ticks are vectors of a wide variety of pathogens causing severe diseases in humans and domestic animals. Intestinal digestion of the host blood is an essential process of tick physiology and also a limiting factor for pathogen transmission since the tick gut represents the primary site for pathogen infection and proliferation. Using the model tick Ixodes ricinus, the European Lyme disease vector, we have previously demonstrated by genetic and biochemical analyses that host blood is degraded in the tick gut by a network of acidic peptidases of the aspartic and cysteine classes. Results This study reveals the digestive machinery of the I. ricinus during the course of blood-feeding on the host. The dynamic profiling of concentrations, activities and mRNA expressions of the major digestive enzymes demonstrates that the de novo synthesis of peptidases triggers the dramatic increase of the hemoglobinolytic activity along the feeding period. Overall hemoglobinolysis, as well as the activity of digestive peptidases are negligible at the early stage of feeding, but increase dramatically towards the end of the slow feeding period, reaching maxima in fully fed ticks. This finding contradicts the established opinion that blood digestion is reduced at the end of engorgement. Furthermore, we show that the digestive proteolysis is localized intracellularly throughout the whole duration of feeding. Conclusions Results suggest that the egressing proteolytic system in the early stage of feeding and digestion is a potential target for efficient impairment, most likely by blocking its components via antibodies present in the host blood. Therefore, digestive enzymes are promising candidates for development of novel 'anti-tick' vaccines capable of tick control and even transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

  3. Validation of Test Methods for Air Leak Rate Verification of Spaceflight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravec, Heather Ann; Daniels, Christopher C.; Mather, Janice L.

    2017-01-01

    As deep space exploration continues to be the goal of NASAs human spaceflight program, verification of the performance of spaceflight hardware becomes increasingly critical. Suitable test methods for verifying the leak rate of sealing systems are identified in program qualification testing requirements. One acceptable method for verifying the air leak rate of gas pressure seals is the tracer gas leak detector method. In this method, a tracer gas (commonly helium) leaks past the test seal and is transported to the leak detector where the leak rate is quantified. To predict the air leak rate, a conversion factor of helium-to-air is applied depending on the magnitude of the helium flow rate. The conversion factor is based on either the molecular mass ratio or the ratio of the dynamic viscosities. The current work was aimed at validating this approach for permeation-level leak rates using a series of tests with a silicone elastomer O-ring. An established pressure decay method with constant differential pressure was used to evaluate both the air and helium leak rates of the O-ring under similar temperature and pressure conditions. The results from the pressure decay tests showed, for the elastomer O-ring, that neither the molecular flow nor the viscous flow helium-to-air conversion factors were applicable. Leak rate tests were also performed using nitrogen and argon as the test gas. Molecular mass and viscosity based helium-to-test gas conversion factors were applied, but did not correctly predict the measured leak rates of either gas. To further this study, the effect of pressure boundary conditions was investigated. Often, pressure decay leak rate tests are performed at a differential pressure of 101.3 kPa with atmospheric pressure on the downstream side of the test seal. In space applications, the differential pressure is similar, but with vacuum as the downstream pressure. The same O-ring was tested at four unique differential pressures ranging from 34.5 to 137.9 k

  4. Development of a wireless oral-feeding monitoring system for preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Lin; Hung, Jing-Sheng; Wang, Lin-Yu; Ko, Mei-Ju; Chou, Willy; Kuo, Hsing-Chien; Lin, Bor-Shyh

    2015-05-01

    Oral-feeding disorder is common in preterm infants. It not only shows the adverse effect for growth and neurodevelopment in clinical but also becomes one of the important indicators of high-risk group for neurodevelopment delay in preterm infants. Preterm infants must coordinate the motor patterns of sucking, swallowing, and respiration skillfully to avoid choking, aspiration, oxygen desaturation, bradycardia, or apnea episodes. However, up to now, the judgment and classification severity in preterm infants are mostly subjective and phasic evaluations. Directly monitoring the coordination of sucking-swallowing-breathing during oral feeding simultaneously is difficult for preterm infants. In this study, we proposed a wireless oral-feeding monitoring system for preterm infants to quantitatively monitor the sucking pressure via a designed sucking pressure sensing device, swallowing activity via a microphone to detect swallowing sound, and diaphragmatic breathing movement via surface electromyogram. Moreover, a sucking-swallowing-breathing detection algorithm is also proposed to evaluate the events of sucking-swallowing-breathing activities. Furthermore, verification of the accuracy and rationality of oral-feeding parameters with clinical findings including sucking, swallowing, and breathing in term and preterm infants had proved the practicality and value of the proposed system.

  5. Experiments and Simulation of Thermal Behaviors of the Dual-drive Servo Feed System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jun; MEI Xuesong; FENG Bin; ZHAO Liang; MA Chi; SHI Hu

    2015-01-01

    The machine tool equipped with the dual-drive servo feed system could realize high feed speed as well as sharp precision. Currently, there is no report about the thermal behaviors of the dual-drive machine, and the current research of the thermal characteristics of machines mainly focuses on steady simulation. To explore the influence of thermal characterizations on the precision of a jib boring machine assembled dual-drive feed system, the thermal equilibrium tests and the research on thermal-mechanical transient behaviors are carried out. A laser interferometer, infrared thermography and a temperature-displacement acquisition system are applied to measure the temperature distribution and thermal deformation at different feed speeds. Subsequently, the finite element method (FEM) is used to analyze the transient thermal behaviors of the boring machine. The complex boundary conditions, such as heat sources and convective heat transfer coefficient, are calculated. Finally, transient variances in temperatures and deformations are compared with the measured values, and the errors between the measurement and the simulation of the temperature and the thermal error are 2 ℃ and 2.5 μm, respectively. The researching results demonstrate that the FEM model can predict the thermal error and temperature distribution very well under specified operating condition. Moreover, the uneven temperature gradient is due to the asynchronous dual-drive structure that results in thermal deformation. Additionally, the positioning accuracy decreases as the measured point became further away from the motor, and the thermal error and equilibrium period both increase with feed speeds. The research proposes a systematical method to measure and simulate the boring machine transient thermal behaviors.

  6. Electrorefiner system for recovering purified metal from impure nuclear feed material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, John F.; Williamson, Mark A.; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G.; Willit, James L.; Barnes, Laurel A.; Blaskovitz, Robert J.

    2015-10-06

    An electrorefiner system according to a non-limiting embodiment of the present invention may include a vessel configured to maintain a molten salt electrolyte and configured to receive a plurality of alternately arranged cathode and anode assemblies. The anode assemblies are configured to hold an impure nuclear feed material. Upon application of the power system, the impure nuclear feed material is anodically dissolved and a purified metal is deposited on the cathode rods of the cathode assemblies. A scraper is configured to dislodge the purified metal deposited on the cathode rods. A conveyor system is disposed at a bottom of the vessel and configured to remove the dislodged purified metal from the vessel.

  7. Development of a combined feed forward-feedback system for an electron Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E. [School of Physics, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia) and Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Rd, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia); FERMI-Elettra, Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: evelyne.meier@synchrotron.org.au; Biedron, S.G. [Department of Defense Project Office, Argonne National Laboratory, IL 60439 (United States); FERMI-Elettra, Sincrotrone Trieste, S.S. 14km 163.5 in AREA Science Park, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)], E-mail: biedron@anl.gov; LeBlanc, G. [Australian Synchrotron, 800 Blackburn Rd, Clayton VIC 3168 (Australia)], E-mail: Greg.LeBlanc@synchrotron.org.au; Morgan, M.J. [School of Physics, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton VIC 3800 (Australia)], E-mail: Michael.Morgan@sci.monash.edu.au; Wu, J. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Rd, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)], E-mail: jhwu@slac.stanford.edu

    2009-10-11

    This paper describes the results of an advanced control algorithm for the stabilization of electron beam energy in a Linac. The approach combines a conventional Proportional-Integral (PI) controller with a neural network (NNET) feed forward algorithm; it utilizes the robustness of PI control and the ability of a feed forward system in order to exert control over a wider range of frequencies. The NNET is trained to recognize jitter occurring in the phase and voltage of one of the klystrons, based on a record of these parameters, and predicts future energy deviations. A systematic approach is developed to determine the optimal NNET parameters that are then applied to the Australian Synchrotron Linac. The system's capability to fully cancel multi-frequency jitter is demonstrated. The NNET system is then augmented with the PI algorithm, and further jitter attenuation is achieved when the NNET is not operating optimally.

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF METHODS OF CALCULATION OF TRACTION POWER SUPPLY SYSTEMS AND ENERGY SYSTEMS FEEDING THEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Domanskyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the cause deterioration of quality rating of electricity on tire traction substations AC can be either how mode of operation of power systems, industrial loads so and the impact of electric traction. The experience of energy surveys show that the loss from flow potential equalization currents in each the third plot between traction substations AC is amount to not less than 250 thousand kW∙h per year. To select the optimum power and places location of the device longitudinal capacitive of compensation and decision other tasks it is necessary methodology of systems of calculation that takes into account the complex nature of the mutual influence of the quality of the electricity coming from the energy system of and the transportation process. In the paper proposed three options for calculation algorithms modes work of existing and perspective systems, traction power supply AC jointly with power supply their by energy systems, including the algorithm for calculating networks of different nominal voltages using the transformations; decomposition and synthesis of networks with different voltage levels; the iterations and probabilistic assessment of the impact of power mains. Developed the schemes formalization of graphs and the matrices of portions of the outer and traction power supply and method of selecting parameters and places location of the devices longitudinal capacitive of compensation, which are based on direct methods solving systems of linear algebraic equations with a dense banded and profile-sparse the matrix. Are generalized ways of formation and transformation of graphs of schemes traction power supply and feeding them energy systems and proposed the method of calculation the complex the moment of schemes, which increases the accuracy of calculating of flows power on traction networks to 1-2 % and allows you to select the optimal parameters and places location of the devices longitudinal capacitive of compensation

  9. Leaks in gas pipelines. Leak detection with the aid of GIS and GPS; Leckstellen in Gasrohrnetzen. Aufspueren mit Unterstuetzung durch GIS und GPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Detlef; Berteld, Michael [Industrielle Werke Basel (Switzerland)

    2009-12-15

    The GPS technology has made gas leak detection more efficient. By linking it with the documentation of the Geographic Information System (GIS), gas grid monitoring, long-term planning and also maintenance can be optimized considerably. After successful testing, Industrielle Werke Basel (IWB) introduced the system for their whole gas grid. Apart from cost savings, there was also a significant quality improvement in gas leak detection. (orig.)

  10. Influence of grain type, tallow level, and tallow feeding system on feedlot cattle performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, C R; McCoy, R A; Stock, R A; Klopfenstein, T J; Shain, D H; Huffman, R P

    1995-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of grain type, tallow level, and tallow feeding system on finishing steer performance. Experiment 1 involved 256 yearling steers (359 kg) in a 4 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Steers were assigned randomly to one of four tallow feeding systems: 1) 0% tallow fed throughout the experiment; 2) 4% tallow fed throughout the experiment; 3) 0% tallow fed d 1 through 33 and then 4% tallow fed until slaughter; and 4) 4% tallow fed d 1 through 33 and then 0% tallow fed until slaughter. Tallow treatments were applied to diets containing either dry-rolled corn (DRC) of high-moisture corn (HMC). No fat treatment x grain type interaction (P > .10) was observed. Steers fed 4% tallow throughout the experiment, only during d 1 through 33, or only during d 34 until slaughter were more (P tallow. No differences in DMI or ADG were observed (P > .10). In Exp. 2, 120 large-framed steer calves (286 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted randomly within block to one of three treatments consisting of the addition fo 0, 2, or 4% tallow added d 1 and fed for 197 d. Feed efficiency of calves increased linearly (P tallow level. Daily gain was not different (P > .10), but DMI decreased linearly (P tallow level. This research indicates that tallow added during or after grain adaptation to DRC- or HMC-based diets fed to yearling steers will result in similar improvement in feed efficiency, and that including up to 4% tallow to diets fed to large-framed calves can significantly improve feed efficiency.

  11. Conceptual Design of an Ultra-Dense Phase Injector and Feed System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Sprouse; Fred Widman; Alan Darby

    2006-03-30

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine technology to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. One key feature of the PWR concept is the use of an ultra-dense phase feed system to provide dry coal to the multi-element injector. This report describes the design of an ultra-dense phase multi-element injector and feed system for use on PWR gasifiers operating at pressures to 1,000 psia. For the design of this injector and feed system, the pulverized coal's Bingham fluid yield stress is approximately 11 Pascals (Pa) with a coefficient of rigidity of 10 centipoise (cp). These values are typical of earlier experimental testing conducted with dried pulverized coal below 18 wt% moisture -- see, e.g., Sprouse and Schuman (1983, 1986). Each individual injector element is designed for a coal flow rate between 3 and 4 tons/hr (0.76 to 1.0 kg/sec) at full flow conditions. Hence, a small 400 to 500 tons/day (4.2 to 5.25 kg/sec) gasifier will require a 6-element injector, a 1,500 tons/day (15.7 kg/sec) gasifier will require an 18-element injector and a 3,000 tons/day (31.5 kg/sec) gasifier will require a 36-element injector. These injectors and feed systems are capable of 'turn-down' below 50% of full-flow operation.

  12. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and

  13. Design optimization of gating and feeding system through simulation technique for sand casting of wear plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin L. Nimbulkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Casting is a manufacturing process to make complex shapes of metal materials; during mass production, we may experience many defects, such as gas porosity, pin holes, blow holes, shrinkages and incomplete filling that may occur in sand casting. Porosity is one of the defects most frequently encountered in ductile iron casting. Porosity impacts cost by scrap loss and limits the use of cast parts in critical high strength applications. The amount of porosity is closely related to the parameter of sand casting process. The gating/riser system design plays a very important role for improving casting quality. Many researchers reported that 90% of the defects in casting are obtained only because of improper design of gating and feeding system. The main objectives were to study the existing design of gating and feeding system, to optimize the gating and feeding system using Auto-CAST X1 casting simulation software, to prepare the sand mold and cast the part, to compare the simulated result and experimental results, to reduce rejection rate and to enable the company to again start the production.

  14. The Axial Nonlinear Vibration Analysis of Ball-screw about Machine Tool Feeding System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Hao-ran; LIU Nian-cong; YANG Jia-rui; CHEN Jian-long; GENG Wei-tao

    2016-01-01

    The forced state of the ball⁃screw of machine tool feeding system is analyzed. The ball⁃screw is simplified as Timoshenko beam and the differential equation of motion for the ball⁃screw is built. To obtain the axial vibration equation, the differential equation of motion is simplified using the assumed mode method. Axial vibration equation is in form of Duffing equation and has the characteristics of nonlinearity. The numerical simulation of Duffing equation is proceeded by MATLAB/Simulink. The effect of screw length, exciting force and damping coefficient are researched, and the axial vibration phase track diagram and Poincare section are obtained. The stability and period of the axial vibration are analyzed. The limit cycle of phase track diagram is enclosed. Axial vibration has two type⁃center singularity distributions on both sides of the origin. The singularity attracts vibration to reach a stable state, and Poincare section shows that axial vibration appears chaotic motion and quasi periodic motion or periodic motion. Singularity position changes with the vibration system parameters, while the distribution doesn′t change. The period of the vibration is enhanced with increasing frequency and damping coefficient. Test of the feeding system ball⁃screw axial vibration exists chaos movement. This paper provides a certain theoretical basis for the dynamic characteristic analysis of machine feeding system ball⁃screw and optimization of structural parameters.

  15. Design of water feeding system for IASCC irradiation tests at JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanno, Masaru; Nabeya, Hideaki; Mori, Yuichiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment] [and others

    2001-12-01

    In relation to the aging of light water reactors (LWRs), the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC) has been regarded as a significant and urgent issue for the reliability of in-core components and materials of LWRs, and the irradiation research is now under schedule. It is essential for IASCC studies to irradiated materials under well-controlled conditions simulating LWR in-core environment. Therefore, a new water feeding system to supply high temperature water into irradiation capsules in the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) has been designed and will be installed in near future. This report describes the specification and performance of the water feeding system that is designed to supply high temperature water to simulate BWR conditions in irradiation capsules. This design work was performed in the fiscal year 1999. (author)

  16. Helium Mass Spectrometer Leak Detection: A Method to Quantify Total Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    In applications where leak rates of components or systems are evaluated against a leak rate requirement, the uncertainty of the measured leak rate must be included in the reported result. However, in the helium mass spectrometer leak detection method, the sensitivity, or resolution, of the instrument is often the only component of the total measurement uncertainty noted when reporting results. To address this shortfall, a measurement uncertainty analysis method was developed that includes the leak detector unit's resolution, repeatability, hysteresis, and drift, along with the uncertainty associated with the calibration standard. In a step-wise process, the method identifies the bias and precision components of the calibration standard, the measurement correction factor (K-factor), and the leak detector unit. Together these individual contributions to error are combined and the total measurement uncertainty is determined using the root-sum-square method. It was found that the precision component contributes more to the total uncertainty than the bias component, but the bias component is not insignificant. For helium mass spectrometer leak rate tests where unit sensitivity alone is not enough, a thorough evaluation of the measurement uncertainty such as the one presented herein should be performed and reported along with the leak rate value.

  17. Space Shuttle Main Engine Propellant Path Leak Detection Using Sequential Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. Montgomery; Malone, Jo Anne; Crawford, Roger A.

    1995-01-01

    Initial research in this study using theoretical radiation transport models established that the occurrence of a leak is accompanies by a sudden but sustained change in intensity in a given region of an image. In this phase, temporal processing of video images on a frame-by-frame basis was used to detect leaks within a given field of view. The leak detection algorithm developed in this study consists of a digital highpass filter cascaded with a moving average filter. The absolute value of the resulting discrete sequence is then taken and compared to a threshold value to produce the binary leak/no leak decision at each point in the image. Alternatively, averaging over the full frame of the output image produces a single time-varying mean value estimate that is indicative of the intensity and extent of a leak. Laboratory experiments were conducted in which artificially created leaks on a simulated SSME background were produced and recorded from a visible wavelength video camera. This data was processed frame-by-frame over the time interval of interest using an image processor implementation of the leak detection algorithm. In addition, a 20 second video sequence of an actual SSME failure was analyzed using this technique. The resulting output image sequences and plots of the full frame mean value versus time verify the effectiveness of the system.

  18. Intermediate-Scale Laboratory Experiments of Subsurface Flow and Transport Resulting from Tank Leaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.

    2014-09-30

    Washington River Protection Solutions contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to conduct laboratory experiments and supporting numerical simulations to improve the understanding of water flow and contaminant transport in the subsurface between waste tanks and ancillary facilities at Waste Management Area C. The work scope included two separate sets of experiments: •Small flow cell experiments to investigate the occurrence of potential unstable fingering resulting from leaks and the limitations of the STOMP (Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases) simulator to predict flow patterns and solute transport behavior under these conditions. Unstable infiltration may, under certain conditions, create vertically elongated fingers potentially transporting contaminants rapidly through the unsaturated zone to groundwater. The types of leak that may create deeply penetrating fingers include slow release, long duration leaks in relatively permeable porous media. Such leaks may have occurred below waste tanks at the Hanford Site. •Large flow experiments to investigate the behavior of two types of tank leaks in a simple layered system mimicking the Waste Management Area C. The investigated leaks include a relatively large leak with a short duration from a tank and a long duration leak with a relatively small leakage rate from a cascade line.

  19. Contribution of mitochondrial proton leak to skeletal muscle respiration and to standard metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, D F; Brand, M D

    1996-10-01

    We have tested the hypothesis that the leak of protons across the mitochondrial inner membrane (proton leak) is a significant contributor to standard metabolic rate (SMR). We found that proton leak accounts for around one-half of the resting respiration rate of perfused rat skeletal muscle. Proton leak is known to make a significant (26%) contribution to the resting respiration rate of isolated rat hepatocytes (M. D. Brand, L.-F. Chien, E. K. Ainscow, D. F. S. Rolfe, and R. K. Porter. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1187: 132-139, 1994). If the importance of proton leak in these isolated and perfused systems is similar to its importance in vivo, then using literature values for the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to SMR, we can calculate that proton leak in liver and skeletal muscle alone accounts for 11-26% (mean 20%) of the SMR of the rat. If proton leak activity in the other tissues of the rat is similar to that in liver cells, then the contribution of proton leak to rat SMR would be 16-31% (mean 25%).

  20. Feeding System Analysis of Self-Controlled Inverter-Bed Inductor Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Alexandrovsky

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes feeding systems for self-controlled inverter-bed inductor motor windings. Peculiar operational feature of the self-controlled inverter-bed inductor motor consists in the fact that the instantaneous electro-magnetic drive is determined by the sum of separate phase moments which are simultaneously alive. Quasi-stationary drive operational modes are analyzed on the basis of the developed simulation model.

  1. A New Integrated Slot Element Feed Array for Multi-beam Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngvesson, K. S.; Johansson, J. F.; Kollberg, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    A feed array consisting of constant width slot antennas (CWSA's), fed from a block containing fin-line transitions, has been developed. The array has a two-dimensional configuration, with five elements each on five parallel substrates. Beam-widths are compatible with use in f/D-1.0 multi-beam systems, with optimum taper. Array element spacings are close to a factor of two smaller than for other typical arrays, and spill-over efficiency is about 65%.

  2. MECHANICAL ANALYSIS OF ORBIT TRACKING MOVEMENT OF FEED SYSTEM IN LARGE SPHERICAL RADIO-TELESCOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ming-zhi; SHEN Yu-ru; LIU Jun; NA Bai

    2005-01-01

    The curve equation and its mechanics analysis of suspended-cable under the condition of end load are given. Then on the basis of it, the mechanical analysis of suspended-cable system for large spherical radio-telescope is studied, and procedures of the control for the orbit tracking movement of the line feed in large spherical radiotelescope are given. The validity of the results mentioned above is confirmed by means of computer simulations.

  3. Helium-neon lasers for remote measurements of natural gas leaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    A Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system that at a distance of 15 meters can remotely sense natura gas (methane) leaks was developed. The system uses two helium-neon lasers (each emitting a different wavelength), a receiver, and an indium antimonide (InSb) photodetector cooled to 77 K. It is demonstrated the system can defect methane leaks both from an underground gas distribution system, and from sanitary landfills.

  4. Biofouling Control in Spiral-Wound Membrane Systems: Impact of Feed Spacer Modification and Biocides

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-12-01

    High-quality drinking water can be produced with membrane-based filtration processes like reverse osmosis and nanofiltration. One of the major problems in these membrane systems is biofouling that reduces the membrane performance, increasing operational costs. Current biofouling control strategies such as pre-treatment, membrane modification, and chemical cleaning are not sufficient in all cases. Feed spacers are thin (0.8 mm), complex geometry meshes that separate membranes in a module. The main objective of this research was to evaluate whether feed spacer modification is a suitable strategy to control biofouling. Membrane fouling simulator studies with six feed spacers showed differences in biofouled spacer performance, concluding that (i) spacer geometry influences biofouling impact and (ii) biofouling studies are essential for evaluation of spacer biofouling impact. Computed tomography (CT) was found as a suitable technique to obtain three-dimensional (3D) measurements of spacers, enabling more representative mathematical modeling of hydraulic behavior of spacers in membrane systems. A strategy for developing, characterizing, and testing of spacers by numerical modeling, 3D printing of spacers and experimental membrane fouling simulator studies was developed. The combination of modeling and experimental testing of 3D printed spacers is a promising strategy to develop advanced spacers aiming to reduce the impact of biofilm formation on membrane performance and to improve the cleanability of spiral-wound membrane systems.

  5. Feeding induced by cannabinoids is mediated independently of the melanocortin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puspha Sinnayah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabinoids, the active components of marijuana, stimulate appetite, and cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1-R antagonists suppress appetite and promote weight loss. Little is known about how CB1-R antagonists affect the central neurocircuitry, specifically the melanocortin system that regulates energy balance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we show that peripherally administered CB1-R antagonist (AM251 or agonist equally suppressed or stimulated feeding respectively in A(y , which lack a functional melanocortin system, and wildtype mice, demonstrating that cannabinoid effects on feeding do not require melanocortin circuitry. CB1-R antagonist or agonist administered into the ventral tegmental area (VTA equally suppressed or stimulated feeding respectively, in both genotypes. In addition, peripheral and central cannabinoid administration similarly induced c-Fos activation in brain sites suggesting mediation via motivational dopaminergic circuitry. Amperometry-detected increases in evoked dopamine (DA release by the CB1-R antagonist in nucleus accumbens slices indicates that AM251 modulates DA release from VTA terminals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that the effects of cannabinoids on energy balance are independent of hypothalamic melanocortin circuitry and is primarily driven by the reward system.

  6. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  7. Feeding Control System of Conveyor-belt Based on Image Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Fan-qin; WANG Yao-cai; XI Li-bo; WANG Jun-wei

    2004-01-01

    Based on the real time measurement of the width of coal flow, the method for measuring the width and the relative position of coal flow on a conveyor-belt by image processing was presented. A feeding control system of conveyor-belt was proposed using a fuzzy controller. This control system consists of CCD camera, universal image sampling system, control network and executor. The result shows that the algorithm used in the image processing is simple and efficient, and the measuring error of width is less than 4%.

  8. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  9. Leaks in fixed-ring banded sleeve gastrectomies: a management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foo, Jonathan W; Balshaw, James; Tan, Michael H L; Tan, Jeremy T H

    2017-08-01

    The use of a Fobi ring to prevent pouch dilation is sometimes used in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Recently, it has been extrapolated to laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) procedures by placing a fixed-ring band a few centimeters below the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). What is the consequence if a patient develops a leak? Tertiary metropolitan referral center, Australia. Over 18 months, all patients with either a conventional LSG or a fixed-ring banded sleeve gastrectomy (BLSG) who presented with a proven leak complication were included. The management approaches along with the surgical, endoscopic, and percutaneous procedures used were examined. Six patients had a BLSG leak and 6 had a LSG leak. All patients had leak resolution. There was no significant difference in body mass index (BMI), time to leak, initial white cell count (WCC), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels between the 2 groups. LSG patients required a median of 2 endoscopic procedures (range: 1-3). Stents were deployed in 3 patients. All BLSG patients required a single surgical intervention with laparoscopic washout, drainage, removal of band±feeding jejunostomy. One stent was deployed in 1 BLSG patient. BLSG leak resolution was found at 34±12 days versus 85±12 days in the LSG group (P< .05). The BLSG is a new modification of the sleeve gastrectomy procedure. This study presents a management strategy for leak resolution employed in BLSG patients. The presence of a foreign body as a persistent nidus of infection mandates band removal. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. All rights reserved.

  10. Analyzing User Awareness of Privacy Data Leak in Mobile Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngho Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To overcome the resource and computing power limitation of mobile devices in Internet of Things (IoT era, a cloud computing provides an effective platform without human intervention to build a resource-oriented security solution. However, existing malware detection methods are constrained by a vague situation of information leaks. The main goal of this paper is to measure a degree of hiding intention for the mobile application (app to keep its leaking activity invisible to the user. For real-world application test, we target Android applications, which unleash user privacy data. With the TaintDroid-ported emulator, we make experiments about the timing distance between user events and privacy leaks. Our experiments with Android apps downloaded from the Google Play show that most of leak cases are driven by user explicit events or implicit user involvement which make the user aware of the leakage. Those findings can assist a malware detection system in reducing the rate of false positive by considering malicious intentions. From the experiment, we understand better about app’s internal operations as well. As a case study, we also presents a cloud-based dynamic analysis framework to perform a traffic monitor.

  11. Leaks in nuclear grade high efficiency aerosol filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scripsick, Ronald Clyde [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Nuclear grade high efficiency aerosol filters, also known as high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, are commonly used in air cleaning systems for removal of hazardous aerosols. Performance of the filter units is important in assuring health and environmental protection. The filter units are constructed from pleated packs of fiberglass filter media sealed into rigid frames. Results of previous studies on such filter units indicate that their performance may not be completely predicted by ideal performance of the fibrous filter media. In this study, departure from ideal performance is linked to leaks existing in filter units and overall filter unit performance is derived from independent performance of the individual filter unit components. The performance of 14 nuclear grade HEPA filter units (size 1, 25 cfm) with plywood frames was evaluated with a test system that permitted independent determination of penetration as a function of particle size for the whole filter unit, the filter unit frame, and the filter media pack. Tests were performed using a polydisperse aerosol of di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate with a count median diameter of 0.2 {mu}m and geometric standard deviation of 1.6. Flow rate and differential pressure were controlled from 1% to 100% of design values. Particle counts were made upstream and downstream of the filter unit with an optical particle counter (OPC). The OPC provided count information in 28 size channels over the particle diameter range from 0.1 to 0.7 μm. Results provide evidence for a two component leak model of filler unit performance with: (1) external leaks through filter unit frames, and (2) internal leaks through defects in the media and through the seal between the media pack and frame. For the filter units evaluated, these leaks dominate overall filter unit performance over much of the flow rate and particle size ranges tested.

  12. Perceiving the algae: How feeding-current feeding copepods detect their nonmotile prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Feeding-current feeding copepods detect and capture prey individually, but the mechanism by which nonmotile prey is detected has been unclear. Early reports that copepods detect phytoplankton prey at distances of one body length or more led to the hypothesis that solutes leaking from the prey wou...

  13. Design Scheme of New Type Shell Raising and Feeding System of Medium-large Caliber Naval Gun

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hong-xia; HU Sheng-hai; LUO A-ni

    2002-01-01

    The medium -large caliber naval gun is still playing an important role in modern war. The development of highly automatic Shell Raising and Feeding System (SRFS) in the world has been briefly outlined. Several typical SRFS of medium-large caliber naval guns have been analyzed. A re-design of the system is introduced, in which systematic design method has been used to demonstrate its feasibility. The design goal of the system is to realize rapid shell feeding, with application to many types of shells, quick change of shell types , accurate and reliable feeding operation, simple mechanical structure and easy realization of shell withdrawing.

