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Sample records for feed studies technical

  1. New handling systems as technical support for the working process. Part 6. Feeding devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becher, H; Burkhardt, R; Drexel, P; Graf, B; Krreis, W

    1982-03-01

    Social, technical and economic reasons require an enhanced application of handling systems such as industrial robots. Quality and efficiency of an industrial robot depends greatly on feeding devices, and the ARGE-HHS within its project new handling systems as a technical aid in the working process intends to analyze all feeding devices that are likely to be most suitable for advanced applications. Forty one feeding devices were developed, known devices were modified, adapted to different applications, and tested. A variety of feeding devices for most applications in the field of material handling is reported.

  2. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  3. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of nitrofurantoin (CAS No. 67-20-9) in F344/n rats and B6C3F1 mice (feed studies). Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, J.E.

    1989-09-01

    Two-year toxicology and carcinogenesis studies were conducted by administering diets containing 0, 600, or 1,300 ppm nitrofurantoin to groups of 50 female rats for 103 weeks. Groups of 50 male rats and 50 mice of each sex were fed diets containing 0, 1,300 or 2,500 ppm for 103 weeks. Under the conditions of these 2-year feed studies, there was some evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for male F344/N rats as shown by increased incidences of uncommon kidney tubular cell neoplasms. Uncommon osteosarcomas of the bone and neoplasms of the subcutaneous tissue were observed in dosed male rats. Incidences of interstitial cell adenomas of the testis and neoplasms of the preputial gland were decreased in the 2,500-ppm group of male rats. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for female F344/N rats fed diets containing 600 ppm or 1,300 ppm for 2 years. Female rats may have been able to tolerate higher doses. There was no evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for male B6C3F(1) mice fed diets containing 1,300 ppm or 2,500 ppm for 2 years. There was clear evidence of carcinogenic activity of nitrofurantoin for female B6C3F(1) mice as shown by increased incidences of tubular adenomas, benign mixed tumors, and granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.

  4. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Cupric Sulfate (CAS No. 7758-99-8) Administered in Drinking Water and Feed to F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Charles

    1993-07-01

    Cupric sulfate is an inorganic salt which is widely used in industry, agriculture, and veterinary medicine. Its applications include use as an algicide in potable waters and as a feed additive and therapeutic agent in swine, sheep, and cattle. Because copper salts are found in human water supplies, toxicity studies of cupric sulfate pentahydrate were conducted in male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice by the drinking water (2-week studies only) and dosed feed routes (2-week and 13-week studies). Animals were evaluated for hematology, clinical chemistry, urinalysis, reproductive toxicity, tissue metal accumulation, and histopathology. In the 2-week drinking water studies, groups of five rats and five mice per sex received cupric sulfate at concentrations of 300 to 30,000 ppm for 15 days. One female rat, one male mouse, and three female mice in the 3000 ppm groups and all rats and mice in the 10,000 and 30,000 ppm groups died before the end of the studies. The remaining mice and rats in the 3000 ppm groups gained little or lost weight. Water consumption in the three highest dose groups of both species was reduced by more than 65%. Clinical signs observed in these groups were typical of those seen in moribund animals and were attributed to dehydration. The only gross or microscopic change specifically related to cupric sulfate toxicity was an increase in the size and number of cytoplasmic protein droplets in the epithelium of the renal proximal convoluted tubule in male rats from the 300 and 1000-ppm groups. In the 2-week feed studies, groups of five rats and five mice per sex were fed diets containing 1000 to 16,000 ppm cupric sulfate. No chemical-related deaths occurred in any dose group. Compared to the controls, rats and mice in the two highest dose groups had reduced body weight gains which were attributed to decreased feed consumption. Hyperplasia with hyperkeratosis of the squamous epithelium on the limiting ridge of the forestomach was seen in rats and

  5. Head Start Impact Study. Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Cook, Ronna; Heid, Camilla; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Jenkins, Frank; Fletcher, Philip; Quinn, Liz; Friedman, Janet; Ciarico, Janet; Rohacek, Monica; Adams, Gina; Spier, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed to provide technical detail to support the analysis and findings presented in the "Head Start Impact Study Final Report" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, January 2010). Chapter 1 provides an overview of the Head Start Impact Study and its findings. Chapter 2 provides technical information on the…

  6. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  7. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Soheil Ghaemmaghami; Mehrdad Modirsaneii; Alireza Khosravi; Mehdi Razzaghi-Abyaneh

    2016-01-01

     Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi.Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e....

  8. Feeding In a Portuguese Pregnant Women: Case Study Applying Cipe

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    Maria Antónia Martins

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To describe the understanding of a pregnant about how to feed. Methods: Narrative analyzed through ideographic explanation. Results: Diagnoses were defined in CIPE®, version 2: a potentiate for better knowledge about pregnancy, b potentiate to improve knowledge about body image. Feeding in pregnancy is governed by organic needs and cultural practices. A balance between technical recommendation and food culture is needed. Conclusion: To improve pregnancy experience, maternity staff should consider mother’s perception about feeding. In Portugal, primary health care needs a more relevant position. It is suggested to introduce the focus body image.

  9. NTP technical report on the toxicity studies of Castor Oil (CAS No. 8001-79-4) in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice (Dosed Feed Studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, R

    1992-03-01

    Castor oil is a natural oil derived from the seeds of the castor bean, Ricinus communis. It is comprised largely of triglycerides with a high ricinolin content. Toxicity studies with castor oil were performed by incorporating the material at concentrations as high as 10% in diets given to F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice of both sexes for 13 weeks. Genetic toxicity studies also were performed and were negative for mutation induction in Salmonella typhimurium, for induction of sister chromatid exchanges or chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, and for induction of micronuclei in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of mice evaluated at the end of the 13-week studies. Exposure to castor oil at dietary concentrations as high as 10% in 13-week studies did not affect survival or body weight gains of rats or mice (10 per sex and dose). There were no biologically significant effects noted in hematologic analyses in rats. Mild increases in total bile acids and in serum alkaline phosphatase were noted at various times during the studies in rats receiving the higher dietary concentrations of castor oil. Liver weights were increased in male rats receiving the 10% dietary concentration and in male and female mice receiving diets containing 5% or 10% castor oil. However, there were no histopathologic lesions associated with these liver changes, nor were there any compound-related morphologic changes in any organ in rats or mice. No significant changes were noted in a screening for male reproductive endpoints, including sperm count and motility, and no changes were observed in the length of estrous cycles of rats or mice given diets containing castor oil. Thus, no significant adverse effects of castor oil administration were noted in these studies. Synonyms: Ricinus Oil, oil of Palma Christi, tangantangan oil, phorboyl, Neoloid.

  10. Assessment of the effects of fish meal, wheat gluten, soy protein concentrate and feed moisture on extruder system parameters and the technical quality of fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of feed ingredient functionality plays a vital role in modern fish feed manufacturing practice. The aim of this study was to examine the extrusion behaviour of blends containing alternative protein sources from plant origin to fish meal (FM), such as wheat gluten (WG) and soy protein

  11. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

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    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  12. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-02-01

    Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7-10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus species may be considered as a human public health hazard.

  13. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

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    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; P<0·001) and more likely to smoke (18 v. 8 %; P=0·004). The first food was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  14. The effect of a self-efficacy-based educational programme on maternal breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates: A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Man Yi; Ip, Wan Yim; Choi, Kai Chow

    2016-05-01

    breast feeding has a number of well-documented benefits. Numerous studies have been conducted to investigate an effective approach to increase the breast feeding rate, duration and exclusive breast feeding rate, in which maternal breast feeding self-efficacy was determined as one of the major contributors. Although numerous breast feeding educational programmes have been developed to enhance maternal breastfeeding self-efficacy, results on the effectiveness of these programmes remain inconclusive. this study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a self-efficacy-based breast feeding educational programme (SEBEP) in enhancing breast feeding self-efficacy, breast feeding duration and exclusive breast feeding rates among mothers in Hong Kong. eligible pregnant women were randomized to attend a 2.5-hour breast feeding workshop at 28-38 weeks of gestation and receive 30-60minutes of telephone counselling at two weeks post partum, whereas both intervention and control groups received usual care. At two weeks postpartum, the Breast feeding Self-Efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF) and a self-developed post partum questionnaire were completed via telephone interviews. The breast feeding duration, pattern of breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding rates were recorded at two weeks, four weeks, eight weeks and six months post partum. results of analyses based on an intention-to-treat (ITT) assumption showed a significant difference (p<0.01) in the change in BSES-SF mean scores between the mothers who received SEBEP and those who did not receive SEBEP at two weeks post partum. The exclusive breast feeding rate was 11.4% for the intervention group and 5.6% for the control group at six months post partum. the findings of this study highlight the feasibility of a major trial to implement breast feeding education targeted at increasing breast feeding self-efficacy and exclusive breast feeding rates in Hong Kong. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Professional practice of dietitians in the Brazilian School Feeding Program: A multiple case study

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    Patrícia Fernanda Ferreira PIRES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To assess dietician’s numerical parameters for school feeding and discuss limitations and possibilities for professional practice in the municipalities of Vale do Ivaí, in Northern Paraná, Brazil. Methods: This is a multiple case study. A semi-structured interview was administered to dietitians working at the School Feeding Program in nine cities located in Vale do Ivaí, Paraná, Brazil. Resolution nº 465/2010, from the Brazilian Federal Board of Dietitians, was used to calculate the adequacy of working hours of dietitians. The legistation of the Brazilian School Feeding Program was applied to discuss professional practice. Results: All the cities had at least one dietitian responsible for the School Feeding Program. The percentage of adequate working hours was from 20 to 66%. Some dietitians were involved in management activities, administration, procurement, and accounting, in addition to dietitian assignments for the School Feeding Program. Most dietitians worked in other sectors of the municipalities such as the health system, social assistance, and at events. This practice could compromise compliance of technical activities that must be met by the dietitians of the School Feeding Program. Conclusion: The number of dietitians in most of cities working at School Feeding Program is not sufficient to meet the number of students. The insuficient workload and excessive activities could hinder the development of dietitian’s private activities. The hiring of nutrition and dietitian technicians and administrative assistants for bureaucratic activies is recommended.

  16. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  17. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ''channeling'' which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates

  18. Meta-analysis of RNA-Seq data across cohorts in a multi-season feed efficiency study of crossbred beef steers accounts for biological and technical variability within season

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-throughput sequencing is often used for studies of the transcriptome, particularly for comparisons between experimental conditions. Due to sequencing costs, a limited number of biological replicates are typically considered in such experiments, leading to low detection power for differential ex...

  19. River Protection Project waste feed delivery program technical performance measurement assessment plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan establishes a formal technical performance-monitoring program. Technical performance is assessed by establishing requirements based performance goals at the beginning of a program and routinely evaluating progress in meeting these goals at predetermined milestones throughout the project life cycle

  20. Technical feasibility study on polycarbonate solar panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hackmann, M.M.; Meuwissen, M.H.H.; Bots, T.L.; Buijs, J.A.H.M.; Broek, K.M.; Kinderman, R.; Tanck, O.B.F.; Schuurmans, F.M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes a technical feasibility study on the application of polycarbonate (PC) plates in a superstrate photovoltaic module design. The lamination process was performed in a conventional laminator apparatus using low temperature curing (100°C) ethylene-vinyl-acetate (EVA) as the potting

  1. Factors Affecting Women Enrolment In Technical Institutions In Tanzania A Case Study Of Arusha Technical College

    OpenAIRE

    Glory B. Kaaya; Dr. Esther Waiganjo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical Institutions in Tanzania by focusing on the women. The study examined in detail the factors affecting women enrolment in Technical institutions and Arusha Technical College in particular as well as exploring sexual dynamics within Technical Institutions. Moreover a number of theoretical frameworks were concerned basing on the objectives a case study design was employed involving both qua...

  2. Study of side-feeding time for light mass nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Sudatta; Bisoi, A.; Kshetri, R.; Goswami, A.; Saha Sarkar, M.; Pramanik, D.; Sarkar, S.; Nag, S.; Selva Kumar, K.; Singh, P.; Saha, S.; Sethi, J.; Trivedi, T.; Naidu, B.S.; Donthi, R.; Nanal, V.; Palit, R.

    2011-01-01

    Precise determination of level lifetime is of utmost importance in nuclear γ-spectroscopy. Doppler Shift Attenuation (DSA) method suitable for measuring sub-pico second lifetimes, involves inclusion of proper correction for side-feeding which is synonymous to unknown feeding of the level under consideration. It is possible to avoid a sidefeeding contribution by gating on Doppler shifted gamma lines above (GTA) the level being studied in the cascade. In the present work, an empirical approach has been adopted to find the dependence of side-feeding times in nuclei in A ≅ 40 region as function of level energies

  3. 'The midwives aren't allowed to tell you': perceived infant feeding policy restrictions in a formula feeding culture - the Feeding Your Baby Study.

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    Lagan, Briege M; Symon, Andrew; Dalzell, Janet; Whitford, Heather

    2014-03-01

    to explore the expectations and experiences of postnatal mothers in relation to infant feeding, and to identify how care could be improved. this study used a qualitative, exploratory, descriptive design. Data were collected through one to one in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus groups. Tayside area of Eastern Scotland. seven focus group interviews (n=38 participants) and 40 semi-structured one-to-one interviews with mothers with a range of infant feeding experiences i.e. exclusively breast fed; started breast feeding but changed to formula milk before 16 weeks; exclusively formula fed; or who concurrently breast and formula fed their infant. a principal theme of 'Mixed and missing messages' emerged, incorporating 'Conflicting advice', 'Information gaps' and 'Pressure to breast feed' with a secondary theme of 'Emotional costs'. Several problems were identified with how women were given information, how infant feeding discussions were held, and the type of support available after the infant is born. there was a strong perception that some midwives are not 'allowed' to discuss or provide information on formula feeding, and the women reported feeling pressurised to breast feed. Current interpretation of guidance from the UNICEF UK Baby Friendly Initiative may be restricting antenatal discussions about infant feeding. The combination of this partial preparation antenatally and postnatal support that was often inconsistent seems to incur a counter-productive emotional cost. at strategic, policy and practice levels the infant feeding message needs to change to encourage a more woman-centred focus including discussions about the realities of all types of infant feeding. It is important that health providers continue to promote and support breast feeding; and that effective services are provided to women who wish to breast feed to help them to do so. However provision of information about all aspects of feeding is needed as well as support for women who do not

  4. A serial qualitative interview study of infant feeding experiences: idealism meets realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Leone C A; Britten, Jane; McInnes, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infant feeding experiences of women and their significant others from pregnancy until 6 months after birth to establish what would make a difference. Design Qualitative serial interview study. Setting Two health boards in Scotland. Participants 72 of 541 invited pregnant women volunteered. 220 interviews approximately every 4 weeks with 36 women, 26 partners, eight maternal mothers, one sister and two health professionals took place. Results The overarching theme was a clash between overt or covert infant feeding idealism and the reality experienced. This is manifest as pivotal points where families perceive that the only solution that will restore family well-being is to stop breast feeding or introduce solids. Immediate family well-being is the overriding goal rather than theoretical longer term health benefits. Feeding education is perceived as unrealistic, overly technical and rules based which can undermine women's confidence. Unanimously families would prefer the balance to shift away from antenatal theory towards more help immediately after birth and at 3–4 months when solids are being considered. Family-orientated interactive discussions are valued above breastfeeding-centred checklist style encounters. Conclusions Adopting idealistic global policy goals like exclusive breast feeding until 6 months as individual goals for women is unhelpful. More achievable incremental goals are recommended. Using a proactive family-centred narrative approach to feeding care might enable pivotal points to be anticipated and resolved. More attention to the diverse values, meanings and emotions around infant feeding within families could help to reconcile health ideals with reality. PMID:22422915

  5. Technical study report on fuel fabrication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kono, Shusaku; Tanaka, Kenya; Ono, Kiyoshi; Iwasa, Katsuyoshi; Hoshino, Yasushi; Shinkai, Yasuo

    2000-07-01

    The feasibility study of FBR and related fuel cycle is performed for developing the FBR recycle system which ensures safety, economic competitiveness, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation under consistency of FBR reactor and fuel cycle systems. In this study, a conceptual design study and system characteristics evaluation are conducted for fuel fabrication systems of pellet process, vibropack process for oxide and nitride fuel and casting process for metal fuel. Technical issues in each process are also extracted. In 1999 fiscal year, a conceptual design study were conducted for the fuel fabrication plants adopting (1) the short pellet process which simplifies the conventional MOX pellet fabrication processes, (2) vibropack processes of aqueous gelation process, improved RIAR process, improved ANL process and fluoride volatility process, (3) casting processes of injection process, centrifuging process. As a result, attainable perspective was obtained for each fuel fabrication system through the evaluation of apparatuses, layout and facility volume, etc. In each fuel fabrication system, technical issues for practical use were made clear. Hereafter, more detailed study will be performed for each system, and research programs for phase II study will be planned. (author)

  6. Technical note: Impact of a molasses-based liquid feed supplement on the feed sorting behavior and growth of grain-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, L J; DeVries, T J

    2016-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of adding a molasses-based liquid feed (LF) supplement to a high-grain mixed ration on the feed sorting behavior and growth of grain-fed veal calves. Twenty-four Holstein bull veal calves (90.2 ± 2.6 d of age, weighing 137.5 ± 16.9 kg) were split into groups of 4 and exposed, in a crossover design with 35-d periods, to each of 2 treatment diets: 1) control diet (76.0% high-moisture corn, 19.0% protein supplement, and 5.0% alfalfa/grass haylage) and 2) LF diet (68.4% corn, 17.1% protein supplement, 9.0% molasses-based LF, and 4.5% alfalfa/grass haylage). Diets were designed to support 1.5 kg/d of growth. Data were collected for the final 3 wk of each treatment period. Feed intakes were recorded daily and calves were weighed 2 times/wk. Feed samples of fresh feed and refusals were collected 3 times/wk for particle size analysis. The particle size separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each fraction expressed as a percent of its predicted intake. Calves tended ( = 0.08) to sort for long particles on the control diet (110.5%) and did not sort these particles on the LF diet (96.8%). Sorting for medium particles (102.6%) was similar ( = 0.9) across diets. Calves sorted against short particles on the LF diet (97.5%; = 0.04) but did not sort this fraction on the control diet (99.4%). Calves sorted against fine particles (79.3%) to a similar extent ( = 0.2) on both diets. Dry matter intake was similar across diets (6.1 kg/d; = 0.9), but day-to-day variability in DMI was greater (0.5 vs. 0.4 kg/d; = 0.04) when calves were fed the control compared with the LF diet. Calves on both diets had similar ADG (1.6 kg/d; = 0.8) as well as within-pen variability in ADG (0.4 kg/d; = 0.7). The feed-to-gain ratio was also similar between control and LF diets (4.3 vs. 3.9 kg DM/kg gain; = 0.4). The results suggest

  7. Feed-in tariffs versus quotas: how to promote renewable s and stimulate technical progress for cost decrease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menanteau, Ph.; Finon, D.; Lamy, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    Incentive schemes for the development of renewable energy sources may focus on quantities (defining national targets and setting up bidding systems, or quota systems providing for green certificate trading), or they may focus on prices (feed-in tariffs). Whatever the system chosen, the role of the public authorities is quite specific: to stimulate technical progress and speed up the technological learning processes so that ultimately renewable energy technologies will be able to compete with conventional technologies, once the environmental costs have been internalized. A comparison of instruments must thus take into account the characteristics of the innovation process and adoption conditions (uncertainties regarding cost curves, learning effects) which means also looking at dynamic efficiency criteria. The paper concludes that a system of feed-in tariffs is more efficient than a bidding system, but highlights the theoretical interest of green certificate trading which must be confirmed through practice, given the influence of market structures and rules on the performance of this type of approach. (author)

  8. Technical-economic study of electricity storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriche, Farah; Souletis, Romain; Carrette, Bertille; Jarry, Gregory; Dereuddre, Antoine

    2013-01-01

    This study first reports an analysis of all services which could be provided by storage to the French electric power system. It proposes an overview of existing technologies, a comparison of their technical characteristics, and a synthesis of technologies which are the most suited to the main services. The author then discusses some regulatory evolutions which are necessary for a good development of the power storage sector in France. An economic scenario is then proposed for the development of storage by 2030. The author indicates expected capacities for each technologies and possible valorisations

  9. U Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document was prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of U Plant. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation that was undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. U Plant refers to the 221-U Process Canyon Building, a chemical separation facility constructed during World War II. It also includes the Uranium Oxide (UO 3 ) Plant constructed at the same time as 221-U as an adjunct to the original plutonium separation process but which, like 221-U, was converted for other missions. Waste sites are associated primarily with U Plant's 1952 through 1958 Uranium Metal Recovery Program mission and the U0 3 Plant's ongoing U0 3 mission. Waste sites include cribs, reverse wells, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, a waste vault, and the lines and encasements that connect them. It also includes the U Pond and its feed ditches and an underground tank farm designed for high-level liquid wastes

  10. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties-Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Rachel H V; Tosatti, Abykeyla M; Malzyner, Gabriela; Maximino, Priscilla; Ramos, Cláudia C; Bozzini, Ana Beatriz; Ribeiro, Letícia; Fisberg, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Given the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding. To identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers' profile. Cross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with complaints of feeding difficulties. Data were collected during interviews with mothers: child age, gender, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, presence of organic disease, dynamics of bottle use, self-feeding practices and posture at meals, use of appropriate feeding equipment; basic information about the mothers (parity and level of education), caregiver feeding style, presence of coercive feeding, frequency and characteristics of family meals. Statistical analysis considered significance level at 5%. The non-responsive profile predominated among mothers (76.2%, with the Authoritarian style being the most prevalent-39.7%). The responsive profile was characterized by absence of coercive feeding, stimulation of self-feeding practices, use of appropriate feeding equipment and meal environment, with interaction at meals. Non-responsive profile consisted of both inadequate environment and posture at meals, use of distraction and coercive feeding, lack of shared meals, and disregard for children's hunger signals. Only the habit of sharing meals with children was associated with mothers' profile, and considered a protection factor against non-responsive care (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06-0.88). Both Authoritarian ( p  = 0.000) and indulgent mothers ( p  = 0.007) breastfed exclusively for longer time than negligent ones. There was a higher level of interaction with children in "responsive" parental style (OR 0.056; p  = 0.01) compared to other feeding styles. Results highlight the need for educational

  11. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Rachel H. V.; Tosatti, Abykeyla M.; Malzyner, Gabriela; Maximino, Priscilla; Ramos, Cláudia C.; Bozzini, Ana Beatriz; Ribeiro, Letícia; Fisberg, Mauro

    2018-01-01

    Background Given the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding. Objectives To identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers’ profile. Methods Cross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with comp...

  12. Case Study: Caregiver Perception of Pediatric Multidisciplinary Feeding Outpatient Clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Fisher PhD, OT, FAOTA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the perception of satisfaction of caregivers who attended a feeding clinic at a large pediatric hospital in the midwest. The clinic is designed for a multidisciplinary team to meet with the child and the caregiver. Thirty-five participants were involved in the study. Results indicated that most participants were satisfied with the clinic experience. However, there were areas of care not covered by the members of the feeding team, which indicates a need. It is suggested that this need could be filled by occupational therapists.

  13. Technical study report on reprocessing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Kasai, Yoshimitsu; Kawamura, Fumio

    2000-07-01

    The feasibility studies on commercialized fast breeder reactor (FBR) recycle system, in which reactor system and recycle technologies are related on consideration, are performed considering the attainable perspectives for the followings: ensuring safety, economic competitiveness to future LWRs, efficient utilization of resources, reduction of environmental burden, and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. In the studies of Reprocessing system of FBR, evaluation was made for the non-aqueous reprocessing of pyrochemical and fluoride volatility process and also for the aqueous reprocessing with a view to streamlining. As a result, it was estimated that each system has prospects of coming into practical use in terms of technique. In the economical efficiency assessment, it was estimated to have economic competitiveness to future LWRs. And the technical research items of each system are picked out. Hereafter, more detail design study will be performed for each system. (author)

  14. Feeding Studies of Irradiated Foods with Insects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, Srisan

    1978-06-15

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  15. Feeding studies of irradiated foods with insects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.

    1978-01-01

    Insects are of value to man in many scientific studies. Microsomal detoxication systems exist in both insects and mammals. In the preliminary investigations it was found that irradiated cocoa beans and white and red kidney beans (Phaseolus spp.) did not significantly change the percentage of egg-hatch in the insects tested. In more detailed investigations food samples that are susceptible to insect spoilage and are representatives of widely consumed human foods were fed to various insect species. The development, sex distortion and reproductivity of the insects were investigated. Cytogenetic aberrations as related to dominant lethality were studied in insects with reasonably clear chromosomal patterns. The meiosis stage was examined, using the squash technique and Aceto-orcein staining. Black beans, Phaseolus spp., irradiated with up to 200 krad of gamma rays did not apparently change the percentage of survival and the sex ratio of the bean weevil, Zabrotes subfasciatus. Dominant lethality in the German cockroach, Blatella germanica, fed on irradiated black beans did not apparently occur when considering the results of cytological investigation and the number of offspring obtained. Dried sardine samples irradiated with up to 400 krad of gamma rays neither apparently affected the survival nor caused sex distortion in the cheese skipper, Piophila casei. This irradiated product apparently did not induce dominant lethality in the German cockroach as tested. Coffee processed from coffee beans that had been irradiated with up to 100 krad of gamma rays did not apparently cause adverse effects on the experimental insects. (author)

  16. Technical study gas storage. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borowka, J.; Moeller, A.; Zander, W.; Koischwitz, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    This study will answer the following questions: (a) For what uses was the storage facility designed and for what use is it currently applied? Provide an overview of the technical data per gas storage facility: for instance, what is its capacity, volume, start-up time, etc.; (b) How often has this facility been used during the past 10 years? With what purpose was the facility brought into operation at the time? How much gas was supplied at the time from the storage facility?; (c) Given the characteristics and the use of the storage facility during the past 10 years and projected gas consumption in the future, how will the storage facility be used in the future?; (d) Are there other uses for which the gas storage facility can be deployed, or can a single facility be deployed for numerous uses? What are the technical possibilities in such cases? Questions (a) and (b) are answered separately for every storage facility. Questions (c) and (d) in a single chapter each (Chapter 2 and 3). An overview of the relevant storage data relating to current use, use in the last 10 years and use in future is given in the Annex

  17. Evaluation Study of VTAE Wood Technics Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisconsin State Board of Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education, Madison.

    A survey of former students of the Wisconsin Vocational, Technical, and Adult Education (VTAE) wood technics programs and employers in woodworking industries was conducted during spring of 1985. General objectives were to determine job classifications, types of businesses, and relative importance of tasks or duties in various woodworking-related…

  18. Infant and young child feeding counseling: an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassichetto, Katia Cristina; Réa, Marina Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an integrated infant and young child feeding counseling course for transforming the knowledge, attitudes and practices of pediatricians and nutritionists working for the municipal health system of São Paulo, Brazil. A randomized intervention study enrolling 29 professionals in the intervention group and 27 in the control group. Interviewers were trained in advance to collect data on the professionals working at health centers, before and 2 months after the intervention. Three research instruments were used, the first was to assess the profile of each professional, the second assessed their knowledge and the third was a clinical observation protocol. Analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for independent samples and the Tukey method. The results for the knowledge questionnaire showed improvements in the intervention group (p < 0.001) for the whole questionnaire and for questions on breastfeeding (p = 0.004); HIV and infant and young child feeding (p = 0.049); complementary feeding (p = 0.012); and counseling in infant and young child feeding (p = 0.004). In terms of performance, it was observed that the intervention group had significantly improved their dietary anamnesis after the intervention (p < 0.001). This course effectively promoted an increase in knowledge and improvements in dietary anamnesis performance, but the same was not true of counseling skills.

  19. Rheological Studies on Pretreated Feed and Melter Feed from AW-101 and AN-107

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredt, Paul R; Swoboda, Robert G

    2001-01-01

    Rheological and physical properties testing were conducted on actual AN-107 and AW-101 pretreated feed samples prior to the addition of glass formers. Analyses were repeated following the addition of glass formers. The AN-107 and AW-101 pretreated feeds were tested at the target sodium values of nominally 6, 8, and 10 M. The AW-101 melter feeds were tested at these same concentrations, while the AN-107 melter feeds were tested at 5, 6, and 8 M with respect to sodium. These data on actual waste are required to validate and qualify results obtained with simulants

  20. Dorper sheep utilizing feed resources efficiently: a Mediterranean case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Ocak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect varying feeding systems would have on meat quality and production. The study looked at 45 Dorper lambs which were subjected to three different feeding protocols representing three alternate production systems: extensive grazing system (Group G, an intensive feedlot system being fed concentrate + alfalfa hay (Group C, and a semi-intensive production system comprising grazing + concentrate (Group GC. The lambs were slaughtered 62 days after weaning at approximately four months of age and meat quality factors such as pH, colour, shear force, cooking and water loss, as well as carcass characteristics; back fat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width, and muscle area were measured instrumentally on the longissimus dorsi muscle. A new measuring index was used to assess feed cost against weight gain to determine performance for profitability. In calculating cost kg-1 live weight gain, the extensive grass-fed production was significantly lower, approximately 70% less than the intensive feedlot system. Very little significant effect on meat quality was seen among the three systems. Slaughter weight had a significant effect on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and drip loss. The lean carcass trait of the Dorper breed was a major positive attribute, but minor benefits gained in meat quality with the feedlot production system did not justify the substantial additional cost of production. Dorper sheep can be considered efficient feed converters on pasture, and thus a suitable breed for lamb meat production in countries like Turkey, where feed costs are the main contributor to farm outgoing.

  1. Space Weather Studies at Istanbul Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Zerefsan

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will introduce the Upper Atmosphere and Space Weather Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University (ITU). It has been established to support the educational needs of the Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 2011 to conduct scientific research in Space Weather, Space Environment, Space Environment-Spacecraft Interactions, Space instrumentation and Upper Atmospheric studies. Currently the laboratory has some essential infrastructure and the most instrumentation for ionospheric observations and ground induced currents from the magnetosphere. The laboratory has two subunits: SWIFT dealing with Space Weather Instrumentation and Forecasting unit and SWDPA dealing with Space Weather Data Processing and Analysis. The research area covers wide range of upper atmospheric and space science studies from ionosphere, ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms, distant magnetotail, magnetopause and bow shock studies, as well as solar and solar wind disturbances and their interaction with the Earth's space environment. We also study the spacecraft environment interaction and novel plasma instrument design. Several scientific projects have been carried out in the laboratory. Operational objectives of our laboratory will be carried out with the collaboration of NASA's Space Weather Laboratory and the facilities are in the process of integration to their prediction services. Educational and research objectives, as well as the examples from the research carried out in our laboratory will be demonstrated in this presentation.

  2. Feeding infants and toddlers study: Improvements needed in meeting infant feeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briefel, Ronette R; Reidy, Kathleen; Karwe, Vatsala; Devaney, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    To assess adherence to infant feeding recommendations among a sample of infants and toddlers four to 24 months of age in the United States. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls collected with the Nutrition Data System for Research of the University of Minnesota. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age four to 24 months, including 2,024 infants age four to 11 months. Breastfeeding, timing of introduction of complementary foods, and adherence to infant feeding recommendations. Means and standard errors, percentile distributions, and percentages by age group (four to six months, seven to eight months, and nine to 11 months). About 76% of infants and toddlers were fully or partly breastfed at birth. This percentage declined to 30% at six months and 16% at 12 months-short of Healthy People 2010 goals of 50% and 25%, respectively. The average duration of breastfeeding was 5.5 months for all who initiated breastfeeding. About two-thirds of infants had been introduced to complementary foods between four and six months-the period recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP); 17% consumed juice before the AAP recommended age of six months or later. Twenty-two percent of infants nine to 11 months consumed cow's milk on a daily basis before the recommended age of 12 months or later, and one in 10 consumed french fries and/or sweetened beverages on any given day. More parents and caregivers can benefit from guidance about the introduction of developmentally appropriate, micronutrient-rich first solid foods such as iron-rich infant cereals, iron-fortified grain products, meats, soft fruits, and cooked vegetables and the importance of breastfeeding through the first year of life. A smaller proportion of parents and caregivers require guidance on delaying the introduction of juices until six months of age and cow's milk other than formula

  3. Technical status study of heavy water enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukarsono; Imam Dahroni; Didik Herhady

    2007-01-01

    Technical status study of heavy water enrichment in Indonesia and also in the world has been done. Heavy water enrichment processes have been investigated were water distillation, hydrogen distillation, laser enrichment, electrolysis and isotop exchange. For the isotop exchange, the chemical pair can be used were water-hydrogen sulphite, ammonium-hydrogen, aminomethane-hydrogen, and water-hydrogen. For the isotope exchange, there was carried out by mono thermal or bi thermal. The highest producer of heavy water is Canada, and the other producer is USA, Norwegian and India. The processes be used in the world are isotope exchange Girdler Sulphide (GS), distillation and electrolysis. Research of heavy water carried out in Batan Yogyakarta, has a purpose to know the characteristic of heavy water purification. Several apparatus which has erected were 3 distillation column: Pyrex glass of 2 m tall, stainless steel column of 3 m tall and steel of 6 m tall. Electrolysis apparatus is 50 cell electrolysis and an isotope exchange unit which has catalyst: Ni- Cr 2 O 3 and Pt-Carbon. These apparatus were not ready to operate. (author)

  4. Maternal Feeding Practices among Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel H. V. Machado

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundGiven the positive influence of responsive caregiving on dietary habits in childhood, to raise awareness of caregivers regarding their behavior is crucial in multidisciplinary care on infant feeding.ObjectivesTo identify the most common responsive and non-responsive feeding practices in mothers of children with feeding complaints, as well as to seek associations between practices and caregivers’ profile.MethodsCross-sectional study with 77 children under 18 years old, with complaints of feeding difficulties. Data were collected during interviews with mothers: child age, gender, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, presence of organic disease, dynamics of bottle use, self-feeding practices and posture at meals, use of appropriate feeding equipment; basic information about the mothers (parity and level of education, caregiver feeding style, presence of coercive feeding, frequency and characteristics of family meals. Statistical analysis considered significance level at 5%.ResultsThe non-responsive profile predominated among mothers (76.2%, with the Authoritarian style being the most prevalent—39.7%. The responsive profile was characterized by absence of coercive feeding, stimulation of self-feeding practices, use of appropriate feeding equipment and meal environment, with interaction at meals. Non-responsive profile consisted of both inadequate environment and posture at meals, use of distraction and coercive feeding, lack of shared meals, and disregard for children’s hunger signals. Only the habit of sharing meals with children was associated with mothers’ profile, and considered a protection factor against non-responsive care (OR 0.23; 95% CI 0.06–0.88. Both Authoritarian (p = 0.000 and indulgent mothers (p = 0.007 breastfed exclusively for longer time than negligent ones. There was a higher level of interaction with children in “responsive” parental style (OR 0.056; p = 0.01 compared to other feeding styles

  5. Delayed Development of Feeding Skills in Children with Feeding Difficulties—Cross-sectional Study in a Brazilian Reference Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia C. Ramos

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDelays in gross motor development, sensory processing issues, and organic and behavioral problems are known to interfere in the development of feeding skills (FS; and—therefore—in the success of the process of feeding a child. Children with feeding difficulties (FD commonly present inadequacy of FS.ObjectivesAssessment of five FS in Brazilian children with FD, and search of associations with types of FD.MethodsCross-sectional study with 70 children below 10 years old. Data were obtained from medical records: age, gender, age at texture transitions, feeding phase (breastfeeding, weaning to solids or full solids at first complaint; characteristics of the meal (duration, environment, and shared meals with adults, self-feeding practices, use of feeding equipment and bottle, mouthing, feeding position and FD diagnosis. Skills were categorized according to standards for age. Chi-Square, Anova Test (or non-parametric equivalent and Multinomial logistic regression tests were used, with a significance level of 5%.ResultsThere was no difference in FS (p > 0.05 or in the number of FS inadequateness (p = 0.84 according to FD diagnosis. The majority (94% of children presented at least one delayed development of FS; 1/3 presented delays in more than half of the FS. The most prevalent inadequacies in FS were inadequate feeding position (73.5%, prolonged bottle feeding (56.9%, and inadequate self-feeding practices (37.9%. Feeding complaints first appeared at 10.9 ± 11.4 months, and picky eating was the most prevalent type of FD (37.1%. Most children were fed in inadequate environments (55.2%, without the company of adults (78%. Transition to solid foods occurred at 16 ± 5.6 months. Multinomial logistic regression showed no difference in likelihood of presenting any type of FD compared to picky eating, according to FS. Age at texture transition both from breastfeeding to complementary feeding (p = 0.95, and from

  6. Effect of cup feeding and bottle feeding on breastfeeding in late preterm infants: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gonca; Caylan, Nilgun; Karacan, Can Demir; Bodur, İlknur; Gokcay, Gulbin

    2014-05-01

    Cup feeding has been used as an alternative feeding method for preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bottle and cup feeding on exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months post-discharge in late preterm infants. Included in the study were preterm infants of 32 to 35 weeks' gestation fed only by intermittent gastric tube at the time of recruitment; 522 infants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the cup-fed group (n = 254) and bottle-fed group (n = 268). Main outcomes were prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and length of hospital stay. Infants randomized to cup versus bottle feeding were more likely to be exclusively breastfed at discharge home (relative risk [RR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.83), 3 months after discharge (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42-1.89), and 6 months after discharge (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.63). There was no significant difference between groups for length of hospital stay. The mean hospital stay was 25.96 ± 2.20 days in the bottle-fed group and 25.68 ± 2.22 days in the cup-fed group. There was no significant difference between groups for time spent feeding, feeding problems, or weight gain in hospital. Cup feeding significantly increased the likelihood of late preterm infants being exclusively breastfed at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and cup feeding did not increase the length of hospital stay. Overall, we recommend cup feeding as a transitional method prior to breastfeeding for late preterm infants during hospitalization.

  7. Addressing the recovery of feeding rates in post-exposure feeding bioassays: Cyathura carinata as a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pais-Costa, Antonia Juliana [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Acevedo, Pelayo [SaBio IREC, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (UCLM-CSIC-JCCM), Ciudad Real 13005 (Spain); Marques, João Carlos [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Martinez-Haro, Mónica, E-mail: monica.martinezharo@gmail.com [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-02-15

    Post-exposure bioassays are used in environmental assessment as a cost-effective tool, but the effects of organism's recovery after exposure to pollutant has not yet been addressed in detail. The recoveries of post-exposure feeding rates after being exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium during two different exposure periods (48 h and 96 h) were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the estuarine isopod Cyathura carinata. Results showed that feeding depression was a stable endpoint up to 24 h after cadmium exposure, which is useful for ecotoxicological bioassays. - Highlights: • We studied recovery of post-exposure feeding rates 48–96 h after cadmium exposure. • The assay is based on the isopod Cyathura carinata. • Post-exposure feeding inhibition is a stable sublethal endpoint.

  8. A comparative study of wire feeding and powder feeding in direct diode laser deposition for rapid prototyping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syed, Waheed Ul Haq [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: w.syed@postgrad.manchester.ac.uk; Pinkerton, Andrew J. [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Li Lin [Laser Processing Research Centre, School of Mechanical Aerospace and Civil Engineering, Sackville Street Building, University of Manchester, P.O. Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-15

    Metal powder feeding has been used widely in various rapid prototyping and tooling processes such as direct laser deposition (DLD) and layered engineered net shaping (LENS) to achieve near net shape accuracy. Although powder recycling has been practiced, the material usage efficiency has been very low (normally below 30%). This study compares the process characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of wire- and powder-feed DLD. A 1.5 kW diode laser is used to build multiple layer parts, which are compared and analysed in terms of surface finish, microstructure and deposition efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy are used for the material characterisation. The microstructure of samples from both the methods is similar, with some porosity found in powder-feed components, but the surface finish and material usage efficiency is better for wire-feed samples. The deposition angle is found to be critical in the case of wire feeding and the characteristics of different feed angles are explored. Possible reasons for the different characteristics of the two deposition techniques are discussed.

  9. Study of graphite sealing for the instrumentation feed through part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jintae; Ahn, Sungho; Joung, Changyoung; Kim, Kahye [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    Because highly pressurized (15.5 MPa) and highly heated (300 .deg. C) coolant is circulated through the test rig, it needs to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In this case, general sealing method is brazing and several works have been carried out in nuclear fields. However, because high temperature is induced on the sealing plug and sheaths, it is easy to be broken due to oxidisation of the sheath during brazing process. In addition, because the brazing process is irreversible, if the brazing process fails, the whole inner assembly should be scrapped out. Another approach which uses graphite has been studied to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In the study, graphite sealing is considered as a sealing method and the improvement of mechanical structure has been studied to improve the workability. To check the sealing performance of the instrumentation feed through part, a hydraulic pressure test and a helium leak test were carried out according to the ASME section III. The criterion of a hydraulic pressure test is 125% of the design pressure. In this study, because the design pressure of the pressure vessel is 17.5 MPa. the sealing criterion should be 21.9 MPa. Also, in a Helium leak test, the criterion is less than 5 Χ 10{sup -9} torr·liter/sec. At first, a Helium leak test was carried out. After eliminating Helium in the pressure vessel by evacuating the internal area of the pressure vessel up to 1 Χ 10{sup -3} torr using ASM 310, Helium detection test was carried out by spraying Helium gas at the top face of the top flange for 5 minutes. Fig. 4 shows the rate of Helium leakage is 2.4 Χ 10{sup -9} torr·liter/sec, and it satisfies the sealing performance criterion. A hydraulic pressure test was also carried out, and there was no leakage or pressure drop when the water in the pressure vessel is pressurized up to 22.5 MPa. The above test results show that graphite powder can seal out the instrumentation feed through part easily with

  10. Study of graphite sealing for the instrumentation feed through part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Jintae; Ahn, Sungho; Joung, Changyoung; Kim, Kahye

    2013-01-01

    Because highly pressurized (15.5 MPa) and highly heated (300 .deg. C) coolant is circulated through the test rig, it needs to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In this case, general sealing method is brazing and several works have been carried out in nuclear fields. However, because high temperature is induced on the sealing plug and sheaths, it is easy to be broken due to oxidisation of the sheath during brazing process. In addition, because the brazing process is irreversible, if the brazing process fails, the whole inner assembly should be scrapped out. Another approach which uses graphite has been studied to seal out the instrumentation feed through part. In the study, graphite sealing is considered as a sealing method and the improvement of mechanical structure has been studied to improve the workability. To check the sealing performance of the instrumentation feed through part, a hydraulic pressure test and a helium leak test were carried out according to the ASME section III. The criterion of a hydraulic pressure test is 125% of the design pressure. In this study, because the design pressure of the pressure vessel is 17.5 MPa. the sealing criterion should be 21.9 MPa. Also, in a Helium leak test, the criterion is less than 5 Χ 10 -9 torr·liter/sec. At first, a Helium leak test was carried out. After eliminating Helium in the pressure vessel by evacuating the internal area of the pressure vessel up to 1 Χ 10 -3 torr using ASM 310, Helium detection test was carried out by spraying Helium gas at the top face of the top flange for 5 minutes. Fig. 4 shows the rate of Helium leakage is 2.4 Χ 10 -9 torr·liter/sec, and it satisfies the sealing performance criterion. A hydraulic pressure test was also carried out, and there was no leakage or pressure drop when the water in the pressure vessel is pressurized up to 22.5 MPa. The above test results show that graphite powder can seal out the instrumentation feed through part easily with the improved

  11. Feeding problems in infancy and early childhood: A case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding problems in infancy and early childhood: A case study of selected ... of feeding problems among children 6 to 24 months of age in Ibadan, Nigeria. ... from four selected Primary Health Centres in Ibadan North Local Government Area.

  12. Multigeneration feeding studies with an irradiated whole diet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravindakshan, M.; Chaubey, R.C.; Chauhan, P.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1978-01-01

    Multigeneration feeding studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of an irradiated whole diet in Wistar rats. The parent and the four successive generations were fed on a nutritionally adequate test diet exposed to either 0.2 or 2.5Mrad gamma radiation and the effects, if any, on various parameters of animal health were assessed. In addition to an unirradiated test control, a historical control group fed on stock laboratory rations was also employed for comparison. The test diet consisted of various components including some of the basic ingredients of human diet in India. Exposure of the test diet to 0.2 or 2.5Mrad did not affect the food efficiency ratio and there were no significant differences in the growth rates of animals fed on unirradiated or irradiated diets. Reproductive performance of the rats fed on irradiated or unirradiated diets belonging to the parent, first, second or third generations were also comparable. Mortality rates and reproductive function in relation to age were also not altered due to feeding of irradiated whole diets. The haematological profile and the serum enzymes of the animals of all the generations fed irradiated diets were within normal limits. Though some differences were observed in the relative weights of some organs, these effects were limited to a particular generation, did not show any definite pattern and could not be related to the ingestion of irradiated diets. First-generation rats examined at 100-104 weeks for gross pathological manifestations including tumour incidence also did not indicate any significant differences among groups. (author)

  13. Selling Technology in Technical Advertisements: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that, as the category of "technical products" has expanded and the public's enthusiasm for such products has lessened, marketing writers have begun to reconsider their approaches to technology in ads. Studies two technical ads in detail, and compares the ways in which they portray technology. (SR)

  14. Career and Technical Education at a Crossroads: A Delphi Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutright, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education in the United States has reached a critical juncture. A three round Delphi method was used to determine a consensus on the future events of career and technical education to better inform educational decision makers. Forty-one individual experts in the field were invited to serve as panelists for the Delphi study and…

  15. An experimental study of nettle feeding in captive gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Hedwig, Daniela; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) in Karisoke, Rwanda, feed on the stinging nettle Laportea alatipes by means of elaborate processing skills. Byrne [e.g. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series B, Biological Sciences 358:529-536, 2003] has claimed that individuals acquire these skills by means of the so-called program-level imitation, in which the overall sequence of problem-solving steps (not the precise actions) is reproduced. In this study we present western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) with highly similar nettles. Twelve gorillas in three different groups (including also one nettle-naïve gorilla) used the same program-level technique as wild mountain gorillas (with differences mainly on the action level). Chimpanzees, orangutans, and bonobos did not show these program-level patterns, nor did the gorillas when presented with a plant similar in structural design but lacking stinging defenses. We conclude that although certain aspects (i.e. single actions) of this complex skill may be owing to social learning, at the program level gorilla nettle feeding derives mostly from genetic predispositions and individual learning of plant affordances. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Perinatal factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth: the Bedouin Infant Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, M R; Berendest, H W; Lewando-Hundt, G; Sarov, B; Naggan, L

    1991-04-01

    Bedouin Arab women delivering newborns at Soroka Medical Center, Israel, during 1 year were interviewed in hospital to determine the factors influencing infant feeding practices at birth. Eighty-six per cent breastfed, 11% breast and bottlefed, and 3% bottlefed at birth. Based on a multiple logistic regression analysis, the factors that significantly reduced the odds ratio (OR) of exclusive breastfeeding vs. breast and bottle feeding or bottle feeding at birth include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.49); maternal recall of feeling unwell during pregnancy (OR = 0.59); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.10); a newborn diagnosed with major malformations (OR = 0.30) or with major illnesses (OR = 0.32); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.09). In contrast, multiparae experienced an increased odds (OR = 1.67) of breastfeeding. Among primiparae, the factors that significantly reduced the odds of exclusive breastfeeding include: delivering during the high birth season (OR = 0.47); delivering a low birthweight newborn (OR = 0.12); and delivering by Caesarean section (OR = 0.18). Mothers of high-risk neonates and those who deliver by Caesarean section need to be educated about the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. Young primiparae are a challenge and require qualitative and quantitative research into the reasons precluding exclusive breastfeeding.

  17. Reproduction and subchronic feeding study of carnauba wax in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, R A; Re, T A; Babish, J G; Cox, G E; Voss, K A; Becci, P J

    1983-02-01

    The reproductive performance of Wistar rats fed carnauba wax at levels of 0.1, 0.3 or 1% in the diet and the effects of subchronic administration of carnauba wax at these dose levels on the resultant progeny were studied. Reproductive indices, body-weight gain, food consumption, haematological and clinical chemical data, ophthalmic, gross and histopathological examinations were used to study the possible toxic or pathological effects. Serum free fatty acid levels were found to be decreased in male and female rats fed carnauba wax at dietary levels of 0.3 and 1.0%. No other effects of feeding carnauba wax at levels up to 1.0% of the diet were observed.

  18. Technical baseline description of high-level waste and low-activity waste feed mobilization and delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papp, I.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a compilation of information related to the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging, mobilization, and transfer/delivery issues. Information relevant to current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) inventories and activities designed to feed the Phase I Privatization effort at the Hanford Site is included. Discussions on the higher level Phase II activities are offered for a perspective on the interfaces

  19. Maternal intention to exclusively breast feed among mainland Chinese mothers: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Ip, Wan-Yim; Gao, Ling-Ling

    2018-02-01

    to examine postpartum maternal recall of their intentions to exclusively breast feed among breastfeeding women and identify its predictors. a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a regional teaching hospital at Guangzhou, China between April 1 and July 14, 2014. 571 mothers who were within four days after delivery were recruited to the study. data were collected by four research assistants with maternal intention to breast feed data sheet, the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS), and a socio-demographic data sheet. greater than half of the mothers (69.5%) intended to exclusively breast feed. The logistic regression analysis revealed six variables which predicted postpartum maternal recall of their intentions to exclusively breast feed. They were support from husband, being breast-fed as an infant, previous breast feeding experience, attending antenatal breast feeding class, time of decision to breast feed, and the rating of the importance of my baby's health. health care professionals could develop strategies to enhance mothers' intention to exclusively breast feed, such as providing antenatal breast feeding class on internet, a strong focus on the benefits of exclusive breast feeding on the baby's health in the education programme, and more efforts directed toward educating school-aged children and adolescents to modify societal perceptions of what are considered normal infant feeding. Mothers' husband could be encouraged in supporting exclusive breast feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Study on feeding behavior patterns of rats on cariogenic diet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Y

    1989-03-01

    The feeding behavior patterns of Jcl:Wistar rats fed on commercial stock diet and cariogenic diet (Diet #2000) were investigated with the newly developed autorecording system. They were caged separately under a regular light-dark cycle (L:D = 12:12). The results and conclusion were as follows. All rats have a circadian feeding rhythm, and 70-85% of feeding frequency were observed during the dark period. The group on the commercial stock diet showed a dual-peak pattern of feeding at 20:30 and 4:00. On the other hand, the cariogenic diet groups showed a more frequent feeding pattern during the dark period. The feeding frequency increased from 1:00 to 3:00 in the high sucrose diet group and more frequent feeding was observed. From these results, it was suggested that dental caries in the rats was caused by not only the local effect of sucrose in the mouth but also by the changing patterns of feeding behavior with cariogenic diet.

  1. Comparative Study of Commercial Feeds and Farm-made Aqua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was conducted to compare the performance of Clarias gariepinus on four commercial catfish feeds and an on-farm aquafeed. The four catfish commercial diets were Coppens, Superindo and Chi manufactured in the Netherland, Indonesia and Nigeria respectively. 10 fingerlings of Clarias gariepinus (0.87 ...

  2. [Study on artificial compound feed for Buthus martensii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shi-Cai; Shen, Xue-Jian; Wang, Qiang; Han, Xiu-Kun

    2014-03-01

    To solve the problem that the single feed causing malnutrition, extension of the life cycle and low survival rates of Buthus martensii. By using Minitab (R) 15.1.1.0.0., 7 different kinds of compound feed were designed, including minced meat mud (pork,chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin as raw material. Different proportions of compound feed that taking the yellow mealworm as main component had a significant effect on the growth, mortality and birth number of Buthus martensii. Compound feed 5 significantly reduced mortality of youth scorpion. The compound feed 4 was the best in improving the weight of scorpion larvae and youth scorpion, and the farrowing number of mother scorpion. Other indicators were also good. Proportions in meatmud (pork, chicken and rabbit), bran (fried yellow), sugar, milk, vegetable paste and multivitamin was 30.00%, 25.00%, 20.08%, 15.58%, 8.08% and 1.25%, respectively. The growth of Buthus martensii is significantly influenced by the type of feed. In the production of compound feed, the yellow mealworm with compound feed 4 can be popularized.

