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Sample records for feed staging plan

  1. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  2. Preliminary low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.

    1996-02-05

    A Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan was prepared. The plan supports the Phase I privatization effort by providing recommendations that may influence the technical content of the final request for proposal, and the interface control documents for the turnover of two double-shell tanks (DST) to the private contractors for use as feed tanks and the transfer of supernate to these tanks. Additionally, the preliminary schedule of feed staging activities will be useful to both RL and the private bidders during the contract negotiation period. A revised feed staging plan will be issued in August 1996 reflecting anticipated changes in the request for proposal, resolution of issues identified in this report, and completion of additional work scope.

  3. Phase I high-level waste pretreatment and feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manuel, A.F.

    1996-02-05

    This document provides the preliminary planning basis for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide a sufficient quantity of high-level waste feed to the privatization contractor during Phase I. By this analysis of candidate high-level waste feed sources, the initial quantity of high-level waste feed totals more than twice the minimum feed requirements. The flexibility of the current infrastructure within tank farms provides a variety of methods to transfer the feed to the privatization contractor`s site location. The amount and type of pretreatment (sludge washing) necessary for the Phase I processing can be tailored to support the demonstration goals without having a significant impact on glass volume (i.e., either inhibited water or caustic leaching can be used).

  4. Business plan Feed Factory Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vernooij, A.G.; Wilschut, S.

    2015-01-01

    This business plan focuses on the establishment of a poultry feed factory, one of the essential elements of a sustainable and profitable poultry meat value chain. There is a growing demand for poultry meat in the Tete Province, and currently a large part of the consumed broilers come from other part

  5. Statistical Methods and Tools for Hanford Staged Feed Tank Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Brigantic, Robert T.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2013-10-01

    This report summarizes work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to technically evaluate the current approach to staged feed sampling of high-level waste (HLW) sludge to meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for transfer from tank farms to the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). The current sampling and analysis approach is detailed in the document titled Initial Data Quality Objectives for WTP Feed Acceptance Criteria, 24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014, Revision 0 (Arakali et al. 2011). The goal of this current work is to evaluate and provide recommendations to support a defensible, technical and statistical basis for the staged feed sampling approach that meets WAC data quality objectives (DQOs).

  6. Alternatives generation and analysis for phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton, M.D.

    1996-10-02

    This document provides; a decision analysis summary; problem statement; constraints, requirements, and assumptions; decision criteria; intermediate waste feed staging system options and alternatives generation and screening; intermediate waste feed staging system design concepts; intermediate waste feed staging system alternative evaluation and analysis; and open issues and actions.

  7. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-18

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches.

  8. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-04-02

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford`s underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis.

  9. A two-stage model for blog feed search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider blog feed search: identifying relevant blogs for a given topic. An individual's search behavior often involves a combination of exploratory behavior triggered by salient features of the information objects being examined plus goal-directed in-depth information seeking behavior. We presen

  10. A two-stage model for blog feed search

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerkamp, W.; Balog, K.; de Rijke, M.

    2010-01-01

    We consider blog feed search: identifying relevant blogs for a given topic. An individual's search behavior often involves a combination of exploratory behavior triggered by salient features of the information objects being examined plus goal-directed in-depth information seeking behavior. We

  11. [Inadequate nutrient supply in "BARF" feeding plans for a litter of Bernese Mountain Dog-puppies. A case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Julia K; Kienzle, Ellen

    2016-10-12

    Anamnesis: A litter of Bernese Mountain Dog-puppies (6 weeks of age) was meant to be fed a "BARF" (bones and raw food) diet. The breeder asked for advice regarding the nutritional adequacy of the feeding plans that she had compiled for the different growth stages. The anamnesis showed the puppies to be underweight for their age and expected adult body mass at the time of request for a ration check. The bitch had almost stopped lactating. Ration check: The review of the feeding plans for the different growth stages revealed a deficient energy supply for all stages and at times an inadequate protein supply. A highly inappropriate supply with calcium and phosphorus was found in almost all feeding plans. Sodium and potassium as well as the trace elements copper, zinc, manganese and iodine and several vitamins were deficient in some if not all of the feeding plans. Inadequate supply with such nutrients during the growth phase can lead to severe developmental disorders, especially in large breed puppies. Therefore, a thorough review of self-made rations for puppies carried out by specialised veterinarians appears to be of utmost importance to avoid permanent damage during growth.

  12. Planning Social Expenses by Product Life Cycle Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmyla Shvets

    2013-01-01

    Social spending is among the components of the total cost of every unit produced. Their planning and valuation is appropriate for the purpose of reaching the maximum social effect against the minimum costs of the business resources. For estimation of social costs as well as for defining their internal structure, the Article suggests keeping records and planning social costs by the product life cycle stages. According to the author, the proposed method of cost planning will make it possible to...

  13. Characterization of the developmental stages of sucking in preterm infants during bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Alagugurusamy, R; Schanler, R J; Smith, E O; Shulman, R J

    2000-07-01

    It is acknowledged that the difficulty many preterm infants have in feeding orally results from their immature sucking skills. However, little is known regarding the development of sucking in these infants. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the bottle-feeding performance of preterm infants is positively correlated with the developmental stage of their sucking. Infants' oral-motor skills were followed longitudinally using a special nipple/bottle system which monitored the suction and expression/compression component of sucking. The maturational process was rated into five primary stages based on the presence/absence of suction and the rhythmicity of the two components of sucking, suction and expression/compression. This five-point scale was used to characterize the developmental stage of sucking of each infant. Outcomes of feeding performance consisted of overall transfer (percent total volume transferred/volume to be taken) and rate of transfer (ml/min). Assessments were conducted when infants were taking 1-2, 3-5 and 6-8 oral feedings per day. Significant positive correlations were observed between the five stages of sucking and postmenstrual age, the defined feeding outcomes, and the number of daily oral feedings. Overall transfer and rate of transfer were enhanced when infants reached the more mature stages of sucking. We have demonstrated that oral feeding performance improves as infants' sucking skills mature. In addition, we propose that the present five-point sucking scale may be used to assess the developmental stages of sucking of preterm infants. Such knowledge would facilitate the management of oral feeding in these infants.

  14. Impacts of Different Stages of Nitrogen Dressing on Feeding Value of Forage Summer Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ji-wang; WANG Kong-jun; HU Chang-hao; DONG Shu-ting; LIU Peng

    2002-01-01

    A trial of investigating impacts of nitrogen dressing at different stage on feeding value and physiological characteristics of forage summer maize (Ludan50) has been conducted by means of potted planting. The results suggested that biomass yield, grains yield and feeding value of all treatments were significantly raised compared CK without nitrogen dressing. Nitrogen dressing at the jointing stage for one time could raise the dry matter yield in terms of biomass, thus improving feeding value. Separating total dose of dressing nitrogen into two or three times at the jointing, male tetrad (or flowering) stage were beneficial to the dual purpose of maize, i.e. both kernel and forage. The effects on physiological characters were reflected as the improvement of leaf area index (LAI), activity of nitrate reductase (NR), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD)and soluble protein content in leave above ear. Such impacts were more obvious at the late stage of maize growth.

  15. Effect of feed restriction and feeding plans on performance, slaughter traits and body composition of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Birolo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Two feeding systems (L, ad libitum vs. R, feed restriction were combined with 3 feeding plans (MM, MH, HH to evaluate the effects on performance, slaughter results, body composition and nitrogen balance of 300 commercial crossbred rabbits kept individually from weaning to slaughter (34-70 d of age. The R rabbits were fed from 80% (first days on trial to 100% (end of 3rd wk of ad libitum intake, whereafter R rabbits had free access to feed. The 3 feeding plans were: MM plan, M diet with moderate digestible energy (DE content, 10.6 MJ/kg, throughout the trial; HH plan, H diet with high DE content, 11.1 MJ/kg, throughout the trial; MH plan, M diet for the first 3 wk and H diet for the last 2 wk. Feed restriction did not affect nutrient digestibility, growth rate on the whole trial and slaughter results, but improved feed conversion (2.96 vs. 2.89 in L and R rabbits, respectively; P<0.01 and reduced N excretion (2.16 vs. 2.07 g excreted N/d, in L and R rabbits; P<0.05. At the end of the first period (55 d, R rabbits showed lower empty body protein, lipid, and gross energy gains than L rabbits, but differences disappeared within the end of the trial. The HH plan improved feed conversion (2.97 vs. 2.89 for MM vs. HH; P<0.05, but increased excreted N (2.03 vs. 2.17 g/d; P<0.001 in comparison with the MM plan due to the higher digestible protein/DE ratio of H diet, whereas the MH plan showed intermediate results. In conclusion, a moderate feed restriction during post weaning improved feed conversion and reduced N excretion without negative effects on growth or slaughter results. Moreover, N excretion was confirmed to depend largely on dietary nitrogen content.

  16. Development sites, feeding modes and early stages of seven European Palloptera species (Diptera, Pallopteridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotheray, Graham E

    2014-12-19

    Two hundred and ninety-eight rearing records and 87 larvae and puparia were obtained of seven species of Palloptera Fallén (Diptera, Pallopteridae), mainly in Scotland during 2012-2013. The third stage larva and puparium of each species were assessed morphologically and development sites and feeding modes investigated by rearing, observation and feeding tests. Early stages appear to be distinguished by the swollen, apico-lateral margins of the prothorax which are coated in vestiture and a poorly developed anal lobe with few spicules. Individual pallopteran species are separated by features of the head skeleton, locomotory spicules and the posterior respiratory organs. Five species can be distinguished by unique character states. Observations and feeding tests suggest that the frequently cited attribute of zoophagy is accidental and that saprophagy is the primary larval feeding mode with autumn/winter as the main period of development. Food plants were confirmed for flowerhead and stem developing species and rain is important for maintaining biofilms on which larvae feed. Due to difficulties in capturing adults, especially males, the distribution and abundance of many pallopteran species is probably underestimated. Better informed estimates are possible if early stages are included in biodiversity assessments. To facilitate this for the species investigated, a key to the third stage larva and puparium along with details on finding them, is provided. 

  17. [Specific care plan in different stages of Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Christophe; Villars, Hélène; Nourhashemi, Fati

    2011-09-01

    The management and follow-up of patients with Alzheimers disease have stage-specific characteristics. In the mild stage, the key challenges are above all to improve the early diagnosis and the communication of the diagnosis. With the patient's agreement, a follow-up should be scheduled to assess, at each stage of the disease, cognitive and functional decline, and detect psycho-behavioral, nutritional or mobility complications. In the moderate or severe stages, prevention and treatment of caregiver burnout should be included in the follow-up. Finally, in the very severe stage, end of life and ethical issues should be considered. The followup and the intervention plan should be adapted to each patient, and require coordination between health care professionals and social workers. However, the practical aspects of the follow-up and the ways in which those can be improved are yet to be defined.

  18. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements...

  19. A Two-stage Tuning Method of Servo Parameters for Feed Drives in Machine Tools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the evaluation of dynamic performance for feed drives in machine tools, this paper presents a two-stage tuning method of servo parameters. In the first stage, the evaluation of dynamic performance, parameter tuning and optimization on a mechatronic integrated system simulation platform of feed drives are performed. As a result, a servo parameter combination is acquired. In the second stage, the servo parameter combination from the first stage is set and tuned further in a real machine tool whose dynamic performance is measured and evaluated using the cross grid encoder developed by Heidenhain GmbH. A case study shows that this method simplifies the test process effectively and results in a good dynamic performance in a real machine tool.

  20. [Jejunostomy catheter feeding during postoperative chemotherapy for Stage IV gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Jin; Fukushima, Yukio; Toshiyama, Reishi; Takeda, Mitsunobu; Tokuoka, Masayoshi; Ide, Yoshihito; Hashimoto, Kazuhiko; Yokoyama, Shigekazu; Morimoto, Takashi; Nomura, Takashi; Kodama, Ken; Sasaki, Yo

    2013-11-01

    Chemotherapy followed by surgery for Stage IV gastric cancer with passage obstruction poses a problem in terms of poor postoperative nutritional status. By maintaining an adequate postoperative nutrition status with jejunostomy catheter feeding, chemotherapy may possibly be continued. We treated 40 cases of Stage IV gastric cancer with passage obstruction from January 2008 to December 2011. In every case, jejunostomy catheter feeding tubes were placed during gastric cancer surgery. We performed 13 total gastrectomies, 20 distal gastrectomies, and 7 gastrojejunal bypass surgeries. Tube obstruction in 4 cases( 10%) and tube deviation in 1 case( 2.5%) occurred during the tube feeding period. Chemotherapy could be resumed in 37 cases( 92.5%), and the duration of chemotherapy was 330 days( range, 41-721). In cases of Stage IV gastric cancer, patients are obliged to start postoperative chemotherapy at an unstable period. By starting jejunal catheter feeding at an early stage after surgery, improved results could be expected in terms of shortening of the hospital stay or continuation of chemotherapy.

  1. Co-parenting and feeding in early childhood: Reflections of parent dyads on how they manage the developmental stages of feeding over the first three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thullen, Matthew; Majee, Wilson; Davis, Alexandra N

    2016-10-01

    Family-level influences on the development of healthy eating behaviors start in infancy and toddlerhood with how families manage developmental stages of feeding. Little research on home feeding environments for young children has examined how mothers and fathers collaborate around feeding issues or contribute jointly to feeding. The purpose of this qualitative study is to examine co-parenting with regard to infant/toddler feeding practices. Twenty-four sets of co-resident, biological parents with a child between 6 months and 3 years were interviewed together about their feeding practices and how they discussed and collaborated on feeding during the main stages of feeding development in the first three years. Analyses illuminate themes related to how specific domains of co-parenting (satisfaction with labor, support, agreement, conflict) factor into infant and toddler feeding as well as how additional factors such as having older children and employment schedules shape how both food parenting practices and co-parenting are managed in relation to feeding. Mothers were the primary managers of feeding labor. Fathers participated in feeding in different ways and levels starting in infancy and increased involvement in feeding over the first few years requiring an ongoing negotiation around co-parenting related to feeding. Overall, this study develops insights into how multiple caregivers construct a family environment specifically related to early feeding - a perspective missing from current conceptualizations of home feeding environment. Attention to the concept of co-parenting within home feeding environments should help inform more effective approaches to intervene with families on issues around childhood obesity and family health.

  2. Fungi and Mycotoxins in Feed Intended for Sows at Different Reproductive Stages in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Maricel Pereyra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate fungi and contamination levels of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone in raw materials and finished feed intended for sows at different reproductive stages. Total fungi, Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Fusarium species occurrence, were examined. Aspergillus flavus, A. niger aggregate spp., and F. verticillioides were the prevalent species. Fungal counts exceeded the levels proposed as feed hygienic quality limits (1×104 colony forming units at all reproductive stages. Aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1, and zearalenone were detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Aflatoxin levels in 80% samples of finished sow feeds were over the permitted levels of 0.02 μg g-1 (mean 228.2±95 μg Kg−1. Fumonisin B1 was detected in all tested raw materials at levels that varied from 50.3 to 1137.64 μg Kg−1 and finished feed samples at levels that ranged from 99.8 to 512.4 μg Kg−1. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, and ochratoxin A were not detected in raw materials. All finished feeds were negative for zearalenone contamination whereas all nonpregnant gilt samples were contaminated with low OTA levels (mean 0.259±0.123. This fact requires periodic monitoring to prevent the occurrence of mycotoxicosis in animal production, to reduce the economic losses, and to minimize hazards to human health.

  3. Runway Operations Planning: A Two-Stage Heuristic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, Ioannis; Clarke, John-Paul

    2003-01-01

    The airport runway is a scarce resource that must be shared by different runway operations (arrivals, departures and runway crossings). Given the possible sequences of runway events, careful Runway Operations Planning (ROP) is required if runway utilization is to be maximized. From the perspective of departures, ROP solutions are aircraft departure schedules developed by optimally allocating runway time for departures given the time required for arrivals and crossings. In addition to the obvious objective of maximizing throughput, other objectives, such as guaranteeing fairness and minimizing environmental impact, can also be incorporated into the ROP solution subject to constraints introduced by Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. This paper introduces a two stage heuristic algorithm for solving the Runway Operations Planning (ROP) problem. In the first stage, sequences of departure class slots and runway crossings slots are generated and ranked based on departure runway throughput under stochastic conditions. In the second stage, the departure class slots are populated with specific flights from the pool of available aircraft, by solving an integer program with a Branch & Bound algorithm implementation. Preliminary results from this implementation of the two-stage algorithm on real-world traffic data are presented.

  4. Alternatives generation and analysis for the Phase I intermediate waste feed staging system design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claghorn, R.D., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-06

    This alternatives generation and analysis (AGA) addresses the question: What is the design basis for the facilities required to stage low-level waste (LLW) feed to the Phase I private contractors? Alternative designs for the intermediate waste feed staging system were developed, analyzed, and compared. Based on these analyses, this document recommends installing mixer pumps in the central pump pit of double-shell tanks 241-AP-102 and 241-AP-104. Also recommended is installing decant/transfer pumps at these tanks. These recommendations have clear advantages in that they provide a low shedule impact/risk and the highest operability of all the alternatives investigated. This revision incorporates comments from the decision board.

  5. Business plan Fish feed factory Tete Zambezi Valley, Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, van der Magnus; Boon, Hans; Brouwer, Herman

    2015-01-01

    This business plan has been prepared for local entrepreneurs who would like to expand their business portfolio or to start a value chain business in the aquaculture sector in the region of Tete, Mozambique.

  6. The Feeding Rate of Predatory Mites on Life Stages of Bemisia tabaci Mediterranean Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The sweetpotato whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae continues to be a serious threat to crops worldwide. The UK holds Protected Zone status against this pest and, as a result, B. tabaci entering on plant material is subjected to a policy of eradication. There has recently been a shift from Middle East-Asia Minor 1 to the more chemical resistant Mediterranean species entering the UK. Predatory mites (Amblyseius swirskii, Transeius montdorensis and Typhlodromalus limonicus were screened for their impact upon various lifestages of B. tabaci Mediterranean species. Approximately 30% of eggs were fed upon by A. swirskii following a 5 day period. Feeding rates slightly decreased for all mite species when feeding on first instar life-stages (27%, 24%, 16% respectively and significantly decreased when feeding on second instars (8.5%, 8.5%, 8.7% respectively. Combining the two mite species (A. swirskii and T. montdorensis increased mortality of Bemisia eggs to 36%. The potential of incorporating the mites into existing control strategies for B. tabaci is discussed.

  7. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    OpenAIRE

    Ho Wai Shin; Haslenda Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT) for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE) to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear ...

  8. Dugong dugon feeding in tropical Australian seagrass meadows: implications for conservation planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha J. Tol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dugongs (Dugong dugon are listed as vulnerable to extinction due to rapid population reductions caused in part by loss of seagrass feeding meadows. Understanding dugong feeding behaviour in tropical Australia, where the majority of dugongs live, will assist conservation strategies. We examined whether feeding patterns in intertidal seagrass meadows in tropical north-eastern Australia were related to seagrass biomass, species composition and/or nitrogen content. The total biomass of each seagrass species removed by feeding dugongs was measured and compared to its relative availability. Nitrogen concentrations were also determined for each seagrass species present at the sites. Dugongs consumed seagrass species in proportion to their availability, with biomass being the primary determining factor. Species composition and/or nitrogen content influenced consumption to a lesser degree. Conservation plans focused on protecting high biomass intertidal seagrass meadows are likely to be most effective at ensuring the survival of dugong in tropical north-eastern Australia.