  14. Successful Endoscopic Therapy of Traumatic Bile Leaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Spinn

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic bile leaks often result in high morbidity and prolonged hospital stay that requires multimodality management. Data on endoscopic management of traumatic bile leaks are scarce. Our study objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the endoscopic management of a traumatic bile leak. We performed a retrospective case review of patients who were referred for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP after traumatic bile duct injury secondary to blunt (motor vehicle accident or penetrating (gunshot trauma for management of bile leaks at our tertiary academic referral center. Fourteen patients underwent ERCP for the management of a traumatic bile leak over a 5-year period. The etiology included blunt trauma from motor vehicle accident in 8 patients, motorcycle accident in 3 patients and penetrating injury from a gunshot wound in 3 patients. Liver injuries were grade III in 1 patient, grade IV in 10 patients, and grade V in 3 patients. All patients were treated by biliary stent placement, and the outcome was successful in 14 of 14 cases (100%. The mean duration of follow-up was 85.6 days (range 54-175 days. There were no ERCP-related complications. In our case review, endoscopic management with endobiliary stent placement was found to be successful and resulted in resolution of the bile leak in all 14 patients. Based on our study results, ERCP should be considered as first-line therapy in the management of traumatic bile leaks.

  15. Frequency Tunable Antennas and Novel Phased Array Feeding Networks for Next Generation Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avser, Bilgehan

    The thesis presents three dual-band frequency tunable antennas for carrier aggregation systems and two new feeding networks for reducing the number of phase shifters in limited-scan arrays. First, single- and dual-feed, dual-frequency, low-profile antennas with independent frequency tuning using varactor diodes are presented. The dual-feed planar inverted F-antenna (PIFA) has two operating frequencies which are independently tuned at 0.7--1.1 GHz and at 1.7--2.3 GHz with better than 10 dB impedance match. The isolation between the high-band and the low-band ports is > 13 dB; hence, one resonant frequency can be tuned without affecting the other. The single-feed contiguous-dual-band antenna has two resonant frequencies, which are independently tuned at 1.2--1.6 GHz at 1.6--2.3 GHz with better than 10 dB impedance match for most of the tuning range. And the single-feed dual-band antenna has two resonant frequencies, which are independently tuned at 0.7--1.0 GHz at 1.7--2.3 GHz with better than 10 dB impedance match for most of the tuning range. The tuning is done using varactor diodes with a capacitance range from 0.8 to 3.8 pF, which is compatible with RF MEMS devices. The antenna volumes are 63 x 100 x 3.15 mm3 on epsilon r = 3.55 substrates and the measured antenna efficiencies vary between 25% and 50% over the tuning range. The application areas are in carrier aggregation systems for fourth generation (4G) wireless systems. Next, a new phased array feeding network that employs random sequences of non-uniform sub-arrays (and a single phase shifter for each sub-array) is presented. When these sequences are optimized, the resulting phased arrays can scan over a wide region with low sidelobe levels. Equations for analyzing the random arrays and an algorithm for optimizing the array sequences are presented. Multiple random-solutions with different number of phase shifters and different set of sub-array groups are analyzed and design guidelines are presented. The

  16. EFFECTS OF FEEDING AND MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS ON BODY WEIGHT AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BALOCHI EWES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MUNIR, A. W. JASRA1 AND M. A. MIRZA

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to assess the performance of Balochi ewes under three management systems i.e. T1-Extensive (grazing only, T2-Semi-extensive (grazing plus daily feed supplementation for nine months @ 0.625 kg/ewe/day and T3-Intensive (experimental ration only @ 1.5625 kg/ewe/day. Animals under T1 lost as high as 7.9 kg body weight during winter. T2 flock maintained their body weights and T3 achieved significantly higher body weight (i.e. 15.1 kg. Highest conception and lambing percentages (93.8% were attained under T3 group, followed by T2 (87.5% and T1 (75%. These results strongly recommend appropriate feed supplementation to small ruminants on Balochistan ranges for sustainable pastoral livelihood.

  17. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  18. Modeling a high output marine steam generator feedwater control system which uses parallel turbine-driven feed pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Zhi-qiang; ZOU Hai; SUN Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    Parallel turbine-driven feedwater pumps are needed when ships travel at high speed. In order to study marine steam generator feedwater control systems which use parallel turbine-driven feed pumps,a mathematical model of marine steam generator feedwater control system was developed which includes mathematical models of two steam generators and parallel turbine-driven feed pumps as well as mathematical models of feedwater pipes and feed regulating valves. The operating condition points of the parallel turbine-driven feed pumps were calculated by the Chebyshev curve fit method. A water level controller for the steam generator and a rotary speed controller for the turbine-driven feed pumps were also included in the model. The accuracy of the mathematical models and their controllers was verified by comparing their results with those from a simulator.

  19. Effect of different feeding strategies in intensive dairy farming systems on milk fatty acid profiles, and implications on feeding costs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Coppa, M; Revello-Chion, A; Comino, L; Giaccone, D; Ferlay, A; Tabacco, E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize the fatty acid (FA) profile of milk from intensive dairy farming systems in the Po Plain (Italy) to estimate the costs of the adopted feeding strategies and to simulate the effect of supplementary premiums on the basis of milk FA composition on milk income. Twenty dairy farms with 5 different feeding strategies were studied: 3 corn silage-based systems in which cows were supplemented with a great proportion (CCH), a medium proportion (CCM), or without commercial concentrate mix (CC0), and 2 systems in which part of corn silage was replaced with grass or legume silage (HF) or with fresh herbage (G), cut and fed indoors. Bulk milk was sampled and lactating cow performance, feeding strategies and forage characteristics were recorded through a survey, 3 times during a year. The milk FA supplementary premium was calculated considering C18:3n-3 and saturated FA (SFA) concentrations, and ratio of total cis C18:1 isomers to C16:0. The CCH, CCM, and CC0 systems bought most of their dairy cow feeds off farm, which allowed them to increase milk production to 35,000 L/yr per hectare. Their low dry matter and crude protein self-sufficiency led to higher feeding costs per liter of milk (from €0.158 to €0.184), and highest income over feed cost was achieved only for milk yield performance greater than 10,000 kg/cow per year. The use of homegrown forages in HF and G increased dry matter and crude protein self-sufficiency and reduced the feeding costs per liter of milk from 9 to 22%, compared with the other studied systems, making HF and G feeding economically competitive, even for a lower milk yield per cow. The studied systems highlighted a remarkable variation in FA profiles. The concentrations of C16:0 and SFA were the highest in CCH (31.53 and 67.84 g/100g of FA) and G (31.23 and 68.45 g/100g of FA), because of the larger proportion of commercial concentrate mix in the cow diet. The concentrations of C16:0 and SFA were the lowest in

  20. Investigation of a Ball Screw Feed Drive System Based on Dynamic Modeling for Motion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Cheng Huang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the frequency response relationship between the ball screw nut preload, ball screw torsional stiffness variations and table mass effect for a single-axis feed drive system. Identification for the frequency response of an industrial ball screw drive system is very important for the precision motion when the vibration modes of the system are critical for controller design. In this study, there is translation and rotation modes of a ball screw feed drive system when positioning table is actuated by a servo motor. A lumped dynamic model to study the ball nut preload variation and torsional stiffness of the ball screw drive system is derived first. The mathematical modeling and numerical simulation provide the information of peak frequency response as the different levels of ball nut preload, ball screw torsional stiffness and table mass. The trend of increasing preload will indicate the abrupt peak change in frequency response spectrum analysis in some mode shapes. This study provides an approach to investigate the dynamic frequency response of a ball screw drive system, which provides significant information for better control performance when precise motion control is concerned.

  1. Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2014-01-01

    There has been significant work recently in the development of iodine-fed Hall thrusters for in-space propulsion applications.1 The use of iodine as a propellant provides many advantages over present xenon-gas-fed Hall thruster systems. Iodine is a solid at ambient temperature (no pressurization required) and has no special handling requirements, making it safe for secondary flight opportunities. It has exceptionally high ?I sp (density times specific impulse), making it an enabling technology for small satellite near-term applications and providing system level advantages over mid-term high power electric propulsion options. Iodine provides thrust and efficiency that are comparable to xenonfed Hall thrusters while operating in the same discharge current and voltage regime, making it possible to leverage the development of flight-qualified xenon Hall thruster power processing units for the iodine application. Work at MSFC is presently aimed at designing, integrating, and demonstrating a flight-like iodine feed system suitable for the Hall thruster application. This effort represents a significant advancement in state-of-the-art. Though Iodine thrusters have demonstrated high performance with mission enabling potential, a flight-like feed system has never been demonstrated and iodine compatible components do not yet exist. Presented in this paper is the end-to-end integrated feed system demonstration. The system includes a propellant tank with active feedback-control heating, fill and drain interfaces, latching and proportional flow control valves (PFCV), flow resistors, and flight-like CubeSat power and control electronics. Hardware is integrated into a CubeSat-sized structure, calibrated and tested under vacuum conditions, and operated under under hot-fire conditions using a Busek BHT-200 thruster designed for iodine. Performance of the system is evaluated thorugh accurate measurement of thrust and a calibrated of mass flow rate measurement, which is a function of

  2. Quality of Italian Istrian Milk lamb meat. Influence of carcass weight and feeding system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kompan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Istrian Milk sheep is an endangered breed of the Pramenka group raised in the North-Adriatic Karst region. Carcass and meat characteristics of 46 suckling, 6- to 14- week-old intact male light lambs from two feeding systems were analysed. Thirty-two lambs were raised in a flock fed only with forage (hay supplied in stall during winter or fresh herbage directly grazed during the other seasons. The lambs had free access to the forage supplied to their dams (feeding sys- tem: milk and forage; MF. The other fourteen suckling ovine were grown on a farm with a feeding system incorporat- ing a concentrated supply of the forage base. The lambs were stabled and creep fed on a concentrate (20% CP at a daily rate of 100 g/head, in addition to the suckled milk (feeding system: milk and concentrate; MC. The carcasses were divid- ed into three categories of weight, following the Community scale of light lambs classification: A (lesser than or equal to 7 kg, n=17, B (7.1-10 kg, n=15 and C (10.1-13 kg, n=14. The frequency of 1st quality carcasses increased with carcass weight, reaching 100% in category C. On average, 72% of the carcasses were scored as 1st quality, without significant differences between feeding systems. The lightness of lamb meat from A carcasses was higher than that from the heaviest ones. Cooking losses showed a pattern opposite to that of pH (mean 5.44; SE 0.058, increasing where pH decreased (cate- gories A and B and concentrate-fed lambs. Shear force values were significantly affected by factors linked to the feed- ing system; in fact, MC lambs provided more tender meat than MF ones (32.6 vs 46.6 N. As carcass weight increased, moisture concentration decreased steadily (from 77.8% to 75.5%, while lipid content increased progressively (from 1.58% to 3.14%. In agreement with these patterns, the contribution of individual fatty acids (FA to muscle weight gen- erally increased with carcass weight. A similar trend was observed for the

  3. LAMB FEEDING STRATEGIES DURING THE PRE-WEANING PERIOD IN INTENSIVE MEAT PRODUCTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Antas Urbano

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The modern consumer of sheep meat requires uninterrupted market supply with qualitatively standardized meat, without excess fat and with high tenderness, which has encouraged producers to slaughter young sheep. A lamb’s diet during the pre-weaning phase was discussed in this review because it is of great importance for achieving success in a meat production system, given the high speed of lambs’ growth during their first weeks of life. Supplying palatable concentrate in creep-feeders from the first days of life promotes pre-stomach development and adapts the animal to a solid diet consumption; important processes for enhancing animal performance, since nutritional requirements, especially for energy, are high during this period and can only be met by milk for a short time. An early weaning technique can be adopted from 35 days old, when adequate nutritional support is provided. Unweaned lamb slaughtering combined with creep feeding and controlled feeding have superior effects to early abrupt weaning, probably by avoiding the adverse effects generated by post-weaning stress. The use of a milk replacer is seldom reported due to the difficulty in finding specific products for sheep and its high cost. Controlled suckling does not affect the performance of lambs. Further studies investigating lamb feeding strategies need to be developed during the pre-weaning period.

  4. Design and Analysis of Control System for High Pressure Leak Tester Based on PLC%基于 PLC的高压测漏机控制系统设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓磊; 李晓丹

    2013-01-01

    To judge whether the inflatable shock absorber cylinder was qualified,a high pressure leak tester was developed. The working principle of the machine was introduced. Pneumatic control system and PLC control system structure were focused on. PLC main program function block diagram was given. Experiments show that the system is of reliable operation,simple control and so on, so the detection process automation is realized.%  为判断充气式减振器缸筒是否存在质量缺陷,开发一台高压测漏机。介绍该测漏机的工作原理,着重论述了气动控制系统和PLC控制系统的构成,给出了PLC主要程序的功能框图。实践证明:该系统具有运行可靠、控制简单等特点,实现了检测过程自动化。

  5. Perfect energy-feeding into strongly coupled systems and interferometric control of polariton absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Zanotto, Simone; Bianco, Federica; Biasiol, Giorgio; Baldacci, Lorenzo; Vitiello, Miriam Serena; Sorba, Lucia; Colombelli, Raffaele; Tredicucci, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The ability to feed energy into a system, or - equivalently - to drive that system with an external input is a fundamental aspect of light-matter interaction. The key concept in many photonic applications is the "critical coupling" condition: at criticality, all the energy fed to the system via an input channel is dissipated within the system itself. Although this idea was crucial to enhance the efficiency of many devices, it was never considered in the context of systems operating in a non-perturbative regime. In this so-called strong coupling regime, the matter and light degrees of freedom are in fact mixed into dressed states, leading to new eigenstates called polaritons. Here we demonstrate that the strong coupling regime and the critical coupling condition can indeed coexist; in this situation, which we term strong critical coupling, all the incoming energy is converted into polaritons. A semiclassical theory - equivalently applicable to acoustics or mechanics - reveals that the strong critical coupling ...

  6. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Mark, Thomas; Jensen, Just; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2014-02-17

    Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions and mechanisms affecting RFI in pigs is lacking. The study aimed to identify genetic markers and candidate genes for RFI and its component traits as well as pathways associated with RFI in Danish Duroc boars by genome-wide associations and systems genetic analyses. Phenotypic and genotypic records (using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip) were available on 1,272 boars. Fifteen and 12 loci were significantly associated (p < 1.52 × 10-6) with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Among them, 10 SNPs were significantly associated with both RFI1 and RFI2 implying the existence of common mechanisms controlling the two RFI measures. Significant QTL regions for component traits of RFI (DFI and BF) were detected on pig chromosome (SSC) 1 (for DFI) and 2 for (BF). The SNPs within MAP3K5 and PEX7 on SSC 1, ENSSSCG00000022338 on SSC 9, and DSCAM on SSC 13 might be interesting markers for both RFI measures. Functional annotation of genes in 0.5 Mb size flanking significant SNPs indicated regulation of protein and lipid metabolic process, gap junction, inositol phosphate metabolism and insulin signaling pathway are significant biological processes and pathways for RFI, respectively. The study detected novel genetic variants and QTLs on SSC 1, 8, 9, 13 and 18 for RFI and indicated significant biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in RFI. The study also detected novel QTLs for

  7. Measures on stabilizing the coal feeding system of rotary kiln and improving the accuracy of the feeding system%稳定回转窑喂煤系统提高喂煤精度的途径

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史德深; 冯文毓

    2001-01-01

    从煤粉特性、煤粉仓结构、喂料及输送设备的性能等方面分析了影响回转窑喂煤系统喂煤精度的主要因素及存在的主要问题,在此基础上提出稳定喂煤系统,提高喂煤精度的途径。%Main factors and the existing problems of affecting the accuracy of the coal feeding system for rotary kiln were analyzed in terms of the properties of pulverized coal, structure of the pulverized coal storage bin, and the performance of the feeding and conveying equipment.Measures on stabilizing the coal feeding system and improving the accuracy of the feeding system were thus raised based on the above-mentioned analysis.

  8. Detection of artificial water flows by the lateral line system of a benthic feeding cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Sevey, Benjamin J; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-04-01

    The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects water motions within a few body lengths of the source. Several types of artificial stimuli have been used to probe lateral line function in the laboratory, but few studies have investigated the role of flow sensing in benthic feeding teleosts. In this study, we used artificial flows emerging from a sandy substrate to assess the contribution of flow sensing to prey detection in the peacock cichlid, Aulonocara stuartgranti, which feeds on benthic invertebrates in Lake Malawi. Using a positive reinforcement protocol, we trained fish to respond to flows lacking the visual and chemical cues generated by tethered prey in prior studies with A. stuartgranti Fish successfully responded to artificial flows at all five rates presented (characterized using digital particle image velocimetry), and showed a range of flow-sensing behaviors, including an unconditioned bite response. Immediately after lateral line inactivation, fish rarely responded to flows and the loss of vital fluorescent staining of hair cells (with 4-di-2-ASP) verified lateral line inactivation. Within 2 days post-treatment, some aspects of flow-sensing behavior returned and after 7 days, flow-sensing behavior and hair cell fluorescence both returned to pre-treatment levels, which is consistent with the reported timing of hair cell regeneration in other vertebrates. The presentation of ecologically relevant water flows to assess flow-sensing behaviors and the use of a positive reinforcement protocol are methods that present new opportunities to study the role of flow sensing in the feeding ecology of benthic feeding fishes.

  9. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Blackmon, Rebecca; Brown, Martin [Stinger Ghaffarian Technologies, Inc, 7701 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20770 (United States); Abel, Joshua; Hawk, Doug [Alliant Techsystems, Inc, 5050 Powder Mill Road, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States); Autrey, David; Glenn, Jodie [Lockheed Martin, 1300 Hercules, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Bond, Tim; Buffington, Jesse [NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, 2101 NASA Pkwy, Houston, TX 77058 (United States); Cheng, Edward; Ma, Jonathan; Rossetti, Dino [Conceptual Analytics, 8209 Woburn Abbey Rd, Glenn Dale, MD 20769 (United States); DeLatte, Danielle [ASRC Federal Space and Defense, 7000 Muirkirk Meadows Drive, Suite 100, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Garcia, Kelvin; Mohammed, Jelila; Montt de Garcia, Kristina; Perry, Radford [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Tull, Kimathi [Jackson and Tull, 7375 Executive Pl, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Warren, Eric [Wyle STE Group, 1290 Hercules Ave, Houston, TX 77058-2769 (United States)

    2014-12-09

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH{sub 3} coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations (“directionality”). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lb{sub m/}/yr. to about 1 lb{sub m}/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  10. Analytical and experimental studies of leak location and environment characterization for the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woronowicz, Michael; Abel, Joshua; Autrey, David; Blackmon, Rebecca; Bond, Tim; Brown, Martin; Buffington, Jesse; Cheng, Edward; DeLatte, Danielle; Garcia, Kelvin; Glenn, Jodie; Hawk, Doug; Ma, Jonathan; Mohammed, Jelila; de Garcia, Kristina Montt; Perry, Radford; Rossetti, Dino; Tull, Kimathi; Warren, Eric

    2014-12-01

    The International Space Station program is developing a robotically-operated leak locator tool to be used externally. The tool would consist of a Residual Gas Analyzer for partial pressure measurements and a full range pressure gauge for total pressure measurements. The primary application is to demonstrate the ability to detect NH3 coolant leaks in the ISS thermal control system. An analytical model of leak plume physics is presented that can account for effusive flow as well as plumes produced by sonic orifices and thruster operations. This model is used along with knowledge of typical RGA and full range gauge performance to analyze the expected instrument sensitivity to ISS leaks of various sizes and relative locations ("directionality"). The paper also presents experimental results of leak simulation testing in a large thermal vacuum chamber at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This test characterized instrument sensitivity as a function of leak rates ranging from 1 lbm//yr. to about 1 lbm/day. This data may represent the first measurements collected by an RGA or ion gauge system monitoring off-axis point sources as a function of location and orientation. Test results are compared to the analytical model and used to propose strategies for on-orbit leak location and environment characterization using the proposed instrument while taking into account local ISS conditions and the effects of ram/wake flows and structural shadowing within low Earth orbit.

  11. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt

    2001-11-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project is being conducted by the Energy and Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy. The goal of the project is to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuels at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consists of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal at up to 30% on a Btu basis, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing prior art with respect to high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. Activities and results thus far include the following. Several potential alternative fuels have been obtained for evaluation and testing as potential feedstocks, including sewage sludge, used railroad ties, urban wood waste, municipal solid waste, and used waste tires/tire-derived fuel. Only fuels with potential tipping fees were considered; potential energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge has been selected as one of the primary feedstocks for consideration at the Wabash plant

  12. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  13. Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 1986, Congress created the Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) Trust Fund to address releases from federally regulated underground storage tanks (USTs) by amending Subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act.

  14. A role of the histaminergic system for the control of feeding by orexigenic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Nomura, Sachiko; Hosoda, Hiroshi; Kangawa, Kenji; Watanabe, Takeshi; Yamatodani, Atsushi

    2006-10-30

    A considerable number of neuropeptides are involved in the hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior. We previously reported that leptin, the ob gene product, expressed its anorectic effect though the histaminergic system via histamine H(1) receptors. However, the interactions among the orexigenic neuropeptides, such as orexin-A, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and ghrelin, and the histaminergic system have not yet been clarified. In this study, we investigated the effect of the neuropeptides on the hypothalamic histamine release in rats, and on food intake and locomotor activity in H(1)-receptor knockout (H1R-KO) mice. Orexin-A increased the histamine release and locomotor activity, but not food intake, suggesting that the histaminergic system participates in arousal rather than feeding by orexin-A. NPY also increased histamine release, but its effect was not immediate. NPY-injected H1R-KO mice consumed more food than the wild-type mice; thus, the histaminergic system may act as a feedback factor downstream of NPY. Ghrelin did not affect histamine release, and it increased food intake, even in H1R-KO mice. Thus, ghrelin expresses its action in a histamine-independent manner.

  15. THERMODYNAMICAL ANALYSIS OF HIGH-PRESSURE FEED WATER HEATER IN STEAM PROPULSION SYSTEM DURING EXPLOITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Poljak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays diesel engines prevail as ship propulsion. However, steam propulsion is still primary drive for LNG carriers. In the presented paper high-pressure feed water heater was analyzed, as one of the essential components in LNG carrier steam propulsion system. Measurements of all operating parameters (fluid streams at the analyzed heat exchanger inlets and outlets were performed. Change of the operating parameters was measured at different steam system loads, not at full load as usual. Through these measurements was enabled the insight into the behaviour of the heat exchanger operating parameters during the whole exploitation. The numerical analysis was performed, based on the measured data. The changes in energy and exergy efficiency of the heat exchanger were analyzed. Energetic and exergetic power inputs and outputs were also calculated, which enabled an insight into the change of energetic and exergetic power losses of the heat exchanger at different steam system loads. Change in energetic and exergetic power losses and operating parameters, which have the strongest influence on the high-pressure feed water heater losses, were described. Analyzed heat exchanger was compared with similar heat exchangers in the base loaded conventional steam power plants. From the conducted analysis, it is concluded that the adjustment and control modes of these high-pressure heat exchangers are equal, regardless of whether they were mounted in the base loaded conventional steam power plants or marine steam systems, while their operating parameters and behaviour patterns differ greatly.

  16. WikiLeaks: neue Dimensionen des Medienaktivismus

    OpenAIRE

    Stalder, Felix

    2011-01-01

    "Mit WikiLeaks hat der Medienaktivismus eine neue Dimension erreicht. WikiLeaks versteht die neuen sozio-technischen Möglichkeiten und institutionellen Widersprüche, die die gegenwärtige Phase der Entwicklung der Netzwerkgesellschaft kennzeichnen, für sein Projekt nutzbar zu machen. Politisch bleibt das Projekt allerdings schwer kategorisierbar, da es gleichzeitig eine markt-libertäre und eine institutionskritische Haltung vertritt, gleichermassen staatliche wie privat-wirtscha...

  17. Leak detection in pipelines using cepstrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaei, M.; Beck, S. B. M.; Staszewski, W. J.

    2006-02-01

    The detection and location of leaks in pipeline networks is a major problem and the reduction of these leaks has become a major priority for pipeline authorities around the world. Although the reasons for these leaks are well known, some of the current methods for locating and identifying them are either complicated or imprecise; most of them are time consuming. The work described here shows that cepstrum analysis is a viable approach to leak detection and location in pipeline networks. The method uses pressure waves caused by quickly opening and closing a solenoid valve. Due to their simplicity and robustness, transient analyses provide a plausible route towards leak detection. For this work, the time domain signals of these pressure transients were obtained using a single pressure transducer. These pressure signals were first filtered using discrete wavelets to remove the dc offset, and the low and high frequencies. They were then analysed using a cepstrum method which identified the time delay between the initial wave and its reflections. There were some features in the processed results which can be ascribed to features in the pipeline network such as junctions and pipe ends. When holes were drilled in the pipe, new peaks occurred which identified the presence of a leak in the pipeline network. When tested with holes of different sizes, the amplitude of the processed peak was seen to increase as the cube root of the leak diameter. Using this method, it is possible to identify leaks that are difficult to find by other methods as they are small in comparison with the flow through the pipe.

  18. 基于混沌理论的城市供水系统漏损检测新方法%A New Method to Leak Detection in Water System Based on Chaos Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张琴; 朱庆建; 汪雄海

    2013-01-01

    Considering the importance of leak detection to energy efficiency in urban water system,a new method to leak detection based on chaos theory is presented.The chaotic evolutional characters of successive users were used to detect pipe break or the leakage.By extracting the correlation dimension、Lyapunov exponent、attractor phase diagram and R/S analysis of hourly water consumption,the water time series of successive users were proved to be fractal and chaotic chaining relevant.On the basis,the different chaotic characters of booster and leakage were compared by phase diagram and the maximum Lyapunov exponent variation.Test results show that the chaotic characters are changed immediately when the booster occurs,and slow leakage can be discovered after two hours.Thus this method supplies new judgments to effectively amend water system in time and decrease the loss of water resource.%针对漏损检测对城市供水系统节能降耗的重要性,研究时用水量的混沌特性并提出一种基于混沌理论的漏损检测新方法,利用沿程用户时用水量的混沌演化特性来检测漏损故障和漏水.根据城市时用水量的时间序列,提取关联维数、最大Lyapunov指数、吸引子相图和R/S等混沌特征指数,分析沿程城市用水量观测序列的分形和链级混沌关联,并在此基础上,依据系统相图和最大Lyapunov指数变化来比较漏损故障和漏水时序的不同混沌特性.仿真结果表明,漏损故障时的混沌特性显著改变并能立即检测到,缓慢漏水2h后混沌特性变化明显,为及时修补供水系统提供依据,减小了资源损耗.

  19. Mobile natural gas leak surveys indicate that two utilities have high false negative rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Fischer, J. C.; Brewer, P. E.; Chamberlain, S.; Gaylord, A.; von Fischer, J.

    2016-12-01

    In the distribution systems that carry natural gas to consumers, leaks need to be discovered for safety reasons and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, few utilities have adopted newer laser-based technologies that have greater sensitivity and precision, and instead rely on "industry standard" equipment that is far less sensitive. In partnership with the Environmental Defense Fund and Google, we mapped natural gas leaks in the domains of two anonymous utilities (Utility "A" and "B") using high sensitivity Picarro methane analyzers in Google Street View Cars. Surprisingly, when we shared these results with utilities, their survey crews were unable to find most of the leaks that our survey indicated (84% in A and 80% in B). To investigate this phenomenon, our team visited a subset of the leaks in each utility domain (n=32 in A and n=30 in B), and worked alongside utility surveyors to search the leak indication area, using a Los Gatos Research ultraportable methane analyzer to pinpoint leak locations. We found evidence of natural gas leaks at 69% and 68% of the locations in Utilities A and B respectively where survey crews had found nothing. We describe this as a "false negative" rate for the utility because the utility survey falsely indicated that there was no leak at these locations. Of these false negatives, 7% (n=2 of 32 in A, n=2 of 30 in B) were determined to be Grade 1 leaks requiring immediate repair due to high safety risk. Instrument sensitivity appears to explain some of the false negative rates. In particular, use of some industry standard equipment appears to have created a false sense of confidence among utility surveyors that leaks were not present. However, there was also evidence of communication failures and that surveyors did not use optimal approaches in their search. Based on these findings, we suggest that: 1) mobile deployment of high-precision methane analyzers can help find more natural gas leaks, and 2) use of some hand-held survey

  20. 从维基解密看加强我国信息安全体系建设%Strengthening construction of information security system in China in view of WikiLeaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜圣哲

    2011-01-01

    在"维基解密"的背景下,以应对全球信息安全挑战和加强我国信息安全工作为目的,首先分析国外信息安全发展历程和经验成果,在介绍信息安全、军事信息安全等概念基础上,结合我国及我军信息化建设实际情况,提出我军信息安全体系是我国信息安全中的重要组成部分,并指出构建我军信息安全体系的迫切性,最后构造我军信息安全体系.%In view of "WikiLeaks" under the background of global information security Challenges and strengthening our information security, this paper firstly analyzes other countries’ information security development history and experience in the introduction of concepts. such as information security and military information security, put forward that our military information security system is important composition fo our information security. The urgency and the security system is pointed ont.

  1. A reassessment of the role of serotonergic system in the control of feeding behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Medeiros Magda A.; Costa-e-Sousa Ricardo H.; Olivares Emerson L.; Côrtes Wellington S.; Reis Luís C.

    2005-01-01

    The role of serotonergic system in the feeding behaviorwas appraised by electrolytic lesions in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) and administration of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 3 mg/5 mul, icv). Chronic evaluations were accomplished through 120 and 360 days in PCPA-injected and DRN-lesioned rats, respectively. Acute food intake was evaluated in fasted rats and submitted to injection of PCPA and hydroxytryptophan (LHTP, 30 mg/kg, ip). DRN-lesioned rats exhibited 22-80% increase in food int...