  3. Do technical skills correlate with non-technical skills in crisis resource management: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riem, N; Boet, S; Bould, M D; Tavares, W; Naik, V N

    2012-11-01

    Both technical skills (TS) and non-technical skills (NTS) are key to ensuring patient safety in acute care practice and effective crisis management. These skills are often taught and assessed separately. We hypothesized that TS and NTS are not independent of each other, and we aimed to evaluate the relationship between TS and NTS during a simulated intraoperative crisis scenario. This study was a retrospective analysis of performances from a previously published work. After institutional ethics approval, 50 anaesthesiology residents managed a simulated crisis scenario of an intraoperative cardiac arrest secondary to a malignant arrhythmia. We used a modified Delphi approach to design a TS checklist, specific for the management of a malignant arrhythmia requiring defibrillation. All scenarios were recorded. Each performance was analysed by four independent experts. For each performance, two experts independently rated the technical performance using the TS checklist, and two other experts independently rated NTS using the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills score. TS and NTS were significantly correlated to each other (r=0.45, P<0.05). During a simulated 5 min resuscitation requiring crisis resource management, our results indicate that TS and NTS are related to one another. This research provides the basis for future studies evaluating the nature of this relationship, the influence of NTS training on the performance of TS, and to determine whether NTS are generic and transferrable between crises that require different TS.

  4. Compliance with technical codes becomes obligatory for receipt of feed-in tariff and ancillary services bonus for wind power plants in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boemer, Jens. C. [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Power Systems and Markets Group; Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Electrical Power Systems Group; Burges, Karsten [Ecofys Germany GmbH, Berlin (Germany). Power Systems and Markets Group; Kumm, Thomas [VDE, Network Technology and Operation Forum (FNN), Berlin (Germany); Poeller, Markus [DIgSILENT GmbH, Gomaringen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The German government aims at a share of electricity generation based on renewable sources (RES-E) of more than 30% by 2020. A major part of this share will be reached by the use of wind power plants (WPP). Therefore, when amending the Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) in June 2008, the German government acknowledged the importance of enhanced technical requirements for WPP and announced the development of a respective technical ordinance. For all WPP that go into operation after June 2010, full grid code-compliance becomes a precondition for privileged network access, receipt of feed-in tariff, and extra payments (''ancillary services bonus''). The basis for the technical requirements in the EEG has been laid down by Medium-Voltage (MV)-Directive 2008 and the TransmissionCode 2007. However, the work of the authors - consulting the German government during the development of the technical ordinance - showed that the TransmissionCode 2007 needed careful review and some clarifying specifications were proposed. Eventually, the so called ''Ancillary Services Ordinance'' for wind power plants went into power in July 2009. The interrelation between all three grid codes as well as their specifications and implications for renewable energy sources generators, with special regard to wind power plants, are presented in this paper. (orig.)

  5. 2SD numerical study of feed-jet flow in gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Dongjun; Zeng Shi

    2008-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method was adopted to simulate the 2D symmetrical feed-jet flow-field in Iguacu gas centrifuge, in order to study the influence of feed-jet to counter-current. The data acquired from calculation were used to modify the feed boundary condition in counter-current calculation, and the stream lines distribution was got considering the effect o f the feed-jet. Finite volume method and 2-order implicit scheme were adopted to solve Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations in cylinder coordinates to simulate the feed-jet flow. Finite difference method was used to solve centrifuge fluid dynamics equations. The result s indicate that the feed-jet flow affects the countercurrent observably, the results of feed-jet flow simulation can be used to modify the conditions to calculate the counter-current in the real centrifuge. (authors)

  6. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Dänicke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON and zearalenone (ZEN, are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the occurrence of both mycotoxins in fish feed so far. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of DON and ZEN in samples of commercial fish feed designed for nutrition of cyprinids collected from central Europe. A maximal DON concentration of 825 μg kg−1 feed was found in one feed whereas average values of 289 μg kg−1 feed were noted. ZEN was the more prevalent mycotoxin but the concentrations were lower showing an average level of 67.9 μg kg−1 feed.

  7. Technical note: Evaluation of an ear-attached movement sensor to record cow feeding behavior and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bikker, J.P.; Laar, van H.; Rump, P.; Doorenbos, J.; Meurs, van K.; Griffioen, G.M.; Dijkstra, J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to monitor dairy cow feeding behavior and activity could improve dairy herd management. A 3-dimensional accelerometer (SensOor; Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) has been developed that can be attached to ear identification tags. Based on the principle that behavior can

  8. Nattokinase production: Medium components and feeding strategy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berenjian Aydin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the effect of nutrients on nattokinase activity during the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis natto was investigated. The highest nattokinase activity of 587 U/mL was obtained in fermenter for a media consisting of yeast extract (6%, w/v, soy peptone (1.2%, w/v and glycerol (6%, w/v. The second order polynomial equation was fitted to the results by using central composite face design. The polynomial model fitted the experimental data well with R2 = 0.939 and R2(Adj = 0.861. In addition, contribution of fed-batch glycerol addition on the nattokinase production pathway was further investigated. Maximum nattokinase activity was resulted when 3% (w/v glycerol was added to the fermentation media during the cell growth phase. Results demonstrate 25 fold increase of nattokinase activity compared to the batch and not optimized culture. This study provides valuable data on the key nutrients and feeding strategy for further investigations and scale up of nattokinase production process.

  9. Technical considerations in radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1987-12-01

    This is the final article in a four-part Continuing Education series on quantitative imaging techniques. After studying this article, the reader should be able to: 1) identify proper use of radiopharmaceuticals and meal composition for gastric emptying studies; 2) discuss appropriate imaging techniques; and 3) discuss methods of data analysis.

  10. Study of the method of placing technical stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sattorov S.B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, the organization of transportation by rail is associated with the processing of trains and wagons along the route. Accommodation and equipping of technical stations play a major role in the organization of the transportation process. The uninterrupted operation of the technical stations ensures the stability of the railway transport as a whole. The distance between the technical stations determines the duration of operation of the locomotive crew, the efficient use of the locomotive, the required number of locomotive crews and locomotives for carrying out the transportation plan, and also improves the main indicators of the railway. However, often train locomotives do not fulfill their assigned tasks due to the lack of time for the locomotive crew in order to deliver the train to the nearest technical station, as well as the irrational use of the standard time of the locomotive crew. In connection with the expectation of delivery, the locomotive brigade replacing the locomotive, the idle time of the wagons at the intermediate stations increases. All this makes it difficult to control the movement of trains and reduces the speed of moving cars on the railway transport. The purpose of the study is to develop a method for placing technical stations on a railway test site in the course of an electric traction. To achieve this goal, it will be necessary to solve the following tasks: generalization of the main parameters of the location of technical stations; determination of half-races between technical stations in the operation of one locomotive brigade; search for the required number of change of the locomotive brigade; determination of the distance between technical stations. The methods of research are based on the generalization and analysis of existing results in finding the rational location of technical stations. Results: It is revealed that the first step for the rational placement of technical stations is to determine the

  11. Technical activities report: Mechanical development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, W.K.

    1952-05-01

    This monthly progress report covers activities in the following areas: pile control; shielding studies; process tube assembly; pile operating equipment; power recovery; pile piping; and test laboratory. A detailed discussion is given for each topic.

  12. PRELIMINARY STUDIES OF RIVETED JOINTS AT FEED FORCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Bielawski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the feasibility of riveted joints in composites materials. Static tensile test method was used. In the test one type of glass fabric was used (Interglas 92140 from which two types of composite samples were prepared. In each sample the same type of fiber with the same fiber orientation – 3 layers - was used. The samples had dimensions of 100×100 mm and thickness of approximately 1 mm. The composite probes were located in a metal frame with a screw connection which was made of screws with nominal thread pitch M5. Screws were tightened with constant torque. It was to provide an axial force to the sample during the tensile test. The frame was placed between cross-bars of tensile machine INSTRON 8516. The samples were stretched at a speed of 0.05 mm/s at a distance up to 16 mm. During the tensile test displacement of the samples and pull force were registered. Depending on the fibre orientations and the value of feed force, damage models were described. On the basis of the results the possibility of usage of aluminium rivet nuts connections in composite materials was determined.

  13. Technical note: Evaluation of an ear-attached movement sensor to record cow feeding behavior and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikker, J P; van Laar, H; Rump, P; Doorenbos, J; van Meurs, K; Griffioen, G M; Dijkstra, J

    2014-05-01

    The ability to monitor dairy cow feeding behavior and activity could improve dairy herd management. A 3-dimensional accelerometer (SensOor; Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) has been developed that can be attached to ear identification tags. Based on the principle that behavior can be identified by ear movements, a proprietary model classifies sensor data as "ruminating," "eating," "resting," or "active." The objective of the study was to evaluate this sensor on accuracy and precision. First, a pilot evaluation of agreement between 2 independent observers, recording behavior from 3 cows for a period of approximately 9h each, was performed. Second, to evaluate the sensor, the behavior of 15 cows was monitored both visually (VIS) and with the sensor (SENS), with approximately 20 h of registration per cow, evenly distributed over a 24-h period, excluding milking. Cows were chosen from groups of animals in different lactation stages and parities. Each minute of SENS and VIS data was classified into 1 of 9 categories (8 behaviors and 1 transition behavior) and summarized into 4 behavioral groups, namely ruminating, eating, resting, or active, which were analyzed by calculating kappa (κ) values. For the pilot evaluation, a high level of agreement between observers was obtained, with κ values of ≥ 0.96 for all behavioral categories, indicating that visual observation provides a good standard. For the second trial, relationships between SENS and VIS were studied by κ values on a minute basis and Pearson correlation and concordance correlation coefficient analysis on behavior expressed as percentage of total registration time. Times spent ruminating, eating, resting, and active were 42.6, 15.9, 31.6, and 9.9% (SENS) respectively, and 42.1, 13.0, 30.0, and 14.9% (VIS), respectively. Overall κ for the comparison of SENS and VIS was substantial (0.78), with κ values of 0.85, 0.77, 0.86, and 0.47 for "ruminating," "eating," "resting," and "active

  14. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of biomass. Phase 1 -- Technical and business feasibility study, technical progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-01

    The nine-month Phase 1 feasibility study was directed toward the application of supercritical water gasification (SCWG) for the economical production and end use of hydrogen from renewable energy sources such as sewage sludge, pulp waste, agricultural wastes, and ultimately the combustible portion of municipal solid waste. Unique in comparison to other gasifier systems, the properties of supercritical water (SCW) are ideal for processing biowastes with high moisture content or contain toxic or hazardous contaminants. During Phase I, an end-to-end SCWG system was evaluated. A range of process options was initially considered for each of the key subsystems. This was followed by tests of sewage sludge feed preparation, pumping and gasification in the SCW pilot plant facility. Based on the initial process review and successful pilot-scale testing, engineering evaluations were performed that defined a baseline system for the production, storage and end use of hydrogen. The results compare favorably with alternative biomass gasifiers currently being developed. The results were then discussed with regional wastewater treatment facility operators to gain their perspective on the proposed commercial SCWG systems and to help define the potential market. Finally, the technical and business plans were developed based on perceived market needs and the projected capital and operating costs of SCWG units. The result is a three-year plan for further development, culminating in a follow-on demonstration test of a 5 MT/day system at a local wastewater treatment plant.

  15. Reusable Agena study. Volume 2: Technical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, W. K.; Piper, J. E.; Douglass, D. A.; Waller, E. W.; Hopkins, C. V.; Fitzgerald, E. T.; Sagawa, S. S.; Carter, S. A.; Jensen, H. L.

    1974-01-01

    The application of the existing Agena vehicle as a reusable upper stage for the space shuttle is discussed. The primary objective of the study is to define those changes to the Agena required for it to function in the reusable mode in the 100 percent capture of the NASA-DOD mission model. This 100 percent capture is achieved without use of kick motors or stages by simply increasing the Agena propellant load by using optional strap-on-tanks. The required shuttle support equipment, launch and flight operations techniques, development program, and cost package are also defined.

  16. Technical feasibility study of Voltage Optimization Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Marinelli, Mattia; Coppo, Massimiliano

    This report provides an analysis on the benefits of a transformer with on load tap chang-ers on each phase that can be applied in the distribution system to accommodate more renewable generations such as photovoltaic power. The main purpose of this research is to verify whether power distribution...... are used as load basics for the analysis. In term of PV genera-tion profiles, a realistic PV output power is assumed. Four relevant indicies such as phase neutral voltage, netural potential voltage, unbalanced factor (VUF), and power losses are evaluated in the present study. The simulation tests include...

  17. Technical data report : marine acoustics modelling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorney, N.; Warner, G.; Austin, M. [Jasco Applied Sciences, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This study was conducted to predict the ensonification produced by vessel traffic transiting to and from the Enbridge Northern Gateway Project's marine terminal located near Kitimat, British Columbia (BC). An underwater acoustic propagation model was used to model frequency bands from 20 Hz to 5 kHz at a standard depth of 20 metres. The model included bathymetric grids of the modelling area; underwater sound speed as a function of depth; and geo-acoustic profiles based on the stratified composition of the seafloor. The obtained 1/3 octave band levels were then used to determine broadband received sound levels for 4 scenarios along various transit routes: the Langara and Triple Island in Dixon Entrance; the Browning Entrance in Hecate Strait, and Cape St. James in the Queen Charlotte Basin. The scenarios consisted of a tanker transiting at 16 knots, and an accompanying tug boat. Underwater sound level maps for each scenario were presented. 14 refs., 5 tabs., 16 figs.

  18. Technical Writing Redesign and Assessment: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Gaye Bush

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare scores on writing assignments from traditional, fully online courses in technical writing to pilot, hybrid courses at a southern university. A total of 232 students' assignments were compared in this study. All writing assignments were scored by six trained instructors of English using the same five point…

  19. Technical democracy as a challenge to urban studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farías, Ignacio; Blok, Anders

    2016-01-01

    What is technical democracy? And why does it matter for urban studies? As an introduction to this special feature, we address these questions by reflecting on To Our Friends, the 2014 manifesto of the Invisible Committee. We engage in particular its provocative diagnosis of the current situation......: power no longer resides in the modern institutions of representative democracy and the market economy; instead, power has become a matter of logistics, infrastructures and expertise. This diagnosis, we suggest, brings into view the challenge of technical democracy, that is, the democratization of techno......-scientific expertise and the instauration of forms of lasting collaboration among experts and laypeople. Urban politics, we claim, increasingly turns around socio-technical controversies and it is in terms of the politics of expertise that we should analyse and engage it. Building on Science and Technology Studies...

  20. Third International Mathematics and Science Study 1999 Video Study Technical Report: Volume 2--Science. Technical Report. NCES 2011-049

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Helen E.; Lemmens, Meike; Druker, Stephen L.; Roth, Kathleen J.

    2011-01-01

    This second volume of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 1999 Video Study Technical Report focuses on every aspect of the planning, implementation, processing, analysis, and reporting of the science components of the TIMSS 1999 Video Study. The report is intended to serve as a record of the actions and documentation of…

  1. Study on Feeding Habit of Clariid Catfish ( Clarias Gariepinus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was conducted to investigate the feeding habit of catfish (Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822) in Otamiri River, South-Eastern Nigeria. Stomach items analyzed include mainly algae, fish scales, annelids, benthic invertebrates, and detritus confirmed the fish as omnivorous species. However, few stomach contents ...

  2. Development and field evaluation of animal feed supplementation packages. Proceedings of the final review meeting of an IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Inadequate nutrition is one of the major constraints limiting livestock production in African countries. The ruminants in the smallholder sector depend on natural pasture and fibrous crop residues for their survival, growth, reproduction and production. Since quality and quantity of the natural pasture vary with season, animals dependent on it are subjected to nutritional stress in the dry season when feed resources are senesced and in short supply leading to decreased animal productivity. The main objective of the IAEA Technical Co-operation Regional AFRA Project 11-17 (RAF/5/041) was the improvement of ruminant livestock production in AFRA Member States. It had two main components: (a) the development and dissemination of cost-effective and sustainable feed supplementation packages which are based on locally available feed resources; and (b) establishment of the 'Self-coating Radioimmunoassay' technique for measuring progesterone in the milk and blood of ruminants. The project has developed a number of feed supplementation packages using feed resources available on-farm and by-products from agro-industrial processes. The packages involve the use of multi-nutrient blocks containing molasses and urea or poultry litter, ensilage of fibrous crop residues with poultry litter, leguminous fodder, mineral blocks etc. These packages have been evaluated on-station and on-farm to assess their potential to enhance productivity of ruminants. The cost-benefit ratio for feeding supplementation packages has been established. As a result of their use, income of the farmers has been shown to increase substantially. Needless to say, the scientists, agricultural extension officers, policy makers and the governments must work hand-in-hand to capitalize on this and ensure wider application and extension of the packages, and develop strategies for sustaining them. Radioimmunoassay for progesterone has been used in this project mainly for the assessment of ovarian activity in order to

  3. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  4. Case studies: Risk-based analysis of technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.P.; Minton, L.A.; Gaertner, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    The SOCRATES computer program uses the results of a Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) or a system level risk analysis to calculate changes in risk due to changes in the surveillance test interval and/or the allowed outage time stated in the technical specification. The computer program can accommodate various testing strategies (such as staggered or simultaneous testing) to allow modeling of component testing as it is carried out at a plant. The methods and computer program are an integral part of a larger decision process aimed at determining benefits from technical specification changes. These benefits can include cost savings to the utilities by reducing forced shutdowns with no adverse impacts on risk. Three summaries of case study applications are included to demonstrate the types of results that can be achieved through risk-based evaluation of technical specifications. (orig.)

  5. 29 CFR 1607.14 - Technical standards for validity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., if the behavior results in work product(s), an analysis of the work product(s). Any job analysis.... This job analysis should show the work behavior(s) required for successful performance of the job, or... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical standards for validity studies. 1607.14 Section...

  6. How family carers engage with technical health procedures in the home: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Janet; McKinlay, Eileen; Keeling, Sally; Levack, William

    2015-07-06

    To explore the experiences of family carers who manage technical health procedures at home and describe their learning process. A qualitative study using grounded theory. New Zealand family carers (21 women, 5 men) who managed technical health procedures such as enteral feeding, peritoneal dialysis, tracheostomy care, a central venous line or urinary catheter. In addition, 15 health professionals involved in teaching carers were interviewed. Semistructured interviews were coded soon after completion and preliminary analysis influenced subsequent interviews. Additional data were compared with existing material and as analysis proceeded, initial codes were grouped into higher order concepts until a core concept was described. Interviewing continued until no new ideas emerged and concepts were well defined. The response of carers to the role of managing technical health procedures in the home is presented in terms of five dispositions: (1) Embracing care, (2) Resisting, (3) Reluctant acceptance, (4) Relinquishing and (5) Being overwhelmed. These dispositions were not static and carers commonly changed between them. Embracing care included cognitive understanding of the purpose and benefits of a procedure; accepting a 'technical' solution; practical management; and an emotional response. Accepting embrace is primarily motivated by perceived benefits for the recipient. It may also be driven by a lack of alternatives. Resisting or reluctant acceptance results from a lack of understanding about the procedure or willingness to manage it. Carers need adequate support to avoid becoming overwhelmed, and there are times when it is appropriate to encourage them to relinquish care for the sake of their own needs. The concept of embracing care encourages health professionals to extend their attention beyond simply the practical aspects of technical procedures to assessing and addressing carers' emotional and behavioural responses to health technology during the training process

  7. Analytical study of tamarygo (Prosopis tamarugo) an autochthonous Chilean feed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, N; Araya, H; Villalon, R; Tagle, M A

    1977-01-01

    Fallen fruit and dry leaves of P. tamarugo could be used all the year round as the sole feed for cattle or sheep. The chemical composition and energy content of green and dried leaves and fruits were investigated. Cyanogenetic glycosides and alkaloids were not detected in any samples, saponins were found in low concentrations in green fruits and seeds and an antitryptic factor and haemagglutinins were found in seeds.

  8. Feeding families and children--1776 to 1976. A bicentennial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenberg, M E; Lucas, B L

    1976-03-01

    The food heritage which Americans enjoy today owes its great diversity to the influences of many ethnic groups--the native Indians, Franciscan friars in California, Mexican-Americans, the British, the French, the Creoles, and later, northern Europeans and those of Mediterranean stock. Geography and climate in different parts of our large country and religious beliefs have also played a part in the development of our present-day, varied cuisine. In our colonial and pioneer days, most people raised their own food, but as our nation has become industrialized and urbanized, we find that now only 7 per cent of our population produces the food for our entire nation, and our consumers generally buy their food in stores. Even as late as the beginning of the twentieth century, infant feeding practices could be considered unscientific and primitive. Only in recent years have knowledge of metabolism and the rapid increase in nutritional science permitted progress in infant feeding. Problems of feeding families remain, nevertheless--different than in the early days of our nation--and their solution challenges American ingenuity.

  9. Spatial Visualization ability improves with and without studying Technical Drawing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, María José; Escrig, Rebeca; Prieto, Gerardo; Elosúa, M Rosa

    2018-03-27

    The results of several studies suggest that spatial ability can be improved through direct training with tasks similar to those integrated in the tests used to measure the ability. However, there is a greater interest in analyzing the effectiveness of indirect training such as games or of learning subjects that involve spatial processes to a certain extent. Thus, the objective of the present study was to analyze whether the indirect training in Technical Drawing improved the Spatial Visualization ability of Architecture students. For this purpose, a group of students enrolled in Fundamentals of Architecture were administered two tests, a Spatial Visualization task and an Abstract Reasoning task, at the beginning and the end of a semester, after having received training through the subjects "Technical Drawing I: Geometry and Perception" and "Projects I." The results of this group were compared with those of a control group of students enrolled in a Mathematics degree, who were also pre-post evaluated but had not received the training in Technical Drawing. The study showed a significant pre-post improvement in both, Visualization and reasoning. However, this improvement occurred in both groups, thereby concluding that this improvement was not due to indirect training. Furthermore, no significant differences were found between men and women in any of the groups or conditions. These results clarify those of an earlier study where improvement in Visualization after training in Technical Drawing was found but did not include a comparison with a control condition. The control condition has proved to be important in order to consider the limitations of the effect of Technical Drawing on said improvement.

  10. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Safety Assessment of Food and Feed from GM Crops in Europe: Evaluating EFSA's Alternative Framework for the Rat 90-day Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Bonnie; Du, Yingzhou; Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Appenzeller, Laura M

    2017-07-12

    Regulatory-compliant rodent subchronic feeding studies are compulsory regardless of a hypothesis to test, according to recent EU legislation for the safety assessment of whole food/feed produced from genetically modified (GM) crops containing a single genetic transformation event (European Union Commission Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). The Implementing Regulation refers to guidelines set forth by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for the design, conduct, and analysis of rodent subchronic feeding studies. The set of EFSA recommendations was rigorously applied to a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats. After study completion, the appropriateness and applicability of these recommendations were assessed using a battery of statistical analysis approaches including both retrospective and prospective statistical power analyses as well as variance-covariance decomposition. In the interest of animal welfare considerations, alternative experimental designs were investigated and evaluated in the context of informing the health risk assessment of food/feed from GM crops.

  12. Feed formulations - Incorporation of Plant Proteins into Marine Finfish Feeds, a NWFSC-YSFRI Joint Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This international study is funded through the NOAA Fisheries Office of Science and Technology. The overall goal of the proposed research is to identify fishery...

  13. Evaluation and Management of Neonatal Dysphagia: Impact of Pharyngoesophageal Motility Studies and Multidisciplinary Feeding Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadcherla, Sudarshan R.; Stoner, Erin; Gupta, Alankar; Bates, D. Gregory; Fernandez, Soledad; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Linscheid, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Abnormal swallowing (dysphagia) among neonates is commonly evaluated using the videofluoroscopic swallow study (VSS). Radiological findings considered high risk for administration of oral feeding include nasopharyngeal reflux, laryngeal penetration, aspiration, or pooling. Our aims were to determine pharyngoesophageal motility correlates in neonates with dysphagia and the impact of multidisciplinary feeding strategy. Methods Twenty dysphagic neonates (mean gestation ± standard deviation [SD] = 30.9 ± 4.9 weeks; median 31.1 weeks; range = 23.7–38.6 weeks) with abnormal VSS results were evaluated at 49.9 ± 16.5 weeks (median 41.36 weeks) postmenstrual age. The subjects underwent a swallow-integrated pharyngoesophageal motility assessment of basal and adaptive swallowing reflexes using a micromanometry catheter and pneumohydraulic water perfusion system. Based on observations during the motility study, multidisciplinary feeding strategies were applied and included postural adaptation, sensory modification, hunger manipulation, and operant conditioning methods. To discriminate pharyngoesophageal manometry correlates between oral feeders and tube feeders, data were stratified based on the primary feeding method at discharge, oral feeding versus tube feeding. Results At discharge, 15 of 20 dysphagic neonates achieved oral feeding success, and the rest required chronic tube feeding. Pharyngoesophageal manometry correlates were significantly different (P dysphagia or its consequences. Manometry may be a better predictor than VSS in identifying patients who are likely to succeed in vigorous intervention programs. PMID:19179881

  14. Studies on the sulfur metabolism of cows on protein-free and low-protein feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eino Matikkala

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available The influence of purified, protein-free feed with urea and ammonium salts as nitrogen sources (0-feed and of non-purified, urea-rich, low-protein feeds (ULP-feed on the sulfur metabolism of cows has been studied by determining the contents of sulfur fractions in faeces, urine, milk, blood and rumen fluid. The sulfur of 0-feed was composed entirely of inorganic sulfate. During balance trials the N:S ratio in the feed varied from 6.1 to 9.5, and the sulfur content from 0.22 to 0.31 % of the dry matter. In every trial (seven with 0-feed and two with ULP-feed, of five or seven days duration, the cows were in high-positive sulfur balance. The 0-cows excreted a greater proportion of their total sulfur output via urine than the ULP-cows. The excretion of inorganic sulfate sulfur, as a proportion of the urinary and faecal sulfur, was greater for 0-cows than for ULP- or NorP-cows (cows on normal, protein-rich feed; the opposite was the case with regard to the excretion of ester sulfate sulfur and neutral sulfur. The sulfur contents of milk and blood showed only minor inter-feed differences. The sulfate content in the rumen fluid of the 0-cow rose rapidly after the commencement of feeding and then fell quite rapidly. We conclude tentatively that in the rumen of the 0-cow hydrogen sulfide is generated so quickly that the whole of it cannot be used for the synthesis of sulfur-containing compounds, a considerable proportion of it being lost in eructations or excreted as inorganic sulfates in the urine.

  15. Feed the crop or feed the soil? A case study in leek (Allium porrum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, ten H.F.M.; Radersma, S.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to assess the role of soil quality parameters in leek production and to assess their importance relative to nitrogen (N) applied as fertilizer. We selected seven (2004) and seven (2005) fields on leek farms in the southern sand district of the Netherlands and measured

  16. Performance study of ultrafiltration membrane with bovine serum albumin as feed solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syahril Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin solutions at different temperature, pH, flow rate and operation pressure have been used as feed solution for studying performance of ultrafiltration membrane. Polysulfone membranes used for this experiment were in form of hollow fibers that have Molecular Weight Cut Off (MWCO) 60 kDa. Observation was focused on flux parameter and rejection coefficient towards protein during the process. Result shows that temperature, pH of BSA feed solution, flow rate and operation pressure can affect the flux and rejection coefficient of membrane. High temperature feed solution tend to decrease the flux but increase rejection coefficient. Rejection coefficient of membrane will increase while flux decreasing at pH of feed solution near to protein isoelectric point. High pressure of feed solution will increase flux but decrease rejection of membrane. Rejection of membrane will decrease and flux will increase when the process operated in slow flow rate. (author)

  17. Association analysis between feed efficiency studies and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T; Chen, L; Du, X; Lai, S J; Huang, S P; Liu, Y L; Lu, L Z

    2016-10-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is now considered a more reasonable metric to evaluate animal feed efficiency. In this study, the correlation between RFI and other feed efficiency traits was investigated and gene expression within the hypothalamus was determined in low RFI (LRFI) and high RFI (HRFI) ducks. Further, several hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mean feed intake value was 160 g/day, whereas the egg mass laid (EML) and body weight were approximately 62.4 g/day and 1.46 kg respectively. Estimates for heritability of RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake were 0.26, 0.18 and 0.23 respectively. RFI is phenotypically positively correlated with feed intake and FCR (P ducks compared with LRFI ducks (P ducks. The results indicate that selection for LRFI could reduce feed intake without significant changes in EML, whereas selection on FCR will increase EML. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  18. Study on the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanping; Liu Hui; Sun Xuerong; Wei Tao; Wang Bin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the relationship between infant rotavirus enteritis and breast feeding, with emphasis on early immuno-protection provided by breast feeding as well as later possible hazards with rotavirus carrier mothers. Methods: Stool specimens from 520 infants with diarrhea were screened for rotavirus with colloid gold method. Positive specimens were confirmed with RT-PCR. Results: In local (Qingdao) infants with enteritis, the over-all incidence of rotavirus infection was 31.2%. Positive rate in breast-feeding infants was only 26.8%, being significantly lower than that in bottle-feeding ones (45.2%). The virus infectivity rate in both groups of breast- feeding infants (below 6 months and 7-12 months) was lower than the corresponding rate in the bottle feeding group. However, infant fed from rotavirus carriers had significantly higher fecal positive rate of rotavirus than that in infants fed from non-carriers. Conclusion: (1) At beginning, especially below 6 months, breast-feeding provided important protection again rotavirus enteritis in the infants. (2) certain infections could be transmitted through breast feedings, which deserved closer observation. (authors)

  19. Technical Feasibility Study for Zero Energy K-12 Schools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnema, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Goldwasser, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Torcellini, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pless, Shanti [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Studer, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-01

    This technical feasibility study provides documentation and research results supporting a possible set of strategies to achieve source zero energy K-12 school buildings as defined by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) zero energy building (ZEB) definition (DOE 2015a). Under this definition, a ZEB is an energy-efficient building in which, on a source energy basis, the actual annual delivered energy is less than or equal to the on-site renewable exported energy.

  20. Economic and technical feasibility study of compressed air storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The results of a study of the economic and technical feasibility of compressed air energy storage (CAES) are presented. The study, which concentrated primarily on the application of underground air storage with combustion turbines, consisted of two phases. In the first phase a general assessment of the technical alternatives, economic characteristics and the institutional constraints associated with underground storage of compressed air for utility peaking application was carried out. The goal of this assessment was to identify potential barrier problems and to define the incentive for the implementation of compressed air storage. In the second phase, the general conclusions of the assessment were tested by carrying out the conceptual design of a CAES plant at two specific sites, and a program of further work indicated by the assessment study was formulated. The conceptual design of a CAES plant employing storage in an aquifer and that of a plant employing storage in a conventionally excavated cavern employing a water leg to maintain constant pressure are shown. Recommendations for further work, as well as directions of future turbo-machinery development, are made. It is concluded that compressed air storage is technically feasible for off-peak energy storage, and, depending on site conditions, CAES plants may be favored over simple cycle turbine plants to meet peak demands. (LCL)

  1. A study on the effect of treatment of compound feed with ionizing radiation on feeding broiler chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chotinski, D.; Tsvetanov, I.; Stanchev, Kh.; Bokhorov, O.; Korudzhijski, N.; Dzhurov, A.

    1987-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with 600 broiler chickens divided into 4 groups, whereas chickens of the control group were offered untreated compound feed and those of the experimental groups were given preliminary treated compound feed with 0.35, 0.7 and 1.0 Mrad, respectively. General chemical analysis of the nonradiated and radiated with different doses of gamma rays feed was carried out in advance, the count of bacteria cells per gram of feed was also determined. Followed up was also the weight development of chickens and the feed to gain ratio. The morphological examinations of some organs were also perfomed. Treatment with gamma rays in doses of 0.35 to 1.0 Mrad inactivated enterobacteria, excepting Bac. subtilis. The general chemical content of feed and weight development of chickens were not markedly effected by radiation. The feed to gain ratio decreased, but with the increase in the radiation dose also rose. No histological changes of the organs were observed upon feeding preliminary irradiated compound feeds

  2. Association between Infant Feeding and Early Postpartum Infant Body Composition: A Pilot Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Alex Kojo

    2009-01-01

    Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n = 27] and mixed feeding [MF; n = 13]) in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3?kg vers...

  3. Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding.

  4. S Plant Aggregate Area Management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document is prepared in support of an Aggregate Area Management Study of S Plant, 200 West Area, at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and the results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). This document is based on review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. This report describes the REDOX facility and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms designed for high-level liquid wastes, and the lines and encasements that connect them

  5. Z plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    This document was prepared in support of the development of a Aggregate Area Management Study of Z Plant, 200 West Area, at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. It provides a technical description and operational history of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation undertaken by the Technical Baseline Section of the Environmental Engineering Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) which is currently the Waste Site and Facility Research Office, Natural Resources, Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI). It is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted in support of this report

  6. The AECL study for an intense neutron - generator (technical details)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, G A; Tunnicliffe, P R

    1966-07-01

    The AECL study for an intense neutron-generator has been in progress for two years. Recently the scientific and technical details and the conceptual designs were compiled in a report supporting proposals addressed to AECL's Board of Directors for further work. The compilation is being issued in this form to permit further discussion of the technical aspects. However readers are asked to appreciate that it was written primarily for an AECL audience, and specifically that those chapters giving tentative information about costs, the rate of investment and similar items have been omitted or modified, many references have been made to interim internal reports in order to complete the local documentation, but these references do not imply that the reports themselves can be made generally available. (author)

  7. The AECL study for an intense neutron - generator (technical details)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Tunnicliffe, P.R

    1966-07-01

    The AECL study for an intense neutron-generator has been in progress for two years. Recently the scientific and technical details and the conceptual designs were compiled in a report supporting proposals addressed to AECL's Board of Directors for further work. The compilation is being issued in this form to permit further discussion of the technical aspects. However readers are asked to appreciate that it was written primarily for an AECL audience, and specifically that those chapters giving tentative information about costs, the rate of investment and similar items have been omitted or modified, many references have been made to interim internal reports in order to complete the local documentation, but these references do not imply that the reports themselves can be made generally available. (author)

  8. Proceedings of the meeting on the technical study at KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honma, H.; Tokumoto, S.; Kosuge, T. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [eds.

    1996-03-01

    This report is a summary report of lectures carried out at the technical meeting on ``control technique of network sequencer application and others`` held by the Technical Information and Library, National Laboratory for High Energy Physics, on November 28th and 29th, 1995. In this meeting, 10 lectures are reported to introduce the control technique in each study field for proposing each common topic subject. They are present status of PS accelerator control, improvement of positron accelerator control system, device controller due to sequencer, data acquisitting (DAQ) system using VMEbus, monitoring and controlling system using sequencer at counter hole, radiation beam line interlock system and network, control of superconducting wiggler through network using Visual Basic, microwave monitoring system for KEKB, data transmission of monitor, and development of machining equipment of mirror for X-ray collecting. (G.K.)

  9. The AECL study for an intense neutron - generator (technical details)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Tunnicliffe, P.R.

    1966-01-01

    The AECL study for an intense neutron-generator has been in progress for two years. Recently the scientific and technical details and the conceptual designs were compiled in a report supporting proposals addressed to AECL's Board of Directors for further work. The compilation is being issued in this form to permit further discussion of the technical aspects. However readers are asked to appreciate that it was written primarily for an AECL audience, and specifically that those chapters giving tentative information about costs, the rate of investment and similar items have been omitted or modified, many references have been made to interim internal reports in order to complete the local documentation, but these references do not imply that the reports themselves can be made generally available. (author)

  10. Effect of different commercial feed spacers on biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane systems: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard; Radu, Andrea I.; Lavric, Vasile; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.; Picioreanu, Cristian

    2014-01-01

    Feed spacers and hydrodynamics have been found relevant for the impact of biofouling on performance in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems.The objectives of this study on biofouling development were to determine the impact of (i) linear flow velocity and bacterial cell load, (ii) biomass location and (iii) various feed spacer geometries as applied in practice as well as a modified geometry spacer.A three-dimensional mathematical model for biofouling of feed spacer channels including hydrodynamics, solute mass transport and biofilm formation was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB software.Results of this study indicate that the feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biofilm formation can be reduced by using thicker and/or modified feed spacer geometry and/or a lower flow rate in the feed channel. The increase of feed channel pressure drop by biomass accumulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the location of biomass. Results of numerical simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, indicating that this micro-scale mechanistic model is representative for practice. The developed model can help to understand better the biofouling process of spiral-wound RO and NF membrane systems and to develop strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Effect of different commercial feed spacers on biofouling of reverse osmosis membrane systems: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard

    2014-06-01

    Feed spacers and hydrodynamics have been found relevant for the impact of biofouling on performance in reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane systems.The objectives of this study on biofouling development were to determine the impact of (i) linear flow velocity and bacterial cell load, (ii) biomass location and (iii) various feed spacer geometries as applied in practice as well as a modified geometry spacer.A three-dimensional mathematical model for biofouling of feed spacer channels including hydrodynamics, solute mass transport and biofilm formation was developed in COMSOL Multiphysics and MATLAB software.Results of this study indicate that the feed channel pressure drop increase caused by biofilm formation can be reduced by using thicker and/or modified feed spacer geometry and/or a lower flow rate in the feed channel. The increase of feed channel pressure drop by biomass accumulation is shown to be strongly influenced by the location of biomass. Results of numerical simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental data, indicating that this micro-scale mechanistic model is representative for practice. The developed model can help to understand better the biofouling process of spiral-wound RO and NF membrane systems and to develop strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  12. The Role of the U.S. Government Technical Report in Aeronautics: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    survey questionnaire. 14 23. Technical Discipline -- for purposes of this study technical disciplines include aeronautics, astronautics, chemistry ...report varies because it serves different roles in communicating within and between organizations. The technical report has been defined etymologically ...and Information Systems - Administrative/Management - Other o Technical Discipline * - Aeronautics - Astronautics - Chemistry and Materials

  13. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

  14. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber

    2016-12-22

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofouling potential of two commercially available reference feed spacers and four modified feed spacers. The spacers were compared on hydraulic characterization and in biofouling studies with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs). The virgin feed spacer was characterized hydraulically by their resistance, measured in terms of feed channel pressure drop, performed by operating MFSs at varying feed water flow rates. Short-term (9 days) biofouling studies were carried out with nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water to accelerate the biofouling rate. Long-term (96 days) biofouling studies were done without nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water. Feed channel pressure drop was monitored and accumulation of active biomass was quantified by adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) determination. The six feed spacers were ranked on pressure drop (hydraulic characterization) and on biofouling impact (biofouling studies). Significantly different trends in hydraulic resistance and biofouling impact for the six feed spacers were observed. The same ranking for biofouling impact on the feed spacers was found for the (i) short-term biofouling study with nutrient dosage and the (ii) long-term biofouling study without nutrient dosage. The ranking for hydraulic resistance for six virgin feed spacers differed significantly from the ranking of the biofouling impact, indicating that hydraulic resistance of clean feed spacers does not predict the hydraulic resistance of biofouled feed spacers. Better geometric design of feed spacers can be a suitable approach to minimize impact of biofouling in spiral wound membrane systems.

  15. A feasibility study on feed and bleed for pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi-Shung Chen; Shimeck, D.J.; Sullivan, L.H.

    1983-01-01

    By injecting coolant with a high pressure emergency core cooling system, and removing the heated/ vaporized fluid by way of the pressurizer power operated relief valve, primary feed and bleed cooling denotes an operation whereby reactor core cooling is maintained. This paper presents the results from an experimental and analytical study that includes a simplified analysis of mass and energy balances associated with the feed and bleed, examination of test data from the Semiscale system, RELAP5 code analyses of both Semiscale and a four-loop Westinghouse plant, and the primary coolant system behavior for a transient that leads to the need for feed and bleed. Examination of the parameters that govern a stable feed and bleed operation identifies four key parameters such as: core decay heat, cooling water injection capacity, power operated relief valve (PORV) energy removal rate, and PORV mass removal rate. A simplified analytical approach to determining if stable feed and bleed is feasible, has been developed and corroborated by experimental data and computer code calculations. The Semiscale tests have not only provided test data for code assessment, but also have identified the factors influencing the PORV discharge, which is the most variable of the boundary conditions influencing feed and bleed. The RELAP5 computer code has demonstrated the capability of predicting the Semiscale experiments, and when applied to a four-loop Westinghouse plant has indicated that primary feed and bleed is a viable cooling mechanism. This has also been shown by using the simplified analytical method

  16. Off-gas chemistry study of melter feed by Springborn Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crow, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of the off-gas chemistry study of melter feed samples was to support and help substantiate glass melter thermochemistry models developed for the DWPF. Both sludge-only and sludge-precipitate feed samples were analyzed. Each slurry sample was pyrolyzed at temperatures from 150 to 1000 0 C in air and inert atmospheres, and the head space products were analyzed by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetric and Fourier transform infrared analyses were also performed on each sample. There were no unusually high exothermic reactions that would be cause for concern in the DWPF melter. Results for two types of sludge-precipitate feed were compared. One type contained simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product as fed to the SCM-2 melter. The second type contained PHA from the lab-scale acid hydrolysis reactor in 677-T. A major difference between the two types was a small, but distinct, presence of higher aromatics in gas from feed with reactor-produced PHA. This feed also evolved more CO and CO 2 than feed with simulated PHA at high pyrolytic temperatures (>750 0 C). Recent analyses have identified the higher boiling aromatics in reactor-produced PHA as primarily diphenylamine and p-terphenyl. These compounds will be included in future PHA simulations that are fed to research melters. Under an inert atmosphere, benzene and phenol were the two most abundant organics evolved during pyrolysis of sludge-precipitate feed

  17. Chinese women's experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ya; Ouyang, Yan-Qiong; Redding, Sharon R

    2018-06-01

    To explore Chinese mothers' experiences, emotions and expectations of breast-feeding in public places. Exploratory qualitative study. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants and face-to-face interviews were conducted. Themes were identified by content analysis. Two different geographical communities in Wuhan, Hubei Province, central China, March-May 2016. A total of twenty-seven mothers aged 23-33 years, who had one child under 3 years of age and had experience of breast-feeding in public places. Seven themes emerged from the interviews: struggling to balance infant's needs and personal feelings; embarrassed or natural emotion regarding breast-feeding in public places; effect of cultural and social norms; internalized concerns going beyond actual social reaction; measures to make breast-feeding in public places easier; desire for more public facilities; and expecting emotional support from society members. More positive social support, favourable policies and necessary facilities were desired to enable mothers to breast-feed in an appropriate public location. Women expected increased public acceptance of breast-feeding practices and support from government health officials to ensure women's success in breast-feeding in public settings.

  18. Technical assessment study on pool-type LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Technical assessment study on pool-type LMFBR was started in 1984 FY, inheriting the products from the Feasibility study, in order to accomplish cost reduction of reactor structure and enhanced structural reliability. This study consists of four major subjects; aseismic design development, component design optimization, high temperature structural design optimization and thermal hydraulics design optimization. In 1985 FY numbers of large model tests and analytical evaluations have been performed based on the prospects obtained in the first year's study. These tests and analyses have produced a lot of findings in each subject. They are concerning; (1) the effect of various building structures and analysis methods on floor response reduction, and data for evaluation of aseismic design concepts and structural integrity to seismic loading in the aseismic design development study. (2) data for evaluation of size reduction of main components in the reactor vessel, and heat transfer data required for structural integrity evaluation in the component design optimization study. (3) data for verification of inelastic analysis method, and assurance of technical applicability of disimilar weld in the high temperature structural design optimization study. (4) the effect of component size and location on thermal hydraulic characteristics, and data of thermal hydraulic similarity in thermal hydraulic design optimization study. This report summarizes the results obtained in 1985 FY. (author)

  19. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  20. Linking Technical Education to Business Growth: A Case Study on Building Technical Skills in India

    OpenAIRE

    Basant, Rakesh; Chandra, Pankaj

    2007-01-01

    Education has been recognized as the most important source of competitive advantage for a nation. It is the key determinant of firm level productivity which in turn drives business growth and profitability. Technical knowledge, in particular, is required both for industrial as well as service development. Technical institutions contribute to the growth of business and industry in a variety of ways. The most influential and direct impact is through their graduates who bring in new skills and p...

  1. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterized as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species......Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterized as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum...

  2. History of breast feeding and risk of incident endometriosis: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farland, Leslie V; Eliassen, A Heather; Tamimi, Rulla M; Spiegelman, Donna; Michels, Karin B; Missmer, Stacey A

    2017-08-29

    Objective  To investigate the association between lifetime breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, postpartum amenorrhea, and incidence of endometriosis among parous women. Design  Prospective cohort study. Setting  Nurses' Health Study II, 1989-2011. Participants  72 394women who reported having one or more pregnancies that lasted at least six months, 3296 of whom had laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis. For each pregnancy, women reported duration of total breast feeding, exclusive breast feeding, and postpartum amenorrhea. Main outcome measures  Incident self reported laparoscopically confirmed endometriosis (96% concordance with medical record) in parous women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to calculate hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for diagnosis of endometriosis. Results  Duration of total and exclusive breast feeding was significantly associated with decreased risk of endometriosis. Among women who reported a lifetime total length of breast feeding of less than one month, there were 453 endometriosis cases/100 000 person years compared with 184 cases/100 000 person years in women who reported a lifetime total of ≥36 months of breast feeding. For every additional three months of total breast feeding per pregnancy, women experienced an 8% lower risk of endometriosis (hazard ratio 0.92, 95% confidence interval 0.90 to 0.94; P<0.001 for trend) and a 14% lower risk for every additional three months of exclusive breast feeding per pregnancy (0.86, 0.81 to 0.90; P<0.001 for trend). Women who breastfed for ≥36 months in total across their reproductive lifetime had a 40% reduced risk of endometriosis compared with women who never breast fed (0.60, 0.50 to 0.72). The protective association with breast feeding was strongest among women who gave birth within the past five years (P=0.04 for interaction). The association with total breast feeding and exclusive breast feeding on endometriosis was partially

  3. Trophic dynamics of hexabromocyclododecane diastereomers and enantiomers in fish in a laboratory feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Ruan, Wei; Zeng, Yan-Hong; Liu, Hong-Ying; Chen, She-Jun; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2013-11-01

    The laboratory trophic transfer of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was studied using predatory (oscar) fish and a prey species (tiger barb) exposed to a technical HBCD. Gut absorption, dynamic changes of diastereomer pattern and enantiomer fractions, and potential metabolism of HBCDs were examined. Compared with β- or γ-HBCD, α-HBCD showed lower absorption efficiency in the gut of oscar fish. A predominance of γ-HBCD was observed in the tiger barb after 5 d HBCD-exposed and oscar feeding on the tiger barb for 16 d. After 20 d of depuration, 41.1% γ-HBCD and 42.7% β-HBCD disappeared, and α-HBCD exceeded the initial amount. The transformation from γ-HBCD predominance in the food to α-HBCD predominance in the oscar was attributed mainly to the isomerization of γ-HBCD (at least 3% and up to 22.7%) to α-HBCD. Selective enrichment of the (+) α- and (-) β-enantiomers and no enantioselective enrichment of γ-HBCD were observed in the tiger barbs. No enantioselective uptake of the 3 diasteromers was found in the oscar gut. The enantiomer fractions of α- and γ-diastereomers were significantly higher, but that of β-diastereomer were significantly lower in the oscars than in the tiger barbs, indicating enantioselective metabolism of the 3 diastereomers. Two HBCD monohydroxylated metabolites were detected in the 2 fish species, but their composition patterns differed, indicating a species-specific metabolism of HBCD in the studied fish species. © 2013 SETAC.

  4. Technical feasibility study of 60 MWe fast reactor concept: RAPID

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kambe, Mitsuru; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Uotani, Masaki

    1993-01-01

    A study has been performed on the passive safety features and technical feasibility of an inherently safe 60 MWe fast reactor concept RAPID to meet various power requirements in Japan. The system dynamic analyses on the UTOP and ULOF transients revealed that the enhanced reactivity feedback derived from an annular core configuration and the integrated fuel assembly provides a high margin of self-protection. Structural integrity of the integrated fuel assembly has also been confirmed. The following innovative key technologies have been demonstrated; Lithium Injection Modules (LIM) for ultimate shutdown, Lithium Expansion Modulus (LEM) for inherent reactivity feedback and Void Leading Channel (VLC) for the sodium void worth reduction. (author)

  5. Breast-feeding perceptions, beliefs and experiences of Marshallese migrants: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Allison; Shreve, Marilou; Ayers, Britni; McElfish, Pearl Anna

    2016-11-01

    To determine perceptions, beliefs and experiences affecting breast-feeding in Marshallese mothers residing in Northwest Arkansas, USA. A qualitative, exploratory study using a brief survey and focus groups. Marshallese women, 18 years or older who had a child under 7 years of age, were included in the study. Community-based organization in Northwest Arkansas. The majority of mothers viewed breast milk as superior to formula, but had concerns about adequate milk supply and the nutritional value of their milk. The primary barriers to exclusive breast-feeding in the USA included public shaming (both verbal and non-verbal), perceived milk production and quality, and maternal employment. These barriers are not reported in the Marshall Islands and are encountered only after moving to the USA. Breast-feeding mothers rely heavily on familial support, especially the eldest female, who may not reside in the USA. The influence of institutions, including the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, is strong and may negatively affect breast-feeding. Despite the belief that breast milk is the healthiest option, breast-feeding among Marshallese mothers is challenged by numerous barriers they encounter as they assimilate to US cultural norms. The barriers and challenges, along with the strong desire to assimilate to US culture, impact Marshallese mothers' perceptions, beliefs and experiences with breast-feeding.

  6. Transfer of arsenic from poultry feed to poultry litter: A mass balance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sanjay K; Le, X Chris; Kachanosky, Gary; Zuidhof, Martin J; Siddique, Tariq

    2018-07-15

    Roxarsone (rox), an arsenic (As) containing organic compound, is a common feed additive used in poultry production. To determine if As present in rox is excreted into the poultry litter without any retention in chicken meat for safe human consumption, the transference of As from the feed to poultry excreta was assessed using two commercial chicken strains fed with and without dietary rox. The results revealed that both the strains had similar behaviour in growth (chicken weight; 2.17-2.25kg), feed consumption (282-300kgpen -1 initially containing 102 chicken) and poultry litter production (73-81kgpen -1 ) during the growth phase of 35days. Our mass balance calculations showed that chickens ingested 2669-2730mg As with the feed and excreted out 2362-2896mg As in poultry litter during the growth period of 28days when As containing feed was used, yielding As recovery between 86 and 108%. Though our complementary studies show that residual arsenic species in rox-fed chicken meat may have relevance to human exposure, insignificant retention of total As in the chicken meat substantiates our mass balance results. The results are important in evaluating the fate of feed additive used in poultry production and its potential environmental implications if As containing poultry litter is applied to soil for crop production. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. STUDY OF GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY PO CATTLE IN SUBANG DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Gustiani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of population and productivity of beef cattle due to low of post partus reproduction capability. Feeding at the last of pregnancy and early lactation period has not appropriate with the needs of cattle that caused this condition. Need the right strategy and technology to support that condition. Improvement of feed quality intake at the period is one attempt to increase of productivition capability. Assessment aims to determine the performance of beef cattle productivity capability through the improvement of feed quality. Research was conducted at Family Jaya livestock farmers group in Ponggang Village, Serangpanjang District, Subang Regency, and carried out from June to November 2013. Feed quality improvement by introduction feed supplementation (concentrates and UMB that is given at the last of pregnancy period and the early lactation period during 2 months before partus and 2 months after partus(flushing. While animal control / comparison fed in accordance with the habits of farmers is only given forage and agricultural waste which is not given every day. Provision of drinking water is done ad-libitum. Livestock productivity parameters measured were body weight calf; daily weight gain of cattle calf and post-partum estrus parent. Data collected were tabulated and analyzed by t-test. The study showed that cattle treated with additional feed gives a better effect on birth weight, weight gain of cattle and post-partum estrus.