  9. Dugong dugon feeding in tropical Australian seagrass meadows: implications for conservation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Samantha J; Coles, Rob G; Congdon, Bradley C

    2016-01-01

    Dugongs (Dugong dugon) are listed as vulnerable to extinction due to rapid population reductions caused in part by loss of seagrass feeding meadows. Understanding dugong feeding behaviour in tropical Australia, where the majority of dugongs live, will assist conservation strategies. We examined whether feeding patterns in intertidal seagrass meadows in tropical north-eastern Australia were related to seagrass biomass, species composition and/or nitrogen content. The total biomass of each seagrass species removed by feeding dugongs was measured and compared to its relative availability. Nitrogen concentrations were also determined for each seagrass species present at the sites. Dugongs consumed seagrass species in proportion to their availability, with biomass being the primary determining factor. Species composition and/or nitrogen content influenced consumption to a lesser degree. Conservation plans focused on protecting high biomass intertidal seagrass meadows are likely to be most effective at ensuring the survival of dugong in tropical north-eastern Australia.

  10. Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Berglund, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Mäntysaari, P; Løvendahl, P

    2017-09-06

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 primiparous Holstein cows, each with recordings on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, and body weight (BW) over 44 lactation weeks. For each individual cow, energy-corrected milk (ECM), metabolic BW (MBW), and change in BW (ΔBW) were calculated in each week of lactation and were taken as energy sinks when defining RFI. Two RFI models were considered in the analyses; RFI model [1] was a 1-step RFI model with constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks (ECM, MBW, and ΔBW) over lactation. In RFI model [2], data from 44 lactation weeks were divided into 11 consecutive lactation periods of 4 wk in length. The RFI model [2] was identical to model [1] except that period-specific partial regressions of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW in each lactation period were allowed across lactation. We estimated genetic parameters for RFI across lactation by both models using a random regression method. Using RFI model [2], we estimated the period-specific effects of ECM, MBW, and ΔBW on DMI in all lactation periods. Based on results from RFI model [2], the partial regression coefficients of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW differed across lactation in RFI. Constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks over lactation was not always sufficient to account for the effects across lactation and tended to give roughly average information from all period-specific effects. Heritability for RFI over 44 lactation weeks ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 in model [1] and from 0.10 to 0.23 in model [2]. Genetic variance and heritability estimates for RFI from model [2] tended to be slightly lower and more stable across lactation than those from model [1]. In both

  11. Health care planning and education via gaming-simulation: a two-stage experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, J H; Greenblat, C S

    1977-01-01

    A two-stage process of gaming-simulation design was conducted: the first stage of design concerned national planning for hemophilia care; the second stage of design was for gaming-simulation concerning the problems of hemophilia patients and health care providers. The planning design was intended to be adaptable to large-scale planning for a variety of health care problems. The educational game was designed using data developed in designing the planning game. A broad range of policy-makers participated in the planning game.

  12. Competition during the milk-feeding stage influences the development of feeding behavior of pair-housed dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated how the feeding behavior of pair-housed calves develops in response to reduced teat and feed place availability. Twenty Holstein bull calves were pair housed and provided with milk replacer (MR) and grain concentrate ad libitum via either (1) 1 teat and feed bucket/pen, such that calves could not feed simultaneously [competitive feeding (CF)] or (2) 2 teats and feed buckets/pen [noncompetitive feeding (NCF)]. The calves were weaned during wk 7 of life by incrementally diluting the MR. Postweaning, all pens were managed identically and offered a complete pelleted diet ad libitum via 2 feed buckets/pen (NCF) in period 1 (wk 8 and 9) and period 3 (wk 12 and 13) and exposed to a competitive challenge with CF in period 2 (wk 10 and 11). Feeding times and competitive interactions were recorded from video for 3 d/wk in wk 2, 4, and 6 and 2 d/wk in wk 8 to 13. Meal criteria were used to calculate daily meal frequency, meal time, and synchronized meal time (the percentage of meal time when calves within the pen were engaged in simultaneous meals). Milk replacer intake was subject to a treatment × week interaction, with calves in CF pens having lower MR intake (wk 2: 8.3 vs. 10.0 L/calf per day for CF vs. NCF), but compensating by increasing intake to a greater extent over time (wk 4-5: 13.3 vs. 11.7 L/d for CF vs. NCF). Corresponding to MR intake, meal frequencies and feeding times evolved differently over this period, increasing in CF pens and decreasing in NCF pens (wk 2: 5.8 vs. 11.1 and wk 4-6: 6.2 vs. 5.1 meals/d for CF vs. NCF). Calves in CF pens also spent less time engaged in synchronized meals (28 vs. 51% of meal time; standard error=7.1) and displaced each other 5 times more frequently during synchronized eating. Postweaning, calves in previously CF pens maintained 5 times greater displacement frequencies and had fewer overlapping meals than calves in previously NCF pens (34.5 vs. 40.7% of meals, respectively). Postweaning, when calves

  13. Cost planning in the stage of product development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Vladimir V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The total product life cycle cost can be planned based on one of the methods of global cost estimation. Also, total product life cycle cost can be planned based on cost plans and estimates by phases of the product life cycle, such as the phases of development, production, use and termination of the life cycle. By identifying the specific activities related to the relevant phases of life cycle as corresponding cost drivers, it is possible to accurately determine the total cost of individual phases using suitable methods known in the literature. This paper presents planning possibility respectively cost assessment of product development phase.

  14. Curriculum Planning and Development in Mathematics from the Formative Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festus, Azuka Benard; Kurumeh, Mary Seraphina

    2015-01-01

    Curriculum of a school consists of all the experiences that a learner encounters under the direction of the school. The curriculum of any educational system is planned and developed according to the needs of the society. Just as the society is dynamic, the curriculum is also dynamic. Hence, curriculum is usually changed from time to time. This…

  15. Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan TA-60 Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, Leonard Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) is applicable to operations at the Technical Area -60 (TA-60) Roads and Grounds Facility and Associated Sigma Mesa Staging Area off Eniwetok Drive, in Los Alamos County, New Mexico.

  16. Financial planning via multi-stage stochastic programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulvey, J.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents a framework for modeling financial applications, including asset allocation, as multi-stage stochastic programs. Starting with the classic single-period Markowitz model, we show that additional realistic issues can be addressed via multi-period stochastic programming. The advantages of integrating liabilities, assets, and investment goals are discussed. An investor must design a dynamic model for the stochastic parameters and link this process to an integrated asset-liability system if he wants to measure portfolio risk over time. Partial analysis leads to errors in risk evaluation. Algorithms for solving the resulting large-scale nonlinear stochastic programs are described. Topics for future research are proposed.

  17. Integrated Electricity Planning Comprise Renewable Energy and Feed-In Tariff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Wai Shin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Mitigation of global warming and energy crisis has called upon the need of an efficient tool for electricity planning. This study thus presents an electricity planning tool that incorporates RE with Feed in-Tariff (FiT for various sources of Renewable Energy (RE to minimize grid-connected electricity generation cost as well as to satisfy nominal electricity demand and CO2 emission reduction target. Approach: In order to perform these tasks, a general Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP model was developed and implemented in General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS. The RE options considered including landfill gas, municipal solid waste, palm oil residue and hydro power. While the model presents a general approach for electricity planning, Iskandar Malaysia is applied as a case study in this research. Results: By considering the cost, FiT, availability of the Renewable Energy Source (RES and limit of RE fund for FiT remuneration in Malaysia. The optimization result indicates that Iskandar Malaysia can satisfy the set target of 40% carbon emission reduction by 2015 by implementing biomass RE. Conclusion: It’s revealed that a total of 875 MW of RE is required from Biomass Bubbling Fluidized Bed (BBFB using various palm oil biomass fuel (mesofiber-215 MW, Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB-424 MW and kernel-236 MW. However, this increases the Cost Of Electricity (COE by 69-6.5% cents/kWh.

  18. Feeding ecology of dunlins Calidris alpina staging in the southern Baltic Sea, 1. Habitat use and food selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dierschke, Volker; Kube, Jan; Probst, Sandra; Brenning, Ulrich

    1999-08-01

    The feeding habits of migrating dunlins Calidris alpina staging in different non-tidal coastal habitats in the southern Baltic Sea are described. The study also focuses on the structure of the benthic macrofauna of these habitats and the diet choice of dunlins. All investigations were carried out on Langenwerder Island (Wismar Bay), where different types of flats and beaches harbour a total of 30 to 40 species of marine macrofauna. The composition of the macrobenthos differed considerably between the eulittoral sandbank, the eulittoral mudflat, the pebble beach, and the sublittoral surroundings. Most dunlins were observed foraging in flocks of up to several hundred individuals on the eulittoral flats. Densities of up to 20 to 30 foraging dunlins ha -1 occurred annually during peak migration in September and October. Macrobenthos biomass in these habitats fluctuated between 20 and 40 g AFDM m -2. The mean total food consumption of dunlins during autumn migration was estimated at 0.01 g AFDM m -2 d -1. The predation pressure could be estimated at 3 to 6% of the suitable food supply. Dunlins staging on Langenwerder were able to attain a pre-migratory mass gain of 0.2 to 0.5% of their body weight per day within an 8 to 12-h daily feeding period. The birds fed predominantly on the polychaete Hediste diversicolor by probing. They selected small 7 to 31-mm-long individuals. When water levels were high, and the eulittoral flats inundated, many dunlins switched to foraging along the shorelines where a variety of small prey were taken from spilled macrophytes. Dunlins sometimes obviously ignored their most important food H. diversicolor, although available, by feeding on other prey such as juvenile fishes and shrimps, dipteran larvae or spilled amphipods. When feeding on amphipods, dunlins selected the smallest individuals.

  19. Contractors’ Strategic Approaches to Risk Assessment Techniques at Project Planning Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Zaini, Afzan; Endut, Intan Rohani; Takim, Roshana

    2011-01-01

    Abstract — The construction industry is still plagued by poor quality, poor workmanship, poor safety and health environment, and poor practices. The current main problem in the Malaysian Construction Industry is delayed projects under the Ninth Malaysia Plan. The idea of introducing formal risk assessment among Malaysian contractors during the project planning stage is a proactive approach to achieve project objectives. Therefore, this research intends to achieve the following objectives: (1)...

  20. Fleet Planning Decision-Making: Two-Stage Optimization with Slot Purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lay Eng Teoh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Essentially, strategic fleet planning is vital for airlines to yield a higher profit margin while providing a desired service frequency to meet stochastic demand. In contrast to most studies that did not consider slot purchase which would affect the service frequency determination of airlines, this paper proposes a novel approach to solve the fleet planning problem subject to various operational constraints. A two-stage fleet planning model is formulated in which the first stage selects the individual operating route that requires slot purchase for network expansions while the second stage, in the form of probabilistic dynamic programming model, determines the quantity and type of aircraft (with the corresponding service frequency to meet the demand profitably. By analyzing an illustrative case study (with 38 international routes, the results show that the incorporation of slot purchase in fleet planning is beneficial to airlines in achieving economic and social sustainability. The developed model is practically viable for airlines not only to provide a better service quality (via a higher service frequency to meet more demand but also to obtain a higher revenue and profit margin, by making an optimal slot purchase and fleet planning decision throughout the long-term planning horizon.

  1. Predicting the stages of smoking acquisition according to the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, A J; Boudreau, F; Amyot, E; Déry, D; Godin, G

    1997-08-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the variables from the theory of planned behavior that are responsible for differentiating the stages of smoking acquisition. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 360 secondary I level students from a possible population of 500 students. This questionnaire was designed by the researchers according to Ajzen and Fishbein's and Ajzen's recommendations regarding the predictive model variables. It also contained sociodemographic and personal variables. Data from this cross-sectional study were analyzed using multivariate analysis. The multivariate analysis of variance indicated an overall significant difference in terms of the three psychosocial variables (Pillais approximation F12,867 = 25.22; p behavioral control (F4,289 = 87.92; p = 0.0001) contributed to differentiating the stages of smoking acquisition. The discriminant function analysis indicated that attitude (0.826) and perceived behavioral control (0.725) dominate the construct; the contribution of the subjective norm (0.375) is less important. Finally, these variables from the theory of planned behavior permitted the correct classification of 68.4% of adolescents into the stages of smoking acquisition. The application of the theory of planned behavior seems to increase understanding of the stages of smoking acquisition. The distribution of students in the five stages shows that in the advanced stages, refraining from smoking is more difficult, and that smoking advantages surpass disadvantages. These findings represent only a step toward the development of interventions aimed at warning adolescents against smoking.

  2. Role of the cerebellum in high stages of motor planning hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casartelli, Luca; Federici, Alessandra; Cesareo, Ambra; Biffi, Emilia; Valtorta, Giulia; Molteni, Massimo; Ronconi, Luca; Borgatti, Renato

    2017-04-01

    Motor planning is not a monolithic process, and distinct stages of motor planning are responsible for encoding different levels of abstractness. However, how these distinct components are mapped into different neural substrates remains an open question. We studied one of these high-level motor planning components, defined as second-order motor planning, in a patient (R.G.) with an extremely rare case of cerebellar agenesis but without any other cortical malformations. Second-order motor planning dictates that when two acts must be performed sequentially, planning of the second act can influence execution of the first. We used an optoelectronic system for kinematic analysis to compare R.G.'s performance with age-matched controls in a second-order motor planning task. The first act was to reach for an object, and the second was to place it into a small or large container. Our results showed that despite the expected difficulties in fine-motor skills, second-order motor planning (i.e., the ability to modulate the first act as a function of the nature of the second act) was preserved even in the patient with congenital absence of the cerebellum. These results open new intriguing speculations about the role of the cerebellum in motor planning abilities. Although prudence is imperative when suggesting conclusions made on the basis of single-case findings, this evidence suggests fascinating hypotheses about the neural circuits that support distinct stages of the motor planning hierarchy, and regarding the functional role of second-order motor planning in motor cognition and its potential dysfunction in autism.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Traditionally, the cerebellum was considered essential for motor planning. By studying an extremely rare patient with cerebellar agenesis and a group of neurotypical controls, we found that high stages of the motor planning hierarchy can be preserved even in this patient with congenital absence of the cerebellum. Our results provide interesting

  3. Predicting mothers' decisions to introduce complementary feeding at 6 months. An investigation using an extended theory of planned behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Kyra; Daniels, Lynne; White, Katherine M; Murray, Nicole; Walsh, Anne

    2011-06-01

    In Australia and other developed countries there is poor adherence to guidelines recommending the introduction of complementary feeding to infants at 6 months of age. We aimed to investigate, via adopting a theory of planned behaviour framework and incorporating additional normative and demographic influences, mothers' complementary feeding intentions and behaviour. Participants were 375 primiparas who completed an initial questionnaire (infant age 13±3 weeks) that assessed the theory of planned behaviour constructs of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioural control, as well as group norm and additional maternal and infant variables of mothers' age, education level, weight status perception, current maternal feeding practices, and infant birth weight. Approximately, 3 months after completion of the main questionnaire, mothers completed a follow-up questionnaire that assessed the age in months at which the infant was first introduced to solids. The theory of planned behaviour variables of attitude and subjective norm, along with group norm, predicted intentions, with intention, mothers' age (older more likely), and weight status perception (overweight less likely) predicting behaviour. Overall, the results highlight the importance of attitudes, normative influences, and individual characteristics in complementary feeding decision-making which should be considered when designing interventions aimed at improving adherence to current maternal feeding guidelines. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. An Opinion on "Staging" of Infant Formula: A Developmental Perspective on Infant Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Hernell, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Breast milk is a dynamic fluid with compositional changes occurring throughout the period of lactation. Some of these changes in nutrient concentrations reflect the successively slowing growth rate and developmental changes in metabolic requirements that infants undergo during the first year of life. Infant formula, in contrast, has a static composition, intended to meet the nutritional requirements of infants from birth to 6 or 12 months of age. To better fit the metabolic needs of infants and to avoid nutrient limitations or excesses, we suggest that infant formulas should change in composition with the age of the infant, that is, different formulas are created/used for different ages during the first year of life. We propose that specific formulas for 0 to 3 months (stage 1), 3 to 6 months (stage 2), and 6 to 12 months (stage 3) of age may be nutritionally and physiologically advantageous to infants. Although this initially may impose some difficult practical/conceptual issues, we believe that this staging concept would improve nutrition of formula-fed infants and, ultimately, improve outcomes and make their performance more similar to that of breast-fed infants.

  5. Prosthetic management of gingival recession around implants: lessons learned from staged-approach treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Louis R; Hirsh, Leslie Stone

    2015-03-01

    Complex implant rehabilitations can include procedures requiring multiple phases of treatment, commonly referred to as staged approaches. The reasons for staged approaches are varied but usually involve serial extraction of hopeless teeth. These treatment plans both enable the patient to avoid removable prostheses by keeping natural teeth during healing phases, and circumvent the immediate loading of some implants placed in grafted bone. One major disadvantage to serial extraction in a staged approach is the potential for gingival changes. These changes include gingival recession around abutments that can affect the gingival profile around the finished case. This article discusses varying approaches for dealing with these gingival changes and suggests protocol modifications during the implant treatment-planning phase.

  6. Structured reporting of multiphasic CT for pancreatic cancer: potential effect on staging and surgical planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Olga R; Brook, Alexander; Vollmer, Charles M; Kent, Tara S; Sanchez, Norberto; Pedrosa, Ivan

    2015-02-01

    To compare structured versus nonstructured reporting of multiphasic computed tomography (CT) for staging of pancreatic cancer and the effects of both types of reporting on subjective assessment of resectability. This institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant retrospective study with waiver of informed consent included all patients who were referred for presurgical multiphasic CT of the pancreas between December 2006 and April 2011 at one institution before and after implementation (April 2008) of a structured reporting template. The template was created specifically for reporting multiphasic CT results to stage pancreatic cancer in patients and contained specific information relevant to surgical and oncologic planning. Multiphasic CT reports were assessed for the presence of 12 key features required for staging and surgical planning, including location, size, enhancement, node status, and vascular involvement. Three pancreatic surgeons evaluated the reports to assess resectability, surgical planning, and ease of extracting information before and after reviewing the multiphasic CT images blinded to the patient identifiers. The Student t test and χ(2) test were used for statistical analysis. Forty-eight (40%) structured and 72 (60%) nonstructured multiphasic CT reports were reviewed. Nonstructured reports contained a mean ± standard deviation of 7.3 key features ± 2.1 (range, 1-11) and structured reports contained 10.6 ± 0.9 (range, 9-12) features (P planning was deemed easily accessible in 94%, 60%, and 98% of structured and 47%, 54%, and 32% of nonstructured reports by the three surgeons, respectively (P planning in 96%, 69%, and 98% of structured and 31%, 43%, and 25% of nonstructured reports (P planning. Surgeons were more confident regarding decisions about tumor resectability when they reviewed structured reports before review of multiphasic CT images. © RSNA, 2014.

  7. Morphology of the midgut of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) adult ticks in different feeding stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remedio, R N; Sampieri, B R; Vendramini, M C R; Souza, N M; Anholeto, L A; Denardo, T A G B; Camargo-Mathias, M I

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal epithelial cells of ticks are fundamental for their full feeding and reproductive success, besides being considered important sites for the development of pathogens. Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks are known for their great medical and veterinary importance, and for this reason, the knowledge of their intestinal morphology may provide relevant subsidies for the control of these animals, either by direct acaricidal action over these cells or by the production of vaccines. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the midgut morphology of male and female R. sanguineus ticks in different feeding stages, by means of histological analysis. Significant differences were observed between the genders, and such alterations may refer mainly to the distinct demands for nutrients, much higher in females, which need to develop and carry out the egg-laying process. In general, the midgut is coated by a thin muscle layer and presents a pseudostratified epithelium, in which two basic types of cells can be observed, connected to a basal membrane-generative or stem and digestive cells. The latter was classified as follows: residual, deriving from the phase anterior to ecdysis; pinocytic, with vesicles containing liquid or pre-digested components of blood; phagocytic, with entire cells or remnants of nuclear material inside cytoplasmic vesicles; and mature, free in the lumen. Digestion is presumably intracellular and asynchronous and corresponds to a process which starts with the differentiation of generative cells into pinocytic digestive cells, which subsequently start to phagocytize intact blood cells and finally detach from the epithelium, being eliminated with feces.