  2. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  3. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While

  4. The role of glutamatergic and GABAergic systems on serotonin- induced feeding behavior in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortezaei, Sepideh Seyedali; Zendehdel, Morteza; Babapour, Vahab; Hasani, Keyvan

    2013-12-01

    It has been reported that serotonin can modulate glutamate and GABA release in central nervous system (CNS). The present study was designed to examine the role of glutamatergic and GABAergic systems on serotonin- induced feeding behavior in chickens. In Experiment 1 intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of MK- 801(NMDA receptor antagonist, 15 nmol) performed followed by serotonin (10 μg). In experiments 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 prior to serotonin injection, chickens received CNQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, 390 nmol), AIDA (mGluR1 antagonist, 2 nmol), LY341495 (mGluR2 antagonist, 150 nmol), UBP1112 (mGluR3 antagonist, 2 nmol), picrotoxin (GABA A receptor antagonist, 0.5 μg), CGP54626 (GABAB receptor antagonist, 20 ng) respectively. Cumulative food intake was determined at 3 h post injection. The results of this study showed that the hypophagic effect of serotonin was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with MK- 801 and CNQX (p 0.05). Also, the inhibitory effect of serotonin on food intake was amplified by picrotoxin (p 0.05). These results suggest that serotonin as a modulator probably interacts with glutamatergic (via NMDA and AMPA/Kainate receptors) and GABAergic (via GABAA receptor) systems on feeding behavior in chicken.

  5. ANALYSIS OF FIRST TRANSIENT PRESSURE OSCILLATION FOR LEAK DETECTION IN A SINGLE PIPELINE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xin-lei; YANG Kai-lin; LI Fu-tian; WANG Tao; FU hui

    2012-01-01

    The leak detection is of great importance in the reliable operation and management of a pipeline system.Recently,attention is shifted to the use of the time domain or frequency domain methods based on the transient analysis.These methods sometimes require accurate pressure signals obtained during the transient period or by creating ideal conditions in testing.This paper proposes a method that does not require transient simulations over the whole or an extended period of time,but uses the first transient pressure oscillation to detect leaks.The method considers the propagation of the pressure oscillation wave created from a tast valve closure and the reflected damp wave from the leak.A leak in the pipe gives rise to reflected waves which in turn create discontinuities in the observed signal at the measurement section.The timing of the reflected damp wave and the magnitude represent the location and the size of the leak,respectively.An analytical expression is derived based on the Method Of Characteristic (MOC) for the relationship between the leakage and the reflected magnitude.The leak detection procedure based on the method is also given.Then the reliability of the method is tested on numerically simulated pressure signals and experimental pressure signals with calibrated leak parameters,and the results indicate a successful application and the promising features of the method.

  6. Leak-Tight Welding Experience from the Industrial Assembly of the LHC Cryostats at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Bourcey, N; Chiggiato, P; Limon, P; Mongelluzzo, A; Musso, G; Poncet, A; Parma, V

    2008-01-01

    The assembly of the approximately 1700 LHC main ring cryostats at CERN involved extensive welding of cryogenic lines and vacuum vessels. More than 6 km of welding requiring leak tightness to a rate better than 1.10-9 mbar.l.s-1 on stainless steel and aluminium piping and envelopes was made, essentially by manual welding but also making use of orbital welding machines. In order to fulfil the safety regulations related to pressure vessels and to comply with the leak-tightness requirements of the vacuum systems of the machine, welds were executed according to high qualification standards and following a severe quality assurance plan. Leak detection by He mass spectrometry was extensively used. Neon leak detection was used successfully to locate leaks in the presence of helium backgrounds. This paper presents the quality assurance strategy adopted for welds and leak detection. It presents the statistics of non-conformities on welds and leaks detected throughout the entire production and the advances in the use...

  7. Detection and Prevention of Sensitive Data From Data Leak Using Shingling and Rabin Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushma Vishwanath Gaikwad

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Data leak is a major problem in all the organization of any land. A deliberate risk to institution and private security is the disclosure of secure data in transmission and storage. To check content for exposed sensitive data is the main aim for exposed sensitive data. There are large numbers of data-leak cases but human flaws are one of the main reasons of data leak. This paper proposed a data-leak detection model for preventing accidental and intentional data leak in network. If someone succeed to steal some kind of data and send that data to outsider then data owner has obtain to use two methods to find out guilty employee or leaker. This work suggests use of shingling and rabin filter system performs Data Leak Detection (DLD and Prevention task. The results show that this approach can be effectively implemented in various organizations; however rigorous testing on various data division of such methods will be required to implement the same in sector of importance like defence and other even in large establishment. Keywords—  Information security; Data leak; network security; privacy.

  8. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  9. Pressure based leak detection system implanted on the business Unit Exploration and Production of PETROBRAS in Rio Grande do Norte e Ceara; Sistema de deteccao de vazamentos em dutos baseado em pressao implantado na Unidade de Negocios de Exploracao e Producao da PETROBRAS no Rio de Grande do Norte e Ceara

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolim, Tuerte A.; Oliveira, Abenildo A.de [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents the experience faced by people who works in PETROBRAS Business Unit (UN-RNCE), located in Rio Grande do Norte Province, Brazil, during the implementation of a pipeline leak detection system. That application involved nine multiphase oil pipelines distributed along several production facilities. Because of the emergency after the leakage that polluted the Guanabara bay and due to the two phases and multi phases pipelines characteristics, the UN-RNCE decided to apply the Pressure Point Analysis (PPA) technology in order to detect leakages. It is a statistical method for leak detection e uses a very simple instrumentation which facilitates the installation and maintenance. However, in order to get the best performance of the system, it is necessary to know thoroughly the whole process and have a fast and reliable SCADA system for long distance communication. Finally it will be shown the test results, the recommendations to expand the system and the conclusions. (author)

  10. Growth of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua in land-based recirculation systems: Effects of feeding regime, photoperiod and diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fülberth, Michael; Moran, Damian; Jarlbæk, Henrik;

    2009-01-01

    . Three RAS units were used to simultaneously test three feed/photoperiod regimes that might be encountered in the wild or aquaculture; LightDark (LD) 24:0, LD12:11 (+ 1 h crepuscular periods) and LD6:6 (+ 12 h crepuscular periods). Feed was administered during the light period every 30 min for a 3 min...... feeding duration. In each RAS unit three diets (A, B and C) were tested, which were broadly similar in composition but from different manufacturers. Water exchange rate averaged 10–19% in the three recirculation systems, and key water quality parameters such as NH4+ and CO2 remained at low effect...

  11. A microfluidic two-pump system inspired by liquid feeding in mosquitoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Andrew; Goad, Angela; Stremler, Mark; Socha, John; Jung, Sunghwan

    Mosquitoes feed on nectar and blood using a two-pump system in the head-a smaller cibarial pump in line with a larger a pharyngeal pump, with a valve in between. To suck, mosquitoes transport the liquid (which may be a multi-component viscous fluid, blood) through a long micro-channel, the proboscis. In the engineering realm, microfluidic devices in biomedical applications, such as lab-on-a-chip technology, necessitate implementing a robust pump design to handle clogging and increase flow control compared to a single-pump system. In this talk, we introduce a microfluidic pump design inspired by the mosquito's two-pump system. The pumping performance (flow rate) in presence of impurities (air bubbles, soft clogs) is quantified as a function of phase difference and volume expansion of the pumps, and the elasticity of the valve.

  12. Impact of wind turbine based on double feed induction generator and FACTS devices on power systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labiba ADJOUDJ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration of wind turbines may have significant impacts on power system operation and generation of electricity from wind power has received considerable attention. This paper analyses the impact of integrating wind generation based on double feed induction generators (DFIG and Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS on the voltage collapse and active losses of network IEEE 30 bus test. Therefore, we must choose among FACTS devices, those with specific applications such as maintaining the voltage at the desired value and the control of power flow, SVC is the most effective in the compensation of reactive as well as maintaining the voltage, and TCSC is the best choice for a proper control of power flow and consequently the reduction of active losses. The simulation results show clearly the effect of wind power plants and FACTS on the grid, voltage stability and power quality of electric power system.

  13. Meat production in sheep hybrids in agro-ecological feeding and growing system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Sauer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Research points out the effect of feeding young hybrid sheep (Black-faced German x Ţurcană in the conditions of permanent hill grasslands with two technological systems of improving grasslands: the conventional chemical (NPK fertilisation system and the agro-ecological organic fertilisation (sheep folding and over-sowing system. Studies show that the changes in the floristic structure of the grasslands have influenced both fodder yield and quality and meat production and quality. Meat production depending on experimental factors ranged between 189 and 393 kg/ha in the grasslands improved conventionally and between 191 and 461 kg/ha in the grasslands fertilised organically.

  14. Remote leak localization approach for fusion machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durocher, Au., E-mail: aurelien.durocher@cea.fr [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Bruno, V.; Chantant, M.; Gargiulo, L. [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Gherman, T. [Floralis UJF Filiale, F-38610 Gières (France); Hatchressian, J.-C.; Houry, M.; Le, R.; Mouyon, D. [CEA-IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Description of leaks issue. ► Selection of leak localization concepts. ► Qualification of leak localization concepts. -- Abstract: Fusion machine operation requires high-vacuum conditions and does not tolerate water or gas leak in the vacuum vessels, even if they are micrometric. Tore Supra, as a fully actively cooled tokamak, has got a large leak management experience; 34 water leaks occurred since the beginning of its operation in 1988. To handle this issue, after preliminary machine protection phases, the current process for leak localization is based on water or helium pressurization network by network. It generally allows the identification of a set of components where the leakage element is located. However, the unique background of CEA-IRFM laboratory points needs of accuracy and promptness out in the leak localization process. Moreover, in-vessel interventions have to be performed trying to minimize time and risks for the persons. They are linked to access conditions, radioactivity, tracer gas high pressure and vessel conditioning. Remote operation will be one of the ways to improve these points on future fusion machines. In this case, leak sensors would have to be light weight devices in order to be integrated on a carrier or to be located outside with a sniffing process set up. A leak localization program is on-going at CEA-IRFM Laboratory with the first goal of identifying and characterizing relevant concepts to localize helium or water leaks on ITER. In the same time, CEA has developed robotic carrier for effective in-vessel intervention in a hostile environment. Three major tests campaigns with the goal to identify leak sensors have been achieved on several CEA test-beds since 2010. Very promising results have been obtained: relevant scenario of leak localization performed, concepts tested in a high volume test-bed called TITAN, and, in several conditions of pressure and temperature (ultrahigh vacuum to atmospheric pressure and 20

  15. SINGLE-SHELL TANKS LEAK INTEGRITY ELEMENTS/SX FARM LEAK CAUSES AND LOCATIONS - 12127

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VENETZ TJ; WASHENFELDER D; JOHNSON J; GIRARDOT C

    2012-01-25

    Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) developed an enhanced single-shell tank (SST) integrity project in 2009. An expert panel on SST integrity was created to provide recommendations supporting the development of the project. One primary recommendation was to expand the leak assessment reports (substitute report or LD-1) to include leak causes and locations. The recommendation has been included in the M-045-9IF Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) as one of four targets relating to SST leak integrity. The 241-SX Farm (SX Farm) tanks with leak losses were addressed on an individual tank basis as part of LD-1. Currently, 8 out of 23 SSTs that have been reported to having a liner leak are located in SX Farm. This percentage was the highest compared to other tank farms which is why SX Farm was analyzed first. The SX Farm is comprised of fifteen SSTs built 1953-1954. The tanks are arranged in rows of three tanks each, forming a cascade. Each of the SX Farm tanks has a nominal I-million-gal storage capacity. Of the fifteen tanks in SX Farm, an assessment reported leak losses for the following tanks: 241-SX-107, 241-SX-108, 241-SX-109, 241-SX-111, 241-SX-112, 241-SX-113, 241-SX-114 and 241-SX-115. The method used to identify leak location consisted of reviewing in-tank and ex-tank leak detection information. This provided the basic data identifying where and when the first leaks were detected. In-tank leak detection consisted of liquid level measurement that can be augmented with photographs which can provide an indication of the vertical leak location on the sidewall. Ex-tank leak detection for the leaking tanks consisted of soil radiation data from laterals and drywells near the tank. The in-tank and ex-tank leak detection can provide an indication of the possible leak location radially around and under the tank. Potential leak causes were determined using in-tank and ex-tank information that is not directly related to

  16. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngoc Do, Duy; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2014-01-01

    Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual...... daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions...

  17. A reassessment of the role of serotonergic system in the control of feeding behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medeiros Magda A.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of serotonergic system in the feeding behaviorwas appraised by electrolytic lesions in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN and administration of para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 3 mg/5 mul, icv. Chronic evaluations were accomplished through 120 and 360 days in PCPA-injected and DRN-lesioned rats, respectively. Acute food intake was evaluated in fasted rats and submitted to injection of PCPA and hydroxytryptophan (LHTP, 30 mg/kg, ip. DRN-lesioned rats exhibited 22-80% increase in food intake up to sixth month, whereas the obesity was evident and sustained by whole period. In PCPA-injected rats was observed an initial increase in the food intake followed by hypophagy from 25th to 30th day and a transitory increase of body weight from 5th to 60th day. In the acute study, the LHTP reverted partially the PCPA-induced increase in food intake of fasted rats suggesting a sustained capacity of decarboxylation of precursor by serotonergic neurons. Slow restoration of the levels of food intake in DRN-lesioned rats reveals a neuroplasticity in the systems that regulate feeding behavior. A plateau on the body weight curve in lesioned rats possibly represents the establishment of a new and higher set point of energetic balance.

  18. Leak test of the charcoal filter in the nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Lee, Key Soon; Hong, Kwon Pyo; Oh, Yon Woo; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Choo, Yong Sun; Kim, Sung Jung

    1998-06-01

    In the heating, ventilation and air conditioning(HVAC) system, pre-filter, HEPA(high efficiency particle air) filter and charcoal filter are instrumented in order to filter off the radioactive substance in the nuclear facility. Equipment of the charcoal filter off the radioactive substance in the nuclear facility. Equipment of the charcoal filter at the hot cell where manipulates the nuclear fuel irradiated in the nuclear reactor is essential for shutting off the leakage of the radioiodine which is produced from the cutting procedures of nuclear fuel. Also, the leak test of installed filter should be performed perfectly. In addition, charcoal filter is instrumented to filter the radioactive gas such as radioiodine which is produced in the nuclear facility. In this technical report, the theoretical discussion, the experimental procedures and the precautions of the leak test of charcoal filter are described. (author). 8 refs., 4 tabs., 8 figs.

  19. Development of the Human-machine Monitoring System with Configuration Software for Leak Detectors%气密性检测设备组态软件的人机监控系统开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘赛虎; 段锁林; 高玉梅

    2011-01-01

    In order to implement human-machine interaction for leak detection devices, the novel human-machine monitoring system based on panel PC has been designed. Through the communication between the configuration software and PLC, the system realizes the data exchange, monitor the detection site in real-time, control automatic and semi-automatic operation of the detection device; meanwhile, record and save the parameters and detection results of the valves. The monitoring system using configuration software features superior performance of commercial PC, and also offers ease operation function from touch screen. The implementation of the system provides consultable method for designing similar products.%为实现与气密性检测设备的人机交互,设计了基于平板电脑的新型人机监控系统.该系统通过组态软件与PLC的通信,实现两者数据的交换,实时监控气密性检测现场,并控制气密性检测设备的自动和半自动操作,同时完成对阀门的参数、检测结果的记录和保存.组态监控系统不仅具有普通商用计算机的优良性能,还具有触摸屏操作简单方便的特点.该系统的实现为同类产品的设计提供了可借鉴的方法.

  20. Electrical detection of liquid lithium leaks from pipe jointsa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, J. A.; Jaworski, M. A.; Mehl, J.; Kaita, R.; Mozulay, R.

    2014-11-01

    A test stand for flowing liquid lithium is under construction at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. As liquid lithium reacts with atmospheric gases and water, an electrical interlock system for detecting leaks and safely shutting down the apparatus has been constructed. A defense in depth strategy is taken to minimize the risk and impact of potential leaks. Each demountable joint is diagnosed with a cylindrical copper shell electrically isolated from the loop. By monitoring the electrical resistance between the pipe and the copper shell, a leak of (conductive) liquid lithium can be detected. Any resistance of less than 2 kΩ trips a relay, shutting off power to the heaters and pump. The system has been successfully tested with liquid gallium as a surrogate liquid metal. The circuit features an extensible number of channels to allow for future expansion of the loop. To ease diagnosis of faults, the status of each channel is shown with an analog front panel LED, and monitored and logged digitally by LabVIEW.

  1. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William A; Fonstad, Terry; Pugsley, Todd; Gerspacher, Regan

    2012-06-01

    A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle reduced the output irregularity further to 13%, with an air supply of 50 slpm as the minimum air supply to drive this injector. After commissioning of this final system to the FBG reactor, the injection nozzle was found to plug with char however, and was subsequently removed from the system. Final operation of the reactor continues satisfactorily with the two screw conveyors operating at matching pressure with the fluidized bed, with the output rate of the system estimated based on system characteristic equations, and confirmed by static weight measurements made before

  2. NSRD-10: Leak Path Factor Guidance Using MELCOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Humphries, Larry L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Estimates of the source term from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facility requires that the analysts know how to apply the simulation tools used, such as the MELCOR code, particularly for a complicated facility that may include an air ventilation system and other active systems that can influence the environmental pathway of the materials released. DOE has designated MELCOR 1.8.5, an unsupported version, as a DOE ToolBox code in its Central Registry, which includes a leak-path-factor guidance report written in 2004 that did not include experimental validation data. To continue to use this MELCOR version requires additional verification and validations, which may not be feasible from a project cost standpoint. Instead, the recent MELCOR should be used. Without any developer support and lack of experimental data validation, it is difficult to convince regulators that the calculated source term from the DOE facility is accurate and defensible. This research replaces the obsolete version in the 2004 DOE leak path factor guidance report by using MELCOR 2.1 (the latest version of MELCOR with continuing modeling development and user support) and by including applicable experimental data from the reactor safety arena and from applicable experimental data used in the DOE-HDBK-3010. This research provides best practice values used in MELCOR 2.1 specifically for the leak path determination. With these enhancements, the revised leak-path-guidance report should provide confidence to the DOE safety analyst who would be using MELCOR as a source-term determination tool for mitigated accident evaluations.

  3. Biliary leaks after laparoscopic cholecystectomy:timetostentortimetodrain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haim Pinkas; Patrick G. Brady

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopan-creatography (ERCP) with placement of a biliary stent or nasobiliary (NB) drain is the procedure of choice for treatment of post-cholecystectomy bile duct leaks. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of NB drainage versus internal biliary stenting on rates of leak closure, time elapsed until drain or stent removal, length of hospital stay and number of required endoscopic procedures. METHODS: Charts were reviewed on 20 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy complicated by Luschka or cystic duct leak. Ten patients were treated with NB drains connected to low intermittent suction and repeat NB cholangiograms were performed until leak closure was observed. Ten patients were treated with internal biliary stents. Biliary sphincterotomies were performed for stone extraction or a presumed papillary stenosis. Large bilomas were drained percutaneously prior to stenting. RESULTS: In all 20 patients, a cholangiogram and successful placement of a NB drain or internal stent was achieved. Four patients (20%) were found to have bile duct stones, which were extracted following a sphincterotomy. Sixteen patients required percutaneous drains to evacuate large bilomas prior to biliary instrumentation. Fifteen cystic duct leaks and 5 Luschka duct leaks were reviewed. There were no complications related to ERCP. Closure of the leak was documented within 2 to 11 days (mean 4.7±0.9 days) in patients receiving a NB drain. The drains were removed non-endoscopically following leak closure. The internal stent group required stenting for 14 to 53 days (mean 29.1±4.4 days). The stent was then removed endoscopically after documentation of leak closure. Bile leaks following laparoscopic cholecystectomy closed rapidly after NB drainage and did not require repeat endoscopy for removal of the NB drain, resulting in fewer ERCPs required for treatment of biliary leaks. Internal biliary stents were in place longer owing

  4. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis: Exploration Feed Forward Internal Peer Review Slide Package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer Cianciolo, Alicia M. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 mt. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  5. Iodine Hall Thruster Propellant Feed System for a CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Peeples, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The components required for an in-space iodine vapor-fed Hall effect thruster propellant management system are described. A laboratory apparatus was assembled and used to produce iodine vapor and control the flow through the application of heating to the propellant reservoir and through the adjustment of the opening in a proportional flow control valve. Changing of the reservoir temperature altered the flowrate on the timescale of minutes while adjustment of the proportional flow control valve changed the flowrate immediately without an overshoot or undershoot in flowrate with the requisite recovery time associated with thermal control systems. The flowrates tested spanned a range from 0-1.5 mg/s of iodine, which is sufficient to feed a 200-W Hall effect thruster.

  6. Design of Phase Feed Forward System in CTF3 and Performance of Fast Beam Phase Monitors

    CERN Document Server

    Skowronski, P K; Ghigo, A; Marcellini, F; Burrows, PN; Christian, GB; Perry, C; Gerbershagen, A; Roberts, J; Ikarios, E

    2013-01-01

    The CLIC two beam acceleration technology requires a drive beam phase stability better than 0.3 deg rms at 12 GHz, corresponding to a timing stability below 50 fs rms. For this reason the CLIC design includes a phase stabilization feed-forward system. It relies on precise beam phase measurements and their subsequent correction in a chicane with the help of fast kickers. A prototype of such a system is being installed in the CLIC Test Facility CTF3. In this paper its design and implementation is described in detail. Additionally, the performance of the precision phase monitor prototypes installed at the end of the CTF3 linac, as measured with the drive beam, is presented.

  7. Effects of two commercial diets and technical feed treatment on stomach lesions and immune system of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liermann, W; Berk, A; Frahm, J; Böschen, V; Dänicke, S

    2016-11-02

    The impact of technical feed treatment and diet on stomach lesions and traits of the local and systemic immune system were investigated in fattening pigs. Feeding groups differed in technical feed treatment (standard ground meal vs. finely ground and pelleted feed) and diet (soya bean meal vs. rapeseed meal/DDGS/soya beans). Pigs were fattened approximately 10 weeks by ad libitum feeding and slaughtered subsequently. Gastric alterations were assessed by a macroscopic scoring system [macroscopic stomach score (MSC) 0 =  normal to 4 =  severe lesions]. For immunological investigations, lymphocytes from blood and jejunal tissues were isolated. T-cell phenotyping was carried out by staining intestinal lymphocytes with monoclonal antibodies for CD4 and CD8 and flow cytometric measurements. MSC was higher in animals fed finely ground and pelleted feed compared with their counterparts. Significant interactions between diet and feed treatment considering the MSC were observed (p = 0.027). There was no effect of diet or technical feed treatment on T cells of blood, Lymphonodi gastrici or lamina propria (LP) and intraepithelial cells. However, technical feed treatment significantly affected subsets of CD4(+) , CD8(+) , CD8(low) , CD4/CD8 double-positive T cells, the mean fluorescence intensity of CD4(+) T cells and the ratio of CD8(low) /CD8(high) T cells in Peyer's patches (PP). All named parameters were reduced in PP of animals fed finely ground and pelleted feed compared with animals fed standard ground meal. Furthermore, significant differences between T cells of lymph nodes and LP were observed between animals with middle MSC (MSC = 1-2.5) and animals with high MSC (MSC = 3-4). Significant alterations in T cells of PP were observed between animals of low (MSC = 0-0.5) and high MSC. The observed effects provide the evidence that the impact of technical feed treatment is not limited on the stomach lesions. Possible stimuli and consequences of the immune system

  8. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  9. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  10. Feeding behavior as an early predictor of bovine respiratory disease in North American feedlot systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfger, B; Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K S; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Levy, M; Orsel, K

    2015-01-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD), which can cause substantial losses for feedlot operations, is often difficult to detect based solely on visual observations. The objectives of the current study were to determine a BRD case identification based on clinical and laboratory parameters and assess the value of feeding behavior for early detection of BRD. Auction-derived, mixed-breed beef steers (n = 213) with an average arrival weight of 294 kg were placed at a southern Alberta commercial feedlot equipped with an automated feed bunk monitoring system. Feeding behavior was recorded continuously (1-s intervals) for 5 wk after arrival and summarized into meals. Meals were defined as feeding events that were interrupted by less than 300 s nonfeeding. Meal intake (g) and meal time (min) were further summarized into daily mean, minimum, maximum, and sum and, together with frequency of meals per day, were fit into a discrete survival time analysis with a conditional log-log link. Feedlot staff visually evaluated (pen-checked) health status twice daily. Within 35 d after arrival, 76% (n = 165) of the steers had 1 or more clinical signs of BRD (reluctance to move, crusted nose, nasal or ocular discharge, drooped ears or head, and gaunt appearance). Whereas 41 blood samples could not be processed due to immediate freezing, for 124 of these steers, complete and differential blood cell count, total serum protein, plasma fibrinogen, serum concentration of haptoglobin (HP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) were determined. The disease definition for BRD was a rectal temperature ≥ 40.0°C, at least 2 clinical signs of BRD, and HP > 0.15 mg/mL. It was noteworthy that 94% of the 124 steers identified by the feedlot staff with clinical signs of BRD had HP > 0.15 mg/mL. An increase in mean meal intake, frequency, and mean inter-meal interval was associated with a decreased hazard for developing BRD 7 d before visual identification (P algorithm has been developed.

  11. Robust path integration in the entorhinal grid cell system with hippocampal feed-back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, Dávid; Eros, Péter; Ujfalussy, Balázs; Kiss, Tamás

    2009-07-01

    Animals are able to update their knowledge about their current position solely by integrating the speed and the direction of their movement, which is known as path integration. Recent discoveries suggest that grid cells in the medial entorhinal cortex might perform some of the essential underlying computations of path integration. However, a major concern over path integration is that as the measurement of speed and direction is inaccurate, the representation of the position will become increasingly unreliable. In this paper, we study how allothetic inputs can be used to continually correct the accumulating error in the path integrator system. We set up the model of a mobile agent equipped with the entorhinal representation of idiothetic (grid cell) and allothetic (visual cells) information and simulated its place learning in a virtual environment. Due to competitive learning, a robust hippocampal place code emerges rapidly in the model. At the same time, the hippocampo-entorhinal feed-back connections are modified via Hebbian learning in order to allow hippocampal place cells to influence the attractor dynamics in the entorhinal cortex. We show that the continuous feed-back from the integrated hippocampal place representation is able to stabilize the grid cell code.

  12. Impact of ZnO embedded feed spacer on biofilm development in membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronen, Avner; Semiat, Raphael; Dosoretz, Carlos G

    2013-11-01

    The concept of suppressing biofouling formation using an antibacterial feed spacer was investigated in a bench scale-cross flow system mimicking a spiral wound membrane configuration. An antibacterial composite spacer containing zinc oxide-nanoparticles was constructed by modification of a commercial polypropylene feed spacer using sonochemical deposition. The ability of the modified spacers to repress biofilm development on membranes was evaluated in flow-through cells simulating the flow conditions in commercial spiral wound modules. The experiments were performed at laminar flow (Re = 300) with a 200 kDa molecular weight cut off polysulfone ultrafiltration membrane using Pseudomonas putida S-12 as model biofilm bacteria. The modified spacers reduced permeate flux decrease at least by 50% compared to the unmodified spacers (control). The physical properties of the modified spacer and biofilm development were evaluated using high resolution/energy dispersive spectrometry-scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy imaging (HRSEM, EDS, AFM and CLSM). HRSEM images depicted significantly less bacteria attached to the membranes exposed to the modified spacer, mainly scattered and in a sporadic monolayer structure. AFM analysis indicated the influence of the modification on the spacer surface including a phase change on the upper surface. Dead-live staining assay by CLSM indicated that most of the bacterial cells attached on the membranes exposed to the modified spacer were dead in contrast to a developed biofilm which was predominant in the control samples.

  13. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  14. MBM fuel feeding system design and evaluation for FBG pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, William A., E-mail: bill.campbell@usask.ca [Fluidization Laboratory of Saskatchewan (FLASK) (Canada) and Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada); Fonstad, Terry [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada); Pugsley, Todd [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Gerspacher, Regan [Fluidization Laboratory of Saskatchewan (FLASK) (Canada); Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A 1-5 g/s fuel feeding system for pilot scale FBG was designed, built and tested. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiple conveying stages improve pressure balancing, flow control and stability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Secondary conveyor stage reduced output irregularity from 47% to 15%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic air sparging effective in dealing with poor flow ability of MBM powder. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pneumatic injection port plugs with char at gasification temperature of 850 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: A biomass fuel feeding system has been designed, constructed and evaluated for a fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) pilot plant at the University of Saskatchewan (Saskatoon, SK, Canada). The system was designed for meat and bone meal (MBM) to be injected into the gasifier at a mass flow-rate range of 1-5 g/s. The designed system consists of two stages of screw conveyors, including a metering stage which controlled the flow-rate of fuel, a rotary airlock and an injection conveyor stage, which delivered that fuel at a consistent rate to the FBG. The rotary airlock which was placed between these conveyors, proved unable to maintain a pressure seal, thus the entire conveying system was sealed and pressurized. A pneumatic injection nozzle was also fabricated, tested and fitted to the end of the injection conveyor for direct injection and dispersal into the fluidized bed. The 150 mm metering screw conveyor was shown to effectively control the mass output rate of the system, across a fuel output range of 1-25 g/s, while the addition of the 50 mm injection screw conveyor reduced the irregularity (error) of the system output rate from 47% to 15%. Although material plugging was found to be an issue in the inlet hopper to the injection conveyor, the addition of air sparging ports and a system to pulse air into those ports was found to successfully eliminate this issue. The addition of the pneumatic injection nozzle

  15. The CMEKF Method for Sub-Sea Pipeline Monitoring and Leak Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白莉; 岳前进; 崔莉; 李洪升; 金兆玉; 王庆国

    2004-01-01

    A practical approach is discussed for sub-sea pipeline monitoring and leak detection based on the real time transient model (RTTM). The characteristic method (CM) of transient simulation is coupled with the Extended Kalman Filter(EKF) to estimate the system state where the only observed data are inlet and outlet flow rate and pressure. Because EKF has a time variant track under the non-stationary stochastic process with additive Gaussian noise, the high sensitivity of RTTM to non-stationary operating condition is reduced. A leak location recursion estimation formula is presented based on the real time observed data. The results of 27 groups of test data indicate that the procedure presented is sensitive to a wide range of detectable leak sizes ( 1.5% ~ 57% of inlet flow rate) and has a low average relative error of leak location(<5%).