  8. A new approach to feed frequency studies and protein intake regulation in juvenile pirarucu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattos, Bruno O DE; Nascimento, Eduardo C T; Santos, Aline A; Barreto, Kayck A; Sánchez-Vázquez, Francisco J; Fortes-Silva, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas) ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g) were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank). Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein) by feeders (2 per tank), adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system. After an adaptation period, fish learned to activate feeders and the mean food intake recorded was 2.14% of their body weight on a daily basis. Fish showed feeding (72.48%) and locomotor (72.49%) activity predominantly during the daytime, and daily variations of choice between diets, but fixed a protein intake feeding target at 44.53%. These results should be considered when discussing feeding behavior, feeding schedules and diet intake regulations.

  9. A new approach to feed frequency studies and protein intake regulation in juvenile pirarucu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BRUNO O. DE MATTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to investigate pirarucu's (Arapaima gigas ability to trigger a self-feeding system to regulate protein intake between two standard diets that contained 39% and 49% of crude protein. The same system allowed the evaluation of daily feeding and locomotor activity rhythms. Eighteen fish (654.44±26.85g were distributed into six 250 L tanks (3 fish/tank. Fish had free access to both diets (39% vs. 49% protein by feeders (2 per tank, adapted to be activated by fish themselves. This system was connected to a computer system. After an adaptation period, fish learned to activate feeders and the mean food intake recorded was 2.14% of their body weight on a daily basis. Fish showed feeding (72.48% and locomotor (72.49% activity predominantly during the daytime, and daily variations of choice between diets, but fixed a protein intake feeding target at 44.53%. These results should be considered when discussing feeding behavior, feeding schedules and diet intake regulations.

  10. Study of Some Technical Problems in Nuclear Emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarrega Tornero, M. P.

    1967-01-01

    A methodological study of various technical aspects of photographic emulsions is presented. This study enables the emulsion method to be used in certain physical problems, and can be summarized under the following headings. 1) Variation of different ionization indices with the degree of development. A measure of the degree of development is introduced. This measure called the α -mark, is based on the average width of tracks due to α-particles. Using the α-mack the influence of several factors such as the duration, temperature and concentration of the developing liquid are investigated. A comparative study of the sensitivity of llford C 2 and K 2 emulsions is given. (Author) 9 refs

  11. A study on the regulatory approach of major technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Oh, S. H.; Kang, H. J.; Kim, G. S. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Yang, S. H.; Jeong, Y. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 4 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are are as follows : related to the classification and acceptance criteria of plant conditions, currently used classification and safety requirement were reviewed and regulatory direction was proposed. Among multiple failures, it is identified that SBO, TLOFW, multiple SGTR and ATWS are basically to be considered for additional requirements for advanced reactors. This study reviewed risk aspects, design consideration, and trends of safety requirements, and proposed fundamental safety requirements to be applied for KNGR. Multiple steam generator tube failure is a significant safety concern because of the possibility of release of radionuclides to the environment through containment bypass. Proposed safety requirement for this event can be categorized mainly as analysis requirement, design evaluation requirement and PSA requirement; For protection of containment failure, a reasonable safety position is necessary through and integrated review of possibility of severe accident occurrence, effects of sever accident mitigation features and cost effects of these design features. With this consideration safety requirements developed are the analysis requirement, provision of protective measures and survivability/availability of protective measures.

  12. A Case Study on Maximizing Aqua Feed Pellet Properties Using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2013-01-10

    Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated

  13. Maternal restrictive feeding and eating in the absence of hunger among toddlers: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Katherine W; Haines, Jess; Miller, Alison L; Rosenblum, Katherine; Appugliese, Danielle P; Lumeng, Julie C; Kaciroti, Niko A

    2017-12-19

    Restrictive feeding by parents has been associated with greater eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) among children, a risk factor for obesity. However, few studies have examined the association between restrictive feeding and EAH longitudinally, raising questions regarding the direction of associations between restrictive feeding and child EAH. Our objective was to examine the bidirectional prospective associations between restrictive feeding and EAH among toddlers. Low-income mother-child dyads (n = 229) participated when children were 21, 27, and 33 months old. Restriction with regard to food amount and food quality were measured with the Infant Feeding Styles Questionnaire. EAH was measured as kilocalories of food children consumed after a satiating meal. A cross-lagged analysis adjusting for child sex and weight-for-length z-score was used to simultaneously test cross-sectional and bidirectional prospective associations between each type of restriction and children's EAH. At 21 months, mothers of children with greater EAH reported higher restriction with regard to food amount (b = 0.17, p < .05). Restriction with regard to food amount at age 21 months was inversely associated with EAH at 27 months (b = -0.20, p < .05). Restriction with regard to food amount at 27 months was not associated with EAH at 33 months and restriction with regard to food quality was not associated with EAH. EAH did not prospectively predict maternal restriction. Neither restriction with regard to food amount nor food quality increased risk for EAH among toddlers. Current US clinical practice recommendations for parents to avoid restrictive feeding, and the potential utility of restrictive feeding with regard to food amount in early toddlerhood, deserve further consideration.

  14. Utilization of a technical review group during a BWR owners group technical specification improvement study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansell, H.F.; Moyer, D.P.

    1986-01-01

    A BWR Owners' Group Technical Specification Improvement (TSI) Committee was formed in late 1983. A primary goal of this Committee was to encourage the development of a probabilistic methodology for technical specification improvements which could be readily applied by utilities. The TSI Committee elected to hire a Contractor to develop and demonstrate a method. After the Contractor was selected and has started work, the committee decided to establish a Technical Review Group (TRG) to efficiently and effectively review the Contractor's analyses. The TRG met frequently with the Contractor as the analyses were being performed. These meetings were held at the Contractor's facility in order to allow direct contact between reviewers and individuals performing the work. The TRG was also involved with all major interactions with the NRC. The significance and merit of using a peer review group in this manner is the theme of this paper. In order to present a discussion of the significance and merit of the TRG, the activities are described. The summary of the analytical approach is provided to more full understand the TRG activities

  15. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  16. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. [eds.

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  17. North American Natural Gas Markets: Selected technical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, H.G.; Schuler, G.E. (eds.)

    1989-04-01

    The Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) was established in 1976 at Stanford University to provide a structural framework within which energy experts, analysts, and policymakers could meet to improve their understanding of critical energy problems. The ninth EMF study, North American Natural Gas Markets, was conducted by a working group comprised of leading natural gas analysts and decision-makers from government, private companies, universities, and research and consulting organizations. The EMF 9 working group met five times from October 1986 through June 1988 to discuss key issues and analyze natural gas markets. This third volume includes technical papers that support many of the conclusions discussed in the EMF 9 summary report (Volume 1) and full working group report (Volume 2). These papers discuss the results from the individual models as well as some nonmodeling analysis related to US natural gas imports and industrial natural gas demand. Individual papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  18. Comparison of leaf smearing and wick feeding techniques for root distribution studies of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaraj, G.; Hanumantha Rao, A.; Gopalachari, N.C.

    1976-01-01

    Wick feeding and leaf smearing methods have been compared for their relative efficiencies for root distribution studies with tobacco plant. The applied radioactivity gets equilibrated within 3 days in the tobacco plant. Root sections of the plants fed through the wick contained higher quantity for the radioactivity over those of the leaf smeared ones. Because of the case of application and better translocation of applied radioactivity the wick-feeding method appears to have good utility for root distribution studies with hard stemmed plants. (author)

  19. A study on the spiral shell in Dianchi, Yunnan, as domestic feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shouxiang; Yang Ruikun

    1990-01-01

    This article studies the accumulation and the metastasis of natural radioactive nuclei in the corporal of chicken when spiral shell is used as domestic feed. The result shows that the contents of natural radioactivity nuclei U, Th, and 226 Ra vary with the chicken meat, chicken bone, chicken egg and egg capsule. Their accumulation and metastasis are in the order: Th > U > 226 Ra, but the levels of the three radioactive nuclei are all below the limited levels of radioactive substances in the food standard of the People's Republic of China. This study provides a basis for developing and making use of the spiral shell as domestic feed in Dianchi, Yunnan

  20. Further studies in using mangrove foliage as a prawn feed

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Wafar, S.

    Changes in biochemical composition and energy content of foliage of eight mangrove species at various phases of life and during decay were studied. Decomposition resulted in loss of organic contents, carbon and C:N ratio and increase in calorific...

  1. [Comparative study of three feeding methods for draught horses of the Swiss army].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riond, J L; Leoni, S; Wanner, M

    2000-10-01

    Three feeding methods were compared in 36 4- to 6-year-old Franche-Montagne horses during the military school of St-Luzisteig (GR) of Spring 1992. The horses were separated into 3 groups: a group with the traditional oats-hay ration (OH), a group with a pelleted feed and hay ration (PFH), and a group with the complete diet (CD). Feed analyses were performed and food consumption, eating behavior and digestibility were studied. The horses received their daily amount of feed in 3 portions covering the requirements for a medium work: OH = 8 kg hay and 3 kg oats, PFH = 8 kg hay and 3 kg pelleted feed and CD = 10 kg of the complete diet. For the 3 rations, the amount of digestible crude protein for horses was higher than the reference value for the requirement of a 600 kg horse with a medium work. In the 3 diets, the calcium content was higher than the required 32 g per day (g/d). Not enough sodium (OH: 1.2 g/d; PFH: 7.3 g/d; CD: 9.6 g/d) and too much potassium (OH: 140.3 g/d; PFH 153.0 g/d; CD: 167.5 g/d) were present in the diets, both without consequences for the blood parameters. In 3 meals of 60 minutes, the horses of the group OH, PFH and CD ingested 82%, 89% and 92%, respectively, of the daily ration. The complete diet was ingested more quickly than the hay. The number of mastications per minute was smaller for the complete diet than for the hay. Ingestion times were similar for oats and pelleted feed. However, the number of mastications per minute was smaller for the pelleted feed. The digestibility of nutrients was not influenced by the method of feeding. In conclusion, these results demonstrate that the 3 types of ration studied here are adequate for the swiss army horses if sodium is added to the diet. However, despite the fact that both PFH and CD correct excessive supply or deficiencies of nutrients and despite the fact that these two feeding methods offer nutrients in amounts that are closer to the requirements of the horse, the method PFH was introduced in

  2. Descriptive analysis of context evaluation instrument for technical oral presentation skills evaluation: A case study in English technical communication course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Abdullah-Adnan; Asmawi, Adelina; Hamid, Mohd Rashid Ab; Mustafa, Zainol bin

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports a pilot study of Context Evaluation using a self-developed questionnaire distributed among engineering undergraduates at a university under study. The study aims to validate the self-developed questionnaires used in the Context evaluation, a component in the CIPP Model. The Context evaluation assesses background information for needs, assets, problems and opportunities relevant to beneficiaries of the study in a defined environment. Through the questionnaire, background information for the assessment of needs, assets and problems related to the engineering undergraduates' perceptions on the teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills was collected and analysed. The questionnaire was developed using 5-points Likert scale to measure the constructs under study. They were distributed to 100 respondents with 79 returned. The respondents consisted of engineering undergraduates studied at various faculties at one technical university in Malaysia. The descriptive analysis of data for each item which makes up the construct for Context evaluation is found to be high. This implied that engineering undergraduates showed high interest in teaching and learning of technical oral presentation skills, thus their needs are met. Also, they agreed that assets and facilities are conducive to their learning. In conclusion, the context evaluation involving needs and assets factors are both considerably important; their needs are met and the assets and facilities do support their technical oral presentation skills learning experience.

  3. A Study Of Infant Feeding Practices And The Underlying Factors In A Rural Area Of Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taneja D. K

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Research questions: 1. What are the infant feeding practices in a rural area? 2. What are the reasons underlying the harmful infant feeding practices? Objectives: 1. To study feeding practices among infants. 2. To find out the factors underlying various harmful practices. 3. To find out the sources of information/advice for the prevailing practices. 4. To determine Whether the Practice of giving diluted animal milk to infants is associated with type of family, caste or educational status of mother. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Rural field practice center of a Medical College in Delhi. Participants: Mothers of infants 6-9 Months of age, attending immunization clinic. Statistical analysis: Percentage, chi square test. Results: Water was commonly given to breast fed babies and top feeds introduced early. Consequently exclusive breast-feeding was uncommon. Semisolids were started late and diluted animal milk was commonly given to infants; as mothers often thought that child can not digest semisolids or undiluted milk. Milk was also diluted for economic reasons. Insufficient breast milk, illness of mother or child were cited as main reasons for early introduction of top milk.

  4. Exploring the Capability of Evaluating Technical Solutions: A Collaborative Study into the Primary Technology Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkholm, Eva

    2014-01-01

    Within the field of technology education, evaluating technical solutions is considered as an important topic. Research indicates that pupils have difficulties in evaluating technical solutions in terms of fitness for purpose, i.e. how effective a technical solution supports its intended function. By using the learning study, which is an iterative…

  5. Nattokinase production: Medium components and feeding strategy studies

    OpenAIRE

    Berenjian Aydin; Mahanama Raja; Kavanagh John; Dehghani Fariba; Ghasemi Younes

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of nutrients on nattokinase activity during the fermentation of Bacillus subtilis natto was investigated. The highest nattokinase activity of 587 U/mL was obtained in fermenter for a media consisting of yeast extract (6%, w/v), soy peptone (1.2%, w/v) and glycerol (6%, w/v). The second order polynomial equation was fitted to the results by using central composite face design. The polynomial model fitted the experimental data...

  6. Experimental studies of water hammer in propellant feed system of reaction control system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avanish Kumar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Water hammer pressure transient produces large dynamic forces which can damage the pipes and other assemblies in the feed line of a reaction control system (RCS. It has led to the failure of pressure transducers monitoring the manifold pressure in the feed line of RCS. Therefore, water hammer studies have been carried out to understand its effect in feed line. Feedline system has been simplified to develop a mathematical model and experiments have been carried out at extensive levels. The mathematical model was developed considering pipe of uniform c/s and moving liquid-gas interface. The experimental studies have been done using water as working medium instead of actual propellant. The studies showed that rate of pressurization have a very critical role on the water hammer amplitude. Sensitivity studies have been also carried out to study the effect of density, friction and initial liquid column length on water hammer amplitude. Keywords: Water hammer, Reaction control system (RCS, Propellant feed system, Experimental study, Testing

  7. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    The ground disposal alternatives examined in the Nordic study are based on establishment of relevant product specifications which can be adapted to the safety analysis of the entire waste handling sequence. Such product specifications would in turn influence the choice of incorporation techniques and may enable an optimization of the process. In order to interprete the small-scale laboratory tests with respect to long-term performance of full-scale products there were accomplished: - qualitative evaluations of the relevance of product properties for normal and abnormal events during storage, transport and disposal; - attempts to quantify the relevance of different properties, i.e. their influence on radiation doses from different stages of well specified waste management system; - assessments of available laboratory tests and of correlations between results from such tests and the long-term performance of full-scale technical products; - studies of reaction mechanisms and parameters that can affect the long-term performance of disposed products; - laboratory incorporation experiments to study impacts of process variables on the fixation of ion exchange wastes in cement and bitumen; - full-scale tests to study product performance under simulated accident conditions. (EG)

  8. Parent-child feeding practices in a developing country: Findings from the Family Diet Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T; Collins, Clare E; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee

    2018-06-01

    Given the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity in Malaysia, examination of family environmental factors is warranted. Reviews from developed countries report inconsistent findings on the relationship between parental-child feeding practices and child weight-related health outcomes. The current study aimed to examine parent-child feeding practices by familial-child characteristics in Malaysia. The Family Diet Study was conducted with urban Malay families and included a child aged 8-12 years and their main carer(s). Seven domains of parent-child feeding practices were assessed using the child feeding questionnaire and familial demographics, including socio-economic status, child anthropometry and dietary intake were collected. Inferential statistics were used to explore the relationships between variables. Of the 315 families enrolled, 236 completed all measures, with the majority of parent-reporters being mothers (n = 182). One-third of the children were classified as overweight/obese. Three domains of parent-child feeding practices had median scores of 4.0 out of 5.0 [concern about child overweight (CCO) (Interquartile range (IQR): 3.3, 4.7); pressure-to-eat (PTE) (IQR: 3.3, 4.5) and food monitoring (IQR: 3.0, 5.0)]. The domain of 'perceived child overweight' was positively associated with child age (r = 0.45, p parent-child feeding practices. Further research examining the cultural context of family environmental factors related to childhood obesity is warranted within Malaysia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Aboriginal women in rural Australia; a small study of infant feeding behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helps, Catherine; Barclay, Lesley

    2015-06-01

    Aboriginal women in rural areas have lower rates of breastfeeding than Australian averages. The reasons for this are poorly understood. Aboriginal people experience higher morbidity and increased rates of chronic disease throughout the life cycle. The protective effects of sustained breastfeeding could benefit rural Aboriginal communities. To explore the factors impacting upon infant feeding choices in a rural Aboriginal Community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight Aboriginal rural dwelling first time mothers. These women received a continuity of midwife and Aboriginal Health Worker model of care. Interviews were also undertaken with five Aboriginal Health Workers and two Aboriginal community breastfeeding champions. The analysis was integrated with a conventional literature review and was further developed and illustrated with historical literature. Indigenist methodology guided the study design, analysis and the dissemination of results. Three key themes were identified. These were "I'm doing the best thing for..." which encompasses the motivations underpinning infant feeding decisions; "this is what I know..." which explores individual and community knowledge regarding infant feeding; and "a safe place to feed" identifying the barriers that negative societal messages pose for women as they make infant feeding decisions. It appears loss of family and community breastfeeding knowledge resulting from colonisation still influences the Aboriginal women of today. Aboriginal women value and trust knowledge which is passed to them from extended family members and women within their Community. Cultural, historical and socioeconomic factors all strongly influence the infant feeding decisions of individuals in this study. Efforts to normalise breastfeeding in the culture of rural dwelling Aboriginal women and their supporting community appear to be necessary and may promote breastfeeding more effectively than optimal professional care of individuals can

  10. Technical and economic optimization study for HLW waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffes, A.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the technical and economic aspects of high level waste (HLW) management with the objective of optimizing the interim storage duration and the dimensions of the underground repository site. The procedure consisted in optimizing the economic criterion under specified constraints. The results are intended to identify trends and guide the choice from among available options; simple and highly flexible models were therefore used in this study, and only nearfield thermal constraints were taken into consideration. Because of the present uncertainty on the physicochemical properties of the repository environment and on the unit cost figures, this study focused on developing a suitable method rather than on obtaining definitive results. With the physical and economic data bases used for the two media investigated (granite and salt) the optimum values found show that it is advisable to minimize the interim storage time, and that the geological repository should feature a high degree of spatial dilution. These results depend to a considerable extent on the assumption of high interim storage costs

  11. Nordic study on reactor waste. Technical part 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-08-01

    An important part of the Nordic studies on system- and safety analysis of the management of low and medium level radioactive waste from nuclear power plants, is the safety analysis of a Reference System. This reference system was established within the study and is described in this Technical Part 1. The reference system covers waste management Schemes that are potential possibilities in either one of the four participating Nordic countries. The reference system is based on: a power reactor system consisting of 6 BWR's of 500 MWe each, operated simultaneously over the same 30 year period, and deep bed granular ion exchange resin wastes from the Reactor Water Clean-Up System (RWCS and powdered ion exchange resin from the Spent Fuel Pool Cleanup System (SFPCS)). Both waste types are supposed to be solidified by mixing with cement and bitumen. Two basic types of containers are considered. Standard 200 liter steel drums and specially made cubicreinforced concrete moulds with a net volume of 1 m 3 . The Nordic study assumes temporary storage of the solidified waste for a maximum of 50 years before the waste is transferred to the disposal site. Transportation of the waste from the storage facilitiy to the disposal site will be by road or sea. Three different disposal facilities are considered: Shallow land burial, near surface concrete bunker, and rock cavern with about 30 m granite cover. (EG)

  12. A Study on the Feeding and Growth Patterns of the Variegated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The feeding and growth patterns of the variegated grasshopper, Zonocerus variegatus (L) were studied in the laboratory to ascertain the amount of food intake, food assimilated and faeces excreted by its nymph and adult stages on a mixed diet of Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) leaves.

  13. Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fat for diesel production: Study on model feed with Pt/alumina catalyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anders Theilgaard; Ahmed, El Hadi; Christensen, Claus H.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation of waste fats and oils is a viable method for producing renewable diesel oil. In this study a model feed consisting of oleic acid and tripalmitin in molar ratio 1:3 was hydrotreated at 325°C with 20bars H2 in a stirred batch autoclave with a 5wt% Pt/γ-Al2O3 catalyst, and samples...

  14. Efficacy and safety assessment of microbiological feed additive for chicken broilers in tolerance studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupryś-Caruk Marta

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One aim of the study was to evaluate the impact when added to feed of the two potentially probiotic strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB Lactobacillus plantarum K KKP 593/p and Lactobacillus rhamnosus KKP 825 on production performance, health, and the composition of gut microbiota. The complementary aim was to assess the safety of these strains in broiler rearing.

  15. The meaning of assisted feeding for people living with spinal cord injury: a phenomenological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, B.; Harder, I.; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2008-01-01

    AIM: This paper is a report of a study to explore the meaning of assisted feeding through the experiences of people with high cervical spinal cord injury. Background. Eating difficulties are known to affect a person's self-image and transform social lives. Little is known about the experience of ...

  16. Study on the Implications of Asynchronous GMO Approvals for EU Imports of Animal Feed Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowicki, P.L.; Aramyan, L.H.; Baltussen, W.H.M.; Dvortsin, L.; Jongeneel, R.A.; Perez Dominguez, I.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Kalaitzandonakes, N.; Kaufman, J.; Miller, D.; Franke, L.; Meerbeek, B.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand the implications of asynchronous approvals for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) that are imported to the European Union for use within animal feed products, specifically with regard to the EU livestock sector, as well as upon the upstream and downstream

  17. Growth and prevalence of feeding difficulties in children with Robin sequence : a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paes, Emma C.; de Vries, Iris A C; Penris, Wouter M.; Hanny, Karlijn H.; Lavrijsen, Selma W.; van Leerdam, Elselien K.; Rademaker, Maaike M.; Veldhoen, Esther S.; Eijkemans, Rene M J C; Kon, Moshe; Breugem, Corstiaan C.

    Objectives: In addition to breathing problems, patients with Robin sequence (RS) often encounter feeding difficulties (FD). Data regarding the occurrence of FD and possible influencing factors are scarce. The study aim was to elucidate these factors to improve treatment strategies. Material and

  18. a study of technical inefficiencies of maize farmers within and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2333147

    frontier production functions were estimated for a sample of maize farmers within and outside the .... the normal distributions with the same variance, σ2, such that the mean,. µit, associated with the technical inefficiency effect, uit, is defined by.

  19. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inayati Dyah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (-scores aged ≥ 6 to Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215 who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19% were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes breastfeeding, taking into account social

  20. Feeding biogas onto the national gas grid - Technical and economical aspects on omitting propane addition; Inmatning av biogas paa naturgasnaetet - Tekniska och ekonomiska aspekter paa slopad propantillsats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelsson, Corfitz

    2012-07-01

    Biogas injection into the natural gas grid is a common practice in Sweden today. In order to condition the biogas to the quality matching the natural gas, propane (approx. 8 %) is injected in the biogas. This is a costly procedure which also introduces fossil components into a renewable gas flow. Because of this, it is desired to terminate the propane injection and inject biogas straight into the gas grid. This might affect certain customers and will affect billing procedures and this study has briefly examined the impact of injection of biogas in the gas grid without propane addition. The main findings are: 1. It seems technically possible to inject biogas without propane into the gas grid. Attention has to be paid to the quality requirements of certain sensitive customers, but most customers can accept the quality variations. 2. It is recommended that the minimum methane content of injected biogas is raised to 98 %. This might affect the operation and choice of upgrading equipment and will have to be evaluated from both a technical and an economical viewpoint in each case. 3. Downgrading the natural gas to biogas quality by air injection is not an option. 4. In order to make simplify billing procedures, the geographic location of biogas site injecting gas into the distribution network is crucial. The biogas site should be placed as close to the transmission network as possible. Further, two case studies concerning biogas injection into the transmission network are briefly discussed.

  1. OEXP exploration studies technical report. Volume 3: Special reports, studies, and indepth systems assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, B.B.; Bland, D.

    1988-12-01

    The Office of Exploration (OEXP) at NASA has been tasked with defining and recommending alternatives for an early 1990's national decision on a focused program of manned exploration of the Solar System. The Mission analysis and System Engineering (MASE) group, which is managed by the Exploration Studies Office at the Johnson Space Center, is responsible for coordinating the technical studies necessary for accomplishing such a task. This technical report, produced by the MASE, describes the process used to conduct exploration studies and discusses the mission developed in a case study approach. The four case studies developed in FY88 include: (1) a manned expedition to PHOBOS; (2) a manned expedition to MARS; (3) a lunar surface observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution. The final outcome of this effort is a set of programmatic and technical conclusions and recommendations for the following year's work

  2. The Measurement of Technical Efficiency and Effective Factors in Cucumber Greenhouse (Case Study: Eastern Azarbayjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Abdollahi

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate technical efficiency of cucumber greenhouses in Eastern Azarbayjan. In economic literature, it means the ratio of maximum output to the inputs. The objective of this research was to determinate the effective factors influencing it's inefficiency. The method of determination of deterministic and stochastic technical efficiency is corrected ordinary least squares (COLS and maximum likelihood (ML respectively. The average of technical efficiency in province’s cucumber greenhouse is approximately about 57 and 93 percent for deterministic and stochastic frontier method respectively. Production types had positive influence on technical inefficiency whereas experience of manager have negative influence on technical inefficiency.

  3. Biogas Koczala. Biogas project in Koczala. Feasibility study. Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-08-01

    The present production of district heating in Koczala is based on coal. The district heating system is worn out technically and economically and according to the 2001 Energy Plan of Koczala the district heating plant shall be converted to a combination of a biogas fired CHP and a wood chip boiler. The overall objective of this project is to access the feasibility and viability construction an operation of a biogas plant owned by the co-operative agricultural company, Poldanor S.A. The feasibility study includes: 1) Availability of organic waste in the Koczala area, 2) Possibilities of using energy crops in the biogas plant, 3) Possibilities of receiving grants from the Polish National Fund for Environmental Protection, the new EU regional funds and through the joint implementation market (CO 2 quotas), 4) Alternative locations of the biogas plant and the CHP unit, 5) Alternative strategies for selling electricity and heat, 6) Organisational issues (ownership). This report concludes that implementing the biogas project is environmentally and financially feasible and viable. If organic waste and/or maize silage can be provided and gasified without problems, the plant can supply as well the Koczala farm as the fodder mill with steam and heat, and also supply Koczala district heating system with approx. 75% of yearly heat consumption. Furthermore, electricity is supplied to the fodder mill and the public grid. (BA)

  4. Complementary feeding and the early origins of obesity risk: a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Muniandy, Naleena Devi; Allotey, Pascale A; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide calls for an intervention earlier in the life cycle. Studies show that nutrition during early infancy may contribute to later obesity. Hence, this study is designed to determine if the variation in complementary feeding practices poses a risk for the development of obesity later in life. A mixed methods approach will be used in conducting this study. Methods and analysis The target participants are infants born from Januar...

  5. Study protocol of a parent-focused child feeding and dietary intake intervention: the feeding healthy food to kids randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncanson Kerith

    2012-07-01

    . Discussion This paper will add to existing research examining child feeding practices and dietary intake of young children, by specifically focusing on the efficacy of an RCT that has the potential to be implemented at a population level. The correlation of the RCT outcomes with parents’ perceptions about child feeding practices and children’s dietary intake of their children in a subsequent qualitative study will further contribute to this emerging area of research. Trial registration Australian Clinical Trials Registration Number: ACTRN12609000356268

  6. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  7. Emotion Regulation Feeding Practices Link Parents' Emotional Eating to Children's Emotional Eating: A Moderated Mediation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2015-08-01

    Past research suggests an association between parents' and children's emotional eating, but research has yet to examine mechanisms underlying this association. The current study examined whether feeding for emotion regulation mediates the association between parents' and children's emotional eating, and whether this association is moderated by children's self-regulation in eating. 95 parents reported on their own and their children's emotional eating, their children's self-regulation in eating, as well as their feeding practices. Findings revealed that feeding for emotion regulation mediated the association between parents' and children's emotional eating when children's self-regulation in eating was low, but not when self-regulation in eating was high. The current findings demonstrate the complexity of the link between parents' and children's emotional eating, suggesting practitioners should consider both feeding practices and children's self-regulation in eating when designing intervention programs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved.For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Los Alamos PWR feed-and-bleed studies summary results and conclusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.; Henninger, R.J.; Lime, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The adequacy of shutdown decay heat removal in pressurized water reactors (PWRs) is currently under investigation by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. One part of this effort is review of feed-and-bleed procedures that could be used if the normal cooling mode through the steam generators was unavailable. Feed-and-bleed cooling is effected by manually activating the high-pressure injection (HPI) system and opening the power-operated relief valves (PORVs) to release the core decay energy. The feasibility of the feed-and-bleed concept as a diverse mode of heat removal has been evaluated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The TRAC-PF1 code has been used to predict the expected performances of the Oconee-1 and Calvert Cliffs-1 reactors of Babcock and Wilcox and Combustion Engineering, respectively, and the Zion-1 and H.B. Robinson-2 plants of Westinghouse. Feed and bleed was successfully applied in each of the four plants studied, provided it was initiated no later than the time of loss-of-secondary heat sink

  9. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Ying Toh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO, 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001. These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice.

  10. Predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Gao, Ling-Ling; Ip, Wan-Yim; Sally Chan, Wai Chi

    2016-10-01

    to examine breast feeding self-efficacy and identify its predictors among mainland Chinese mothers in the early postpartum period. a cross-sectional descriptive questionnaire survey was conducted in a regional teaching hospital with childbirth rate over 3000 per year at Guangzhou, China from April 1 to July 14, 2014. a total of 571 Chinese mothers who were within 72-96hours post partum were recruited consecutively to the study. data were collected by the Chinese version of the Breastfeeding Self-efficacy Scale-Short Form (BSES-SF), the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS) and a socio-demographic data sheet. a total of 640 eligible women was approached and 571 mothers completed the study with the response rate of 89%. Mothers reported moderate level of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. The best-fit regression analysis revealed six variables that explained 43.9% of the variance in breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. They were intention of breast feeding, support from husband, support from nurses/midwives, attending antenatal breast feeding classes, time from childbirth to initiate breast feeding and previous breast feeding experience. this study found six predictors of breast feeding self-efficacy in the immediate postpartum period. In order to increase maternal breast feeding self-efficacy level, a more women-centred approach is recommended. Mothers and fathers should be facilitated to attend antenatal classes on breast feeding. New mother' husband could be encouraged in supporting breast feeding. Nurses and midwives could encourage new mothers to initiate breast feeding as soon as possible. Further work to promote early mother-infant contact post birth, such as via skin to skin contact should also be facilitated where possible. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The 'wayfinding' experience of family carers who learn to manage technical health procedures at home: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Janet; McKinlay, Eileen; Keeling, Sally; Levack, William

    2017-12-01

    With more care taking place in the home, family carers play an important role in supporting patients. Some family carers undertake technical health procedures generally managed by health professionals in hospital settings (e.g. managing a tracheostomy or enteral feeding). To explore how family carers learn to manage technical health procedures in order to help health professionals better understand and support this process. A grounded theory study using data from interviews with 26 New Zealand family carers who managed technical health procedures including nasogastric or gastrostomy feeding, stoma care, urinary catheterisation, tracheostomy management, intravenous therapy, diabetes management and complex wound dressings. Most (20 participants) were caring for their child and the remaining six for their spouse, parent or grandparent. Following grounded theory methods, each interview was coded soon after completion. Additional data were compared with existing material, and as analysis proceeded, initial codes were grouped into higher order concepts until a core concept was developed. Interviewing continued until no new ideas emerged and concepts were well defined. The core concept of 'wayfinding' indicates that the learning process for family carers is active, individualised and multi-influenced, developing over time as a response to lived experience. Health professional support was concentrated on the initial phase of carers' training, reducing and becoming more reactive as carers took responsibility for day-to-day management. Wayfinding involves self-navigation by carers, in contrast to patient navigator models which provide continuing professional assistance to patients receiving cancer or chronic care services. Wayfinding by carers raises questions about how carers should be best supported in their initial and ongoing learning as the management of these procedures changes over time. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies

    OpenAIRE

    Racette, Susan B.; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M.; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify th...

  13. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar, E-mail: bhaskar_sanyal@rediffmail.co [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India); Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun [Food Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    2011-05-15

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047{+-}0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g{sub ||}=2.0028 and g{sub perpendicular}=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  14. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S.P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g || =2.0028 and g perpendicular =1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  15. Infant feeding in Eastern Scotland: a longitudinal mixed methods evaluation of antenatal intentions and postnatal satisfaction--the Feeding Your Baby study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symon, Andrew G; Whitford, Heather; Dalzell, Janet

    2013-07-01

    breast-feeding initiation rates have improved in Scotland, but exclusive and partial breast-feeding rates fall rapidly for several reasons. We aimed to examine whether antenatal feeding intention was associated with satisfaction with infant feeding method; and to explore the similarities and differences in infant feeding experience of women with different antenatal feeding intention scores. antenatal questionnaire assessment of infant feeding intentions, based on the theory of planned behaviour; two-weekly postnatal follow-up of infant feeding practice by text messaging; final telephone interview to determine reasons for and satisfaction with infant feeding practice. 355 women in eastern Scotland were recruited antenatally; 292 completed postnatal follow up. Antenatal feeding intentions broadly predicted postnatal practice. The highest satisfaction scores were seen in mothers with no breast-feeding intention who formula fed from birth, and those with high breast-feeding intention who breastfed for more than 8 weeks. The lowest satisfaction scores were seen in those with high intention scores who only managed to breast feed for less than 3 weeks. This suggests that satisfaction with infant feeding is associated with achieving feeding goals, whether artificial milk or breast feeding. Reasons for stopping breast feeding were broadly similar over time (too demanding, pain, latching, perception of amount of milk, lack of professional support, sibling jealousy). Perseverance appeared to mark out those women who managed to breast feed for longer; this was seen across the socio-economic spectrum. Societal and professional pressure to breast feed was commonly experienced. satisfaction with actual infant feeding practice is associated with antenatal intention; levels are higher for those meeting their goals, whether formula feeding from birth or breast feeding for longer periods. Perceived pressure to breast feed raises questions about informed decision making. Identifying

  16. Educational Choice Regarding Technical Education: Research with Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacerauskas, Tomas; Šaparauskas, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In first part, the models, theories, mechanisms and presumptions, as well as the ideas of educational choice discourse have been scrutinized. In the second part, the survey on educational choice at Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, Lithuania has been presented. The methodology used in this research is a survey of respondents and survey…

  17. An Experimental Approach to Study Individual Differences in Infants' Intake and Satiation Behaviors during Bottle-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Mennella, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    As a group, bottle-fed infants are at higher risk for rapid weight gain compared with breast-fed infants. However, little is known about individual differences in feeding behaviors of bottle-feeding infants, as well as maternal and infant characteristics associated with bottle-feeding outcomes. We conducted a 2-day, within-subject study of 21 formula-feeding dyads; the within-subject factor was feeding condition: mother-led (ML; mothers were given the instruction to feed their infants as they typically would) vs. infant-led (IL; the experimenter ensured feeding began when infants signaled hunger and ended when they rejected the bottle on three consecutive occasions). Intake was determined by bottle weight; feedings were video-recorded and later analyzed to determine feeding duration and types of satiation behaviors displayed. Percent difference scores were calculated for each outcome as [((ML - IL)/IL) × 100] to standardize differences among dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires of feeding styles and infant temperament. On average, infants consumed ∼42% more formula during the ML- than IL-condition (p = 0.03). However, notable variation existed in difference scores for intake (range = -52.8% to 268.9%; higher scores reflect greater intake during ML than IL). Stepwise regression illustrated that greater intakes during the ML-condition were predicted by the combination of: (1) higher infant age; (2) lower levels of infant rhythmicity and adaptability; (3) higher levels of infant positive mood; and (4) lower levels of maternal restrictive and responsive feeding styles. This objective, experimental approach illustrated that variation in bottle-feeding outcomes is associated with characteristics of both members of the dyad.

  18. Complementary feeding and the early origins of obesity risk: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniandy, Naleena Devi; Allotey, Pascale A; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-11-15

    The rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide calls for an intervention earlier in the life cycle. Studies show that nutrition during early infancy may contribute to later obesity. Hence, this study is designed to determine if the variation in complementary feeding practices poses a risk for the development of obesity later in life. A mixed methods approach will be used in conducting this study. The target participants are infants born from January to June 2015 in the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) platform. The SEACO is a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) that is established in the District of Segamat in the state of Johor, Malaysia. For the quantitative strand, the sociodemographic data, feeding practices, anthropometry measurement and total nutrient intake will be assessed. The assessment will occur around the time complementary feeding is expected to start (7 Months) and again at 12 months. A 24-hour diet recall and a 2-day food diary will be used to assess the food intake. For the qualitative strand, selected mothers will be interviewed to explore their infant feeding practices and factors that influence their practices and food choices in detail. Ethical clearance for this study was sought through the Monash University Human Research and Ethics Committee (application number CF14/3850-2014002010). Subsequently, the findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Early Oral Feeding After Surgery for Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Shoar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Poor nutritional status following abdominal surgeries for esophageal and gastric cancers remains a major challenge in postoperative care. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy of starting early oral feeding (EOF in patients undergoing surgical resection of upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods: A total of 180 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophageal or gastric malignancies undergoing elective surgical resection between January 2008 and February 2011 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Seventy-two patients were assigned to the EOF group, and 108 patients received late oral feeding (LOF. Postoperative endpoints were compared between the two groups. Results: Nasogastric tubes were removed from patients on average 3.3±1.6 days after the surgery in the EOF group and 5.2±2.5 days in the LOF group (p 0.050. Conclusions: EOF is safe following esophageal and gastric cancer surgery and results in faster recovery and hospital discharge.

  20. Comparative Study of Milk Production and Feed Efficiency Based on Farmers Best Practices and National Research Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lestari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare local dairy farmer ration formula with national research council in producing higher feed efficiency and milk production. This study had two stages. The first stage was in vitro study of dairy farmer rations which have different raw materials (R3, R4, and R5 with NRC based ration (R2 and Demo Farm ration (R1. The variables measured in this stage were proximate composition, volatile fatty acid, ammonia, dry matter and organic matter digestibility. The first stage used a randomized block design with five treatments, three groups of ruminal fluid, and three replications. The second stage used nine lactating cows with three periods of lactation (one, three, and other and used a randomized block design with three treatments, three groups, and one replication. Parameters measured were dry matter intake, manure score, milk production, body weight gain, body condition score, and technical and economical efficiencies. The first stage result showed that R1, R2, and R3 were three best rations in nutrient composition and fermentability (ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations were optimum for microbial growth and high digestibility, so in conclusion those three rations were the best rations and should be compared by in vivo method. The result of the second stage showed that all tested rations were not significantly different in milk production, performance and efficiency, so in conclusion those three rations have the same quality.

  1. Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

  2. Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsiu-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early enteral nutrition is recommended in cases of critical illness. It is unclear whether this recommendation is of most benefit to extremely ill patients. We aim to determine the association between illness severity and commencement of enteral feeding. Methods One hundred and eight critically ill patients were grouped as “less severe” and “more severe” for this cross-sectional, retrospective observational study. The cut off value was based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 20. Patients who received enteral feeding within 48 h of medical intensive care unit (ICU admission were considered early feeding cases otherwise they were assessed as late feeding cases. Feeding complications (gastric retention/vomiting/diarrhea/gastrointestinal bleeding, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital mortality, nutritional intake, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, nitrogen balance (NB, and 24-h urinary urea nitrogen data were collected over 21 days. Results There were no differences in measured outcomes between early and late feedings for less severely ill patients. Among more severely ill patients, however, the early feeding group showed improved serum albumin (p = 0.036 and prealbumin (p = 0.014 but worsened NB (p = 0.01, more feeding complications (p = 0.005, and prolonged ICU stays (p = 0.005 compared to their late feeding counterparts. Conclusions There is a significant association between severity of illness and timing of enteral feeding initiation. In more severe illness, early feeding was associated with improved nutritional outcomes, while late feeding was associated with reduced feeding complications and length of ICU stay. However, the feeding complications of more severely ill early feeders can be handled without significantly affecting nutritional intake and there is no eventual difference in length of hospital stay or mortality

  3. Study on advanced systematic function of the JNC geological disposal technical information integration system. Research document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Yoshinao; Fukui, Hiroshi; Sagawa, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Ito Takaya

    2004-02-01

    In this study, while attaining systematization about the technical know-how mutually utilized between geology environmental field, disposal technology (design) field and safety assessment field, the share function of general information in which the formation of an information share and the use promotion between the technical information management databases built for every field were aimed at as an advancement of the function of JNC Geological Disposal Technical Information Integration System considered, and the system function for realizing considered in integration of technical information. (1) Since the concrete information about geology environment which is gradually updated with progress of stratum disposal research, or increases in reflected suitable for research of design and safety assessment. After arranging the form suitable for systematizing technical information, while arranging the technical information in both the fields of design and safety assessment with the form of two classes based on tasks/works, it systematized planning adjustment about delivery of technical information with geology environmental field. (2) In order to aim at integration of 3-fields technical information of geological disposal, based on the examination result of systematization of technical information, the function of mutual use of the information managed in two or more databases was considered. Moreover, while considering system functions, such as management of the use history of technical information, connection of information use, and a notice of common information, the system operation windows in consideration of the ease of operation was examined. (author)

  4. Technical note: ruminal cannulation technique in young Holstein calves: effects of cannulation on feed intake, body weight gain, and ruminal development at six weeks of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, N B; Engbaek, M; Vestergaard, M; Harmon, D L

    2010-02-01

    Ruminal cannulation techniques are frequently used to study fermentation in the ruminant forestomach. Unsatisfactory results with the traditionally applied procedure for cannulation of young calves stimulated the development of a simpler and more robust procedure; this procedure was tested for effects on performance traits and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract compared with a control group not undergoing surgery. Five calves were ruminally cannulated at approximately 10 d of age and 5 matching calves were used as controls. All calves were fed milk replacer and a diet based on clover grass silage and sodium hydroxide-treated wheat. Ruminal fluid was collected from cannulated calves once weekly for 3 consecutive weeks. All calves were euthanized at 43+/-3 d of age. No apparent adverse effects of cannulation were observed. Feed intake, BW gain, and gross anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract were not affected by cannulation. Minimum ruminal pH increased with sampling week, but average ruminal pH, total volatile fatty acids concentration, and volatile fatty acids proportions were not affected by sampling week. In conclusion, the implemented surgical technique was found to have no major effect on apparent animal health and performance traits, and the cannula proved useful for multiple samplings of ruminal contents in young calves. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Feeding methods, sleep arrangement, and infant sleep patterns: a Chinese population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hui-Shan; Chang, Jen-Jen; Wang, Lin-Hong; Liu, Xi-Cheng; Jiang, Jing-Xiong; An, Lin

    2016-02-01

    Findings from prior research into the effect of feeding methods on infant sleep are inconsistent. The objectives of this study were to examine infants' sleep patterns by feeding methods and sleep arrangement from birth to eight months old. This longitudinal cohort study enrolled 524 pregnant women at 34-41 weeks of gestation and their infants after delivery in 2006 and followed up until eight months postpartum. The study subjects were recruited from nine women and children hospitals in nine cities in China (Beijing, Chongqing, Wuhan, Changsha, Nanning, Xiamen, Xi'an, Jinan, and Hailin). Participating infants were followed up weekly during the first month and monthly from the second to the eighth month after birth. Twenty-four hour sleep diaries recording infants' sleeping and feeding methods were administered based on caregiver's self-report. Multivariable mixed growth curve models were fitted to estimate the effects of feeding methods and sleep arrangement on infants' sleep patterns over time, controlling for maternal and paternal age, maternal and paternal education level, household income, supplementation of complementary food, and infant birth weight and length. Exclusively formula fed infants had the greatest sleep percentage/24 h, followed by exclusively breast milk fed infants and partially breast milk fed infants (Psleep percentage and night waking frequency between exclusively formula and exclusively breast milk fed infants weakened over time as infants developed. In addition, compared to infants with bed-sharing sleep arrangement, those with room sharing sleep arrangement had greater daytime and 24-hour infant sleep percentage, whereas those with sleeping alone sleep arrangement had greater nighttime sleep percentage. Our data based on caregiver's self-report suggested that partial breastfeeding and bed-sharing may be associated with less sleep in infants. Health care professionals need to work with parents of newborns to develop coping strategies that

  6. A Qualitative Inquiry of Career Exploration in Highly Implemented Career and Technical Education Programs of Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipanovic, Natalie; Stringfield, Sam

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study explores career counseling and guidance services as provided to students engaged in career and technical education programs at three sites in the United States. The sites, consisting of high schools and community colleges, were part of the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's 5-year studies of…

  7. Systems study 'Alternative Entsorgung'. Final report. Technical annex 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartje, B.; Kronschnabel, H.; Mueller, W.F.W.

    1984-01-01

    There is an investigation whether accessibility can be produced to fuel elements stored in a salt mine. All solutions of the problem were followed up until the technically best one was found. Two conditions must be fulfilled for access to the final storage barrel: - There must be a climate which is suitable for people. The Mining Order is the basis for this. - The pit building must be fixed, in the convergence in the salt mine should not lead to it becoming impossible to reach part of the mine. Due to heat-producing waste, rock temperatures are caused in the salt mine, in which mining is no longer possible. Building on the idea of cooling the whole final storage area using concentric sections, the amount of heat to be removal was first estimated. Cooling of the whole final storage area proved to be technically unjustifiable and uninteresting at present. (orig./HP) [de

  8. A study on the regulatory approach of major technical issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Keun Sun; Choi, J. T.; Kim, I. J. [Sunmoon Univ., Asan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Yang, S. H. [Korea Association for Nuclear Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-15

    This project is to provide the regulatory direction of 4 major technical issues for the Korean Next Generation Reactors, which are parts of major technical issues resulted from the safety regulation R and D on the KNGR. The outstanding results are as follows : reliability of risk significant SSCs established during design stage must be maintained through the operating life of the plant, currently used classification method of plant conditions and safety requirement were reviewed, and a quantitative classification method is needed to be developed further, the basic regulatory directions are proposed for multiple failures such as SBO, TLOFW, multiple SGTR and ATWS, safety requirements are proposed for survivability/availability of severe accident mitigation design features by 5 items if basic requirements, selection of initial event, identification of available equipment and instruments, identification of environmental conditions and verification methods.

  9. Swimming Behavior and Flow Geometry: A Fluid Mechanical Study of the Feeding Currents in Calanoid Copepods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Houshuo; Meneveau, Charles; Osborn, Thomas R.

    2003-11-01

    Copepods are small crustaceans living in oceans and fresh waters and play an important role in the marine and freshwater food webs. As they are the biggest biomass in the oceans some call them "the insects of the sea". Previous laboratory observations have shown that the fluid mechanical phenomena occurring at copepod body scale are crucial for the survival of copepods. One of the interesting phenomena is that many calanoid copepods display various behaviors to create the feeding currents for the purpose of capturing food particles. We have developed a fluid mechanical model to study the feeding currents. The model is a self-propelled body model in that the Navier-Stokes equations are properly coupled with the dynamic equations for the copepod's body. The model has been solved both analytically using the Stokes approximation with a spherical body shape and numerically using CFD with a realistic body shape.

  10. Prospective studies of the effect of breast feeding on incidence of infection and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, R K

    1979-09-01

    The effect of exclusive breast feeding in the first few weeks after birth on infant morbidity due to infectious and allergic disorders was investigated in three separate prospective studies. In a rural community in India, breast-fed infants had a significantly lower incidence of respiratory infection, otitis, diarrhoea, dehydration and pneumonia. In an urban population in Canada, breast feeding was associated with a marked decrease in the occurrence of otitis and respiratory disease and to a lesser extent of diarrhoea and dehydration. In newborn siblings of children with atopic disease exclusively breast-fed for a minimum of six weeks, the incidence of eczema, recurrent wheezing, elevated serum IgE-antibodies to cow's milk, complement activation in vivo after milk challenge and hemagglutinating antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin was significantly lower compared with formula-fed matched group. These observations provide clinical data attesting the immunologic advantages of human milk.

  11. Determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed: a multisite study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, Leslie J

    2005-01-01

    A new method was developed for the quantitation of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed at levels between 1 and 30 ppm. The new procedure, based on a previously reported assay, consists of a wet methanolic extraction of ground feed, followed by solid-phase extraction and injection onto a gradient liquid chromatographic system. A multisite study involving 3 laboratories (the developing laboratory and 2 independent laboratories) was performed to evaluate precision, recovery, linearity, and sensitivity. Mean recove;ries for triplicate analyses at 3 levels, performed by 2 analysts per laboratory, were between 89 and 97%, with coefficients of variation ranging from 1.6 to 8.6%. Coefficients of determination (r2) obtained from the plotted data were > or =0.993. The precision of the method, determined from 6 replicate preparations from the same batch of medicated feed assayed in 3 separate trials per laboratory, was between 0.6 and 5.8%. The quantitation limit was established at 0.5 ppm. Specificity and robustness studies were performed by the developing laboratory.

  12. Technical Work Plan for: Fracture and Lithophysal Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    n

    2006-09-11

    The primary objective of the work scope described in this technical work plan (TWP) is to enhance the descriptions of fracture and lithophysal parameters for the repository host horizon (RHH) over the repository footprint utilizing a predictive model. This work is planned to address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) additional information needs (AINs) associated with the Structural Deformation and Seismicity (SDS) Key Technical Issues (KTI) agreement SDS 3.03 (Schlueter 2000 [DIRS 166615]). The results of the planned work are expected to enhance the technical basis and confirm the results of the fracture analyses presented in ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107], Section 6.1.6). This model is not intended to provide an alternative for the unsaturated zone and saturated zone flow and transport models currently used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Nor are the outputs of this model intended to address the SDS 3.03 AINs related to the unsaturated zone and saturated zone flow and transport models.

  13. Technical Work Plan for: Fracture and Lithophysal Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the work scope described in this technical work plan (TWP) is to enhance the descriptions of fracture and lithophysal parameters for the repository host horizon (RHH) over the repository footprint utilizing a predictive model. This work is planned to address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) additional information needs (AINs) associated with the Structural Deformation and Seismicity (SDS) Key Technical Issues (KTI) agreement SDS 3.03 (Schlueter 2000 [DIRS 166615]). The results of the planned work are expected to enhance the technical basis and confirm the results of the fracture analyses presented in ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 166107], Section 6.1.6). This model is not intended to provide an alternative for the unsaturated zone and saturated zone flow and transport models currently used by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). Nor are the outputs of this model intended to address the SDS 3.03 AINs related to the unsaturated zone and saturated zone flow and transport models

  14. The impact of maternal employment on breast-feeding duration in the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Griffiths, Lucy Jane; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-09-01

    To examine the relationship of maternal employment characteristics, day care arrangements and the type of maternity leave pay to breast-feeding for at least 4 months. Cohort study. Babies aged 9 months in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 6917 British/Irish white employed mothers with singleton babies. Mothers employed part-time or self-employed were more likely to breast-feed for at least 4 months than those employed full-time (adjusted rate ratio (aRR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.30 (1.17-1.44) and 1.74 (1.46-2.07), respectively). The longer a mother delayed her return to work postpartum, the more likely she was to breast-feed for at least 4 months (P for trend employer offered family-friendly (aRR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27) or flexible work arrangements (aRR 1.24, 95% CI 1.00-1.55), or they received Statutory Maternity Pay (SMP) plus additional pay during their maternity leave rather than SMP alone (aRR 1.13, 95% CI 1.02-1.26). These findings were independent of confounding factors, such as socio-economic status and maternal education. Current policies may encourage mothers to enter or return to employment postpartum, but this may result in widening inequalities in breast-feeding and persistence of low rates. Policies should aim to increase financial support and incentives for employers to offer supportive work arrangements.