  8. Ares First Stage "Systemology" - Combining Advanced Systems Engineering and Planning Tools to Assure Mission Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiler, James; Brasfield, Fred; Cannon, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Ares is an integral part of NASA s Constellation architecture that will provide crew and cargo access to the International Space Station as well as low earth orbit support for lunar missions. Ares replaces the Space Shuttle in the post 2010 time frame. Ares I is an in-line, two-stage rocket topped by the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. The Ares I first stage is a single, five-segment reusable solid rocket booster derived from the Space Shuttle Program's reusable solid rocket motor. The Ares second or upper stage is propelled by a J-2X main engine fueled with liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. This paper describes the advanced systems engineering and planning tools being utilized for the design, test, and qualification of the Ares I first stage element. Included are descriptions of the current first stage design, the milestone schedule requirements, and the marriage of systems engineering, detailed planning efforts, and roadmapping employed to achieve these goals.

  9. Feeding stage, species, body part and sex-specific activity of glutathione S-transferase in mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathy, A; Kar, S K

    2015-03-01

    In the present study, the feeding stage, body parts, development and sex specific activity of Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) were observed in different mosquito species (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Anopheles stephensi, An. culicifacies, An. annularis, An. subpictus, An. vagus). GST activity was assayed spectrophotometrically at 23°C, using a UV Max microplate Reader, to measure the rate of conjugation of GSH to CDNB. A significant species-specific difference in the activity of GST was noticed, highest being in unfed Ae. aegypti (41.2 nmol/min/mg) followed by unfed Cx. quinquefasciatus (7.9 nmol/min/mg) and the least in unfed An. stephensi (5.8 nmol/min/mg). In all the species the GST activity was found to be significantly higher in fully fed and gravid stages compared with the unfed, while the enzyme activity was reduced after egg laying either to the level of unfed animals or well below its level in all the experimental species. The GST activity was found to be higher in the abdominal region of all the experimental species in comparison with the other body parts (head and thorax). The GST activity of An. stephensi increased gradually through the larval stages and reached the maximum level in the pupae and remained at that level in the newly emerged adults. However, its activity declined markedly (10 fold) with ageing from 5 to 40 days. A significant sex-related difference in the specific activity of GST was found in An. stephensi where approximately 3.5 fold lower activity was observed in males compared with its females, whereas no significant variation was noticed in Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The study corroborates the fact that GSTs are differentially regulated by multiple mechanisms in response to xenobiotics modulation in situation-specific manner such as species, sex, feeding and developmental stage. The knowledge of situation-specific modulation of GST will provide a better understanding of GST based insecticide resistance

  10. The relationship between feed efficiency and the circadian profile of blood plasma analytes measured in beef heifers at different physiological stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonano, C V; Montanholi, Y R; Schenkel, F S; Smith, B A; Cant, J P; Miller, S P

    2014-10-01

    The characterization of blood metabolite concentrations over the circadian period and across physiological stages is important for understanding the biological basis of feed efficiency, and may culminate in indirect methods for assessing feed efficiency. Hematological analyses for albumin, urea, creatine kinase, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, carbon dioxide, and acetate were carried out in growing and gestating heifers. These measures were carried out in a sample of 36 Bos taurus crossed beef heifers held under the same husbandry conditions. Hourly blood samples were collected over a 24-h period on three separate sampling occasions, corresponding approximately to the yearling (and open), early-gestation and late-gestation stages. This design was used to determine variation throughout the day, effects due to physiological status and any associations with feed efficiency, as measured by residual feed intake. Blood analyte levels varied with time of day, with the most variation occurring between 0800 and 1600 h. There were also considerable differences in analyte levels across the three physiological stages; for example, creatine kinase was higher (Pcarbon dioxide (Plevels (POver the whole experimental period, carbon dioxide concentrations were numerically lower in more feed efficient heifers (P=0.079). Differences were also observed across physiological stages. For instance, open heifers had increased levels (Pcarbon dioxide than early and late pregnancy heifers. In essence, this study revealed relevant information about the metabolic profile in the context of feed efficiency and physiological stages. Further optimization of our approach, along with the evaluation of complementary analytes, will aid in the development of robust, indirect assessments of feed efficiency.

  11. Fully automated VMAT treatment planning for advanced-stage NSCLC patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Della Gala, Giuseppe [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Universita di Bologna, Scuola di Scienze, Alma Mater Studiorum, Bologna (Italy); Dirkx, Maarten L.P.; Hoekstra, Nienke; Fransen, Dennie; Pol, Marjan van de; Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lanconelli, Nico [Universita di Bologna, Scuola di Scienze, Alma Mater Studiorum, Bologna (Italy); Petit, Steven F. [Erasmus MC Cancer Institute, Department of Radiation Oncology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Massachusetts General Hospital - Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    To develop a fully automated procedure for multicriterial volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment planning (autoVMAT) for stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with curative intent. After configuring the developed autoVMAT system for NSCLC, autoVMAT plans were compared with manually generated clinically delivered intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plans for 41 patients. AutoVMAT plans were also compared to manually generated VMAT plans in the absence of time pressure. For 16 patients with reduced planning target volume (PTV) dose prescription in the clinical IMRT plan (to avoid violation of organs at risk tolerances), the potential for dose escalation with autoVMAT was explored. Two physicians evaluated 35/41 autoVMAT plans (85%) as clinically acceptable. Compared to the manually generated IMRT plans, autoVMAT plans showed statistically significant improved PTV coverage (V{sub 95%} increased by 1.1% ± 1.1%), higher dose conformity (R{sub 50} reduced by 12.2% ± 12.7%), and reduced mean lung, heart, and esophagus doses (reductions of 0.9 Gy ± 1.0 Gy, 1.5 Gy ± 1.8 Gy, 3.6 Gy ± 2.8 Gy, respectively, all p < 0.001). To render the six remaining autoVMAT plans clinically acceptable, a dosimetrist needed less than 10 min hands-on time for fine-tuning. AutoVMAT plans were also considered equivalent or better than manually optimized VMAT plans. For 6/16 patients, autoVMAT allowed tumor dose escalation of 5-10 Gy. Clinically deliverable, high-quality autoVMAT plans can be generated fully automatically for the vast majority of advanced-stage NSCLC patients. For a subset of patients, autoVMAT allowed for tumor dose escalation. (orig.) [German] Entwicklung einer vollautomatisierten, auf multiplen Kriterien basierenden volumenmodulierten Arc-Therapie-(VMAT-)Behandlungsplanung (autoVMAT) fuer kurativ behandelte Patienten mit nicht-kleinzelligem Bronchialkarzinom (NSCLC) im Stadium III/IV. Nach Konfiguration unseres auto

  12. Smoking cessation: an application of theory of planned behavior to understanding progress through stages of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bledsoe, Linda K

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate variables relevant to smoking cessation early in the process of change through an application of the Theory of Planned Behavior [Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl and J. Beckman (Eds). Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp.11-39). Heidelberg: Springer.] to the temporal structure provided by the Transtheoretical Model. Study 1 was a preliminary elicitation study (n=68) conducted to ground the concepts used in the model testing in Study 2 [Ajzen, I., Fishbein, M. (1980). Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.]. Study 2 tested the proposed model fit with data from a sample of 230 adult smokers. Structural equation modeling did not support the Theory of Planned Behavior as a model of motivation for progress through the stages of change and highlighted measurement issues with perceived behavioral control. A modified model using the Theory of Reasoned Action provided a good fit to the data, accounting for approximately 64% of the variance in intention to quit smoking and stage of change. This research addresses the need for a more complete theoretical rationale for progress through stages of change.

  13. Larval and female footprints as feeding deterrent cues for immature stages of two congeneric ladybird predators (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Mishra, G; Omkar

    2014-10-01

    In the present study predation parameters, i.e. consumption rate, conversion efficiency and growth rate, and total developmental duration of immature stages of two congeneric ladybirds, Coccinella septempunctata (L.) and Coccinella transversalis F., have been evaluated in presence of conspecific and heterospecific fourth instar larval and adult female tracks. We hypothesized that the semiochemicals within larval/adult female tracks might act as foraging/feeding deterrent pheromones (FDPs) and would reduce the predation parameters; and would prolong total developmental duration of ladybird predators. Results of the study positively affirmed our hypothesis. The deterrence in prey consumption and reduction in conversion efficiency and growth rate was density dependent with species-specific variations. Consumption rate, conversion efficiency, and growth rate of larval instars decreased and the total developmental duration of immature stages increased when exposed to an increasing density of zero, two, three, and four conspecific/heterospecific larval/adult female tracks. Between ladybird species, C. septempunctata had higher consumption rate, growth rate, and total developmental durations, whereas conversion efficiency was higher in C. transversalis. Despite the presence of semiochemical tracks as foraging barriers, early instars showed higher conversion efficiencies and growth rates, whereas fourth instars had highest consumption rate in all experimental treatments. The present study, therefore, suggests that semiochemical tracks significantly reduce the predation potential and prolong developmental duration of conspecifics and heterospecifics. They, thus behave as FDP.

  14. Using Complete Squares Method to Optimize Replenishment Policies in a Four-Stage Supply Chain with Planned Backorders

    OpenAIRE

    M. E. Seliaman

    2011-01-01

    We develop a four-stage, serial supply chain inventory model with planned backorders. This supply chain model is formulated for the integer multipliers coordination mechanism, where firms at the same stage of the supply chain use the same cycle time and the cycle time at each stage is an integer multiplier of the cycle time used at the adjacent downstream stage. We develop an optimal replenishment policy using a simple algebraic method to solve the problem without the use of differential calc...

  15. Body Weight and Body Mass Index in Patients with End-Stage Cystic Fibrosis Stabilize After the Start of Enteral Tube Feeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, Francis M.; Roos, de Nicole M.; Belle-Van Meerkerk, Gerdien; Teding van Berkhout, Ferdinand; Heijerman, Harry G.M.; Graaf, van de Ed A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Enteral tube feeding (ETF) is widely used in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and end-stage lung disease, but previous studies have been limited to investigating whether ETF improves outcomes in patients with moderately or mildly impaired pulmonary function. Objective: This study

  16. Developmental intervals during the larval and juvenile stages of the Antarctic myctophid fish Electrona antarctica in relation to changes in feeding and swimming functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteki, Masato; Tsujimura, Eri; Hulley, Percy-Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The Antarctic myctophid fish species Electrona antarctica is believed to play a key role in the Southern Ocean food web, but there have been few studies on its early life history. This study examined the developmental changes in the external morphology and osteology of E. antarctica from the early larva to juvenile stages through the transformation phase and inferred changes in its behaviour and feeding mode. Once the larvae reached 12-13 mm body length (BL), they adopted a primordial suction feeding mode along with the acquisition of early swimming capabilities. Thereafter, both swimming and feeding functions were enhanced through fin development and ossification and acquisition of elements of the jaw and suspensorium. These processes indicate that larvae transition from the planktonic to nektonic phase upon reaching 12-13 mm BL when they enhance their both swimming and feeding abilities with growth. Transformation occurred when larvae reached 19-21 mm BL with changes such as discontinuous increases in eye diameter and upper jaw length and the appearance of photophores and dense body pigmentation. Osteological development of swimming- and feeding-related structures were mostly complete after transformation. Rapid changes in external morphology and osteology during the transformation stage are most likely related to ontogenetic vertical migration into deep waters.

  17. Lung cancer: Morphological and functional approach to screening, staging and treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coche, Emmanuel; Lonneux, Max; Geets, Xavier

    2010-03-01

    Lung cancer is a major problem in public health and constitutes the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography is promising but needs to overcome many difficulties, such as the large number of incidentally discovered nodules, the radiation dose delivered to the patient during a whole screening program and its cost. The ultimate target point represented by the reduction of lung cancer-related mortality needs to be proved in large, well-designed, randomized, multicenter, prospective trials. Lung cancer staging by morphological tools seems to be limited owing to the presence of metastases in normal-sized lymph nodes. In this context, multidetector computed tomography cannot be used alone but is useful in conjunction with molecular imaging and MRI. Today, flurodeoxglucose PET-CT appears to be the most accurate method for lung cancer staging and may prevent unnecessary thoracotomies. For treatment planning, flurodeoxglucose PET-CT is playing an increasing role in radiotherapy planning at the target selection and definition steps.

  18. Development of a two-stage feeding strategy based on the kind and level of feeding nutrients for improving fed-batch production of L-threonine by Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuwen; Liang, Yong; Liu, Qian; Tao, Tongtong; Lai, Shujuan; Chen, Ning; Wen, Tingyi

    2013-01-01

    Fed-batch fermentation is the predominant method for industrial production of amino acids. In this study, we comprehensively investigated the effects of four kinds of feeding nutrients and developed an accurate optimization strategy for fed-batch production of L-threonine. The production of L-threonine was severely inhibited when cell growth ceased in the bath culture. Similarly, L-threonine production was also associated with cell growth in the carbon-, phosphate-, and sulfate-limited fed-batch cultures, but the accumulation of L-threonine was markedly increased because of the extended production time in the growth stage. Interestingly, auxotrophic amino acid (L-isoleucine)-limited feeding promoted L-threonine production over the non-growth phase. Metabolite analysis indicates that substantial production of acetate and glutamate and the resulting accumulation of ammonium may lead to the inhibition of L-threonine production. During the growth phase, the levels of L-isoleucine were accurately optimized by balancing cell growth and production with Pontryagin's maximum principle, basing on the relationship between the specific growth rate μ and specific production rate ρ. Furthermore, the depletion of L-isoleucine and phosphate at the end of the growth phase favored the synthesis of L-threonine in the subsequent non-growth phase. Combining the two-stage feeding profiles, the final L-threonine concentration and conversion rate were increased by 5.9- and 2.1-fold, respectively, compared to batch processes without feeding control. The identification of efficient feeding nutrient and the development of accurate feeding strategies provide potential guidelines for microbial production of amino acids.

  19. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P; Heringstad, B

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (silages were restrictedly fermented. Silage digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) values were 747, 708, and 647 g/kg of DM for H1, H2, and H3, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of the 3 silages supplemented with 3 concentrate levels (4, 8, and 12 kg/d) and, additionally, H1 was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4 kg of concentrates were strongly constrained by high dietary fiber concentration. They consumed 16.5 g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of body weight and spent more time eating silage than cows offered other diets. The highest

  20. Dry Coal Feed System and Multi-Element Injector Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ken Sprouse; Fred Widman; Alan Darby

    2006-08-30

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine technology to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. One key feature of the PWR concept is the use of an ultra-dense phase feed system to provide dry coal to the multi-element injector. This report describes the layout, test procedures, instrumentation and data acquisition requirements for an ultradense phase multi-element injector and feed system to be operated at the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC).

  1. [Modulation of Na+,K+-pump activity and Na+,Li+-exchange in rabbit erythrocytes at various stages of cholesterol feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, V L

    1995-09-01

    The activities of the Na+,K(+)-pump and the Na+/Li(+)-exchange and the intracellular concentration of Na+ in erythrocytes of rabbits with experimental hypercholesterolemia have been studied at different stages of cholesterol (Ch) feeding as well as at different intervals after stopping of cholesterol-rich diets. After sufficiently long periods of feeding the animals with Ch (1.5-2 months), a significant activation of the Na+,K(+)-pump, reduction of the Na+/Li(+)-exchange rate and lowering of the intracellular sodium content in erythrocytes of rabbits from experimental groups were observed. Several months after stopping Ch-rich diets there was a partial normalization of the parameters under study. However, at the initial stage of the experiment (20 days after the beginning of Ch feeding) as well as two weeks after Ch feeding had been stopped, there occurred no changes in the activities of the ion transport systems or in [Na+]i despite substantial changes in the plasma Ch level. It is suggested that the observed effect of dietary Ch on the activity of ion carriers may be mediated by affecting the expression of the corresponding genes.

  2. Under cover of darkness, caterpillars take flight: the immature stages and feeding ecology of the glasswinged butterfly, Oleria baizana in eastern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walla, Thomas R; Greeney, Harold F

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the morphology and behavior of the immature stages of Oleria baizana (Haensch) (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) from northeastern Ecuador. Brugmansia aurea Lagerh. (Solanales: Solanaceae) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly, off of the host plant in the leaf litter. During the night, larvae climb a food plant seedling and sever a leaf petiole, parachuting with the leaf to the ground where they remain while feeding. Oleria baizana has five larval stadia, and individuals take 77 days to mature from oviposition to adult stage.

  3. Using Complete Squares Method to Optimize Replenishment Policies in a Four-Stage Supply Chain with Planned Backorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Seliaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We develop a four-stage, serial supply chain inventory model with planned backorders. This supply chain model is formulated for the integer multipliers coordination mechanism, where firms at the same stage of the supply chain use the same cycle time and the cycle time at each stage is an integer multiplier of the cycle time used at the adjacent downstream stage. We develop an optimal replenishment policy using a simple algebraic method to solve the problem without the use of differential calculus.

  4. Planning an Agricultural Water Resources Management System: A Two-Stage Stochastic Fractional Programming Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Cui

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation water management is crucial for agricultural production and livelihood security in many regions and countries throughout the world. In this study, a two-stage stochastic fractional programming (TSFP method is developed for planning an agricultural water resources management system under uncertainty. TSFP can provide an effective linkage between conflicting economic benefits and the associated penalties; it can also balance conflicting objectives and maximize the system marginal benefit with per unit of input under uncertainty. The developed TSFP method is applied to a real case of agricultural water resources management of the Zhangweinan River Basin China, which is one of the main food and cotton producing regions in north China and faces serious water shortage. The results demonstrate that the TSFP model is advantageous in balancing conflicting objectives and reflecting complicated relationships among multiple system factors. Results also indicate that, under the optimized irrigation target, the optimized water allocation rate of Minyou Channel and Zhangnan Channel are 57.3% and 42.7%, respectively, which adapts the changes in the actual agricultural water resources management problem. Compared with the inexact two-stage water management (ITSP method, TSFP could more effectively address the sustainable water management problem, provide more information regarding tradeoffs between multiple input factors and system benefits, and help the water managers maintain sustainable water resources development of the Zhangweinan River Basin.

  5. Mass cultivation of microalgae on animal wastewater: a sequential two-stage cultivation process for energy crop and omega-3-rich animal feed production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenguang; Hu, Bing; Li, Yecong; Min, Min; Mohr, Michael; Du, Zhenyi; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2012-09-01

    In this study, 97 microalgal strains purchased from algae bank and 50 microalgal strains isolated from local waters in Minnesota were screened for their adaptability growing on a 20-fold diluted digested swine manure wastewater (DSMW). A pool of candidate strains well adapted to the DSMW was established through a high-throughput screening process. Two top-performing facultative heterotrophic strains with high growth rate (0.536 day(-1) for UMN 271 and 0.433 day(-1) for UMN 231) and one strain with high omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid (EPA, 3.75 % of total fatty acids for UMN 231) were selected. Subsequently, a sequential two-stage mixo-photoautotrophic culture strategy was developed for biofuel and animal feed production as well as simultaneous swine wastewater treatment using above two strains. The maximal biomass concentration and lipid content at the first and second stages reached 2.03 g/L and 23.0 %, and 0.83 g/L and 19.0 % for UMN 271 and UMN 231, respectively. The maximal nutrient removals for total phosphorus and ammonia after second-stage cultivation were 100 and 89.46 %, respectively. The experiments showed that this sequential two-stage cultivation process has great potential for economically viable and environmentally friendly production of both renewable biofuel and high-value animal feed and at the same time for animal wastewater treatment.