  16. AIRBORNE, OPTICAL REMOTE SENSNG OF METHANE AND ETHANE FOR NATURAL GAS PIPELINE LEAK DETECTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerry Myers

    2005-04-15

    Ophir Corporation was awarded a contract by the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory under the Project Title ''Airborne, Optical Remote Sensing of Methane and Ethane for Natural Gas Pipeline Leak Detection'' on October 14, 2002. The scope of the work involved designing and developing an airborne, optical remote sensor capable of sensing methane and, if possible, ethane for the detection of natural gas pipeline leaks. Flight testing using a custom dual wavelength, high power fiber amplifier was initiated in February 2005. Ophir successfully demonstrated the airborne system, showing that it was capable of discerning small amounts of methane from a simulated pipeline leak. Leak rates as low as 150 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h) were detected by the airborne sensor.

  17. The Design of Intelligent System for Gas Leak Detection in Substation%变电站气体泄漏检测的智能系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏镇西; 马凤翔; 吴雪莲

    2016-01-01

    针对传统变电站气体泄漏检测工作中存在的工作效率低、安全性差且误差较大等问题,提出了一种基于磁导航和RFID定位、3G无线通信网络等技术的气体泄漏智能检测系统。该系统通过3G无线通信网络将变电站气体泄漏AGV巡检采集的现场数据信息,实时传输到后台管理系统和监控管理中心,便于监管人员动态掌握变电站设备气体泄漏情况和运行工况,从而科学制定安排维护工作,为设备气体泄漏检修和状态管理提供重要参考依据。%There are some defects in traditional substation gas leakage detection, such as low work efficiency, poor security and larger error. To overcome these shortcomings, an intelligent system of gas leakage detection is proposed and implemented based on magnetic navigation, RFID location and 3G wireless network. This system achieves the field information data collected by AGV, and delivered to the central server system through 3G wireless network. It can provide an important reference to build the scientifically gas leakage detection and maintenance management work.

  18. Passive Leak Detection Using Commercial Hydrogen Colorimetric Indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, Kevin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buttner, William [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burgess, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rivkin, Carl [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Element One, Inc. (www.elem.com), a small business with in Boulder, CO, has been developing hydrogen detection technology based upon a highly selective colorimetric indicator. In its native state, the indicator pigment is a pale gray color, but becomes black upon exposure to hydrogen. The colorimetric change can be readily observed by the naked eye without the need for supplemental electronics or other hardware. Recently, the colorimetric indicator was integrated into a pliable, self-adhesive tape that can readily wrap around pneumatic fittings to serve as a hydrogen leak detector. A prototype version of the Element One indicator tape was tested within an NREL hydrogen system and successfully identified the unexpected presence of a small leak; a summary document for this case study is presented in Appendix 1. The tape was subsequently configured into 10-foot rolls as a product prototype that has just recently been commercialized and marketed under the tradename DetecTape(R). Figure 1 shows the commercial version of DetecTape along with an indicator sample in its native state and one that had been exposed to hydrogen. DetecTape is a self-adhesive silicone-based tape impregnated with a proprietary hydrogen-sensitive indicator based on transition metal oxides. A length of the tape can be cut from the roll and stretched by a factor of two or three times around a fitting. Due to the self-adhesive property of the tape, this provides a tight seal around the fitting. The seal is not hermetic, and is not intended to prevent the release of a leaking gas. However, a portion of the hydrogen leaking from a wrapped fitting will pass through the tape and react with the active indicator impregnated within the tape, thereby inducing blackening.

  19. Are Optical Gas Imaging Technologies Effective For Methane Leak Detection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikumar, Arvind P; Wang, Jingfan; Brandt, Adam R

    2017-01-03

    Concerns over mitigating methane leakage from the natural gas system have become ever more prominent in recent years. Recently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed regulations requiring use of optical gas imaging (OGI) technologies to identify and repair leaks. In this work, we develop an open-source predictive model to accurately simulate the most common OGI technology, passive infrared (IR) imaging. The model accurately reproduces IR images of controlled methane release field experiments as well as reported minimum detection limits. We show that imaging distance is the most important parameter affecting IR detection effectiveness. In a simulated well-site, over 80% of emissions can be detected from an imaging distance of 10 m. Also, the presence of "superemitters" greatly enhance the effectiveness of IR leak detection. The minimum detectable limits of this technology can be used to selectively target "superemitters", thereby providing a method for approximate leak-rate quantification. In addition, model results show that imaging backdrop controls IR imaging effectiveness: land-based detection against sky or low-emissivity backgrounds have higher detection efficiency compared to aerial measurements. Finally, we show that minimum IR detection thresholds can be significantly lower for gas compositions that include a significant fraction nonmethane hydrocarbons.

  20. Predictive ability of the feeding system in Iberian pig by means of several analytical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, E.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The reliability of several analytical methods proposed to predict the feeding system received by Iberian pigs during the fattening period has been contrasted. Samples of subcutaneous adipose tissue were analyzed from 38 batches of pigs fattened in three seasons of montanera (acorn and pastures feeding. They corresponded to the four categories described in the Quality Standard for Iberian pig products: 251 samples of bellota, 164 of recebo, 197 of cebo de campo and 137 of cebo. To perform the study, the following analytical methods were used: fatty acid quantification, NIR, alpha and gamma tocopherol, chemical sensor, triacilglycerides, stable isotopes and neophytadiene. The laboratories received the samples without any information about the fattening system to which they belonged and remitted their predictions with respect to the above categories. The results showed a high percentage of accurate predictions of the methods when the fattening type corresponds to the extreme categories (bellota and cebo, however, the methods had difficulty in discerning between samples from a mixed feeding regime with acorn and feed (recebo and problems when pigs are fattened with compound feeds including vegetable fats with high levels of oleic acid. Although a simplification into only two categories (cebo/campo and recebo/bellota results in a success rate higher than 90% for some methods, the combination of two or three techniques with problematic samples allows for differentiating among the four categories with the same accuracy.Se ha contrastado la fiabilidad de varios métodos analíticos para determinar el tipo de alimentación recibida durante el cebo por cerdos Ibéricos a partir de muestras de tejido adiposo subcutáneo, procedentes de 38 partidas de cerdos de tres campañas de montanera. Las muestras correspondieron con las categorías de alimentación contempladas en la Norma de Calidad: 251 fueron de bellota, 164 de recebo, 197 de campo y 137 de cebo

  1. CT assessment of anastomotic bowel leak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, N. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Atri, M. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)]. E-mail: mostafa.atri@sw.ca; Ryan, S. [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Haddad, R. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Smith, A. [Department of Surgery, Sunnybrook Hospital, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2007-01-15

    Aim: To evaluate the predictors of clinically important gastrointestinal anastomotic leaks using multidetector computed tomography (CT). Subjects and methods: Ninety-nine patients, 73 with clinical suspicion of anastomotic bowel leak and 26 non-bowel surgery controls underwent CT to investigate postoperative sepsis. Fifty patients had undergone large bowel and 23 small bowel anastomoses. The time interval from surgery was 3-30 days (mean 10 {+-} 5.9 SD) for the anastomotic group and 3-40 days (mean 14 {+-} 11 SD) for the control group (p = 0.3). Two radiologists blinded to the final results reviewed the CT examinations in consensus and recorded the presence of peri-anastomotic air, fluid or combination of the two; distant loculated fluid or combination of fluid and air; free air or fluid; and intestinal contrast leak. Final diagnosis of clinically important anastomotic leak (CIAL) was confirmed at surgery or by chart review of predetermined clinical and laboratory criteria. Results: The prevalence of CIAL in the group undergoing CT was 31.5% (23/73). The CT examinations with documented leak were performed 5-28 (mean; 11.4 {+-} 6 SD) days after surgery. Nine patients required repeat operation, 10 percutaneous abscess drainage, two percutaneous drainage followed by surgery, and two prolonged antibiotic treatment and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Of the CT features examined, only peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air was more frequently seen in the CIAL group as opposed to the no leak group (p = 0.04). There was no intestinal contrast leakage in this cohort. Free air was present up to 9 days and loculated air up to 26 days without CIAL. Conclusion: Most postoperative CT features overlap between patients with and without CIAL. The only feature seen statistically more frequently with CIAL is peri-anastomotic loculated fluid containing air.

  2. Scanning, standoff TDLAS leak imaging and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainner, Richard T.; Aubut, Nicholas F.; Laderer, Matthew C.; Frish, Michael B.

    2017-05-01

    This paper reports a novel quantitative gas plume imaging tool, based on active near-infrared Backscatter Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (b-TDLAS) technology, designed for upstream natural gas leak applications. The new tool integrates low-cost laser sensors with video cameras to create a highly sensitive gas plume imager that also quantifies emission rate, all in a lightweight handheld ergonomic package. It is intended to serve as a lower-cost, higherperformance, enhanced functionality replacement for traditional passive non-quantitative mid-infrared Optical Gas Imagers (OGI) which are utilized by industry to comply with natural gas infrastructure Leak Detection and Repair (LDAR) requirements. It addresses the need for reliable, robust, low-cost sensors to detect and image methane leaks, and to quantify leak emission rates, focusing on inspections of upstream oil and gas operations, such as well pads, compressors, and gas plants. It provides: 1) Colorized quantified images of path-integrated methane concentration. The images depict methane plumes (otherwise invisible to the eye) actively interrogated by the laser beam overlaid on a visible camera image of the background. The detection sensitivity exceeds passive OGI, thus simplifying the manual task of leak detection and location; and 2) Data and algorithms for using the quantitative information gathered by the active detection technique to deduce plume flux (i.e. methane emission rate). This key capability will enable operators to prioritize leak repairs and thereby minimize the value of lost product, as well as to quantify and minimize greenhouse gas emissions, using a tool that meets EPA LDAR imaging equipment requirements.

  3. Endoscopic management of a gastric leak after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy using the over-the-scope-clip (Ovesco® system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurena Caballero

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy is currently used for the management of morbid obesity. Gastric fistula is the primary life-threatening complication, and its resolution continues to be a strong challenge for surgeons. Multiple treatment options are available, ranging from conservative therapy to endoscopic use of clips or stents, and even surgical reoperation involving total gastrectomy or conversion to a different bariatric technique. The applicability of each individual option will depend on the type of fistula and the patient clinical status. A clinical case is reported of a 29-year-old male patient with a body mass index at 49% who following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy had a delayed gastric fistula that failed to respond to conservative management but was successfully treated using the over-the-scope clip (Ovesco® system.

  4. Hydraulic analysis of water supply networks and controlling the leak using WATER GEMS model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Motevalizadeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Given that the discussion on water is strategic in terms of economic and social aspects as well as environmental impact, water leak in urban water-supply systems is very important, so, dealing with it is necessary and inevitable. Controlling and reducing water leak are of the main goals of water supplier organization due to limitations in terms of water resources, especially in dry lands which have few water resources. Pressure management is an efficient tool to reduce costs, enhance the operation of the network and therefore, it reduces the leak and increases the life of facilities and equipment and reduces the number of accidents. Smart pressure containment is a good way to prevent excess pressure in network to control undesirable phenomenon of leak which is directly related to pressure. In this study, Badamuiyeh water supply complex in Kerman City was selected to study on adjusting the pressure to control the leak of water and the hydraulic analysis was performed with demand-based method (DDSM, which is common technique and demand is constant, by Water GEMS software. For this end, the pressure reducing valves (prv were installed in critical point and they were timed to provide standard pressure in all nodes of the network and then, the impact of smart pressure management on water supply system has been investigated. Then its impact on the leak was examined and the results show that smart pressure control through pressure-reducing valve is a proper method for optimal management of water and reducing the leak significantly that with 45.15% reduction in average pressure, one can reduce the leak as much as 25.67% that as its result, 15380 m3 of water is annually saved in this region which is equal to 27.18% of consuming water.

  5. Single-Shell Tank Leak Integrity Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harlow, D. G. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Girardot, C. L. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Venetz, T. J. [Washington River Protection Solutions LLC, Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-26

    This document summarizes and evaluates the information in the Hanford Tri-Party Agreement Interim Milestone M-045-91F Targets completed between 2010 and 2015. 1) Common factors of SST liner failures (M-045-91F-T02), 2) the feasibility of testing for ionic conductivity between the inside and outside of SSTs (M-045-91F-T03, and 3) the causes, locations, and rates of leaks from leaking SSTs (M-045-91F-T04).

  6. Response Current from Spin-Vortex-Induced Loop Current System to Feeding Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisaki, Tsubasa; Wakaura, Hikaru; Abou Ghantous, Michel; Koizumi, Hiroyasu

    2017-07-01

    The spin-vortex-induced loop current (SVILC) is a loop current generated around a spin-vortex formed by itinerant electrons. It is generated by a U(1) instanton created by the single-valued requirement of wave functions with respect to the coordinate, and protected by the topological number, "winding number". In a system with SVILCs, a macroscopic persistent current is generated as a collection of SVILCs. In the present work, we consider the situation where external currents are fed in the SVILC system and response currents are measured as spontaneous currents that flow through leads attached to the SVILC system. The response currents from SVILC systems are markedly different from the feeding currents in their directions and magnitude, and depend on the original current pattern of the SVILC system; thus, they may be used in the readout process in the recently proposed SVILC quantum computer, a quantum computer that utilizes SVILCs as qubits. We also consider the use of the response current to detect SVILCs.

  7. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Exploration Feed-Forward Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study [1] identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.

  8. Analysis of the Thermal Characteristics of Machine Tool Feed System Based on Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaobo; Mao, Kuanmin; Du, Yikang; Wang, Fengyun; Yan, Bo

    2017-09-01

    The loading of mobile heat source and boundary conditions setting are difficult problems in the analysis of thermal characteristics of machine tools. Taking the machine tool feed system as an example, a novel method for loading of mobile heat source was proposed by establishing a function which was constructed by the heat source and time. The convective heat transfer coefficient is the key parameter of boundary conditions, and it varies with the temperature. In this paper, a model of “variable convection heat transfer coefficient” was proposed, and the setting of boundary conditions of thermal analysis was closer to the real situation. Finally, comparing results of above method and experimental data, the accuracy and validity of this method was proved, meanwhile, the simulation calculation and simulation time was reducing greatly.

  9. Development of Ingredients of the Feed-stuff for Improving Immune system using Centipede grass Extracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Hyoungwoo; Chung, Byungyeoup; Lee, Seungsik; Lee, Sungbeom

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of the this project provides new application areas using naturally occurring flavonoids, cenetpedegrass extracts, for improving immune system and used as ingredients for feed-stuff. In order to provide the immune improving effects of centipedegrass, cell and animal experiments were carried out. Research scope includes determine the effect of centipedegrass extracts on immune functions using LPS-induced RAW cells and found that cytokines, IL-6 and IL-10, which were induced by LPS, were reduced by inhibiting phosphorylation of STAT-3, determine the effects of immune stimulating activity of centipedegrass in animals, cenetipedegrass extracts were administrated once a day for 2 weeks. After treated with LPS, immune suppressor, cytokines were down regulated, however, the cytokines in the group pretreated with centipedegrass extracts, were not down regulated as much as non treated group. The overall mechanism of immune stimulating effect of centipedegrass extracts, was that STAT-3 phosphorylation was inhibited by contipedegrass extracts.

  10. Integrated DNA walking system to characterize a broad spectrum of GMOs in food/feed matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraiture, Marie-Alice; Herman, Philippe; Lefèvre, Loic; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc; Deforce, Dieter; Roosens, Nancy H

    2015-08-14

    In order to provide a system fully integrated with qPCR screening, usually used in GMO routine analysis, as well as being able to detect, characterize and identify a broad spectrum of GMOs in food/feed matrices, two bidirectional DNA walking methods targeting p35S or tNOS, the most common transgenic elements found in GM crops, were developed. These newly developed DNA walking methods are completing the previously implemented DNA walking method targeting the t35S pCAMBIA element. Food/feed matrices containing transgenic crops (Bt rice or MON863 maize) were analysed using the integrated DNA walking system. First, the newly developed DNA walking methods, anchored on the sequences used for the p35S or tNOS qPCR screening, were tested on Bt rice that contains these two transgenic elements. Second, the methods were assessed on a maize sample containing a low amount of the GM MON863 event, representing a more complex matrix in terms of genome size and sensitivity. Finally, to illustrate its applicability in GMO routine analysis by enforcement laboratories, the entire workflow of the integrated strategy, including qPCR screening to detect the potential presence of GMOs and the subsequent DNA walking methods to characterize and identify the detected GMOs, was applied on a GeMMA Scheme Proficiency Test matrix. Via the characterization of the transgene flanking region between the transgenic cassette and the plant genome as well as of a part of the transgenic cassette, the presence of GMOs was properly confirmed or infirmed in all tested samples. Due to their simple procedure and their short time-frame to get results, the developed DNA walking methods proposed here can be easily implemented in GMO routine analysis by the enforcement laboratories. In providing crucial information about the transgene flanking regions and/or the transgenic cassettes, this DNA walking strategy is a key molecular tool to prove the presence of GMOs in any given food/feed matrix.

  11. Engineering Model Propellant Feed System Development for an Iodine Hall Thruster Demonstration Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.

    2016-01-01

    chamber (it is under 10(exp -6) torr at -75 C), making it possible to 'cryopump' the propellant with lower-cost recirculating refrigerant-based systems as opposed to using liquid nitrogen or low temperature gaseous helium cryopanels. In the present paper, we describe the design and testing of the engineering model propellant feed system for iSAT (see Fig. 1). The feed system is based around an iodine propellant reservoir and two proportional control valves (PFCVs) that meter the iodine flow to the cathode and anode. The flow is split upstream of the PFCVs to both components can be fed from a common reservoir. Testing of the reservoir is reported to demonstrate that the design is capable of delivering the required propellant flow rates to operate the thruster. The tubing and reservoir are fabricated from hastelloy to resist corrosion by the heated gaseous iodine propellant. The reservoir, tubing, and PFCVs are heated to ensure the sublimed propellant will not re-deposit within the feed system. Heating is accomplished through a number of individual zones to control the overall power expended on heating the system and insulation is employed to minimize the amount of power used to heat the system prior to thruster operation.

  12. Development of superconducting high gradient magnetic separation system for scale removal from feed-water in thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibatani, Saori; Nakanishi, Motohiro; Mizuno, Nobumi [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan); and others

    2016-03-15

    A Superconducting High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) system is proposed for treatment of feed-water in thermal power plant. This is a method to remove the iron scale from feed-water utilizing magnetic force. One of the issues for practical use of HGMS system is to extend continuous operation period. In this study, we designed the magnetic filters by particle trajectory simulation and HGMS experiments in order to solve this problem. As a result, the quantity of magnetite captured by each filter was equalized and filter blockage was prevented. A design method of the magnetic filter was proposed which is suitable for the long-term continuous scale removal in the feed-water system of the thermal power plant.

  13. Deterministic quantum teleportation with feed-forward in a solid state system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, L; Salathe, Y; Oppliger, M; Kurpiers, P; Baur, M; Lang, C; Eichler, C; Puebla-Hellmann, G; Fedorov, A; Wallraff, A

    2013-08-15

    Engineered macroscopic quantum systems based on superconducting electronic circuits are attractive for experimentally exploring diverse questions in quantum information science. At the current state of the art, quantum bits (qubits) are fabricated, initialized, controlled, read out and coupled to each other in simple circuits. This enables the realization of basic logic gates, the creation of complex entangled states and the demonstration of algorithms or error correction. Using different variants of low-noise parametric amplifiers, dispersive quantum non-demolition single-shot readout of single-qubit states with high fidelity has enabled continuous and discrete feedback control of single qubits. Here we realize full deterministic quantum teleportation with feed-forward in a chip-based superconducting circuit architecture. We use a set of two parametric amplifiers for both joint two-qubit and individual qubit single-shot readout, combined with flexible real-time digital electronics. Our device uses a crossed quantum bus technology that allows us to create complex networks with arbitrary connecting topology in a planar architecture. The deterministic teleportation process succeeds with order unit probability for any input state, as we prepare maximally entangled two-qubit states as a resource and distinguish all Bell states in a single two-qubit measurement with high efficiency and high fidelity. We teleport quantum states between two macroscopic systems separated by 6 mm at a rate of 10(4) s(-1), exceeding other reported implementations. The low transmission loss of superconducting waveguides is likely to enable the range of this and other schemes to be extended to significantly larger distances, enabling tests of non-locality and the realization of elements for quantum communication at microwave frequencies. The demonstrated feed-forward may also find application in error correction schemes.

  14. 基于物联网技术的石化厂区有毒气体泄漏在线监测系统%Online Monitoring System of Toxic Gas Leak for Petrochemical Plant Based on Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 李凯亮; 曾俊林

    2015-01-01

    According to the production safety problems caused by toxic gas leak,which may occur in the productive process of petrochemical plants,an online monitoring system of toxic gas leak for petrochemical plant was designed ,which was a combination of wireless sensor networks,portable devices,cloud instant storage function,real-time display web pages,online monitoring SMS a-larm,android mobile real-time display and solar charging technology.The functions of real-time,online monitoring and early warning for the toxic gases ( mainly including H2 S,SO2 ,CO,CH4 ) ,temperature,humidity,wind direction,wind speed,PM2.5 and other fac-tors in petrochemical plant were realized,and made the production supervisors grasp the toxic gases’ real-time dynamic information of petrochemical factory,thus removing the factors that lead to dangerous accidents immediately and controlling the risk in the ini-tial stage,so as to realize the safe,sustainable and efficient chemical production.Experiments show that the on-line monitoring sys-tem has good reliability,security and practicability.%针对石化厂在生产过程中可能发生有毒气体泄漏带来的生产安全问题,设计了一套石化厂区有毒气体泄漏在线监测系统,该系统集无线传感器网络、便携式设备、云端即时存储功能、网页实时显示、在线监测短信报警、安卓手机实时显示及太阳能充电等技术于一体,实现对石化厂区中有毒气体(主要包括H2 S、SO2、CO、CH4)、温度、湿度、风向、风速、PM2.5等因子的实时、在线监测和预警,使生产管理人员掌握石化厂区的有毒气体实时动态信息,对可能引发危险事故的因素及时排除,把危险控制在始发阶段,以实现化工生产的安全、持续、高效进行。实验表明:该在线监测系统具有良好可靠性、安全性和实用性。

  15. Evaluation of major feed resources in crop-livestock mixed farming systems, southern Ethiopia: Indigenous knowledge versus laboratory analysis results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribe Gemiyo Talore

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of major feed resources was conducted in four crop-livestock mixed farming systems of central southern Ethiopia, with 90 farmers, selected using multi-stage purposive and random sampling methods. Discussions were held with focused groups and key informants for vernacular name identification of feed, followed by feed sampling to analyse chemical composition (CP, ADF and NDF, in-vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, and correlate with indigenous technical knowledge (ITK. Native pastures, crop residues (CR and multi-purpose trees (MPT are the major feed resources, demonstrated great variations in seasonality, chemical composition and IVDMD. The average CP, NDF and IVDMD values for grasses were 83.8 (ranged: 62.9–190, 619 (ranged: 357–877 and 572 (ranged: 317–743 g kg^(−1 DM, respectively. Likewise, the average CP, NDF and IVDMD for CR were 58 (ranged: 20–90, 760 (ranged: 340–931 and 461 (ranged: 285–637g kg^(−1 DM, respectively. Generally, the MPT and non-conventional feeds (NCF, Ensete ventricosum and Ipomoea batatas possessed higher CP (ranged: 155–164 g kg^(−1 DM and IVDMD values (611–657 g kg^(−1 DM while lower NDF (331–387 g kg^(−1 DM and ADF (321–344 g kg^(−1 DM values. The MPT and NCF were ranked as the best nutritious feeds by ITK while crop residues were the least. This study indicates that there are remarkable variations within and among forage resources in terms of chemical composition. There were also complementarities between ITK and feed laboratory results, and thus the ITK need to be taken into consideration in evaluation of local feed resources.

  16. Determination of neophytadiene in the subcutaneous fat of Iberian pigs from different feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Casco, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to determine the relationship between the content of a branched hydrocarbon (neophytadiene in the subcutaneous fat and the feeding system of Iberian pigs during the fattening period previous to slaughter. Thirty-six batches of Iberian pigs, belonging to the four categories of feeding systems described in the Spanish legislation (Bellota, Recebo, Campo and Cebo were studied. These categories differ in their degree of utilization of the natural resources (acorn and pasture of the extensive rearing system or in their level of replacement by concentrated feed. SPE combined with GC-MS techniques were carried out to isolate and to identify hydrocarbons. Recebo and Bellota batches showed the highest levels of neophytadiene content, followed by Campo batches, and finally, batches of the Cebo category. The results showed a great variability between batches from the same feeding category, mainly from Bellota, Recebo and Campo categories, which makes the classification of the animals in these three categories difficult. However, the animals from the Cebo category were correctly classified when reared in intensive conditions.El objetivo del trabajo se centró en determinar el contenido de un hidrocarburo ramificado (neofitadieno en la grasa subcutánea del cerdo ibérico, y su relación con el tipo de alimentación recibida durante la etapa de cebo previa al sacrificio (en la fase final de cebo. Para ello, se estudiaron treinta y seis lotes de cerdos Ibéricos, pertenecientes a las cuatro categorías de calidad en base a la alimentación de los animales establecidas en la Norma de Calidad (Bellota, Recebo, Campo y Cebo. Estas categorías se diferencian en el grado de aprovechamiento de los recursos naturales de la dehesa (bellotas y hierba y en el nivel de sustitución de los mismos por piensos concentrados. Para el aislamiento e identificación de los hidrocarburos se utilizaron técnicas de SPE combinadas con GC-MS. Los

  17. Influence of in-feed virginiamycin on the systemic and mucosal antibody response of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisbin, J T; Gong, J; Lusty, C A; Sabour, P; Sanei, B; Han, Y; Shewen, P E; Sharif, S

    2008-10-01

    Subtherapeutic and prophylactic doses of virginiamycin are capable of altering the intestinal microbiota as well as increasing several growth parameters in chickens. In spite of the fact that the microbiota plays a role in shaping the host's immune system, little information is available on the effects of in-feed antibiotics on the chicken immune system. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of an antibiotic, virginiamycin, on the development of antibody responses. Chickens were fed diets containing no antibiotics, along with either subtherapeutic (11 ppm) or prophylactic (22 ppm) doses of virginiamycin. Chickens were then immunized with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) and sheep red blood cells systemically, and with BSA and KLH orally. Although antibodies were detected against BSA in the intestinal contents of birds that were orally immunized, there was no difference among different treatment groups. Systemic IgG, and to a lesser extent IgM, antibody responses to KLH were greater (P antibiotic. No treatment effect was found in the sheep red blood cell-immunized birds. Results of the present study implicate virginiamycin in enhancing antibody responses to some antigens in chickens. Further studies are required to determine to what extent these effects on antibody response are mediated through changes in the composition of the microbiota.

  18. Experience with helium leak and thermal shocks test of SST-1 cryo components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajiv; Nimavat, Hiren; Srikanth, G. L. N.; Bairagi, Nitin; Shah, Pankil; Tanna, V. L.; Pradhan, S.

    2012-11-01

    A steady state superconducting Tokamak SST-1 is presently under its assembly stage at the Institute for Plasma Research. The SST-1 machine is a family of Superconducting SC coils for both Toroidal field and Poloidal Field. An ultra high vacuum compatible vacuum vessel, placed in the bore of the TF coils, houses the plasma facing components. A high vacuum cryostat encloses all the SC coils and the vacuum vessel. Liquid Nitrogen (LN2) cooled thermal shield between the vacuum vessel & SC coils as well as between cryostat and the SC coils. There are number of crucial cryogenic components as Electrical isolators, 80 K thermal shield, Cryogenic flexible hose etc., which have to be passed the performance validation tests as part of fulfillment of the stringent QA/QC before incorporated in the main assembly. The individual leak tests of components at RT as well as after thermal cycle from 300 K to 77 K ensure us to make final overall leak proof system. These components include, Large numbers of Electrical Isolators for Helium as well as LN2 services, Flexible Bellows and Hoses for Helium as well as LN2 services, Thermal shock tests of large numbers of 80 K Bubble shields In order to validate the helium leak tightness of these components, we have used the calibrated mass spectrometer leak detector (MSLD) at 300 K, 77 K and 4.2. Since it is very difficult to locate the leaks, which are appearing at rather lower temperatures e.g. less than 20 K, We have invented different approaches to resolve the issue of such leaks. This paper, in general describes the design of cryogenic flexible hose, assembly, couplings for leak testing, test method and techniques of thermal cycles test at 77 K inflow conditions and leak testing aspects of different cryogenic components. The test results, the problems encountered and its solutions techniques are discussed.