  15. Amblyomma maculatum Feeding Augments Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Rhesus Macaque Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banajee, Kaikhushroo H.; Embers, Monica E.; Langohr, Ingeborg M.; Doyle, Lara A.; Hasenkampf, Nicole R.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri is an emerging eschar-causing human pathogen in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia and is transmitted by the Gulf coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Tick saliva has been shown to alter both the cellular and humoral components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the effect of this immunomodulation on Rickettsia transmission and pathology in an immunocompetent vertebrate host has not been fully examined. We hypothesize that, by modifying the host immune response, tick feeding enhances infection and pathology of pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia sp. In order to assess this interaction in vivo, a pilot study was conducted using five rhesus macaques that were divided into three groups. One group was intradermally inoculated with low passage R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain) alone (n = 2) and another group was inoculated during infestation by adult, R. parkeri-free A. maculatum (n = 2). The final macaque was infested with ticks alone (tick feeding control group). Blood, lymph node and skin biopsies were collected at several time points post-inoculation/infestation to assess pathology and quantify rickettsial DNA. As opposed to the tick-only animal, all Rickettsia-inoculated macaques developed inflammatory leukograms, elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, and elevated TH1 (interferon-γ, interleukin-15) and acute phase inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6) post-inoculation, with greater neutrophilia and interleukin-6 concentrations in the tick plus R. parkeri group. While eschars formed at all R. parkeri inoculation sites, larger and slower healing eschars were observed in the tick feeding plus R. parkeri group. Furthermore, dissemination of R. parkeri to draining lymph nodes early in infection and increased persistence at the inoculation site were observed in the tick plus R. parkeri group. This study indicates that rhesus macaques can be used to model R. parkeri rickettsiosis, and suggests that immunomodulatory factors

  16. Long-term feeding studies in mice fed a diet containing irradiated fish. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petten, L.E. van; Calkins, J.E.; McConnell, R.F.; Gottschalk, H.M.; Elias, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    A wholesomeness feeding study was carried out in mice fed equal amounts of cod or redfish, comprising 45% of the diet. Three groups of animals received either irradiated [1.75 kGy (175 krad)] fish, non-irradiated fish or stock ration. A 90-day subchronic study, a multigeneration reproduction, a dominant lethality and a teratology study were carried out together with an 80-week oncogenic study on the F 1 generation. No adverse effects were noted on growth, reproduction and litter behaviour, in relation to dominant lethality, teratogenicity or oncogenicity. (Auth.)

  17. Food and feed chemical contaminants in the European Union: Regulatory, scientific, and technical issues concerning chemical contaminants occurrence, risk assessment, and risk management in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silano, Marco; Silano, Vittorio

    2017-07-03

    A priority of the European Union is the control of risks possibly associated with chemical contaminants in food and undesirable substances in feed. Following an initial chapter describing the main contaminants detected in food and undesirable substances in feed in the EU, their main sources and the factors which affect their occurrence, the present review focuses on the "continous call for data" procedure that is a very effective system in place at EFSA to make possible the exposure assessment of specific contaminants and undesirable substances. Risk assessment of contaminants in food atances in feed is carried currently in the European Union by the CONTAM Panel of EFSA according to well defined methodologies and in collaboration with competent international organizations and with Member States.

  18. Preventing mother-to-child transmission: factors affecting mothers' choice of feeding--a case study from Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muko, K N; Tchangwe, G K; Ngwa, V C; Njoya, L

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports on factors influencing the decision of mothers regarding the type of feeding method for their babies in a rural setting in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to ascertain the proportion of mothers choosing the different methods of feeding, to determine the various factors influencing their choices, and to ascertain the relationships of these factors to their respective choices. Questionnaires were used on 108 HIV-positive mothers who had delivered babies and who were administered nevirapine at least 3 months prior to the study. A focus group discussion with mothers also took place. Findings were that more mothers (84%) chose breastfeeding than artificial feeding (16%), while a minority (4%) selected mixed feeding. Factors found to militate against artificial feeding were cost (69%), stigma (64%), family pressure (44%), inconvenience in preparation/administration (38%), prior education from health workers (23%), and loss of special attention from family (8%). On the other hand, advice of health worker (44%), ill health (19.5%), free milk (12.5%),job pressure (12.5%) and loss of beauty (12.5%) were found to militate against breastfeeding. A direct relationship was also found between age, educational level, income size, marital status and choice of feeding. Policies targeting stigma reduction and socio-cultural factors affecting the choice of feeding are needed to optimise uptake of the less risky methods of feeding which could in turn contribute to a reduction in transmission.

  19. Sensitivity Study for Feed and Bleed Operation for Domestic CANDU Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S; Kim, B. S.; Yoo, H. K.; Kim, H. J. [Atomic Creative Technology Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Whang, S. W. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effects of the feed and bleed operation using DCT(Degassing Condenser Tank) over-pressure protection valves when LOCL4 with LOCL3 occurs during LPSD mid-loop operation. The CDF(Core Damage Frequency) of Level-1 Internal Event for Wolsong NPP Unit 1 during LPSD POS5A/5B accounts for about 89.08%(POS5A: 30.04%, POS5B: 59.04%) of the total CDF. For Wolsong NPP Unit 1 LPSD External Event, seismic analysis is excluded from this study because it is PSA-based SMA(Seismic Margin Assessment based Probabilistic Safety Assessment). For the domestic CANDU NPP, the feed and bleed operation using DCT over-pressure protection valves has been incorporated as an additional measure to mitigate the consequences during LPSD mid-loop operation. Since LOCL4 with LOCL3 is considered to be the event with highest frequency among all initial events, the effect of the feed and bleed operation on the safety of Nuclear Power Plant has been evaluated using PSA methodology.

  20. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  1. INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES IN GUNTUR DISTRICT-A CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Optimal Infant and Young Child-Feeding (IYCF practices are crucial for nutritional status, growth, development, health, and ultimately the survival of infants and young children. It was estimated that, if 90% of infants are covered with a package of intervention to protect, promote, and support the optimal IYCF practices, almost one-fifth of overall under-five mortality can be averted. OBJECTIVES 1. To study the socio-demographic characteristics of the Infants and Young children living in the rural areas. 2. To study the core Infant and Young Child Feeding indicators. MATERIALS AND METHODS A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in Venigandla village, the rural field practice area of NRI Medical College, Guntur, for a period of 4 months from January to April 2015. A total of 100 children aged 6-23 months were studied using a pre-tested semi-structured schedule. Data were entered in Microsoft Excel and analysed using Epi Info software. RESULTS Of the 100 children studied, majority of families belong to lower middle class (40% according to BG Prasad socio- economic classification. One in 10 children was given pre- lacteal feeds after birth. Two-thirds of mothers breastfed their children within first hour after birth. Three fourths of children received exclusively breastfed up to 6 months of age. Minimum Dietary Diversity was observed in 74%, Minimum Meal Frequency observed in 94% and Minimum Acceptable Diet was observed in 70% of the 6-23 months children. CONCLUSION The IYCF practices were observed to be better in the present study when compared to similar studies done elsewhere in the country. Area specific programmes need to be created for providing comprehensive nutrition and health education for mothers, to protect, promote and sustain the optimal IYCF practices.

  2. Dose-response feeding study of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in laying hens: effects on laying performance and tissue distribution, accumulation and elimination kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueberschär, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven; Matthes, Siegfried

    2007-02-01

    Technical short chain chlorinated paraffins (C10-C13 with 60% chlorine) were fed to 93 laying hens from 24 to 32 weeks of age in increasing concentrations of up to 100 mg/kg feed. No significant influence on health, relative organ weights or performance (laying intensity, egg weight, feed consumption) was noted. The chlorinated paraffin content of the tissues was linearly related to the concentration of short chain paraffins of the feed. The highest concentrations were found in abdominal fat, egg yolk and fatty tissues. Breast muscle, egg albumen and bile fluid contained minimal or no residues. Less than 1% of the chlorinated paraffins ingested were incorporated into the body (without head, feet, gut and feathers), whereas about 1.5% were eliminated with the egg yolk and 30% were excreted with urine and faeces. A six-week kinetic depuration study revealed a biphasic elimination with half-lifes of 4-40 min (liver, kidneys, legs, fat, blood) for the initial rapid phase, and 15-30 days (blood, fat, liver, yolk, kidneys, legs) for the terminal slow phase.

  3. A Study on the Impact of Collective Feedback in the Online Technical and Professional Communication Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation study seeks to determine whether feedback in the online Technical and Professional Communication classroom impacts student performance. This dissertation proposes that online Technical and Professional Communication instructors consider adopt such a feedback methodology in order to engage students with writing practices that…

  4. At-Risk Learner Preference in Engineering/Technical Graphics: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2011-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated learner preferences of secondary Career and Technical Education (CTE) Engineering/Technical Graphics students using the VARK Questionnaire. The VARK Questionnaire is an instrument that assists in determining students' dominant preferred learning styles, whether visual, aural, reading, or kinesthetic. This study…

  5. The Boston Study: Analysis of a Major Metropolitan Business- and Technical-Communication Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, William J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a year-long study of the duties, skills, and knowledge required of business- and technical-communication professionals in Boston, Massachusetts. Focuses on six categories of practice: technical communication, publishing, public relations, marketing, development, and training. Suggests that in the next decade communication practitioners…

  6. Soft Skills in Health Careers Programs: A Case Study of A Regional Vocational Technical High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chong Myung

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an understanding of the ways in which educational experiences might differ between a regional vocational technical high school (RVTH) and short-term career-training programs. A particular regional vocational technical high school was selected for its outstanding academic records and placement rates, and a…

  7. Tuna cannery energy conservation interventions: Technical/economic feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G. (Calabria Univ. Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    An energy audit was conducted on a 230,000 can (x 80 g)/day tuna cannery to determine where technically and economically feasible energy savings interventions could be made. The plant is equipped with an oil fired boiler which supplies steam for cooking and sterilization purposes. In the energy/cost analysis, it was found that the most significant and cost effective energy savings could be obtained by the substitution of the four sterilization chambers with three sets of twin sterilization/heat exchange chambers.

  8. The FERMI (at) Elettra Technical Optimization Study: Preliminary Parameter Set and Initial Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrd, John; Corlett, John; Doolittle, Larry; Fawley, William; Lidia, Steven; Penn, Gregory; Ratti, Alex; Staples, John; Wilcox, Russell; Wurtele, Jonathan; Zholents, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    The goal of the FERMI (at) Elettra Technical Optimization Study is to produce a machine design and layout consistent with user needs for radiation in the approximate ranges 100 nm to 40 nm, and 40 nm to 10 nm, using seeded FEL's. The Study will involve collaboration between Italian and US physicists and engineers, and will form the basis for the engineering design and the cost estimation

  9. Immunochemical approach to the study of DNA repair. Proposed technical program and technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    A simple immunochemical assay to quantify DNA lesions is being developed in order to facilitate the study of DNA repair. Antibodies have been raised to 5,6-dihydroxy-dihydrothymine and to thymine dimers and these have been used to measure DNA damages produced by osmium tetroxide and ultraviolet light, respectively. An enzyme immunoassay has been developed and the sensitivity of this method will be compared to physical, enzymatic, and chemical methods using PM2 bacteriophage DNA. Finally DNA repair will be assayed in several model systems

  10. A Study of Technical Engineering Peer Reviews at NASA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Lawrence P.; Tumer, Irem Y.; Bell, David G.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the state of practices of design reviews at NASA and research into what can be done to improve peer review practices. There are many types of reviews at NASA: required and not, formalized and informal, programmatic and technical. Standing project formal reviews such as the Preliminary Design Review and Critical Design Review are a required part of every project and mission development. However, the technical, engineering peer reviews that support teams' work on such projects are informal, some times ad hoc, and inconsistent across the organization. The goal of this work is to identify best practices and lessons learned from NASA's experience, supported by academic research and methodologies to ultimately improve the process. This research has determined that the organization, composition, scope, and approach of the reviews impact their success. Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) can identify key areas of concern before or in the reviews. Product definition tools like the Project Priority Matrix, engineering-focused Customer Value Chain Analysis (CVCA), and project or system-based Quality Function Deployment (QFD) help prioritize resources in reviews. The use of information technology and structured design methodologies can strengthen the engineering peer review process to help NASA work towards error-proofing the design process.

  11. Collaborative study on the effect of grinding on the detection of bones from processed animal proteins in feed by light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veys, Pascal; Planchon, Viviane; Colbert, Ruairi; Cruz, Clara; Frick, Geneviève; Ioannou, Ioannis; Marchis, Daniela; Nordkvist, Erik; Paradies-Severin, Inge; Pohto, Arja; Weiss, Roland; Baeten, Vincent; Berben, Gilbert

    2017-08-01

    Bone fragments are essential structures for the detection of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in feed by light microscopy for official controls according to Annex VI of European Union Regulation EC/152/2009. The preparation of samples submitted for analysis requires a grinding step to make them suitable for microscopic slide preparation and observation. However, there are no technical guidelines set down for this step despite the fact that it can lead to an increase in bone numbers due to fragmentation. This was demonstrated by an in-house study carried out by the Irish National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for animal protein detection. The present collaborative study investigated the possible effects of three different grinding conditions on the final result for a feed adulterated with 0.05 and 0.01% (w/w) of PAP. The microscopic analysis either combined or not with an Alizarin Red staining was carried out by 10 different laboratories. The results demonstrated that although a large variation in the numbers of bone fragments was noted, five of the six different grinding/staining combinations applied at two levels of PAP adulteration did not significantly (at p = 0.05) differ from one another. The only exception occurred when grinding the feed containing 0.05% of PAP with a rotor mill equipped with a 0.5-mm sieve and combined with a staining which resulted in a greater number of bone fragments by forced fragmentation. Overall, the impact of the grinding/staining combinations on the final results was shown to be negligible when considering the regulatory limit of detection (LOD) requirement for the method and the current rules of implementation of the light microscopic method. From a total of 180 analyses carried out on the feed matrix containing 0.05% of PAP no false-negative result was observed, and at a level of 0.01% PAP only 10 false-negative results occurred.

  12. Technical efficiency analysis for oilseed sunflower farms: a case study in Erzurum, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Külekçi, Murat

    2010-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the technical efficiency of farms producing sunflower in Erzurum, Turkey and to identify factors that might be causing inefficiency. Stochastic frontier analysis was used to measure technical efficiency. One hundred and seventeen randomly selected farms were interviewed for farm-level data in the 2004-2005 production period. Results revealed that the mean technical efficiency for the sunflower farms, estimated by the stochastic production frontier, is 64%. At full technical efficiency, on average, the farmers could reduce their inputs by around 56% without reducing their sunflower production, simply by improving technical efficiency. In the inefficiency model the parameter estimates showed that older farmers, higher level of farmer's education, more experienced farmers, larger farm size and higher information score resulted in lower technical inefficiency, while bigger family size and more credit usage resulted in higher technical inefficiency. This study proposes strategies such as providing better extension services and farmer-training programmes, including more educated people in sunflower farming and also expanding the sunflower-growing area through provision of adequate facilities in order to increase technical efficiency.

  13. Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. AFSC/NMML: Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas, 2007-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  15. Commingled uranium-tailings study. Volume II. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-06-30

    Public Law 96-540, Section 213, directs the Secretary of Energy to develop a plan for a cooperative program to provide assistance in the stabilization and management of defense-related uranium mill tailings commingled with other tailings. In developing the plan, the Secretary is further directed to: (1) establish the amount and condition of tailings generated under federal contracts; (2) examine appropriate methodologies for establishing the extent of federal assistance; and (3) consult with the owners and operators of each site. This technical report summarizes US Department of Energy (DOE) and contractor activities in pursuit of items (1), (2), and (3) above. Recommendations regarding policy and a cooperative plan for federal assistance are under separate cover as Volume I.

  16. PUREX Plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    The PUREX aggregate area is made up of six operable units; 200-PO-1 through 200-PO-6 and consists of liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, PUREX Plant operations. This report describes PUREX and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches and ditches, ponds, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms, and the lines and encasements that connect them. Each waste site in the aggregate area is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. This document provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation. This document is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted

  17. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2014-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cu...

  18. Association between Infant Feeding and Early Postpartum Infant Body Composition: A Pilot Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Kojo Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies have produced conflicting results of the impact of breastfeeding on overweight/obesity. This study evaluated the impact of infant feeding on infant body composition. There were two groups of mother-infant pairs (exclusive breastfeeding [EBF; n=27] and mixed feeding [MF; n=13] in this study. At baseline, participants were similar in their demographic characteristics except prepregnancy weight, where MF mothers tended to be heavier than their EBF counterparts (67.3 kg versus 59.9 kg; P=.034. Infant birth weight was slightly higher among the MF group than their EBF counterparts (3.5 kg versus 3.4 kg, although the differences were not statistically significant. At 3 months postpartum, mean infant FMI (4.1 kg/m2 versus 3.8 kg/m2 and percent body fat (24.4% versus 23.1% were slightly higher among EBF infants than MF infants. In terms of growth velocity, EBF infants gained weight faster than their MF counterparts, although the differences were not statistically significant. The findings from this study suggest that EBF may promote faster weight gain and increase in both fat mass index (FMI and percent body fat in the early postpartum period in addition to the numerous health benefits enjoyed by the infant and the mother who exclusively breastfeeds her newborn.

  19. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diep H. Ha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No at age 6–9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars. Household income quartiles, mother’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6–9 months. Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2–3.1 and 1.8 (1.2–2.6 against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2–2.3. The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5–0.8. Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.

  20. Study of Relationship between Hypernatremia in Neonates and Way of Maternal Breast Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Boskabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The extreme reduction in breast milk intake during the first days of life leads to weight loss, kidney failure and hypernatremia. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between hypernatremia in neonates and way of maternal breastfeeding in hospitalized infants in Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad.   Materials and Methods: After obtaining parental consent, 687 infants referred to the neonatal ward and clinic of Ghaem hospital of Mashhad participated in this cross-sectional study. First, complete history of the mother and baby regarding pregnancy and delivery problems, way of breastfeeding, and the first time of lactation beginning were obtained. Then neonates were divided into two groups of normal and hypernatremia (sodium≥150 mg/dl according to the amount of blood sodium level. Data was analyzed using correlation tests, chi-square, t test and Mann-Whitney tests with SPSS software (version 11.5.   Results: According to the findings of this study, the average age (P=0.911, Apgar scores (P=0.192, time of the first lactation (P=0.081 and breast feeding duration (P=o.108 showed no statistically significant difference between normal and hypernatremia groups. But the admission weight (P=0.011, times of lactation (P=0.108, breast-feeding status (P=0.001, let down reflex in mother’s breast (0.001, kind of nutrition (P=o.oo1, breast filling after childbirth and lactation (P=0.000, and breast softening after breast-feeding (P=0.000, urination frequency (P=0.000, defecation frequency (P=0.000 and duration of maternal hospitalization (P=0.007 showed statistically significant difference between the groups.   Conclusion: Neonatal weight control, times of lactation, lactation status, breast changes during breast feeding and frequency of urination and defecation may be effective in the early detection of the reduced breast milk intake and the control of the related complications.   Key Words: Breast Feedinf, Breast Milk

  1. Technical efficiency of potato and dairy farming in mountainous Kazbegi district, Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Shavgulidze

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The study employs a stochastic frontier analysis to assess technical efficiency of potato and cheese production and determine socio-economic factors that influence farmers' technical efficiency levels in mountainous Kazbegi district of Georgia. The study found improved feeding to be inversely related with technical inefficiency in cheese production. In potato production, the analysis revealed implementation of the plant protection measures and use of quality seeds to be significant aspects that influence technical efficiency of potato growers.

  2. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  3. A study on decision-making framework for developing risk-informed technical specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Beom Seock

    2002-02-01

    The utility and the nuclear research institutes in Korea have conduct research for improving inefficient requirements in technical specifications using the results of probability risk assessments and information associated with risk. However, the guidance for reviewing the improved technical specifications has not been developed. Thus, the objective of this study is to develop a decision-making framework for investigating and reviewing the documents associated with the changes of technical specifications. This work has been done for helping the regulation agency to review the improved technical specifications as well as to make decisions whether the remedy is accepted or not. The contents of this study include: 1. Surveys on Technical Specification regulations in foreign countries as well as those in Korea 2. Surveys on the state- of- the- art methodology for Risk Informed Technical Specifications and their uses in Korea 3. Development of a decision-making framework in both the licensee and the regulation agency position 4. Development and applications of a decision-making framework using Influence Diagrams. The decision-making framework for RITS using Influence Diagrams are developed and applied to an example problem in this study. This work might contribute to developing the risk informed regulation guidance for improving the quality of the current technical specifications

  4. Attitudes to infant feeding decision-making--a mixed-methods study of Australian medical students and GP registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodribb, Wendy; Fallon, Tony; Jackson, Claire; Hegney, Desley

    2010-03-01

    Breastfeeding is an important public health issue. While medical practitioners can have a significant impact on breastfeeding initiation and duration, there are few studies investigating their views regarding women's infant feeding decisions. This mixed-methods study employed qualitative (focus groups and interviews) and quantitative (questionnaire) data collection techniques to investigate the attitudes and views of Australian medical students and GP registrars about infant feeding decision-making. Three approaches to infant feeding decisions were evident: 'the moral choice' (women were expected to breastfeed); 'the free choice' (doctors should not influence a woman's decision); and 'the equal choice' (the outcome of the decision was unimportant). Participants were uncertain about differences between artificial-feeding and breastfeeding outcomes, and there was some concern that advising a mother to breastfeed may lead to maternal feelings of guilt and failure. These findings, the first in an Australian setting, provide a foundation on which to base further educational interventions for medical practitioners.

  5. B Plant aggregate area management study technical baseline report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFord, D.H.; Carpenter, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    The B aggregate area is made up of 13 operable units; 200-BP 1 through 200-BP 1 1, 200-IU-6, and 200-SS-1 that consist of liquid and solid waste disposal sites in the vicinity of, and related to, B Plant operations. This report describes B Plant and its waste sites, including cribs, french drains, septic tanks and drain fields, trenches and ditches, ponds, catch tanks, settling tanks, diversion boxes, underground tank farms designed for high-level liquid wastes, and the lines and encasements that connect them. Each waste site in the aggregate area is described separately. Close relationships between waste units, such as overflow from one to another, are also discussed. This document provides a technical baseline of the aggregate area and results from an environmental investigation. This document is based upon review and evaluation of numerous Hanford Site current and historical reports, drawings and photographs, supplemented with site inspections and employee interviews. No intrusive field investigations or sampling were conducted

  6. Study of an induction brazing process for the instrumentation feed through part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jintae; Ahn, Sung Ho; Joung, Chang Young; Kim, Ka Hye; Heo, Sung Ho [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In general, brazing is used to seal out the feed through part of thin wires, and several studies in nuclear fields used brazing as a sealing method. However, previous techniques using a manual torch or an induction brazing by blowing Ar gas as a shield gas cannot avoid soot, which is difficult to remove. In addition, because their brazing quality is not uniform, instrumentation cables cannot deliver signals due to damage of excessive heat. In this study, an automatically controlled induction brazing system has been developed including a vacuum chamber to prevent generation of soot. A loop is a facility to carry out irradiation test for nuclear fuels and materials in a research reactor by measuring the irradiation behavior of them in a timely manner. Because flow condition of coolant in a loop should be the same with that of NPPs', highly pressurized (15.5 MPa) and highly heated (300 .deg. C) coolant is circulated through the loop. Therefore, sealing of the pressure boundary is one of the most important processes in fabricating the in-pile test section (IPS). In particular, sensors such as thermocouples, LVDTs and SPNDs are attached in a test rig and deliver signals to the measuring device at the outside of the reactor pool through instrumentation cables, which pass through the pressure boundary of the test rig. Therefore, it needs to seal out the instrumentation feed through part to not leak the coolant.

  7. ISOLATION STUDIES ON THE PREVALENCE OF SALMONELLAE IN CHICKEN ORGANS, EGGS AND FEED COMPONENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajid, Saraj-Uddin; Sajid, Mahum; Hashmi, Ramiz Iqbal

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide.

  8. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    OpenAIRE

    Goulding, Alison N; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depr...

  9. The study of insect blood-feeding behaviour: 2. Recording techniques and the use of flow charts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. B. Smith

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper continues a discussion of approaches and methodologies we have used in our studies of feeding in haematophagous insects. Described are techniques for directly monitoring behaviour: electrical recording of feeding behaviour via resistance changes in the food canal, optical methods for monitoring mouthpart activity, and a computer technique for behavioural event recording. Also described is the use of "flow charts" or "decision diagrams" to model interrelated sequences of behaviours.

  10. A study to evaluate the levels of dioxin-like compounds in dairy feeds in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorber, M.; Ferrario, J.; Byrne, C. [United States Environmental Protection Agency, WA, DC (United States); Greene, C.; Cyrus, A. [Versar, Inc., Springfield, VA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The primary route for general population exposure to dioxin-like compounds is through the consumption of animal fats, with bovine-derived meat, milk and dairy products comprising over 50% of total exposure in the United States. The primary route of exposure hypothesized for cattle is airborne deposition of dioxins onto the leaves of feed crops. Over the last few years additional pathways of exposure have been identified associated with contaminated feed additives such as ball clay, mineral supplements, and animal byproducts. Studies by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) have shown that incidental contact with pentachlorophenol (PCP)-treated wood by cattle have resulted in elevated tissue levels. Although the air-to-leaf pathway is still considered by most researchers to be the dominant pathway of exposure, the lack of any systematic examination of animal feeds to quantify the contribution of the air-to-leaf pathway has been a major gap in our empirical understanding of dioxin exposure. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on the third phase. The first phase was a study on the mass balance of dioxins in lactating cows. The objective of that study was to quantify the role feeds play in total dairy cow exposure. The second phase of the program involved the collection and measurement of dioxins in minor feed components. Dioxins in specific targeted animal feed components of interest, including animal byproducts (beef, pork, poultry by-products, fish meal) and plant byproducts (deodorizer distillates from corn, soybean, peanut, cottonseed, and canola processers; cane and beet molasses), were measured. The third phase of the project, reported here, involved component sampling of dairy feeds around the US.

  11. Factors that influence the non-technical skills performance of scrub nurses: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Evelyn; Massey, Debbie; Gillespie, Brigid M

    2015-12-01

    To identify and describe the factors that impact on the performance of scrub nurses' non-technical skills performance during the intra-operative phase of surgery. Non-technical skills have been identified as important precursors to errors in the operating room. However, few studies have investigated factors influencing non-technical skills of scrub nurses. Prospective observational study. Structured observations were performed on a sample of 182 surgical procedures across eight specialities by two trained observers from August 2012-April 2013 at two hospital sites. Participants were purposively selected scrub nurses. Bivariate correlations and a multiple linear regression model were used to identify associations among length of surgery, patients' acuity using the American Society of Anesthesiologists classification system, team familiarity, number of occasions scout nurses leave the operating room, change of scout nurse and the outcome, the non-technical skills performance of scrub nurses. Patient acuity and team familiarity were the strongest predictors of scrub nurses' non-technical skills performance at hospital site A. There were no correlations between the predictors and the performance of scrub nurses at hospital site B. A dedicated surgical team and patient acuity potentially influence the performance of scrub nurses' non-technical skills. Familiarity with team members foster advanced planning, thus minimizing distractions and interruptions that impact on scrub nurses' performance. Development of interventions aimed at improving non-technical skills has the potential to make a substantial difference and enhance patient care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Foraging opportunism and feeding frequency in the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus in Slovakia: case study from 2017

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chavko Jozef

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Foraging opportunism and feeding frequency are less studied parameters of behaviour in insectivorous falcons, many of which are endangered bird species. In this short study, prey composition and feeding frequency of red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus nestlings were studied using the method of camera recordings during seven days in July 2017 in southwestern Slovakia. Camera recording analyses of 2–3 chicks (14–26 days old in three nests revealed a significant preference for insects (97%, n = 305 prey items, of which the Italian locust (Calliptamus italicus was highly predominant (54%. We also found very high average chick feeding frequency (9.9 feedings per hour, n = 29 hours 22 min of regular observations, whereby the females fed their young ones more frequently (64.9%, n = 305 feedings than the males (35.1%. Analyses of food composition in adverse weather conditions showed that unfavourable weather had a negative effect on chick feeding frequency, and in rainy weather the males fed significantly less than the females.

  13. Study of the technical specifications for the diesels generator of Juragua NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaragut Llanes, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    The Technical Specifications of a nuclear power plant specify the limits for plant operation from the safety point of view. These operational safety rules were originally defined on the basis of deterministic analysis and engineering judgement. The Probabilistic safety Assessment, constitutes a tool to analyze of the risk effect in the Technical Specifications Rules, and makes possible a relative comparison of the rules from the risk point of view. This paper studies the technical specifications for the diesels generators of Juragua Nuclear Power Plant and for that was used the probabilistic methodology . It is presented the evaluation of the some parameters as surveillance testing, test interval, repairs time, diesel degradation and AOT

  14. Critical literature study on the cesium transfer feed/meat of domestic animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fliegl, E.; Schelenz, R.; Fischer, E.

    1980-11-01

    A literature study concerning the transfer of cesium from feed to meat of domestic and wild animals has been carried out regarding approx. 3200 publications of the period 1950-1979. General criteria for the influence of experimental conditions on the transfer factor have been found. The transfer factor of radioisotopes of cesium is always smaller by one order of magnitude after single ingestion than after continuous administration until an equilibrium of incorporation to excretion is attained. The transfer factor of growing animals is greater than that of adult animals where transfer factor is not a function of age. The sex of the animals has no influence on the transfer factor. This value decreases with increasing weight of the animals. From these findings average transfer factors have been derived as follows: cattle 0.03 +- 0.02; calf 0.43 +- 0.06; goat 0.20; sheep 0.11 +- 0.02; pig 0.26 +- 0.01; hen 4.5; reindeer/caribou 0.31 +- 0.07; deer 0.18 +- 0.03. These values have been extracted from the original literature and relate mainly to animals undergoing metabolic experiments at equilibrium. Only the transfer factors of deer and caribou have been evaluated from data of the radiocesium concentration in feed and in meat. (orig.) [de

  15. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; hide

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  16. Study of knowledge rate of parturient mothers about breast feeding adventages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahnaz mardani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Mardani M1, Mohsen-zadeh A2, Yari-pour M3 1. Assistant professor, Department of Nutritional, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 2. Assistant professor, Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences 3. PhD Student, Faculty of medicine, Lorestan University of medical sciences Abstract Background: Mothers milk is the only nourishing source in the first six months of life. If it is suitable and enough, all nutrients and reguired energe will be provided for a breast–fed to grow. Insufficient knowledge and information, wrong beliefs and traditional information about a breast – fed, working out side the home and the desire of working mothers to feed their children with powdered milk and to start the implementary feeding very early. The increasing of mothers willing to abdominal delivery and being away from the child in the first golden hours and misleading advertisements about powdered milk are all some reasons of decreasing the desire to mothers milk and increasing desire to powdered milk. Therefor, the aim of this study is to consider mothers knowledge about the importance of breast – feeding. Materials and methods: In this study, we completed questionnaires with seventeen questions to parturient mothers who came to Asali hospital in 2006 which included some variables such as benefits of breast feeding, the mother’s milk composition. The information was extracted and analyzed by SPSS software. Results: From 550 parturient mothers who came to Asali hospital in 2006, 33 mothers (6 percent had low knowledge, 216 of them (39 percent had medium knowledge and 301 of them (55 percent had high knowledge. This study indicates that regardless to consider some variables, mothers knowledge has been very high and also there is a significantl relationship between mothers age and their knowledge. The average age of low – knowledge mothers was 26, the medium knowledge was 28 and the high

  17. SIMS study on statistics and environmental factors in health. Final technical report to Department of Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-07-01

    This final technical report to DOE consists of five individual technical reports and one working paper by members of the SIMS Study at Stanford. Research topics include testing goodness-of-fit for the distribution of errors in regression models, mathematical models of cancer and their use in risk assessment, pollutant standards index (Psi), osteosarcomas among beagles exposed to 239 Plutonium, air pollution and respiratory disease, and models of human exposure to air pollution. Individual summaries of the six reports are indexed separately

  18. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  19. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  20. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2009-12-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify the phytosterol content of these prototype diets and three other diets consumed in the United States. This study was conducted from June 2001 to September 2008 and involved designing, preparing, and then analyzing five different diets: an experimental phytosterol-deficient control diet, a relatively high-phytosterol diet based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, American Heart Association diet, Atkins lifetime maintenance plan, and a vegan diet. A single day of meals for each diet was homogenized and the resulting composites were analyzed for free, esterified, and glycosylated phytosterols by gas chromatography. Independent samples t tests were used to compare the diets' total phytosterol content. The total phytosterol content of the experimental phytosterol-deficient diet was 64 mg/2,000 kcal, with progressively larger quantities in Atkins, American Heart Association, vegan, and the high-phytosterol Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (163, 340, 445, and 500 mg/2,000 kcal, respectively). Glycosylated phytosterols, which are often excluded from phytosterol analyses, comprised 15.9%+/-5.9% of total phytosterols. In summary, phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets that conform to recommended macronutrient guidelines and are palatable can now be used in controlled feeding studies.

  1. A comparison study of conjunctiva disorders in technical and administrative sawmill workers in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njinaka, Itiyafa; Uhumwangho, Odarosa M; Edema, Omolabake T; Dawodu, Oseluese A; Omoti, Afekhide E

    2011-07-01

    Workers in the sawmilling industry are at risk of various ocular hazards as a direct result of the sawmilling processes. The aim of this study was to determine the pattern of conjunctival disorders between technical and administrative sawmill workers in Benin, Nigeria. A cross-sectional study was performed on sawmill workers in Benin, Nigeria, between January and May 2009, with the aid of pre-tested questionnaires. Ocular examination was performed on all subjects. Data obtained were recorded and analysed using SPSS version 13. A total of 553 sawmill workers were studied, among whom 449 (81.2%) and 104 (18.8%) were technical and administrative workers, respectively. There were 496 (89.7%) males and 57 (10.3%) females. The age range was 15-80 years, with a mean of 38.9 years (SD 12.8). Pingueculum was found in 127 (23%) workers, among whom 122 (27.2%) were technical workers and 5 (4.8%) were administrative workers. Pterygium was present in 65 (11.8%) workers, among whom 64 (14.3%) were technical workers and 1 (1%) was an administrative worker. Seven (1.6%) technical workers used protective eyewear; 2 (0.4%) wore this protective eyewear regularly. Technical sawmill workers are at risk of developing conjunctival disorders, which result from chronic ocular irritation. This can be prevented by the provision of protective eye devices in the workplace.

  2. Early life factors associated with the exclusivity and duration of breast feeding in an Irish birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hazel Ann; O'B Hourihane, Jonathan; Kenny, Louise C; Kiely, Mairead; Murray, Deirdre M; Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    to investigate the influence of parental and infant characteristics on exclusive breast feeding from birth to six months of age and breast feeding rates at two, six and 12 months of age in Ireland. secondary data analysis from the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study (http://www.baselinestudy.net/). Infants were seen at birth and two, six, and 12 months of age. Maternal and paternal history, neonatal course and feeding data were collected at birth and using parental questionnaires at each time point. 1094 singleton infants of primiparous women recruited at 20 weeks' gestation who were breastfeeding on discharge from the maternity hospital. at discharge from the maternity hospital and at two months, neonatal intensive-care unit admission had the strongest influence on exclusive breast feeding status (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.41 at discharge) and at two months (adjusted OR=0.20, 95% CI 0.05-0.83). A shorter duration of breast feeding was significantly associated with younger maternal age, non-tertiary education, Irish nationality and neonatal intensive-care unit admission. There was a significant difference in the duration of any breast feeding between infants who were and were not admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit, 28(10.50, 32) weeks versus 32(27, 40) weeks. Mothers whose maternity leave was between seven and 12 months (adjusted OR=2.76, 95% CI 1.51-5.05) breast fed for a longer duration compared to mothers who had less than six months of maternity leave. admission to the neonatal intensive care unit negatively influenced both exclusivity and duration of breast feeding. Length of maternity leave, and not employment status, was significantly associated with duration of breast feeding. additional support may be required to ensure continued breast feeding in infants admitted to the neonatal intensive-care unit. Length of maternity leave is a modifiable influence on breast feeding and offers the opportunity for intervention to improve our rates of breast

  3. Self-reported breast feeding practices and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, Cynthia; Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola

    2016-12-16

    The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Prospective cohort study. This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Women 36-40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. This is the first study assessing the effectiveness of BFHI implementation in Saudi Arabia. Although women

  4. Accuracy Combination Test of Classical and Modern Technical Analysis: A Case Study in Stock of PT Wijaya Karya Tbk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustini Hamid

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed to measure the accuracy and combination of Classic and Modern Technical Analysis. PT Wijaya Karya Tbk (WIKA’s stock in two periods is the sample of research. Technical analysis was used to predict stock prices by observing changes in historical share price. Practically, technical analysis is divided into Classic Technical and Modern. Research was conducted by library study and using a computer software. Microsft Excel was used for the simulation and Chart Nexus for analyzing Modern Technical Analysis. The research period started in January 1, 2013 until December 31, 2013 and January 1, 2014 until December 31, 2014. The Classic Technical Analysis used Support, Resistance, Trendline, and Flag Patern. Meanwhile for Modern Technical Analysis used Moving Average, Stochastic, Moving Average Convergence Divergence (MACD indicator. The Classical Technical Analysis gave less result than Modern Technical Analysis. The classical give 14 investment decisions in two periods. The average return of Classical Technical is 15,50%. Meanwhile the Modern Technical Analysis gave 18 investment decisions in two periods. The average return of Modern Technical is 18,14%. Combining Classic Technical Analysis and Modern Technical Analysis gave 20 investment decisions with the average rate of return 20,41%.

  5. Feeding Behavior and Nutrition Education in Primary School Students: A School-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Kilic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study of nutrition education given to primary school students was conducted to determine the effects of feeding behavior. Material and Method: This is an intervention study. Research was made at elementary schools located in the center of the province of Yozgat among 6 grade students in 2012-2013. Students were divided into 2 groups by random. Students in the intervention (n=305 and control (n=233 groups were administered a questionnaire prepared by the researcher feeding behaviors. Nutrition surveys in the intervention group after the application of the selected class are given a standardized nutrition education by intern nurses. In data analysis, the dependent and independent samples Student%u2019s t-test, ANOVA for repeated measures multivariate analysis (repeated multiple general model, chi-square, correlation and regression analysis were used. Results: Seventy-one percent point nine of the students usually make breakfast before coming school, 24.5% often bring food to school, 79.4% have at least 3 meals a day, %41.3 at least 2 times eating something between meals. After a year of this habit of the students (49.3% increases in the frequency of eating something between meals as well as a reduction of approximately 10% was determined. In the study, positive and negative eating behavior could not gain the desired level of behavior change with the education given in schools to students. However, the decline in average scores positive eating behaviors, the intervention group (%uF8E5d=3.5 than in the control group (%uF8E5d=6.4 were found to be less. Discussion: Education is an important method meets the information needs of individuals, but is insufficient in creating behavior change in a short time.

  6. Advanced transportation system studies, technical area 3. Alternate propulsion subsystem concepts: J-2S restart study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilja, John; Levack, Daniel

    1993-04-01

    The objectives were to assess what design changes would be required to remit late production of the J-2S engine for use as a large high energy upper stage engine. The study assessed design changes required to perform per the J-2S model specification, manufacturing changes required due to obsolescence or improvements in state-of-the-practice, availability issues for supplier provided items, and provided cost and schedule estimates for this configuration. The confidence that J-2S production could be reinitiated within reasonable costs and schedules was provided. No significant technical issues were identified in either the producibility study or in the review of previous technical data. Areas of potential cost reduction were identified which could be quantified to a greater extent with further manufacturing planning. The proposed schedule can be met with no foreseeable impacts. The results of the study provided the necessary foundation for the detailed manufacturing and test plans and non-recurring and recurring cost estimates that are needed to complete the effort to reinitiate production of the J-2S engine system.

  7. Second Information Technology in Education Study: SITES 2006 Technical Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Ralph, Ed.; Pelgrum, Willem J., Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) has been conducting comparative studies for 50 years. SITES 2006 is the fifth wave of surveys related to information and communication technology (ICT), a wave that IEA started with its Computers in Education Study (two studies with data collection in 1989 and 1992),…

  8. Complementary feeding patterns in a developing country: a cross-sectional study across Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batal, M; Boulghourjian, C; Akik, C

    2010-02-01

    This first, large-scale study on complementary feeding in Lebanon analysed the timing and types of food introduced to infants according to mothers' demographic and socioeconomic and infants' characteristics. A cross-sectional survey over 10 months found that the majority of infants were introduced to solid foods at or after 4 months of age. A large number of infants were given liquids other than breast or formula milk earlier. Women in employment outside the home were almost twice as likely to introduce solid foods before age 4 months. The most common starting food was cereals. More than half the children consumed starchy foods and fruits every day, but not meats and fish.

  9. Differentiation of bacterial feeding nematodes in soil ecological studies by means of arbitrarily primed PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Knaap, Esther; Rodriguez, Russell J.; Freckman, Diana W.

    1993-01-01

    Arbitrarily-primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR) was used to differentiate closely related bacterial-feeding nematodes of the genera: Caenorhabditis, Acrobeloides, Cephalobus and Zeldia. Average percentage similarity of bands generated by ap-PCR with seven different primers between 14 isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans was ⪢ 90%, whereas between C. elegans, C. briggsae and C. remanei similarity was nematode populations were also obtained from ap-PCR analysis of single worms. Due to the difficulty of identification of soil nematodes, the ap-PCR offers potential as a rapid and reliable technique to assess biodiversity. Ap-PCR will make it feasible, for the first time, to study the ecological interactions of unique nematode genotypes in soil habitats.

  10. Imagining Technicities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liboriussen, Bjarke; Plesner, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    to the elements of taste and skill. In the final analysis those references were synthesized as five imagined technicities: the architect, the engineer, the client, the Chinese, and the Virtual World native. Because technicities are often assumed and rarely discussed as actants who influence practice, their role......, this article focuses on innovative uses of virtual worlds in architecture. We interviewed architects, industrial designers and other practitioners. Conceptually supported by an understanding of technicity found in Cultural Studies, the interviews were then coded with a focus on interviewees’ references...... in cooperation and development of ICTs seems to pass unnoticed. However, since they are aligned into ICTs, technicities impact innovation....

  11. The quality of commercial poultry feeds in Nigeria: a case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of various types and brands of commercial poultry feeds were taken from six poultry farms and subjected to proximate analysis. The feeds were found to be adequate in metabolisable energy and fat. Protein, calcium and phosphorus content were below recommended levels and there was an improper ratio ...

  12. A cross-sectional field study on potential associations between feed quality measures and usage of antimicrobials in commercial mink (Neovison vison)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Sommer, Helle Mølgaard; Struve, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Feed quality is generally assumed to affect health status in animal production. In previous studies, the feed producer has been found to affect the occurrence of gastrointestinal disease and antimicrobial use in Mink (Neovison vison). Mink are fed with moist, freshly produced feed, based...... on perishable ingredients. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential effect of specific feed parameters on antimicrobial use on herd level. The study was cross-sectional, including 1472 mink herds, responsible for 97% of oral antimicrobials prescribed for Danish mink during the study period......, 2012-2014. Data were obtained from the national veterinary prescription database (VetStat), Kopenhagen Fur database, and the Voluntary Feed Control (Mink producers Organization). All feed batches subject to feed control were included. A multi-variable variance analysis was carried out analysing...

  13. Isolation studies on the prevalance of salmonellae in chicken organs, eggs and feed components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid, S.; Sajid, M.; Hashmi, R.I.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Salmonella is an important zoonotic pathogen and its prevalence in the chicken meat and eggs acts as a continuous threat to human population. The current studies covering a time period of three years, was carried out to report the isolation of salmonellae from the chicken tissues, eggs and feed ingredient. Methods: A total of 1747 random samples from twelve different sources and 56 locations in Islamabad and Northern Punjab area of Pakistan, were screened for isolation studies according to the already published established protocols. Results: The analysis of 1747 random samples comprising of 1069 (61.19%) chicken organs and 678 (38.81%) allied sources including eggs and feed ingredients, showed that a total of 162 (9.27%) were positive for salmonellae. Isolation prevalence in various chicken organs and allied sources was 86 (8.04%) and 76 (11.20%) respectively. The maximum isolation prevalence was recorded in meat meal (19.35%), followed by fish meal (17.54%), hatchery fluff (14.63%), livers (13.17%), poultry litter (10.89%), and eggs (9.64%). The range of Salmonella isolated varied from 19.35% to 4.72% in various organs and allied sources. Conclusions: Our findings highlighted a potential public health hazard and emphasized the significance of continuous surveillance system in the country to understand the ever changing epidemiological pattern of Salmonella serovers. The endemic prevalence of various serovars can cause outbreaks of human salmonellosis due to the consumption of contaminated meat and eggs as has already been reported worldwide. (author)

  14. Assessment of gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry egg, a case study in Lagos State, Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafis Odunlami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gender has been seen as an important factor in the distribution and utilization of productive resources worldwide. In the agricultural sector, gender differential could influence the sourcing and efficient utilization of factors of production, particularly in the livestock sub-sector of the economy. This study assessed the gender differentials in economic and technical efficiency of poultry eggs production in Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondent poultry farmers. The first and second stages were the purposive selection of five Local Government Areas (LGAs reputed for poultry production and farm settlements in the state. The third stage involved a simple random sampling of 150 poultry farms consisting of 75 farms each managed by a male and a female Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA. The SFA revealed that for male management of poultry egg farms, labour input (p<0.01 and cost of medications (p<0.05 increased the poultry egg output. On the other hand, for female management, stock of birds (p<0.01, labour input (p<0.01 and feed cost (p<0.01 were the factors that increased poultry eggs output. The inefficiency model revealed that male farmers were more technically efficient (p<0.01 than female counterparts. Female managed poultry farms had less productivity (0.90 compared to males(1.22. However, 88.1% of male farms compared to 86.7% of female farms had economic efficiency ratios between 0.29 and 0.79. The study concluded that gender had impact on poultry farmers’ efficiency in the study area. The study therefore recommended that training should be organised for female managed farms while male managed farms should utilize less of cost intensive capital input.

  15. Technical design aspects of Feasibility Study-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    Feasibility Study-II examined a high-performance Neutrino Factory providing 1 x 10 20 neutrinos per year aimed at a long-baseline detector. The Study was sponsored jointly by BNL and the Neutrino Factory and Muon Collider Collaboration ration (MC) and is based on a 1 MW proton driver operating at 24 GeV, i.e., an upgraded version of the AGS accelerator. Compared with the earlier FNAL-sponsored study (Feasibility Study-I), there is a sixfold improvement in performance. Here we describe details of the implementation of Study-II concepts and discuss their efficacy. Alternative approaches that will be pursued in follow-on R and D activities are also described briefly

  16. Thinking ahead of the surgeon. An interview study to identify scrub nurses' non-technical skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lucy; Flin, Rhona; Yule, Steven; Mitchell, Janet; Coutts, Kathy; Youngson, George

    2011-07-01

    Efforts to reduce adverse event rates in healthcare have revealed the importance of identifying the essential non-technical (cognitive and social) skills for safe and effective performance. Previous research on non-technical skills for operating theatre staff has concentrated on doctors rather than nursing professionals. The aim of the study was to identify the critical non-technical skills that are essential for safe and effective performance as an operating theatre scrub nurse. Experienced scrub nurses (n = 25) and consultant surgeons (n = 9) from four Scottish hospitals were interviewed using a semi-structured format. The protocols were designed to identify the main social and cognitive skills required by scrub nurses. Interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim and independently coded to extract behaviours in order to produce a list of the main non-technical skills for safe and effective scrub nurse performance. The non-technical skills of situation awareness, communication, teamwork, task management and coping with stress were identified as key to successful scrub nurse task performance. Component sets of behaviours for each of these categories were also noted. The interviews with subject matter experts from scrub nursing and surgery produced preliminary evidence that situation awareness, communication, teamwork and coping with stress are the principal non-technical skills required for effective performance as a scrub nurse. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Rhode Island Hurricane Evacuation Study Technical Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    ... evacuation decision-making. To accomplish this, the study provides information on the extent and severity of potential flooding from hurricanes, the associated vulnerable population, capacities of existing public shelters...

  18. Rhode Island Hurricane Evacuation Study Technical Data Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1995-01-01

    .... The purpose of the study is to provide the Rhode Island Emergency Management Agency and Rhode Island coastal communities with realistic data quantifying the major factors involved in hurricane...

  19. A model study of bridge hydraulics : technical summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Most flood studies in the United States use the Army Corps of Engineers Hydrologic Engineering Centers River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) computer program. This report is the second edition. The first edition of the report considered the laboratory m...

  20. Use of technical skills and medical devices among new registered nurses: A questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertsson, Mona; Gustafsson, Margareta; Blomberg, Karin; Holmström, Inger K; Allvin, Renée

    2015-12-01

    One comprehensive part of nursing practice is performing technical skills and handling of medical equipment. This might be challenging for new registered nurses (RNs) to do in patient-safe way. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the extent to which new RNs perform various technical skills and handle medical devices in different settings, and to investigate their possibility for continued learning in this respect. A further aim was to describe their perceptions of incident reporting related to technical skills and medical devices. A cross-sectional study with descriptive and comparative design. RNs who recently graduated from a nursing programme at three Swedish universities and had worked as a RN for up to 1 year were included in the study (n=113, response rate 57%). Data were collected by means of a postal questionnaire. Half of the RNs reported that they performed several of the listed tasks every day or every week, regardless of workplace. These tasks were most frequently performed in surgical departments. The majority of the participants (76%) stated a need of continued practical training. However, less than half of them (48%) had access to a training environment. Several participants (43%) had been involved in incidents related to technical skills or medical devices, which were not always reported. Nearly a third of the participants (31%) did not use the existing guidelines when performing technical skills, and reflection on performance was uncommon. This study highlights the importance of shared responsibilities between nurse educators and health care employers to provide learning opportunities for new RNs in technical skills, to maintain patient safety. To increase the safety culture where nursing students and new RNs understand the importance of using evidence-based guidelines and taking a reflective approach in the performance of technical tasks is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative Study of Feeding on Some Pollens on Biology of Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Arutunjian & Wainstein (Acari: Phytoseiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Hajmohammadloo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this research, effect of feeding of five pollen sources, apple, pear, almond, apricot and walnut, as 5 treatments on the period of egg to adult, longevity and fecundity of the predatory mite, Typhlodromus bagdasarjani, was studied in a complete randomized design (CRD. Mites kept individually on black mulberry leaf discs at 24±2 °C temperature, 60±5 % relative humidity and a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D hours, with a sufficient quantity of the pollens. Results showed that T. bagdasarjani could develop and reproduce when the predatory mite feed on the all of diets. Thus, the pollens can be alternative foods for the mite. The mean of developmental time from egg to adult emergence varied between the treatments from 11.69 to 21.49 days for females and 11.70 to 20.07 days for males. The minimum mean of developmental time of females and males was on walnut, almond and apple pollens and the maximum mean of it was on pear pollen. The mean of longevity varied among the treatments from 17.45 to 31.26 days for the females and 18.23 to 31.44 days for the male insects. The maximum mean longevity was on apricot and almond pollens for females and it had maximum amount on apricot and walnut for males. The minimum mean of longevity of females and males was on pear pollen. Also the maximum means of daily and total fecundity (0.73 and 9.60 eggs/female were on apple and walnut pollens. The minimum amount of these means was on pear pollen. According to these results, almond and walnut pollens were the most suitable diet for T. bagdasarjani as compared to the other pollens. Among diets, pear pollen had least desirability and nutritional value for the mite.