  6. FEEDING INCIDENCE, GROWTH AND SURVIVAL RATE IN THE EARLY STAGE OF THE RED-SPOTTED GROUPER, Epinephelus akaara, IN RELATION TO TANK COLOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eri Setiadi

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The red-spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara, is one of marine fish species targeted for mariculture in Japan. The artificial mass seedling production of these species has been largely successful. However, the survival is still unstable. The effect of tank colors on the feeding incidence, feeding proportion, growth and survival rates in the early stage of the red-spotted grouper were examined. The results showed the feeding incidence, feeding proportion, growth, and survival rates at different tank colors were highly significantly different (P<0.001. Post hoc multiple comparisons based on Tukey’s test showed significant differences (P<0.05 regarding feeding incidence between yellow (70.45% compared to white (55.83%, black (48.42%, green (41.67%, blue (35.17%, and red (32.50%. The highest feeding proportion (number of rotifer in the stomach/larvae was found at yellow (5.62, followed by white (2.47, black (1.97, green (1.92, blue (1.71, and red (1.28. The specific growth rate showed significant differences (P<0.05 were found at yellow (2.14% and white (1.84% compared to black (1.46%, green (1.20%, blue (1.15%, and red (1.13%. The survival rate at yellow color (1.22% was the highest, followed by white (1.09%, black (0.79%, green (0.57%, blue (0.38%, and red (0.37%. Yellow was suitable as tank wall color for rearing of red-spotted grouper larvae.

  7. Investigation of nutrient feeding strategies in a countercurrent mixed-acid multi-staged fermentation: experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron Douglas; Lockman, Nur Ain; Holtzapple, Mark T

    2011-06-01

    Nutrients are essential for microbial growth and metabolism in mixed-culture acid fermentations. Understanding the influence of nutrient feeding strategies on fermentation performance is necessary for optimization. For a four-bottle fermentation train, five nutrient contacting patterns (single-point nutrient addition to fermentors F1, F2, F3, and F4 and multi-point parallel addition) were investigated. Compared to the traditional nutrient contacting method (all nutrients fed to F1), the near-optimal feeding strategies improved exit yield, culture yield, process yield, exit acetate-equivalent yield, conversion, and total acid productivity by approximately 31%, 39%, 46%, 31%, 100%, and 19%, respectively. There was no statistical improvement in total acid concentration. The traditional nutrient feeding strategy had the highest selectivity and acetate-equivalent selectivity. Total acid productivity depends on carbon-nitrogen ratio.

  8. Formulation and preparation on Hanford Waste Treatment Plan direct feed low activity waste effluent management facility core simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, Charles A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL; Adamson, Duane J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL

    2016-05-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate, LMOGC) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream during full WTP operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. However, during the Direct Feed LAW (DFLAW) scenario, planned disposition of this stream is to evaporate it in a new evaporator in the Effluent Management Facility (EMF) and then return it to the LAW melter. It is important to understand the composition of the effluents from the melter and new evaporator so that the disposition of these streams can be accurately planned and accommodated. Furthermore, alternate disposition of the LMOGC stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Alternate disposition would also eliminate this stream from recycling within WTP when it begins operations and would decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste, amongst the other problems such a recycle stream present. This LAW Melter Off-Gas Condensate stream will contain components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are problematic for the glass waste form, such as halides and sulfate. Because this stream will recycle within WTP, these components accumulate in the Melter Condensate stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers that must be produced. Diverting the stream reduces the halides and sulfate in the recycled Condensate and is a key outcome of this work. This overall program examines the potential treatment and immobilization of this stream to enable alternative disposal. The objective of this task was to formulate and prepare a simulant of the LAW Melter

  9. Enhancing Planning Strategies for Sunscreen Use at Different Stages of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craciun, Catrinel; Schuz, Natalie; Lippke, Sonia; Schwarzer, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    To promote sun safety by implementing different plans for sunscreen use, different psychological interventions are compared. Self-regulatory strategies such as action planning and coping planning are seen as proximal predictors of actual behavior. The study compares a pure planning intervention with a broader resource communication and examines…

  10. Comparative microarray analysis of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus expression profiles of larvae pre-attachment and feeding adult female stages on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gondro Cedric

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus is an obligate blood feeder which is host specific to cattle. Existing knowledge pertaining to the host or host breed effects on tick transcript expression profiles during the tick - host interaction is poor. Results Global analysis of gene expression changes in whole R. microplus ticks during larval, pre-attachment and early adult stages feeding on Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle were compared using gene expression microarray analysis. Among the 13,601 R. microplus transcripts from BmiGI Version 2 we identified 297 high and 17 low expressed transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between R. microplus feeding on tick resistant cattle [Bos indicus (Brahman] compared to R. microplus feeding on tick susceptible cattle [Bos taurus (Holstein-Friesian] (p ≤ 0.001. These include genes encoding enzymes involved in primary metabolism, and genes related to stress, defence, cell wall modification, cellular signaling, receptor, and cuticle formation. Microarrays were validated by qRT-PCR analysis of selected transcripts using three housekeeping genes as normalization controls. Conclusion The analysis of all tick stages under survey suggested a coordinated regulation of defence proteins, proteases and protease inhibitors to achieve successful attachment and survival of R. microplus on different host breeds, particularly Bos indicus cattle. R. microplus ticks demonstrate different transcript expression patterns when they encounter tick resistant and susceptible breeds of cattle. In this study we provide the first transcriptome evidence demonstrating the influence of tick resistant and susceptible cattle breeds on transcript expression patterns and the molecular physiology of ticks during host attachment and feeding. The microarray data used in this analysis have been submitted to NCBI GEO database under accession number GSE20605 http://www.ncbi

  11. Optimizing the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem Using a Two Stage Planning/Scheduling Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    This paper presents the Steel Plate Storage Yard Crane Scheduling Problem. The task is to generate a schedule for two gantry cranes sharing tracks. The schedule must comply with a number of constraints and at the same time be cost efficient. We propose some ideas for a two stage planning...

  12. Rice gene expression profiles responding to larval feeding of the striped stem borer at the 1 st to 2nd instar stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Sun; Yong-Jun Zhang; Guang-Chun Cao; Shao-Hua Gu; Kong-Ming Wu; Xi-Wu Gao; Yu-Yuan Guo

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify rice genes that are in response to the striped stem borer (SSB) (Chilo suppressalis Walker) feeding at the first to second larval stage. Using combined suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and dot blot approaches, we analyzed the induced defense genes that took place during the first 72 h of infesting intact rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants in sheath tissues with SSB larvae. By sequencing the whole SSH library, 39 expressed sequence tags involved in disease stress, insect stress or other stress responses were identified to be up-regulated by SSB larvae feeding. Among these genes, rice allene oxide cyclase (AOC), terpene synthase (TPS) and four proteinase inhibitor (PI) genes were up-regulated by SSB larvae feeding. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that four rice PI genes were already up-regulated at 6 h, and reached peaks between 6 h to 12 h. In addition, the transcription of gene involving in jasmonate signaling pathway such as allene oxide cyclase (AOC) concerning rice early defense response to SSB feeding was activated after rice feeding by SSB for 2 h. Although the expression of rice terpene synthase (TPS) gene, involved in the biosynthesis of monoterpenes or diterpenes, was already up-regulated at 7 h, a significant increase in the expression was delayed until 12 h and reached its peak at 24 h. The present study identified six SSB-response genes and their expression patterns, which provides evidence and information to understand insect stress-response in plants.

  13. Clinical impact of FDG-PET/CT in the planning of radiotherapy for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Hansen, Mads

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) has excellent survival rates but carries a high risk of late treatment-related adverse effects. Modern, individualised therapeutic strategies require an accurate determination of the extent of the disease. This study investigated the potential impact...... of 2-[18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computerised tomogrpahy (FDG-PET/CT) in the planning of involved field radiotherapy (IFRT). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty patients received staging FDG-PET/CT before therapy, and IFRT after a short course of ABVD (adriamycin, bleomycin......, vinblastine, dacarbazine) chemotherapy. IFRT planning was performed using only the CT data from the FDG-PET/CT scan. Later, the IFRT planning was performed anew using the FDG-PET/CT data as basis for contouring. RESULTS: In 20 out of 30 patients, the radiotherapy (RT) course was unaffected by the addition...

  14. Continuous enhancement of iturin A production by Bacillus subtilis with a stepwise two-stage glucose feeding strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Hu; Li, Kunpeng; NIU, Yanxing; Guo, Mian; Hu, Chuanjiong; Chen, Shouwen; Huang, Fenghong

    2015-01-01

    Background The lipopeptide antibiotic iturin A is an attractive biopesticide with the potential to replace chemical-based pesticides for controlling plant pathogens. However, its industrial fermentation has not been realized due to the high production costs and low product concentrations. This study aims to enhance iturin A production by performing a novel fermentation process with effective glucose feeding control using rapeseed meal as a low-cost nitrogen source. Results We demonstrated tha...

  15. Radiation Therapy Planning for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: Experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Dabaja, Bouthaina S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Filippi, Andrea R. [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Illidge, Tim [Department of Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Tsang, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ricardi, Umberto [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Petersen, Peter M.; Schut, Deborah A. [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Garcia, John [Department of Radiation Oncology, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States); Headley, Jayne [Department of Oncology, Christie Hospital, Manchester (United Kingdom); Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Ragona, Riccardo [Department of Oncology, University of Torino School of Medicine, Torino (Italy); Specht, Lena [Departments of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Methods: Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Results: Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. Conclusions: RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs.

  16. Radiation therapy planning for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma: experience of the International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraldo, Maja V; Dabaja, Bouthaina S; Filippi, Andrea R; Illidge, Tim; Tsang, Richard; Ricardi, Umberto; Petersen, Peter M; Schut, Deborah A; Garcia, John; Headley, Jayne; Parent, Amy; Guibord, Benoit; Ragona, Riccardo; Specht, Lena

    2015-05-01

    Early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a rare disease, and the location of lymphoma varies considerably between patients. Here, we evaluate the variability of radiation therapy (RT) plans among 5 International Lymphoma Radiation Oncology Group (ILROG) centers with regard to beam arrangements, planning parameters, and estimated doses to the critical organs at risk (OARs). Ten patients with stage I-II classic HL with masses of different sizes and locations were selected. On the basis of the clinical information, 5 ILROG centers were asked to create RT plans to a prescribed dose of 30.6 Gy. A postchemotherapy computed tomography scan with precontoured clinical target volume (CTV) and OARs was provided for each patient. The treatment technique and planning methods were chosen according to each center's best practice in 2013. Seven patients had mediastinal disease, 2 had axillary disease, and 1 had disease in the neck only. The median age at diagnosis was 34 years (range, 21-74 years), and 5 patients were male. Of the resulting 50 treatment plans, 15 were planned with volumetric modulated arc therapy (1-4 arcs), 16 with intensity modulated RT (3-9 fields), and 19 with 3-dimensional conformal RT (2-4 fields). The variations in CTV-to-planning target volume margins (5-15 mm), maximum tolerated dose (31.4-40 Gy), and plan conformity (conformity index 0-3.6) were significant. However, estimated doses to OARs were comparable between centers for each patient. RT planning for HL is challenging because of the heterogeneity in size and location of disease and, additionally, to the variation in choice of treatment techniques and field arrangements. Adopting ILROG guidelines and implementing universal dose objectives could further standardize treatment techniques and contribute to lowering the dose to the surrounding OARs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. An unit cost adjusting heuristic algorithm for the integrated planning and scheduling of a two-stage supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Wang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The stable relationship of one-supplier-one-customer is replaced by a dynamic relationship of multi-supplier-multi-customer in current market gradually, and efficient scheduling techniques are important tools of the dynamic supply chain relationship establishing process. This paper studies the optimization of the integrated planning and scheduling problem of a two-stage supply chain with multiple manufacturers and multiple retailers to obtain a minimum supply chain operating cost, whose manufacturers have different production capacities, holding and producing cost rates, transportation costs to retailers.Design/methodology/approach: As a complex task allocation and scheduling problem, this paper sets up an INLP model for it and designs a Unit Cost Adjusting (UCA heuristic algorithm that adjust the suppliers’ supplying quantity according to their unit costs step by step to solve the model.Findings: Relying on the contrasting analysis between the UCA and the Lingo solvers for optimizing many numerical experiments, results show that the INLP model and the UCA algorithm can obtain its near optimal solution of the two-stage supply chain’s planning and scheduling problem within very short CPU time.Research limitations/implications: The proposed UCA heuristic can easily help managers to optimizing the two-stage supply chain scheduling problems which doesn’t include the delivery time and batch of orders. For two-stage supply chains are the most common form of actual commercial relationships, so to make some modification and study on the UCA heuristic should be able to optimize the integrated planning and scheduling problems of a supply chain with more reality constraints.Originality/value: This research proposes an innovative UCA heuristic for optimizing the integrated planning and scheduling problem of two-stage supply chains with the constraints of suppliers’ production capacity and the orders’ delivering time, and has a great

  18. Radiolabeling of infective third-stage larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis by feeding ( sup 75 Se)selenomethionine-labeled Escherichia coli to first- and second-stage larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aikens, L.M.; Schad, G.A. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA))

    1989-10-01

    A technique is described for radiolabeling Strongyloides stercoralis larvae with ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. Cultures of an auxotrophic methionine-dependent stain of Escherichia coli were grown in a medium containing Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium supplemented with 5% nutrient broth, amino acids, and ({sup 75}Se)selenomethionine. When the {sup 75}Se-labeled bacterial populations were in the stationary phase of growth, cultures were harvested and the bacteria dispersed on agar plates to serve as food for S. stercoralis larvae. Use of nondividing bacteria is important for successful labeling because the isotope is not diluted by cell division and death of larvae attributable to overgrowth by bacteria is prevented. First-stage S. stercoralis larvae were recovered from feces of infected dogs and reared in humid air at 30 C on agar plates seeded with bacteria. After 7 days, infective third-stage larvae were harvested. The mean specific activity of 6 different batches of larvae ranged from 75 to 330 counts per min/larva with 91.8 +/- 9.5% of the population labeled sufficiently to produce an autoradiographic focus during a practicable, 6-wk period of exposure. Labeled infective larvae penetrated the skin of 10-day-old puppies and migrated to the small intestine, where the developed to adulthood.

  19. Use of PET/CT for staging and radiation therapy planning in patients with non-small cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Manus, M P

    2010-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and more recently PET/computed tomography (CT) scanning represent major advances in the imaging of lung cancer and have an especially high impact on the management of patients who are candidates for potentially curative or "radical" radiotherapy (RT). This article reviews the current status of PET and PET/CT for staging patients before RT and considers the use of PET and PET/CT images for target volume definition. The relevant literature on the use of PET for staging lung cancer is reviewed and placed in the context of patients who are candidates for RT. Research that specifically considers the use of PET for RT planning is considered critically and some promising areas for future research are discussed. The available literature is almost exclusively devoted to non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with few relevant studies of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). The primary PET radiopharmaceutical shown to have value for staging and RT planning is 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). In prospective studies where PET imaging was used to stage radical RT candidates, 25-30% of patients were excluded from radical therapy because of PET detected advanced disease. In all studies where "PET-assisted" and conventional target or treatment volumes were compared, there were major differences between PET and conventional volumes. Because PET-assisted staging is proven to be significantly more accurate than conventional staging and because all studies show major differences between PET-assisted and conventional treatment volumes in NSCLC, routine use of PET/CT for RT planning is recommended.

  20. Effects of Fermentation Characteristics and Feed Value of Some Maize Cultivars Ensiled at Different Stages of Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Coskuntuna

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of harvesting some maize cultivars (Akdeniz, Gözdem, Pioneer 3167, Ada 9510 on the fermentation characteristics, chemical composition, in vitro digestible dry and organic matter yields of maize silages. Maize varieties were harvested at the early-milk, milk and dough stages and were ensiled in 1.5 liter special jars equipped with a lid that enabled gas release only. The jars were stored at 25±2 ºC under laboratory conditions. Silages were sampled for chemical and microbiological analyses on day 45 after ensiling. In additions in vitro organic matters digestibility of the silages were determined with enzymatic methods. The result of the study indicated that fermentation characteristics, nutritional and cell wall composition, dry and organic matter yield and digestibility organic matters were affected by harvest stage and cultivars.

  1. A two-stage model for a day-ahead paratransit planning problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Maria L. A. G.; Klein Haneveld, Willem K.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    We consider a dynamic planning problem for paratransit transportation. The focus is on a decision to take one day ahead: which requests to serve with own vehicles, and which requests to subcontract to taxis? We call this problem the day-ahead paratransit planning problem. The developed model is a

  2. A two-stage model for a day-ahead paratransit planning problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremers, Maria L. A. G.; Klein Haneveld, Willem K.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.

    2009-01-01

    We consider a dynamic planning problem for paratransit transportation. The focus is on a decision to take one day ahead: which requests to serve with own vehicles, and which requests to subcontract to taxis? We call this problem the day-ahead paratransit planning problem. The developed model is a no

  3. 76 FR 61062 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ...; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program; Change in the Definition of ``Gasoline'' To Exclude... emissions from the transfer of gasoline from storage tanks to motor vehicle fuel tanks at gasoline dispensing sites, i.e., stage II vapor recovery. The revisions would also amend the definition of...

  4. A Scenario Tree based Stochastic Programming Approach for Multi-Stage Weapon Equipment Mix Production Planning in Defense Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolving military capability requirements (CRs must be meted continuously by the multi-stage weapon equipment mix production planning (MWEMPP. Meanwhile, the CRs possess complex uncertainties with the variant military tasks in the whole planning horizon. The mean-value deterministic programming technique is difficult to deal with the multi-period and multi-level uncertain decision-making problem in MWEMPP. Therefore, a multi-stage stochastic programming approach is proposed to solve this problem. This approach first uses the scenario tree to quantitatively describe the bi-level uncertainty of the time and quantity of the CRs, and then build the whole off-line planning alternatives assembles for each possible scenario, at last the optimal planning alternative is selected on-line to flexibly encounter the real scenario in each period. A case is studied to validate the proposed approach. The results confirm that the proposed approach can better hedge against each scenario of the CRs than the traditional mean-value deterministic technique.

  5. A Mathematical Programming Model for Tactical Planning with Set-up Continuity in a Two-stage Ceramic Firm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pérez Perales

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that capacity issues in tactical production plans in a hierarchical context are relevant since its inaccurate determination may lead to unrealistic or simply non-feasible plans at the operational level. Semi-continuous industrial processes, such as ceramic ones, often imply large setups and their consideration is crucial for accurate capacity estimation. However, in most of production planning models developed in a hierarchical context at this tactical (aggregated level, setup changes are not explicitly considered. Their consideration includes not only decisions about lot sizing of production, but also allocation, known as Capacitated Lot Sizing and Loading Problem (CLSLP. However, CLSLP does not account for set-up continuity, specially important in contexts with lengthy and costly set-ups and where product families minimum run length are similar to planning periods. In this work, a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model for a two stage ceramic firm which accounts for lot sizing and loading decisions including minimum lot-sizes and set-up continuity between two consecutive periods is proposed. Set-up continuity inclusion is modelled just considering which product families are produced at the beginning and at the end of each period of time, and not the complete sequence. The model is solved over a simplified two-stage real-case within a Spanish ceramic firm. Obtained results confirm its validity.