  19. Risk factors for postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak and meningitis after expanded endoscopic endonasal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Michael E; Iorgulescu, J Bryan; El-Sayed, Ivan; McDermott, Michael W; Parsa, Andrew T; Pletcher, Steven D; Jahangiri, Arman; Wagner, Jeffrey; Aghi, Manish K

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a serious complication of transsphenoidal surgery, which can lead to meningitis and often requires reparative surgery. We sought to identify preoperative risk factors for CSF leaks and meningitis. We reviewed 98 consecutive expanded endoscopic endonasal surgeries performed from 2008-2012 and analyzed preoperative comorbidities, intraoperative techniques, and postoperative care. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. The most common pathologies addressed included pituitary adenoma, Rathke cyst, chordoma, esthesioneuroblastoma, meningioma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. There were 11 CSF leaks (11%) and 10 central nervous system (CNS) infections (10%). Univariate and multivariate analysis of preoperative risk factors showed that patients with non-ideal body mass index (BMI) were associated with higher rate of postoperative CSF leak and meningitis (both p<0.01). Also, patients with increasing age were associated with increased CSF leak (p = 0.03) and the length of time a lumbar drain was used postoperatively was associated with infection in a univariate analysis. In addition, three of three endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries combined with open cranial surgery had a postoperative CSF leak and CNS infection rate which was a considerably higher rate than for transsphenoidal surgeries alone or surgeries staged with open cases (p<0.01 and p=0.04, respectively) In this series of expanded endoscopic transsphenoidal surgeries, preoperative BMI remains the most important preoperative predictor for CSF leak and infection. Other risk factors include age, intraoperative CSF leak, lumbar drain duration, and cranial combined cases. Risks associated with complex surgical resections when combining open and endoscopic approaches could be minimized by staging these procedures.

  20. Cultivation of rice for animal feed with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater for enhanced nitrogen removal: comparison of cultivation systems feeding irrigation water upward and downward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, A; Ito, H; Sasaki, A; Kajihara, A; Watanabe, T

    2015-01-01

    To achieve enhanced nitrogen removal, we modified a cultivation system with circulated irrigation of treated municipal wastewater by using rice for animal feed instead of human consumption. The performance of this modified system was evaluated through a bench-scale experiment by comparing the direction of circulated irrigation (i.e. passing through paddy soil upward and downward). The modified system achieved more than three times higher nitrogen removal (3.2 g) than the system in which rice for human consumption was cultivated. The removal efficiency was higher than 99.5%, regardless of the direction of circulated irrigation. Nitrogen in the treated municipal wastewater was adsorbed by the rice plant in this cultivation system as effectively as chemical fertilizer used in normal paddy fields. Circulated irrigation increased the nitrogen released to the atmosphere, probably due to enhanced denitrification. Neither the circulation of irrigation water nor its direction affected the growth of the rice plant and the yield and quality of harvested rice. The yield of rice harvested in this system did not reach the target value in normal paddy fields. To increase this yield, a larger amount of treated wastewater should be applied to the system, considering the significant amount of nitrogen released to the atmosphere.

  1. Breast-feeding and Vitamin D Supplementation Rates in the Ochsner Health System

    OpenAIRE

    Ponnapakkam, Tulasi; Ravichandran, Anisha; Bradford, Elease; Tobin, Gregory; Gensure, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Breast-feeding imparts many benefits to both mothers and infants. Because of these numerous recognized benefits, there has been an effort to increase breast-feeding rates nationwide; increasing breast-feeding rates was one of the goals of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Healthy People 2010 initiative. This study examined the breast-feeding rate at the Ochsner Clinic Foundation by conducting a retrospective chart review of patients aged 0–12 months who visited any branch of t...

  2. Detecting gas leaks by ultrasonic emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Karsten Bo; Henriksen, Eigil

    1997-01-01

    The emission of noise in the frequency range 10 kHz to 25.6 kHz from an experimental gas leak in a flanged joint has been experimentally investigated. The overall conclusion is that the emitted noise is almost frequency independent in level within the considered frequency range.A small PC program...

  3. Evaluation of methodologies for the calculation of leak rates for pressure retaining components with crack-like leaks; Bewertung von Methoden zur Berechnung von Leckraten fuer druckfuehrende Komponenten mit rissartigen Lecks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Juergen; Heckmann, Klaus; Blaesius, Christoph

    2015-06-15

    For the demonstration of break preclusion for pressure retaining components in nuclear power plants, the nuclear safety standard KTA 3206 determines also the requirements for the leak-before-break verification. For this procedure, it has to be ensured that a wall-penetrating crack is subcritical with respect to instable growth, and that the resulting leakage under stationary operation conditions can be detected by a leak detection system. Within the scope of the project 3613R01332 analyses with respect to conservative estimates of the leak rates in case of detections regarding break preclusion were performed by means of leak rate models being available at GRS. For this purpose, conservative assumptions in the procedure were quantified by comparative calculations concerning selected leak rate experiments and the requirements regarding the determination of leak rates indicated in the KTA 3206 were verified and specified. Moreover, the models were extended and relevant recommendations for the calculation procedure were developed. During the investigations of leak rate tests the calculation methods were validated, qualified by means of both examples indicated in KTA 3206 and applied to a postulated leak accident in the cooling circuit of a PWR. For the calculation of leak rates several simplified solution methods which are included in the GRS program WinLeck were applied, and for the simulation of a leak accident the large-scale programs ANSYS Mechanical and ATHLET (thermohydraulics program developed by GRS) were used. When applying simplified methods for the calculation of leak rates using the limiting curve for the friction factor which has been derived during the project and which is included in the KTA 3206 attention has to be paid to the fact that in case of small flow lengths the entrance loss can dominate compared to the friction loss. However, the available data do not suffice in order to make a quantitative statement with respect to limits of applicability

  4. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-12-01

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC).Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  5. Impact of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation, feed channel pressure drop increase and permeate flux decline in membrane systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucs, Sz S; Valladares Linares, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2014-12-15

    The influence of organic nutrient load on biomass accumulation (biofouling) and pressure drop development in membrane filtration systems was investigated. Nutrient load is the product of nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity. Biofouling - excessive growth of microbial biomass in membrane systems - hampers membrane performance. The influence of biodegradable organic nutrient load on biofouling was investigated at varying (i) crossflow velocity, (ii) nutrient concentration, (iii) shear, and (iv) feed spacer thickness. Experimental studies were performed with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs) containing a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane and a 31 mil thick feed spacer, commonly applied in practice in RO and nanofiltration (NF) spiral-wound membrane modules. Numerical modeling studies were done with identical feed spacer geometry differing in thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil). Additionally, experiments were done applying a forward osmosis (FO) membrane with varying spacer thickness (28, 31 and 34 mil), addressing the permeate flux decline and biofilm development. Assessed were the development of feed channel pressure drop (MFS studies), permeate flux (FO studies) and accumulated biomass amount measured by adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and total organic carbon (TOC). Our studies showed that the organic nutrient load determined the accumulated amount of biomass. The same amount of accumulated biomass was found at constant nutrient load irrespective of linear flow velocity, shear, and/or feed spacer thickness. The impact of the same amount of accumulated biomass on feed channel pressure drop and permeate flux was influenced by membrane process design and operational conditions. Reducing the nutrient load by pretreatment slowed-down the biofilm formation. The impact of accumulated biomass on membrane performance was reduced by applying a lower crossflow velocity and/or a thicker and/or a modified geometry feed spacer. The results indicate that cleanings can be delayed

  6. Granule size distributions after twin-screw granulation - Do not forget the feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, R; Thommes, M; Rasenack, N; Moll, K-P; Krumme, M; Kleinebudde, P

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of qualitatively different powder feeder performances on resulting granule size distributions after twin-screw granulation of a highly drug loaded, hydrophobic mixture and a mannitol powder. It was shown that powder feeder related problems usually cannot be identified by trusting in the values given by the feeder. Therefore, a newly developed model for the evaluation of the performance of powder feeders was introduced and it was tried to connect this model to residence time distributions in twin-screw granulation processes. The influence of feeder performances on resulting granule size distributions varied, depending on the applied screw configuration and the used powder. Regarding the hydrophobic and highly drug loaded formulation, which was granulated at an L/S-ratio of 0.5, a pure conveying screw and a medium kneading configuration, consisting of 60° kneading blocks were negatively influenced by poor feeder settings. For optimal settings more narrow distributions could be obtained. For an extensive kneading configuration good and poor settings resulted in mono-modal granule size distributions but were differing in the overall size. Mannitol, a model substance for a liquid sensitive formulation was granulated at an L/S-ratio of 0.075. It was even more important to maintain optimal feeding as mannitol was highly affected by poor feeder performances. Even an extensive kneading configuration could not level the errors in powder feeder performance, resulting in qualitatively different granule size distributions. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of detailed knowledge about applied feeding systems to gain optimal performance in twin-screw granulation.

  7. Advanced nutrient root-feeding system for conveyor-type cylindrical plant growth facilities for microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yu. A.; Krivobok, N. M.; Krivobok, A. S.; Smolyanina, S. O.

    2016-02-01

    A compact and reliable automatic method for plant nutrition supply is needed to monitor and control space-based plant production systems. The authors of this study have designed a nutrient root-feeding system that minimizes and regulates nutrient and water supply without loss of crop yields in a space greenhouse. The system involves an ion-exchange fibrous artificial soil (AS) BIONA-V3TM as the root-inhabited medium; a pack with slow-release fertilizer as the main source of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium; and a cartridge with granular mineral-rich ionite (GMRI) as a source of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, and iron. A controller equipped with an electrical conductivity meter controls the solution flow and concentration of the solution in the mixing tank at specified values. Experiments showed that the fibrous AS-stabilized pH of the substrate solution within the range of 6.0-6.6 is favorable to the majority of crops. The experimental data confirmed that this technique allowed solution preparation for crops in space greenhouses by means of pumping water through the cartridge and minimization of the AS stock onboard the space vehicle.

  8. Evolution of Regolith Feed Systems for Lunar ISRU 02 Production Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Townsend, Ivan I., III; Mantovani, James G.; Metzger, Philip T.

    2010-01-01

    The In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) project of the NASA Constellation Program, Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) has been engaged in the design and testing of various Lunar ISRU O2 production plant prototypes that can extract chemically bound oxygen from the minerals in the lunar regolith. This work demands that lunar regolith (or simulants) shall be introduced into the O2 production plant from a holding bin or hopper and subsequently expelled from the ISRU O2 production plant for disposal. This sub-system is called the Regolith Feed System (RFS) which exists in a variety of configurations depending on the O2 production plant oxygen being used (e.g. Hydrogen Reduction, Carbothermal, Molten Oxide Electrolysis). Each configuration may use a different technology and in addition it is desirable to have heat recuperation from the spent hot regolith as an integral part of the RFS. This paper addresses the various RFS and heat recuperation technologies and system configurations that have been developed under the NASA ISRU project since 2007. In addition current design solutions and lessons learned from reduced gravity flight testing will be discussed.

  9. ADAPTIVE FEED-FORWARD COMPENSATOR FOR HARMONIC CANCELLATION IN ELECTRO- HYDRAULIC SERVO SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Jianjun; WANG Liquan; JIANG Hongzhou; WU Zhenshun; HAN Junwei

    2008-01-01

    Since the dead zone phenomenon occurs in electro-hydraulic servo system, the output of the system corresponding to a sinusoidal input contains higher harmonic besides the fundamental input, which causes harmonic distortion of the output signal. The method for harmonic cancellation based on adaptive filter is proposed. The task is accomplished by generating reference signals with frequency that should be eliminated from the output. The reference inputs are weighted by the adaptive filter in such a way that it closely matches the harmonic. The output of the adaptive filter is a harmonic replica and is injected to the fundamental signal such that the output harmonic is cancelled leaving the desired signal alone, and the total harmonic distortion (THD) is greatly reduced. The weights of filter are adjusted on-line according to the control error by using least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. Simulation results performed with a hydraulic system demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed adaptive feed-forward compensator (AFC) control scheme.

  10. Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2011-01-01

    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size...

  11. Environmental and economic performance of beef farming systems with different feeding strategies in southern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pashaei Kamali, Farahnaz; Linden, van der Aart; Meuwissen, Miranda P.M.; Malafaia, Guilherme Cunha; Oude Lansink, Alfons G.J.M.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Beef production is one of the contributors to emission of pollutants to the environment, and increasingly competes for natural resources. Beef producers can improve their environmental performance by adopting alternative feeding strategies. Adoption of alternative feeding strategies, however, mig

  12. Experiences with leak rate calculations methods for LBB application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grebner, H.; Kastner, W.; Hoefler, A.; Maussner, G. [and others

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, three leak rate computer programs for the application of leak before break analysis are described and compared. The programs are compared to each other and to results of an HDR Reactor experiment and two real crack cases. The programs analyzed are PIPELEAK, FLORA, and PICEP. Generally, the different leak rate models are in agreement. To obtain reasonable agreement between measured and calculated leak rates, it was necessary to also use data from detailed crack investigations.

  13. The effect of 1-week feed restriction on performance, digestibility of nutrients and digestive system development in the growing rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůmová, E; Volek, Z; Chodová, D; Härtlová, H; Makovický, P; Svobodová, J; Ebeid, T A; Uhlířová, L

    2016-01-01

    A 3 to 4 week feed restriction of about 20% to 25% of the free intake is widely applied in rabbit breeding systems to reduce post-weaning digestive disorders. However, a short intensive feed restriction is described in few studies and can be beneficial for growing rabbits due to a longer re-alimentation period. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ad libitum (AL) and two restriction levels of feeding (50 and 65 g/rabbit per day) applied for 1 week on performance, gastrointestinal morphology and physiological parameters during the restriction and during the re-alimentation period. Rabbits were divided into three experimental groups: AL rabbits were fed AL, R1 rabbits were restricted from 42 to 49 days of age and received 50 g daily (29% of AL) and R2 rabbits were restricted at the same age and were fed 65 g of feed daily (37% of AL). In the 1(st) week after weaning and in the weeks after restriction, all the groups were fed AL. During the restriction period, daily weight gain (DWG) in R1 significantly dropped to 11% (experiment 1) and 5% (experiment 2) compared with rabbits in the AL group, although they were fed 29% of AL, whereas in the R2 group it decreased to 20% (experiment 1) and 10% (experiment 2). In the week following feed restriction, DWG in the restricted groups increased (Prabbits in both the experiments reached up to 90% to 93% of the final live weight (70 days) of the AL group. Over the entire experimental period, feed restriction significantly decreased feed intake to 85% to 88% of the AL group; however, the feed conversion ratio was lower (P<0.05) only in experiment 1 (-6% in R1 and -4% in R2). Digestibilities of CP and fat were not significantly higher during the restriction period and during the 1(st) week of re-alimentation compared with the AL group. Significant interactions between feeding regime and age revealed the shortest large intestine in the AL group at 49 days of age and the longest at 70 days in the AL and R1 groups

  14. Conjugated linoleic acid of dairy foods is affected by cows’ feeding system and processing of milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Avilez Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The distribution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in dairy products commercially available in Chile is poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the content of CLA in dairy cow products from Chile and the effect of processing fresh milk into dairy products. Samples of raw milk were categorized into two groups based on the animal feeding system utilized by the dairy farm: 1 grazing based systems (Los Lagos region; and 2 housing systems using total mixed ration (TMR diets (Los Angeles region. Simultaneously, commercial samples of condensed milk, powdered milk, butter and Gouda cheese were analyzed. Furthermore, samples of raw milk and processed products (powdered and sweetened condensed milk were also analyzed. Dairy farms based on grazing systems had higher levels of CLA in raw milk than TMR farms. In addition, average values of CLA were 1.72 g 100 g−1 of total fatty acids, in spring milk in the Los Lagos region, and 0.42 g 100 g−1 in summer milk, in the Los Angeles region. Similarly, the CLA content of dairy products was higher than that of raw milk. Milk processing affected the transferring of CLA from fresh milk into the final products. Sweetened condensed milk presented lower CLA values than raw and powdered milk. In conclusion, this study indicates the importance of the production systems to the CLA content as well as the effects of milk processing into dairy products. To sum up, more research is needed to elucidate the exact effect of the processing conditions of dairy products on the CLA content.

  15. Ontogeny of the Digestive System of Atlantic Salmon (Salmo salar L. and Effects of Soybean Meal from Start-Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Sahlmann

    Full Text Available Despite a long history of rearing Atlantic salmon in hatcheries in Norway, knowledge of molecular and physiological aspects of juvenile development is still limited. To facilitate introduction of alternative feed ingredients and feed additives during early phases, increased knowledge regarding the ontogeny of the digestive apparatus in salmon is needed. In this study, we characterized the development of the gastrointestinal tract and accessory digestive organs for five months following hatch by using histological, biochemical and molecular methods. Furthermore, the effects of a diet containing 16.7% soybean meal (SBM introduced at start-feeding were investigated, as compared to a fishmeal based control diet. Salmon yolk sac alevins and fry were sampled at 18 time points from hatch until 144 days post hatch (dph. Histomorphological development was investigated at 7, 27, 46, 54 and 144 dph. Ontogenetic expression patterns of genes encoding key digestive enzymes, nutrient transporters, gastrointestinal peptide hormones and T-cell markers were analyzed from 13 time points by qPCR. At 7 dph, the digestive system of Atlantic salmon alevins was morphologically distinct with an early stomach, liver, pancreas, anterior and posterior intestine. About one week before the yolk sac was internalized and exogenous feeding was started, gastric glands and developing pyloric caeca were observed, which coincided with an increase in gene expression of gastric and pancreatic enzymes and nutrient transporters. Thus, the observed organs seemed ready to digest external feed well before the yolk sac was absorbed into the abdominal cavity. In contrast to post-smolt Atlantic salmon, inclusion of SBM did not induce intestinal inflammation in the juveniles. This indicates that SBM can be used in compound feeds for salmon fry from start-feeding to at least 144 dph and/or 4-5 g body weight.

  16. 49 CFR 230.64 - Leaks under lagging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Leaks § 230.64 Leaks under lagging. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall take out of service at once any boiler that has developed a leak under the lagging due to a crack in the shell, or...

  17. Double Shell Tank AY-102 Radioactive Waste Leak Investigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washenfelder, Dennis J.

    2014-04-10

    PowerPoint. The objectives of this presentation are to: Describe Effort to Determine Whether Tank AY-102 Leaked; Review Probable Causes of the Tank AY-102 Leak; and, Discuss Influence of Leak on Hanford’s Double-Shell Tank Integrity Program.

  18. Effect of heat leaks in platinum resistance thermometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldratt, E; Yeshurun, Y; Greenfield, A J

    1980-03-01

    The effect of heat leaks in platinum resistance thermometry is analyzed. An experimental method is proposed for estimating the magnitude of this effect. Results are reported for the measurement of the temperature of a hot, solid body under different heat-leak configurations. Design criteria for thermometers are presented which minimize the effect of such heat leaks.

  19. Study on fluid-structure interaction in liquid oxygen feeding pipe systems using finite volume method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Wei; Bing Sun

    2011-01-01

    The fluid-structure interaction may occur in space launch vehicles,which would lead to bad performance of vehicles,damage equipments on vehicles,or even affect astronauts' health.In this paper,analysis on dynamic behavior of liquid oxygen (LOX) feeding pipe system in a large scale launch vehicle is performed,with the effect of fluid-structure interaction (FSI) taken into consideration.The pipe system is simplified as a planar FSI model with Poisson coupling and junction coupling.Numerical tests on pipes between the tank and the pump are solved by the finite volume method.Results show that restrictions weaken the interaction between axial and lateral vibrations.The reasonable results regarding frequencies and modes indicate that the FSI affects substantially the dynamic analysis,and thus highlight the usefulness of the proposed model.This study would provide a reference to the pipe test,as well as facilitate further studies on oscillation suppression.

  20. 锅炉给粉变频调速系统%Varying Frequency Speed Adjustment System for Boiler Feeding Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张焕武

    2000-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces the design of varying frequency speed adjustment system for boiler feeding coal and simply introduces it's advantages.%简要介绍了锅炉给粉变频调速系统的设计,并概述了其优越性。

  1. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-11-11

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed.

  2. Immunohistological localization of serotonin in the CNS and feeding system of the stable fly stomoxys calcitrans L. (Diptera: muscidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), plays critical roles as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator that control or modulate many behaviors in insects, such as feeding. Neurons immunoreactive (IR)to 5-HT were detected in the central nervous system (CNS) of the larval and adult stages of the stab...

  3. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  4. Evolution of magma feeding system in Kumanodake agglutinate activity, Zao Volcano, northeastern Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takebe, Yoshinori; Ban, Masao

    2015-10-01

    The Kumanodake agglutinate of Zao Volcano in northeastern Japan consists of pyroclastic surge layers accumulated during the early part of the newest stage of activity (ca. 33 ka to present). Our petrologic study of this agglutinate based on systematically collected samples aims to reveal the evolution of magma feeding system. To understand the magma evolution, we have examined samples from the agglutinate by using petrologic data including, petrography, analysis of minerals (plagioclase, pyroxene, and olivine), glass compositions, and whole rock major element and trace element (Ba, Sr, Cr, Ni, V, Rb, Zr, Nb, and Y) compositions. Agglutinate are mixed, medium-K, calc-alkaline olv-cpx-opx basaltic andesite (55.2-56.2% SiO2). Results show that the magma feeding system comprised a shallow felsic chamber injected by mafic magma from depth. The felsic magma (59-62% SiO2, 950-990 °C), which was stored at a shallower depth, had orthopyroxene (Mg# = 60-69), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 65-71), and low-An plagioclase (Anca. 58-70). The mafic magma is further divisible into two types: less-differentiated and more-differentiated, designed respectively as an initial mafic magma-1 and a second mafic magma-2. The original mafic magma-1 was olivine (Fo 84) basalt (ca. 48-51% SiO2, 1110-1140 °C). The second mafic magma-2, stored occasionally at 4-6 km depth, was basalt (1070-1110 °C) having Foca. 80 olivine and high-An (Anca. 90) plagioclase phenocrysts. These two magmas mixed (first mixing) to form hybrid mafic magma. The forced injections of the hybrid mafic magmas activated the felsic magma, and these two were mixed (second mixing) shortly before eruptions. The explosivity is inferred to have increased over time because the abundance of large scoria increased. Furthermore, the erupted magma composition became more mafic, which reflects increased percentage of the hybrid mafic magma involved in the second mixing. At the beginning of activity, the mafic magma also acted as a heat

  5. Effect of Feeding Intensity and Milking System on Nutritionally Relevant Milk Components in Dairy Farming Systems in the North East of England

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stergiadis, Sokratis; Leifert, Carlo; Seal, Chris J.;

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing concern that the intensification of dairy production reduces the concentrations of nutritionally desirable compounds in milk. This study therefore compared important quality parameters (protein and fatty acid profiles; α- tocopherol and carotenoid concentrations) in milk from...... four dairy systems with contrasting production intensities (in terms of feeding regimens and milking systems). The concentrations of several nutritionally desirable compounds (β-lactoglobulin, omega-3 fatty acids, omega-3/omega-6 ratio, conjugated linoleic acid c9t11, and/or carotenoids) decreased...... mainly linked to contrasting feeding regimens and that milking system and breed choice also contributed to differences in milk composition between production systems....

  6. Demonstration of a Piston Plug feed System for Feeding Coal/Biomass Mixtures across a Pressure Gradient for Application to a Commercial CBTL System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosh Gangwal

    2011-06-30

    Producing liquid transportation fuels and power via coal and biomass to liquids (CBTL) and integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) processes can significantly improve the nation's energy security. The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandates increasing renewable fuels nearly 10-fold to >2.3 million barrels per day by 2022. Coal is abundantly available and coal to liquids (CTL) plants can be deployed today, but they will not become sustainable without large scale CO{sub 2} capture and storage. Co-processing of coal and biomass in CBTL processes in a 60 to 40 ratio is an attractive option that has the potential to produce 4 million barrels of transportation fuels per day by 2020 at the same level of CO{sub 2} emission as petroleum. In this work, Southern Research Institute (Southern) has made an attempt to address one of the major barriers to the development of large scale CBTL processes - cost effective/reliable dry-feeding of coal-biomass mixtures into a high pressure vessel representative of commercial entrained-flow gasifiers. Present method for dry coal feeding involves the use of pressurized lock-hopper arrangements that are not only very expensive with large space requirements but also have not been proven for reliably feeding coal-biomass mixtures without the potential problems of segregation and bridging. The project involved the development of a pilot-scale 250 lb/h high pressure dry coal-biomass mixture feeder provided by TKEnergi and proven for feeding biomass at a scale up to 6 ton/day. The aim of this project is to demonstrate cost effective feeding of coal-biomass mixtures (50:50 to 70:30) made from a variety of coals (bituminous, lignite) and biomass (wood, corn stover, switch grass). The feeder uses a hydraulic piston-based approach to produce a series of plugs of the mixture that act as a seal against high back-pressure of the gasification vessel in to which the mixture is being fed. The plugs are then fed one by one via a

  7. Comparison of synthetic membranes in the development of an in vitro feeding system for Dermanyssus gallinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, D W J; Guy, J H; Robinson, K; Sparagano, O A E

    2010-04-01

    Although artificial feeding models for the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) most frequently use biological membranes consisting of day-old chick skin, there are ethical considerations associated with the use of skin. The few studies reported in the literature that have investigated the use of synthetic membranes to feed D. gallinae in vitro have reported limited success. The current study describes an investigation into the use of synthetic membranes made from either Nescofilm or rayon and silicone, used either alone or in combination with different feather or skin extracts, as well as the use of capillary tubes. In all, 12 different treatments were used, and the feeding rate of D. gallinae was compared to that of day-old chick skin. Allowing mites to feed on a membrane consisting of Nescofilm with a skin extract resulted in the highest proportion of mites feeding (32.3%), which was not significantly different to the feeding rate of mites on day-old chick skin (38.8%). This study confirms that synthetic membranes can be used to feed D. gallinae artificially. Further optimization of the membrane and mite storage conditions is still necessary, but the study demonstrates a proof of concept.

  8. Leak Detection in Offshore Pipelines of Conveying Fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊花; 崔莉

    2004-01-01

    Leakage from pipelines has caused serious environmental pollution and economic losses. Usually, leak detection can reduce the damage. The paper mainly discusses a hydraulic gradient-based leak detection method. The basic idea is outlined first, followed by a description of a laboratory experiment in a water pipeline. Several pressure curves are established based on different leak locations under the condition of a constant total flow rate. It is demonstrated that the leak of a large leak quantity can be detected reliably by the hydraulic gradient method.

  9. Fluid pipeline leak detection and location with miniature RF tags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    2017-05-16

    Sensors locate troublesome leaks in pipes or conduits that carry a flowing medium. These sensors, through tailored physical and geometric properties, preferentially seek conduit leaks or breaches due to flow streaming. The sensors can be queried via transceivers outside the conduit or located and interrogated inside by submersible unmanned vehicle to identify and characterize the nature of a leak. The sensors can be functionalized with other capabilities for additional leak and pipeline characterization if needed. Sensors can be recovered from a conduit flow stream and reused for future leak detection activities.

  10. Predicting Package Defects: Quantification of Critical Leak Size

    OpenAIRE

    Gibney IV, Matthew Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Threshold leak sizes and leak rates were calculated for a number of liquid food products exhibiting a wide range of surface tension and viscosity values. From this data, one can see that mathematically, under typical pressure differentials generated in food packages (less than or equal to ±34.5 kPa), a leak will never start through a 2 μm defect. The calculated leak rates were compared to calculated evaporation rates. The evaporation rate exceeds the leak rate at lower sized microholes (...

  11. Active acoustic leak detection for LMFBR steam generators. Pt. 6. Applicability to practical steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Kazuo; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Kinoshita, Izumi [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Komae, Tokyo (Japan). Komae Research Lab.

    1998-03-01

    It is necessary to develop a reliable water leak detection system for steam generators of liquid metal reactors in order to prevent the expansion of damage and to maintain the structural integrity of the steam generators. The concept of the active acoustic method is to detect the change of the ultrasonic field due to the hydrogen gas bubbles generated by a sodium-water reaction. This method has the potential for improved detection performance compared with conventional passive methods, from the viewpoint of sensitivity, response time and tolerance against the background noise. A feasibility study of the active acoustic leak detection system is being carried out. This report predicts the performance of the active acoustic method in the practical steam generators from the results of the large scale in-water experiments. The results shows that the active acoustic system can detect a 10 g/s leak within a few seconds in large-scale steam generators. (author)

  12. Mating system, feeding type and ex situ conservation effort determine life expectancy in captive ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dennis W H; Lackey, Laurie Bingaman; Streich, W Jürgen; Fickel, Jörns; Hatt, Jean-Michel; Clauss, Marcus

    2011-07-07

    Zoo animal husbandry aims at constantly improving husbandry, reproductive success and ultimately animal welfare. Nevertheless, analyses to determine factors influencing husbandry of different species are rare. The relative life expectancy (rLE; life expectancy (LE) as proportion of longevity) describes husbandry success of captive populations. Correlating rLE with biological characteristics of different species, reasons for variation in rLE can be detected. We analysed data of 166 901 animals representing 78 ruminant species kept in 850 facilities. The rLE of females correlated with the percentage of grass in a species' natural diet, suggesting that needs of species adapted to grass can be more easily accommodated than the needs of those adapted to browse. Males of monogamous species demonstrate higher rLE than polygamous males, which matches observed differences of sexual bias in LE in free-living populations and thus supports the ecological theory that the mating system influences LE. The third interesting finding was that rLE was higher in species managed by international studbooks when compared with species not managed in this way. Our method facilitates the identification of biological characteristics of species that are relevant for their husbandry success, and they also support ecological theory. Translating these findings into feeding recommendations, our approach can help to improve animal husbandry.