  2. Accuracy Combination Test of Classical and Modern Technical Analysis: A Case Study in Stock of PT Wijaya Karya Tbk

    OpenAIRE

    Agustini Hamid

    2016-01-01

    The research aimed to measure the accuracy and combination of Classic and Modern Technical Analysis. PT Wijaya Karya Tbk (WIKA)’s stock in two periods is the sample of research. Technical analysis was used to predict stock prices by observing changes in historical share price. Practically, technical analysis is divided into Classic Technical and Modern. Research was conducted by library study and using a computer software. Microsft Excel was used for the simulation and Chart Nexus for analyzi...

  3. Volume 1. Probabilistic analysis of HTGR application studies. Technical discussion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, J.; Perry, L.

    1980-01-01

    The HTGR Program encompasses a number of decisions facing both industry and government which are being evaluated under the HTGR application studies being conducted by the GCRA. This report is in support of these application studies, specifically by developing comparative probabilistic energy costs of the alternative HTGR plant types under study at this time and of competitive PWR and coal-fired plants. Management decision analytic methodology was used as the basis for the development of the comparative probabilistic data. This study covers the probabilistic comparison of various HTGR plant types at a commercial development stage with comparative PWR and coal-fired plants. Subsequent studies are needed to address the sequencing of HTGR plants from the lead plant to the commercial plants and to integrate the R and D program into the plant construction sequence. The probabilistic results cover the comparison of the 15-year levelized energy costs for commercial plants, all with 1995 startup dates. For comparison with the HTGR plants, PWR and fossil-fired plants have been included in the probabilistic analysis, both as steam electric plants and as combined steam electric and process heat plants

  4. hydrological study of the basin of Tunja using isotopics technical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho R, Gloria; Hernandez Luis

    1992-01-01

    In the carried out study, it is analyzed the generalities in the first place on the city of Tunja, keeping in mind the aspects of Topography, Climate Population and the projection of this last one until the year 2020, and of equal it forms the demand of drinkable water for these same projections. Then it is the Superficial Hydrology of the area in study, keeping in mind the physiographic parameters of the basin, behavior pluviometrical graphic, flows and evapotranspiration, towards them to calculate this way the infiltration and power to end up determining the hydraulic balance of the area. In the concerning to Geology, this it was carried out on the base of the rising of stratigraphic columns made in having traveled by different roads and roads bordering to the study area; based on this columns it was carried out a geologic map with all the characteristics of the formations in the area

  5. Fundamental studies of separation processes. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, L.B.

    1975-06-01

    Studies using high-precision gas chromatography and supercritical fluid chromatography have produced new types of information on liquid crystals and on behavior of substances in the region of the critical temperature, respectively. In addition, the first successful studies of the effects of pressure on cation exchange have been made using aqueous solutions of alkali metal nitrates. In contrast, progress on separations of isotopic species using gas chromatography has been disappointing. In that area, the chief accomplishment has been a determination of the levels of accuracy and precision with which isotopic abundances can be measured using our quadrupole mass spectrometer. (U.S.)

  6. Breast feeding practices and newborn care in rural areas: A descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhu K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Breastfeeding practices play an important role in reducing child mortality and morbidity. This study was aimed to describe the breastfeeding practices prevalent in rural areas. Objectives: The primary objective of this study was to describe the breastfeeding and newborn care practices in rural areas and the secondary objective was to describe the factors affecting the initiation and duration of breastfeeding. Settings and Design: The study was conducted in primary health care center (PHC that is attached to a medical college in Kengeri, rural Bangalore, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Mothers with children who were 9 months old who came to the PHC for measles vaccination were included in the study and data was collected using the pre-tested questionnaire on breastfeeding and newborn practices. Results: Our study shows 97% of the mothers initiated breastfeeding, 19% used pre lacteal feeds, 90% had hospital deliveries and 10% had home deliveries, and 50% used a house knife to cut the umbilical cord among home deliveries. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the need for breastfeeding intervention programs especially for the mother during antenatal and postnatal check-ups and practices like discarding the colostrum and early/late weaning are still widely prevalent and need to be addressed.

  7. Study of complementary feeding practices among mothers of children aged six months to two years – A study from coastal south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao S

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundInfants and young children are at an increased risk ofmalnutrition from six months of age onwards, when breastmilk alone is no longer sufficient to meet all their nutritionalrequirements and complementary feeding should bestarted. Hence this study was undertaken to assess thepractices of complementary feeding.MethodThis hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted attwo private hospitals – Dr TMA Pai Hospital Udupi and DrTMA Pai Hospital Karkala and a public hospital, RegionalAdvanced Paediatric Care Centre, Mangalore, of coastalsouth India for a two-month period from August 2010 toOctober 2010. Two-hundred mothers of children betweensix months and two years attending the paediatricoutpatient departments of the above-mentioned hospitalsfor growth monitoring, immunisation and minor illnessessuch as upper respiratory tract infections were selected forthe study. The subjects were selected for the study by theorder of their arrival to the outpatient department duringthe study period.ResultsIn the present study 77.5% mothers had startedcomplementary feeding at the recommended time of sixmonths. Only 32% of mothers were giving an adequatequantity of complementary feeds. The association ofinitiation of complementary feeding with socio-economicstatus, birth order, place of delivery and maternal educationwas found to be statistically significant. However thepractice of giving an adequate quantity of complementaryfeeds was significantly associated only with the place ofdelivery.ConclusionIn the present study, initiation of complementary feeding atthe recommended time of six months was seen in themajority of children. However the quantity ofcomplementary feeding was insufficient. Advice aboutbreast feeding and complementary feeding during antenatalcheck-ups and postnatal visits might improve feedingpractices.

  8. Radioisotopes technical application to environmental pollution study control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, W.; Agudo, E.G.; Santos, J.L. dos; Merighi Junior, A.

    1976-01-01

    A review of the main methods of flow rate measure utilizing radioactive tracers is presented. The main parameters are discussed and practical results are shown. A study of marine pollution caused by sewages at Baia de Santos is presented with the same technique [pt

  9. Fluoride removal studies in water using natural materials : technical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Excess fluoride in water causes health hazards to the natural environment. The removal of fluoride was attempted using natural materials such as red soil, charcoal, brick, fly-ash and serpentine. Each material was set up in a column for a known volume and the defluoridation capacities of these materials were studied with ...

  10. Vessel Monitoring Systems Study. Volume I - Technical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    In the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 the U.S. Conress directed the Department of Transportation to performa a study on the desirability and feasibility of a shore-station system for monitoring vessels (including fishing vessels)offshore within t...

  11. Final Technical Report: Renewable Energy Feasibility Study and Resources Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivero, Mariah [BEC Environmental, Inc., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-02-28

    In March 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded White Pine County, Nevada, a grant to assess the feasibility of renewable resource-related economic development activities in the area. The grant project included a public outreach and training component and was to include a demonstration project; however, the demonstration project was not completed due to lack of identification of an entity willing to locate a project in White Pine County. White Pine County completed the assessment of renewable resources and a feasibility study on the potential for a renewable energy-focused economic sector within the County. The feasibility study concluded "all resources studied were present and in sufficient quantity and quality to warrant consideration for development" and there were varying degrees of potential economic impact based on the resource type and project size. The feasibility study and its components were to be used as tools to attract potential developers and other business ventures to the local market. White Pine County also marketed the County’s resources to the renewable energy business community in an effort to develop contracts for demonstration projects. The County also worked to develop partnerships with local educational institutions, including the White Pine County School District, conducted outreach and training for the local community.

  12. The development of mixer machine for organic animal feed production: Proposed study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, A. M.; Wahab, R. Abdul; Zakaria, Supaat; Feriyanto, Dafit; Nor, M. I. F. Che Mohd; Muzarpar, Syafiq

    2017-09-01

    Mixer machine plays a major role in producing homogenous composition of animal feed. Long time production, inhomogeneous and minor agglomeration has been observed by existing mixer. Therefore, this paper proposed continuous mixer to enhance mixing efficiency with shorter time of mixing process in order to abbreviate the whole process in animal feed production. Through calculation of torque, torsion, bending, power and energy consumption will perform in mixer machine process. Proposed mixer machine is designed by two layer buckets with purpose for continuity of mixing process. Mixing process was performed by 4 blades which consists of various arm length such as 50, 100,150 and 225 mm in 60 rpm velocity clockwise rotation. Therefore by using this machine will produce the homogenous composition of animal feed through nutrition analysis and short operation time of mixing process approximately of 5 minutes. Therefore, the production of animal feed will suitable for various animals including poultry and aquatic fish. This mixer will available for various organic material in animal feed production. Therefore, this paper will highlights some areas such as continues animal feed supply chain and bio-based animal feed.

  13. Factors Distinguishing Positive Deviance Among Low-Income African American Women: A Qualitative Study on Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Cecilia E; Masho, Saba W; Carlyle, Kellie E; Mosavel, Maghboeba

    2017-05-01

    Positive deviant individuals practice beneficial behaviors in spite of having qualities characterizing them as high risk for unhealthy behaviors. This study aimed to identify and understand factors distinguishing low-income African American women who breastfeed the longest (positive deviants) from those who breastfeed for a shorter duration or do not breastfeed. Seven mini-focus groups on infant-feeding attitudes and experiences were conducted with 25 low-income African American women, grouped by infant-feeding practice. Positive deviants, who had breastfed for 4 months or more, were compared with formula-feeding participants who had only formula fed their babies and short-term breastfeeding participants who had breastfed for 3 months or less. Positive deviant women had more schooling, higher income, breastfeeding intention, positive breastfeeding and unfavorable formula-feeding attitudes, higher self-efficacy, positive hospital and Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children experiences, more exclusive breastfeeding, and greater comfort breastfeeding in public. Short-term breastfeeding women varied in breastfeeding intention and self-efficacy, seemed to receive insufficient professional breastfeeding support, and supplemented breastfeeding with formula. Some showed ambivalence, concern with unhealthy behaviors, and discomfort with breastfeeding in public. Formula-feeding women intended to formula feed, feared breastfeeding, thought their behaviors were incompatible with breastfeeding, were comfortable with and found formula convenient, and received strong support to formula feed. Tapping into the strengths of positive deviants; tailoring interventions to levels of general and breastfeeding self-efficacy; increasing social, institutional, and community supports; and removing inappropriate formula promotion may offer promising strategies to increase breastfeeding among low-income African American women.

  14. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  15. Study of high energy physics underground. Technical progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    The Homestake Large Area Scintillation Detector consists of 140 tons of liquid scintillator in a hollow 8 m x 8 m x 16 m box surrounding the Brookhaven 37 Cl solar neutrino detector. The experiment is located at a depth of 4850 ft. (4200 m.w.e.) in the Homestake Gold Mine. Half of the detector is currently running; the full detector will be taking data by the fall of 1984. An extensive air shower array is also currently under construction on the earth's surface above the underground detector, consisting of 100 scintillators, each 3 m 2 , covering approximately 0.8 km 2 ; the first portion of the surface array will also be providing data this fall. Together, the new Homestake detectors will be used to search for slow, massive magnetic monopoles; study the zenith angle distribution of neutrino-induced muons; search for neutrino bursts from the gravitational collapse of massive stars; measure the multiplicity and transverse momentum distributions of cosmic ray muons; and study the composition of the primary cosmic rays. The underground device and its capabilities as a monopole detector are described, followed by the surface array and the cosmic ray studies

  16. Studies on the post-oviposition blood-feeding behaviour of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadee, D D

    2012-11-01

    The blood-feeding behaviour of the Trinidad strain of Aedes aegypti was studied, under laboratory conditions, using one female per cage and monitoring blood feeding immediately, 12, and 24 hours after oviposition. To get large numbers of females that had newly completed their first gonotrophic cycle, the diel oviposition periodicity was conducted using single females per cage and monitoring at 2-hour intervals. The diel oviposition periodicity showed a small morning peak (8%) during the first 2 hours of the photophase after which oviposition declined: during the second half of the photophase, oviposition increased reaching a peak comprising 56% of eggs (G = 59·9, P>0·01) between 16:00 and 18:00 hours. At post-oviposition hour 0, only five (10%) of the females accepted a blood meal but at post-oviposition hour 12, significantly more (G = 46·98, P>0·02) females, 35 (70%) accepted a blood meal. This pattern was consistently observed when females were offered blood meals at 12 and 24 hours after completing their first gonotrophic cycle. Multiple feeding was observed among the blood-feeding females and the results of this study are discussed in the context of disease transmission patterns and physiological mechanisms which control their blood-feeding behaviours.

  17. Laser fusion systems design study. Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-06-01

    This study investigated: (1) the formulation and evaluation of an alignment system to accomplish pointing, focusing, centering and translation for the 20-arm SHIVA laser, (2) the formulation and evaluation of concepts for the correction of static phase distortions introduced by the accumulated optical elements in the laser chains, (3) the formulation and evaluation of concepts for the correction of optical path length differences between the arms of the SHIVA system, and (4) the conceptual design of appropriate control system hardware. (U.S.)

  18. Study on team evaluation (6). Relationships among technical skill proficiency, leadership, and teamwork behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misawa, Ryo; Sasou, Kunihide

    2011-01-01

    To maintain and improve the efficiency and safety of operations in numerous industries, it is necessary to develop programs that enhance teamwork. This can be achieved through empirical investigations that identify influential factors contributing to teamwork. This study focused on technical skill proficiency and leadership as influential factors and examined the relationships among these factors and teamwork behaviors. A series of measurements was performed on 54 operations teams with the cooperation of the training center of thermal power plants. Teamwork behaviors in training under simulated abnormal conditions were evaluated through instructors' observation using a behavior checklist. Technical skill proficiency was measured by conducting a brief survey on instructors. Leadership was measured on the basis of followers' responses on questionnaire scales. Based on the scores of technical skill proficiency and leadership, hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three types of teams: (a) F-type - the technical skills of followers are superior to those of leaders; (b) LF-type - both leaders and followers are proficient in technical skills; and (c) L-type - the technical skills of leaders are superior to those of followers. ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences in teamwork behavior for the three types of teams. The main results revealed that LF-type teams actively engaged in information gathering and that leaders played a central role in these activities. In addition, the followers of F-type teams freely exchanged their ideas and opinions regarding problems and actively discussed how to solve them. These findings suggest that teamwork behaviors can vary depending on technical skill proficiency and leadership in teams. Future research is needed to identify additional factors affecting teamwork that are not measured in this study. (author)

  19. Phrenic nerve conduction studies: normative data and technical aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analucia Abreu Maranhão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of the present study was to define normative data of phrenic nerve conduction parameters of a healthy population. Methods: Phrenic nerve conduction studies were performed in 27 healthy volunteers. Results: The normative limits for expiratory phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential were: amplitude (0.47 mv - 0.83 mv, latency (5.74 ms - 7.10 ms, area (6.20 ms/mv - 7.20 ms/mv and duration (18.30 ms - 20.96 ms. Inspiratory normative limits were: amplitude (0.67 mv - 1.11 mv, latency (5.90 ms - 6.34 ms, area (5.62 ms/mv - 6.72 ms/mv and duration (13.77 ms - 15.37 ms. Conclusion: The best point of phrenic nerve stimulus in the neck varies among individuals between the medial and lateral border of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and stimulation of both sites, then choosing the best phrenic nerve response, seems to be the appropriate procedure.

  20. Phrenic nerve conduction studies: normative data and technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranhão, Analucia Abreu; Carvalho, Sonia Regina da Silva; Caetano, Marcelo Ribeiro; Alamy, Alexandre Hofke; Peixoto, Eduardo Mesquita; Filgueiras, Pedro Del Esporte Peçanha

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to define normative data of phrenic nerve conduction parameters of a healthy population. Phrenic nerve conduction studies were performed in 27 healthy volunteers. The normative limits for expiratory phrenic nerve compound muscle action potential were: amplitude (0.47 mv - 0.83 mv), latency (5.74 ms - 7.10 ms), area (6.20 ms/mv - 7.20 ms/mv) and duration (18.30 ms - 20.96 ms). Inspiratory normative limits were: amplitude (0.67 mv - 1.11 mv), latency (5.90 ms - 6.34 ms), area (5.62 ms/mv - 6.72 ms/mv) and duration (13.77 ms - 15.37 ms). The best point of phrenic nerve stimulus in the neck varies among individuals between the medial and lateral border of the clavicular head of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and stimulation of both sites, then choosing the best phrenic nerve response, seems to be the appropriate procedure.

  1. "Cariogenic potential of homemade weaning diet v/s commercial formula feeds" an in-vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, S; Madan, I

    2002-12-01

    The universal phenomenon of introducing weaning diet to the growing child sets its onset by the age of 4-6 months. This preliminary diet of the child governs his or her dental health in the long run. The main objective of this study is to investigate the histopathological and clinical invasion of deciduous teeth exposed to both the homemade weaning diet and commercial formula feeds. The study also aims at motivating the consumption of the most appropriate diet for the weaning baby. Extracted deciduous teeth were incubated with the test solutions of homemade diet and commercial formula feeds for the period of 6 weeks. Fewer carious invasion both clinically and histopathologically were seen in homemade feeds. Thus, homemade diet can be a strong candidate for the status of 'THE IDEAL WEANING FOOD'.

  2. Geological reconnaissance and chronologic studies. Technical report No. 33

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.

    1983-03-01

    There are several possible scenarios by which a radioactive waste storage facility in the unsaturated zone could be compromised; among them erosion, water table rise, or downward percolation of water. In order to assess these risks, the geologic and climatic events of the past few million years can be used to project the future of the unsaturated deposits. Geologic reconnaissance on and around the NTS was undertaken to identify specific evidence of depositional, erosional, and hydrologic events, as well as to develop an understanding of the timing of these events. Several kinds of evidence were noted and studied: layers or volcanic ash in the basin-fill sediments were discovered and dated at 11 to 5 m.y. old, showing the modern valleys and ranges are at least 11 m.y. old. Exposure of these ash layers by erosion has taken 5 m.y., implying that additional millions of years must pass before modern closed basins on the NTS are eroded. Detailed study of young sediments in Las Vegas Valley suggest that water tables stood at 926 m as recently as 14,000 y ago. To the northeast or the NTS, sediments in basin bottoms also reflect high water tables until about 7000 y ago, but sediments on the NTS proper do not show this effect during the last 700,000 y. The observed relation between erosion due to downwearing or mountain ranges and infilling of valleys suggests that these processes continue, only the uppermost parts of present alluvial fans will be eroded

  3. Final Technical Report - Nuclear Studies with Intermediate Energy Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norum, Blaine [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2017-12-14

    During the almost 20 year period of this grant research was carried out on atomic nuclei and their constituents using both photons and electrons. Research was carried out at the electron accelerator facility of the Netherlands Institute for Nuclear and High Energy Physics (NIKHEFK, Amsterdam) until the electron accelerator facility was closed in 1998. Subsequently, research was carried out at the Laser-Electron Gamma Source (LEGS) of the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) located at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) until the LEGS was closed at the end of 2006. During the next several years research was carried out at both the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLAB) and the High Intensity Gamma Source (HIGS) of the Tri-Universities Nuclear Laboratory (TUNL) located on the campus of Duke University. Since approximately 2010 the principal focus was on research at TUNL, although analysis of data from previous research at other facilities continued. The principal early focus of the research was on the role of pions in nuclei. This was studied by studying the production of pions using both photons (at LEGS) and electrons (at NIKHEF-K and JLAB). Measurements of charged pion photoproduction from deuterium at LEGS resulted in the most interesting result of these two decades of work. By measuring the production of a charged pion (p + ) in coincidence with an emitted photon we observed structures in the residual two-nucleon system. These indicated the existence of long-lived states not explicable by standard nuclear theory; they suggest a set of configurations not explicable in terms of a nucleon-nucleon pair. The existence of such “exotic” structures has formed the foundation for most of the work that has ensued.

  4. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : technical summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-01-15

    The impact of exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities on animal and human health has been a long-standing concern in western Canada. This technical summary presented highlights of the 17 major research appendices of a study examining associations between emissions and important reproductive parameters in beef cattle, including pregnancy rates, frequencies of abortions and stillbirths, and the risk of death among young calves. The effect of exposure to emissions on the respiratory, immune and nervous systems of calves and yearlings was also evaluated. The study was an epidemiological investigation that drew on large blocks of data collected from privately owned cow-calf operations, laboratory analyses of biological samples and samplers from air monitors. Mixed effect regression models were used to investigate whether measures of reproductive, immunological, and pathology outcomes were associated with emissions from the petroleum industry. Appropriate statistical adjustments were made to correct for multiple comparisons following standard statistical practice. An overview of the methods used to analyze the data was presented, as well as an examination of the methods of epidemiology in determining a causal effect, and the limitations of a single study in determining causation with certainty. Information on water quality testing and feeding management and forage testing was provided. 15 tabs., 26 figs.

  5. Western Canada study of animal health effects associated with exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities : technical summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The impact of exposure to emissions from oil and gas field facilities on animal and human health has been a long-standing concern in western Canada. This technical summary presented highlights of the 17 major research appendices of a study examining associations between emissions and important reproductive parameters in beef cattle, including pregnancy rates, frequencies of abortions and stillbirths, and the risk of death among young calves. The effect of exposure to emissions on the respiratory, immune and nervous systems of calves and yearlings was also evaluated. The study was an epidemiological investigation that drew on large blocks of data collected from privately owned cow-calf operations, laboratory analyses of biological samples and samplers from air monitors. Mixed effect regression models were used to investigate whether measures of reproductive, immunological, and pathology outcomes were associated with emissions from the petroleum industry. Appropriate statistical adjustments were made to correct for multiple comparisons following standard statistical practice. An overview of the methods used to analyze the data was presented, as well as an examination of the methods of epidemiology in determining a causal effect, and the limitations of a single study in determining causation with certainty. Information on water quality testing and feeding management and forage testing was provided. 15 tabs., 26 figs

  6. NGNP Composites R and D Technical Issues Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    This study identifies potential applications and design requirements for ceramic materials (CMs) and ceramic composite materials (CCMs) in the NGNP hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) primary circuit. Components anticipated for fabrication from non-graphite CMs and CCMs are identified along with recommended normal and off-normal operating conditions. The evaluation defines required dimensions and material properties of the candidate materials for normal operating conditions (NOC), anticipated transients, abnormal events, and design basis events. The report also identifies additional activities required for codifying the selected materials. The activities include ASTM Standard and ASME Code development and other work to support NRC licensing of the plant. Evaluation of the NGNP baseline design indicates components requiring either CMs or CCMs depend upon the reactor operating temperatures. For a reactor outlet temperature of 900 oC, four of the five evaluated components would benefit from either CMs or CCMs. Although some thermal and mechanical data exist for most of the candidate materials, they all need additional irradiation, thermal, and mechanical testing. The codification process must take into account the type of material and the geometry of components using either CMs or CCMs. The process requires close integration of the design and the research and development (R and D) program, which has already started by using preliminary control rod component designs as the basis for establishing specimen geometry and test conditions. The remaining time and budget for completing the R and D program need further assessment.

  7. Final technical report on studies of plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, T.M.; Driscoll, C.F.; Malmberg, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    This document gives an overview of the scientific results obtained under the DOE grant, and references the journal articles which give more complete descriptions of the various topics. Recently, the research has been focused on 2-dimensional vortices and turbulence: experiments using a new camera-diagnosed electron plasma apparatus have given surprising results which both clarify and challenge theories. Here, the crossfield E x B flow of the electron plasma is directly analogous to the 2-d flow of an ideal fluid such as water, and may also give insight into more complicated poloidal flows exhibited in toroidal plasmas. The shear-flow instabilities, turbulence, and vortices can be accurately observed, and the free relaxation of this turbulence has been characterized. The physical processes underlying the complicated turbulent evolution can also be studied in more controlled near-linear regimes. The original experimental focus of this program was on radial particle transport from applied external field asymmetries. Here, this research program clearly identified the importance of the collective response of the plasma, giving smaller fields from shielding, or enhanced fields from resonant modes. Experiments and theory work have also elucidated the flow of a plasma along the magnetic field. Finally, some theory was pursued for direct application to fusion plasmas, and to gravitating gas clouds in astrophysics. This program was highly successful in clarifying basic plasma transport processes

  8. NGNP Composites R&D Technical Issues Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AREVA Federal Services

    2008-09-01

    This study identifies potential applications and design requirements for ceramic materials (CMs) and ceramic composite materials (CCMs) in the NGNP hightemperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) primary circuit. Components anticipated for fabrication from non-graphite CMs and CCMs are identified along with recommended normal and off-normal operating conditions. The evaluation defines required dimensions and material properties of the candidate materials for normal operating conditions (NOC), anticipated transients, abnormal events, and design basis events. The report also identifies additional activities required for codifying the selected materials. The activities include ASTM Standard and ASME Code development and other work to support NRC licensing of the plant. Evaluation of the NGNP baseline design indicates components requiring either CMs or CCMs depend upon the reactor operating temperatures. For a reactor outlet temperature of 900 oC, four of the five evaluated components would benefit from either CMs or CCMs. Although some thermal and mechanical data exist for most of the candidate materials, they all need additional irradiation, thermal, and mechanical testing. The codification process must take into account the type of material and the geometry of components using either CMs or CCMs. The process requires close integration of the design and the research and development (R&D) program, which has already started by using preliminary control rod component designs as the basis for establishing specimen geometry and test conditions. The remaining time and budget for completing the R&D program need further assessment.

  9. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  10. Patent pool analysis based on technical standards: A case study of indigenous alliances in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DUAN Yuzhen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available China has set up only two sorts of patent pools (PLs with technical standards, namely, the AVS alliance and IGRS alliance. Both PLs are applied in the IT industry. Statistics of patent alliances with global technical standards show that Chinese enterprises cannot easily form and develop an international PL. This study analyzes the formation process of the AVS and IGRS patent alliance, and points out the challenges in building and developing Chinese PL. The study offers suggestions on alliance management, government guidance, and international cooperation.

  11. Study to paraphrase nuclear technical terms with clear and brief explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shobu, Nobuhiro; Takashita, Hirofumi; Horikoshi, Hidehiko; Osawa, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the review work to paraphrase nuclear technical terms with clear and brief explanations. Explanation with nuclear technical terms was not very acceptable to the public in a variety of contexts. The objective of this study is not to paraphrase with the expert's ideas but to paraphrase from the public point of view. Japan Atomic Energy Agency (hereafter abbreviated as 'JAEA') has conducted a survey on public attitudes toward fifty-nine nuclear technical terms by using an online questionnaire. Most of them were frequently used in the brochures of Nuclear fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of JAEA. The survey clarified the public awareness and comprehension of each term. Thirty-two terms, which was subject to paraphrase on a priority basis, were selected from fifty-nine nuclear technical terms based on our importance rating. At the work to paraphrase thirty-two terms, emphasis was placed more on clearness and briefness than on scientific/technical accuracy. They are reviewed through focus group interviews. This study brought results on recognizable style and thirty-two well-polished paraphrases. (author)

  12. Consumer Rights and Accountability in Postsecondary Vocational-Technical Education: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Brian; Harmon, Lisa

    Beginning in October 1987, Pelavin Associates conducted an exploratory study of consumer rights and accountability in postsecondary vocational-technical (PVT) programs for the U.S. Department of Education. The study focused on how effectively the governance structure--accreditation and federal and state regulation--ensures that consumer rights are…

  13. Economical and technical feasibility study of some radioisotopes production for medical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, A.L.A.B. de.

    1985-01-01

    The economical and technical feasibility study of the production in reactors of some radioisotopes most used in medicine, are presented. The clinical applications of each radioisotope as well as its radioactive concentrations and specific activities are related. Irradiation procedures based in the foregoing data are given. Part of the study is dedicated to quality control. (M.A.C.) [pt

  14. Gender in Engineering Studies at Brazilian Technical University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Lima Sobreira, Josimeire

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The research on a Technological University of Brazil, among students in Engineering, revealed that women occupy no more than 12 % (in general of the places at the Institution. The university study that the girls most prefer is the Engineering of Buildings and the other one, where there are the least number of women, is Mechanics Engineering. The qualitative research with the students, made by interviews, showed that there is a gender discrimination among them. The boys do not consider their schoolmates competents for the exact sciences. The girls have to do a greater effort than the boys to success and to be respected by them. But even so they recognize that will not have the same opportunities of work that the men will. However, gender changes among the students are evidences that women have reached important places at the technological field.La investigación en una Universidad Tecnológica de Brasil entre estudiantes de los cursos de ingeniería ha mostrado que las mujeres no ocupan más que 12 % (en general de las plazas de la Institución. El curso con más estudiantes es el de Ingeniería Civil, mientras el curso con el más pequeño número de mujeres es el de Mecánica. La metodología de la investigación ha sido cualitativa. Las entrevistas con chicas-chicos de los cursos investigados revelaron que hay discriminación entre los estudiantes que no consideran a sus compañeras de curso competentes para los estudios de ciencias exactas. Para que sean respetadas ellas tienen que estudiar mucho más que ellos, pero, aunque logren muy buenas evaluaciones, reconocen que en el mercado laboral tendrán menos oportunidades de trabajo que sus colegas. Entretanto, los cambios de género entre los y las estudiantes evidencian que las mujeres están conquistando espacios importantes.

  15. Care networking: a study of technical mediations in a home telecare service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Gonzalo; Domènech, Miquel

    2013-07-22

    This article examines the processes of technical mediation within familial care networks based on a study of home telecare targeted at older people. Supported by contributions from the actor-network theory as part of the social psychology of science and technology, these processes of technical mediation are analyzed using a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through six focus groups and four in-depth interviews; the participants in the study included users, relatives and formal carers. Thematic analysis techniques encompassing the information were used, revealing the effects on the patterns of caring relationships. The results show the interplay between presence-absence made possible by the devices; the two-way direction of care between the older people and the artifacts; and the process of sustaining care using the technology. We conclude that care should be seen as a socio-technical network where technology plays an active role in sustaining family relationships.

  16. A socio-technical analysis of work with ideas in NPD: an industrial case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gish, Liv; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2013-01-01

    on piecing together a number of ideas that were developed and disseminated in a large industrial company. We do this through an in-depth case study of the development of the energy-labeled circulation pump Alpha Pro, developed by one of the world’s leading pump manufacturers, Grundfos. Using a socio-technical...... approach, we focus especially on the actors involved and the contextual factors, and less on the detailed development of technical ideas. In our study, we observe that (1) ideas are pieced together from previous ideas and results; (2) ideas are implemented through continuous mobilization of support...... and development of legitimate arguments; and (3) idea work is also a socio-technical process, because contextual factors matter. We observe that idea work is an ongoing process undertaken across different projects, actors, departments, strategies, and visions within Grundfos, while also involving external actors...

  17. Care Networking: A Study of Technical Mediations in a Home Telecare Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, Gonzalo; Domènech, Miquel

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the processes of technical mediation within familial care networks based on a study of home telecare targeted at older people. Supported by contributions from the actor—network theory as part of the social psychology of science and technology, these processes of technical mediation are analyzed using a qualitative approach. The data were gathered through six focus groups and four in-depth interviews; the participants in the study included users, relatives and formal carers. Thematic analysis techniques encompassing the information were used, revealing the effects on the patterns of caring relationships. The results show the interplay between presence-absence made possible by the devices; the two-way direction of care between the older people and the artifacts; and the process of sustaining care using the technology. We conclude that care should be seen as a socio-technical network where technology plays an active role in sustaining family relationships. PMID:23880730

  18. Enteral feeding and its impact on family mealtime routines for caregivers of children with cerebral palsy: A mixed method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marion; Jewell, Vanessa; Poskey, Gail A; Russell, Asa

    2018-02-01

    Enteral feedings are part of the daily mealtime experience for many caregivers of children with cerebral palsy. The scope of occupational therapy practice incorporates multiple aspects of the enteral feeding process. Yet, the research in this area is very limited. The purpose of this study was to provide practitioners with better understanding of the impact enteral feedings of children with cerebral palsy have on family mealtime routines. Using a complimentary mixed method approach, data were obtained through an online survey containing the Satisfaction Questionnaire with Gastrostomy Feeding (SAGA-8) and supplementary questions, and qualitative semi-structured phone interviews. Participants were caregivers of children with cerebral palsy who receive their primary nutrition through a gastrostomy tube. This study's cohort consisted of n = 36, SAGA-8, and n = 6 in-depth interviews. The mean age of children of was 9.4 (6.94 SD) with a mean age of 3.4 (5.35 SD) when enteral feeding was introduced. While families' overall situations positively changed after the gastronomy tube placement, environmental barriers and length of feeding time continued to present a challenge to mealtime routines. The mixed methods data analysis revealed that successful adjustment to having a child with a gastronomy tube and problem solving are closely linked and a consistent part of mealtime experience. Findings highlighted the necessity of comprehensive support from health professionals in achieving positive mealtime experience. Themes in this study indicated that caregivers would benefit from a professional with knowledge in the development and integration of rituals and routines to support positive outcomes. © 2017 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  19. Design Studies of Ultra-Wideband Microstrip Antennas with a Small Capacitive Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veeresh G. Kasabegoudar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of an ultra-wideband microstrip patch antenna with a small coplanar capacitive feed strip is presented. The proposed rectangular patch antenna provides an impedance bandwidth of nearly 50%, and has stable radiation patterns for almost all frequencies in the operational band. Results presented here show that such wide bandwidths are also possible for triangular and semiellipse geometries with a similar feed arrangement. The proposed feed is a very small strip placed very close to the radiator on a substrate above the ground plane. Shape of the feed strip can also be different, so long as the area is not changed. Experimental results agree with the simulated results. Effects of key design parameters such as the air gap between the substrate and the ground plane, the distance between radiator patch and feed strip, and the dimensions of the feed strip on the input characteristics of the antenna have been investigated and discussed. As demonstrated here, the proposed antenna can be redesigned for any frequency in the L-, S-, C-, or X-band. A design criterion for the air gap has been empirically obtained to enable maximum antenna bandwidth for all these operational frequencies.

  20. The external Q factor of a dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio frequency cavities: Theoretical and experimental studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, J.; Belomestnykh, S.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Xu, Wencan

    2013-11-01

    We propose a theoretical model based on network analysis to study the external quality factor (Q factor) of dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Specifically, we apply our model to the dual-feed 704 MHz half-cell SRF gun for Brookhaven National Laboratory's prototype Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). The calculations show that the external Q factor of this dual-feed system is adjustable from 104 to 109 provided that the adjustment range of a phase shifter covers 0°-360°. With a period of 360°, the external Q factor of the coupling system changes periodically with the phase difference between the two coupling arms. When the RF phase of both coupling arms is adjusted simultaneously in the same direction, the external Q factor of the system also changes periodically, but with a period of 180°.

  1. Safety evaluation of genetically modified DAS-40278-9 maize in a subchronic rodent feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shiying; Lang, Tianqi; Liu, Xu; Huang, Kunlun; He, Xiaoyun

    2018-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) maize, DAS-40278-9, expresses the aryloxyalkanoate dioxygenase-1 (AAD-1) protein, which confers tolerance to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and aryloxyphenoxypropionate (AOPP) herbicides. The aad-1 gene, which expresses the AAD-1 protein, was derived from Gram-negative soil bacterium, Sphingobium herbicidovorans. A 90-day sub-chronic toxicity study was conducted on rats as a component of the safety evaluation of DAS-40278-9 maize. Rats were given formulated diets containing maize grain from DAS-40278-9 or a non-GM near isogenic control comparator at an incorporation rate of 12.5%, 25%, or 50% (w/w), respectively for 90 days. In addition, another group of rats was fed a basic rodent diet. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, ophthalmic examinations, body weights/body weight gains, feed consumption, hematology, serum chemistry, selected organ weights, and gross and histopathological examinations. Under the condition of this study, DAS-40278-9 maize did not cause any treatment-related effects in rats compared with rats fed diets containing non-GM maize. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A qualitative study of the infant feeding beliefs and behaviours of mothers with low educational attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Catherine Georgina; Taki, Sarah; Azadi, Leva; Campbell, Karen J; Laws, Rachel; Elliott, Rosalind; Denney-Wilson, Elizabeth

    2016-05-21

    Infancy is an important period for the promotion of healthy eating, diet and weight. However little is known about how best to engage caregivers of infants in healthy eating programs. This is particularly true for caregivers, infants and children from socioeconomically disadvantaged backgrounds who experience greater rates of overweight and obesity yet are more challenging to reach in health programs. Behaviour change interventions targeting parent-infant feeding interactions are more likely to be effective if assumptions about what needs to change for the target behaviours to occur are identified. As such we explored the precursors of key obesity promoting infant feeding practices in mothers with low educational attainment. One-on-one semi-structured telephone interviews were developed around the Capability Opportunity Motivation Behaviour (COM-B) framework and applied to parental feeding practices associated with infant excess or healthy weight gain. The target behaviours and their competing alternatives were (a) initiating breastfeeding/formula feeding, (b) prolonging breastfeeding/replacing breast milk with formula, (c) best practice formula preparation/sub-optimal formula preparation, (d) delaying the introduction of solid foods until around six months of age/introducing solids earlier than four months of age, and (e) introducing healthy first foods/introducing unhealthy first foods, and (f) feeding to appetite/use of non-nutritive (i.e., feeding for reasons other than hunger) feeding. The participants' education level was used as the indicator of socioeconomic disadvantage. Two researchers independently undertook thematic analysis. Participants were 29 mothers of infants aged 2-11 months. The COM-B elements of Social and Environmental Opportunity, Psychological Capability, and Reflective Motivation were the key elements identified as determinants of a mother's likelihood to adopt the healthy target behaviours although the relative importance of each of the

  3. Patterned feeding experience for preterm infants: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickler, Rita H; Wetzel, Paul A; Meinzen-Derr, Jareen; Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L; Moore, Margo

    2015-06-04

    Neurobehavioral disabilities occur in 5-15% of preterm infants with an estimated 50-70% of very low birth weight preterm infants experiencing later dysfunction, including cognitive, behavioral, and social delays that often persist into adulthood. Factors implicated in poor neurobehavioral and developmental outcomes are hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and inconsistent caregiving patterns. Although much underlying brain damage occurs in utero or shortly after birth, neuroprotective strategies can stop lesions from progressing, particularly when these strategies are used during the most sensitive periods of neural plasticity occurring months before term age. The purpose of this randomized trial is to test the effect of a patterned feeding experience on preterm infants' neurobehavioral organization and development, cognitive function, and clinical outcomes. This trial uses an experimental, longitudinal, 2-group design with 120 preterm infants. Infants are enrolled within the first week of life and randomized to an experimental group receiving a patterned feeding experience from the first gavage feeding through discharge or to a control group receiving usual feeding care experience. The intervention involves a continuity of tactile experiences associated with feeding to train and build neuronal networks supportive of normal infant feeding experience. Primary outcomes are neurobehavioral organization as measured by Neurobehavioral Assessment of the Preterm Infant at 3 time points: the transition to oral feedings, NICU discharge, and 2 months corrected age. Secondary aims are cognitive function measured using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition at 6 months corrected age, neurobehavioral development (sucking organization, feeding performance, and heart rate variability), and clinical outcomes (length of NICU stay and time to full oral feeding). The potential effects of demographic and biobehavioral factors

  4. Technical efficiency of goat farming in Turkey: a case study of Isparta province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mevlüt Gül

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study estimates the technical efficiency of goat rearing in the province of Isparta in Turkey using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA. The data used were collected from 92 goat farmers using the stratified sampling method by means of a questionnaire. The technical efficiency of the goat farming varied widely between 0.13 and 1.00. The mean efficiency of 92 goat farms was calculated to be 0.44 and 0.66 for constant and variable returns to scale assumptions, respectively. The greatest slacks were in feedstuff concentrates and labour used. The most significant factors affecting efficiency of goat production were farmer experience, cooperative membership, milk yield per goat, and family and hired labour. Technical efficiency should be improved by providing farmers with well-organised education, an extension program, and research and development programs on goat rearing.

  5. Technical efficiency of goat farming in Turkey: a case study of Isparta province

    OpenAIRE

    Gül, Mevlüt; Demircan, Vecdi; Yilmaz, Hasan; Yilmaz, Hilal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study estimates the technical efficiency of goat rearing in the province of Isparta in Turkey using Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The data used were collected from 92 goat farmers using the stratified sampling method by means of a questionnaire. The technical efficiency of the goat farming varied widely between 0.13 and 1.00. The mean efficiency of 92 goat farms was calculated to be 0.44 and 0.66 for constant and variable returns to scale assumptions, respectively. The greate...

  6. Conceptual and Technical Study Regarding Future Accounting Regulation for SMEs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Deaconu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The economic theories and the accounting regulations deriving from them should be reconsidered for SMEs. At global level, there are accomplishments in this respect – IASB IFRS for SMEs – or intentions – European Commission proposals for certain simplifications of the European directives. However, for these actions to be successful, further investigations concerning the theoretical and technical implications are necessary. In this study, we present our opinion concerning the theoretic influences (reconsideration of the conceptual framework and the technical influences (change in the disclosure requirements and change in the content of the standards, namely recognition and valuation implied by a standard for SMEs.

  7. 110 kV NETWORK TECHNICAL LOSSES ASSESSMENT. REAL DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBULESCU C.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focusing on evaluating the technical losses within a real distribution network. The study was conducted for a distribution system operator within the Romanian Power System. The analysed area is represented by a real part of the Romanian Power System. It is modelled in a computer aided power system analysis tool. Several power system operating conditions are analysed. Power system optimization measures are provided having as a goal to reduce the technical losses' value. Values obtained based on the field measurement are compared to the ones provided by computer simulations. These conclusions are very useful for the distribution network operator.

  8. Association of breast feeding with early childhood dental caries: Japanese population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Yamakawa, Michiyo; Inoue, Sachiko; Saito, Keiko; Doi, Hiroyuki; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We investigated the association between breastfeeding duration during the first half year of life and the risk of early childhood caries from the age of 30 to 66 months in Japan. Design Observational study of a longitudinal survey. Setting A secondary data analysis of the Japanese Longitudinal Survey of Babies in the 21st Century. Participants 43 383 infants at the age of 6 months. Outcome measures Early childhood caries—defined as a child's visit to a dentist for treatment of dental caries during the past 12 months—was ascertained from the caregiver from the age of 30 months in the survey. We estimated the risk of dental caries each year according to duration of breast feeding using logistic regression analyses. We controlled for a set of biological factors (birth weight, sex, parity and maternal age at delivery) and socioeconomic factors (maternal educational attainment and smoking status, marital status at delivery, family income and region of birth and residence). Results We found that infants who had been breast fed for at least 6 or 7 months, both exclusively and partially, were at elevated risk of dental caries at the age of 30 months compared with those who had been exclusively formula fed. Adjusted ORs were 1.78 (95% CI, (1.45 to 2.17)) for the exclusively breastfed group and 1.39 (1.14 to 1.70) for the partially breastfed group. However, the associations became attenuated through the follow-up period and were no longer statistically significant beyond the age of 42 months for the partially breastfed group and beyond the age of 54 months for the exclusively breastfed group. Conclusions We found an association between breast feeding for at least 6 or 7 months and elevated risk of dental caries at age 30 months. However, the association became attenuated as children grew older. PMID:25795694

  9. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: A cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, L. (Lu); V.M.J. Kruitwagen - van de Gaar (Vivian); W. Jansen (Wilma); C.L. Mieloo (Cathelijne); A. van Grieken (Amy); H. Raat (Hein)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractObjective: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. Method: Cross-sectional data from the

  10. A Stepwise, Pilot Study of Bovine Colostrum to Supplement the First Enteral Feeding in Preterm Infants (Precolos)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yanqi; Juhl, Sandra M; Ye, Xuqiang

    2017-01-01

    STUDY PROTOCOL: The optimal feeding for preterm infants during the first weeks is still debated, especially when mother's own milk is lacking or limited. Intact bovine colostrum (BC) contains high amounts of protein, growth factors, and immuno-regulatory components that may benefit protein intake...

  11. Comparative studies on the biology and filarial susceptibility of selected blood-feeding and autogenous Aedes togoi sub-colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuluck Junkum

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood-feeding and autogenous sub-colonies were selected from a laboratory, stock colony of Aedes togoi, which was originally collected from Koh Nom Sao, Chanthaburi province, Southeast Thailand. Comparative biology and filarial susceptibility between the two sub-colonies (blood-feeding: F11, F13; autogeny: F38, F40 were investigated to evaluate their viability and vectorial capacity. The results of comparison on biology revealed intraspecific differences, i.e., the average egg deposition/gravid female (F11/F38; F13/F40, embryonation rate (F13/F40, hatchability rate (F11/F38; F13/F40, egg width (F11/F38, wing length of females (F13/F40, and wing length and width of males (F11/F38 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly greater than that in the autogenous sub-colony; and egg length (F11/F38 and width (F13/F40, and mean longevity of adult females (F11/F38 and males (F13/F40 in the blood-feeding sub-colony were significantly less than that in the autogenous sub-colony. The results of comparison on filarial susceptibility demonstrated that both sub-colonies yielded similar susceptibilities to Brugia malayi [blood-feeding/autogeny = 56.7% (F11/53.3%(F38, 60%(F13/83.3%(F40] and Dirofilaria immitis [blood-feeding/autogeny = 85.7%(F11/75%(F38, 45%(F13/29.4%(F40], suggesting autogenous Ae. togoi sub-colony was an efficient laboratory vector in study of filariasis.

  12. Exploring Maternal Perceptions of Infant Sleep and Feeding Method Among Mothers in the United Kingdom: A Qualitative Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzik, Alanna E F; Ball, Helen L

    2016-01-01

    In a context with strong rhetorical support for breastfeeding in the health system, yet extremely low rates of breastfeeding after hospital discharge, U.K. women's decisions about infant feeding reflect the reality of competing priorities in their lives, including obtaining adequate sleep. Popular wisdom in the U.K. tightly links breastfeeding and inadequate night-time sleep. Mothers are advised by peers and family to introduce formula or solid foods to infants to promote longer sleep. The first objective of this study was to investigate women's understandings of the nature of infant sleep and their perceptions of links between infant feeding method and sleep. The second was to explore how these perceptions influence infant feeding and sleep practices. Underpinning our work is the understanding that infant care choices result from trade-offs by which mothers strive to balance infant- and self-care. We conducted seven focus groups with mothers of infants in two regions of the U.K. Verbatim transcripts were thematically coded and emergent themes were identified. We found clearly diverging narratives between breastfeeding and formula-feeding mothers. Breastfeeding mothers viewed the fragmentary nature of infant sleep as natural, while mothers who were formula feeding felt this was a problem to be fixed. The strategies used to promote infant and maternal sleep in each group were aligned with their underlying perception of how infant sleep works. Maternal perceptions of the nature of infant sleep and its relation to infant feeding method impact infant care practices in the first year of life.

  13. The effect of enteral tube feeding in cystic fibrosis: A registry based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libeert, Denis; Declercq, Dimitri; Wanyama, Simeon; Thomas, Muriel; Van Daele, Sabine; De Baets, Frans; Van Biervliet, Stephanie

    2018-03-01

    Long-term effect of enteral tube feeding (ETF) in cystic fibrosis (CF) remains equivocal. A Belgian CF registry based, retrospective, longitudinal study, evaluated the pre- and post- ETF (n = 113) clinical evolution and compared each patient with 2 age, gender, pancreatic status and genotype class-matched controls. At baseline ETF had a worse BMI z-score (p ETF, had already a significant worse nutritional status and pulmonary function at first entry in the registry. Both parameters displayed a significant decline before ETF-introduction. ETF had more hospitalization and intravenous antibiotic (IVAB) treatment days (p ETF introduction hospitalizations and IVAB decreased significantly. After ETF-introduction BMI z-score recuperated towards the original curve before the decline, but remained below the controls. Starting ETF had no effect on rate of height gain in children. The pre-index FEV1 decline (-1.52%/year (p = 0.002)) stabilized to +0.39%/year afterwards. Controls displayed decline of -0.48%/year (p ETF introduction improved BMI z-score and stabilized FEV1, associated with less hospitalizations and IVAB treatments. Higher mortality and transplantation in the ETF cases, leading to drop-outs, made determination of the effect size difficult. Copyright © 2018 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Nasogastric tube feeding in bulimia. Controlled study with follow-up at 3 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaud, Daniel; Brayer, Véronique; Biton-Jélic, Violaine; Païs, Vanessa; Pennacchio, Hélène; Brun, Jean-Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Few effective treatments are available for severe forms of bulimia nervosa, which are accompanied by malnutrition, anxiety, and depressive mood. We previously showed in an open study that nasogastric tube feeding (TF) reduced binges and purging in patients with anorexia nervosa. This prospective randomized trial compared bulimia patients in two treatment groups: one group received TF at home, together with psychotherapy, nutritional counseling and a support group while the control group received only psychotherapy, nutritional counseling, and a support group. Patients in the first group underwent TF for 8 weeks (exclusively for 10 days and associated with meals thereafter). Assessment was based on clinical examination, laboratory results, and a variety of questionnaires (our in-house instrument for measuring binge and vomiting episodes, eating disorder inventory, Beck's depression inventory and the Hamilton rating scale for anxiety), all performed at the onset of treatment and at 8 days, 8 weeks (i.e., the end of TF), and 3 months after treatment began. Binges and vomiting disappeared faster and more frequently in TF patients than in the control group: 65% versus 29% (pbulimia nervosa, reducing the number of binge and vomiting episodes and improving nutritional status and mood.

  15. Hospital discharge bags and breastfeeding at 6 months: data from the infant feeding practices study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadacharan, Radha; Grossman, Xena; Matlak, Stephanie; Merewood, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Distribution of industry-sponsored formula sample packs to new mothers undermines breastfeeding. Using data from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II (IFPS II), we aimed to determine whether receipt of 4 different types of bags was associated with exclusive breastfeeding during the first 6 months of life. We extracted data from IFPS II questionnaires. Type of discharge bag received was categorized as "formula bag," "coupon bag," "breastfeeding supplies bag," or "no bag". We examined exclusive breastfeeding status at 10 weeks (post hoc) and at 6 months using univariate descriptive analyses and multivariate logistic regression models, controlling for sociodemographic and attitudinal variables. Overall, 1868 (81.4%) of women received formula bags, 96 (4.2%) received coupon bags, 46 (2.0%) received breastfeeding supplies bags, and 284 (12.4%) received no bag. By 10 weeks, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bags or no bag were significantly more likely to be exclusively breastfeeding than formula bag recipients. In the adjusted model, compared to formula bag/coupon bag recipients, recipients of breastfeeding supplies bag/no bag were significantly more likely to breastfeed exclusively for 6 months (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.36). The vast majority of new mothers received formula sample packs at discharge, and this was associated with reduced exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months. Bags containing breastfeeding supplies or no bag at all were positively associated with exclusive breastfeeding at 10 weeks and 6 months.

  16. Predisposition Factors of Career and Technical Education Transfer Students: A Hermeneutic Phenomenology Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hioki, Warren; Lester, Derek; Martinez, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Six college students, who were career and technical education (CTE) transfer students in the state of Nevada, were interviewed Spring Semester of 2009. The study used a hermeneutic phenomenology framework as the method to identify those predisposition variables that heavily influenced the students in their decision to transfer to a senior…

  17. A 2015 Status Study of Career and Technical Education Programs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Edward C., Jr.; Gordon, Howard R. D.; Asunda, Paul; Zirkle, Chris

    2015-01-01

    With the decline of Career and Technical Education (CTE) programs across the nation, there has been an interest in examining the status of these programs, particularly given the increased demand for CTE K-12 teachers. It has been 15 years since Bruening et al. (2001) conducted a similar national investigation. In this descriptive study, we…

  18. A Study on Technical High School Teachers' Views Concerning Corporal Punishment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Said

    2016-01-01

    Corporal punishment is defined as inflicting pain on body of someone who presents undesired behavior or does not present expected behavior. In the developed world, experiencing information society, corporal punishment is still in the agenda in educational system in Turkey. In this study, it was aimed to determine technical high school teachers'…

  19. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  20. Organising, Providing and Evaluating Technical Training for Early Career Researchers: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Besouw, Rachel M.; Rogers, Katrine S.; Powles, Christopher J.; Papadopoulos, Timos; Ku, Emery M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the importance of providing technical training opportunities for Early Career Researchers (ECRs) worldwide through the case study of a MATLAB training programme, which was proposed, organised, managed and evaluated by a team of five ECRs at the University of Southampton. The effectiveness of the programme in terms of the…

  1. Recidivism Study: Positive Terminations from J. F. Ingram State Technical College, 1976-1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogburn, Helen E.