  6. A Predictive Model of Multi-Stage Production Planning for Fixed Time Orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozłowski Edward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The traditional production planning model based upon a deterministic approach is well described in the literature. Due to the uncertain nature of manufacturing processes, such model can however incorrectly represent actual situations on the shop floor. This study develops a mathematical modeling framework for generating production plans in a multistage manufacturing process. The devised model takes into account the stochastic model for predicting the occurrence of faulty products. The aim of the control model is to determine the number of products which should be manufactured in each planning period to minimize both manufacturing costs and potential financial penalties for failing to fulfill the order completely.

  7. Detailed insight into hordeins expression in high protein cultivars as a first stage to improve feed quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaczmarczyk, Agnieszka Ewa; Aaslo, Per; Vincze, Éva

    2011-01-01

    in all samples were analyzed using UPLC method. It was noticed that there are big differences in quantity and quality of storage proteins transcripts in consecutive developmental phases and among selected cultivars. The data about mRNA expression, amino acids and total protein concentrations were plotted...... novel cereal cultivars with high protein concentration and better amino acid composition. Six barley cultivars with high protein content (Netto, PR3440, Kontiki, Fairytale, PR3528 and IC364) and Golden Promise as a control were selected for analysis of hordeins expression at four stages of grain...... development. All the known hordein coding sequences collected from commonly available databases (NCBI, HarvEST) were classified into groups and subgroups (B1, B3, C, D and Γ). Specific primers were designed with Primique and AlleleID softwares and checked with qRT-PCR first on the control cultivar Golden...

  8. A planning comparison of 7 irradiation options allowed in RTOG 1005 for early-stage breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Guang-Pei, E-mail: gpchen@mcw.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Liu, Feng [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); White, Julia [Department of Radiation Oncology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States); Vicini, Frank A. [Michigan Healthcare Professionals/21st Century Oncology, Farmington Hills, MI (United States); Freedman, Gary M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Arthur, Douglas W. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This study compared the 7 treatment plan options in achieving the dose-volume criteria required by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 1005 protocol. Dosimetry plans were generated for 15 representative patients with early-stage breast cancer (ESBC) based on the protocol-required dose-volume criteria for each of the following 7 treatment options: 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT), whole-breast irradiation (WBI) plus 3DCRT lumpectomy boost, 3DCRT WBI plus electron boost, 3DCRT WBI plus intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) boost, IMRT WBI plus 3DCRT boost, IMRT WBI plus electron boost, IMRT WBI plus IMRT boost, and simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) with IMRT. A variety of dose-volume parameters, including target dose conformity and uniformity and normal tissue sparing, were compared for these plans. For the patients studied, all plans met the required acceptable dose-volume criteria, with most of them meeting the ideal criteria. When averaged over patients, most dose-volume goals for all plan options can be achieved with a positive gap of at least a few tenths of standard deviations. The plans for all 7 options are generally comparable. The dose-volume goals required by the protocol can in general be easily achieved. IMRT WBI provides better whole-breast dose uniformity than 3DCRT WBI does, but it causes no significant difference for the dose conformity. All plan options are comparable for lumpectomy dose uniformity and conformity. Patient anatomy is always an important factor when whole-breast dose uniformity and conformity and lumpectomy dose conformity are considered.

  9. Optimising the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem using a two-stage heuristic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem. The problem has its origin in steel production facilities with a large throughput. A slab yard is used as a buffer for slabs that are needed in the upcoming production. Slabs are transported by cranes and the problem...... tests are run on a generic setup with simulated data. The test results are very promising. The production delays are reduced significantly in the new solutions compared with the corresponding delays observed in a simulation of manual planning....

  10. Feed supplementation with avian Propionibacterium acidipropionici contributes to mucosa development in early stages of rearing broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, E Argañaraz; Babot, J D; Lorenzo-Pisarello, M J; Apella, M C; Chaia, A Perez

    2016-11-30

    Different studies in animal rearing claim the probiotic potential of species of the genus Propionibacterium. The effects of strains of Propionibacterium acidipropionici isolated from poultry intestine on microbiota activity and intestinal mucosa development were investigated in the early stage of rearing chicks and the safety of the dose used was investigated. The strains P. acidipropionici LET105 and LET107, administered as monoculture to chicks from the 1(st) to 14(th) day of life in a daily dose of 106 cfu/ml administered in the drinking water resulted harmless. The animals arrived at the expected weight for age and no differences were observed with respect to the food intake and water consumption related to control without bacteria administration. The analysis of microbiota composition revealed the presence of propionibacteria at the middle and end of the trial only in treated groups. Normal development of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria, and slow colonisation by Bacteroides at the 7(th) day of the study was observed in the same groups. Analysis of the organic acids concentrations in the caecal content of birds revealed higher lactic acid and lower butyric acid production. Lower short chain fatty acids total concentration than expected during treatment was related to a better development of the gut mucosa. Increase in length of villus-crypt units, goblet cells counts and neutral mucins production were evidenced. Higher mucus secretion produced by dietary supplementation with propionibacteria could provide increased protection against pathogens.

  11. 75 FR 74673 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Georgia: Stage II Vapor Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 4... Benjamin, Regulatory Development Section, Air Planning Branch, Air, Pesticides and Toxics Management...-8960. Such deliveries are only accepted during the Regional Office's normal hours of operation....

  12. Personal Continuing Education (PECE) Plan: Stage 2. A Model to Supply Physicians' Perceived Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Colin R.

    1990-01-01

    Replies of 35 physicians practicing in rural Ontario detailed their learning needs for the Personal Continuing Education Plan. Desired structured learning topics emphasized updates on acute aspects of diseases in course format. Preferences for self-learning were for reprints rather than abstracts; 23 percent desired computer-assisted instruction.…

  13. Personal Continuing Education (PECE) Plan: Stage 2. A Model to Supply Physicians' Perceived Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Colin R.

    1990-01-01

    Replies of 35 physicians practicing in rural Ontario detailed their learning needs for the Personal Continuing Education Plan. Desired structured learning topics emphasized updates on acute aspects of diseases in course format. Preferences for self-learning were for reprints rather than abstracts; 23 percent desired computer-assisted instruction.…

  14. Two-stage in vitro digestibility assay, a tool for formulating non-starch polysaccharide degrading enzyme combinations for commonly used feed ingredients of poultry rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ramana Reddy

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: An attempt was made to assess the effect of pure enzyme combinations with the objective of formulating customized enzyme mixtures based on sugar release when subjected to two-stage in vitro digestion assay. Materials and Methods: A two-stage in vitro digestibility assay was carried out for commonly used feed ingredients for poultry viz., maize, soy bean meal, sunflower cake, and de-oiled rice bran supplemented with three concentrations of xylanase (5000; 7500 and 10000 IU/kg, cellulase (50; 100 and 400 IU/kg and â-D-glucanase (100; 200 and 400 IU/kg were used to formulate various NSP enzymes combinations. In total 27 NSP enzyme combinations (3x3x3 were formulated and the sugar released due to NSP digestion was quantified by phenol sulphuric acid method. Results: The total sugar release was significantly (P<0.05 higher with supplementation of various enzymes combinations for maize, sunflower cake and de-oiled rice bran where as no significant (P<0.05 interaction of various NSP enzymes combinations was observed for soy bean meal. The NSP digestibility was highest in combination (xylanase-5000, cellulase-50 and â-D-glucanase-400 IU/kg, (xylanase-10000, cellulase-50 and â-D-glucanase-200 IU/kg and (xylanase-7500, cellulase- 100 and â-D-glucanase-100 IU/kg for maize, sunflower cake and de-oiled rice bran respectively. In case of sunflower cake, significant (P<0.01 three way interaction was observed among the xylanase, cellulose, and â-D-glucanase enzymes and the two-way interactions between the enzymes were also significant (P<0.01. Conclusion: It is concluded that 'n' number of non-starch Polysaccharide enzymes combinations can be screened for their efficiency to digest non-starch Polysaccharides present in various feed ingredients commonly used in poultry rations by employing two-stage in vitro digestibility assay as a tool. [Vet World 2013; 6(8.000: 525-529

  15. Fuels planning: science synthesis and integration; social issues fact sheet 10: Stages of collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christine Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Collaboration is a powerful tool for improving both the management of wildland fire and the overall health of forests and other elements of fire-dependent ecosystems. This fact sheet discusses seven stages that are typical of most collaborations.Other publications in this...

  16. 78 FR 34303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; North Carolina; Removal of Stage II Gasoline...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    ... II Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed... for new and upgraded gasoline dispensing facilities in the State. The September 18, 2009, SIP revision... Piping for Stage II Vapor Recovery, for all new or improved gasoline tanks. In addition, rule...

  17. 77 FR 35279 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Arizona; Update to Stage II Gasoline Vapor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Gasoline Vapor Recovery Program; Change in the Definition of ``Gasoline'' To Exclude ``E85'' AGENCY... of gasoline from storage tanks to motor vehicle fuel tanks at gasoline dispensing sites, i.e., stage II vapor recovery. The revisions also amend the definition of ``gasoline'' to explicitly exclude...

  18. A Two-stage pH and Temperature Control with Substrate Feeding Strategy for Production of Gamma-aminobutyric Acid by Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭春龙; 黄俊; 胡升; 赵伟睿; 姚善泾; 梅乐和

    2013-01-01

    Methods to optimize the production of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by Lactobacillus brevis CGMCC 1306 were investigated. Results indicated that cell growth was maximal at pH 5.0, while pH 4.5 was pref-erable to GABA formation. The optimal temperature for cell growth (35 °C) was lower than that for GABA forma-tion (40 °C). In a two-stage pH and temperature control fermentation, cultures were maintained at pH 5.0 and 35 °C for 32 h, then adjusted to pH 4.5 and 40 °C, GABA production increased remarkably and reached 474.79 mmol·L-1 at 72 h, while it was 398.63 mmol·L-1 with one stage pH and temperature control process, in which cultivation con-ditions were constantly controlled at pH 5.0 and 35 °C. In order to avoid the inhibition of cell growth at higher L-monosodium glutamate (L-MSG) concentrations, the two-stage control fermentation with substrate feeding strat-egy was applied to GABA production, with 106.87 mmol (20 g) L-MSG supplemented into the shaking-flask at 32 h and 56 h post-inoculation separately. The GABA concentration reached 526.33 mmol·L-1 at 72 h with the fer-mentation volume increased by 38%. These results will provide primary data to realize large-scale production of GABA by L. brevis CGMCC 1306.

  19. Methane emissions, feed intake, and performance of finishing beef cattle offered maize silages harvested at 4 different stages of maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Geough, E J; O'Kiely, P; Foley, P A; Hart, K J; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-04-01

    This experiment aimed to quantify the methane emissions and intake, digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef cattle offered maize (Zea mays) silages harvested at 1 of 4 sequential stages of maturity and to relate these values to those obtained from animals offered an ad libitum concentrate-based diet. Sixty continental crossbred steers with a mean initial BW of 531 kg (SD 23.8) were blocked (n = 12 blocks) according to BW and allocated from within block to 1 of 5 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design: maize silage harvested on September 13 (DM = 277 g/kg), maize silage harvested on September 28 (DM = 315 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 9 (DM = 339 g/kg), maize silage harvested on October 23 (DM = 333 g/kg), and ad libitum concentrates (ALC). Diets based on maize silage were supplemented with 2.57 kg of concentrate DM daily, and ALC diets were supplemented with 1.27 kg of grass silage DM daily. Silage and total DMI were greater (P = 0.004) with maize silage harvested on September 28 than with any other treatment, which in turn did not differ. Advancing maize maturity at harvest did not affect BW or carcass gain, with the ALC diet exhibiting greater (P = 0.036) rates of carcass gain than any of the maize silage-based treatments. Apparent in vivo digestibility, determined using the AIA indigestible marker technique, was not affected by harvest maturity, with no linear or quadratic trends being identified. Digestibility of DM from the ALC diet was greater (P maize silage treatments. Starch digestibility did not differ across maize silage maturities; however, a linear (P = 0.009) decrease in NDF digestibility was observed. Methane emissions, (g/d) measured using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique, were not affected by maize silage maturity. Methane emissions relative to DMI tended (P = 0.05) to decline with advancing maize silage maturity, with a similar decline observed when methane was expressed per

  20. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ``minimum duration`` will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates.

  1. A Decade of Comparative Dose Planning Studies for Early-Stage Hodgkin Lymphoma: What Can We Learn?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraldo, Maja V., E-mail: dra.maraldo@gmail.com [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Specht, Lena [Department of Oncology, Section of Radiotherapy, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Department of Hematology, Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-12-01

    During the past 4 decades, the treatment of Hodgkin lymphoma has changed dramatically, and combined modality treatment is now considered the standard of care for patients with early-stage disease. However, the risk of late effects has led to concerns regarding the use of radiation therapy, especially in young patients with a long life expectancy. In this study, we review the current evidence for modern radiation therapy planning and delivery techniques in the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma with a focus on a reduced delivered dose, a reduced irradiated volume, and a more conformal dose distribution. Although studies are difficult to compare because of differences in field technique, prescribed dose, target volumes, patient population, and reported dosimetric and plan evaluation parameters, modern radiation therapy significantly reduces exposure to normal tissues and thereby the estimated risk of late effects. However, there is no such thing as a single best modern delivery technique when multiple organs at risk are considered simultaneously because of the heterogeneity in patient anatomy and disease location, and the choice of radiation therapy technique should be made individually for each patient.

  2. The stages of physical activity and exercise behavior: an integrated approach to the theory of planned behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byung-Ha; Lee, Moo-Sik; Hong, Jee-Young; Bae, Seok-Hwan; Kim, Eun-Young; Kim, Kwang-Kee; Kim, Dae-Kyoung

    2009-01-01

    This research aims to verify whether it is possible to explain the health-promoting behaviors based on sociodemographic characteristics by integrating the theory of planned behavior (TPB) proposed by Ajzen in 1988 and the transtheoretical model (TTM) proposed by Prochaska and DiClemente in 1983. In particular, the aim was to verify whether the variables of the TPB can properly distinguish the stages of change in exercise in the proposed integrated model and to figure out how attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavior control, influence, and intention-can explain the stages of change in exercise. Investigators who have taken previous training for the survey visited and interviewed 3658 people older than 30 years in the chosen town by multistage sampling method from July 27 to July 31, 2003. After the exclusion of inappropriate data out of 760 participants, only data from 584 participants were used for this research. chi2 test, t test, and 1-way analysis of variance were used to identify the difference between the distribution of the stages of change in exercise and the variables of the means. A discriminant analysis to verify the accuracy of the stages of change in exercise by means of the variables of the TPB and a path analysis to verify the fit of the integrated model were also used. The variables of the TPB were useful to satisfactorily distinguish and predict the stages of change in exercise. But to clarify the validity of this model, more diversified research should be conducted in the future, and the results must be accumulated.

  3. A two-stage optimization model for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty in response to environmental accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Guo, Liang; Jiang, Jiping; Jiang, Dexun; Liu, Rentao; Wang, Peng

    2016-06-05

    In the emergency management relevant to pollution accidents, efficiency emergency rescues can be deeply influenced by a reasonable assignment of the available emergency materials to the related risk sources. In this study, a two-stage optimization framework is developed for emergency material reserve layout planning under uncertainty to identify material warehouse locations and emergency material reserve schemes in pre-accident phase coping with potential environmental accidents. This framework is based on an integration of Hierarchical clustering analysis - improved center of gravity (HCA-ICG) model and material warehouse location - emergency material allocation (MWL-EMA) model. First, decision alternatives are generated using HCA-ICG to identify newly-built emergency material warehouses for risk sources which cannot be satisfied by existing ones with a time-effective manner. Second, emergency material reserve planning is obtained using MWL-EMA to make emergency materials be prepared in advance with a cost-effective manner. The optimization framework is then applied to emergency management system planning in Jiangsu province, China. The results demonstrate that the developed framework not only could facilitate material warehouse selection but also effectively provide emergency material for emergency operations in a quick response.

  4. [Part I. End-stage chronic organ failures: a position paper on shared care planning. The Integrated Care Pathway].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gristina, Giuseppe R; Orsi, Luciano; Carlucci, Annalisa; Causarano, Ignazio R; Formica, Marco; Romanò, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    In Italy the birth rate decrease together with the continuous improvement of living conditions on one hand, and the health care progress on the other hand, led in recent years to an increasing number of patients with chronic mono- or multi-organ failures and in an extension of their life expectancy. However, the natural history of chronic failures has not changed and the inescapable disease's worsening at the end makes more rare remissions, increasing hospital admissions rate and length of stay. Thus, when the "end-stage" get close clinicians have to engage the patient and his relatives in an advance care planning aimed to share a decision making process regarding all future treatments and related ethical choices such as patient's best interests, rights, values, and priorities. A right approach to the chronic organ failures end-stage patients consists therefore of a careful balance between the new powers of intervention provided by the biotechnology and pharmacology (intensive care), both with the quality of remaining life supplied by physicians to these patients (proportionality and beneficence) and the effective resources rationing and allocation (distributive justice). However, uncertainty still marks the criteria used by doctors to assess prognosis of these patients in order to make decisions concerning intensive or palliative care. The integrated care pathway suggested in this position paper shared by nine Italian medical societies, has to be intended as a guide focused to identify end-stage patients and choosing for them the best care option between intensive treatments and palliative care.

  5. A risk-based interactive multi-stage stochastic programming approach for water resources planning under dual uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Huang, G. H.; Wang, S.; Li, W.; Guan, P. B.

    2016-08-01

    In this study, a risk-based interactive multi-stage stochastic programming (RIMSP) approach is proposed through incorporating the fractile criterion method and chance-constrained programming within a multi-stage decision-making framework. RIMSP is able to deal with dual uncertainties expressed as random boundary intervals that exist in the objective function and constraints. Moreover, RIMSP is capable of reflecting dynamics of uncertainties, as well as the trade-off between the total net benefit and the associated risk. A water allocation problem is used to illustrate applicability of the proposed methodology. A set of decision alternatives with different combinations of risk levels applied to the objective function and constraints can be generated for planning the water resources allocation system. The results can help decision makers examine potential interactions between risks related to the stochastic objective function and constraints. Furthermore, a number of solutions can be obtained under different water policy scenarios, which are useful for decision makers to formulate an appropriate policy under uncertainty. The performance of RIMSP is analyzed and compared with an inexact multi-stage stochastic programming (IMSP) method. Results of comparison experiment indicate that RIMSP is able to provide more robust water management alternatives with less system risks in comparison with IMSP.

  6. Spreadsheet based methodology to assess offshore wind capacity factors in project planning stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madariaga, Ander; Martin, Jose Luis; Martinez de Alegria, Inigo [University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Bilbao (Spain). Engineering Faculty; Ceballos, Salvador [Tecnalia Research and Innovation, Parque Tecnologico de Bizkaia, Derio (Spain); Anaya-Lara, Olimpo [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Inst. for Energy and Environment

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a methodology to assess the effective capacity factor of an offshore wind power plant (OWPP). The electric power losses in all the systems that make up the wind farm are considered: the offshore wind turbines (OWTs), the collector system (CS) and the transmission system (TS). Other relevant issues such as the wake effect and the unavailability of the systems that make up the windfarm are also taken into account. The formulation of the methodology is fully analytic, with no simulation procedures for the evaluation of the electric power losses. A novel proposal to assess the losses in long submarine three-core cross linked polyethylene (XLPE) cables is presented in detail. Due to its analytic structure, the methodology can be implemented either in algorithmic form or in a spreadsheet, enabling to evaluate OWPPs electric topologies in an agile way. It is aimed at engineering researchers and project planning engineers involved in the offshore wind industry. (orig.)