  13. Nonbronchial systemic feeding arteries in patients with hemoptysis : predictive factors at radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, Nam Chull; Park, Kyung Joo; Chung, Kyung Il; Won, Je Hwan; Suh, Jung Ho [Ajou Univ. School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-09-01

    To determine the radiographic findings which predict the presence of nonbronchial systemic feeding arteries (NBFAs) in patients undergoing embolotherapy to control hemoptysis. In 48 patients (39 men and 9 women ; mean age, 51 years) who underwent embolotherapeutic procedures for controlling hemoptysis, selective angiography was performed at the intercostal, subclavian and bronchial arteries in 65 hemithoraces (right 11, left 20, bilateral 17). Underlying diseases were tuberculosis (n=34, including three patients with aspergilloma), bronchiectasis )n=11), paragonimiasis (n=2) and metastatic cancer (n=1). The presence of NBFA at angiography was correlated with radiographic findings including pleural thickening, parenchymal distortion, and the location of lung lesions. NBFAs were found in 34 (77%) of 44 hemithoraces with pleural thickening, and in six (29%) of 21 without pleural thickening ; the sensitivity and specificity of prediction were 85% and 60%, respectively. NBFAs were observed with greater frequency as the thickness of the pleura increased, and the extent of pleural thickening correlated less with the presence of NBFA than did thickness. NBFAs were found in 35 (78%) of 45 hemithoraces with parenchymal distortion, and in five (25%) of 20 without distortion (p<0.001). In addition, the distribution of the underlying disease in the upper lung zone showed close correlation with the presence of NBFAs (p<0.05). In patients with hemoptysis, the pleural thickening revealed by radiography has a high sensitivity and a relatively low specificity for predicting the presence of NBFA, and patients with parenchymal distortion and upper lung lesions have a high incidence of NBFA.

  14. DC Link Current Estimation in Wind-Double Feed Induction Generator Power Conditioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIAN GAICEANU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the implementation of the DC link current estimator in power conditioning system of the variable speed wind turbine is shown. The wind turbine is connected to double feed induction generator (DFIG. The variable electrical energy parameters delivered by DFIG are fitted with the electrical grid parameters through back-to-back power converter. The bidirectional AC-AC power converter covers a wide speed range from subsynchronous to supersynchronous speeds. The modern control of back-to-back power converter involves power balance concept, therefore its load power should be known in any instant. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation at the load changes can be reduced. In this paper the load power is estimated from the dc link, indirectly, through a second order DC link current estimator. The load current estimator is based on the DC link voltage and on the dc link input current of the rotor side converter. This method presents certain advantages instead of using measured method, which requires a low pass filter: no time delay, the feedforward current component has no ripple, no additional hardware, and more fast control response. Through the numerical simulation the performances of the proposed DC link output current estimator scheme are demonstrated.

  15. Scintigraphy for Pulmonary Capillary Protein Leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    adrministration (16). The method is noninvasive and has been used clinically to determine the severity and duration of non- cardiogenic pulmonary edema ...If the leak exceeds the 1.iiiphatic capacity, which can increase flow by a factor of 20, pulmcnary interstitial edema occurs. T•hen the interstitial...of shoee is the accepted !::odel for the scudv of pulmonary permehbility - edema (18). It is, therefore, necessary to comnpare our scintigraphic

  16. Natural gas pipeline leaks across Washington, DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Down, Adrian; Phillips, Nathan G; Ackley, Robert C; Cook, Charles W; Plata, Desiree L; Zhao, Kaiguang

    2014-01-01

    Pipeline safety in the United States has increased in recent decades, but incidents involving natural gas pipelines still cause an average of 17 fatalities and $133 M in property damage annually. Natural gas leaks are also the largest anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH4) in the U.S. To reduce pipeline leakage and increase consumer safety, we deployed a Picarro G2301 Cavity Ring-Down Spectrometer in a car, mapping 5893 natural gas leaks (2.5 to 88.6 ppm CH4) across 1500 road miles of Washington, DC. The δ(13)C-isotopic signatures of the methane (-38.2‰ ± 3.9‰ s.d.) and ethane (-36.5 ± 1.1 s.d.) and the CH4:C2H6 ratios (25.5 ± 8.9 s.d.) closely matched the pipeline gas (-39.0‰ and -36.2‰ for methane and ethane; 19.0 for CH4/C2H6). Emissions from four street leaks ranged from 9200 to 38,200 L CH4 day(-1) each, comparable to natural gas used by 1.7 to 7.0 homes, respectively. At 19 tested locations, 12 potentially explosive (Grade 1) methane concentrations of 50,000 to 500,000 ppm were detected in manholes. Financial incentives and targeted programs among companies, public utility commissions, and scientists to reduce leaks and replace old cast-iron pipes will improve consumer safety and air quality, save money, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Advanced nutrient root feeding system for conveyer-type cylindrical plant growth facilities developed for microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Smolyanina, Svetlana O.; Krivobok, Anna; Krivobok, Nikolay

    A new brand of cylindrical conveyer-type space plant growth facilities (PGF) has been created to improve of cosmonauts’ diet in the microgravity conditions. Up to date several ground prototypes of the space PGF have been made and tested: “Phytocycle”, “Vitacycle”, “Phytocycle-LED”, “Phytoconveyer”; now the space PGF “Vitacycle-T” for the Russian segment of the ISS is under developing. In the PGFs the ion-exchange salt-saturated fibrous artificial soil (AS) is used as a root medium. We have proposed the system for enrichment of irrigation water by nutrients to decrease of the AS store required for PGF working during the long space mission. The system includes root modules filled in fibrous ion-exchange AS, the enrichment column with crumble salt-saturation ion-exchange resin and the cassette with slow releasing fertilizer (SRF). Both substrates (ion-exchange resin and SRF) are necessary because of the SRF contains mostly N, P and K but another three essential elements S, Ca, Mg are provided by the ion-exchange resin. In the system water goes throw the enrichment column with ion-exchange resin fertilizing by the nutrients and comes into the mixer cell fertilize equipped with the electrical conductivity sensor. When the signal of the conductivity sensor is coming to the controller it turns on the pump directed the water flow throw the cassette with SRF until the electric conductivity of the solution in the mixer cell will reach the setpoint. The nutrient root feeding system was tested during 88 days when Chinese cabbage grew in PGF “Phytocycle-LED”. The crop has been continuously illuminated by red and blue LEDs in the PPF ratio 7 to 1; an integral PPF level has been (240 ± 10) µmol/(m2×s). There was no renewal of the used fibrous AS during the experiment. The PGF total electric power consumption was of 0,45 kW. The average fresh biomass productivity of the PGF during steady state working mode was equal 135×g/day per m2 of the illuminated

  18. Flight feeding systems design and evaluation. Supplement 1: Production guides. [for the Apollo food system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    The requirements for processing, packaging, testing, and shipment of foods selected for use in the Apollo food system are presented. Specific foodstuffs chosen from the following categories are discussed: (1) soups; (2) juices; (3) breads; (4) meat and poultry products; (5) fruits and nuts; (6) desserts; and (7) beverages. Food procurement for the mobile quarantine facility and for Apollo preflight and postflight activities is also discussed.

  19. Epidural block and neostigmine cause anastomosis leak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataro G

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Getu Ataro Department of Anesthesia, Jimma University, Jimma, EthiopiaI read the article by Phillips entitled, “Reducing gastrointestinal anastomotic leak rates: review of challenges and solutions”, published in the journal of Open Access Surgery with enthusiasm and found it crucial for perioperative management of patients with gastrointestinal (GI surgery, particularly anastomosis. I appreciate the author’s exhaustive search of literature and discussion with some limitation on review basics like methodology, which may affect the reliability of the review findings. The effects of risk factors for anastomosis leak, such as malnutrition, smoking, steroid use, bowel preparation, chemotherapy, duration of surgery, use of pressors, intravenous fluid administration, blood transfusion, and surgical anastomotic technique, were well discussed.1 However, from anesthesia perspective, there are some other well-studied risk factors that can affect healing of anastomosis wound and cause anastomosis leak. Among others, the effect of neostigmine and epidural block has been reported in many studies since half a century ago. View the original paper by Phillips

  20. Color Changing Material for Hydrogen Leak Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Megan E.

    2014-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center scientists developed a hydrogen leak sensor utilizing a combination of chemochromic pigment and polymer that can be molded or fiber spun into rigid or flexible shapes such as tape. The sensor turns a dark color when exposed to hydrogen gas. This sensor has proven to be very effective for pinpointing the exact location of leaks in hydrogen gas lines and fittings at launch pads. Kennedy Space Center exclusively licensed this technology to the University of Central Florida (UCF), who also holds patents that are complimentary to KSC's. UCF has bundled the patents and exclusively licensed the portfolio to HySense Technology LLC, a startup company founded by a UCF professor who supports the UCF Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC). HySense has fully developed its product (known as Intellipigment"TM"), and currently has five commercial customers. The company recently won the $100,000 first-place award at the CAT5 innovation competition at the Innovation Concourse of the Southeast: Safety & Manufacturing event in Orlando, FL. Commercial production and sales of this technology by HySense Technology will make this leak sensor widely available for use by NASA, DoD, and industries that utilize hydrogen gas.

  1. Feeding by emerald ash borer larvae induces systemic changes in black ash foliar chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yigen; Whitehill, Justin G A; Bonello, Pierluigi; Poland, Therese M

    2011-11-01

    The exotic wood-boring pest, emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), has been threatening North American ash (Fraxinus spp.) resources, this being recognized since its first detection in Michigan, USA and Ontario, Canada in 2002. Ash trees are killed by larval feeding in the cambial region, which results in disruption of photosynthate and nutrient translocation. In this study, changes in volatile and non-volatile foliar phytochemicals of potted 2-yr-old black ash, Fraxinus nigra Marshall, seedlings were observed in response to EAB larval feeding in the main stem. EAB larval feeding affected levels of six compounds [hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-β-ocimene, methyl salicylate, and (Z,E)-α-farnesene] with patterns of interaction depending upon compounds of interest and time of observation. Increased methyl salicylate emission suggests similarity in responses induced by EAB larval feeding and other phloem-feeding herbivores. Overall, EAB larval feeding suppressed (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate emission, elevated (E)-β-ocimene emission in the first 30days, but emissions leveled off thereafter, and generally increased the emission of (Z,E)-α-farnesene. Levels of carbohydrates and phenolics increased overall, while levels of proteins and most amino acids decreased in response to larval feeding. Twenty-three amino acids were consistently detected in the foliage of black ash. The three most abundant amino acids were aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glutamine, while the four least abundant were α-aminobutyric acid, β-aminoisobutyric acid, methionine, and sarcosine. Most (16) foliar free amino acids and 6 of the 9 detected essential amino acids decreased with EAB larval feeding. The ecological consequences of these dynamic phytochemical changes on herbivores harbored by ash trees and potential natural enemies of these herbivores are discussed.

  2. Preliminary Feed Test Algorithm for the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant product composition control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, M.F.; Piepel, G.F.

    1996-03-01

    The Feed Test Algorithm (FTA) will test the acceptability (conformance with requirements) of process batches in the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Although requirements and constraints will be imposed on properties of the material in the melter and the resulting glass, the FTA must test acceptability while the batch is still in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME), i.e., before material is transferred to the Melter Feed Tank. Hence, some properties upon which requirements will be imposed must be estimated from data available on the feed slurry. The major type of data to be used in this estimation is feed composition, usually expressed in terms of nine oxide mass fractions and a catchall tenth category, Others. Uncertainties are inherent in the HWVP process. The two major or types of uncertainty are composition uncertainty (that related to measurement and estimation of feed composition and other quantities) and model uncertainty (uncertainty inherent in the models developed to relate melt/glass properties to feed composition). Types of uncertainties, representation of uncertainty, and a method for combining uncertainties are discussed. The FTA must account for these uncertainties in testing acceptability; hence it must be statistical in nature. Three types of statistical intervals (confidence, prediction, and tolerance) are defined, and their roles in acceptance testing are discussed.

  3. A description of local pig feeding systems in village smallholder farms of Western Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutua, Florence Kanini; Dewey, Catherine; Arimi, Samuel; Ogara, Wiliam; Levy, Mike; Schelling, Esther

    2012-08-01

    We used face-to-face interviews to gather data on pig feeding practices in rural Busia District, Kenya. We visited 164 pig farms three times in the course of the study period. The pigs were weighed in kilograms during the visits. Feeds offered to pigs were described during the interviews. The most frequently fed feedstuffs were; ground maize or "ugali" (88%), kitchen leftovers (83%) and dried fish locally called "omena" (78%). Farmers provided pigs with water separately from the feeds. Sweet potatoes, "ugali" and cassava were available and could serve as good sources of energy for pigs in the district. Fruits and vegetables were also available and could potentially act as good sources of vitamins. Sweet potato vines, "omena" fish and slaughter blood were available and could provide pigs with proteins. The average daily gain (ADG) for pigs ≤ 5 months of age, pigs of 5.1-9.9 months of age and pigs of ≥ 10 months old was 94.5 (± 43), 127 (± 49.8) and 99 (± 92) g, respectively (p = 0.000). This study has outlined the different local pig feeds available in Busia district. We recommend two things: first, additional research on nutrient composition for the identified local feeds, and second, developing and validating simple local feed combinations that would achieve balanced local pig rations.

  4. Assessment of the effects of fish meal, wheat gluten, soy protein concentrate and feed moisture on extruder system parameters and the technical quality of fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of feed ingredient functionality plays a vital role in modern fish feed manufacturing practice. The aim of this study was to examine the extrusion behaviour of blends containing alternative protein sources from plant origin to fish meal (FM), such as wheat gluten (WG) and soy protein

  5. Mobile Monitoring of Methane During and After the Aliso Canyon Natural Gas Leak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidori, A.; Pikelnaya, O.; Low, J.; Wimmer, R.; Zhou, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The Aliso Canyon gas leak was discovered inside the SoCalGas (SCG) facility on October 23, 2015. This incident represented the worst natural gas leak in the US history, and spurred a number of odor nuisance complaints from local residents. The community of Porter Ranch, located directly south of the SCG Aliso Canyon facility, was the most affected by the leak although complaints have been also reported in other neighboring communities of the San Fernando Valley. Therefore, monitoring of air quality was and remains crucial for measuring the impact of methane emissions from this leak and assessing the well-being of all residents. As the main local air quality agency for this area, South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) organized a set of monitoring activities in response to the leak. Since December 21, 2015 SCAQMD has been conducting mobile survey measurements in and around Porter Ranch to characterize methane levels and concentration gradients within the community. For this purpose, a fast-response optical methane analyzer (LI-COR 7700) and a Global Positioning System (GPS) were mounted on top of a hybrid vehicle and driven around Porter Ranch and other surrounding areas. Following the permanent seal of the leaking well on February 18, 2016 mobile measurements have also been expanded to inside the Aliso Canyon SCG facility. During this presentation we will describe the experimental setup designed for mobile methane surveys and the monitoring strategy used for this study. We will discuss the main results of our mobile measurements including long-term methane trends since the end of the leak.

  6. Leak Rate Quantification Method for Gas Pressure Seals with Controlled Pressure Differential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Christopher C.; Braun, Minel J.; Oravec, Heather A.; Mather, Janice L.; Taylor, Shawn C.

    2015-01-01

    An enhancement to the pressure decay leak rate method with mass point analysis solved deficiencies in the standard method. By adding a control system, a constant gas pressure differential across the test article was maintained. As a result, the desired pressure condition was met at the onset of the test, and the mass leak rate and measurement uncertainty were computed in real-time. The data acquisition and control system were programmed to automatically stop when specified criteria were met. Typically, the test was stopped when a specified level of measurement uncertainty was attained. Using silicone O-ring test articles, the new method was compared with the standard method that permitted the downstream pressure to be non-constant atmospheric pressure. The two methods recorded comparable leak rates, but the new method recorded leak rates with significantly lower measurement uncertainty, statistical variance, and test duration. Utilizing this new method in leak rate quantification, projects will reduce cost and schedule, improve test results, and ease interpretation between data sets.

  7. Double strand RNA delivery system for plant-sap-feeding insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B; Hunter, Wayne B; Park, Alexis L; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E

    2017-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), has been a breakthrough technology for functional genomic studies and represents a potential tool for the management of insect pests. Since the inception of RNAi numerous studies documented successful introduction of exogenously synthesized dsRNA or siRNA into an organism triggering highly efficient gene silencing through the degradation of endogenous RNA homologous to the presented siRNA. Managing hemipteran insect pests, especially Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is critical to food productivity. BMSB was recently introduced into North America where it is both an invasive agricultural pest of high value specialty, row, and staple crops, as well as an indoor nuisance pest. RNAi technology may serve as a viable tool to manage this voracious pest, but delivery of dsRNA to piercing-sucking insects has posed a tremendous challenge. Effective and practical use of RNAi as molecular biopesticides for biocontrol of insects like BMSB in the environment requires that dsRNAs be delivered in vivo through ingestion. Therefore, the key challenge for molecular biologists in developing insect-specific molecular biopesticides is to find effective and reliable methods for practical delivery of stable dsRNAs such as through oral ingestion. Here demonstrated is a reliable delivery system of effective insect-specific dsRNAs through oral feeding through a new delivery system to induce a significant decrease in expression of targeted genes such as JHAMT and Vg. This state-of-the-art delivery method overcomes environmental delivery challenges so that RNAi is induced through insect-specific dsRNAs orally delivered to hemipteran and other insect pests.

  8. Introducing infant and young child feeding indicators into national nutrition surveillance systems: lessons from Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Tran, Do Thanh; de Onis, Mercedes

    2013-09-01

    A comprehensive set of infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators for international use was published in 2008. We describe the process followed to incorporate these indicators into Vietnam's National Nutrition Surveillance System (NNSS). Following its establishment in 1980, the National Institute of Nutrition introduced the Vietnam NNSS to provide an evidence base for nutrition interventions. While anthropometric indicators based on international standards were regularly used for programme purposes, data on IYCF could not be collected with similar rigor until 2010. In 2009, with support from Alive & Thrive and UNICEF, the NNSS questionnaire was reviewed and additional content incorporated to measure IYCF practices. The tool was pilot-tested in 10 provinces and revised before nationwide roll-out in 2010.The tool comprises four pages, the first three of which focus on collecting data relating to maternal nutrition and IYCF. The last page is flexibly designed to incorporate planners' data requests for other relevant activities (e.g. mass media interventions, food security). Once analysed, the data are presented in a report comprising provincial profiles and maps illustrating IYCF practices. Importantly, the IYCF data have been used for policy advocacy (e.g. maternity leave legislation, advertisement law), programme planning, trend monitoring and capacity building. Adoption of the IYCF indicators was successful due to strategic timing, a phased approach, buy-in from stakeholders and capacity building at all levels to ensure the quality and use of data. Further revisions to the NNSS (e.g. sampling methodology, quality assurance systems) will be important to ensure the reliability of indicators.

  9. Double strand RNA delivery system for plant-sap-feeding insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Saikat Kumar B.; Hunter, Wayne B.; Park, Alexis L.; Gundersen-Rindal, Dawn E.

    2017-01-01

    Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-mediated gene silencing, also known as RNA interference (RNAi), has been a breakthrough technology for functional genomic studies and represents a potential tool for the management of insect pests. Since the inception of RNAi numerous studies documented successful introduction of exogenously synthesized dsRNA or siRNA into an organism triggering highly efficient gene silencing through the degradation of endogenous RNA homologous to the presented siRNA. Managing hemipteran insect pests, especially Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae), the brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), is critical to food productivity. BMSB was recently introduced into North America where it is both an invasive agricultural pest of high value specialty, row, and staple crops, as well as an indoor nuisance pest. RNAi technology may serve as a viable tool to manage this voracious pest, but delivery of dsRNA to piercing-sucking insects has posed a tremendous challenge. Effective and practical use of RNAi as molecular biopesticides for biocontrol of insects like BMSB in the environment requires that dsRNAs be delivered in vivo through ingestion. Therefore, the key challenge for molecular biologists in developing insect-specific molecular biopesticides is to find effective and reliable methods for practical delivery of stable dsRNAs such as through oral ingestion. Here demonstrated is a reliable delivery system of effective insect-specific dsRNAs through oral feeding through a new delivery system to induce a significant decrease in expression of targeted genes such as JHAMT and Vg. This state-of-the-art delivery method overcomes environmental delivery challenges so that RNAi is induced through insect-specific dsRNAs orally delivered to hemipteran and other insect pests. PMID:28182760

  10. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components.

  11. Culturable bacterial diversity from a feed water of a reverse osmosis system, evaluation of biofilm formation and biocontrol using phages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belgini, D R B; Dias, R S; Siqueira, V M; Valadares, L A B; Albanese, J M; Souza, R S; Torres, A P R; Sousa, M P; Silva, C C; De Paula, S O; Oliveira, V M

    2014-10-01

    Biofilm formation on reverse osmosis (RO) systems represents a drawback in the application of this technology by different industries, including oil refineries. In RO systems the feed water maybe a source of microbial contamination and thus contributes for the formation of biofilm and consequent biofouling. In this study the planktonic culturable bacterial community was characterized from a feed water of a RO system and their capacities were evaluated to form biofilm in vitro. Bacterial motility and biofilm control were also analysed using phages. As results, diverse Protobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were identified. Alphaproteobacteria was the predominant group and Brevundimonas, Pseudomonas and Mycobacterium the most abundant genera. Among the 30 isolates, 11 showed at least one type of motility and 11 were classified as good biofilm formers. Additionally, the influence of non-specific bacteriophage in the bacterial biofilms formed in vitro was investigated by action of phages enzymes or phage infection. The vB_AspP-UFV1 (Podoviridae) interfered in biofilm formation of most tested bacteria and may represent a good alternative in biofilm control. These findings provide important information about the bacterial community from the feed water of a RO system that may be used for the development of strategies for biofilm prevention and control in such systems.

  12. The Other Inconvenient Truth: Feeding 9 Billion While Sustaining the Earth System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    As the international community focuses on climate change as the great challenge of our era, we have been largely ignoring another looming problem — the global crisis in agriculture, food security and the environment. Our use of land, particularly for agriculture, is absolutely essential to the success of the human race: we depend on agriculture to supply us with food, feed, fiber, and, increasingly, biofuels. Without a highly efficient, productive, and resilient agricultural system, our society would collapse almost overnight. But we are demanding more and more from our global agricultural systems, pushing them to their very limits. Continued population growth (adding more than 70 million people to the world every year), changing dietary preferences (including more meat and dairy consumption), rising energy prices, and increasing needs for bioenergy sources are putting tremendous pressure on the world’s resources. And, if we want any hope of keeping up with these demands, we’ll need to double the agricultural production of the planet in the next 30 to 40 years. Meeting these huge new agricultural demands will be one of the greatest challenges of the 21st century. At present, it is completely unclear how (and if) we can do it. If this wasn’t enough, we must also address the massive environmental impacts of our current agricultural practices, which new evidence indicates rival the impacts of climate change. Simply put, providing for the basic needs of 9 billion-plus people, without ruining the biosphere in the process, will be one of the greatest challenges our species has ever faced. In this presentation, I will present a new framework for evaluating and assessing global patterns of agriculture, food / fiber / fuel production, and their relationship to the earth system, particularly in terms of changing stocks and flows of water, nutrients and carbon in our planetary environment. This framework aims to help us manage the challenges of increasing global food

  13. The role of the endocrine system in feeding-induced tissue-specific circadian entrainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Miho; Murakami, Mariko; Node, Koichi; Matsumura, Ritsuko; Akashi, Makoto

    2014-07-24

    The circadian clock is entrained to environmental cycles by external cue-mediated phase adjustment. Although the light input pathway has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced phase resetting remains unclear. The tissue-specific sensitivity of peripheral entrainment to feeding suggests the involvement of multiple pathways, including humoral and neuronal signals. Previous in vitro studies with cultured cells indicate that endocrine factors may function as entrainment cues for peripheral clocks. However, blood-borne factors that are well characterized in actual feeding-induced resetting have yet to be identified. Here, we report that insulin may be involved in feeding-induced tissue-type-dependent entrainment in vivo. In ex vivo culture experiments, insulin-induced phase shift in peripheral clocks was dependent on tissue type, which was consistent with tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, and peripheral entrainment in insulin-sensitive tissues involved PI3K- and MAPK-mediated signaling pathways. These results suggest that insulin may be an immediate early factor in feeding-mediated tissue-specific entrainment.

  14. The Role of the Endocrine System in Feeding-Induced Tissue-Specific Circadian Entrainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miho Sato

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The circadian clock is entrained to environmental cycles by external cue-mediated phase adjustment. Although the light input pathway has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced phase resetting remains unclear. The tissue-specific sensitivity of peripheral entrainment to feeding suggests the involvement of multiple pathways, including humoral and neuronal signals. Previous in vitro studies with cultured cells indicate that endocrine factors may function as entrainment cues for peripheral clocks. However, blood-borne factors that are well characterized in actual feeding-induced resetting have yet to be identified. Here, we report that insulin may be involved in feeding-induced tissue-type-dependent entrainment in vivo. In ex vivo culture experiments, insulin-induced phase shift in peripheral clocks was dependent on tissue type, which was consistent with tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, and peripheral entrainment in insulin-sensitive tissues involved PI3K- and MAPK-mediated signaling pathways. These results suggest that insulin may be an immediate early factor in feeding-mediated tissue-specific entrainment.

  15. The role of breast-feeding in infant immune system: a systems perspective on the intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praveen, Paurush; Jordan, Ferenc; Priami, Corrado; Morine, Melissa J

    2015-09-24

    The human intestinal microbiota changes from being sparsely populated and variable to possessing a mature, adult-like stable microbiome during the first 2 years of life. This assembly process of the microbiota can lead to either negative or positive effects on health, depending on the colonization sequence and diet. An integrative study on the diet, the microbiota, and genomic activity at the transcriptomic level may give an insight into the role of diet in shaping the human/microbiome relationship. This study aims at better understanding the effects of microbial community and feeding mode (breast-fed and formula-fed) on the immune system, by comparing intestinal metagenomic and transcriptomic data from breast-fed and formula-fed babies. We re-analyzed a published metagenomics and host gene expression dataset from a systems biology perspective. Our results show that breast-fed samples co-express genes associated with immunological, metabolic, and biosynthetic activities. The diversity of the microbiota is higher in formula-fed than breast-fed infants, potentially reflecting the weaker dependence of infants on maternal microbiome. We mapped the microbial composition and the expression patterns for host systems and studied their relationship from a systems biology perspective, focusing on the differences. Our findings revealed that there is co-expression of more genes in breast-fed samples but lower microbial diversity compared to formula-fed. Applying network-based systems biology approach via enrichment of microbial species with host genes revealed the novel key relationships of the microbiota with immune and metabolic activity. This was supported statistically by data and literature.

  16. The experiment and analysis on small leak phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kyung Chai; Hwang, S. T.; Kim, B. H.; Jeong, J. Y

    2000-07-01

    The liquid sodium which is used as a coolant in LMFBR, may give rise to a serious trouble in the safety aspect of steam generator. The defects in a heat transfer tube, such as pin-hole or tube welding defect, will result in a leakage of high pressure steam into the sodium side and production of hydrogen gas and corrosive sodium compounds which can cause significant damage to the tube wall of steam generator by using exothermic reaction. In significant damage to the tube wall of steam generator by using exothermic reaction. In this case, initial leak size will be enlarged with time and the leak rate developed to large leak through the micro, small, intermediate leaks. Therefore, the analysis of sodium-water reaction phenomena on the micro and small water leaks in the heat transfer tube is very important in the initial leak stage in the aspects of the protection of leak progress and safety evaluation of steam generator. In this study, firstly, the micro and small leaks phenomena, such as reopen size, shape, and time of leak path, self-wastage, corrosion of tube materials, was analyzed from the literature survey and water leakage experiments using the leak specimen. In small water leak experiments, the leak path was plugged by the sodium-water reaction products at the leak path of a specimen, and re-open phenomena were not observed in initial experiments. Other leak experiments, reopen phenomena of self-plugged leak path was observed. Re-open mechanism of sealed path could be explained by the thermal transient and vibration of heat transfer tube. As a result, perfect reopen time of self plugged leak path was observed to be about 130 minutes after water leak initiation. Reopen shape of a specimen was appeared with double layer of circular type, and reopen size of this specimen surface was about 2 mm diameter on sodium side. Also, the corrosion of a specimen initiated from sodium side, the segregation phenomena of Cr in the specimen was found much more than those of

  17. Morphology and physiology of the olfactory system of blood-feeding insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidobaldi, F; May-Concha, I J; Guerenstein, P G

    2014-01-01

    Several blood-feeding (hematophagous) insects are vectors of a number of diseases including dengue, Chagas disease and leishmaniasis which persistently affect public health throughout Latin America. The vectors of those diseases include mosquitoes, triatomine bugs and sandflies. As vector control is an efficient way to prevent these illnesses it is important to understand the sensory biology of those harmful insects. We study the physiology of the olfactory system of those insects and apply that knowledge on the development of methods to manipulate their behavior. Here we review some of the latest information on insect olfaction with emphasis on hematophagous insects. The insect olfactory sensory neurons are housed inside hair-like organs called sensilla which are mainly distributed on the antenna and mouthparts. The identity of many of the odor compounds that those neurons detect are already known in hematophagous insects. They include several constituents of host (vertebrate) odor, sex, aggregation and alarm pheromones, and compounds related to egg-deposition behavior. Recent work has contributed significant knowledge on how odor information is processed in the insect first odor-processing center in the brain, the antennal lobe. The quality, quantity, and temporal features of the odor stimuli are encoded by the neural networks of the antennal lobe. Information regarding odor mixtures is also encoded. While natural mixtures evoke strong responses, synthetic mixtures that deviate from their natural counterparts in terms of key constituents or proportions of those constituents evoke weaker responses. The processing of olfactory information is largely unexplored in hematophagous insects. However, many aspects of their olfactory behavior are known. As in other insects, responses to relevant single odor compounds are weak while natural mixtures evoke strong responses. Future challenges include studying how information about odor mixtures is processed in their brain

  18. Influence of chemistry on steam generator primary-to-secondary stabilized low leak flow rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hervouet, C.; Pages, D. [EDF R and D (France); Fauchon, C.; Bretelle, J.L. [EDF GDL (France); Bus, F. [EDF DPN (France)

    2002-07-01

    The comparison of the leak flow rate behavior between the previous and the new boron/lithium coordination, the second one corresponding to an higher pH during the cycle than the first one, leads to the following conclusions, confirmed by the experimental and theoretical studies: Low leak flow rate is extremely sensitive to pH in the zone of pH of primary water because the behavior of metallic oxide is changing drastically in that range of pH (from precipitation to dissolution); Leak flow rate is often maintained lower with low pH. Let's recall however that pH can not reach a too low value which could enhance corrosion product deposition, increase dose rates along the primary circuit, and lead to reactor outages due to problems on fuel assemblies. The understanding of the governing phenomena led to adapt in 2000 the reactor cooling system chemical conditioning for the French Pressurized Water reactors facing problems with the management of the stabilized leak flow rate fluctuations, once no degradation of tube bundle integrity is proved. Each part of the cycle and operating conditions lead to an advised operating action. In general, the new recommendations for the reactors facing problems with the management of low leak flow rate are based on the principle of helping the precipitation of metallic oxide within the crack and preventing their dissolution. (authors)

  19. Prioritizing Test Cases for Memory Leaks in Android Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju Qian; Di Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Mobile applications usually can only access limited amount of memory. Improper use of the memory can cause memory leaks, which may lead to performance slowdowns or even cause applications to be unexpectedly killed. Although a large body of research has been devoted into the memory leak diagnosing techniques after leaks have been discovered, it is still challenging to find out the memory leak phenomena at first. Testing is the most widely used technique for failure discovery. However, traditional testing techniques are not directed for the discovery of memory leaks. They may spend lots of time on testing unlikely leaking executions and therefore can be inefficient. To address the problem, we propose a novel approach to prioritize test cases according to their likelihood to cause memory leaks in a given test suite. It firstly builds a prediction model to determine whether each test can potentially lead to memory leaks based on machine learning on selected code features. Then, for each input test case, we partly run it to get its code features and predict its likelihood to cause leaks. The most suspicious test cases will be suggested to run at first in order to reveal memory leak faults as soon as possible. Experimental evaluation on several Android applications shows that our approach is effective.