    In 1988, a study was conducted by the J. F. Ingram State Technical College (ISTC) to determine recidivism rates for incarcerated individuals who earned a diploma and/or a General Educational Development (GED) certificate at ISTC during the years 1976 through 1986. The identification numbers of 2,844 students who had completed programs at ISTC were…

  2. "Type Ia Supernovae: Tools for Studying Dark Energy" Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woosley, Stan [Lick Observatory, San Jose, CA (United States); Kasen, Dan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Final technical report for project "Type Ia Supernovae: Tools for the Study of Dark Energy" awarded jointly to scientists at the University of California, Santa Cruz and Berkeley, for computer modeling, theory and data analysis relevant to the use of Type Ia supernovae as standard candles for cosmology.

  3. Studies in theoretical high energy particle physics: Technical progress report [February 1987-February 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukhatme, U.P.; Keung, Wai-Yee; Kovacs, E.

    1988-02-01

    This is a technical progress report for grant No. FG02-84ER40173 for the period February 1987 to February 1988. Our research on supersymmetric quantum mechanics has yielded many interesting results. In particular, a systematic approach to the tunneling problem in double well potentials has been developed. Higgs boson related physics at the high energy hadron colliders has been extensively studied

  4. A Feasibility Study for Consolidating and/or Coordinating Technical Procedures in Beaver County Pennsylvania Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, James W.

    In 1977 the Public Library Commission, in conjunction with the State Library of Pennsylvania, received a Library Services and Construction Act, Title III Grant to conduct a feasibility study of technical service operations in various types of libraries within Beaver County. Its objectives were to: (1) analyze existing library materials purchasing…

  5. Challenge Study: A Project-Based Learning on a Wireless Communication System at Technical High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terasawa, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    The challenge study is a project based learning curriculum at Technical High School aimed at the construction of a wireless communication system. The first period was engineering issues in the construction of an artificial satellite and the second period was a positional locating system based on the general purpose wire-less device--ZigBee device.…

  6. Digestive studies with a feed developed for realimentation of starving reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sletten

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available The properties of three different feeds were compared when offered to reindeer calves as single feeds after a starvation period of the 48 h. The feeds were lichen and two pelleted commercial reindeer feeds, RF-71 and RF-80. The two latter differed in concentration of readily digestible carbohydrates (high in RF-71 and in the inclusion of seaweed meal in RF-80. Seven calves were offered the three diets in a latin square design. Measurements involved feed intake and rumen concentrations of volatile fatty acids, ammonia and pH during a five day period after the end of the starvation period. Feeding RF-80 gave rise to higher feed intakes and more rapid normalisation of rumen VFA and ammonia concentration than the other pelleted feed. Rumen pH reached a minimum of 5.4 in animals fed RF-71, while the average minimum pH during the observation period was 6.1-6.2 when RF-80 was given. Inappetance for 1-2 days after refeeding occurred only with RF-71. RF-80 has now replaced RF-71 as the commercial reindeer feed in Norway.Fordøyelsesforsøk med et for utviklet til overgangsforing av sveltende rein.Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag: En har sammenlignet egenskapene til tre forskjellige fortyper gitt til reinkalver som eneste for etter en sveltperiode på 48 timer. Fortypene var reinlav og to pelletterte, kommersielle reinfor: RF-71 og RF-80. De siste to adskilte seg fra hverandre i konsentrasjonen av lettfordøyelige karbohydrater (høyest i RF-71 og i innblanding av tangmel i RF-80. Syv reinkalver ble gitt de tre dietter i «latin square» forsøksmønster. Målingene omfattet: forinntak, konsentrasjon i vominnhold av flyktige fettsyrer (VFA og ammonium samt verdier av pfi gjennom en fem-dagers periode etter avsluttet sveltperiode. Foring med RF-80 økte forinntaket og forårsaket en raskere normalisering av VFA- og ammoniumkonsentrasjonene enn foring med RF-71. pfi nådde et minimum på 5,4 hos dyr som fikk RF-71, mens gjennomsnittlig verdi av pH gjennom

  7. Feeding practices among children attending child welfare clinics in Ragama MOH area: a descriptive cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perera Priyantha J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding during early childhood is important for normal physical and mental growth as well as for health in later life. Currently, Sri Lanka has adopted the WHO recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for six months, followed by addition of complementary feeds thereafter, with continuation of breastfeeding up to or beyond two years. This study was conducted to evaluate the current feeding practices among Sri Lankan children during early childhood. Methods This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the Ragama Medical Officer of Health (MOH area. It was conducted between 10 August 2010 and 30 October 2010. Children between the ages of 24 and 60 months, attending child welfare clinics, were included in the study on consecutive basis. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect data regarding sociodemographic characteristics and feeding practices. Results There were 208 boys and 202 girls in the study population. Of them, 255 (62.2% were exclusively breastfed up to 6 months. Younger children had a statistically significant, higher rate of exclusive breastfeeding compared to older children. Three hundred and fifty one (85.6% children had received infant formula, and it was started before the age of 6 months in 61 children, and in 212 before one year. Sugar was added to infant formula in 330 (80.4% children, and out of them 144 had sugar added within first year of life. Complementary foods were started before 4 months in 29 (7% children. Of the 410 children, 294 (71.7% were breastfed beyond 2 years and 41.6% of them were breastfed at regular intervals throughout the day. Three hundred and thirty eight (82.6% children were receiving overnight feeding of either breast milk or infant formula even after 2 years. Conclusions Though a high rate of exclusive breastfeeding was observed in this study population, there are many other issues related to feeding during the early years of life that need

  8. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate and cupric citrate to broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1996-09-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate or cupric citrate in seven experiments (six in floor pens, one in wire-floored batteries). In Experiment 1, feeding 125 or 250 mg/kg copper increased growth (4.9%) and decreased feed conversion ratios (3.4%), total plasma cholesterol (40.2%), and breast muscle cholesterol (37.0%). Feeding 375 mg/kg copper was without further beneficial effect. In Experiment 2, withdrawing growth promoting supplements of copper from the feed for the last 7 d caused a significant (P copper caused only small increases in tissue copper levels: 0.36 vs 0.41 mg/kg for breast meat, and 0.48 vs 0.60 mg/kg for thigh meat, respectively. Litter copper accumulations in these experiments were similar to those of earlier reports. Breast muscle cholesterol was reduced by feeding 125 mg/kg supplemental copper from cupric citrate (27.84 mg/100 g) or 125 mg supplemental copper from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (25.32 mg/100 g) compared to broilers fed the control diet (43.92 mg/100 g). Cupric citrate was efficacious for growth promotion at lower copper levels than cupric sulfate pentahydrate, resulting in reduced litter copper.

  9. A pilot feeding study for adults with asthma: The healthy eating better breathing trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily P Brigham

    Full Text Available Evidence from observational studies and to a lesser extent clinical trials suggest that a healthy diet may improve symptoms and lung function in patients with asthma. We conducted a pilot study to determine the feasibility of conducting a larger scale dietary trial and to provide preliminary evidence on the impact of a healthy diet on asthma outcomes.In a randomized, two period cross-over trial, participants with asthma received a 4-week dietary intervention followed by a usual diet (or vice versa, separated by a 4-week washout. The dietary intervention was a healthy diet rich in unsaturated fat. During the dietary intervention, participants ate three meals per week on site at the Johns Hopkins ProHealth Research Center. All remaining meals and snacks were provided for participants to consume off-site. During the control diet, participants were instructed to continue their usual dietary intake. Relevant biomarkers and asthma clinical outcomes were assessed at 0, 2, and 4 weeks after starting each arm of the study.Eleven participants were randomized, and seven completed the full study protocol. Among these seven participants, average age was 42 years, six were female, and six were African American. Participant self-report of dietary intake revealed significant increases in fruit, vegetable, and omega-3 fatty acid intake with the dietary intervention compared to usual diet. Serum carotenoids (eg. lutein and beta-cryptoxanthin increased in the intervention versus control. Total cholesterol decreased in the intervention versus control diet. There was no consistent effect on asthma outcomes.The findings suggest that a feeding trial in participants with asthma is feasible. Larger trials are needed to definitively assess the potential benefits of dietary interventions on pulmonary symptoms and function in patients with asthma.

  10. Vocational Guidance for Equal Access and Opportunity for Girls and Women in Technical and Vocational Education. UNEVOC Studies in Technical and Vocational Education 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Juliet V.; Vetter, Louise

    A study examined the relevance of vocational information and guidance for the equal access of girls and women to technical/vocational education in the following countries: Argentina; India; Mexico; Republic of Korea; South Africa; Spain; Sweden; Turkey; United Arab Emirates; and Zambia. Case studies were conducted by using a multiple-strategy…

  11. A Prospective Observational Study of Technical Difficulty With GlideScope-Guided Tracheal Intubation in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Gurnaney, Harshad G; Stricker, Paul A; Galvez, Jorge A; Isserman, Rebecca S; Fiadjoe, John E

    2018-05-09

    The GlideScope Cobalt is one of the most commonly used videolaryngoscopes in pediatric anesthesia. Although visualization of the airway may be superior to direct laryngoscopy, users need to learn a new indirect way to insert the tracheal tube. Learning this indirect approach requires focused practice and instruction. Identifying the specific points during tube placement, during which clinicians struggle, would help with targeted education. We conducted this prospective observational study to determine the incidence and location of technical difficulties using the GlideScope, the success rates of various corrective maneuvers used, and the impact of technical difficulty on success rate. We conducted this observational study at our quaternary pediatric hospital between February 2014 and August 2014. We observed 200 GlideScope-guided intubations and documented key intubation-related outcomes. Inclusion criteria for patients were the number of advancement maneuvers required to intubate the trachea, the location where technical difficulty occurred, the types of maneuvers used to address difficulties, and the tracheal intubation success rate. We used a bias-corrected bootstrapping method with 300 replicates to determine the 95% confidence interval (CI) around the rate of difficulty with an intubation attempt. After excluding attempts by inexperienced clinicians, there were 225 attempts in 187 patients, 58% (131 of 225; bootstrap CI, 51.6%-64.6%]) of the attempts had technical difficulties. Technical difficulty was most likely to occur when inserting the tracheal tube between the plane of the arytenoid cartilages to just beyond the vocal cords: "zone 3." Clockwise rotation of the tube was the most common successful corrective maneuver in zone 3. The overall tracheal intubation success rate was 98% (CI, 95%-99%); however, the first attempt success rate was only 80% (CI, 74%-86%). Patients with technical difficulty had more attempts (median [interquartile range], 2 [1

  12. Comparison study of two procedures for the determination of emamectin benzoate in medicated fish feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farer, Leslie J; Hayes, John M

    2005-01-01

    A new method has been developed for the determination of emamectin benzoate in fish feed. The method uses a wet extraction, cleanup by solid-phase extraction, and quantitation and separation by liquid chromatography (LC). In this paper, we compare the performance of this method with that of a previously reported LC assay for the determination of emamectin benzoate in fish feed. Although similar to the previous method, the new procedure uses a different sample pretreatment, wet extraction, and quantitation method. The performance of the new method was compared with that of the previously reported method by analyses of 22 medicated feed samples from various commercial sources. A comparison of the results presented here reveals slightly lower assay values obtained with the new method. Although a paired sample t-test indicates the difference in results is significant, this difference is within the method precision of either procedure.

  13. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  14. Technical Efficiency of Potato and Dairy Farming in Mountainous Kazbegi District, Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Shavgulidze, R.; Bedoshvili, D.; Aurbacher, J.

    2017-01-01

    The study employs a stochastic frontier analysis to assess technical efficiency of potato and cheese production and determine socio-economic factors that influence farmers' technical efficiency levels in mountainous Kazbegi district of Georgia. The study found improved feeding to be inversely related with technical inefficiency in cheese production. In potato production, the analysis revealed implementation of the plant protection measures and use of quality seeds to be significant aspects th...

  15. Breast feeding and allergic diseases in infants—a prospective birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, I; Wickman, M; Lilja, G; Nordvall, S; Pershagen, G

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the effect of breast feeding on allergic disease in infants up to 2 years of age. Methods: A birth cohort of 4089 infants was followed prospectively in Stockholm, Sweden. Information about various exposures was obtained by parental questionnaires when the infants were 2 months old, and about allergic symptoms and feeding at 1 and 2 years of age. Duration of exclusive and partial breast feeding was assessed separately. Symptom related definitions of various allergic diseases were used. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in a multiple logistic regression model. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Results: Children exclusively breast fed during four months or more exhibited less asthma (7.7% v 12%, ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.8), less atopic dermatitis (24% v 27%, ORadj = 0.8, 95% CI 0.7 to 1.0), and less suspected allergic rhinitis (6.5% v 9%, ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.0) by 2 years of age. There was a significant risk reduction for asthma related to partial breast feeding during six months or more (ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9). Three or more of five possible allergic disorders—asthma, suspected allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, food allergy related symptoms, and suspected allergic respiratory symptoms after exposure to pets or pollen—were found in 6.5% of the children. Exclusive breast feeding prevented children from having multiple allergic disease (ORadj = 0.7, 95% CI 0.5 to 0.9) during the first two years of life. Conclusion: Exclusive breast feeding seems to have a preventive effect on the early development of allergic disease—that is, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and suspected allergic rhinitis, up to 2 years of age. This protective effect was also evident for multiple allergic disease. PMID:12456543

  16. Gas chromatographic determination of bifenthrin in technical and selected formulated products: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikta, Edward J

    2011-01-01

    A GC method for the analysis of technical and formulated bifenthrin samples was evaluated in a collaborative study. Bifenthrin is determined by using a 50% (trifluoropropyl)-methylpolysiloxane wide-bore capillary column and flame ionization detector. Ten samples, consisting of four formulations and a technical material were analyzed by 12 collaborators using Youden pairs. The four formulation types included in this study were microemulsion (ME), wettable powder (WP), suspension concentrate (SC), and emulsifiable concentrate (EC). Variability in the analysis of two of the formulation types, SC and EC, was later found to be due to the noncommercial containers used to hold the test samples. Because of this, valid data could not be obtained for the EC and SC. For the two formulations for which valid data could be obtained, ME and WP, and the technical chemical, accuracy and variability results are typical of large data sets. For the technical chemical and the two formulations for which valid data were obtained, Official First Action is recommended.

  17. Gap study on technical standards and quality assurance between ITER and Korean regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myoung-suk; Lee, Sangil; Lee, Hyoen Gon; Heo, Gyunyoung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper is to secure knowledge and expand domestic specialists for license and regulation of future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. - Abstract: Currently, Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project or the ITER Korea has been conducting follow-up surveys and development researches for the core technologies of its non-procurement items. This eventually aims to secure implicit as well as explicit knowledge and expand domestic specialists for future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. As a part of the project, the comparative analysis and gap study of technical standards and Quality Assurance (QA) system between ITER and Korean nuclear facilities are being performed. The goal of this study is to present a roadmap re-systematizing current safety-related standards for the fission-based facilities into fusion-based facilities in Republic of Korea. The research is considering two different tracks. First one is to secure the state-of-the-art of the fusion technical standards continually updated. For its investigation, we organized the Korean fusion safety advisory group that consists of experts from institutes, industries, and universities. The latest information of technical standards have been gathered and updated from each area of expert in periodic manner. The information is classified into Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) including safety classification, major safety issues, analysis computer codes, etc. This task will be re-organized this year such that the technical standards for procurement as well as non-procurement items can be accumulated in systematic and sustainable manner. Second one, called “Gap Study,” is to compare the requirements for domestic nuclear facilities and the results from the first track on the basis of experts’ opinion from the national and private sectors and to recommend the approaches to overcome technical and administrative barriers. The result is

  18. Gap study on technical standards and quality assurance between ITER and Korean regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myoung-suk [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangil; Lee, Hyoen Gon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon-si 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung, E-mail: gheo@khu.ac.kr [Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si 446-701, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • This paper is to secure knowledge and expand domestic specialists for license and regulation of future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. - Abstract: Currently, Korea Domestic Agency (KODA) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project or the ITER Korea has been conducting follow-up surveys and development researches for the core technologies of its non-procurement items. This eventually aims to secure implicit as well as explicit knowledge and expand domestic specialists for future fusion facilities including K-DEMO. As a part of the project, the comparative analysis and gap study of technical standards and Quality Assurance (QA) system between ITER and Korean nuclear facilities are being performed. The goal of this study is to present a roadmap re-systematizing current safety-related standards for the fission-based facilities into fusion-based facilities in Republic of Korea. The research is considering two different tracks. First one is to secure the state-of-the-art of the fusion technical standards continually updated. For its investigation, we organized the Korean fusion safety advisory group that consists of experts from institutes, industries, and universities. The latest information of technical standards have been gathered and updated from each area of expert in periodic manner. The information is classified into Product Breakdown Structure (PBS) including safety classification, major safety issues, analysis computer codes, etc. This task will be re-organized this year such that the technical standards for procurement as well as non-procurement items can be accumulated in systematic and sustainable manner. Second one, called “Gap Study,” is to compare the requirements for domestic nuclear facilities and the results from the first track on the basis of experts’ opinion from the national and private sectors and to recommend the approaches to overcome technical and administrative barriers. The result is

  19. Dynamic Study of Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger Addition on Double Bed Configuration Ammonia Reactor System within Varied Quenching Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia is one of the most important industrial commodity due to its wide function. Ammonia synthesis reaction is an exotermic reaction. Therefore, Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger (FEHE is added to increase thermal efficiency. However, FEHE could lead the process to experience hysteresis phenomenon due to interaction between equipments as one steady state T feed could result several T outlet. Hysteresis phenomenon may result asset losses like explosion, leakage, and loosing material integrity. Double bed reactor configuration allows us to use several operating parameters as variation to overcome hysteresis. In this review, quenching ratio was chosen to be that varied parameter. This study aims to determine how quenching ratio affects hysteresis zone by utilizing Aspen Hysys® V8.8 as simulation tool. Simulation showed that quenching ratio would narrow hysteresis zone yet increased extinction temperature that lower the conversion. Conversion profile showed that 0.2 quenching ratio got the highest conversion for system with bed volume ratio 2:1 while total volume was 30 m3. However, the feed temperature was fallen at hysteresis zone. Dynamic simulation showed that highest conversion feed temperature (10%ΔTf above extinct temperature was still able to preserve stability with descending temperature approach. Hysteresis itself started to occur at 1.7%ΔTf above extinct temperature

  20. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-07-13

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children's ethnic background. Cross-sectional data from the population-based 'Water Campaign' study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6-13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions ('control over eating', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding'), parenting style dimensions ('involvement' and 'strictness') and children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour. Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of 'control over eating' had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that 'control over eating' was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. 'Encouragement to eat' was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). 'Instrumental feeding' was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Our results suggest that 'control over eating' may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children's unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic backgrounds. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the

  1. A study on direct alloying with molybdenum oxides by feed wire method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Direct alloying with molybdenum oxides has been regarded in years; the main addition methods are adding to the bottom of electric arc furnace (EAF with scrap, adding to the ladle during the converter tapping and mixing molybdenum oxide, lime and reductant to prepare pellet added to basic oxygen furnace (BOF. In this paper, a new method for direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide is proposed, adding molybdenum trioxide molten steel by feeding wire method in ladle furnace (LF refining process. The feasibility of molybdenum oxide reduction, the influence rules of bottom-blown on liquid steel fluidity and the yield of molybdenum by feeding wire method were analyzed. Results show that molybdenum oxide can be reduced by [Al], [Si], [C], and even [Fe] in molten steel. Bottom blowing position has a significant influence on the flow of molten steel when the permeable brick is located in 1/2 radius. The yields of Mo are higher than 97% for the experiments with feed wire method, the implementation of direct alloying with molybdenum trioxide by feed wire method works even better than that uses of ferromolybdenum in the traditional process.

  2. A study of feeding in some inshore reef fish of the Natal Coast, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A detailed quantitative investigation of the feeding habits of seven important Natal inshore ... limits of influence of the surf zone or shore break. The physical features of .... There is a tendency for juvenile N. JithophiJus to form larger shoals than ...

  3. Time course study of feeding damage to pin head cotton squares by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an economically important pest affecting cotton crops in California. Lygus feeding causes abscission of cotton squares, with damage severity dependent on size of the square and life stage of the insect. Fifth instar nymphs are the most damaging stage; however, ...

  4. Parametric Study of Micro Strip Patch Antenna Using Different Feeding Techniques for Wireless and Medical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debajyoti Chatterjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing bandwidth requirement of modern wireless communication systems, developing antenna having wider bandwidth have been receiving significant attention in the recent years. In this paper, a comparative analysis of the contacting feed (micro strip line and coaxial probe and non-contacting feed mechanism (both Aperture Coupling and Proximity Coupling in micro strip patch antenna has been done. In case of contacting feed, RF power is fed directly to the radiating patch using a connecting element such as a micro strip line whereas in case of non-contacting feeds, electromagnetic field coupling is done to transfer power between the micro strip line and the radiating patch. As per the latest research, ultra wide band technology is used in the frequency range from 3 GHz to 10 GHz. We have analyzed and compared the return loss and corresponding bandwidth of these four types of antenna at 5.853GHz so that this antenna may be used in medical as well as wireless applications.

  5. Study on characteristics of valves for pulsed gas feed into a cyclotron multicharged ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogomolov, S.L.; Efremov, A.A.; Koval'chuk, I.M.; Kutner, V.B.; Pasyuk, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    Different valves (with rotating drum, piezoelectric and electromagnetic) for pulsed gas feed into cyclotron multicharged ion arc source are described. It is shown that piezoelectric and electromagnetic valves provide a possibility of regulating in a wide range the gas flow pulse parameters

  6. Low-Income Women's Feeding Practices and Perceptions of Dietary Guidance: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Jennifer S; Neshteruk, Cody D; Balantekin, Katherine N; Birch, Leann L

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Describe themes characterizing feeding behaviors of low-income women participating in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), and identify the attitudes, beliefs, and sources of information that inform these practices. Methods Formative research was conducted including focus groups and semi-structured individual phone interviews with a total of 68 low-income women participating in WIC. Qualitative data were recorded, transcribed, imported into NVivo 8.0, and analyzed for common themes. Results Mothers reported feeding behaviors inconsistent with guidance from WIC and the American Academy of Pediatrics. Three main themes were identified. First, mothers reported receiving conflicting messaging/advice from medical professionals, WIC nutritionists, and family members, which was confusing. Mothers also reported dissatisfaction with the "one size fits most" approach. Lastly, mothers reported relying on their "instincts" and that "all babies are different" when deciding and rationalizing what feeding guidance to follow. Conclusions Future interventions targeting this high-risk population should consider developing personalized (individualized) messaging, tailored to the needs of each mother-child dyad. Focused efforts are needed to build partnerships between WIC providers and other health care providers to provide more consistent messages about responsive feeding to prevent early obesity.

  7. Study on the forward-feed neural network used for the classification of high energy particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Guangxuan; Dai Guiliang

    1997-01-01

    Neural network has been applied in the field of high energy physics experiment for the classification of particles and gained good results. The author emphasizes the systematic analysis of the fundamental principle of the forward-feed neural network and discusses the problems and solving methods in application

  8. Study on feed forward neural network convex optimization for LiFePO4 battery parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    Based on the modern facility agriculture automatic walking equipment LiFePO4 Battery, the parameter identification of LiFePO4 Battery is analyzed. An improved method for the process model of li battery is proposed, and the on-line estimation algorithm is presented. The parameters of the battery are identified using feed forward network neural convex optimization algorithm.

  9. Morphophysiological study of digestive system litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Géssica; Dos Santos, Vânia Cristina; de Figueiredo Gontijo, Nelder; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Gabriela; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Gomes, Fabio Mendonça; de Alcantara Machado, Ednildo

    2017-06-01

    Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline. The salivary glands have an acinar structure and present cells with secretory characteristics. The alimentary canal is differentiated into the foregut, midgut, mixed segment and hindgut, which comprises the ileum (p1), enteric valve (p2), paunch (p3), colon (p4) and rectum (p5) segments. The foregut has a well-developed chewing system. The midgut possesses a tubular peritrophic membrane and two cell types: digestive cells with secretory and absorptive features and several regenerative cells in mitosis, both cell types being organized into regenerative crypts. The mixed segment exhibits cells rich in glycogen granules. Hindgut p1, p4 and p5 segments have flattened cells with a few apical invaginations related to mitochondria and a thick cuticular lining. Conversely, the hindgut p3 segment contains large cuboid cells with extensive apical invaginations associated with numerous mitochondria. These new insights into the morphophysiology of the digestive system of C. cumulans reveal that it mobilizes lignocellulose components as a nutritional source by means of a highly compartmentalized organization with specialized segments and complex microenvironments.

  10. Feeding infants and toddlers study: What foods are infants and toddlers eating?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Mary Kay; Pac, Susan; Devaney, Barbara; Jankowski, Linda

    2004-01-01

    To describe the food consumption patterns of US infants and toddlers, 4 to 24 months of age. Descriptive analysis of data collected in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers study based on telephone interviews and 24-hour dietary recalls. A national random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers age 4 to 24 months. The percentage of infants and toddlers consuming foods from specific food groups was estimated for six age groups, using a single 24-hour recall. Infants as young as 7 months of age showed food patterns that have been observed in older children and adults. From 18% to 33% of infants and toddlers between ages 7 and 24 months consumed no discrete servings of vegetables, and 23% to 33% consumed no fruits. French fries were one of the three most common vegetables consumed by infants 9 to 11 months of age. By 15 to 18 months, french fries were the most common vegetable. Almost half (46%) of 7- to 8-month-olds consumed some type of dessert, sweet, or sweetened beverage, and this percentage increased as age increased. By 19 to 24 months, 62% of toddlers consumed a baked dessert, 20% consumed candy, and 44% consumed a sweetened beverage. Parents and caregivers should be encouraged to offer a wide variety of vegetables and fruits daily, with emphasis on dark green, leafy, and deep yellow vegetables and colorful fruits. They should offer desserts, sweets, sweetened beverages, and salty snacks only occasionally, offering nutrient-dense, age-appropriate foods as alternatives (eg, fruit, cheese, yogurt, and cereals). Water, milk, and 100% fruit juices should be offered as alternative beverages. Because family food choices influence what foods are offered to children, family-based approaches to developing healthy eating habits may be helpful.

  11. Learning health 'safety' within non-technical skills interprofessional simulation education: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Morris; Fell, Christopher W R; Box, Helen; Farrell, Michael; Stewart, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Healthcare increasingly recognises and focusses on the phenomena of 'safe practice' and 'patient safety.' Success with non-technical skills (NTS) training in other industries has led to widespread transposition to healthcare education, with communication and teamwork skills central to NTS frameworks. This study set out to identify how the context of interprofessional simulation learning influences NTS acquisition and development of 'safety' amongst learners. Participants receiving a non-technical skills (NTS) safety focussed training package were invited to take part in a focus group interview which set out to explore communication, teamwork, and the phenomenon of safety in the context of the learning experiences they had within the training programme. The analysis was aligned with a constructivist paradigm and took an interactive methodological approach. The analysis proceeded through three stages, consisting of open, axial, and selective coding, with constant comparisons taking place throughout each phase. Each stage provided categories that could be used to explore the themes of the data. Additionally, to ensure thematic saturation, transcripts of observed simulated learning encounters were then analysed. Six themes were established at the axial coding level, i.e., analytical skills, personal behaviours, communication, teamwork, context, and pedagogy. Underlying these themes, two principal concepts emerged, namely: intergroup contact anxiety - as both a result of and determinant of communication - and teamwork, both of which must be considered in relation to context. These concepts have subsequently been used to propose a framework for NTS learning. This study highlights the role of intergroup contact anxiety and teamwork as factors in NTS behaviour and its dissipation through interprofessional simulation learning. Therefore, this should be a key consideration in NTS education. Future research is needed to consider the role of the affective non-technical

  12. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate, cupric citrate, and copper oxychloride to broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, H P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Menten, J F

    1998-03-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate, copper oxychloride, or cupric citrate in two experiments conducted in floor pens. In Experiment 1, feeding copper at 125 mg/kg diet for 42 d significantly increased broiler growth; and the response from cupric citrate was significantly better than either cupric sulfate or copper oxychloride. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of copper from cupric citrate was reduced to 63 mg/kg and the length of the experiment was increased to 56 d. Cupric sulfate pentahydrate and copper oxychloride treatments increased weight gain by 4.9% and cupric citrate increased weight gain by 9.1%. The feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds) in the birds fed copper were not significantly different from those fed the basal diet (P > 0.05) unless corrections were made for the weights of the dead birds; the adjusted feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds + grams of gain of mortalities) for the copper-treated birds in Experiments 1 and 2 were 5.2 and 7.6% lower, respectively, than the ratios of birds fed the basal diets. Plasma copper levels increased in supplemented chicks by 35% in Experiment 1 and 24% in Experiment 2. Liver copper levels in both experiments were increased by 26% with copper supplementation. Mortality was not affected by dietary treatment in either experiment (P > 0.05).

  13. A data envelope analysis to assess factors affecting technical and economic efficiency of individual broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Jeffrey, S R; Naeima, A; Renema, R A; Robinson, F E

    2010-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feed allocation and energetic efficiency on technical and economic efficiency of broiler breeder hens using the data envelope analysis methodology and quantified the effect of variables affecting technical efficiency. A total of 288 Ross 708 pullets were placed in individual cages at 16 wk of age and assigned to 1 of 4 feed allocation groups. Three of them had feed allocated on a group basis with divergent BW targets: standard, high (standard x 1.1), and low (standard x 0.9). The fourth group had feed allocated on an individual bird basis following the standard BW target. Birds were classified in 3 energetic efficiency categories: low, average, and high, based on estimated maintenance requirements. Technical efficiency considered saleable chicks as output and cumulative ME intake and time as inputs. Economic efficiency of feed allocation treatments was analyzed under different cost scenarios. Birds with low feed allocation exhibited a lower technical efficiency (69.4%) than standard (72.1%), which reflected a reduced egg production rate. Feed allocation of the high treatment could have been reduced by 10% with the same chick production as the standard treatment. The low treatment exhibited reduced economic efficiency at greater capital costs, whereas high had reduced economic efficiency at greater feed costs. The average energetic efficiency hens had a lower technical efficiency in the low compared with the standard feed allocation. A 1% increment in estimated maintenance requirement changed technical efficiency by -0.23%, whereas a 1% increment in ME intake had a -0.47% effect. The negative relationship between technical efficiency and ME intake was counterbalanced by a positive correlation of ME intake and egg production. The negative relationship of technical efficiency and maintenance requirements was synergized by a negative correlation of hen maintenance and egg production. Economic efficiency methodologies are effective

  14. Text messaging data collection for monitoring an infant feeding intervention program in rural China: feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Wang, Wei; van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-12-04

    An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants' acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all questionnaires, and ¥27.1 (US $4.31) versus ¥34

  15. Text Messaging Data Collection for Monitoring an Infant Feeding Intervention Program in Rural China: Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Background An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Methods Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants’ acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. Results We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all

  16. Characterizing complexity in socio-technical systems: a case study of a SAMU Medical Regulation Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Angela Weber; Wachs, Priscila; Saurin, Tarcísio Abreu

    2012-01-01

    Complexity theory has been adopted by a number of studies as a benchmark to investigate the performance of socio-technical systems, especially those that are characterized by relevant cognitive work. However, there is little guidance on how to assess, systematically, the extent to which a system is complex. The main objective of this study is to carry out a systematic analysis of a SAMU (Mobile Emergency Medical Service) Medical Regulation Center in Brazil, based on the core characteristics of complex systems presented by previous studies. The assessment was based on direct observations and nine interviews: three of them with regulator of emergencies medical doctor, three with radio operators and three with telephone attendants. The results indicated that, to a great extent, the core characteristics of complexity are magnified) due to basic shortcomings in the design of the work system. Thus, some recommendations are put forward with a view to reducing unnecessary complexity that hinders the performance of the socio-technical system.

  17. Realizing Sustainability in Facilities Management: a pilot study at the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Balslev; Møller, Jacob Steen; Jäschke, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    , qualitative research and the preliminary analysis of a single, pilot case study of The Technical University of Denmark. Progress with the other complementary cases will be included in the presentation. The cases should be supplemented by more research on sustainable facilities management. Originality......, stakeholder interviews, focus groups, usability evaluations and practice-research workshops. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) is the pilot case of an international collaboration, and more studies are planned to follow. Findings: The paper presents a framework for qualitative research on Sustainable...... Facilities Management (SFM), which can guide future research on Sustainability in FM and increase comparability between case studies. The research identifies the challenges and opportunities for integrating ecological, social and economical sustainability in university FM. The paper presents the analysis...

  18. Should we feed back research results in the midst of a study?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estabrooks Carole A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report is an introduction to a series of three research papers that describe the evolution of the approaches taken by the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC research team during its first four years to feed back the research findings to study participants. TREC is an observational multi-method health services research project underway in 36 nursing homes in the prairie provinces of Canada. TREC has actively involved decision makers from the sector in all stages from initial planning, through data collection to dissemination activities. However, it was not planned as a fully integrated knowledge translation project. These three papers describe our progress towards fully integrated knowledge translation—with respect to timely and requested feedback processes. The first paper reports on the process and outcomes of creating and evaluating the feedback of research findings to healthcare aides (unregulated health professionals. These aides provide over 80% of the direct care in our sample and actively requested the feedback as a condition of their continued cooperation in the data acquisition process. The second paper describes feedback from nursing home administrators on preliminary research findings (a facility annual report and evaluation of the reports’ utility. The third paper discusses an approach to providing a more in-depth form of feedback (expanded feedback report at one of the TREC nursing homes. Findings Survey and interview feedback from healthcare aides is presented in the first paper. Overall, healthcare aides’ opinions about presentation of the feedback report and the understand ability, usability, and usefulness of the content were positive. The second paper describes the use of telephone interviews with facility administrators and indicates that the majority of contextual areas (e.g., staff job satisfaction addressed in facility annual report to be useful, meaningful, and understandable. More than

  19. Iranian nurses' experience of essential technical competences in disaster response: A qualitative content analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliakbari, Fatemeh; Bahrami, Masoud; Aein, Fereshteh; Khankeh, Hamidreza

    2014-11-01

    Today disasters are a part of many people's lives. Iran has a long history of disaster events and nurses are one of the most significant groups within the Iranian disaster relief operations, providing immediate and long-term care for those affected by the disaster. However, the technical competence of Iranian nurses and their training for this work has received little attention. This article presents the results of a study that aims to explore this context. A qualitative study was conducted using in-depth interviews to collect data from 30 nurses, who were deliberately selected from the health centers affiliated to the Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Themes were identified using the conventional qualitative content analysis. The trustworthiness of the study was supported by considering the auditability, neutrality, consistency, and transferability. The study lasted from 2011 to 2012. Data analysis undertaken for the qualitative study resulted in the identification of five main themes, which included: (1) Management competences, (2) ethical and legal competences, (3) team working, and (4) personal abilities and the specific technical competences presented in this report. This report presents an overview of the nursing technical capabilities required for Iranian nurses during disaster relief. It is argued that additional competencies are required for nurses who care in high-risk situations, including disasters. Nurses need to prepare themselves more effectively to be responsible and effective in nursing care.

  20. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  1. A Study on the Operator Decision Support for Feed-and-Bleed Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Bo Gyung; Kim, Sang Ho; Kang, Hyun Gook; Yoon, Ho Joon

    2014-01-01

    In the case of a combined accident that includes a failure of the secondary cooling system, it is difficult for operators to recognize the necessity of an feed and bleed (F and B) operation because a lot of parameters and alarms should be checked before a decision, and operators may spend a considerable amount of time arriving at the entry for a proper emergency operating procedure that contains the procedure for an F and B operation. Therefore, a clear identification of the success boundary of an F and B operation would help operators in their decision-making when a combined accident that includes a secondary cooling system failure occurs. This study will provide a useful guideline for the initiation of an F and B operation for operators. Cooling the RCS after a scram is one of the most important safety functions for preventing core damage. To support the operator in decision making whether to initiate the F and B operation, plant conditions requiring the initiation of an F and B operation were identified. Plant conditions are affected by the steam generator inventory, RCS inventory, core inventory, and safety injection availability. The combination of accident types, component availabilities, and the initiation time of an F and B operation affect the success of the F and B operation. Operators need clear information about the RCS condition when the steam generators, the RCS's main residual heat removal mechanism, become unavailable. When this happens, the initiation of an F and B operation becomes necessary. As the number of the state increases, the necessity of an F and B operation increases. Especially, the operator should initiate an F and B operation when the RCS condition enters State 3 for Type 1 incidents or State 3-2 for Type 2 incidents. The results of this study may be useful in providing information regarding the necessity and effects of an F and B operation in a quantitative manner. In particular, in the case of a combined accident including a

  2. Evaluation of HWVP feed preparation chemistry for an NCAW simulant -- Fiscal Year 1991: Evaluation of offgas generation, reductant requirements and thermal stability: Technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiemers, K.D.; Langowski, M.H.; Powell, M.R.; Larson, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) is being designed for the Department of Energy to immobilize pretreated radioactive high-level waste and transuranic waste as glass for permanent disposal. Laboratory studies were conducted to characterize HWVP slurry chemistry during selected processing steps, using pretreated Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW) simulant. Laboratory tests were designed to provide bases for determining the potential for hazardous gas generation, making chemical adjustments for glass redox control, and assessing the potential for rapid exothermic reactions of dried NCAW slurry. Offgas generation rates and the total moles of gas released as a function of selected pretreated NCAW components and process variables were measured. An emphasis was placed on identifying conditions that initiate significant H 2 generation. Glass redox measurements, using Fe +2 /ΣFe as an indicator of the glass oxidation state, were made to develop guidelines for HCOOH addition. Thermal analyses of dried NCAW simulant were conducted to assess the potential of a rapid uncontrollable exothermic reaction in the chemical processing cell tanks

  3. Background and technical studies for GENIUS as a dark matter experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudis, L.; Heusser, G.; Majorovits, B.; Ramachers, Y.; Strecker, H.; Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H.V.

    1999-01-01

    The GENIUS project is a proposal for a new dark matter detector, with an increased sensitivity of three orders of magnitude relative to existing direct dark matter detection experiments. We performed a technical study and calculated the main background sources for the relevant energy region in a detailed detector geometry. The achieved overall background level and detector performance confirm the outstanding potential of GENIUS as a powerful tool for the direct search of WIMPs in our Galaxy

  4. Technical efficiency of public district hospitals and health centres in Ghana: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirigia Joses M

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Government of Ghana has been implementing various health sector reforms (e.g. user fees in public health facilities, decentralization, sector-wide approaches to donor coordination in a bid to improve efficiency in health care. However, to date, except for the pilot study reported in this paper, no attempt has been made to make an estimate of the efficiency of hospitals and/or health centres in Ghana. The objectives of this study, based on data collected in 2000, were: (i to estimate the relative technical efficiency (TE and scale efficiency (SE of a sample of public hospitals and health centres in Ghana; and (ii to demonstrate policy implications for health sector policy-makers. Methods The Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA approach was used to estimate the efficiency of 17 district hospitals and 17 health centres. This was an exploratory study. Results Eight (47% hospitals were technically inefficient, with an average TE score of 61% and a standard deviation (STD of 12%. Ten (59% hospitals were scale inefficient, manifesting an average SE of 81% (STD = 25%. Out of the 17 health centres, 3 (18% were technically inefficient, with a mean TE score of 49% (STD = 27%. Eight health centres (47% were scale inefficient, with an average SE score of 84% (STD = 16%. Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated to policy-makers the versatility of DEA in measuring inefficiencies among individual facilities and inputs. There is a need for the Planning and Budgeting Unit of the Ghana Health Services to continually monitor the productivity growth, allocative efficiency and technical efficiency of all its health facilities (hospitals and health centres in the course of the implementation of health sector reforms.

  5. SAR studies directed toward the pyridine moiety of the sap-feeding insecticide sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loso, Michael R; Benko, Zoltan; Buysse, Ann; Johnson, Timothy C; Nugent, Benjamin M; Rogers, Richard B; Sparks, Thomas C; Wang, Nick X; Watson, Gerald B; Zhu, Yuanming

    2016-02-01

    Sap-feeding insect pests constitute a major insect pest complex that includes a range of aphids, whiteflies, planthoppers and other insect species. Sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active), a new sulfoximine class insecticide, targets sap-feeding insect pests including those resistant to many other classes of insecticides. A structure activity relationship (SAR) investigation of the sulfoximine insecticides revealed the importance of a 3-pyridyl ring and a methyl substituent on the methylene bridge linking the pyridine and the sulfoximine moiety to achieving strong Myzus persicae activity. A more in depth QSAR investigation of pyridine ring substituents revealed a strong correlation with the calculated logoctanol/water partition coefficient (SlogP). Model development resulted in a highly predictive model for a set of 18 sulfoximines including sulfoxaflor. The model is consistent with and helps explain the highly optimized pyridine substitution pattern for sulfoxaflor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  7. Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Rhona J; Hoddinott, Pat; Britten, Jane; Darwent, Kirsty; Craig, Leone C A

    2013-05-16

    Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women's feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is recommended away from the dominant approach of

  8. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of malnutrition and enteral feeding practices in the critically ill: A single-centre observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Paul Verghese

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Early identification of malnutrition among hospitalised patients is essential to institute appropriate patient-specific nutritional strategies. This study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional status of medical patients at admission to the adult intensive care unit (ICU and to identify factors which prevent attainment of daily feeding goals in them. Methods: This was a 1 year prospective, observational study on 200 medical adult ICU patients. The study was carried out based on daily documentation. The primary outcome was the nutritional status of medical Patients at admission to the adult ICU. The tests for statistical analysis used were independent t test, Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: Out of the 200 patients in our study, 45%, 48.5% and 9% of patients had mild, moderate and severe malnutrition, respectively, corresponding to subjective global assessment (SGA rating A,B and C, respectively. The most common reasons for non-attainment of daily feeding goals were delayed feed procurement (17.57%, and feeds being held for procedures (16.36%. The overall mean length of ICU stay was 8.63 ± 7.26 days, and the ICU mortality rate was 47.5% (95/200. Patients with SGA rating B and C at admission had higher risk of mortality in the ICU, with an adjusted odds ratio of 3.54 (95% confidence interval [CI]- 1.71–7.33, P = 0.001 and 11.11 (95% CI-2.26–54.66, P = 0.003, respectively. Conclusion: Malnutrition is commonly present at admission among medical ICU patients, and is associated with higher ICU mortality.

  10. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3A. GSFLS technical analysis (appendix). Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives

  11. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3. GSFLS technical and financial analysis. Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported herein. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives

  12. Global Spent Fuel Logistics Systems Study (GSFLS). Volume 3A. GSFLS technical analysis (appendix). Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriger, A.

    1978-01-31

    This report is a part of the interim report documentation for the Global Spent Fuel Logistics System (GSFLS) study. The technical and financial considerations underlying a global spent fuel logistics systems have been studied and are reported. The Pacific Basin is used as a model throughout this report; however the stated methodology and, in many cases, considerations and conclusions are applicable to other global regions. Spent fuel discharge profiles for Pacific Basin Countries were used to determine the technical systems requirements for alternative concepts. Functional analyses and flows were generated to define both system design requirements and logistics parameters. A technology review was made to ascertain the state-of-the-art of relevant GSFLS technical systems. Modular GSFLS facility designs were developed using the information generated from the functional analysis and technology review. The modular facility designs were used as a basis for siting and cost estimates for various GSFLS alternatives. Various GSFLS concepts were analyzed from a financial and economic perspective in order to provide total concepts costs and ascertain financial and economic sensitivities to key GSFLS variations. Results of the study include quantification of GSFLS facility and hardware requirements; drawings of relevant GSFLS facility designs; system cost estimates; financial reports - including user service charges; and comparative analyses of various GSFLS alternatives.

  13. Preverbal Infants Anticipate that Food Will Be Brought to the Mouth: An Eye Tracking Study of Manual Feeding and Flying Spoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochukhova, Olga; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    This study relies on eye tracking technology to investigate how humans perceive others' feeding actions. Results demonstrate that 6-month-olds (n = 54) anticipate that food is brought to the mouth when observing an adult feeding herself with a spoon. Still, they fail to anticipate self-propelled (SP) spoons that move toward the mouth and manual…

  14. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: 1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. 2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. 3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. 4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  15. Study on upgrading of oil palm wastes to animal feeds by radiation and fermentation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Matsuhashi, Shinpei; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment; and others

    1998-03-01

    Upgrading of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB), which is a main by-product of palm oil industry, to animal feeds by radiation pasteurization and fermentation was investigated for recycling the agro-resources and reducing the environmental pollution. The following results were obtained: (1) The necessary dose for pasteurization of EFB contaminated by various microorganisms including aflatoxin producing fungi was determined as 10 kGy. The chemical and biological properties of EFB were changed little by irradiation up to 50 kGy. (2) In the fermentation process, Pleurotus sajor-caju was selected as the most effective fungi and the optimum condition for fermentation was clarified. The process of fermentation in suspension was also established for the liquid seed preparation. (3) The digestibility and nutritional value of fermented products were evaluated as ruminant animal feeds and the mushroom can be produced as by-product. (4) The pilot plant named Sterifeed was built at MINT and a large volume production has been trying for animal feeding test and economical evaluation. It is expected to develop the process for the commercial use in Malaysia and to expand the technique to Asian region through UNDP/RCA/IAEA project. (author)

  16. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  17. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  18. Relational Study of Technical Education in Scotland and Nigeria for Sustainable Skill Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umunadi, E. Kennedy

    2014-01-01

    This paper was designed to look at technical education curriculum and mode of implementation in Scotland in order to adopt the advantageous attributes of the Scottish technical education in Nigeria. The paper x-rayed the staff perceptions of technical education and its roles in Scotland; history of technical education before the advent of British…

  19. 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-03-01

    This publication provides detailed documentation of the load forecast scenarios and assumptions used in preparing BPA's 1991 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (the Study). This is one of two technical appendices to the Study; the other appendix details the utility-specific loads and resources used in the Study. The load forecasts and assumption were developed jointly by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) staff. This forecast is also used in the Council's 1991 Northwest Conservation and Electric Power Plan (1991 Plan).

  20. Technical and economic feasibility study for the creation of a tissue bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loncomilla Sandoval, Andrea Rosi; Mendez Guerra, Karina Angelica

    2006-01-01

    The risk of getting contagious illnesses through applying biological tissues has been one of the paramount worries to be solved since infectious illnesses might be provoked by virus, fungi or bacteria coming from donors or whether they have been introduced by means of intermediate stages before the use of these tissues. Therefore it has been concluded that the tissue allograft must be sterilized. The work presented is a Technical and economic Feasibility Study for the creation of a Tissue Bank in Chile, considering the fact of lacking of such institutions in our country and the need to satisfy the population that requires tissues. It is shown the processes involved and the characteristics of a tissue bank, and also a market survey in order to meet the demand, supply, technical requirements, competitors, opportunities and legal aspects of the process. Finally, it was examined the economic feasibility at which defines the investment, financing and business projections to determine the profitability of the project

  1. Are We "There" Yet? the Treatment of Gender and Feminism in Technical, Business, and Workplace Writing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kate; Rumsey, Suzanne Kesler; Amidon, Stevens

    2016-01-01

    This article reexamines the treatment of gender and feminism in technical, business, and workplace writing studies--areas in which the three of us teach. Surprisingly, the published discourse of our field seems to implicitly minimize the gendered nature of business and technical writing workplaces and classrooms. To understand this apparent lack…

  2. Technical Services on the Net: Where Are We Now? A Comparative Study of Sixty Web Sites of Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianrong; Gao, Vera

    2004-01-01

    This study examines sixty academic libraries' Web sites and finds that 80 percent of them do not have a technical services' homepage. Data reveal that institution's status might be a factor in whether a library has such a page. Further content analysis suggests there is an appropriate and useful public service role that technical services…

  3. Review of Technical Studies in the United States in Support of Burnup Credit Regulatory Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, John C.; Parks, Cecil V.; Mueller, Don; Gauld, Ian C.

    2010-01-01

    Taking credit for the reduction in reactivity associated with fuel depletion can enable more cost-effective, higher-density storage, transport, disposal, and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) while maintaining sufficient subcritical margin to establish an adequate safety basis. Consequently, there continues to be considerable interest in the United States (U.S.), as well as internationally, in the increased use of burnup credit in SNF operations, particularly related to storage, transport, and disposal of commercial SNF. This interest has motivated numerous technical studies related to the application of burnup credit, both domestically and internationally, as well as the design of SNF storage, transport and disposal systems that rely on burnup credit for maintaining subcriticality. Responding to industry requests and needs, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated a burnup credit research program in 1999, with support from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), to develop regulatory guidance and the supporting technical bases for allowing and expanding the use of burnup credit in pressurized-water reactor SNF storage and transport applications. Although this NRC research program has not been continuous since its inception, considerable progress has been achieved in many key areas in terms of increased understanding of relevant phenomena and issues, availability of relevant information and data, and subsequently updated regulatory guidance for expanded use of burnup credit. This paper reviews technical studies performed by ORNL for the U.S. NRC burnup credit research program. Examples of topics include reactivity effects associated with reactor operating characteristics, fuel assembly characteristics, burnable absorbers, control rods, spatial burnup distributions, cooling time, and assembly misloading; methods and data for validation of isotopic composition predictions; methods and data for validation of criticality calculations; and

  4. Prevalence, Outcomes, and Management of Enteral Tube Feeding Intolerance: A Retrospective Cohort Study in a Tertiary Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kailun; McIlroy, Kerry; Plank, Lindsay D; Petrov, Max S; Windsor, John A

    2017-08-01

    Enteral tube feeding (ETF) is the most common form of artificial feeding in hospitalized patients, and the development of intolerance (ETFI) is the most common complication. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ETFI, the clinical consequences, and the current management approach to ETFI in hospitalized adult patients. Adult patients receiving ETF were identified from a prospective database in the Nutrition Services at Auckland City Hospital. Further information was obtained by the review of clinical records for a 12-month period, up to December 2014. The prevalence of ETFI was 33% among 754 patients. ETFI more frequently occurred in the intensive care unit ( P ETF were also frequently attempted. ETFI is a frequent problem in adult hospitalized patients receiving ETF, and it is associated with poor clinical outcomes such as inadequate nutrition and complications of feeding. While the pathophysiology is poorly understood, there also appears to be no standard evidence-based treatment. Studies investigating the mechanisms and optimized management are therefore indicated.

  5. Complementary feeding: study on prevalence of food intake in two health centers of São Paulo city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioni, D M; Latorre, M do R; Szarfarc, S C; de Souza, S B

    2001-06-01

    The infant feeding practices in the first year of life are of fundamental importance for their growth and development. This study was carried out aiming at checking on the prevalence of food intake by the infants during their first year of life. One-hundred-and-seventy-five children aged up to one year, attended to in two Health Centers of São Paulo city, Brazil, participated in this study. Their feeding practices, obtained through the status quo approach, were analyzed through multiple logistic regression models, using curves of prevalence for complementary food consumption. Fruit was the first solid food to be part of the infant diet, followed by vegetables, cereal, meat and/or eggs and, beans. Animal-protein-containing source foods (meat and eggs) entered the diet much later, being consumed by practically all children only at the end of their first year of life. The early introduction of complementary foods into the infant diet was made evident. The introduction of solid foods to complement breastfeeding is started with low-calorie density foods, in disagreement with the recommendations for Brazilian children. Results of this paper disclose a need for having programmatic actions in health education being carried out, in special those regarding exclusive breastfeeding promotion and orientation on the adequate introduction of complementary feeding.