  7. A three-stage short-term electric power planning procedure for a generation company in a liberalized market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabona, Narcis; Pages, Adela [Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-06-15

    In liberalized electricity markets, generation companies bid their hourly generation in order to maximize their profit. The optimization of the generation bids over a short-term weekly period must take into account the action of the competing generation companies and the market-price formation rules and must be coordinated with long-term planning results. This paper presents a three stage optimization process with a data analysis and parameter calculation, a linearized unit commitment, and a nonlinear generation scheduling refinement. Although the procedure has been developed from the experience with the Spanish power market, with minor adaptations it is also applicable to any generation company participating in a competitive market system. (author)

  8. Analysis of breast cancer mortality and stage distribution by age for the Health Insurance Plan clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, K C; Smart, C R; Tarone, R E

    1988-09-21

    The Health Insurance Plan (HIP) of Greater New York conducted a clinical trial to determine if screening for breast cancer with mammography and clinical examination would decrease breast cancer mortality. The extent of disease at diagnosis among breast cancers detected by screening and the effect of screening on breast cancer mortality have been evaluated in the cohort of all HIP women diagnosed with breast cancer within 6 years of entry into the trial and followed at least 18 years after trial entry. Six years was the earliest time at which the number of cases diagnosed in the control group was equal to the number of cases diagnosed in the study group. In the cohorts of women 40-49 and 50-64 years of age at entry, shifts were significant to lower stages for screen-detected cases. As a result, the study group women in each age cohort had significantly lower breast cancer mortality than control group women when statistical analyses were restricted to data from cases only. In the 40-49 age-at-entry cohort, the reduced breast cancer mortality in the study group appears to result from lower mortality in stage I cases as well as from earlier case detection, and this may explain differences between the two age-at-entry cohorts in the length of follow-up time required to demonstrate a mortality reduction due to screening.

  9. Characterization of carbon and nitrogen stable isotope gradients in the northern Gulf of Alaska using terminal feed stage copepodite-V Neocalanus cristatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Thomas C., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    Individual terminal-feeding copepodite-V stage Neocalanus cristatus were collected systematically in the northern Gulf of Alaska (GOA) near 60°N from 1998 to 2004 from which the natural abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes was measured. The data confirmed the existence of an isotopic cross-shelf gradient such that values low in 13C content are diagnostic of oceanic production from the GOA when measured in organisms taken from Prince William Sound (PWS). The mean 13C/ 12C cross-shelf gradient of 3-4 delta units was relatively strong, with generally good separation between GOA and Prince William Sound observations, whereas the mean 15N/ 14N gradient of ˜2 delta units was relatively weak, with frequent overlap between GOA and PWS observations. There was a seasonal 15N/ 14N increase in the GOA. The 13C/ 12C values observed in PWS were more consistent over time than those observed in the GOA. Distinctively high 13C/ 12C values that were similar to those typical of PWS were observed at the continental slope during three of the Mays in the 1998-2004 period. The circulation pattern associated with mesoscale eddies, when they occurred just south of the sampling line based on satellite sea-surface height anomaly data, suggested that cross-shelf flow in the offshore direction drove high slope 13C/ 12C values. These observations led to positing that high 13C/ 12C values reflect coastal carbon isotope signatures and diatom blooms. Based on samples from May 1996, the three GOA Neocalanus congeners had concordant isotopic patterns with relatively small systematic species differences confirming that the isotopic patterns observed for N. cristatus apply to other zooplankton.

  10. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure... additives, and feed supplements in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. ...

  11. (18)F-Choline PET/CT scan in staging and biochemical recurrence in prostate cancer patients: Changes in classification and radiotherapy planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona Arboniés, J; Rodríguez Alfonso, B; Mucientes Rasilla, J; Martínez Ballesteros, C; Zapata Paz, I; Prieto Soriano, A; Carballido Rodriguez, J; Mitjavila Casanovas, M

    To evaluate the role of the (18)F-Choline PET/CT in prostate cancer management when detecting distant disease in planning radiotherapy and staging and to evaluate the therapy changes guided by PET/TC results. A retrospective evaluation was performed on (18)F-Choline PET/CT scans of patients with prostate cancer. Staging and planning radiotherapy scans were selected in patients with at least 9 months follow up. There was a total of 56 studies, 33 (58.93%) for staging, and 23 (41.07%) for planning radiotherapy. All scans were obtained using a hybrid PET/CT scanner. The PET/CT acquisition protocol consisted of a dual-phase procedure after the administration of an intravenous injection of 296-370MBq of (18)F-Choline. There were 43 out of 56 (76.8%) scans considered as positive, and 13 (23.2%) were negative. The TNM staging was changed in 13 (23.2%) scans. The PET/CT findings ruled out distant disease in 4 out of 13 scans, and unknown distant disease was detected in 9 (69.3%) scans. (18)F-Choline PET/CT is a useful technique for detecting unknown distant disease in prostate cancer when staging and planning radiotherapy. The inclusion of (18)F-choline PET/CT should be considered in prostate cancer management protocols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for initial staging in breast cancer patients. Is there a relevant impact on treatment planning compared to conventional staging modalities?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krammer, J.; Schnitzer, A.; Kaiser, C.G.; Buesing, K.A.; Schoenberg, S.O.; Wasser, K. [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Clinical Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Sperk, E. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Radiation Oncology, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Brade, J. [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Medical Statistics, Biomathematics and Data Processing, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Wasgindt, S.; Suetterlin, M. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, University Medical Centre Mannheim, Medical Faculty Mannheim, Mannheim (Germany); Sutton, E.J. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Evelyn H. Lauder Breast Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the impact of whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT on initial staging of breast cancer in comparison to conventional staging modalities. This study included 102 breast cancer patients, 101 patients were eligible for evaluation. Preoperative whole-body staging with PET/CT was performed in patients with clinical stage ≥ T2 tumours or positive local lymph nodes (n = 91). Postoperative PET/CT was performed in patients without these criteria but positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (n = 10). All patients underwent PET/CT and a conventional staging algorithm, which included bone scan, chest X-ray and abdominal ultrasound. PET/CT findings were compared to conventional staging and the impact on therapeutic management was evaluated. PET/CT led to an upgrade of the N or M stage in overall 19 patients (19 %) and newly identified manifestation of breast cancer in two patients (2 %). PET/CT findings caused a change in treatment of 11 patients (11 %). This is within the range of recent studies, all applying conventional inclusion criteria based on the initial T and N status. PET/CT has a relevant impact on initial staging and treatment of breast cancer when compared to conventional modalities. Further studies should assess inclusion criteria beyond the conventional T and N status, e.g. tumour grading and receptor status. (orig.)

  13. [Imaging protocols for the management of respiratory motions in the radiotherapy planning for early stage lung cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pócza, Tamás; Pesznyák, Csilla; Lövey, József; Bajcsay, András; Szilágyi, András; Almády, Balázs; Major, Tibor; Polgár, Csaba

    2015-06-01

    The aim of our work is to present the imaging techniques used at the National Institute of Oncology for taking into consideration the breathing motion at radiation therapy treatment planning. Internationally recommended imaging techniques, such as 4D CT, respiratory gating and ITV (Internal Target Volume) definition were examined. The different imaging techniques were analysed regarding the delivered dose during imaging, the required time to adapt the technique, and the necessary equipment. The differences in size of PTVs (Planning Target Volume) due to diverse volume defining methods were compared in 5 cases. For 4D CT breath monitoring is crucial, which requires special equipment. To decrease the relatively high exposure of 4D CT it is possible to scan only a few predefined breathing phases. The possible positions of the tumour can be well approximated with CT scans taken in the inhale maximum, the exhale maximum and in intermediate phase. The intermediate phase can be exchanged with an ordinary CT image set, and the extreme phase CT images can be ensured by given verbal instructions for the patient. This way special gating equipment is not required. Based on these 3 breathing phases an ITV can be defined. Using this ITV definition method the margin between the CTV (Clinical Target Volume) and the PTV can be reduced by 1 cm. Using this imaging protocol PTV can be reduced by 30%. A further 10% PTV reduction can be achieved with respiratory gating. In the routine clinical practice respiratory motion management with a 3-phase CT-imaging protocol the PTV for early-stage lung cancer can be significantly reduced without the use of 4D CT and/or respiratory gating. For special, high precision treatment techniques 4D CT is recommended.

  14. Upotreba programskog paketa Microsoft Office Project 2007 u planiranju ishrane pripadnika Vojske Srbije / Application of the Microsoft Office Project 2007 for planning the army personnel feeding process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoš B. Mijatović

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available U radu je prikazan način upravljanja projektima pomoću programskog paketa Microsoft Office Project 2007 sa težištem na planiranju ishrane. Pravilnu i uspešnu - efikasnu ishranu pripadnika Vojske nije moguće realizovati bez primene efikasnih metoda i tehnika za podršku odlučivanju. Primena savremenih metoda i tehnika u planiranju i organizovanju ishrane imala bi za rezultat stvaranje ušteda na raznim poljima delovanja (artikli hrane, transport, radna snaga, sredstva za rad, vreme, novčana sredstva i dr. U radu je prikazan samo deo mogućnosti programskog paketa Microsoft Office Project 2007 koje korisnici mogu proširivati i nadograđivati. / This paper presents possibilities of using the program realization of feeding process of the Army personnel with simulation of planning the daily menus as a concrete example. It presents the way of planning the menus and adding the human and material resources to each of planned courses. This program package also provides a range of other possibilities to users, which can produce savings in different fields and secure increase of work efficiency.

  15. High resolution anoscopy in the planned staged treatment of anal squamous intraepithelial lesions in HIV-negative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Carlos E; Berry, J Michael; Jay, Naomi; Palefsky, Joel M; Welton, Mark L

    2007-11-01

    Anal dysplasia (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, LSIL; high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, HSIL) is a challenging disease for the surgeon. We reviewed 42 patients that underwent high-resolution anoscopy (HRA)-targeted surgical therapy of anal dysplasia in the past 10 years. Patients were followed up in the Anal Neoplasia Clinic with physical examination, cytology, HRA, and biopsy if indicated. Patients with disease amenable to local therapy were treated with office-based HRA-directed therapies. There were 30 men (mean age 39 years, range 21-63) and 12 women (mean age 50 years, range 31-71) included in the study. HSIL was present in 33, with four undergoing planned staged treatment due to circumferential disease. HSIL recurred in 45%, and most were re-treated successfully in-office. Progression to HSIL was seen in one patient with LSIL and to squamous cell carcinoma in one patient with HSIL despite therapy. No patients with LSIL had dysplasia at last follow-up. Minor complications occurred in three patients. HRA-targeted surgical therapy coupled with surveillance and re-treatment with office-based therapies offered an effective method in controlling anal dysplasia in the immunocompetent patient. Morbidity is minimal, and our progression to cancer rate is low (2.4%).

  16. Social Cognitive and Planned Behavior Variables Associated with Stages of Change for Physical Activity in Spinal Cord Injury: A Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, John; Ditchman, Nicole; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Muller, Veronica; Chan, Fong; Kundu, Madan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To apply the constructs of social cognitive theory (SCT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand the stages of change (SOC) for physical activities among individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: Ex post facto design using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The participants were 144 individuals with SCI…

  17. A Plan for Developing Performance Materials in the Contemporary Idion for the Early Stages of String Instruction. Appendices A-F. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farish, Margaret K.; Rolland, Paul

    A project to develop a plan for adding contemporary music to the repertory of elementary students of stringed instruments found virtually no contemporary music published in the United States suitable for early stages of instruction. Since much contemporary music literature exists for beginning piano students, it was assumed that the dearth of…

  18. Social Cognitive and Planned Behavior Variables Associated with Stages of Change for Physical Activity in Spinal Cord Injury: A Multivariate Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, John; Ditchman, Nicole; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Muller, Veronica; Chan, Fong; Kundu, Madan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To apply the constructs of social cognitive theory (SCT) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to understand the stages of change (SOC) for physical activities among individuals with a spinal cord injury (SCI). Method: Ex post facto design using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). The participants were 144 individuals with SCI…

  19. Spatial and stage-structured population model of the American crocodile for comparison of comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Timothy W.; Slone, Daniel H.; Swain, Eric D.; Cherkiss, Michael S.; Lohmann, Melinda; Mazzotti, Frank J.; Rice, Kenneth G.

    2010-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey Priority Ecosystems Science (PES) initiative to provide the ecological science required during Everglades restoration, we have integrated current regional hydrologic models with American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus) research and monitoring data to create a model that assesses the potential impact of Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) efforts on the American crocodile. A list of indicators was created by the Restoration Coordination and Verification (RECOVER) component of CERP to help determine the success of interim restoration goals. The American crocodile was established as an indicator of the ecological condition of mangrove estuaries due to its reliance upon estuarine environments characterized by low salinity and adequate freshwater inflow. To gain a better understanding of the potential impact of CERP restoration efforts on the American crocodile, a spatially explicit crocodile population model has been created that has the ability to simulate the response of crocodiles to various management strategies for the South Florida ecosystem. The crocodile model uses output from the Tides and Inflows in the Mangroves of the Everglades (TIME) model, an application of the Flow and Transport in a Linked Overland/Aquifer Density Dependent System (FTLOADDS) simulator. TIME has the capability to link to the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), which is the primary regional tool used to assess CERP restoration scenarios. A crocodile habitat suitability index and spatial parameter maps that reflect salinity, water depth, habitat, and nesting locations are used as driving functions to construct crocodile finite rate of increase maps under different management scenarios. Local stage-structured models are integrated with a spatial landscape grid to display crocodile movement behavior in response to changing environmental conditions. Restoration efforts are expected to affect salinity levels throughout the habitat of

  20. Comprehensive dosimetric planning comparison for early-stage, non-small cell lung cancer with SABR: fixed-beam IMRT versus VMAT versus TomoTherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xhaferllari, Ilma; El-Sherif, Omar; Gaede, Stewart

    2016-09-08

    Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is emerging as a leading technology in treating early-stage, non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR). However, two other modalities capable of deliver-ing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) include fixed-beam and helical TomoTherapy (HT). This study aims to provide an extensive dosimetric compari-son among these various IMRT techniques for treating early-stage NSCLC with SABR. Ten early-stage NSCLC patients were retrospectively optimized using three fixed-beam techniques via nine to eleven beams (high and low modulation step-and-shoot (SS), and sliding window (SW)), two VMAT techniques via two partial arcs (SmartArc (SA) and RapidArc (RA)), and three HT techniques via three different fan beam widths (1 cm, 2.5 cm, and 5 cm) for 80 plans total. Fixed-beam and VMAT plans were generated using flattening filter-free beams. SS and SA, HT treatment plans, and SW and RA were optimized using Pinnacle v9.1, Tomoplan v.3.1.1, and Eclipse (Acuros XB v11.3 algorithm), respectively. Dose-volume histogram statistics, dose conformality, and treatment delivery efficiency were analyzed. VMAT treatment plans achieved significantly lower values for contralat-eral lung V5Gy (p ≤ 0.05) compared to the HT plans, and significantly lower mean lung dose (p VMAT techniques, a significant reduction in the total monitor units (p = 0.05) was found in the SA plans, while a significant decrease was observed in the dose falloff parameter, D2cm, (p = 0.05), for the RA treatments. The maximum cord dose was significantly reduced (p = 0.017) in grouped RA&SA plans com-pared to SS. Estimated treatment time was significantly higher for HT and fixed-beam plans compared to RA&SA (p VMAT is dosimetrically advantageous in treating early-stage NSCLC with SABR compared to fixed-beam, while providing significantly shorter treatment times.

  1. A two-stage planning and control model toward Economically Adapted Power Distribution Systems using analytical hierarchy processes and fuzzy optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweickardt, Gustavo [Instituto de Economia Energetica, Fundacion Bariloche, Centro Atomico Bariloche - Pabellon 7, Av. Bustillo km 9500, 8400 Bariloche (Argentina); Miranda, Vladimiro [INESC Porto, Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto and FEUP, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, R. Dr. Roberto Frias, 378, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)

    2009-07-15

    This work presents a model to evaluate the Distribution System Dynamic De-adaptation respecting its planning for a given period of Tariff Control. The starting point for modeling is brought about by the results from a multi-criteria method based on Fuzzy Dynamic Programming and on Analytic Hierarchy Processes applied in a mid/short-term horizon (stage 1). Then, the decision-making activities using the Hierarchy Analytical Processes will allow defining, for a Control of System De-adaptation (stage 2), a Vector to evaluate the System Dynamic Adaptation. It is directly associated to an eventual series of inbalances that take place during its evolution. (author)

  2. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  3. Spatial planning

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Nikola; Koteski, Cane

    2016-01-01

    The professional book ,, Space planning "processed chapters on: space, concept and definition of space, space as a system, spatial economics, economic essence of space, space planning, social determinants of spatial planning, spatial planning as a process, factors development and elements in spatial planning, methodology, components and content of spatial planning stages and types of preparation of spatial planning, spatial planning and industrialization, industrialization, urbanization and s...

  4. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  5. SPECIFICITY AND CONTRIBUTORY ESSENCE OF THE STAGED DEVELOPMENT OF COMPETENCES OF DIDACTIC PLANNING OF THE FUTURE TEACHERS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braniste Gh.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and generalization of the information in the specialized literature, of the "TMPE" (Theory and Methodology of Physical Education curricula and the "Teaching Practice" for the faculties of physical education and sports, as well as the results of the public opinion survey conducted allowed us to elaborate the structure of the experimental curriculum of development of the competences of didactic planning within the "Didactic planning within school physical education" optional course.

  6. 多效降膜式蒸发器不同加料方法及出料方法的比较及其意义%Comparison of Different Feeding and Discharging Methods for Multi-stage Film Evaporator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘殿宇

    2014-01-01

    There are two temperatures of lfuids fed into evaporator, one is below the boiling point of lfuid, and another is equal or higher than the boiling point of lfuid. The lfuid of which the temperature is below its boiling point is needed to preheat by stages in falling iflm evaporator, the lfuid can only be fed into evaporator until the temperature reaches or is higher than boiling point. In multi-stage falling iflm evaporator, different feeding types can be used, that are parallel-current, countercurrent and mixing current, in which parallel-current is most commonly used. Use of which feeding type and discharging lfuid in which stage are determined based on the property of lfuid. In this article, exampled with the application of TNJM03-6200 three-stage falling iflm evaporator in xylose production, different feeding and discharging methods were described.%进入蒸发器的料液的温度有两种,一种为低于沸点温度进料,一种为高于或等于沸点温度进料。低于沸点温度的料液在降膜式蒸发器中都要经过逐级预热的方式将料液预热至沸点或沸点以上的温度方可进入蒸发器中进行蒸发,在多效降膜式蒸发器中,加料方式也不尽相同。有并流加料法,逆流加料法及混流加料法。其中,以并流加料方法最为常见。采用什么样的加料方法及第几效出料是由物料的特性决定的。仅以TNJM03-6200型三效降膜式蒸发器在木糖生产中的应用为例进行比较阐述。

  7. Weaning age affects growth, feed intake, gastrointestinal development, and behavior in Holstein calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, E; Brown, H E; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J; Steele, M A

    2015-09-01

    Recent research has revealed potential advantages of feeding an elevated plane of nutrition to calves during the preweaning period. However, calves fed more nutrients preweaning may be more susceptible to depressed growth and weaning stress during the transition from liquid to solid feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the age of weaning and feed intake, and its influence on growth, gastrointestinal development, and behavioral indicators in dairy calves fed an elevated plane of nutrition during the preweaning period. To meet this objective, 20 female Holstein calves were randomly assigned at birth to be weaned at 6 or 8 wk. Milk replacer (mixed at 150 g/L) was offered at 1.2 kg/calf per day in 2 meals until a 1-wk step-down, when meals were reduced by 50% 1 wk before weaning. Daily starter, chopped oat straw, water intake, and weekly body weights were measured until d 70 of life. To assess digestive tract development, rumen fluid, fecal, and blood samples were taken before and after weaning (d 35, 49, and 63) and analyzed for ruminal short-chain fatty acids, blood β-hydroxybutyrate, and fecal starch, respectively. Behavioral indicators of weaning stress, including vocalizing and non-nutritive oral behavior, were measured by visual observation for 1 h, 3 times per week, before the second feeding of the day during the period from 2 wk before weaning to 2 wk after weaning. The calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher average daily gain for the week preweaning (0.79±0.09 vs. 0.34±0.10 kg/d) and postweaning (1.05±0.09 vs. 0.35±0.11 kg/d), and were heavier at d 70 (99.9±1.81 vs. 91.0±2.26 kg). From 5 to 8 wk of age, starter and water intakes were lower in calves weaned at 8 wk of age. However, overall starter intake did not differ during the last week of the experiment. Furthermore, calves weaned at 8 wk compared with 6 wk had higher starter intake for 1 wk preweaning (1.36±0.13 vs. 0.40±0.08 kg/d) and

  8. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    challenging for larval rearing. After the start of exogenous feeding, another intense and likely critical period of change occurs in the early life stages of fish. This stage is the metamorphosis, during which the larvae transform organs and body morphology to become juveniles. Compared to other teleosts...... metamorphosis in flatfish species is often unsuccessful, resulting in different types of abnormal development. The objective of this thesis was to analyse the feeding behaviour of the flatfish species turbot (Psetta maxima L.) larvae during the two crucial life periods, 1) first feeding and 2) metamorphosis....... To analyse whether these two periods are critical for the correct development and survival of turbot, feeding behaviours of larvae during the period of first feeding and during the first stages of metamorphosis was studied using video recordings. This provided qualitative and quantitative descriptions...