  20. LEAK: A source term generator for evaluating release rates from leaking vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clinton, J.H.

    1994-09-01

    An interactive computer code for estimating the rate of release of any one of several materials from a leaking tank or broken pipe leading from a tank is presented. It is generally assumed that the material in the tank is liquid. Materials included in the data base are acetonitrile, ammonia, carbon tetrachloride, chlorine, chlorine trifluoride, fluorine, hydrogen fluoride, nitric acid, nitrogen tetroxide, sodium hydroxide, sulfur hexafluoride, sulfuric acid, and uranium hexafluoride. Materials that exist only as liquid and/or vapor over expected ranges of temperature and pressure can easily be added to the data base file. The Fortran source code for LEAK and the data file are included with this report.

  1. Dynamic parameters’ identification for the feeding system of computer numerical control machine tools stimulated by G-code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangsheng Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed a dynamic parameters’ identification method for the feeding system of computer numerical control machine tools based on internal sensor. A simplified control model and linear identification model of the feeding system were established, in which the input and output signals are from sensors embedded in computer numerical control machine tools, and the dynamic parameters of the feeding system, including the equivalent inertia, equivalent damping, worktable damping, and the overall stiffness of the mechanical system, were solved by the least square method. Using the high-order Taylor expansion, the nonlinear Stribeck friction model was linearized and the parameters of the Stribeck friction model were obtained by the same way. To verify the validity and effectiveness of the identification method, identification experiments, circular motion testing, and simulations were conducted. The results obtained were stable and suggested that inertia and damping identification experiments converged fast. Stiffness identification experiments showed some deviation from simulation due to the influences of geometric error and nonlinear of stiffness. However, the identification results were still of reference significance and the method is convenient, effective, and suited for industrial condition.

  2. Management factors affecting aggression in dynamic group housing systems with electronic sow feeding - a field trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, L S; Bertelsen, D; Jensen, K H

    1999-01-01

    , the frequency of introduction/removal of animals, space allowance in the lying area, group size and number of feeding stations, and starting times for the feeding cycle. All herds had one feeding cycle per 24 h. Six 24-h video recordings in the most settled period with respect to rank relationships (2 to 12...... it was increased in herd 2 (characterized by straw in lying area, low stocking density, low frequency of regrouping). Number of regroupings and space allowance apparently had no obvious effects on the average frequency of aggression or the aggression per sow at risk in periods between introduction of new animals......, but space allowance may have improved social function by weakening the association between activity and aggression. Due to the small number of herds included the present results were descriptive rather than conclusive. However, the study supports the suggestions that provision of unchopped straw as bedding...

  3. Toward improved postpartum cyclicity of primiparous dairy cows: Effects of genetic merit for production traits under contrasting feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedere, N; Delaby, L; Ducrocq, V; Leurent-Colette, S; Disenhaus, C

    2016-02-01

    Milk genetic merit is known to affect commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) in dairy cows. This effect is considered to be due to energy exported in milk production. The present study aimed to identify and quantify the effects of genetic characteristics [breed and estimated breeding value (EBV) for milk yield and fat and protein contents] and feeding system on C-LA of primiparous cows. From 2006 to 2013, an experiment was conducted on 97 primiparous dairy (Holstein) and 97 primiparous dual-purpose (Normande) cows. Within breed, cows were classified into 2 groups: cows with high EBV for milk yield were included in a "milk group" and those with high EBV for fat and protein contents were included in a "content group." Within breed, exported energy in milk and body weight (BW) loss were similar for both genetic groups. Two grazing-based strategies were used, a high feeding system (maize silage in winter and grazing plus concentrate) and a low feeding system (grass silage in winter and grazing with no concentrate). Interval from calving to C-LA was studied performing survival analyses. Milk progesterone profile, milk yield, and body condition were analyzed using χ(2)-test and analysis of covariance. Holstein cows produced more milk (+1,810 kg in the high feeding system and +1,120 kg in the low feeding system) and lost more BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (-1.4 kg/wk) than Normande cows, whereas Normande cows had earlier C-LA than Holstein cows. Within breed, cows in the content group had earlier C-LA (associated hazard ratio=2.0) than cows in the milk group. Body weight at calving and loss from wk 1 to 14 of lactation tended to be associated with later C-LA. Cows in the high feeding system produced more milk (+2,040 kg for the Holstein cows and +1,350 kg for Normande cows) and lost less BW from wk 1 to 14 of lactation (+3.8 kg/wk) than cows in the low feeding system. No effect of feeding system or milk yield was observed on C-LA. Prolonged luteal phases were frequent

  4. Regulated tailored suction vs regulated seal: a prospective randomized trial on air leak duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunelli, Alessandro; Salati, Michele; Pompili, Cecilia; Refai, Majed; Sabbatini, Armando

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the air leak duration of two regulated chest tube modes following pulmonary lobectomy. This is a prospective randomized trial on 100 consecutive pulmonary lobectomies (2010-11) performed for lung cancer. A single 24-French chest tube was connected to an electronic system capable of maintaining the pleural pressure within preset values (regulated suction mode) or within a physiological range (regulated seal mode). Patients were randomized to two groups: Group 1, regulated individualized suction (range: -11 to -20 cmH2O, according to lobectomy type); Group 2, regulated seal (-2 cmH2O). The main endpoint was the duration of air leak (h) calculated from the end of the operation to a value consistently below 20 ml/min. Patients with prolonged air leak (>168 h) were connected to a portable device before discharge. Their air leak duration was considered as 192 h. The sample size was calculated to detect 1-day difference in air leak duration with a statistical power of 80%. The two groups were well matched for several baseline and surgical characteristics. No crossovers occurred between groups. The average air leak duration (Group 1: 28 vs Group 2: 22.2, P = 0.6), and the number of patients with prolonged air leak (Group 1: 5 vs Group 2: 4, P = 0.7) and with other complications (Group 1: 6 patients vs Group 2: 7 patients, P = 0.9) were similar between the groups. Sixteen patients of Group 1 and 21 of Group 2 had an air leak present immediately after extubation. Among them, patients of Group 2 (regulated seal) had an air leak lasting 34.5 h less than those of Group 1 (regulated suction) (52.9 vs 87.4, P = 0.07). Regulated seal is as effective and safe as regulated suction in managing chest tubes following lobectomy. This information demonstrates with objective data the non-superiority of regulated suction vs regulated seal and may assist in future investigations on regulated pleural pressure.

  5. Feed-in of biogas into the natural gas distribution system. Legal topics, insurance topic and financial topics; Einspeisung von Biogas in das Erdgasnetz. Rechts-, Finanzierungs- und Versicherungsfragen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degenhart, Heinrich; Hohlbein, Bernhard; Schomerus, Thomas (eds.)

    2012-11-01

    The book under consideration consists of the following contributions: (1) Legal topics, insurance topic and financial topics of the feed-in of biogas (I. Bleuel); (2) Feed-in of biogas in natural gas distribution systems - market and economic efficiency (J. Krassowski); (3) The Feed-in of biogas in the context of the environmental energy law (T. Mueller); (4) Regulation issues for the grid connection of biomass conversion plants (D. Konrad); (5) Design of contracts for the feed-in of biogas (H. von Bredow); (6) Liability insurance for biogas processing plants (K. Thiesen); (7) Procurement of equity capital (B. Drescher); (8) Opportunities and limits of external financing (A. Schuenemann).

  6. [Recycle of contaminated scrap metal]: Task 1.3.2, Bulk solids feed system. Topical report, October 1993-- January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    A critical requirement in DOE`s efforts to recycle, reuse, and dispose of materials from its decontamination and decommissioning activities is the design of a robust system to process a wide variety of bulk solid feeds. The capability to process bulk solids will increase the range of materials and broaden the application of Catalytic Extraction Processing (CEP). The term bulk solids refers to materials that are more economically fed into the top of a molten metal bath than by submerged injection through a tuyere. Molten Metal Technology, Inc. (MMT) has characterized CEP`s ability to process bulk solid feed materials and has achieved significant growth in the size of bulk solid particles compatible with Catalytic Extraction Processing. Parametric experimental studies using various feed materials representative of the components of various DOE waste streams have validated design models which establish the reactor operating range as a function of feed material, mass flow rate, and particle size. MMT is investigating the use of a slurry system for bulk solid addition as it is the most efficient means for injecting soils, sludges, and similar physical forms into a catalytic processing unit. MMT is continuing to evaluate condensed phase product removal systems and alternative energy addition sources to enhance the operating efficiency of bulk solids CEP units. A condensed phase product removal system capable of on-demand product removal has been successfully demonstrated. MMT is also investigating the use of a plasma arc torch to provide supplemental heating during bulk solids processing. This comprehensive approach to bulk solids processing is expected to further improve overall process efficiency prior to the deployment of CEP for the recycle, reuse, and disposal of materials from DOE decontamination and decommissioning Activities.

  7. Bioflocs technology: an integrated system for the removal of nutrients and simultaneous production of feed in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Crab, Roselien

    2010-01-01

    Future development of intensive aquaculture must deal with its impacts on the environment in the form of water pollution and the use of fish oil and fish meal. The bioflocs technology simultaneously addresses both problems co-occurring with the further expansion of the industry. While maintaining good water quality within the aquaculture systems it produces additional feed for the cultured animals. In contrast to conventional water quality control techniques, the bioflocs technology offers a ...

  8. The Impact Study of a Statcom on Commutation Failures in an HVDC Inverter Feeding a Weak AC System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatir, Mohamed; Zidi, Sid-Ahmed; Fellah, Mohammed-Karim; Hadjeri, Samir; Flitti, Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) devices are pure power electronics devices that use voltage source, IGBT, IGCT or GTO based converters to generate reactive current. This paper illustrates the effect of STATCOM connected whit an HVDC inverter feeding a weak AC network, on the recovery from commutation failures following AC side disturbances. MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation results have demonstrated the robust performance of the proposed system based on the first CIGRÉ HVDC Benchmark model against commutation failures.

  9. Supplementation of female calves in creep feeding system and productive and nutritional parameters of beef cows on tropical pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Vieira Barros; Mário Fonseca Paulino; Mário Luiz Chizzotti; Luciana Navajas Rennó; Javier Enrique Garces Cardenas; Eriton Egídio Lisboa Valente;; Sidnei Antônio Lopes; Carla Heloisa Avelino Cabral; Nelcino Francisco de Paula; Felipe Gomes da Silva

    2014-01-01

    The performance of female calves in creep-feeding system receiving only mineral mixture or multiple supplements; and milk production and pasture intake and digestibility of beef cows on Urochloa decumbens pastures, were assessed. Forty-eight suckling female calves aged 5 months on average, with an initial weight of 125.4 ± 1.34 kg, and their respective mothers initially weighing 435.2 ± 10.3 kg, were used. The experimental design was completely randomized. Supplements contained approximately ...

  10. Trickle water and feeding system in plant culture and light-dark cycle effects on plant growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, T.; Inada, K.; Takanashi, J.

    Rockwool, as an inert medium covered or bagged with polyethylene film, can be effectively used for plant culture in space station. The most important machine is the pump adjusting the dripping rate in the feeding system. Hydro-aeroponics may be adaptable to a space laboratory. The shortening of the light-dark cycles inhibits plant growth and induces an abnormal morphogenesis. A photoperiod of 12-hr-dark may be needed for plant growth.

  11. Interaction of electron leak and proton leak in respiratory chain of mitochondria——Proton leak induced by superoxide from an electron leak pathway of univalent reduction of oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树森; 焦选茂; 王孝铭; 张力

    1996-01-01

    By incubating the isolated rat myocardial mitochondria with xanthine-xanthine oxidase, anexogenous superoxide (O2) generating system, and by ischemia-reperfusion procedure of isolated rat heart as an endogenous O2 generating system, it was found that both sources of O2 showed the same injurious effects on mitochondrial function resulting in (i) increasing proton leak rate, lowering proton pumping activity and Ht/2e ratio of respiratory chain, and (ii) decreasing transmembrane potential of energized mitochondria] inner membrane by succinate oxidation. The injurious effects of O2 on these mitochondrial bioenergitical parameters mentioned above exhibited a dosage- or reaction time-dependent mode. (X has no effects on the electron transfer activity and transmembrane potential of nonenergized mitochondria. Being a superoxide scavenger, 3, 4-dihydroxylphenyl lactate showed obvious protection effects against damage of both exogenous superoxide sources from xanthine-xanthine oxidase system and endogenous Or sou

  12. Natural Gas Pipeline Replacement Programs Reduce Methane Leaks and Improve Consumer Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, R. B.

    2015-12-01

    From production through distribution, oil and natural gas infrastructure provide the largest source of anthropogenic methane in the U.S. and the second largest globally. To examine the prevalence of natural gas leaks downstream in distribution systems, we mapped methane leaks across 595, 750, and 247 road miles of three U.S. cities—Durham, NC, Cincinnati, OH, and Manhattan, NY, respectively—at different stages of pipeline replacement of cast iron and other older materials. We compare results with those for two cities we mapped previously, Boston and Washington, D.C. Overall, cities with pipeline replacement programs have considerably fewer leaks per mile than cities without such programs. Similar programs around the world should provide additional environmental, economic, and consumer safety benefits.

  13. Comparative study of instantaneous frequency based methods for leak detection in pipeline networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, M. F.; Beck, S. B. M.; Shucksmith, J. D.; Boxall, J. B.; Staszewski, W. J.

    2012-05-01

    Methods of pressure transient analysis can be seen as a promising, accurate and low-cost tool for leak and feature detection in pipelines. Various systems have been developed by several groups of researchers in recent years. Such techniques have been successfully demonstrated under laboratory conditions but are not yet established for use with real field test data. The current paper presents a comparative study of instantaneous frequency analysis techniques based on pressure transients recorded within a live distribution network. The instantaneous frequency of the signals are analysed using the Hilbert transform (HT), the Normalised Hilbert transform (NHT), Direct Quadrature (DQ), Teager Energy Operator (TEO) and Cepstrum. This work demonstrates the effectiveness of the instantaneous frequency analysis in detecting a leaks and other features within the network. NHT and DQ allowed for the identification of the approximate location of leaks. The performance TEO is moderate, with Cepstrum being the worst performing method.

  14. Feeding patterns and performance of cows in controlled cow traffic in automatic milking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melin, M; Svennersten-Sjaunja, K; Wiktorsson, H

    2005-11-01

    Two groups of dairy cows monitored from 3 to 19 wk postpartum were subjected to 2 different cow traffic routines in an automatic milking system with control gates and an open waiting area. Using different time settings in the control gates, the groups of cows were separated by average milking frequency; cows in the high milking frequency routine had a minimum of 4 h between milkings (MF(4)) and were milked 3.2 +/- 0.1 times daily, whereas cows in the low milking frequency routine had at least 8 h between milkings (MF8) and were milked 2.1 +/- 0.1 times daily. Cows in the 2 groups were switched to the opposite milking frequency control for wk 18 and 19. The increased milking frequency resulted in a higher milk yield of about 9% through 16 wk of early lactation Although the higher milk yield was not significant when measured as energy-corrected milk, significant interactions of milking frequency and study period for milk yield and energy-corrected milk yield were consistent with a yield response when cows were milked more frequently. Meal criteria estimated for each individual cow were used to group feeding visits into meals. During MF4, cows fed in fewer meals per day and had longer meals than during MF8. The control gates were used efficiently, with only a few passages not resulting in actual meals. Although the voluntary meal intervals seemed to be short, the average milking frequency was far below that theoretically possible. This was explained by individual differences in milking frequency and long intervals from when a cow was redirected in a control gate until it arrived in the milking unit. A wide individual range in the voluntary interval between the first and the second meal in the milking cycle suggests that fixed time limits for control gates set on group level have no justifiable biological basis. It was also concluded that primiparous cows were well adapted to the automatic milking system after 2 wk in the barn.

  15. CHINA'S WORST OIL LEAK CLEARED EXPENSIVELY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ Eight days and nights of clean-up efforts after the worst oil leak ever in Chinese waters, the aftermath of a collision between two foreign ships happening at 9:35 pm on December 7 about 8 nautical miles away from the mouth of the Pearl River and near the Danjiang Island, have finally paid off. So far, hundreds of tons of waste oil and polluted water have been cleared up. A large area of oil spills has been cleaned thanks to the prompt and proper operation launched just two hours after the accident.

  16. Ultrastructure of the digestive system and experimental study of feeding in the monogenean skin and fin parasite Macrogyrodactylus congolensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arafa, Safaa Z; El-Naggar, Mohammed M; Kearn, Graham C

    2013-12-01

    In the present study, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has been used to study the ultrastructure of the digestive system, namely the pharynx, oesophageal glands and intestine, of the monogenean skin and fin parasite Macrogyrodactylus congolensis. The pharynx consists of an anterior highly muscular region and a posterior mainly glandular syncytial region. The anterior region is provided with six pharyngeal papillae, the centre of each of which is occupied by electron dense secretory bodies, identical with those in the posterior region of the pharynx. The intestine has an uninterrupted syncytial gastrodermis and the luminal surface is provided with many unbranched lamellae. The intestine of living specimens contains large and small granules which give it a reddish brown colour. Large particles, presumed to be lipid droplets, and small granules, presumed to be melanin granules, were found in the gastrodermis and in the intestinal lumen. Parasites were induced to feed and then preserved for TEM at the following intervals: just after feeding, 30 min after feeding, 1 h 30 min after feeding and 2 h after feeding. The specimens were then processed for TEM and sections cut through the intestine of each specimen were examined with the transmission electron microscope. Three types of vacuoles (V1, V2, V3) were detected in the gastrodermis. Vacuoles V1 have thick walls and are likely to be endocytotic, enclosing luminal contents at the surface of the gastrodermis. V2 vacuoles may be lysosomes that fuse with V1 vacuoles. V3 vacuoles may serve to dispose of residual digestive material into the lumen.

  17. Associations between lameness and production, feeding and milking attendance of Holstein cows milked with an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Dinarés, Martí; Devant, Maria; Carré, Xavier

    2007-02-01

    A longitudinal study involving 73 primiparous (PP) and 47 multiparous (MP) Holstein cows was conducted over an 8-month period to assess the associations between locomotion score (LCS) and milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), feeding behaviour, and number of visits to an automatic milking system (AMS). Twice weekly, all cows were locomotion scored (scale 1-5) by the same observer. Individual eating behaviour and individual feed consumption at each cow visit to the feed troughs, individual milk production, the time of milking, and the number of milkings for each cow were recorded for the day of locomotion scoring and the day before and after. Dependent variables, such as milk yield, DMI, etc. were modelled using a mixed-effects model with parity, LCS, days in milk (DIM), the exponential of -0.05 DIM, and the interaction between parity and LCS, as fixed effects and random intercepts and random slopes for the linear and the exponential of -0.05DIM effects within cow. LCS did not affect time of attendance at feed troughs, but affected the location that cows occupied in the feed troughs. The time devoted to eating and DMI decreased with increasing LCS. Milk production decreased with LCS>3. The number of daily visits to the AMS also decreased with increasing LCS. The cows with high LCS were fetched more often than the cows with low LCS. Overall, PP cows were more sensitive to the effects of increasing LCS than were MP cows. The decrease in milk production observed with increasing LCS seemed to be affected similarly by the decrease in DMI and by the decrease in number of daily visits to the AMS. A further economic loss generated by lame cows with AMS will be associated with the additional labour needed to fetch them.

  18. Leak in the breathing circuit: CO2 absorber and human error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, Goneppanavar; Jasvinder, Kaur; Sagarnil, Roy

    2010-04-01

    A couple of reports in literature have mentioned CO2 absorbers to be the cause for breathing circuit leak during anesthesia. Defective canister, failure to close the absorber chamber and overfilling of the chamber with sodalime were the problems in these reports. Among these, the last two are reports of human error resulting in problems. We report a case where despite taking precautions in this regard, we experienced a significant leak in the system due to a problem with the CO2 absorber, secondary to human error.

  19. The effect of feeding frequency on growth performance of rainbow trout fingerlings reared in recirculating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Dediu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth, feed consumption and conversion ratios of trout fingerlings (Oncorhynchus mykiss subjected to daily feeding frequencies were evaluated. The trial performed using 295 fish with a mean weight of 5.53±0.25 g divided equally to four tanks. The two treatments (namely, daily feeding frequencies of two -F1 and four meals- F2 were each applied for two tanks. Mean live weights of the fish in trial groups reached 13.15 g and 13.61 g at the end of the trial in groups F1 and F2, respectively. Growth data indicated that, the final live weight and SGR values of group F2 were similar with those of the F1 group (4.22%/bw/day respectively 4.19%/bw/day. Condition factors (CF showed similar values. It seems that, rainbow trout fed twice a day performed better than those fed four times a day, in terms of feed conversion ratio (FCR and protein efficiency ratio (PER (FCR was 0.55 in F1 and 0.63 in F2; PER was 4.33 in F1 and 3.8 in F2.

  20. The feeding ecology of Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821 in the lagoonal system of Messolongi (western Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Leonardos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean toothcarp Aphanius fasciatus (Valenciennes, 1821 is a small-sized omnivorous estuarine fish. Its diet is dominated by juveniles of shrimps (Palaemon adspersus, Isopods, Branchiopoda, Bivalvia, eggs of invertebrates, mosquitoes (adults and larvae and diatoms. An ontogenetic diet shift with an increase in mean prey size with fish length was observed. Smaller fish feed on planktonic prey (e.g. copepods, ostracods, nauplii of Artemia, while larger fish prefer larger and more benthic preys (e.g. ampipods, Bivalvia. The diet of A. fasciatus shows a high degree of seasonal variation, with a reduction in the feeding activity during the periods of adverse environmental conditions (winter and autumn. It is a well-adapted estuarine fish, its feeding mode and preferences depending on the preys that are available. Its feeding strategy is characterised by specialisation in different resource types (aquatic invertebrates and mosquitoes and a high between-phenotype contribution (BPC to niche width, with specialised individuals showing little or no overlap in resource use.

  1. Impacts of feeding less food-competing feedstuffs to livestock on global food system sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schader, Christian; Muller, Adrian; Scialabba, Nadia El-Hage; Hecht, Judith; Isensee, Anne; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Smith, Pete; Makkar, Harinder P S; Klocke, Peter; Leiber, Florian; Schwegler, Patrizia; Stolze, Matthias; Niggli, Urs

    2015-12-06

    Increasing efficiency in livestock production and reducing the share of animal products in human consumption are two strategies to curb the adverse environmental impacts of the livestock sector. Here, we explore the room for sustainable livestock production by modelling the impacts and constraints of a third strategy in which livestock feed components that compete with direct human food crop production are reduced. Thus, in the outmost scenario, animals are fed only from grassland and by-products from food production. We show that this strategy could provide sufficient food (equal amounts of human-digestible energy and a similar protein/calorie ratio as in the reference scenario for 2050) and reduce environmental impacts compared with the reference scenario (in the most extreme case of zero human-edible concentrate feed: greenhouse gas emissions -18%; arable land occupation -26%, N-surplus -46%; P-surplus -40%; non-renewable energy use -36%, pesticide use intensity -22%, freshwater use -21%, soil erosion potential -12%). These results occur despite the fact that environmental efficiency of livestock production is reduced compared with the reference scenario, which is the consequence of the grassland-based feed for ruminants and the less optimal feeding rations based on by-products for non-ruminants. This apparent contradiction results from considerable reductions of animal products in human diets (protein intake per capita from livestock products reduced by 71%). We show that such a strategy focusing on feed components which do not compete with direct human food consumption offers a viable complement to strategies focusing on increased efficiency in production or reduced shares of animal products in consumption.

  2. Develop Efficient Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-07

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED ER-GLSV11389-001.docx Develop Efficient Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal SBIR Phase I: Topic A13-061...Leak Proof M1 Abrams Plenum Seal Christian Muehfeld Steve Pennala Great Lakes Sound & Vibration, Inc. 47140 North Main Street Houghton, MI 49931 ER...061. The purpose of this report is to show the feasibility of developing an efficient, leak proof plenum seal for the M1 Abrams . It also shows the

  3. Effects of stored feed cropping systems and farm size on the profitability of Maine organic dairy farm simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshide, A K; Halloran, J M; Kersbergen, R J; Griffin, T S; DeFauw, S L; LaGasse, B J; Jain, S

    2011-11-01

    United States organic dairy production has increased to meet the growing demand for organic milk. Despite higher prices received for milk, organic dairy farmers have come under increasing financial stress due to increases in concentrated feed prices over the past few years, which can make up one-third of variable costs. Market demand for milk has also leveled in the last year, resulting in some downward pressure on prices paid to dairy farmers. Organic dairy farmers in the Northeast United States have experimented with growing different forage and grain crops to maximize on-farm production of protein and energy to improve profitability. Three representative organic feed systems were simulated using the integrated farm system model for farms with 30, 120, and 220 milk cows. Increasing intensity of equipment use was represented by organic dairy farms growing only perennial sod (low) to those with corn-based forage systems, which purchase supplemental grain (medium) or which produce and feed soybeans (high). The relative profitability of these 3 organic feed systems was strongly dependent on dairy farm size. From results, we suggest smaller organic dairy farms can be more profitable with perennial sod-based rather than corn-based forage systems due to lower fixed costs from using only equipment associated with perennial forage harvest and storage. The largest farm size was more profitable using a corn-based system due to greater economies of scale for growing soybeans, corn grain, winter cereals, and corn silages. At an intermediate farm size of 120 cows, corn-based forage systems were more profitable if perennial sod was not harvested at optimum quality, corn was grown on better soils, or if milk yield was 10% higher. Delayed harvest decreased the protein and energy content of perennial sod crops, requiring more purchased grain to balance the ration and resulting in lower profits. Corn-based systems were less affected by lower perennial forage quality, as corn silage

  4. Development of an Experimental Phased Array Feed System and Algorithms for Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Jonathan C.

    Phased array feeds (PAFs) are a promising new technology for astronomical radio telescopes. While PAFs have been used in other fields, the demanding sensitivity and calibration requirements in astronomy present unique new challenges. This dissertation presents some of the first astronomical PAF results demonstrating the lowest noise temperature and highest sensitivity at the time (66 Kelvin and 3.3 m^2/K, respectively), obtained using a narrowband (425 kHz bandwidth)prototype array of 19 linear co-polarized L-band dipoles mounted at the focus of the Green Bank 20 Meter Telescope at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virginia. Results include spectral line detection of hydroxyl (OH) sources W49N and W3OH, and some of the first radio camera images made using a PAF, including an image of the Cygnus X region. A novel array Y-factor technique for measuring the isotropic noise response of the array is shown along with experimental measurements for this PAF. Statistically optimal beamformers (Maximum SNR and MVDR) are used throughout the work. Radio-frequency interference (RFI) mitigation is demonstrated experimentally using spatial cancelation with the PAF. Improved RFI mitigation is achieved in the challenging cases of low interference-to-noise ratio (INR) and moving interference by combining subspace projection (SP) beamforming with a polynomial model to track a rank 1 subspace. Limiting factors in SP are investigated including sample estimation error, subspace smearing, noise bias, and spectral scooping; each of these factors is overcome with the polynomial model and prewhitening. Numerical optimization leads to the polynomial subspace projection (PSP) method, and least-squares fitting to the series of dominant eigenvectors over a series of short term integrations (STIs) leads to the eigenvector polynomial subspace projection (EPSP) method. Expressions for the gradient, Hessian, and Jacobian are given for use in numerical optimization

  5. Design of Feed-forward Controller with Stick-slip Friction Modeling in Electro-mechanical Brake System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Giseo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electro-Mechanical Brake (EMB is expected to be one of the future brake system. Feedback controller with sensor measuring is commonly used for control of EMB. However, this controller has some issues like delayed response and extra cost about sensor installation. In this paper, Feed-forward controller in EMB is proposed for solving these problems of feedback control. Also, it is very necessary to describe dynamical phenomenon of friction in actual EMB system. The actual EMB system shows stick-slip friction of mechanical parts which is difficult to model and apply to design of controller. This research is focused on exquisitely describing this stick-slip friction. In order to do this, the experiment about EMB is proceeded in the open loop system with the motor current command and data from the experiment is used for identification of model parameters during stiction. Then, parameters during slip is estimated in the closed loop system. Finally, developed friction model of EMB is proposed and it is utilized for design of feed-forward controller. Matlab Simulink is used for design of EMB simulation model and EMB test bench is utilized for experiment. Performance of proposed control system is compared with that of feedback control system.