  6. Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissues from Two 90-Day Feeding Studies in Rats Using Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Sharbati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory 90-day rodent feeding studies. In parallel to two 90-day feeding studies, the transcriptional response of rat tissues was assessed as another endpoint to enhance the mechanistic interpretation of GM feeding studies and/or to facilitate the generation of a targeted hypothesis. Rats received diets containing 33% GM maize (MON810 or near-isogenic control maize. As a site of massive exposure to ingested feed the transcriptomic response of ileal and colonic tissue was profiled via RT-qPCR arrays targeting apoptosis, DNA-damage/repair, unfolded protein response (UPR. For global RNA profiling of rat ileal tissue, we applied NGS.Results: No biological response to the GM-diet was observed in male and in female rat tissues. Transcriptome wide analysis of gene expression by RNA-seq confirmed these findings. Nevertheless, gene ontology (GO analysis clearly associated a set of distinctly regulated transcripts with circadian rhythms. We confirmed differential expression of circadian clock genes using RT-qPCR and immunoassays for selected factors, thereby indicating physiological effects caused by the time point of sampling.Conclusion: Prediction of potential unintended effects of GM-food/feed by transcriptome based profiling of intestinal tissue presents a novel approach to complement classical toxicological testing procedures. Including the detection of alterations in signaling pathways in toxicity testing procedures may enhance the confidence in outcomes of toxicological trials. In this study, no significant GM-related changes in intestinal expression profiles were found in rats fed GM-maize MON810. Relevant

  7. Transcriptomic Analysis of Intestinal Tissues from Two 90-Day Feeding Studies in Rats Using Genetically Modified MON810 Maize Varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharbati, Jutta; Bohmer, Marc; Bohmer, Nils; Keller, Andreas; Backes, Christina; Franke, Andre; Steinberg, Pablo; Zeljenková, Dagmar; Einspanier, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Background: Global as well as specific expression profiles of selected rat tissues were characterized to assess the safety of genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 containing the insecticidal protein Cry1Ab. Gene expression was evaluated by use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) as well as RT-qPCR within rat intestinal tissues based on mandatory 90-day rodent feeding studies. In parallel to two 90-day feeding studies, the transcriptional response of rat tissues was assessed as another endpoint to enhance the mechanistic interpretation of GM feeding studies and/or to facilitate the generation of a targeted hypothesis. Rats received diets containing 33% GM maize (MON810) or near-isogenic control maize. As a site of massive exposure to ingested feed the transcriptomic response of ileal and colonic tissue was profiled via RT-qPCR arrays targeting apoptosis, DNA-damage/repair, unfolded protein response (UPR). For global RNA profiling of rat ileal tissue, we applied NGS. Results: No biological response to the GM-diet was observed in male and in female rat tissues. Transcriptome wide analysis of gene expression by RNA-seq confirmed these findings. Nevertheless, gene ontology (GO) analysis clearly associated a set of distinctly regulated transcripts with circadian rhythms. We confirmed differential expression of circadian clock genes using RT-qPCR and immunoassays for selected factors, thereby indicating physiological effects caused by the time point of sampling. Conclusion: Prediction of potential unintended effects of GM-food/feed by transcriptome based profiling of intestinal tissue presents a novel approach to complement classical toxicological testing procedures. Including the detection of alterations in signaling pathways in toxicity testing procedures may enhance the confidence in outcomes of toxicological trials. In this study, no significant GM-related changes in intestinal expression profiles were found in rats fed GM-maize MON810. Relevant alterations of

  8. Tank 21 and Tank 24 Blend and Feed Study: Blending Times, Settling Times, and Transfers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 (micro)m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion ( 60 days) settling times in Tank 21.

  9. Lessons from the feeding infants and toddlers study in North America: what children eat, and implications for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra, Jose M; Deming, Denise; Dattilo, Anne; Reidy, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The latest exhaustive survey of dietary patterns in infants from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) in North America documents and quantifies current trends in infant feeding. These include higher than generally recommended energy, protein, and saturated fat intakes. The majority of infants are bottle fed at some point in their first year of life, and their weaning diet often includes low intakes of fruits and vegetables, with high starchy, rather than green or yellow, vegetables. Early introduction of solids, use of cow's milk prior to 1 year of age, and high juice intake in the first 2 years - all less desirable diet practices - are improving, but are still prevalent. More preschoolers are likely to get sweets or sweetened beverages than a serving of fruit or a vegetable on a given day. These food intake patterns mimic the adult American diet and are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood and later life. But more importantly, these patterns appear to be set as early as 18 months of age, and by 20 months of age, they mimic the adult diet. Despite increase in total energy intake, and greater variety of foods, the basic characteristics of macronutrient intake distribution and food group contribution of energy to the diet before 2 years of age remain remarkably stable and similar to the family table. Obesity prevention needs to include specific targets in terms of breastfeeding and adequate formula feeding, as well as appropriate introduction of weaning foods with goals of changing the inadequate patterns documented in the FITS. These interventions will also require addressing parent and caregiver behaviors, including attending to hunger satiety cues (responsive feeding), and shaping early food preferences. This needs to be done starting at birth, in the first months of life. Early intervention offers a unique and potentially efficacious opportunity to shape the future dietary patterns of the next generation. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger

  10. Infant feeding experiences among teen mothers in North Carolina: Findings from a mixed-methods study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samandari Ghazaleh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent mothers in the U.S. are much less likely to initiate breastfeeding than older mothers, and teens who do initiate breastfeeding tend to breastfeed for shorter durations. The purpose of this mixed-methods study is to investigate breastfeeding practices, barriers and facilitators among adolescent mothers ages 17 and younger. Methods Quantitative descriptive analyses are conducted using data from the North Carolina Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS. The population-based sample comprises 389 teens ages 13-17 giving birth to a live born infant in North Carolina in 2000 - 2005 and in 2007. Qualitative analyses are based on in-depth interviews with 22 Black, White and Hispanic teen mothers residing in rural and urban areas of North Carolina conducted between November 2007 and February 2009. Results In quantitative analyses, 52% (196 of 389 of North Carolina teen mothers initiated breastfeeding, but half of those who initiated breastfeeding (92/196 stopped within the first month postpartum. Hispanic teens (44/52 or 89% were much more likely than Black (61/159 or 41% or White teens (87/164 or 52% to initiate breastfeeding and to continue for a longer duration. Nearly sixty two percent (29/52 of Hispanic respondents breastfed for greater than four weeks as compared to 16% (29/159 of Black respondents and 26% (39/164 of White respondents. Common barriers to breastfeeding initiation and continuation included not liking breastfeeding, returning to school, nipple pain, and insufficient milk. Qualitative data provided context for the quantitative findings, elucidating the barriers and facilitators to breastfeeding from the teens' perspective and insight into the ways in which breastfeeding support to teens could be enhanced. Conclusions The large number of adolescents ceasing breastfeeding within the first month points to the need for more individualized follow-up after hospital discharge in the first few days

  11. A practical study on the feasibility of alpha and gamma-tocopherol quantification for distinguishing Iberian pig feeding systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Casco, J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to test the feasibility of using alpha and gamma-tocopherol quantification in fat and muscle to establish a correct classification of Iberian pigs according to their feeding background in practical situations. Samples were obtained over three different seasons from the four categories of pigs described in the Industry Quality Policy (FREE-OUT “bellota”; FREE-OUT-FEED “recebo”; FEEDOUT “campo”; and FEED-IN “cebo”. Linear discriminant functions were calculated with data obtained from seasons 1 and 2 and validated. The classification of fat and muscle samples from season 3 in the four feeding categories according to the calculated discriminant functions achieved an average of 76% success rate in distinguishing the true origin of pig samples. Quantification in muscle seemed to have higher prediction ability. Regression equations to quantify weight gained depending on the gamma-tocopherol concentration had higher R2 values for muscle than for fat (R2= 0.81 vs. 0.62. Merging of the feeding categories established by the Quality Policy could raise the accuracy of the alpha and gamma-tocopherol quantification method to up to between 89% and 98%.Este estudio se llevó a cabo para comprobar la fiabilidad del uso de la cuantificación de alfa y gamma-tocoferol en grasa y músculo para establecer una clasificación correcta de los cerdos ibéricos de acuerdo a su alimentación. Las muestras se obtuvieron durante tres campañas diferentes procedentes de cuatro categorías de cerdos según se describe en la norma de calidad (FREE-OUT: «bellota», FREEOUT- FEED: «recebo», FEED-OUT: «campo» y FEED-IN: «cebo». Se calcularon funciones discriminantes con los datos obtenidos de las campañas 1 y 2 y se validaron. La clasificación de las muestras de grasa y músculo obtenidas de la tercera campaña en las cuatro categorías de acuerdo a las funciones discriminantes calculadas alcanzó un rango medio de éxito del 76

  12. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  13. Studying the elimination of pathogenic agents in laboratory animals feed by use of nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahhosseini, G.; Raisali, G.

    2002-01-01

    Laboratory animals are being used all around the world for different kinds of experiments in biological and medical sciences and related fields for the purposes such as prevention, control, diagnosis and treatment of various diseases in livestock, poultry, human, reproduction, breeding, etc. This is very important to keep in the breeding and reproduction environment of laboratory animals, pathogenic microorganisms as low as possible or completely remove them. The most prevailing and important way of such contamination is through feeding laboratory animals. In this research work, it is tried to use gamma radiation as a useful nuclear technique for decrease or resolve the problem. Two kinds of standard forms of diets consumed by rabbit and guinea pig in the form of small pellets and by mouse, rat and hamster in the form of big pellets (with different feed formula) and also two kinds of additive food i.e. dry milk and vitamin C have been examined. Un-irradiated samples have been used for control. Total of 226 samples were irradiated, among which optimum doses were found 25 kilo Gray for both small and big pellets, 18 kilo Gray for dry milk. Since there was not any contamination in vitamin C un-irradiated sample, irradiation was done only to observe the effect of gamma radiation on vitamin C compounds. (Author)

  14. Study on evaluation of silage from pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit residue as livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Nisarani Kollurappa Shivakumar; Vallesha, Naglapura Chandrashekara; Awachat, Vaibhav Bhagvan; Anandan, Samireddypalli; Pal, Din Taran; Prasad, Cadaba Srinivasa

    2015-03-01

    Pineapple is a commercially important fruit crop grown in Asian and African countries. Pineapple fruit residue (PFR) accounts for more than 65% of the processed fruits, and its disposal is a major problem due to its high moisture and sugar content predisposing it to fungal growth and spoilage. Silage technique was adopted to address this problem, and the PFR silage was evaluated for its feeding value. It was observed that on 15th day, the pH of PFR silage was 4.2-4.3 and lactic acid content was 6-8% (DM basis). Combination of 4 parts leafy crown and 1 part peels/pomace was found very ideal to achieve moisture content of 65-70% and produced a good quality silage with minimum fungal count (Pineapple fruit residue that was hitherto wasted was successfully converted to silage and was found to be a valuable alternative to conventional green fodder. Ensiling of PFR not only improved the economics of feeding but also helped in overcoming the disposal problem.

  15. Role of Social Support in Improving Infant Feeding Practices in Western Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukuria, Altrena G; Martin, Stephanie L; Egondi, Thaddeus; Bingham, Allison; Thuita, Faith M

    2016-03-01

    We designed and tested an intervention that used dialogue-based groups to engage infants' fathers and grandmothers to support optimal infant feeding practices. The study's aim was to test the effectiveness of increased social support by key household influencers on improving mothers' complementary feeding practices. Using a quasi-experimental design, we enrolled mothers, fathers, and grandmothers from households with infants 6-9 months old in 3 rural communities (1 intervention arm with fathers, 1 intervention arm with grandmothers, and 1 comparison arm) in western Kenya. We engaged 79 grandmothers and 85 fathers in separate dialogue groups for 6 months from January to July 2012. They received information on health and nutrition and were encouraged to provide social support to mothers (defined as specific physical actions in the past 2 weeks or material support actions in the past month). We conducted a baseline household survey in December 2011 in the 3 communities and returned to the same households in July 2012 for an endline survey. We used a difference-in-difference (DiD) approach and logistic regression to evaluate the intervention. We surveyed 554 people at baseline (258 mothers, 165 grandmothers, and 131 fathers) and 509 participants at endline. The percentage of mothers who reported receiving 5 or more social support actions (of a possible 12) ranged from 58% to 66% at baseline in the 3 groups. By endline, the percentage had increased by 25.8 percentage points (P=.002) and 32.7 percentage points (P=.001) more in the father and the grandmother intervention group, respectively, than in the comparison group. As the number of social support actions increased in the 3 groups, the likelihood of a mother reporting that she had fed her infant the minimum number of meals in the past 24 hours also increased between baseline and endline (odds ratio [OR], 1.14; confidence interval [CI], 1.00 to 1.30; P=.047). When taking into account the interaction effects of

  16. Strategy of technical innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ga Jong

    1990-12-01

    This book deals with policy of scientific technique and technical innovation such as research for development and types of technical innovation, historical development and process of technical innovation, economic growth, technology change and investment for research and development, structure and form of technical transfer with the meaning process, from, structure and theory, economic growth and investment of research and development with experiential analysis and case study on strategy of technical innovation in electron and fine chemical industry.

  17. New insights into the structure and composition of technical lignins : A comparative characterisation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constant, Sandra|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/374650519; Wienk, Hans L J|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/203884884; Frissen, Augustinus E.; Peinder, Peter De|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325810818; Boelens, Rolf|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070151407; Van Es, Daan S.; Grisel, Ruud J H; Weckhuysen, Bert M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Huijgen, Wouter J J; Gosselink, Richard J A; Bruijnincx, Pieter C A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/33799529X

    2016-01-01

    Detailed insight into the structure and composition of industrial (technical) lignins is needed to devise efficient thermal, bio- or chemocatalytic valorisation strategies. Six such technical lignins covering three main industrial pulping methods (Indulin AT Kraft, Protobind 1000 soda lignin and

  18. New insights into the structure and composition of technical lignins: a comparative characterisation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Constant, Sandra; Wienk, Hans L.J.; Frissen, A.E.; Peinder, de Peter; Boelens, Rolf; Es, van D.S.; Grisel, Ruud J.H.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; Huijgen, W.J.J.; Gosselink, R.J.A.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Detailed insight into the structure and composition of industrial (technical) lignins is needed to devise efficient thermal, bio- or chemocatalytic valorisation strategies. Six such technical lignins covering three main industrial pulping methods (Indulin AT Kraft, Protobind 1000 soda lignin and

  19. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  20. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators

    KAUST Repository

    Siddiqui, Amber; Lehmann, S.; Bucs, Szilard; Fresquet, M.; Fel, L.; Prest, E.I.E.C.; Ogier, J.; Schellenberg, C.; van Loosdrecht, M.C.M.; Kruithof, J.C.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems

  1. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 1. Length-weight relation and condition factor under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Devi, C.B.L.; Kutty, M.K.

    Length-weight relation and earthworm feeding conditions under different levels for @iPenaeus indicus@@ and @iMetapenaeus dobsoni@@ were estimated. Length-weight exponent in both species was unaffected by the feeding levels and the consequent...

  2. Studies on the growth of penaeid prawns: 2. Growth of @iPenaeus indicus@@ under different levels of feeding

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.R.S.; Iyer, H.K.; Balasubramanian, T.; Kutty, M.K.

    @iPenaeus indicus@@ was subjected to four different levels of feeding with live earthworm. The growth increments irrespective of the feeding levels did not show any decreasing trend throughout the experimental period. This is probably because...

  3. CSCW Challenges in Large-Scale Technical Projects - a case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates CSCW aspects of large-scale technical projects based on a case study of a specific Danish engineering company and uncovers s challenges to CSCW applications in this setting. The company is responsible for management and supervision of one of the worlds largest tunnel....... The initial qualitative analysis identified a number of bottlenecks in daily work, where support for cooperation is needed. Examples of bottlenecks are: sharing materials, issuing tasks, and keeping track of task status. Grounded in the analysis, cooperative design workshops based on scenarios of future work...

  4. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (Ppistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  5. Seismic Qualification of Auxiliary Feed Water Control Valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, K. M.; Jang, J. B.; Kim, J. K.; Suh, Y. P.

    2006-01-01

    Although domestic nuclear power industry has almost accomplished technical independence, Auxiliary Feed Water Control Valve (AFWCV) is still depending on import. In order to jump to advanced nation in nuclear power industry, it is very important to achieve technical independence in designing and manufacturing AFWCV. At last, AFWCV is self-manufactured using the domestic technology under the financial support of the government. Therefore, the seismic qualification is carried out to verify the safety and operability of AFWCV against the earthquake in this study

  6. Tracing the History of Technical Communication from 1850-2000: Plus a Series of Survey Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Earl E.

    This research focuses on the history of technical communication since 1850, with a specific focus on the technological changes that occurred between 1900 and 1950. This paper also discusses the development of professional technical communication organizations and the development of technical communication programs at the bachelor, masters, and…

  7. Infant feeding and components of the metabolic syndrome: findings from the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, D.A.; Riddoch, C.J.; Page, A.S.

    2005-01-01

    , pubertal stage, body mass index, height, maternal and paternal education, income, smoking, and body mass index the mean systolic blood pressure of children who had ever been breast fed was 1.7 mm Hg (95% CI -3.0 to -0.5) lower than those who had never been exclusively breast fed. There was a dose....... Conclusions: The magnitude of the association, its independence of important confounding factors, and the dose-response suggest that exclusive breast feeding is causally associated with reduced systolic blood pressure. The magnitude of the effect we found with blood pressure is comparable to the published...... effects of salt restriction and physical activity on blood pressure in adult populations, suggesting that it is of public health importance....

  8. ENGINEERING STUDY FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY (ETF) SECONDARY WASTE TREATMENT OF PROJECTED FUTURE WASTE FEEDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    This report documents an engineering study conducted to evaluate alternatives for treating secondary waste in the secondary treatment train (STT) of the Hanford Site 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). The study evaluates ETF STT treatment alternatives and recommends preferred alternatives for meeting the projected future missions of the ETF. The preferred alternative(s) will process projected future ETF influents to produce a solid waste acceptable for final disposal on the Hanford Site. The main text of this report summarizes the ETF past and projected operations, lists the assumptions about projected operations that provide the basis for the engineering evaluation, and summarizes the evaluation process. The evaluation process includes identification of available modifications to the current ETF process, screens those modifications for technical viability, evaluates the technically viable alternatives, and provides conclusions and recommendations based on that evaluation

  9. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reznar, Melissa M; Carlson, John S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Pavangadkar, Amol S; Scott, Marci K; Hoerr, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine the parent feeding guide Eat Healthy, Your Children are Watching, A Parent's Guide to Raising a Healthy Eater. An interdisciplinary planning team developed a five-topic, multimedia, interactive guide addressing the strategies most associated with improved diet quality and weight status of children aged 3 to 5 years. Research staff conducted iterative phases of field testing, reformatting, in-depth interviews, and materials testing with Head Start or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education caregivers (N=38) of children aged 3 to 5 years during 2011 and 2012. Convergence of feedback from caregivers' interviews and each booklet's attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction subscale scores were used to determine and affirm areas for improvement. Lower than desired attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction scores (optimal score=5) in 2011 and too much text resulted in revisions and reformatting that improved scores from 3.8 to 4.9 in 2012. The revision of materials to reflect less text, additional white space, checklists of mealtime behaviors, and learning activities for preschool-aged children resulted in dramatically improved materials and greater acceptance by parents, as shown by both quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Formative evaluation procedures involving the use of data-based decision making allowed for the development of intervention materials that met the unique needs of the population served. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. NODC Standard Format Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975-1980): Specimen and Feeding Studies (F031) (NODC Accession 0014154)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Marine Bird Specimen and Feeding Studies (F031) is one of a group of seven datasets related to Marine Birds from Coastal Alaska and Puget Sound Data (1975 -1980)....

  11. Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST): Aerial Survey in Chukchi and Beaufort Seas conducted from 2007-08-23 to 2011-09-16 (NCEI Accession 0131425)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Bowhead Whale Feeding Ecology Study (BOWFEST) was initiated in May 2007 through an Interagency Agreement between the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM)...

  12. Technical solution for data collection, data safety and data privacy legislation: experiences from the SWEET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsander, Gun; Pellinat, Martin; Volk, Michael; Muller, Markus; Pinelli, Leonardo; Magnen, Agnes; Danne, Thomas; Aschemeier, Bärbel; de Beaufort, Carine

    2012-09-01

    One of the most important tasks of the SWEET study is benchmarking the data collected. Information on the occurrence of the disease of diabetes, the treatment, and their outcomes in children from the different member states of European Union (EU) is crucial. How the collection of data is realized is essential, concerning both the technical issues and the results. The creation of SWEET Centers of Reference (CoR), all over Europe will be facilitated by the access to safe data collection, where legal aspects and privacy are ascertained. To describe the rationale for- and the technical procedure in the data collection implementation, in the SWEET study. Selected data on all patients treated at SWEET CoR are collected. The SWEET project data collection and management system, consists of modular components for data collection, online data interchange, and a database for statistical analysis. The SWEET study and the organization of CoR aims for the goal of offering an updated, secure, and continuous evaluation of diabetes treatment regimens for all children with diabetes in Europe. To support this goal, an appropriate and secure data management system as described in this paper has been created. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The attitudes of technical-school students towards assessments and motivation for studying physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanivuk Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this paper was the analysis of the attitudes of the students of a secondary technical school towards assessments and motivation for studying physics. The research was conducted with the sample of462 first- and second-year students of several four-year course profiles in technical schools in Novi Sad and Subotica. Scaling was the used technique and the instrument was construed according to the five-point Likert scale for attitudes. The results show the following: (! the students have predominantly positive attitudes towards assessments in physics, the majority think that their grades are the result of their engagement, and only few students think that the subject teacher is responsible for their low grades, (2 the students are not sufficiently motivated for studying physics, (3 the attitudes of the students towards their grades affect their motivation for learning if they think that the teacher's assessments are not fair or the lessons are too big and complex. The paper ends with a suggestion that students' motivation for studying physics should be stimulated, and stresses the importance of assessments for motivation.

  14. Understanding the context for pet cat and dog feeding and exercising behaviour among pet owners in Ireland: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Downes, Martin J.; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T.; More, Simon J.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pet cat and dog obesity contributes to increased risk of several diseases, including cancer and diabetes mellitus as well as a worsening of orthopaedic problems, and a reduction in survival rate. This study aims to develop a better understanding of cat and dog owners’ self-reported beliefs and factors that influence owner behaviour around feeding and exercising their pet cat or dog, as there is a lack of in-depth understanding in this area. Seven focus group discussions, with 43 pe...

  15. A study on an assessment method for improving technical specifications using system dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Jae, Moo Sung

    2005-01-01

    Limiting Conditions for Operations (LCOs) are evaluated dynamically using the tool of system dynamics. The LCOs define the Allowed Outage Times (AOTs) and the actions to be taken if the repair cannot be completed within the AOT. System dynamics has been developed to analyze the dynamic reliability of a complicated system. System dynamics using Vensim software have been applied to LCOs assessment for an example system, the auxiliary feed water system of a reference nuclear power plant. Analysis results of both full power operation and shutdown operation have been compared for a measure of core damage frequency. The framework developed in this study has been shown to be very flexible in that it can be applied to assess LCOs quantitatively under any operational context of the TS in FSAR

  16. Case study on the use of PSA methods: Assessment of technical specifications for the reactor protection system instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    This case study presents a methodology for the probabilistic evaluation of alternative plant technical specifications regarding system surveillance frequencies and out-of-service times. The methodology is applied to the reactor protection systems of a 4 loop BWR-RESAR-3S type nuclear power plant. The effect of the statistical characteristics of the system on the relative comparison of various sets of technical specifications is examined through sensitivity studies and an uncertainty analysis. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Technical Analysis Feasibility Study on Smart Microgrid System in Sekolah Tinggi Teknik PLN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyanto, Heri

    2018-02-01

    Nowadays application of new and renewable energy as main resource of power plant has greatly increased. High penetration of renewable energy into the grid will influence the quality and reliability of the electricity system, due to the intermittent characteristic of new and renewable energy resources. Smart grid or microgrid technology has the ability to deal with this intermittent characteristic especially if these renewable energy resources integrated to grid in large scale, so it can improve the reliability and efficiency of the grid. We plan to implement smart microgrid system at Sekolah Tinggi Teknik PLN as a pilot project. Before the pilot project start, the feasibility study must be conducted. In this feasibility study, the renewable energy resources and load characteristic at the site will be measured. Then the technical aspect of this feasibility study will be analyzed. This paper explains that analysis of ths feasibility study.

  18. Correlates of non-technical skills in surgery: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Brigid M; Harbeck, Emma; Kang, Evelyn; Steel, Catherine; Fairweather, Nicole; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2017-01-30

    Communication and teamwork failures have frequently been identified as the root cause of adverse events and complications in surgery. Few studies have examined contextual factors that influence teams' non-technical skills (NTS) in surgery. The purpose of this prospective study was to identify and describe correlates of NTS. We assessed NTS of teams and professional role at 2 hospitals using the revised 23-item Non-TECHnical Skills (NOTECHS) and its subscales (communication, situational awareness, team skills, leadership and decision-making). Over 6 months, 2 trained observers evaluated teams' NTS using a structured form. Interobserver agreement across hospitals ranged from 86% to 95%. Multiple regression models were developed to describe associations between operative time, team membership, miscommunications, interruptions, and total NOTECHS and subscale scores. We observed 161 surgical procedures across 8 teams. The total amount of explained variance in NOTECHS and its 5 subscales ranged from 14% (adjusted R 2 0.12, p<0.001) to 24% (adjusted R 2 0.22, p<0.001). In all models, inverse relationships between the total number of miscommunications and total number of interruptions and teams' NTS were observed. Miscommunications and interruptions impact on team NTS performance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Technical issues relating to the statistical parametric mapping of brain SPECT studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, R.L.; Cordato, N.; Hutton, B.F.; Lau, Y.H.; Evans, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) is a software tool designed for the statistical analysis of functional neuro images, specifically Positron Emission Tomography and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, and more recently SPECT. This review examines some problems associated with the analysis of SPECT. A comparison of a patient group with normal studies revealed factors that could influence results, some that commonly occur, others that require further exploration. To optimise the differences between two groups of subjects, both spatial variability and differences in global activity must be minimised. The choice and effectiveness of co registration method and approach to normalisation of activity concentration can affect the optimisation. A small number of subject scans were identified as possessing truncated data resulting in edge effects that could adversely influence the analysis. Other problems included unusual areas of significance possibly related to reconstruction methods and the geometry associated with nonparallel collimators. Areas of extra cerebral significance are a point of concern - and may result from scatter effects, or mis registration. Difficulties in patient positioning, due to postural limitations, can lead to resolution differences. SPM has been used to assess areas of statistical significance arising from these technical factors, as opposed to areas of true clinical significance when comparing subject groups. This contributes to a better understanding of the effects of technical factors so that these may be eliminated, minimised, or incorporated in the study design. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. Equivalence testing using existing reference data: An example with genetically modified and conventional crops in animal feeding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Voet, Hilko; Goedhart, Paul W; Schmidt, Kerstin

    2017-11-01

    An equivalence testing method is described to assess the safety of regulated products using relevant data obtained in historical studies with assumedly safe reference products. The method is illustrated using data from a series of animal feeding studies with genetically modified and reference maize varieties. Several criteria for quantifying equivalence are discussed, and study-corrected distribution-wise equivalence is selected as being appropriate for the example case study. An equivalence test is proposed based on a high probability of declaring equivalence in a simplified situation, where there is no between-group variation, where the historical and current studies have the same residual variance, and where the current study is assumed to have a sample size as set by a regulator. The method makes use of generalized fiducial inference methods to integrate uncertainties from both the historical and the current data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. 75 FR 71671 - Draft Report on the Technical Study of the Sofa Super Store Fire-South Carolina, June 18, 2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...-0532-01] Draft Report on the Technical Study of the Sofa Super Store Fire--South Carolina, June 18... public comments on the draft report of its Technical Study of the Sofa Super Store Fire--South Carolina... completed a draft report of their technical study and the principal findings are summarized in this report...

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Intermediate Site Greater Occipital Nerve Infiltration: A Technical Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipfel, Jonathan; Kastler, Adrian; Tatu, Laurent; Behr, Julien; Kechidi, Rachid; Kastler, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Two studies recently reported that computed tomography (CT) guided infiltration of the greater occipital nerve at its intermediate site allows a high efficacy rate with long-lasting pain relief following procedure in occipital neuralgia and in various craniofacial pain syndromes. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the technical feasibility and safety of ultrasound-guided intermediate site greater occipital nerve infiltration. Retrospective study. This study was conducted at the imaging department of a 1,409 bed university hospital. Local institutional review board approval was obtained and written consent was waived. In this retrospective study, 12 patients suffering from refractory occipital neuralgia or craniofacial pain syndromes were included between April and October 2014. They underwent a total of 21 ultrasound-guided infiltrations. Infiltration of the greater occipital nerve was performed at the intermediate site of the greater occipital nerve, at its first bend between obliqus capitis inferior and semispinalis capitis muscles with local anestetics and cortivazol. Technical success was defined as satisfactory diffusion of added iodinated contrast media in the fatty space between these muscles depicted on control CT scan. We also reported first data of immediate block test efficacy and initial clinical efficacy at 7 days, one month, and 3 months, defined by a decrease of at least 50% of visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Technical success rate was 95.24%. Patients suffered from right unilateral occipital neuralgia in 3 cases, left unilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, bilateral occipital neuralgia in 2 cases, migraine in one case, cervicogenic headache in one case, tension-type headache in 2 cases, and cluster headache in one case. Block test efficacy was found in 93.3% (14/15) cases. Clinical efficacy was found in 80% of cases at 7 days, in 66.7% of cases at one month and in 60% of cases at 3 months. No major complications were noted. Some of the

  3. Studies on the control of mold and its toxin in indirect foods(animal feeds) by radiation technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Duck Hwa; Shim, Won Bo; Cho, Sik Bee; Nimakashim; Song, Jung Un

    2010-04-01

    For determining susceptibility of the hazard fungi in feed to radiation, we developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mycotoxin free feed and reconfirm liquid chromatography combined with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection of mycotoxin. The growth of aflatoxigenic and ochratoxigenic fungi in the feeds were completely inhibited at > 3 kGy of both radiations, and the zearalenone producing fungi in the feeds was controlled at > 5 kGy of both radiations. The growth and mycotoxin productivity of three fungi (aflatoxigenic, ochratoxigenic and zearalenone producing fungi) were fully controlled at > 7 kGy of gamma-irradiation. This means that the growth and mycotoxin productivity of fungi in feed could be fully inhibited by gamma-irradiation at > 7 kGy and the safety feed also can produce and preserve by the proper radiation level and hygienic management of feed factory and livestock raiser

  4. Feeding styles, parenting styles and snacking behaviour in children attending primary schools in multiethnic neighbourhoods: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu; van de Gaar, Vivian M; Jansen, Wilma; Mieloo, Cathelijne L; van Grieken, Amy; Raat, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding styles and parenting styles are associated with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour and whether the associations differ according to children’s ethnic background. Method Cross-sectional data from the population-based ‘Water Campaign’ study were used. Parents (n=644) of primary school children (6–13 years) completed a questionnaire covering sociodemographic characteristics, feeding style dimensions (‘control over eating’, ‘emotional feeding’, ‘encouragement to eat’ and ‘instrumental feeding’), parenting style dimensions (‘involvement’ and ‘strictness’) and children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine whether feeding styles and parenting styles were associated with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour. Result Overall, children whose parents had a higher extent of ‘control over eating’ had a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once per day (OR, 0.57; 95% CI 0.42 to 0.76). Further stratified analysis showed that ‘control over eating’ was associated with less unhealthy snacking behaviour only in children with a Dutch (OR, 0.37; 95% CI 0.20 to 0.68) or a Moroccan/Turkish (OR, 0.44; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.77) ethnic background. ‘Encouragement to eat’ was associated with a lower odds of eating unhealthy snacks every day in children with a Dutch ethnic background only (OR, 0.48; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.90). ‘Instrumental feeding’ was associated with a higher odds of eating unhealthy snacks more than once a day in children with a Moroccan/Turkish ethnic background only (OR, 1.43; 95% CI 1.01 to 2.04). Conclusion Our results suggest that ‘control over eating’ may be associated with less unhealthy snack consumption in children. The associations of feeding styles and parenting styles with children’s unhealthy snacking behaviour differed between children with different ethnic

  5. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Allison N

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1 prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2 use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3 be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1 being nagged by children’s food requests, 2 being

  6. Favoreciendo la alimentación independiente: Estudio de un caso Favoring the independent feeding: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carrera Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el desarrollo de las actividades de la vida diaria de la forma más autónoma e independiente posible debería ser prioritario en la valoración y cuidado de las personas dependientes. Objetivo: detección y corrección de los problemas que evitan la alimentación autónoma e independiente en una usuaria de centro residencial. Método: estudio de caso de base cualitativa mediante observación participante. Desarrollo: mayo-junio de 2010. Resultados: se observaron los siguientes problemas que dificultan la correcta alimentación: dificultad en la movilización de brazos y manos para llevar la comida a la boca, nerviosismo y ansiedad durante las comidas y sobreprotección de los cuidadores. Al final del periodo de estudio nuestra usuaria consigue realizar las comidas de forma autónoma e independiente. Discusión: una valoración individualizada puede poner de manifiesto capacidades desconocidas en una persona. Tras la evaluación inicial, se detectaron los problemas que impedían la alimentación de forma independiente de nuestra usuaria y se estableció un plan de acción consensuado con ella. Se apreció un cambio sustancial: no solo era capaz de realizar una comida por sí misma con la mínima ayuda indispensable, sino que aumentó su autoestima.Introduction: the development of the Daily Life Activities in the most autonomous and independent way ever possible should be a priority in the evaluation and care of the dependent people. Objective: detection and correction of the problems that avoid the autonomous and independent feeding in a user of our residential center. Method: Case Study with qualitative base by means of participant observation. Development: may-june 2010. Results: the problems observed that impede the correct feeding were:difficult movements of arms and hands to take the food to the mouth, nervousness and anxiety during the meals and overprotection of the carers. At the end of the period of study our user managed

  7. Study of Some Technical Problems in Nuclear Emulsions; Estudio de algunos problemas tecnicos en emulsiones fotonucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrega Tornero, M P

    1967-07-01

    A methodological study of various technical aspects of photographic emulsions is presented. This study enables the emulsion method to be used in certain physical problems, and can be summarized under the following headings. 1) Variation of different ionization indices with the degree of development. A measure of the degree of development is introduced. This measure called the {alpha} -mark, is based on the average width of tracks due to {alpha}-particles. Using the {alpha}-mack the influence of several factors such as the duration, temperature and concentration of the developing liquid are investigated. A comparative study of the sensitivity of llford C{sub 2} and K{sub 2} emulsions is given. (Author) 9 refs.

  8. Technical program to study the benefits of nonlinear analysis methods in LWR component designs. Technical report TR-3723-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, P.P.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of the study program to assess the benefits of nonlinear analysis methods in Light Water Reactor (LWR) component designs. The current study reveals that despite its increased cost and other complexities, nonlinear analysis is a practical and valuable tool for the design of LWR components, especially under ASME Level D service conditions (faulted conditions) and it will greatly assist in the evaluation of ductile fracture potential of pressure boundary components. Since the nonlinear behavior is generally a local phenomenon, the design of complex components can be accomplished through substructuring isolated localized regions and evaluating them in detail using nonlinear analysis methods

  9. Status of feasibility study for various technical options of FBR systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Yoshio

    2000-01-01

    JNC (Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute) has started a new research project of feasibility studies (F/S) for a wide variety option of fast breeder reactor (FBR) and related fuel cycle in order to develop an economically competitive FBR cycle system fro commercialization. JNC and the electric untilities in Japan have established a new organization in JNC to perform the F/S since July 1, 1999. The organization has undertaken feasibility studies (F/S) in order to determine promising FBR cycle concepts and define necessary RandD tasks. The long-term targets of commercialized FBR cycle system are set as ensuring safety, economic competitiveness relative to future LWRs, efficient utilization of resources, reduction in environmental burden, and enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation. This paper describes the progress of design studies for a wide variety of technical options of FBR plants in the framework of the F/S. We make efforts towards considering all key issues so as not to fail to notice the best concept in a commercialized stage. In the study of technical options, the identified coolant types are sodium, heavy metal (lead and lead-bismuth), gas (carbon dioxide and helium ) and water (boiling water, pressurized water and supercritical water). The classified types of fuel are mixed oxide, nitride and metal. Design studies of small size modular plant concepts are also performed. We study many reactor concepts in combination with a coolant type and a fuel type, understand characteristics of each reactor concept based on our experience and an extensive survey of literature, and make a draft design of each reactor concept for rough estimation of construction costs. We also check how far the concept accomplishes each index (safety, economy, resource utilization, etc.) of design requirements, and will select several promising reactor concepts. (author)

  10. The Development of Technical and Vocational Education in Malaysia--A Case Study in Quality Improvement. Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hee, Tieng Fok

    The economic profile of Malaysia has changed from an economy mainly based on agriculture and the production of tin ore to a more balanced economy with continuing growth in the manufacturing and industrial sectors. Educational programs need to be upgraded and improved, particularly the direction and development of technical and vocational education…

  11. The Development of Technical and Vocational Education in India--A Case Study in Quality Improvement. Case Studies on Technical and Vocational Education in Asia and the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Arun K.

    Education has a place of high priority on India's development agenda. The technical/vocational education (TVE) system is multisectoral with each ministry responsible for labor force development in that sector. The TVE programs in the formal education system are either state delivered or financed. The higher secondary vocational education program…

  12. Study of pneumatic hydropulse filter for feed clarification in reprocessing plant head-end

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, I.A.; Shah, B.V.; Salunke, S.U.; Kumar, S.V.

    1991-01-01

    A Pneumatic Hydropulse (PHP) Filter with sintered stainless steel cartridges was tested for suitability in reprocessing plant head-end filtration. The filter was tested with simulated slurry containing between 25 and 400 ppm of calcium carbonate particulates in the size ranges 45 to 53 micron and 53 to 75 micron at varying flow rates. Procedures were developed for dislodging the layer of solids on the cartidridges and regenerating the filter remotely. Application of 5.4 kg/cm 2 air to the dome of the filter during regenaration was found to be optimum for dislodging the particulate layer on the cartridges. No difficulties due to choking of the filter cartridges were experienced during operation and good regeneration by remote operation was possible. Approach velocity at the filter medium was about 6 cm/min. The efficiency of regeneration was better than 90%. Filtration efficiency was found to be better than 90%. Solid loading capacity was found to increase with increase of particle size and feed concentration. (author). 2 figs., 10 tabs

  13. Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racette, Susan B; Lin, Xiaobo; Lefevre, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Most, Marlene M; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterol supplementation of 2 g/d is recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program to reduce LDL cholesterol. However, the effects of different intakes of phytosterol on cholesterol metabolism are uncertain. We evaluated the effects of 3 phytosterol intakes on whole-body cholesterol metabolism. In this placebo-controlled, crossover feeding trial, 18 adults received a phytosterol-deficient diet (50 mg phytosterols/2000 kcal) plus beverages supplemented with 0, 400, or 2000 mg phytosterols/d for 4 wk each, in random order. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen; breakfast and dinner on weekdays were eaten on site. Primary outcomes were fecal cholesterol excretion and intestinal cholesterol absorption measured with stable-isotope tracers and serum lipoprotein concentrations. Phytosterol intakes (diet plus supplements) averaged 59, 459, and 2059 mg/d during the 3 diet periods. Relative to the 59-mg diet, the 459- and 2059-mg phytosterol intakes significantly (P phytosterol dose (-8.9 +/- 2.3%); a trend was observed with the 459-mg/d dose (-5.0 +/- 2.1%; P = 0.077). Dietary phytosterols in moderate and high doses favorably alter whole-body cholesterol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner. A moderate phytosterol intake (459 mg/d) can be obtained in a healthy diet without supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00860054.

  14. Dose effects of dietary phytosterols on cholesterol metabolism: a controlled feeding study123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaobo; Lefevre, Michael; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Most, Marlene M; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E

    2010-01-01

    Background: Phytosterol supplementation of 2 g/d is recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program to reduce LDL cholesterol. However, the effects of different intakes of phytosterol on cholesterol metabolism are uncertain. Objective: We evaluated the effects of 3 phytosterol intakes on whole-body cholesterol metabolism. Design: In this placebo-controlled, crossover feeding trial, 18 adults received a phytosterol-deficient diet (50 mg phytosterols/2000 kcal) plus beverages supplemented with 0, 400, or 2000 mg phytosterols/d for 4 wk each, in random order. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen; breakfast and dinner on weekdays were eaten on site. Primary outcomes were fecal cholesterol excretion and intestinal cholesterol absorption measured with stable-isotope tracers and serum lipoprotein concentrations. Results: Phytosterol intakes (diet plus supplements) averaged 59, 459, and 2059 mg/d during the 3 diet periods. Relative to the 59-mg diet, the 459- and 2059-mg phytosterol intakes significantly (P phytosterol dose (−8.9 ± 2.3%); a trend was observed with the 459-mg/d dose (−5.0 ± 2.1%; P = 0.077). Conclusions: Dietary phytosterols in moderate and high doses favorably alter whole-body cholesterol metabolism in a dose-dependent manner. A moderate phytosterol intake (459 mg/d) can be obtained in a healthy diet without supplementation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00860054. PMID:19889819

  15. Post Feed-in Scheme Photovoltaic System Feasibility Evaluation in Italy: Sicilian Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Squatrito

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to national energy policies, over recent years the Italian photovoltaic (PV sector has undergone an extraordinary growth, also affecting the primary sector. In this context, Mediterranean greenhouses are well-adapted to photovoltaic systems because they represent one of the most energy-intensive sectors in agriculture. The Italian feed-in scheme ended at the beginning of 2013, making it necessary to investigate the feasibility of photovoltaic systems devoid of any electricity production-related incentives. In this paper, production cost and profitability analyses of photovoltaic electricity have been conducted, considering Mediterranean solar greenhouses in which, thanks to net metering, all the electricity produced by photovoltaic panels is self-consumed. Our results showed that grid parity is already reached for Sicilian PV systems with a capacity greater than 50 kW. Moreover, net present value, internal rate of return and discounted payback time all demonstrate the high economic convenience of all the photovoltaic investments analyzed, due to the huge savings on energy expenditures.

  16. Study on the selection method of feed water heater safety valves in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jianzhong; Huang Chao; Hu Youqing

    2014-01-01

    The selection of the high pressure feedwater heater's safety valve usually follows the principle recommended by HEI standards in thermal power plant. However, the nuclear power plant's heaters generally need to accept a lots of drain from a moisture separator reheater (MSR). When the drain regulating valve was failure in fully open position, a large number of high pressure steam will directly goes into the heater. It make high-pressure heater have a risk of overpressure. Therefore, the safety valve selection of the heaters for nuclear power plants not only need to follow the HEI standards, but also need to check his capacity in certain special conditions. The paper established a calculation method to determine the static running point of the heaters based on characteristic equations of the feed water heater, drain regulating valve and steam extraction pipings, and energy balance principle. The method can be used to calculate the equilibrium pressure of various special running conditions, so further determine whether the capacity of the safety valve meets the requirements of safety and emissions. The method proposed in this paper not only can be used for nuclear power plants, can also be used for thermal power plants. (authors)

  17. Technical Quality of Root Fillings Performed by Undergraduate Students: A Radiographic Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Vukadinov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiographic technical quality of endodontic treatment performed by undergraduate students at the School of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Serbia. Materials and Methods. Electronic records of 220 patients treated by final-year undergraduate students during the school year 2011/2012 were examined, and the final sample consisted of 212 patients, 322 teeth, and 565 root canals. The criteria for overall radiographic adequacy of root canal fillings were defined as the presence of adequate length and density and absence of iatrogenic errors (ledge, fractured instrument, untreated canal, and apical transportation. Chi-square test was used to determine statistical significance between different parameters. Results. Adequate root canal fillings were found in 74.22% of the teeth. The percentage of root fillings with adequate length and density was 89.73% and 92.6%, respectively. Fractured instruments and ledges were present in 16 root canals (2.8%, while the presence of missed canal and apical transportation was observed in 2 cases, each (0.3%. Conclusions. Overall, the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by undergraduate students was satisfactory.

  18. Socio-technical issues and challenges in implementing safe patient handovers: insights from ethnographic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balka, Ellen; Tolar, Marianne; Coates, Shannon; Whitehouse, Sandra

    2013-12-01

    Ineffective handovers in patient care, including those where information loss occurs between care providers, have been identified as a risk to patient safety. Computerization of health information is often offered as a solution to improve the quality of care handovers and decrease adverse events related to patient safety. The purpose of this paper is to broaden our understanding of clinical handover as a patient safety issue, and to identify socio-technical issues which may come to bear on the success of computer based handover tools. Three in depth ethnographic case studies were undertaken. Field notes were transcribed and analyzed with the aid of qualitative data analysis software. Within case analysis was performed on each case, and subsequently, cross case analyses were performed. We identified five types of socio-technical issues which must be addressed if electronic handover tools are to succeed. The inter-dependencies of these issues are addressed in relation to arenas in which health care work takes place. We suggest that the contextual nature of information, ethical and medico-legal issues arising in relation to information handover, and issues related to data standards and system interoperability must be addressed if computerized health information systems are to achieve improvements in patient safety related to handovers in care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Study on feasible technical potential of coal to electricity in china

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Dexiang; Tan, Xiandong

    2017-01-01

    The control of bulk coal is one of the important work of air pollution control in China’s future. Existing research mainly focuses on the adaptability, economy, construction and renovation plan, and operation optimization of specific energy substitution utilization, and lacks the strategy research of long-term layout of energy substitution utilization in large area. This paper puts forward a technical potential prediction method of coal to electricity based on the thermal equivalent method, which is based on the characteristics of regional coal consumption, and combined with the trend of adaptability and economy of energy substitution utilization. Also, the paper calculates the comprehensive benefit of coal to electricity according to the varieties of energy consumption and pollutant emission level of unit energy consumption in China’s future. The research result shows that the development technical potential of coal to electricity in China is huge, about 1.8 trillion kWh, including distributed electric heating, heat pump and electric heating boiler, mainly located in North China, East China, and Northeast China. The implementation of coal to electricity has remarkable comprehensive benefits in energy conservation and emission reduction, and improvement of energy consumption safety level. Case study shows the rationality of the proposed method.

  20. Effects of kinesthetic versus visual imagery practice on two technical dance movements: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, Elizabeth Coker; McIsaac, Tara; Nilsen, Dawn

    2012-03-01

    Motor imagery is a type of mental practice that involves imagining the body performing a movement in the absence of motor output. Dance training traditionally incorporates mental practice techniques, but quantitative effects of motor imagery on the performance of dance movements are largely unknown. This pilot study compared the effects of two different imagery modalities, external visual imagery and kinesthetic imagery, on pelvis and hip kinematics during two technical dance movements, plié and sauté. Each of three female dance students (mean age = 19.7 years, mean years of training = 10.7) was assigned to use a type of imagery practice: visual imagery, kinesthetic imagery, or no imagery. Effects of motor imagery on peak external hip rotation varied by both modality and task. Kinesthetic imagery increased peak external hip rotation for pliés, while visual imagery increased peak external hip rotation for sautés. Findings suggest that the success of motor imagery in improving performance may be task-specific. Dancers may benefit from matching imagery modality to technical tasks in order to improve alignment and thereby avoid chronic injury.

  1. A unified approach to validation, reliability, and education study design for surgical technical skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Robert M; Hananel, David; Lawrenz, Frances

    2010-02-01

    To present modern educational psychology theory and apply these concepts to validity and reliability of surgical skills training and assessment. In a series of cross-disciplinary meetings, we applied a unified approach of behavioral science principles and theory to medical technical skills education given the recent advances in the theories in the field of behavioral psychology and statistics. While validation of the individual simulation tools is important, it is only one piece of a multimodal curriculum that in and of itself deserves examination and study. We propose concurrent validation throughout the design of simulation-based curriculum rather than once it is complete. We embrace the concept that validity and curriculum development are interdependent, ongoing processes that are never truly complete. Individual predictive, construct, content, and face validity aspects should not be considered separately but as interdependent and complementary toward an end application. Such an approach could help guide our acceptance and appropriate application of these exciting new training and assessment tools for technical skills training in medicine.

  2. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  3. Technical study of torsional transit-time magnetic pumping (TTMP) heating. Application for PETULA and large machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brossaud, J.; Lanier, R.; Perin, J.P.; Rey, G.

    1980-11-01

    This report describes a computer program which determines the RF current distributions and the corresponding voltage and dissipated powers in the conductors for the application of torsional TTMP heating. The results fit well with a Petula-scale experiments. Two prototype coils have been studied and tested for Petula. The application for JET points out the main technical problems which need further developments to ensure the technical feasibility of this method [fr

  4. Exclusive breastfeeding-Does it make a difference? : A longitudinal, prospective study of daily feeding practices, health and growth in a sample of Swedish infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aarts, Clara

    2001-01-01

    The concept of exclusive breastfeeding in relation to daily feeding practices and to health and growth of infants in an affluent society was examined. In a descriptive longitudinal prospective study 506 mother-infant pairs were followed from birth through the greater part of the first year. Feeding was recorded daily, and health and growth were recorded fortnightly. Large individual variations were seen in breastfeeding patterns. A wide discrepancy between the exclusive breastfeeding rates o...

  5. Technic and economic viability study on exploitation of lunar 3He resource

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Baiquan

    1995-01-01

    From the energetics point of view, the technic and economic viability study on exploitation of lunar 3 He for fuelling the fusion reactor burning D- 3 He has been carried out. This study is divided into the following sections: analysis of solar wind parameters and estimation of potential quantity 3 He in the lunar regolith, the cost evaluation of mining He of lunar soil; the energy cost calculation of He extraction by vacuum heating degassing during lunar day, the cost calculation of cryogenic isotopic separation 3 He/ 4 He during the lunar night, the energy cost for earth/moon transportation of liquid 3 He, the energy payback calculation of fusion power burning 3 He based lunar source, and finally the comparison of the energy multiplication with that for 235 U production of nuclear fuel and for coal mining. The comparisons of cost of electricity between D- 3 He and D-T fuel cycle for different reactor types have been discussed

  6. A study of some technical essentials of X-ray mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Houde; Jiang Qin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To improve the quality of mammography and diagnostic accuracy by analyzing and studying some of the technical essentials of X-ray mammography. Methods: The mammography quality of 21 hospitals were investigated. The image quality of normal intensifying screen-film combination was tested and compared with computerized mammography. The filming positions and operating skills were studied. Results: The important mammography details that were displayed have low conformity with the diagnostic requirements, mainly due to non-conformity of these equipment to the requirements. The optimal pressure suitable for mammography of the Chinese women was around 12 kg. Conclusion: Necessary attention must be paid to the improvement of imaging features of these equipment. The improved operating skills will greatly raise the detecting percentage of pathological changes of breasts

  7. Generation of organic waste from institutions in Denmark: case study of the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    at least 60% of organic waste – that cannot be prevented or reduced –generated by service sector, should be source-segregated and collected separately. In order to establish the baseline of the current situation, and to allow for any evaluation of performance against target indicators, data on solid waste...... generation and composition are required. The overall aim of this study was to quantify the potential for source-segregated organic waste as well as mixed waste from institution. This study was carried at the Department of Environmental Engineering at Technical University of Denmark. In the course...... and public holidays, when the offices were officially closed. Furthermore, the composition of source-segregated organic waste was analysed to investigate its purity. During the sampling period, the number of employees coming to work at the department was recorded. These data were used to investigate any...