  9. Technical Report: Optimizing the Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem using a Two-Stage Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anders Dohn; Clausen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present The Slab Yard Planning and Crane Scheduling Problem. The problem has its origin in steel production facilities with a large throughput. A slab yard is used as a buffer for slabs that are needed in the upcoming production. Slabs are transported by cranes and the problem c...

  10. Correlating planned radiation dose to the cochlea with primary site and tumor stage in patients with head and neck cancer treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jeanette; Qureshi, Muhammad M.; Kovalchuk, Nataliya; Truong, Minh Tam, E-mail: mitruong@bu.edu

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine tumor characteristics that predict higher planned radiation (RT) dose to the cochlea in patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). From 2004 to 2012, 99 patients with HNC underwent definitive IMRT to a median dose of 69.96 Gy in 33 fractions, with the right and left cochlea-vestibular apparatus contoured for IMRT optimization as avoidance structures. If disease involvement was adjacent to the cochlea, preference was given to tumor coverage by prescription dose. Descriptive statistics were calculated for dose-volume histogram planning data, and mean planning dose to the cochlea (from left or right cochlea, receiving the greater amount of RT dose) was correlated to primary site and tumor stage. Mean (standard deviation) cochlear volume was 1.0 (0.60) cm{sup 3} with maximum and mean planned doses of 31.9 (17.5) Gy and 22.1 (13.7) Gy, respectively. Mean planned dose (Gy) to cochlea by tumor site was as follows: oral cavity (18.6, 14.4), oropharynx (21.7, 9.1), nasopharynx (36.3, 10.4), hypopharynx (14.9, 7.1), larynx (2.1, 0.62), others including the parotid gland, temporal bone, and paranasal sinus (33.6, 24.0), and unknown primary (25.6, 6.7). Average mean planned dose (Gy) to the cochlea in T0-T2 and T3-T4 disease was 22.0 and 29.2 Gy, respectively (p = 0.019). By site, a significant difference was noted for nasopharynx and others (31.6 and 50.7, p = 0.012) but not for oropharynx, oral cavity, and hypopharynx. Advanced T category predicted for higher mean cochlear dose, particularly for nasopharyngeal, parotid gland, temporal bone, and paranasal sinus HNC sites.

  11. Water safety plans. Hazard study and risk assessment of a water supply system in Bizkaia. Application to the water catchment stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Astillero Pinilla

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The best way to guarantee a safe and high quality water supply is to establish a control and management plan for the water supply system that focuses on risk prevention. In this study, the methodology and analytical steps established in the Water Safety Plan Manual (WHO and the Guide to the Control and Management of Water Supply Systems (Autonomous Government of the Basque Country were used to carry out hazard and risk assessment in a water supply system in Bizkaia. Although the application has only been carried out in the water catchment stage, it has already provided information about the benefits, as well as the problems encountered. Therefore, from the results obtained, it can be seen that this methodology is clearly effective for determining risks that had passed unnoticed, and for establishing new control measures. It also demonstrates the importance of co-operation between the bodies not directly related to the operation of the water supply system.

  12. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473).

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of an α-amylase cDNA highly expressed in major feeding stages of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, C A; Macedo, L L P; Amorim, T M L; Santos, V O; Fragoso, R R; Lucena, W A; Meneguim, A M; Valencia-Jimenez, A; Engler, G; Silva, M C M; Albuquerque, E V S; Grossi-de-Sa, M F

    2014-12-10

    α-Amylases are common enzymes responsible for hydrolyzing starch. Insect-pests, whose larvae develop in seeds, rely obligatorily on α-amylase activity to digest starch, as their major food source. Considering the relevance of insect α-amylases and the natural α-amylase inhibitors present in seeds to protect from insect damage, we report here the molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the full-length AmyHha cDNA of the coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei, a major insect-pest of coffee crops. The AmyHha sequence has 1879 bp, containing a 1458 bp open reading frame, which encodes a predicted protein with 485 amino acid residues, with a predicted molecular mass of 51.2 kDa. The deduced protein showed 55-79% identity to other insect α-amylases, including Anthonomus grandis, Ips typographus and Sitophilus oryzae α-amylases. In depth analysis revealed that the highly conserved three amino acid residues (Asp184, Glu220, and Asp285), which compose the catalytic site are also presented in AmyHha amylase. The AmyHha gene seems to be a single copy in the haploid genome and AmyHha transcription levels were found higher in L2 larvae and adult insects, both corresponding to major feeding phases. Modeling of the AmyHha predicted protein uncovered striking structural similarities to the Tenebrio molitor α-amylase also displaying the same amino acid residues involved in enzyme catalysis (Asp184, Glu220 and Asp285). Since AmyHha gene was mostly transcribed in the intestinal tract of H. hampei larvae, the cognate α-amylase could be considered a high valuable target to coffee bean insect control by biotechnological strategies.

  14. Identification of a novel leptin receptor duplicate in Atlantic salmon: Expression analyses in different life stages and in response to feeding status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angotzi, Anna R; Stefansson, Sigurd O; Nilsen, Tom O; Øvrebø, Jan I; Andersson, Eva; Taranger, Geir L; Rønnestad, Ivar

    2016-09-01

    In recent years rapidly growing research has led to identification of several fish leptin orthologs and numerous duplicated paralogs possibly arisen from the third and fourth round whole genome duplication (3R and 4R WGD) events. In this study we identify in Atlantic salmon a duplicated LepRA gene, named LepRA2, that further extend possible evolutionary scenarios of the leptin and leptin receptor system. The 1121 amino acid sequence of the novel LepRA2 shares 80% sequence identity with the LepRA1 paralog, and contains the protein motifs typical of the functional (long form) leptin receptor in vertebrates. In silico predictions showed similar electrostatic properties of LepRA1 and LepRA2 and high sequence conservation at the leptin interaction surfaces within the CHR/leptin-binding and FNIII domains, suggesting conserved functional specificity between the two duplicates. Analysis of temporal expression profiles during pre-hatching stages indicate that both transcripts are involved in modulating leptin developmental functions, although the LepRA1 paralog may play a major role as the embryo complexity increases. There is ubiquitous distribution of LepRs underlying pleiotropism of leptin in all tissues investigated. LepRA1 and LepRA2 are differentially expressed with LepRA1 more abundant than LepRA2 in most of the tissues investigated, with the only exception of liver. Analysis of constitutive LepRA1 and LepRA2 expression in brain and liver at parr, post-smolt and adult stages reveal striking spatial divergence between the duplicates at all stages investigated. This suggests that, beside increased metabolic requirements, leptin sensitivity in the salmon brain might be linked to important variables such as habitat, ecology and life cycle. Furthermore, leptins and LepRs mRNAs in the brain showed gene-specific variability in response to long term fasting, suggesting that leptin's roles as modulator of nutritional status in Atlantic salmon might be governed by distinct

  15. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments......In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed...... and lived as people are “staging themselves” (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between “being staged” (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the “mobile staging” of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging Mobilities is about the fact...

  16. AUDIT OF INNOVATIVE IDEAS AS THE PREVIOUS STAGE OF THE BUSINESS-PLAN OF START-UP PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Zhylinska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of feasibility reasoning of venture capital investment for the implementation of innovative ideas is revealed. The main elements of the methodology for feasibility of start-up projects, based on the concept of combination of life cycle of the market, product innovation and startup companies, are characterized. The comparative analysis of methods feasibility study and business plan start-up project is made, the importance of innovative ideas audit in future economic information generation and investment decisions of informal venture capital investors are shown.

  17. Impact of coccidiosis control program and feeding plan on white striping prevalence and severity degree on broiler breast fillets evaluated at three growing ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle Zotte, A; Tasoniero, G; Russo, E; Longoni, C; Cecchinato, M

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the impact of 2 coccidiosis control systems (vaccine vs anticoccidial) and 2 feeding plans (standard energy vs low energy content, the latter supplemented with threonine and enzymes in the second half of the production cycle) on white striping (WS) prevalence and severity in chicken broiler breasts at commercial slaughter age (51 d). The age of lesion onset was also investigated with the sacrifice of 80 chicks at 12, and 80 chicks at 25 d of age. Seven hundred and twenty ROSS 708 strain male chicks were divided into 4 groups: a non-vaccinated group fed with standard diet (CONTROL); two groups vaccinated against coccidiosis but fed either a standard diet (VACC) or a low-energy diet supplemented with threonine and enzymes (VACC-LE plus); and a fourth group fed a standard diet containing anticoccidial additive except during the finishing period (COX). After live performance, yields, and fillet pH were measured, the breasts were weighed and scored as level 0 (no WS), level 1 (moderate WS), and level 2 (severe WS) at each of the 3 ages; data were covariate for slaughter weight. The results suggest an ameliorative effect of coccidiosis control systems when compared to the control group in terms of live weight, breast yield, and whole breast weight, with heavier fillets characterized by higher pH values. WS appeared at 25 d of age with an average prevalence of 11.5% and with lesions of moderate severity. There were no statistically significant differences due to the experimental treatment at this age. At commercial slaughter age, total average prevalence was 96%, with COX birds showing higher level 2 prevalence (77.6%). This could be related to the higher slaughter weight reached by the COX group (P<0.001) and the treatment effect (P<0.01) that probably adds to the effect of live weight. Diet had no effect on overall live performance of VACC-LE plus chickens, which were similar to those of the VACC group. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  18. An early-stage personal development & planning course to engender effective self-management in PhDs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Sofie; Grumløse, Sine Penthin; Grout, Brian William Wilson

    2011-01-01

    they participated in the course, and the study shows that 50% of respondents continue to use tools and methods provided at the induction course, and that the course had supported them significantly to take charge and manage their own learning environment. This paper describes the rationale behind the course design...... based on a theoretical grounding in situated learning in communities of practice, and concludes with suggesting seven essential elements of the course: Self perception, Meeting PhD students as whole persons, Personal Development Planning – working with them, Intercultural, Safe haven - 5 days off campus...... residential, Inclusiveness – sense of belonging, Managing relationship with and reducing distance to supervisors. The study confirms that viewing research education in terms of situated learning, using a pedagogy which mobilizes the resources of the research (learning) environment, can support the development...

  19. Tax Planning Strategies during Enterprise Establishment Stage%企业设立阶段的税收筹划策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许洪波

    2012-01-01

    随着我国税收征管体制的不断改善及现代企业管理水平的提高,通过科学合法的税收筹划来降低企业税负、节约成本逐渐被采用和重视。通常对税收筹划的研究是分税种、分阶段、分活动或会计方法展开,本文选择的是企业设立阶段的税收筹划,并分别注册地和设立地、组织形式及规模、纳税人形式选择进行研究。%With the continuous improvement of domestic tax administration system and modem enterprise management level, it is advised to reduce the corporate tax and cost savings through a science and legitimate tax planning. This article studies tax planning during enterprise establishment stage from aspects of registration place, setting place, form of organization and scale, taxpayers.

  20. Assessment of Diversity, Distribution, Conservation Status and Preparation of Management Plan for Medicinal Plants in the Catchment Area of Parbati Hydroelectric Project Stage -Ⅲ in Northwestern Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S. Samant; Jitendra S. Butola; Aman Sharma

    2007-01-01

    The developmental activities, particularly the construction of hydroelectric projects are causing a great loss of biodiversity in the Indian Himalayan Region. The Himachal Pradesh, a part of IHR is well known for the development of hydroelectric projects.The Parbati H.E. Project is amongst the major projects of the State. The different stages of the project are all causing loss of biodiversity of the area.Stage Ⅲ of the Parbati H.E. Project is a run of the river scheme on the Sainj River downstream of Power House of Parbati H.E. Project Stage Ⅱ. The project shall utilize regulated discharge of Parbati H.E.Project Stage Ⅱ and inflow of River Sainj for power generation, and has been contemplated as a peaking station operating in tandem with Stage Ⅱ. The present study has been undertaken to see the impact of hydroelectric project on the biodiversity, particularly on medicinal plants. A total of 104 species of medicinal plants, belonging to different life forms, i.e.,trees (23 spp.), shrubs (22 spp.), herbs (57 spp.) and ferns (2 spp.) were recorded. The species have been analyzed and studied for their distribution,classification, altitudinal zones, part (s) used,indigenous uses, nativity, endemism and rarity.Different parts of these species, such as whole plants,roots (including rhizomes and tubers), leaves, flowers,fruits, seeds, stems, barks, spikes, nuts and insect galls are used by the inhabitants for curing various diseases and ailments. 30 species are native to the Himalayan region, 9 species native to the Himalayan region and adjacent countries also and 65 species are non-natives. 9 species are near endemics. Considering the whole Himalaya as a biogeographic unit (sensu lato),the near endemics are endemic to the Himalaya.Among these species, Zanthoxylum armatum is categorized as Endangered and Valeriana wallichii as Vulnerable. Hedychium spicatum, Rhus javanica,Berberis lycium, Thalictrum foliolossum, Salvia lanata, Rubia cordifolia and Bergenia

  1. Live feeds in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, Ph.; Sorgeloos, P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two decades intensive larviculture of several fish and shellfish species has expanded into a multimillion dollar industry. Although much progress has been made in identifying the dietary requirements of the larvae of various aquaculture species, the mass culture of their early larval stages still requires the use of live feeds. Selected either through trial and error approaches or because of their convenience in mass production and use, hatcheries are relying today on three grou...

  2. Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent distillation columns: identifying optimal feed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.O. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.

  3. Clinical Impact of Education Provision on Determining Advance Care Planning Decisions among End Stage Renal Disease Patients Receiving Regular Hemodialysis in University Malaya Medical Centre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hing (Wong), Albert; Chin, Loh Ee; Ping, Tan Li; Peng, Ng Kok; Kun, Lim Soo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Advance care planning (ACP) is a process of shared decision-making about future health-care plans between patients, health care providers, and family members, should patients becomes incapable of participating in medical treatment decisions. ACP discussions enhance patient's autonomy, focus on patient's values and treatment preferences, and promote patient-centered care. ACP is integrated as part of clinical practice in Singapore and the United States. Aim: To assess the clinical impact of education provision on determining ACP decisions among end-stage renal disease patients on regular hemodialysis at University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC). To study the knowledge and attitude of patients toward ACP and end-of-life issues. Materials and Methods: Fifty-six patients were recruited from UMMC. About 43 questions pretest survey adapted from Lyon's ACP survey and Moss's cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) attitude survey was given to patients to answer. An educational brochure is then introduced to these patients, and a posttest survey carried out after that. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 22.0. Results: Opinion on ACP, including CPR decisions, showed an upward trend on the importance percentage after the educational brochure exposure, but this was statistically not significant. Seventy-five percent of participants had never heard of ACP before, and only 3.6% had actually prepared a written advanced directive. Conclusion: The ACP educational brochure clinically impacts patients’ preferences and decisions toward end-of-life care; however, this is statistically not significant. Majority of patients have poor knowledge on ACP. This study lays the foundation for execution of future larger scale clinical trials, and ultimately, the incorporation of ACP into clinical practice in Malaysia.

  4. Staging Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    In recent years, the social sciences have taken a “mobilities turn.” There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not “just happen.” Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed...... that mobility is more than movement between point A and B. It explores how the movement of people, goods, information, and signs influences human understandings of self, other and the built environment. Moving towards a new understanding of the relationship between movement, interaction and environments......, the book asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities?...

  5. HVDC-System-Interaction Assessment through Line-Flow Change-Distribution Factor and Transient-Stability Analysis at Planning Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Hwang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Many of the recent projects for new transmission line have considered the high-voltage direct current (HVDC system, owing to the many advantages of the direct current (DC system. The most noteworthy advantage is that a cable can serve as a substitute for the overhead transmission line in residential areas; therefore, the HVDC system application is increasing, and as the number of DC systems in the power system increases, the interaction assessment regarding the HVDC system gains importance. An index named multi-infeed interaction factor (MIIF is commonly used to estimate the interaction between power converters; however, the HVDC system is composed of two converters and a transmission line. The MIIF represents the interaction between the rectifiers and inverters, but not for the whole system. In this work, a method to assess the interaction of the whole system was therefore studied. To decide on the location of the new HVDC transmission system at the planning stage, in consideration of the interaction of the existing DC system, the line flow change distribution factor, according to the HVDC-transmission capacity change, was examined. Also, a power system transient -stability analysis was performed with different HVDC system locations, depending on the distribution factor. The simulation results indicate that when the factor is higher, two HVDC systems have a stronger interaction and are less stable in the transient state.

  6. Plan for the Experimental Set-Up in Stages 1 and 2. Fairytale: An Interdisciplinary Turco-Danish Study of the Collective v. the Individual Nature of the Response to Literature. Report No. 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollerup, Cay, Ed.; And Others

    A detailed plan for stages one and two of the interdisciplinary Turko-Danish Fairytale Project is presented in this paper and factors considered in the project's research design are discussed in depth. The first section describes the working hypotheses of the project--that there are primordial patterns in the response to literature that are common…

  7. Uncertain Programming Based Model and Algorithm of Multi-stage Process Planning Problem%基于不确定理论的多阶段工序计划模型与算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李犇

    2012-01-01

    介绍在不确定条件下的多阶段工序计划问题,设计基于可信性测度的模糊多阶段工序计划模型,并通过一个结合模糊模拟和遗传算法的混合智能算法进行求解。最后,结合一个实例来说明该模型的应用和可行性。计算结果表明该算法所得结果令人满意并有效地缩短求解该问题的时间。%Multi-stage process planning issues provide detailed descriptions about the capacity and demand of change raw materials into finished product production through several processes.But in the real world,some systems there are many uncertainties,therefore it is necessary to study the multi-stage process planning with uncertain parameters.Mainly introduces the multi-stage process planning problem under uncertain conditions,designs multi-stage process planning model based on fuzzy credibility measure,and through a hybrid intelligent algorithm combined fuzzy simulation with genetic algorithm for solving.Finally,an example will be show to illustrate application and feasibility of the model.The results show that the algorithm obtains satisfactory results and effectively shorten the time for solving the problem.