  6. Telerobotic-assisted bone-drilling system using bilateral control with feed operation scaling and cutting force scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasahara, Yusuke; Kawana, Hiromasa; Usuda, Shin; Ohnishi, Kouhei

    2012-06-01

    Drilling is used in the medical field, especially in oral surgery and orthopaedics. In recent years, oral surgery involving dental implants has become more common. However, the risky drilling process causes serious accidents. To prevent these accidents, supporting systems such as robotic drilling systems are required. A telerobotic-assisted drilling system is proposed. An acceleration-based four-channel bilateral control system is implemented in linear actuators in a master-slave system for drill feeding. A reaction force observer is used instead of a force sensor for measuring cutting force. Cutting force transmits from a cutting material to a surgeon, who may feel a static cutting resistance force and vigorous cutting vibrations, via the master-slave system. Moreover, position scaling and force scaling are achieved. Scaling functions are used to achieve precise drilling and hazard detection via force sensation. Cutting accuracy and reproducibility of the cutting force were evaluated by angular velocity/position error and frequency analysis of the cutting force, respectively, and errors were > 2.0 rpm and > 0.2 mm, respectively. Spectrum peaks of the cutting vibration were at the theoretical vibration frequencies of 30, 60 and 90 Hz. The proposed telerobotic-assisted drilling system achieved precise manipulation of the drill feed and vivid feedback from the cutting force. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Margins in high temperature leak-before-break assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budden, P.J.; Hooton, D.G.

    1997-04-01

    Developments in the defect assessment procedure R6 to include high-temperature mechanisms in Leak-before-Break arguments are described. In particular, the effect of creep on the time available to detect a leak and on the crack opening area, and hence leak rate, is discussed. The competing influence of these two effects is emphasized by an example. The application to Leak-before-Break of the time-dependent failure assessment diagram approach for high temperature defect assessment is then outlined. The approach is shown to be of use in assessing the erosion of margins by creep.

  8. Internal dissipation and heat leaks in quantum thermodynamic cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Luis A.; Palao, José P.; Alonso, Daniel

    2015-09-01

    The direction of the steady-state heat currents across a generic quantum system connected to multiple baths may be engineered to realize virtually any thermodynamic cycle. In spite of their versatility, such continuous energy-conversion systems are generally unable to operate at maximum efficiency due to non-negligible sources of irreversible entropy production. In this paper we introduce a minimal model of irreversible absorption chiller. We identify and characterize the different mechanisms responsible for its irreversibility, namely heat leaks and internal dissipation, and gauge their relative impact in the overall cooling performance. We also propose reservoir engineering techniques to minimize these detrimental effects. Finally, by looking into a known three-qubit embodiment of the absorption cooling cycle, we illustrate how our simple model may help to pinpoint the different sources of irreversibility naturally arising in more complex practical heat devices.

  9. Local feeding strategies and milk composition in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Ávila, Ángel René; Wattiaux, Michel A; Espinoza-Ortega, Angélica; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2012-03-01

    The objective of the work was to identify local feeding strategies in small-scale dairy production systems during the rainy season in the highlands of Mexico, and to determine their effects on milk yields (MY), milk composition and economic viability. Twenty-two dairy farms were monitored by monthly visits, recording and sampling milk from between two and six cows in each farm, live-weight was also recorded. Samples from feeds used in that month were taken and feeds given to the dairy herd were weighed. Economic data was also recorded. Milk composition and milk urea nitrogen were determined, as well as chemical composition of feeds. Eighteen feedstuffs were identified, grouped in: HNH feeds-high in neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and in DM matter; HNL feeds-high in NDF but low in DM; HCh feeds-high in non-fibrous carbohydrates; and HCP feeds-high in crude protein. Four feeding strategies were identified: strategy 1 uses HND, HNL and HCP; strategy 2-HND, HNL, HCh and HCP; strategy 3 HNH and HCP; and strategy 4 HNL and HCP. Of participating farms, 73.4% followed strategy 1, 11.3% strategy 2, 11.3% strategy 4 and 3.8% strategy 3. There were no statistical differences (P > 0.05) between strategies for MY and milk composition, but there were differences (P  0.05) model relating intake of feed groups and milk fat content, but milk protein and SNF contents were significantly explained by intake of HCP. When expressed as MY and milk components yield, milk fat yield was significantly explained by intake of all four feed groups, but milk protein and SNF yields were explained only by intake of HCP and LW. MUN excretion was explained also by HCP intake. All feeding strategies produced positive economic returns, on average generating the equivalent of 3.45 minimum wages of the area.

  10. 75 FR 4134 - Pipeline Safety: Leak Detection on Hazardous Liquid Pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... safety study on pipeline Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems (NTSB/SS-05/02). The... indications of a leak on the SCADA interface was the impetus for this study. The NTSB examined 13 hazardous... large pipeline breaks. The line balance processes incorporating SCADA or other technology are geared...

  11. Functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotube based sensors for distributed methane leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper presents a highly sensitive, energy efficient and low-cost distributed methane (CH4) sensor system (DMSS) for continuous monitoring, detection and localization of CH4 leaks in natural gas infrastructure such as transmission and distribution pipelines, wells, and produc...

  12. Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Supporting Documentation: Miscellaneous Reports, Letters, Memoranda, And Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engeman, J. K.; Girardot, C. L.; Harlow, D. G.; Rosenkrance, C. L.

    2012-12-20

    This report contains reference materials cited in RPP-ASMT -53793, Tank 241-AY-102 Leak Assessment Report, that were obtained from the National Archives Federal Records Repository in Seattle, Washington, or from other sources including the Hanford Site's Integrated Data Management System database (IDMS).

  13. Arterial elastance and heart-arterial coupling in aortic regurgitation are determined by aortic leak severity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segers, P; Morimont, P; Kolh, P; Stergiopulos, N; Westerhof, N; Verdonck, P

    2002-01-01

    Background In aortic valve regurgitation (AR), aortic leak severity modulates left ventricle (LV) arterial system interaction. The aim of this study was to assess (1) how arterial elastance (E-a), calculated as the ratio of LV end-systolic pressure and stroke volume, relates to arterial properties a

  14. Humpback whale "super-groups" - A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Benguela Upwelling System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findlay, Ken P; Seakamela, S Mduduzi; Meÿer, Michael A; Kirkman, Stephen P; Barendse, Jaco; Cade, David E; Hurwitz, David; Kennedy, Amy S; Kotze, Pieter G H; McCue, Steven A; Thornton, Meredith; Vargas-Fonseca, O Alejandra; Wilke, Christopher G

    2017-01-01

    Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens), hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii), mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis) and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015) identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals) of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent "fishy" smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun) and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude feeding events

  15. Humpback whale “super-groups” – A novel low-latitude feeding behaviour of Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) in the Benguela Upwelling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seakamela, S. Mduduzi; Meÿer, Michael A.; Kirkman, Stephen P.; Barendse, Jaco; Cade, David E.; Hurwitz, David; Kennedy, Amy S.; Kotze, Pieter G. H.; McCue, Steven A.; Thornton, Meredith; Vargas-Fonseca, O. Alejandra; Wilke, Christopher G.

    2017-01-01

    Southern Hemisphere humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) generally undertake annual migrations from polar summer feeding grounds to winter calving and nursery grounds in subtropical and tropical coastal waters. Evidence for such migrations arises from seasonality of historic whaling catches by latitude, Discovery and natural mark returns, and results of satellite tagging studies. Feeding is generally believed to be limited to the southern polar region, where Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) has been identified as the primary prey item. Non-migrations and / or suspended migrations to the polar feeding grounds have previously been reported from a summer presence of whales in the Benguela System, where feeding on euphausiids (E. lucens), hyperiid amphipods (Themisto gaudichaudii), mantis shrimp (Pterygosquilla armata capensis) and clupeid fish has been described. Three recent research cruises (in October/November 2011, October/November 2014 and October/November 2015) identified large tightly-spaced groups (20 to 200 individuals) of feeding humpback whales aggregated over at least a one-month period across a 220 nautical mile region of the southern Benguela System. Feeding behaviour was identified by lunges, strong milling and repetitive and consecutive diving behaviours, associated bird and seal feeding, defecations and the pungent “fishy” smell of whale blows. Although no dedicated prey sampling could be carried out within the tightly spaced feeding aggregations, observations of E. lucens in the region of groups and the full stomach contents of mantis shrimp from both a co-occurring predatory fish species (Thyrsites atun) and one entangled humpback whale mortality suggest these may be the primary prey items of at least some of the feeding aggregations. Reasons for this recent novel behaviour pattern remain speculative, but may relate to increasing summer humpback whale abundance in the region. These novel, predictable, inter-annual, low latitude feeding

  16. EXTENDED PERFORMANCE HANDHELD AND MOBILE SENSORS FOR REMOTE DETECTION OF NATURAL GAS LEAKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael B. Frish; B. David Green; Richard T. Wainner; Francesca Scire-Scappuzzo; Paul Cataldi; Matthew C. Laderer

    2005-05-01

    This report summarizes work performed by Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) to advance the state-of-the-art of surveying for leaks of natural gas from transmission and distribution pipelines. The principal project goal was to develop means of deploying on an automotive platform an improved version of the handheld laser-based standoff natural gas leak detector previously developed by PSI and known as the Remote Methane Leak Detector or RMLD. A laser beam which interrogates the air for methane is projected from a spinning turret mounted upon a van. As the van travels forward, the laser beam scans an arc to the front and sides of the van so as to survey across streets and to building walls from a moving vehicle. When excess methane is detected within the arc, an alarm is activated. In this project, we built and tested a prototype Mobile RMLD (MRMLD) intended to provide lateral coverage of 10 m and one lateral scan for every meter of forward motion at forward speeds up to 10 m/s. Using advanced detection algorithms developed as part of this project, the early prototype MRMLD, installed on the back of a truck, readily detected simulated gas leaks of 50 liters per hour. As a supplement to the originally planned project, PSI also participated in a DoE demonstration of several gas leak detection systems at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) during September 2004. Using a handheld RMLD upgraded with the advanced detection algorithms developed in this project, from within a moving vehicle we readily detected leaks created along the 7.4 mile route of a virtual gas transmission pipeline.

  17. Suitability of duckweed (Lemna minor as feed for fish in polyculture system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Z.H. Talukdar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we conducted an experiment to evaluate the effects of duckweed (Lemna minor as feed on fish production in polyculture. The experiment had 2 treatments where in treatment 1 (T1 ponds were supplied with duckweed as feed and in treatment 2 (T2 ponds were kept as control (without supply of duckweed. Average survival rates in T1 and T2 were 90 and 89%, respectively. The specific growth rates (SGR were higher in T1. Calculated net production in T1 was 6.25 tons ha.-1 yr.-1 and in T2 was 2.84 tons ha.-1 yr.-1. The ranges of physico-chemical parameters analyzed were within the productive limit and more or less similar in all the ponds under both treatments during the experimental period. There were 24 genera of phytoplankton under 5 major groups and 10 genera of zooplankton under 3 major groups found in the experimental ponds. The net production in T1 was significantly higher than that of T2 indicated the use of duckweed as feed for fishes is economically sustainable in polyculture.

  18. Development of a Nutritional Delivery System to Feed Crew in a Pressurized Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J. W.; Leonig, M. L.; Douglas, G. L.

    2014-01-01

    The contingency scenario for an emergency cabin depressurization event may require crewmembers to subsist in a pressurized suit for up to 144 hours. This scenario requires the capability for safe nutrition delivery through a helmet feed port against a 4 psi pressure differential to enable crewmembers to maintain strength and cognition to perform critical tasks. Two nutritional delivery prototypes were developed and analyzed for compatibility with the helmet feed port interface and for operational effectiveness against the pressure differential. The bag-in-bag (BiB) prototype, designed to equalize the suit pressure with the beverage pouch and enable a crewmember to drink normally, delivered water successfully to three different subjects in suits pressurized to 4 psi. The Boa restrainer pouch, designed to provide mechanical leverage to overcome the pressure differential, did not operate sufficiently. Guidelines were developed and compiled for contingency beverages that provide macro-nutritional requirements, a minimum one-year shelf life, and compatibility with the delivery hardware. Evaluation results and food product parameters have the potential to be used to improve future prototype designs and develop complete nutritional beverages for contingency events. These feeding capabilities would have additional use on extended surface mission EVAs, where the current in-suit drinking device may be insufficient.

  19. Laguna del Maule magma feeding system and construction of a shallow silicic magma reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Francisco; Castruccio, Ángelo; Parada, Miguel; Scheu, Bettina

    2017-04-01

    Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field is composed by at least 130 basaltic-to-rhyolitic eruptive vents that erupted more than 350 km3 of lavas and pyroclasts since Pleistocene in the Chilean Andes. It has captivated attention because of its current high accelerated uplift suggested to be formed by a growing shallow rhyolitic magma reservoir beneath the zone of deformation. Studying six Holocene post-glacial andesitic-to-rhyolitic lavas and one dome that partially overlap the ground-inflation zone, we determined the architecture and steps of construction of the magma feeding system that generated its post-glacial effusive volcanism. Further we suggest a possible origin for the rhyolitic magma that generated the ring of rhyolites encircling the lake and remain active causing the uplift. Mineral chemistry and textures suggest the same provenance of magma for the studied units, as well as complex magmatic history before eruptions. Similar temperatures, pressures, H2O and fO2 conditions for amphibole crystallisation in first stages indicate a common ˜17 km deep original reservoir that differentiated via in-situ crystallisation. The chemistry of the amphiboles present in all not-rhyolitic units shows trends that indicate a temperature domain on their crystallisation over other thermodynamic parameters such as pressure, water activity or chemistry of co-crystallising phases. All this supports a mush-like reservoir differentiating interstitial magma while crystallisation occurs. P-T conditions for amphibole crystallisation indicate that only amphiboles from rhyodacites show a non-adiabatic decompression that give rise to a polybaric and polythermal evolution trend from ˜450-200 MPa and ˜1030-900 ˚ C. In addition, unbuffered fO2 conditions were calculated for rhyodacite amphibole crystallisation upon cooling from melts with rather constant H2O contents. We propose that a large part of these rhyodacite amphiboles were formed during a non-adiabatic magma ascent similar to that

  20. An automated system for quantitative analysis of newborns' oral-motor behavior and coordination during bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamilia, Eleonora; Formica, Domenico; Visco, Anna Maria; Scaini, Alberto; Taffoni, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    In this work a novel unobtrusive technology-aided system is presented and tested for the assessment of newborns' oral-motor behavior and coordination during bottle feeding. A low-cost monitoring device was designed and developed in order to record Suction (S) and Expression (E) pressures from a typical feeding bottle. A software system was developed to automatically treat the data and analyze them. A set of measures of motor control and coordination has been implemented for the specific application to the analysis of sucking behavior. Experimental data were collected with the developed system on two groups of newborns (Healthy vs. Low Birth Weight) in a clinical setting. We identified the most sensitive S features to group differences, and analyzed their correlation with S/E coordination measures. Then, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to explore the system suitability to automatically identify peculiar oral behaviors. Results suggest the suitability of the proposed system to perform an objective technology-aided assessment of the newborn's oral-motor behavior and coordination during the first days of life.

  1. Field Testing of a Pneumatic Regolith Feed System During a 2010 ISRU Field Campaign on Mauna Kea, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Jack; Zacny, Kris; Chu, Philip; Wilson, Jack; Santoro, Chris; Carlson, Lee; Maksymuk, Michael; Townsend, Ivan I.; Mueller, Robert P.; Mantovani, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Lunar In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) consists of a number of tasks starting with mining of lunar regolith, followed by the transfer of regolith to an oxygen extraction reactor and finally processing the regolith and storing of extracted oxygen. The transfer of regolith from the regolith hopper at the ground level to an oxygen extraction reactor many feet above the surface could be accomplished in different ways, including using a mechanical auger, bucket ladder system or a pneumatic system. The latter system is commonly used on earth when moving granular materials since it offers high reliability and simplicity of operation. In this paper, we describe a pneumatic regolith feed system, delivering feedstock to a Carbothermal reactor and lessons learned from deploying the system during the 2010 ISRU field campaign on the Mauna Kea, Hawaii.

  2. Sesbania sesban as a fodder tree in Ethiopian livestock farming systems: Feeding practices and farmers' perception of feeding effects on sheep performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.; Mekoya, A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Zijpp, van der A.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sesbania sesban is one of the exotic multipurpose fodder trees introduced in the Ethiopian highlands for livestock feed and soil conservation. Several on-station studies showed that supplementation with Sesbania improved intake and digestibility of basal diet and growth rate of animals. However, inf

  3. Steel Casing Resistivity Technology (SCRT): Innovative Applications of Electrical Methods for Buried Tank Leak Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, J. B.; Levitt, M. T.; Gee, G. W.

    2002-12-01

    The need for non-invasive leak detection methods is extremely important for monitoring cleanup efforts of nuclear waste contained in underground storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Facility in Washington. Drilling is both very expensive and undesirable in the tank farms. Various geophysical imaging methods were evaluated over the past two years at two "cold" sites but within geologic conditions similar to the tank farms. The "cold" sites consisted of 1. a dense array of 32 steel casings, and 2. a "mock tank" in which various controlled leaks (injections) of a saturated aqueous solution of Na2S2O35H20 were metered. Nearly all methods required invasive drilling for subsurface placement of sensors. An innovative direct-current electrical method using existing infrastructure as grounding electrodes, such as steel casings and steel tanks, has shown very promising results and is undergoing further testing. The most useful results have been obtained by using multiple grounding points for spatial determinations and continuous time-series monitoring for temporal variations. Although the large size of tanks and lengths of casings make discrete volume estimations difficult, data acquired for test leaks to date have shown a surprising correlation between leak rates and the rate-of-change of specific electrical measurements. First order volume approximations can be made based on existing knowledge of the geologic environment and hydraulic parameters. Spatial data provide general leak location and gross flow characteristics, whereas temporal data indicate test leak commencement, cessation, and approximate leak rates. On-going testing is providing quantitative calibration information that is expected to transfer to the tank farm environments. Procedures are being developed that will simplify the installation and operation of the system in the tank-farm environments. Implementation of the technology necessitated remote operation and monitoring of the electrical system

  4. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  5. Imaging with the leak microstructures: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baiocchi, C.; Balbinot, G; Battistella, A.; Galeazzi, G.; Lombardi, F.S.; Lombardi, M. E-mail: mariano.lombardi@lnl.infn.it; Prete, G.; Simon, A

    2004-02-01

    We report on some images obtained with the Leak Microstructures (LM), which are elements for the detection of gas ionizing particles based on needle-point anodes. X-ray images of a mask with seven holes, 300 {mu}m in diameter and 100 {mu}m separated, drilled on a tantalum sheet were obtained with a very good spatial resolution. Varying the potential to the drifting electrode we put in evidence the possibility to perform a 'zoom' of the image. X-ray images of a tantalum sheet of about 20x20 mm{sup 2} were obtained using a matrix of 9x9 LMs read by only 6 electronic chains (6 ADCs)

  6. Confidence leak in perceptual decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnev, Dobromir; Koizumi, Ai; McCurdy, Li Yan; D’Esposito, Mark; Lau, Hakwan

    2015-01-01

    We live in a continuous environment in which the visual scene changes on a slow timescale. It has been shown that, to exploit such environmental stability, the brain creates a “continuity field” such that objects seen seconds ago influence the perception of current objects. What is unknown is whether a similar mechanism exists at the level of our metacognitive representations. In three experiments we demonstrate a robust inter-task “confidence leak” that cannot be explained by response priming or attentional fluctuations. Observers’ ability to modulate this confidence leak predicted higher capacity for metacognition as well as greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex. A model based on normative principles from Bayesian inference explained the results by postulating that observers subjectively estimate the perceptual signal strength in a stable environment. These results point to the existence of a novel metacognitive mechanism mediated by regions in prefrontal cortex. PMID:26408037

  7. 40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-decay leak rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacuum-decay leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-decay leak...

  8. Unexpected triggering of the dialysate blood leak detector by haemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, E; Finney, D; Jones, P; Lewington, A; O'Reagan, A; Webb, G

    2015-06-01

    This case showed that it is possible for haemoglobin released by haemolysis in the extracorporeal circuit to pass through a high permeability (albumin retaining) dialyser membrane. In the incident described, the blood leak detector of the dialysis machine was activated before the patient became symptomatic. Haemolysis should be considered as a possible cause of blood leak alarms during dialysis with high flux membranes.

  9. 241-AY-102 Leak Detection Pit Drain Line Inspection Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boomer, Kayle D. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Engeman, Jason K. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Gunter, Jason R. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Joslyn, Cameron C. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Vazquez, Brandon J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Venetz, Theodore J. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (United States); Garfield, John S. [AEM Consulting (United States)

    2014-01-20

    This document provides a description of the design components, operational approach, and results from the Tank AY-102 leak detection pit drain piping visual inspection. To perform this inspection a custom robotic crawler with a deployment device was designed, built, and operated by IHI Southwest Technologies, Inc. for WRPS to inspect the 6-inch leak detection pit drain line.

  10. Modeling of PEM Fuel Cell Stack System using Feed-forward and Recurrent Neural Networks for Automotive Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. M. Karthik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Neural Network (ANN has become a significant modeling tool for predicting the performance of complex systems that provide appropriate mapping between input-output variables without acquiring any empirical relationship due to the intrinsic properties. This paper is focussed towards the modeling of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM Fuel Cell system using Artificial Neural Networks especially for automotive applications. Three different neural networks such as Static Feed Forward Network (SFFN, Cascaded Feed Forward Network (CFFN & Fully Connected Dynamic Recurrent Network (FCRN are discussed in this paper for modeling the PEM Fuel Cell System. The numerical analysis is carried out between the three Neural Network architectures for predicting the output performance of the PEM Fuel Cell. The performance of the proposed Networks is evaluated using various error criteria such as Mean Square Error, Mean Absolute Percentage Error, Mean Absolute Error, Coefficient of correlation and Iteration Values. The optimum network with high performance indices (low prediction error values and iteration values can be used as an ancillary model in developing the PEM Fuel Cell powered vehicle system. The development of the fuel cell driven vehicle model also incorporates the modeling of DC-DC Power Converter and Vehicle Dynamics. Finally the Performance of the Electric vehicle model is analyzed for two different drive cycle such as M-NEDC & M-UDDS.

  11. Management of primary-to-secondary leaks at Loviisa nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohnsen, B.; Jaenkaelae, K. [IVO International Ltd, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The Loviisa Nuclear power plant consisting of two VVER-440 type press water reactor units has been in commercial operation since the late 1970`s. Specific features for VVER-440 reactors are six primary loops with horizontal steam generators and main gate valves. The structure of the horizontal steam generators construction may cause a large primary to secondary leak in case of a break in the cover of the primary collector. An accident where two primary collector covers opened totally and two covers opened partly took place in Rovno, Ukraine January 1982. Primary to secondary leaks are one of the main contributors to the core melt frequency in VVER reactors according to the Loviisa 1 Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The high core damage contribution has set requirements for the development of effective means to cope with all sizes of primary to secondary leaks in the steam generator. A concept for all leak sizes has been developed for Loviisa 1 and 2. The solution includes four main areas which are a new steam generator leakage monitoring system based on nitrogen-16 measurement, an upgraded pressurizer spray system, an increased emergency cooling water reserve and an automated isolation of the defected steam generator.

  12. Leak detection in gas pipeline by acoustic and signal processing - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adnan, N. F.; Ghazali, M. F.; Amin, M. M.; Hamat, A. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The pipeline system is the most important part in media transport in order to deliver fluid to another station. The weak maintenance and poor safety will contribute to financial losses in term of fluid waste and environmental impacts. There are many classifications of techniques to make it easier to show their specific method and application. This paper's discussion about gas leak detection in pipeline system using acoustic method will be presented in this paper. The wave propagation in the pipeline is a key parameter in acoustic method when the leak occurs and the pressure balance of the pipe will generated by the friction between wall in the pipe. The signal processing is used to decompose the raw signal and show in time- frequency. Findings based on the acoustic method can be used for comparative study in the future. Acoustic signal and HHT is the best method to detect leak in gas pipelines. More experiments and simulation need to be carried out to get the fast result of leaking and estimation of their location.

  13. [Paravalvular leak following surgical valve replacement: is there a role for percutaneous paravalvular leak reduction?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, S; lbrahim, R; Basmadjian, A; Müller, H; Lerch, R; Roffi, M

    2010-06-02

    After valve replacement, significant paravalvular leaks (PVL) may develop in up to 12.5% of the cases. Signs and symptoms include congestive heart failure and/or haemolysis and therefore may require reintervention. Redo valve surgery is considered the therapy of choice for symptomatic patients, either by valve replacement or leak repair. Considering the risk of morbidity and mortality associated with a surgical reintervention and the high post-surgical recurrence of PVL, the endovascular treatment represents an attractive alternative to surgery for high risk patients. The percutaneous approach aims at PVL reduction by implantation of certain occluder devices. The procedure is technically feasible in 60 to 90% of the cases according to different series. Technical success is associated with clinical improvement in 50 to 80% of the cases.

  14. Functional anatomy and kinematics of the oral jaw system during terrestrial feeding in Periophthalmus barbarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Krijn B; Adriaens, Dominique; Aerts, Peter; Dierick, Manuel; Wassenbergh, Sam Van

    2014-10-01

    The Atlantic mudskipper, Periophthalmus barbarus, is an amphibious fish that successfully overcomes the numerous physical challenges of capturing prey in a terrestrial environment. However, it is unclear what changes in the morphology and function of the feeding apparatus contribute to the mudskipper's successful transition from aquatic to terrestrial capture of prey. In particular, how does the mudskipper achieve effective prehension of land-based prey using its percomorph feeding apparatus? To address that question, we performed a morphological analysis of the feeding apparatus of P. barbarus based on microcomputed tomography scanning, histological sectioning, and dissections as well as a kinematic analysis based on high-speed video and X-ray video to quantify the movements of the oral jaw apparatus elements. Our results show that the neurocranium remains in a fixed position relative to the pectoral girdle as the fish pivots over its pectoral fins toward the prey. The premaxilla rotates dorsally and protrudes downward over the prey. The dentary is rotated ventrally over an angle of 120°, which is facilitated by an intramandibular joint. These motions of the neurocranium, premaxilla, and dentary reorient the mouth aperture so it is parallel to the substrate, thereby allowing the jaws to be placed over the prey. The prey is grabbed between the oral teeth or scooped into the mouth primarily via rapid closing motion of the lower jaw. This analysis of P. barbarus clarifies the morphological and kinematic characteristics required by fish to become successful terrestrial feeders at the environmental transition between water and land. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Handbook of reflector antennas and feed systems v.1 theory and design of reflectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sharma, Satish K; Shafai, Lotfollah

    2013-01-01

    This is the first truly comprehensive and most up-to-date handbook available on modern reflector antennas and feed sources for diversified space and ground applications. There has never been such an all-encompassing reflector handbook in print, and no currently available title offers coverage of such recent research developments. The Handbook consists of three volumes. Volume I provides a unique combination of theoretical underpinnings with design considerations and techniques. The need for knowledge in reflector antennas has grown steadily over the last two decades due to increased use in spa

  16. Handbook of reflector antennas and feed systems v.3 applications of reflectors

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Sudhakar; Sharma, Satish K

    2013-01-01

    This is the first truly comprehensive and most up-to-date handbook available on modern reflector antennas and feed sources for diversified space and ground applications. There has never been such an all-encompassing reflector handbook in print, and no currently available title offers coverage of such recent research developments. The Handbook consists of three volumes. Volume III focuses on the range of reflector antenna applications, including space, terrestrial, and radar. The intent of this book volume is to provide practical applications and design information on reflector antennas used fo

  17. Acoustic valve leak detection: Initial program development, implementation & experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, G.L. [Baltimore Gas and Electric Company, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Acoustic valve leak detection is one of the many test techniques employed in modern power plants with active predictive maintenance programs. In 1994, a valve leak detection program was implemented within Baltimore Gas and Electric`s Fossil Energy Division. Within two years, the program resulted in energy savings in excess of one million dollars. The leak detection program has become an essential technology that has reduced plant heat rate losses, prevented unnecessary valve maintenance and increased plant awareness of potential losses. This paper describes program development, implementation and test methodology of Baltimore Gas and Electric`s acoustic leak detection program. Key topics include equipment description, program measurements, methodology and leak identification methods. The paper also will include discussion on the practical approach of equipment selection and program philosophies.

  18. Quantification of the main digestive processes in ruminants: the equations involved in the renewed energy and protein feed evaluation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvant, D; Nozière, P

    2016-05-01

    The evolution of feeding systems for ruminants towards evaluation of diets in terms of multiple responses requires the updating of the calculation of nutrient supply to the animals to make it more accurate on aggregated units (feed unit, or UF, for energy and protein digestible in the intestine, or PDI, for metabolizable protein) and to allow prediction of absorbed nutrients. The present update of the French system is based on the building and interpretation through meta-analysis of large databases on digestion and nutrition of ruminants. Equations involved in the calculation of UF and PDI have been updated, allowing: (1) prediction of the out flow rate of particles and liquid depending on the level of intake and the proportion of concentrate, and the use of this in the calculation of ruminal digestion of protein and starch from in situ data; (2) the system to take into account the effects of the main factors of digestive interactions (level of intake, proportion of concentrate, rumen protein balance) on organic matter digestibility, energy losses in methane