  8. Assessing the Degree of Possessing Study Skills by the Students of Tafila Technical University from Their Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Roud, Atallah A.; Thawabiah, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the degree of possessing study skills (SS) by the students of Tafila Technical (TTU) University from their perspectives. The population of the study consisted of 5015 students in TTU for the second semester of the academic year 2015/2016. The sample of the study was chosen randomly from the population of the study with…

  9. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Alison N; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Miller, Alison L; Peterson, Karen E; Chen, Yu-Pu; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2014-06-16

    Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with children (OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0

  10. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Results Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with

  11. Theoretical and experimental studies of heavy liquid metal thermal hydraulics. Proceedings of a technical meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-10-01

    Through the Nuclear Energy Department's Technical Working Group on Fast Reactors (TWG-FR), the IAEA provides a forum for exchange of information on national programmes, collaborative assessments, knowledge preservation, and cooperative research in areas agreed by the Member States with fast reactor and partitioning and transmutation development programmes (e.g. accelerator driven systems (ADS)). Trends in advanced fast reactor and ADS designs and technology development are periodically summarized in status reports, symposia, and seminar proceedings prepared by the IAEA to provide all interested IAEA Member States with balanced and objective information. The use of heavy liquid metals (HLM) is rapidly diffusing in different research and industrial fields. The detailed knowledge of the basic thermal hydraulics phenomena associated with their use is a necessary step for the development of the numerical codes to be used in the engineering design of HLM components. This is particularly true in the case of lead or lead-bismuth eutectic alloy cooled fast reactors, high power particle beam targets and in the case of the cooling of accelerator driven sub-critical cores where the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) design codes is mandatory. Periodic information exchange within the frame of the TWG-FR has lead to the conclusion that the experience in HLM thermal fluid dynamics with regard to both the theoretical/numerical and experimental fields was limited and somehow dispersed. This is the case, e.g. when considering turbulent exchange phenomena, free-surface problems, and two-phase flows. Consequently, Member States representatives participating in the 35th Annual Meeting of the TWG-FR (Karlsruhe, Germany, 22-26 April 2002) recommended holding a technical meeting (TM) on Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Heavy Liquid Metal Thermal Hydraulics. Following this recommendation, the IAEA has convened the Technical Meeting on Theoretical and Experimental Studies of

  12. Supplementary feeding of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L with late harvested hay. A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rehbinder

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase the fodder available for roedeer during wintertime, late harvested hay was placed on racks early in November in three consecutive years. Freeezing kept the hay dry and fresh during all three winters. In the first winter, with much snow, the bulk of the hay was consumed whereas consumption in the two subsequent mild winters was low and selective. The crude protein content of the hay was low (3.5 - 8.4% dry matter. Metabolizable energy estimated from digestion in vitro was 3.5 — 5.6 MJ per kg dry matter. Rumen liquor from roe deer during a mild winter gave lower in vitro digestion than liquor from sheep fed with ordinary rations. The value of this poor hay for roe deer is discussed with respect to the animals requirements, seasonal adaption, the energy and protein content of the hay, water consumption and normal behavior. The results indicate that late harvested hay may be more suitable than regularly harvested hay or concentrates to help roe deer to survive spells of severe winter conditions. With late harvested hay placed out at several localized feeding sites, the risks of indigestion and dehydration, associated with a more concentrated, feed, are minimized and the ranking among the roe deer in particular will be less important and thus more animals will have improved prospects of gaining access to the fodder.Tilskottsutfodring av rådjur (Capreolus capreolus L med sent skordat ho. En pilotstudie.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: I avsikt att, for rådjur, oka mångden tillgångligt foder under vintertid, skordades och håssjades ho i borjan av november under tre på varandra foljande år. Hoet fros torn och holl sig fårskt alla vintrarna. Forstå vintern med mycket sno konsumerades huvuddelen av hoet medan de två foljande milda vintrarna konsumptionen var låg och selektiv. Mångden råprotein i hoet var lågt (3.5 — 8.4 % i torrsubstans. Innehållet av omsåttbar energi beråknad från digestion in vitro var 3

  13. Economic, welfare and environmental impact of feed-in tariff policy: A case study in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabatabaei, Sharareh Majdzadeh; Hadian, Ebrahim; Marzban, Hossein; Zibaei, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Following a particular attention given to environmental issues over the last few decades, establishing proper developmental policies to increase electricity production from renewable energy (RE) has not only been an important issue but also a challenge for many countries. Feed-in Tariff (FIT) Policy is one of the tools that is being used to facilitate the development of RE. This research evaluated the economic, welfare and environmental impact of this policy on Iran's economy. Therefore, after developing an Economic-Energy-Environmental (E3) type of Hybrid General Equilibrium model, the effect of FIT policy was examined under different scenarios in order to find an optimal condition in which 10% of electrical energy could be produced from renewable resources. The comparison between the results showed that the application of subsidies to RE and the way the government finances these subsidies can affect the results of FIT policy. Meanwhile, regardless of the role considered for the impact of environmental factors, our policies under the scenario of technology neutral is the most efficient, as it has less impact on the decline of GDP of different sectors and also has less financial cost for government. - Highlights: • E3 type of Hybrid CGE model is used under two different financing policies. • Technology neutral and technology specific scenarios are applied to these policies. • Results show the effect of our policies and scenarios on the efficiency of FIT policy. • This efficiency comes from the impact on GDP balance and government's financial cost. • The results show that, the scenario of technology neutral is the most efficient.

  14. WindPACT Turbine Design Scaling Studies Technical Area 1-Composite Blades for 80- to 120-Meter Rotor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, D.A.

    2001-04-30

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) implemented the Wind Partnership for Advanced Component Technologies (WindPACT) program. As part of the WindPACT program, Global Energy Concepts, LLC (GEC), was awarded contract number YAM-0-30203-01 to examine Technical Area 1-Blade Scaling, Technical Area 2-Turbine Rotor and Blade Logistics, and Technical Area 3-Self-Erecting Towers. This report documents the results of GEC's Technical Area 1-Blade Scaling. The primary objectives of the Blade-Scaling Study are to assess the scaling of current materials and manufacturing technologies for blades of 40 to 60 meters in length, and to develop scaling curves of estimated cost and mass for rotor blades in that size range.

  15. PRELIMINARY STUDY FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OFAN IMAGE ANALYSIS ALGORITHM TO DETECT DAIRY COW PRESENCE AT THE FEED BARRIER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of the Viola-Jones algorithm for continuous detection of the feeding behaviour of dairy cows housed in an open free-stall barn. A methodology was proposed in order to train, test and validate the classifier. A lower number of positive and negative images than those used by Viola and Jones were required during the training. The testing produced the following results: hit rate of about 97.85%, missed rate of about 2.15%, and false positive rate of about 0.67%. The validation was carried out by an accuracy assessment procedure which required the time-consuming work of an operator who labelled the true position of the cows within the barn and their behaviours. The accuracy assessment revealed that among the 715 frames about 90.63% contained only true positives, whereas about 9.37% were affected by underestimation, i.e., contained also one or two false negatives. False positives occurred only in 2.93% of the analyzed frames. Though a moderate mismatch between the testing and the validation performances was registered, the results obtained revealed the adequacy of the Viola-Jones algorithm for detecting the feeding behaviour of dairy cows housed in open free-stall barns. This, in turn, opens up opportunities for an automatic analysis of cow behaviour.

  16. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  17. Poor Infant Feeding Practices and High Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Child Care Centres in Nairobi: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwase, Ivan; Mutoro, Antonina; Owino, Victor; Garcia, Ada L; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the style and quality of feeding and care provided in child day-care centres in slum areas. This study purposively sampled five day-care centres in Nairobi, Kenya, where anthropometric measurements were collected among 33 children aged 6-24 months. Mealtime interactions were further observed in 11 children from four centres, using a standardized data collection sheet. We recorded the child actions, such as mood, interest in food, distraction level, as well as caregiver actions, such as encouragement to eat, level of distraction and presence of neutral actions. Of the 33 children assessed, with a mean age of 15.9 ± 4.9 months, 14 (42%) were female. Undernutrition was found in 13 (39%) children with at least one Z score feed, with most children eating less than half of their served meal. Poor hygiene coupled with non-responsive care practices observed in the centres is a threat to child health, growth and development. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Reliability study of the auxiliary feed-water system of a pressurized water reactor by faults tree and Bayesian Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lava, Deise Diana; Borges, Diogo da Silva; Guimarães, Antonio Cesar Ferreira; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims to present a study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feed-water System (AFWS) through the methods of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network. Therefore, the paper consists of a literature review of the history of nuclear energy and the methodologies used. The AFWS is responsible for providing water system to cool the secondary circuit of nuclear reactors of the PWR type when normal feeding water system failure. How this system operates only when the primary system fails, it is expected that the AFWS failure probability is very low. The AFWS failure probability is divided into two cases: the first is the probability of failure in the first eight hours of operation and the second is the probability of failure after eight hours of operation, considering that the system has not failed within the first eight hours. The calculation of the probability of failure of the second case was made through the use of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network, that it was constructed from the Fault Tree. The results of the failure probability obtained were very close, on the order of 10 -3 . (author)

  19. Reliability study of the auxiliary feed-water system of a pressurized water reactor by faults tree and Bayesian Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lava, Deise Diana; Borges, Diogo da Silva; Guimarães, Antonio Cesar Ferreira; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes, E-mail: deise_dy@hotmail.com, E-mail: diogosb@outlook.com, E-mail: tony@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims to present a study of the reliability of the Auxiliary Feed-water System (AFWS) through the methods of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network. Therefore, the paper consists of a literature review of the history of nuclear energy and the methodologies used. The AFWS is responsible for providing water system to cool the secondary circuit of nuclear reactors of the PWR type when normal feeding water system failure. How this system operates only when the primary system fails, it is expected that the AFWS failure probability is very low. The AFWS failure probability is divided into two cases: the first is the probability of failure in the first eight hours of operation and the second is the probability of failure after eight hours of operation, considering that the system has not failed within the first eight hours. The calculation of the probability of failure of the second case was made through the use of Fault Tree and Bayesian Network, that it was constructed from the Fault Tree. The results of the failure probability obtained were very close, on the order of 10{sup -3}. (author)

  20. Ultramorphological and histological studies on the tongue of the common kingfisher in relation to its feeding habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh.A. Al-Zahaby

    2014-05-01

    The tongue of the studied bird is an elongated, tubby and consistent organ of triangular shape of about 8.9 mm in length. It drops in the posterior quarter of the lower part of the very long bill. It is composed of three successive regions; blunt apex, stocky body and root. In addition to the giant conical papillae demarcating the tongue’s body from root, numerous caudally directed spiny conical papillae are differently distributed on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the lingual body and root. Both papillae appears to help catching and directly swallowing preys, however the apex is covered with superposed foliate papillae. By light microscope, the dorsal lingual epithelium is composed of a keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. The stratum basale is followed by a thick stratum spinosum of polyhedral cells containing some deeply embedded taste buds and gives rise to the stratum corneum cell layer. The loose connective tissue core (lamina propria which embraces some blood vessels and melanocytes forms finger-like dermal papillae of different heights under the epithelium. It also contains branched tubulo-alveolar salivary glands mainly of massive gelatinous mucus secreted on the epithelial surface to facilitate food-intake indicating a close relationship of the lingual structure with the common kingfisher feeding habit which feeds mainly on fishes and aquatic arthropods.

  1. Air/Superfund National Technical Guidance Study Series. Data Base of emission-rate-measurement projects. Technical note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, B.; Petrinec, C.; Ranum, D.; Howlett, L.

    1991-06-01

    A compilation and evaluation of Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) emission rate data was performed. The three primary objectives were (1) to determine typical averages and ranges of emissions for various types of sources; (2) to determine the degree of correlation between emission rate results from different sampling methods; and (3) to examine the effects of different variables on measured emission rates. Emission rate data are presented for 33 studies covering 13 types of emission sources. The sources include landfills, surface impoundments, waste water treatment systems, leaking underground storage tanks, soil piles and landfarms. The emission rate data were obtained by using the Emission Isolation Flux Chamber, Downhole Emissions Isolation Flux Chamber, the Concentration Profile method and the Transect method. For each source, the total non-methane hydrocarbon and benzene emission rates are reported along with three other compounds that had the highest emission rate. Source concentration data (e.g. concentration in soil or waste water) are also reported for comparison to the measured emission rates.

  2. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Technical Appendix B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This Technical Appendix discusses how researchers from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education (NRCCTE) conducted the five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005, and how they defined and…

  3. Programs of Study as a State Policy Mandate: A Longitudinal Study of the South Carolina Personal Pathways to Success Initiative. Final Technical Report: Major Findings and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Cathy; Drew, Sam F.; Withington, Cairen; Griffith, Cathy; Swiger, Caroline M.; Mobley, Catherine; Sharp, Julia L.; Stringfield, Samuel C.; Stipanovic, Natalie; Daugherty, Lindsay

    2013-01-01

    This is the final technical report from the National Research Center for Career and Technical Education's (NRCCTE's) five-year longitudinal study of South Carolina's Personal Pathway to Success initiative, which was authorized by the state's Education and Economic Development Act (EEDA) in 2005. NRCCTE-affiliated researchers at the National…

  4. Transformation of Nuclear Malaysia into Research and Development Organisation and Technical Support Organisation (TSO++): Restructuring Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhd Noor Muhd Yunus; Ariff Shah Ismail; Prak Tom, P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuklear Malaysia), formerly known as Malaysian Institute for Nuclear Technology Research (MINT) was established on September 1972. As an agency under the purview of Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MOSTI), Nuklear Malaysia has a role to introduce and promote the application of nuclear science and technology for national development. Besides that, Nuklear Malaysia plays important role in providing quality and best-in-class research towards comprehensively generating new technologies in nuclear field. For the past few years, the government has been studying the possibility of deploying nuclear energy for electricity generation. On 11th January 2011, Y.A.B Prime Minister announced the establishment of Malaysian Nuclear Power Cooperation (MNPC) that is responsible to plan, spearhead and coordinate the implementation of nuclear energy development program for Malaysia and to take the necessary action to realize the development of the first nuclear power plant (NPP) in Malaysia. This is a strong and significant indication that Malaysia is seriously considering to embark into nuclear power program. As an agency that has been involve in nuclear field for the past few decades, Nuklear Malaysia has been identified as Technical Support Organisation (TSO) for the NPP project. Since then, preparation for transforming Nuklear Malaysia into TSO has been started. One of the areas that have been studied is the preparedness of organizations structure to effectively uphold the responsibilities of TSO. This paper briefly describes attributes of TSO, example of effective TSO organizations and study that has been conducted in preparation of Nuklear Malaysia to be Research and Development and Technical Support Organization (TSO++). (author)

  5. Developing the Blueprint for a General Surgery Technical Skills Certification Examination: A Validation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montbrun, Sandra; Louridas, Marisa; Szasz, Peter; Harris, Kenneth A; Grantcharov, Teodor P

    There is a recognized need to develop high-stakes technical skills assessments for decisions of certification and resident promotion. High-stakes examinations requires a rigorous approach in accruing validity evidence throughout the developmental process. One of the first steps in development is the creation of a blueprint which outlines the potential content of examination. The purpose of this validation study was to develop an examination blueprint for a Canadian General Surgery assessment of technical skill certifying examination. A Delphi methodology was used to gain consensus amongst Canadian General Surgery program directors as to the content (tasks or procedures) that could be included in a certifying Canadian General Surgery examination. Consensus was defined a priori as a Cronbach's α ≥ 0.70. All procedures or tasks reaching a positive consensus (defined as ≥80% of program directors rated items as ≥4 on the 5-point Likert scale) were then included in the final examination blueprint. Two Delphi rounds were needed to reach consensus. Of the 17 General Surgery Program directors across the country, 14 (82.4%) and 10 (58.8%) program directors responded to the first and second round, respectively. A total of 59 items and procedures reached positive consensus and were included in the final examination blueprint. The present study has outlined the development of an examination blueprint for a General Surgery certifying examination using a consensus-based methodology. This validation study will serve as the foundational work from which simulated model will be developed, pilot tested and evaluated. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Carbohydrate- vs fat-controlled diet effect on weight loss and coronary artery disease risk: a pilot feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Charles; Masri, Basem; Hogg, Jeannette; Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena; Chiu, Ya-Lin

    2010-10-01

    This pilot study compared weight loss and serum indicators of coronary artery disease (CAD) risk between 2 weight loss (energy-deficit) diets, one controlled for carbohydrate as a percentage of total calories and the other controlled for fat as percentage of total calories. Participants were randomized to 1 of 2 diets and fed on an outpatient basis for 70 days, after which they followed their diets using their own resources for an additional 70 days. Energy deficit for the diets was determined by indirect calorimetry with a 500- to 750-calorie per day adjustment. Weight and CAD risk indicators and serum lipid and C-reactive protein levels were measured at baseline, day 70, and day 140. The study was completed by 16 of 20 participants who were able to comply with the feeding portion of the study as well as with follow-up appointments during the second (self-management) period of the study. Participants lost weight in both diet groups (24.4 lbs, carbohydrate controlled; 18.5 lbs, fat controlled), and serum CAD risk factors decreased in both groups. There were no significant differences in CAD risk factors between diet groups, although there was a trend toward lighter low-density lipoprotein (LDL) size in the carbohydrate-controlled group. During the self-management portion of the study, weight loss stalled or regained from loss during the previous feeding period. The results, although underpowered, are consistent with recent studies in which macronutrient ratio of total calories in diet did not affect degree of weight loss and in which carbohydrate-controlled diets produced a predominance of lighter LDLs.

  7. Risk in technical and scientific studies: general introduction to uncertainty management and the concept of risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolakis, G.E.

    2004-01-01

    George Apostolakis (MIT) presented an introduction to the concept of risk and uncertainty management and their use in technical and scientific studies. He noted that Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) provides support to the overall treatment of a system as an integrated socio-technical system. Specifically, QRA aims to answer the questions: - What can go wrong (e.g., accident sequences or scenarios)? - How likely are these sequences or scenarios? - What are the consequences of these sequences or scenarios? The Quantitative Risk Assessment deals with two major types of uncertainty. An assessment requires a 'model of the world', and this preferably would be a deterministic model based on underlying processes. In practice, there are uncertainties in this model of the world relating to variability or randomness that cannot be accounted for directly in a deterministic model and that may require a probabilistic or aleatory model. Both deterministic and aleatory models of the world have assumptions and parameters, and there are 'state-of-knowledge' or epistemic uncertainties associated with these. Sensitivity studies or eliciting expert opinion can be used to address the uncertainties in assumptions, and the level of confidence in parameter values can be characterised using probability distributions (pdfs). Overall, the distinction between aleatory and epistemic uncertainties is not always clear, and both can be treated mathematically in the same way. Lessons on safety assessments that can be learnt from experience at nuclear power plants are that beliefs about what is important can be wrong if a risk assessment is not performed. Also, precautionary approaches are not always conservative if failure modes are not identified. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize that uncertainties will remain despite a quantitative risk assessment: e.g., is the scenario list complete, are the models accepted as reasonable, and are parameter probability distributions representative of

  8. Breast feeding practices and associated factors in Bhaktapur District of Nepal: A community based cross-sectional study among lactating mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillee Prasad Paudel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infant feeding is a major determinant of survival, future nutrition and health status of children. Breast-feeding is an unequalled way of providing ideal food for the healthy growth and development of infants. It is also an integral part of the reproductive process with important implications for the health of mothers. Exclusive breast feeding (EBF is superior to non-exclusive breast-feeding with a protective effect against both morbidity and mortality. This study was aimed to explore the breast feeding practice and affecting factors in Bhaktapur, Nepal. Materials and Methods: Community based cross-sectional study was carried out from February to May 2007 in a rural area of Bhaktapur, Nepal. Total 333 lactating mothers having a child less than 6 months were interviewed using pretested questionnaire with her written consent. Analysis was performed in Statistical Pakage of Social Science-13 version applying appropriate statistics. Results were presented in tabular and narrative forms. Results: Among 333 mothers (mean age ± standard deviation 24.68 ± 4.16 years, majority (76.6% were 20-30 years. Almost 83.0% were Hindus, 25.8% illiterate, 62.8% house-wives and 53.5% from joint family with low economic status. About 48.0% had a baby of 2-4 months, 86.0% avoided pre-lacteal feeding, 87.1% fed colostrums, 27.9% fed the first milk within half an hour and 55.0% practiced exclusive breast-feeding for 6 months. Child′s age, education, religion, occupation, family type and knowledge level were significant (P < 0.05 factors affecting to breast feeding. Conclusion: Despite the high proportion of women initiated breast-feeding early after birth, the prevalence of EBF for 6 months was very low and a large portion had poor practice of breast feeding. Education, relationship of mother with a family member and level of knowledge were found most significant factors. Appropriate measures such as public awareness and effective counseling will support

  9. Materials selection as an interdisciplinary technical activity: basic methodology and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ferrante

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The technical activity known as Materials Selection is reviewed in its concepts and methodologies. Objectives and strategies are briefly presented and two important features are introduced and discussed; (i Merit Indices: a combination of materials properties, which maximises the objectives chosen by the designer and (ii Materials Properties Maps: a bi-dimensional space whose coordinates are pairs of properties in which materials can be plotted and compared directly in terms of their merit indices. A general strategy for the deduction of these indices is explained and a formal methodology to establish a ranking of candidate materials when multiple constraints intervene is presented. Finally, two case studies are discussed in depth, one related to materials substitution in the context of mechanical design and a less conventional case linking material selection to physical comfort in the home furniture industry.

  10. Radiation field studies at the training and research reactor AKR of the Dresden Technical University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuschner, A.; Reiss, U.; Pretzsch, G.

    1983-01-01

    Results of radiation field studies in the experimental channels of the training and research reactor of the Technical University of Dresden are presented. The flux densities of thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons were determined by means of activation detectors., Gamma dose rates have been measured by thermoluminescent dosimeters. The measured results show symmetry with respect to the vertical axis of the reactor and allow to draw conclusions with regard to the efficiency of the individual layers of the shield. They are an essential basis of performing irradiation experiments in the experimental channels. The results of measurements were compared with those of shielding and design calculations. Taking into account the measuring errors and the approximations used in the computational models, no unexpected deviations have been observed. Hence, the measured and calculated results can be assessed to be in good agreement. (author)

  11. Critical technical issues and evaluation and comparison studies for inertial fusion energy reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Ying, A.Y.; Tillack, M.S.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Waganer, L.M.; Driemeyer, D.E.; Linford, G.J.; Drake, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    The critical issues, evaluation and comparison of two inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor design concepts developed in the Prometheus studies are presented. The objectives were (1) to identify and characterize the critical issues and the R and D required to solve them, and (2) to establish a sound basis for future IFE technical and programmatic decisions by evaluating and comparing the different design concepts. Quantitative evaluation and comparison of the two design options have been made with special focus on physics feasibility, engineering feasibility, economics, safety and environment, and research and development (R and D) requirements. Two key conclusions are made based on the overall evaluation analysis: (1) The heavy-ion driven reactors appear to have an overall advantage over laser-driven reactors; and: (2) The differences in scores are not large and future results of R and D could change the overall ranking of the two IFE concepts

  12. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  13. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  14. Technical and economic study of a mobile system for extraction of eucalyptus essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Aparecida Vivan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The production of essential oils has become increasing in Brazil, especially considering the benefits that certain substances can add to health and range of cosmetics, toiletries and drugs that originate in its processing. Based on these conditions and in the vast area of the Rio Grande do Sul where it is being implanted the culture of eucalyptus, this study seeks ways to boost the economic structure of culture, seeking to generate new business opportunities through the extraction of oil contained in the leaves Eucalyptus, a byproduct of the paper industry, the current main economic interest of culture. Based on these assumptions, it was elaborated a conceptual design of a mobile equipment able to meet the processing demand of the crop, determining a diagram processing flow and fitting the equipment to meet this demand. Subsequently, it was evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of deploying the mobile extraction system for essential oil of eucalyptus in the southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, conducting technical studies for the improvement and efficiency of the conceptual design and economic feasibility analysis to determine variables that determine the success of the project. It was conclude that the conceptual design has beneficial aspects, especially regarding the mobility, flexibility of use, minimization of empty spaces and water use in semi-closed circuit. In the analysis of economic feasibility, the simulated scenarios showed positive values for Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return above the minimum rate of attractiveness and capital Payback relatively short, even for the scenarios considered critical.

  15. Price and quality of livestock feeds in suburban markets of West Africa’s Sahel: Case study from Bamako, Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ayantunde

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In West African Sahel cities, livestock husbandry such as smallholder dairy production and livestock (cattle, sheep and goat fattening has become popular among livestock owners to meet food needs for the household, and for income generation. The increasing importance of urban and suburban agriculture, particularly livestock husbandry in the region, has led to a rapid increase in livestock populations in most of the cities. As a result of this increase and the associated growth in the demand for feeds, feed markets have sprung up in many cities and towns of West Africa’s Sahel. A survey of livestock feed markets was conducted in five markets in Bamako, Mali. Prices of livestock feeds were monitored monthly from January to December 2010. In addition, feed samples were collected from the markets for laboratory analysis to determine their nutritional quality. Results showed that the prices of cowpea hay and groundnut haulm were consistently higher than those of other feeds throughout the year. The price of cowpea hay ranged from 367 FCFA/kg dry matter (DM (1 USD ≈ 500 FCFA in October, i.e. immediately after harvest, to 667 FCFA/kg DM in August, i.e. in the wet season. Results also showed that there was no relationship between price and quality for all feed types. However, prices and quality of feeds differed significantly across seasons suggesting that the season was a major determinant for the price of livestock feeds in suburban areas of West Africa’s Sahel.

  16. Study of accelerated unit unloading mode initiated by turbine feed pump trip with TVSA fuel assemblies operation in WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borysenko, V.I.; Kadenko, I.N.; Samoilenko, D.V.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the study results of accelerated unit unloading mode (AUU) initiated at WWER-1000 unit operated at 100 % power and its expediency in the event of single Turbo Feed Pump (TFP) failure. Modeling was performed using an advanced calculation code RELAP/SCDAPSIM/Mod3.4 and relevant model for KhNPP Unit No. 2. As the study shows, SCRAM cannot be prevented in case of failure of 3 main circulation pumps due to steam generators (SG) level drop. Based on the results obtained, it is reasonably justified to allow SCRAM signal instead of AUU activation in case of single TFP failure at power level more than 90 % of N n om. This will provide more sparing temperature modes for fuel assemblies and equipment, as well as prevent additional thermal cycling loads and violation of safe operation limits as SG water levels

  17. Efficacy Study of Metho-Chelated Organic Minerals preparation Feeding on Milk Production and Fat Percentage in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somkuwar A.P.1

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to compare the effect of feeding different mineral based formulation on dairy cow production performance, namely milk yield and fat percentage. The trial was conducted with dairy cows across various stages of lactation (Early, Mid and Late stage with 30 cows per stage. The experimental treatments included: Bestmin Gold (Metho-chelated organic minerals, given 30 gms per day, Inorganic mineral preparation (Inorg. Mineral, @ 50 gms/day/ cow and control. The study lasted from 0 to 40 days. Milk yield and fat percentage of cows were measured individually on Days 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40. The Bestmin Gold treated group (Metho-chelated organic minerals improved the milk yield, net gain in milk and the milk fat percentage of animals across the various stages of lactation as compared to in control and inorganic mineral treated group of animals. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 19-21

  18. Technical Objects between Categorisation and Learning: An Exploratory Case Study in French Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impedovo, M. A.; Andreucci, C.; Delserieys-Pedregosa, A.; Coiffard, C.; Ginestié, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present exploratory research carried out in order to understand how students (from 12 to 14 years old) relate to technical objects. It uses technical objects that are part of everyday life and mediated reality. A questionnaire was administered to 57 students in French classes. The questionnaire was composed of three parts: 1)…

  19. A Study of Learning-Centered Leadership Skills of Principals in Career and Technical Education Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodman, Mary E.

    2012-01-01

    Despite years of educational reform, secondary students have demonstrated only modest increases in achievement. Career and technical education students have not demonstrated the same level of performance as non-career and technical education students. Except for teachers, principals have the greatest influence over student achievement. What should…

  20. TecCOMFrame : Building bridges between technical communication and translation studies through a prototype specialisation curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleary, Yvonne; Engberg, Jan; Karreman, Joyce; Meex, Birgitta; Closs, Sissi; Drazek, Zygmunt; Ghenghea, Voichita; Minacori, Patricia; Muller, J.; Straub, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Technical communication is a new field of work compared to other professions, and therefore it does not have a standardised curriculum. In Europe, many technical communicators do not have qualifications in the area. TecCOMFrame, a project funded by the European Union, aims to develop an academic

  1. Strategic Management for Competitive Advantage: A Case Study of Higher Technical and Vocational Education in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hsun-I; Lee, Cheng-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Higher technical and vocational education institutions in Taiwan face the pressure of an oversupply of student places and fierce competition from domestic and international institutions. To cope with these challenges, higher technical and vocational education institutions that are better equipped to respond to market requirements are expected to…

  2. The power of a collaborative relationship between technical assistance providers and community prevention teams: A correlational and longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilenski, Sarah M; Perkins, Daniel F; Olson, Jonathan; Hoffman, Lesa; Feinberg, Mark E; Greenberg, Mark; Welsh, Janet; Crowley, D Max; Spoth, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Historically, effectiveness of community collaborative prevention efforts has been mixed. Consequently, research has been undertaken to better understand the factors that support their effectiveness; theory and some related empirical research suggests that the provision of technical assistance is one important supporting factor. The current study examines one aspect of technical assistance that may be important in supporting coalition effectiveness, the collaborative relationship between the technical assistance provider and site lead implementer. Four and one-half years of data were collected from technical assistance providers and prevention team members from the 14 community prevention teams involved in the PROSPER project. Spearman correlation analyses with longitudinal data show that the levels of the collaborative relationship during one phase of collaborative team functioning associated with characteristics of internal team functioning in future phases. Results suggest that community collaborative prevention work should consider the collaborative nature of the technical assistance provider - prevention community team relationship when designing and conducting technical assistance activities, and it may be important to continually assess these dynamics to support high quality implementation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Evaluation of the Effectiveness of ESP Courses in Enhancing Technical Translation Proficiency: A Case Study of ESP Course for Mechanical Engineering Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatam, Amir Hussein; Shafiei, Shilan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was twofold. Firstly, it tried to investigate the relationship between the technical English proficiency of the students of Mechanical Engineering in the universities of Iran and their technical translation proficiency in translating technical texts of Mechanics. Secondly, it attempted to evaluate the effectiveness…

  4. The assessment and the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources and coping strategies with feed scarcity in smallholder dairy farming in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Belay; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert

    2017-06-01

    Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations. Results showed that 20 main feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into natural pastures, crop residues, green feeds, hay, agro-industrial by-products, concentrate mix, and non-conventional feeds. Overall, natural pasture (mean rank = 0.453), non-conventional feeds (0.307), cut green feeds (0.086), conserved hay (0.076), crop residues (0.049), and concentrate feeds (0.029) were ranked as the main feed resources in decreasing order of importance. Natural pasture grazing (92.2% of the respondents), hay (35.6%), and green feeds (29.4%) were the most important conventional basal feeds used. Wheat bran (11.7% of the respondents) followed by commercial concentrate mix (9.4%), Noug seedcake (8.3%), grain (7.8%), and molasses (6.1%) were the concentrate supplements used. Overall, bulule-flour mill leftovers (67.2% of the farmers), bean and pea hulls (57.2%) and atella-local brew by-product (37.2%), enset (Ensete ventricosum, 34.4%), and sugarcane top (32.2%) were the non-conventional feeds available and used during feed scarcity. Barley and teff (Eragrostis teff) straws and maize and sorghum stovers were the main crop residues used in the dry seasons. Overall, 73.9, 12.2, 12.2, and 1.7% of the respondents practiced free grazing, zero grazing, semi-zero, and a combination of zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Over 84% of the respondents in the dry season and 50% in

  5. Effectiveness of Baby Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI) on complementary feeding in Koibatek, Kenya: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingi, Mildred; Kimiywe, Judith; Iron-Segev, Sharon

    2018-05-08

    Appropriate infant and young child nutrition is critical for proper growth and development. In order to promote optimal nutrition at an early age, the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF have developed the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) to address poor breastfeeding practices in maternity wards. However, impact is limited in less developed countries like Kenya, where more than half of all births are home deliveries. Therefore, Kenya has explored the adoption of Baby Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI) in its rural settings. In contrast to the BFHI, the BFCI supports breastfeeding and optimal infant feeding in community. BFCI has been implemented in Koibatek, in rural Kenya. This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of BFCI on complementary feeding practices of children aged 6-23 months, by comparing intervention and control groups. This was a randomized control study design that included 270 mother-infant pairs enrolled in the Baby Friendly Community Initiative (BFCI) project in Koibatek. Evaluation was carried out using structured questionnaires. A statistically significantly higher proportion of children in the intervention group compared to the control group attained minimum dietary diversity (77% vs. 58%; p = 0.001), minimum meal frequency (96% vs. 89%; p = 0.046) and minimum acceptable diet (77% vs. 61%; p = 0.005). The odds of attaining minimum dietary diversity, minimum meal frequency and minimum acceptable diet were statistically significantly higher for the intervention group compared to control group (OR: 4.95; 95%CI 2.44-10.03, p = < 0.001; OR: 14.84; 95%CI 2.75-79.9, p = 0.002; OR: 4.61; 95%CI 2.17-9.78, p = < 0.001 respectively). The BFCI intervention was successful in improving complementary feeding practices. Strengthening and prioritizing BFCI interventions could have a significant impact on child health outcomes in rural Kenya. ISRCTN03467700 . Registration 24 September 2014. Retrospectively

  6. Automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillardeau, J.; Bona, F.; Dejachy, G.

    1963-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device has been developed (and used) in the framework of corrosion tests realized with constantly renewed uranium hexafluoride. The issue was to feed liquid nitrogen to a large capacity metallic trap in order to condensate uranium hexafluoride at the exit of the corrosion chambers. After having studied various available devices, a feeding device has been specifically designed to be robust, secure and autonomous, as well as ensuring a high liquid nitrogen flowrate and a highly elevated feeding frequency. The device, made of standard material, has been used during 4000 hours without any problem [fr

  7. A comparative study on vaccination pain in the methods of massage therapy and mothers' breast feeding during injection of infants referring to Navabsafavi Health Care Center in Isfahan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Sheykhi, Sanaz; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Jodakee, Mohamadreza; Boroumandfar, Khadijeh

    2013-11-01

    Vaccination is one of the most common painful procedures in infants. The irreversible consequences due to pain experiences in infants are enormous. Breast feeding and massage therapy methods are the non-drug methods of pain relief. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the vaccination-related pain in infants who underwent massage therapy or breast feeding during injection. This study is a randomized clinical trial. Ninety-six infants were allocated randomly and systematically to three groups (breast feeding, massage, and control groups). The study population comprised all infants, accompanied by their mothers, referring to one of the health centers in Isfahan for vaccination of hepatitis B and DPT at 6 months of age and for MMR at 12 months of age. Data gathering was done using questionnaire and checklist [neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS)]. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistical methods with SPSS software. Findings of the study showed that the three groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0/05). The mean pain scores in the breast feeding group, massage therapy, and control group were 3.4, 3.9, and 4.8, respectively (P massage therapy and breast feeding (P = 0.041), breast feeding group and control (P massage therapy and control groups (P = 0.002) were statistically significant. Considering the results of the study, it seems that breast feeding during vaccination has more analgesic effect than massage therapy. Therefore, it is suggested as a noninvasive, safe, and accessible method without any side effects for reducing vaccination-related pain.

  8. Technical Design and Optimization Study for the FERMI at Elettra FEL Photoinjector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lidia, Steven M.; Penco, Giuseppe; Trovo', Mauro

    2006-01-01

    The FERMI (at) Elettra FEL project will provide a novel, x-ray free electron laser user facility at Sincrotrone Trieste based on seeded and cascade FEL techniques. The electron beam source and injector systems play a crucial role in the success of the facility by providing the highest quality electron beams to the linac and FEL undulators. This Technical Note examines the critical technology components that make up the injector system, and demonstrates optimum beam dynamics solutions to achieve the required high quality electron beams. Section 2 provides an overview of the various systems and subsystems that comprise the photoinjector. The different operating modes of the injector are described as they pertain to the different linac configurations driven by the FEL and experimental design. For each mode, the required electron beam parameters are given. Sections 3 and 4 describe the critical beamline elements in the injector complex: the photocathode and drive laser, and the RF gun. The required drive laser parameters are given at the end of Section 3. Additional details on the design of the photoinjector drive laser systems are presented in a separate Technical Note. Design considerations for the RF gun are extensively presented in Section 4. There, we describe the variation of the cavity geometry to optimize the efficiency of the energy transfer to the electron beam. A study of the power coupling into the various cavity modes that interact within the bandwidth of the RF drive pulse is presented, followed by a study of the transient cavity response under several models and, finally, the effects on extracted beam quality. Section 5 describes the initial design for the low energy, off-axis diagnostic beamline. Beam dynamics simulations using ASTRA, elegant, and MAD are presented. Section 6 presents the optimization studies for the beam dynamics in the various operating modes. The optimized baseline configurations for the beamline and incident drive laser pulse are

  9. Solar feed-in tariffs and the merit order effect: A study of the German electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tveten, Åsa Grytli; Bolkesjø, Torjus Folsland; Martinsen, Thomas; Hvarnes, Håvard

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the merit order effect (MOE) of the recent years' implementation of solar power in Germany. Market clearing electricity prices and production levels are compared for the years 2009–2011, and a model for the relationship between the electricity price and price sensitive electricity production is developed and applied to predict electricity prices in Germany from July 2010 to July 2011 with and without solar electricity generation (SEG). The results show that the SEG has caused a 7% reduction in average electricity prices for this period. The average daily maximum price and daily price variation are also found to decrease, by 13% and 23%, respectively. When taking the MOE into account the net consumer's cost of the solar feed-in tariff (FIT) system is found to be 23% less than the charge listed in the electricity bill. The German FIT policy for solar power has been subject to considerable public debate, and a common argument brought up in disfavor of the system is the high cost for the consumers. In this study we demonstrate the importance of including the MOE when evaluating the total costs and benefits of the FIT policy mechanism. - Highlights: • The merit order effect (MOE) of the German solar feed-in tariffs (FITs) is analyzed. • Solar power is found to substitute thermal power on the margin in peak hours. • In a 1 year period, solar power has reduced electricity prices by 7%, on average. • The solar power has also reduced the daily price variation by 23%, on average. • When including the MOE, the net consumer's cost of solar FITs are reduced by 23%

  10. Depletion study, withdrawal period calculation and bioaccumulation of sulfamethazine in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) treated with medicated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Kátia S D; Vallim, José H; Assalin, Márcia R; Queiroz, Sonia C N; Paraíba, Lourival C; Jonsson, Claudio M; Reyes, Felix G R

    2018-04-01

    The residue depletion of sulfamethazine (SMZ) was evaluated in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after 11 days of administration of medicated feed containing SMZ, at the dose of 422 mg/kg body weight (bw). The determination of SMZ in feed and tilapia fillet was carried out using the QuEChERS approach for sample preparation, and high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QToF-MS) for quantitation, respectively. Both methods were validated based on international and Brazilian guidelines and shown to be suitable for the intended purposes. The withdrawal period to reach the maximum residue level (MRL) of 100 μg/kg, according to the European Union (EU) legislative framework to all substances belonging to the sulfonamide (SA) group (EU, 2010), was 10 days (260 °C-day). After treatment, the maximum level of SMZ accumulation in the tilapia muscle was 1.6 mg/kg. SMZ was shown to be quickly excreted by tilapia. Thus, considering the acceptable daily intake of SMZ established by the Codex Commission (0-0.05 mg/kg bw), and a factor of 5 times the upper amount of fish consumption in Brazil (38 kg/year), this study showed that there is a low risk of adverse effects to consumers. This study offers subsidies not only for the establishment of public policies with regard to the use of veterinary drugs currently not allowed in a country by their legal legislative framework for fish farming, but also to fish producers for the proper handling to ensure safe fish fillets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xin-wei; Liu, Ze-jun; Zhao, Pei-qing; Bai, Shao-ying; Pang, Xing-huo; Wang, Zhi-ming; Jin, Tai-yi; Lan, Ya-jia

    2006-11-01

    A study of the occupational stress norm and it' s application for the technical group and scientific research group. In this study, cross-sectional study method is used, and a synthetic way of sorting and randomized sampling is adopted to deal with research targets(235 scientific research group, 857 technical group). Descriptive statistics for OSI-R scale scores for the technical group and scientific research group were modulated. Scale raw score to T-score conversion tables derived from the OSI-R normative sample for technical group and scientific research group were established. OSI-R profile from for technical group and scientific research group were established. For the ORQ and PSQ scales, scores at or above 70T indicate a strong levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 60T to 69T suggest middle levels of maladaptive stress and strain. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate normal levels of stress and strain. Score below 40T indicate a relative absence of occupational stress and strain. For the PRQ scales, score below 30T indicate a significant lack of coping resources. Score in the range of 30T to 39T suggest middle deficits in coping resources. Score in the range of 40T to 59T indicate average coping resources. Scores at or above 60T indicate a strong levels of coping resources. Different intervention measure should be take to reduce the occupational stress so as to improve the work ability.

  12. Technical writing versus technical writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillingham, J. W.

    1981-01-01

    Two terms, two job categories, 'technical writer' and 'technical author' are discussed in terms of industrial and business requirements and standards. A distinction between 'technical writing' and technical 'writing' is made. The term 'technical editor' is also considered. Problems inherent in the design of programs to prepare and train students for these jobs are discussed. A closer alliance between industry and academia is suggested as a means of preparing students with competent technical communication skills (especially writing and editing skills) and good technical skills.

  13. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-Ning

    2015-09-09

    Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010-2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010-2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where

  14. Technical efficiency and productivity of Chinese county hospitals: an exploratory study in Henan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Tao, Hongbing; Cai, Miao; Lin, Haifeng; Lin, Xiaojun; Shu, Qin; Zhang, Ru-ning

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Chinese county hospitals have been excessively enlarging their scale during the healthcare reform since 2009. The purpose of this paper is to examine the technical efficiency and productivity of county hospitals during the reform process, and to determine whether, and how, efficiency is affected by various factors. Setting and participants 114 sample county hospitals were selected from Henan province, China, from 2010 to 2012. Outcome measures Data envelopment analysis was employed to estimate the technical and scale efficiency of sample hospitals. The Malmquist index was used to calculate productivity changes over time. Tobit regression was used to regress against 4 environmental factors and 5 institutional factors that affected the technical efficiency. Results (1) 112 (98.2%), 112 (98.2%) and 104 (91.2%) of the 114 sample hospitals ran inefficiently in 2010, 2011 and 2012, with average technical efficiency of 0.697, 0.748 and 0.790, respectively. (2) On average, during 2010–2012, productivity of sample county hospitals increased by 7.8%, which was produced by the progress in technical efficiency changes and technological changes of 0.9% and 6.8%, respectively. (3) Tobit regression analysis indicated that government subsidy, hospital size with above 618 beds and average length of stay assumed a negative sign with technical efficiency; bed occupancy rate, ratio of beds to nurses and ratio of nurses to physicians assumed a positive sign with technical efficiency. Conclusions There was considerable space for technical efficiency improvement in Henan county hospitals. During 2010–2012, sample hospitals experienced productivity progress; however, the adverse change in pure technical efficiency should be emphasised. Moreover, according to the Tobit results, policy interventions that strictly supervise hospital bed scale, shorten the average length of stay and coordinate the proportion among physicians, nurses and beds, would benefit hospital efficiency

  15. Technical and economic feasibility study of a Frond type wave power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This report describes the first stage of the development of a Frond type wave generator by the Engineering Business (EB) in collaboration with the University of Lancaster Engineering Department. The EB Frond concept is a sea-bed reacting, surging machine consisting of a near-surface collector mounted on an arm pivoted near the seabed. The study had six main elements (investigation, physical and mathematical modelling, site characterisation, design review and cost study). The investigation phase involved a study of wave properties and behaviour, while physical models were tested in a wave tank. A mathematical model was developed and used to assess the design's power output. The characteristics of a suitable site for EB Frond generators were determined and the process of identifying possible sites for a demonstrator machine was begun. The mechanical and system arrangement of the design were evaluated and modified. The effects of varying the installation's input parameters (e.g. wave environment factors) were examined using an energy cost model whose output is energy production and cost. It was concluded that the Frond principle was technically viable though there were some remaining engineering and other application problems. Cost modelling suggested that the EB Frond system had potential for long-term commercial prospects. The report recommends the construction and testing of an intermediate scale model with more realistic wave conditions.

  16. Factors associated with mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation in slum areas of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demilew, Yeshalem Mulugeta

    2017-06-05

    Malnutrition is a public health concern in Ethiopia. This might be correlated with inappropriate infant and young child feeding practice. This in turn is affected by Mothers' knowledge on feeding practice. However, information on mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation was scarce in Ethiopia. Therefore, this study was designed to assess mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation and associated factors in slum areas of Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from May 1-26/2015. Systematic sampling technique was used to select respondents. Data were collected by pretested, structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. Data were entered and analyzed by SPSS version 20 software. Knowledge score was computed. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to identify factors associated with maternal knowledge. Only 28.7% of mothers had sufficient knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation. Factors associated with mothers, knowledge were above primary education [AOR 2.5, 95% CI (1.5, 3.9)], possession of radio [AOR 1.7, 95% CI (1.1, 2.7)], attending antenatal care [AOR 2.4, 95% CI (1.5, 4.0)], and having employed husband [AOR 2.3, 95% CI (1.2, 4.4)]. Mothers' knowledge on infant and young child feeding recommendation was very low. Hence, education on infant and young child feeding recommendation should be strengthened during antenatal care visit and using mass media especially for mothers with lower educational status to fill up of this gap.

  17. Study of Tannin- degrading bacteria isolated from Pistachio soft hulls and feces of goat feeding on it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Tahmourespour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tannins (tannic acid are toxic, high molecular weight and water- soluble polyphenols that are present in many plants such as pistachio and its by- products. Wide ranges of microorganisms including bacteria tolerate tannin and degrade it. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize tannin- tolerant bacteria from pistachio soft hulls (P- SH and feces of goat before and after feeding on this by- product as tannin rich diet. Materials and methods: Tannin tolerant bacteria were isolated from enrichment cultures of samples in medium containing tannic acid as a sole source of carbon and energy. Tannin hydrolyzing ability of isolates was confirmed by observation of clear zones around the colonies. The increasing concentrations of tannin on minimal salt medium (MSM agar plates were used to test the maximum tolerable concentrations (MTCs. Furthermore, in the supplemented media tannin concentrations were measured by bovine serum albumin (BSA precipitation assay during time intervals. Results: Tannin- degrading bacterial population of P- SH was about only 10.3% of total population. More than 50 percent of tannin degrading strains were isolated from goat feces after grazing on tannin rich diet. Isolated bacteria were Gram- negative and positive rod species belonging to Klebsiella, Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Escherichia and Enterobacter genera. Among the isolated bacteria 71.4% could tolerate the concentration of 64 g/l of tannin in their media while only 7.2% were able to tolerate the maximum tannin concentration of 16 g/l. Bacterial isolates of goat feces could degrade tannin more than 72% after 72 h of incubation. In the case of soft P- SH isolates, the biodegradation percentage was between 17- 75%. Discussion and conclusion: Feeding of tannin rich diet induced a shift in digestive system microbial profile with increased population of tannin tolerant bacteria. The ability of isolated strains provides novel insights for the role they can

  18. Comparative Study of Esophageal Self-expandable Metallic Stent Insertion and Gastrostomy Feeding for Dysphagia Caused by Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Min, Yang Won; Lee, Hyuk; Min, Byung Hoon; Lee, Joon Haeng; Rhee, Poong Lyul; Kim, Jae J

    2018-03-25

    Dysphagia is encountered in a large proportion of patients with lung cancer and is associated with malnutrition and a poor quality of life. This study compared the clinical outcomes of self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) insertion and percutaneous gastrostomy (PG) feeding for patients with lung cancer and dysphagia. A total of 261 patients with lung cancer, who underwent either SEMS insertion (stent group) or PG (gastrostomy group) as an initial treatment procedure for dysphagia between July 1997 and July 2015 at the Samsung Medical Center, were reviewed retrospectively, and 84 patients with esophageal obstruction were identified. The clinical outcomes, including the overall survival, additional intervention, complications, and post-procedural nutritional status in the two groups, were compared. Among the 84 patients finally analyzed, 68 patients received SEMS insertion and 16 had PG. The stent group had less cervical obstruction and more mid-esophageal obstruction than the gastrostomy group. The Kaplan-Meier curves revealed similar overall survival in the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed that the two modalities had similar survival rates (PG compared with SEMS insertion, hazard ratio 0.682, p=0.219). Fifteen patients (22.1%) in the stent group received additional intervention, whereas there was no case in the gastrostomy group (p=0.063). The decrease in the serum albumin level after the procedure was lower in the gastrostomy group than in the stent group (-0.20±0.54 g/dL vs. -0.65±0.57 g/dL, p=0.013). SEMS insertion and PG feeding for relieving dysphagia by lung cancer had a comparable survival outcome. On the other hand, PG was associated with a better nutritional status.

  19. Cross-sectional analysis of eating patterns and snacking in the US Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Denise M; Reidy, Kathleen C; Fox, Mary Kay; Briefel, Ronette R; Jacquier, Emma; Eldridge, Alison L

    2017-06-01

    To explore eating patterns and snacking among US infants, toddlers and pre-school children. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008 was a cross-sectional national survey of children aged 6-47 months, weighted to reflect US age and racial/ethnic distributions. Dietary data were collected using one multiple-pass 24h recall. Eating occasions were categorized as meals, snacks or other (comprised of all feedings of breast milk and/or infant formula). The percentage of children consuming meals and snacks and their contribution to total energy, the number of snacks consumed per day, energy and nutrients coming from snacks and the most commonly consumed snacks were evaluated by age. A national sample of US infants, toddlers and pre-school children. A total of 2891 children in five age groups: 6-8 months (n 249), 9-11 months (n 256), 12-23 months (n 925), 24-35 months (n 736) and 36-47 months (n 725). Snacks were already consumed by 37 % of infants beginning at 6 months; by 12 months of age, nearly 95 % were consuming at least one snack per day. Snacks provided 25 % of daily energy from the age of 12 months. Approximately 40 % of toddlers and pre-school children consumed fruit and cow's milk during snacks; about 25 % consumed 100 % fruit juice. Cookies were introduced early; by 24 months, 57 % consumed cookies or candy in a given day. Snacking is common, contributing significantly to daily energy and nutrient needs of toddlers and pre-school children. There is room for improvement, however, with many popular snacking choices contributing to excess sugar.

  20. The influence of father's child feeding knowledge and practices on children's dietary diversity: a study in urban and rural districts of Northern Ethiopia, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilal, Selamawit M; Dinant, GeertJan; Blanco, Roman; Crutzen, Rik; Mulugeta, Afework; Spigt, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Infant and young child feeding has been recognised as an essential element to improve growth of children, especially in developing countries where malnutrition among children and its dire consequences are very prevalent. However, little attention has been paid on the influence of fathers on child feeding practices, although fathers are very important in raising well-adjusted, happy and successful children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the influence of fathers' child feeding knowledge and practice on children's dietary diversity. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 850 eligible urban and rural households with children of 6-23 months. The father and mother of the child were interviewed on children's dietary diversity and fathers' knowledge and practice of child feeding. Nearly half (46%) of the children in the rural district did not meet the minimum dietary diversity, and in the urban district, the rate was even worse (72%). Grains were the common food group given to the children in both districts, whereas flesh food was the least commonly consumed food group. Additionally, low vitamin A-rich food and other fruit and vegetable consumption seem to be a problem in both districts. Almost all dimensions of fathers' knowledge and practice were significantly related to children's minimum dietary diversity; especially, fathers' knowledge of food groups was an important predictor (P-value child feeding, especially about food groups, are recommended to improve children's dietary diversity in the study communities. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.