  8. Changes in health-related quality of life across three post-heart transplantation stages: preoperative extracorporeal membrane versus non-extracorporeal membrane group/clinical trial plan group versus non-clinical trial plan group in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, P-H; Wang, S-S; Shih, F-J

    2012-05-01

    The aims of this research were to compare changes in overall health-related quality of life (HRQoL), working competence (WC), physical functions (PF), and quality of sleep across 3 crucial post-heart transplantation (HT) stages (1 month, 6 months, and 1 year post-HT) between the following: (1) preoperative extracorporeal membrane (preop-ECMO) versus non-ECMO group and (2) postoperative Clinical Trial Plan (CTP) group versus non-CTP group in Taiwan. A between-method triangulation design was used. Subjects who had undergone HT in the last 1-4 years were recruited from a leading medical center in Taipei. Quantitative data were collected using Visual Analog scale (VAS) and Taiwan's version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life (WHOQOL) questionnaire. Semistructured qualitative questions were added to explore the factors influencing the changes in social domains of HRQoL. A total of 62 heart transplant recipients (HTRs) participated in this study. Their ages ranged from 20 to 70 (mean, 47.16 ± 12.09) years; 80.6% were male. Compared with the subjects with preop-ECMO, HRQoL, WC, and PF of the subjects without preop-ECMO were less at 1 month post-HT; the difference reached statistical significance for HRQoL and PF for 1 month post-HT, but they recovered at the 6 months post-HT stage. HTRs who had participated in the CTP had higher HRQoL and perceived WC in the period of 1 month post-HT, 6 months post-HT, and 1 year post-HT as compared with the group not in CTP; meanwhile, the difference was statistically significant for HRQoL at 1 month post-HT and 6 months post-HT and for PF at 1 month post-HT. The efficacy of postop-CTP including HRQoL, WC, and PF was promising across the 3 post-HT stages. Postop-CTP was suggested both clinically and was shown to be statistically significant to HTR's recovery of their health status. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Study of the Model of Activating Contingency Plans within Disruptive Incidents by Stages%突发事件下分阶段启动应急预案模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于辉; 江智慧

    2011-01-01

    经前期处置下,研究管理者面对突发事件应该何时启动前期处置方案和应急预案的问题.在完全没有突发事件持续时阎信息的条件下,利用局内决策理论与方法构建了企业何时启动前期处置方案和应急预案的分阶段启动模型,并利用"竞争比"说明该方案的有效性.在此基础上,进一步通过数值分析表明分阶段启动应急预案的重要意义.%The increased number of natural disasters has disrupted social and economic progress. Minimizing the impact of these disasters can bring stability to society. Emergency response systems have played an important role in achieving this goal. Since the "SARS" crisis in the year 2003, China has begun to focus on building emergency response systems. A national contingency plan system was established in 2004 according to the "Classification" rule. China initially formed a main emergency plan system,constituted by national overall emergency response plans, specific contingency plans, department emergency plans, local emergency plans, and contingency plans for enterprises with large-scale activities.Existing literature has focused on the importance of contingency plans, the assessment of contingency plans, and approaches to improving emergency preparedness. Few studies have addressed problems associated with the activation of contingency plans when the public administration is disrupted by natural disasters. This paper investigates how managers activate contingency plans at the predisposal stage and potential problems that may arise from disruption by natural disasters at this stage. Case studies are conducted and our analysis results show that activating contingency plans at the pre-disposition stage is effective at dealing with public crises caused by natural disasters. A mathematical model is constructed to provide information on when to activate contingency plans in different phases.Decision theories and methods are used to help propose an

  10. Late-Stage Caregiving

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources, care and ways to engage in meaningful connections. During the late stages, your role as a ... drinks. This will help you track the person's natural routine, and then you can plan a schedule. ...

  11. Case conferences between general practitioners and specialist teams to plan end of life care of people with end stage heart failure and lung disease: an exploratory pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Geoffrey; Zhang, Jianzhen; Burridge, Letitia; Senior, Hugh; Miller, Elizabeth; Young, Sharleen; Donald, Maria; Jackson, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Most people die of non-malignant disease, but most patients of specialist palliative care services have cancer. Adequate end of life care for people with non-malignant disease requires acknowledgement of their limited prognosis and appropriate care planning. Case conferences between specialist palliative care services and GPs improve outcomes in cancer-based populations. We report a pilot study of case conferences between the patient's GP and specialist staff to facilitate care planning for people with end stage heart failure or non-malignant lung disease in a regional health service in Queensland Australia. Single face to face case conferences about patients with a primary diagnosis of advanced heart failure or respiratory failure from non-malignant disease were conducted between a palliative care consultant, a case management nurse and the patient's GP. Annualised rates of service utilisation (emergency department [ED] presentations, ED discharges back to home, hospital admissions, and admission length of stay) before and after case conference were calculated. Content and counts of case conference recommendations, and the rate of adherence to recommendations were also assessed. A process evaluation of case conferences was undertaken. Twenty-three case conferences involving 21 GPs were conducted between November 2011 and November 2012. One GP refused to participate. Ten patients died, three at home. Of 82 management recommendations made, 55 (67%) were enacted. ED admissions fell from 13.9 per annum (pa) to 2.1 (difference 11.8, 95% CI 2.2-21.3, p = 0.001); ED admissions leading to discharge home from 3.9 to 0.4 pa (difference 3.5, 95% CI -0.4-7.5, p = 0.05); hospital admissions from 11.4 to 3.5 pa (difference 7.9, 95% CI 2.2-13.7, p = 0.002); and length of stay from 7.0 to 3.7 days (difference 3.4, 95% CI 0.9-5.8, p = 0.007). Participating health professionals were enthusiastic about the process. This pilot is the initial step in the development and testing of a

  12. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiezebrink Kirsty

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB, to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Method Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate, recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Results Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Conclusions Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours.

  13. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Method Three hundred mothers of children aged 2 years (from 372 invited to participate, 81% response rate), recruited via General Practitioners, took part in home-based semi-structured interviews in a cross-sectional survey of maternal psychological factors related to their children's dietary quality. Regression analyses examined statistical predictors of maternal intentions and feeding behaviours. Results Mothers of children with poorer quality diets were less likely than others to provide breakfast every day, cook from 'scratch' and provide 'proper sit-down meals'. TPB socio-cognitive factors (intentions, perceived behavioural control) significantly predicted these three behaviours, and attitudes, norms, and perceived behavioural control significantly predicted mothers' intentions, with medium to large effect sizes. Conclusions Interventions to improve young children's dietary health could benefit from a focus on modifying maternal motivations and attitudes in attempts to improve feeding behaviours. PMID:21699714

  14. Planejamento de banco de leite humano e central de informações sobre aleitamento materno Planning of the human milk bank and the information center on breast feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alice Altenburg de Assis

    1983-10-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se o planejamento das atividades e da área física do Banco de Leite Humano e Central de Informações sobre Aleitamento Materno da Maternidade Carmela Dutra, da Fundação Hospitalar de Santa Catarina. Com a implantação deste serviço, procura-se atender as necessidades dos bebês internados em Unidades de Tratamento Intensivo das Maternidades e Hospitais Infantis desta Fundação. Além de coletar, analisar, armazenar e processar adequadamente o leite doado por nutrizes voluntárias, são realizadas atividades educativas e de incentivo ao aleitamento materno junto a comunidade e aos profissionais de saúde.The planning of the activities and the layout of the Human Milk Bank and Information Center on Breast Feeding of the Carmela Dutra Maternity Hospital of the Santa Catarina Hospital Foundation (Brazil are presented. The implantation of this service seeks to attend to the necessities of babies under treatment in Intensive Care Units of the Maternity and other children's hospitals of this Foundation. Besides collecting analising, storing and processing, adequately, the milk donated by volunteer wet-nurses, educational and promotional activities related to breast feeding are carried out in the community and among health profissionais.

  15. Contraceptive social marketing: a continuous cycle of planning, testing and evaluating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    This article outlines the contraceptive marketing process used by the Social Marketing for Change (SOMARC) project. The 1st stage of the process involves analysis of the market, the consumer, and the social marketing organization's capabilities. In the 2nd stage, planning, data collected in the analysis stage are used to define objectives, segment target markets, and devise strategies for each element in the marketing mix. In the 3rd stage, all the elements in the marketing mix are developed and tested (e.g. product concepts, pricing, packaging, communication messages) and refined on the basis of test results. In stage 4, the action plan is implemented and marketing progress and institutional performance are monitored. Stage 5 includes an assessment of in-market effectiveness in terms of responses from consumers, retailers, and health professionals. The last stage feeds back to the 1st. All the reviewed data are recycled into analysis to begin again the continuous process of refinement and improvement.

  16. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  17. Re-feeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadaba, A; Paine, J; Adlard, R; Dilkes, M

    2001-09-01

    The effect of a therapeutically administered high calorie diet in a severely malnourished patient is discussed in this case report. In patients with advanced head and neck cancer prolonged periods of malnutrition prior to admission are frequently encountered. This case report highlights the need to constantly monitor the electrolyte and vitamin levels during the early stages of instituting enteral or parenteral nutrition. By vigilant monitoring and a high index of suspicion re-feeding syndrome or severe hypophosphataemia and its associated complications can be avoided.

  18. WTP Waste Feed Qualification: Glass Fabrication Unit Operation Testing Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Hanford Missions Programs; Newell, J. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Process Technology Programs; Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development; Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL). Engineering Process Development

    2016-07-14

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) design, safety basis, and technical basis by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed campaign prior to transfer from the Tank Operations Contractor to the feed receipt vessels inside the Pretreatment Facility. The Waste Feed Qualification Program Plan describes the three components of waste feed qualification: 1. Demonstrate compliance with the waste acceptance criteria 2. Determine waste processability 3. Test unit operations at laboratory scale. The glass fabrication unit operation is the final step in the process demonstration portion of the waste feed qualification process. This unit operation generally consists of combining each of the waste feed streams (high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW)) with Glass Forming Chemicals (GFCs), fabricating glass coupons, performing chemical composition analysis before and after glass fabrication, measuring hydrogen generation rate either before or after glass former addition, measuring rheological properties before and after glass former addition, and visual observation of the resulting glass coupons. Critical aspects of this unit operation are mixing and sampling of the waste and melter feeds to ensure representative samples are obtained as well as ensuring the fabrication process for the glass coupon is adequate. Testing was performed using a range of simulants (LAW and HLW simulants), and these simulants were mixed with high and low bounding amounts of GFCs to evaluate the mixing, sampling, and glass preparation steps in shielded cells using laboratory techniques. The tests were performed with off-the-shelf equipment at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) that is similar to equipment used in the SRNL work during qualification of waste feed for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) and other waste treatment facilities at the

  19. A treatment planning comparison between modulated tri-cobalt-60 teletherapy and linear accelerator–based stereotactic body radiotherapy for central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merna, Catherine; Rwigema, Jean-Claude M.; Cao, Minsong; Wang, Pin-Chieh; Kishan, Amar U.; Michailian, Argin; Lamb, James; Sheng, Ke; Agazaryan, Nzhde; Low, Daniel A.; Kupelian, Patrick; Steinberg, Michael L.; Lee, Percy, E-mail: percylee@mednet.ucla.edu

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of planning stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for large central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer with a tri-cobalt-60 (tri-{sup 60}Co) system equipped with real-time magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance, as compared to linear accelerator (LINAC)–based SBRT. In all, 20 patients with large central early-stage non−small cell lung cancer who were treated between 2010 and 2015 with LINAC-based SBRT were replanned using a tri-{sup 60}Co system for a prescription dose of 50 Gy in 4 fractions. Doses to organs at risk were evaluated based on established MD Anderson constraints for central lung SBRT. R{sub 100} values were calculated as the total tissue volume receiving 100% of the dose (V{sub 100}) divided by the planning target volume and compared to assess dose conformity. Dosimetric comparisons between LINAC-based and tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans were performed using Student's t-test and Wilcoxon Ranks test. Blinded reviews by radiation oncologists were performed to assess the suitability of both plans for clinical delivery. The mean planning target volume was 48.3 cc (range: 12.1 to 139.4 cc). Of the tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans, a mean 97.4% of dosimetric parameters per patient met MD Anderson dose constraints, whereas a mean 98.8% of dosimetric parameters per patient were met with LINAC-based SBRT planning (p = 0.056). R{sub 100} values were similar between both plans (1.20 vs 1.21, p = 0.79). Upon blinded review by 4 radiation oncologists, an average of 90% of the tri-{sup 60}Co SBRT plans were considered acceptable for clinical delivery compared with 100% of the corresponding LINAC-based SBRT plans (p = 0.17). SBRT planning using the tri-{sup 60}Co system with built-in MRI is feasible and achieves clinically acceptable plans for most central lung patients, with similar target dose conformity and organ at risk dosimetry. The added benefit of real-time MRI-guided therapy may further optimize tumor targeting while

  20. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  1. Teacher Career Planning in the Primary and Secondary School Based on Stages of Teacher Career Development%基于职业生涯发展阶段的中小学教师职业规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董静

    2011-01-01

    Effective career planning is the result of the joint responsibility of schools and teachers. While teacher career planning based on the characteristics of different stages is more targeted and can more effectively promote teacher professional development. Career explorative stage focuses on becoming a conscious subject of career development and realizing the transition of roles; Career developing stage focuses on the generation of education practice wisdom;Career plateau stage focuses on finding the development breakthrough;Career surpassing stage focuses on independent innovation.%有效的职业规划是学校与教师共同负责的结果。而基于教师职业生涯发展阶段的职业规划更具有针对性。职业探索期教师发展的重点在于一入职就成为职业发展的自觉主体,顺利实现职业角色的转换;职业成长期教师发展的重点在于不断生成教育实践智慧,快速成长;职业高原期教师发展的重点在于寻找发展的突破口;职业超越期教师职业发展的重点在于自主创新,实现新的飞跃。

  2. SMED-TLX-1 (NR2E1) is critical for tissue and body plan maintenance in Schmidtea mediterranea in fasting/feeding cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raška, O; Kostrouchová, V; Behenský, F; Yilma, P; Saudek, V; Kostrouch, Z; Kostrouchová, M

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs), or nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs), are transcription factors that regulate development and metabolism of most if not all animal species. Their regulatory networks include conserved mechanisms that are shared in-between species as well as mechanisms that are restricted to certain phyla or even species. In search for conserved members of the NHR family in Schmidtea mediterranea, we identified a molecular signature of a class of NRs, NR2E1, in the S. mediterranea genome and cloned its complete cDNA coding sequence. The derived amino acid sequence shows a high degree of conservation of both DNA-binding domain and ligand- binding domain and a remarkably high homology to vertebrate NR2E1 and C. elegans NHR-67. Quantitative PCR detected approximately ten-fold higher expression of Smed-tlx-1 in the proximal part of the head compared to the tail region. The expression of Smed-tlx-1 is higher during fed state than during fasting. Smed-tlx-1 down-regulation by RNA interference affects the ability of the animals to maintain body plan and induces defects of brain, eyes and body shape during fasting and re-growing cycles. These results suggest that SMED-TLX-1 is critical for tissue and body plan maintenance in planaria.

  3. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  4. 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography in staging, response evaluation, and treatment planning of lymphomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Specht, Lena

    2007-01-01

    2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET) is used increasingly in the clinical management of lymphomas. With regard to staging, FDG-PET is more sensitive and specific than conventional staging methods in FDG avid lymphomas (ie, Hodgkin lymphoma and most aggressive non-Ho...

  5. A treatment planning and delivery comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy with or without flattening filter for gliomas, brain metastases, prostate, head/neck and early stage lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasic, Daniel; Ohlhues, Lars; Brodin, N Patrik; Fog, Lotte S; Pommer, Tobias; Bangsgaard, Jens P; Munck Af Rosenschöld, Per

    2014-08-01

    Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are an emerging technology that has not yet been widely implemented as standard practice in radiotherapy centers. To facilitate the clinical implementation of FFF, we attempted to elucidate the difference in plan quality and treatment delivery time compared to flattening filter beams (i.e. standard, STD) for several patient groups. We hypothesize that the treatment plan quality is comparable while the treatment delivery time of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) is considerably shorter using FFF beams, especially for stereotactic treatments. A total of 120 patients treated for head and neck (H&N) tumors, high-grade glioma, prostate cancer, early stage lung cancer and intra-cranial metastatic disease (both single and multiple metastases) were included in the study. For each cohort, 20 consecutive patients were selected. The plans were generated using STD- and FFF-VMAT for both 6 MV and 10 MV, and were compared with respect to plan quality, monitor units and delivery time using Wilcoxon signed rank tests. For H&N and high-grade gliomas, there was a significant difference in homogeneity index in favor for STD-VMAT (p delivery time compared to STD-VMAT plans (p < 0.001) for higher dose per fraction, on average 54.5% for 6 MV and 71.4% for 10 MV. FFF-VMAT generally required a higher number of MU/Gy (p < 0.001), on average 7.0% for 6 MV and 8.4% for 10 MV. It was generally possible to produce FFF-VMAT plans with the same target dose coverage and doses to organs at risk as STD-VMAT plans. Target dose homogeneity tended to be somewhat inferior for FFF-VMAT for the larger targets investigated. For stereotactic radiotherapy, FFF-VMAT resulted in a considerable time gain while maintaining similar plan quality compared to STD beams.

  6. School Feeding Analysis in the context of a Food and Nutrition Program - doi:10.5020/18061230.2006.p164

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixis Figueroa Pedraza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of standards related to school feeding makes it a complex topic and difficult to lead with. This research aimed at reflecting on the essential aspects of the subject, in a bibliographical revision of global proposal that was based on what the term “program” represents. The School Feeding Program means a combination of projects addressed to bring meals to keep students nourished, independent of their condition. This concept implies that all School Feeding Program should consist of three stages: design, carrying out and evaluation. The design includes important controversial aspects, related to school feeding, such as: the program objectives, their relationship with starvation, malnutrition and school failure; and the distinction of treating this matter from the perspective of breeding right. There are significant differences among experiences in running School Feeding Programs in developed and in developing countries, as well as within the last ones. The evaluation stage usually is not well designed or it is not considered. This stage is really important and it is addressed to determine if the outcomes are corresponding to planned objectives. In order to complete a useful evaluation stage, the use of proper indicators is a main point. Finally, a whole analysis of the Program is carried out in order to obtain unquestionable results. The School Feeding Program is discussed as a Public Policy, into the context of Food Security and the other complementary activities included in it. The proposed view considers school feeding as a right that must be satisfied in the implementation of organized projects.

  7. Monte Carlo calculation of dose distribution in early stage NSCLC patients planned for accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy in the NCIC-BR25 protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moiseenko, V; Bergman, A M; Gill, B; Popescu, I A [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Vancouver, 600 W.10th Ave, Vancouver, BC, V5Z 4E6 (Canada); Liu, M; Kristensen, S [British Columbia Cancer Agency-Fraser Valley, 13750 96th Ave, Surrey, BC, V3V 1Z2 (Canada); Teke, T [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agricultural Road Vancouver, BC, V6 T 1Z1 (Canada)], E-mail: vmoiseenko@bccancer.bc.ca

    2010-02-07

    The dosimetric consequences of plans optimized using a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for hypofractionated radiation therapy are evaluated by re-calculating with Monte Carlo (MC). Planning guidelines were in strict accordance with the Canadian BR25 protocol which is similar to the RTOG 0236 and 0618 protocols in patient eligibility and total dose, but has a different hypofractionation schedule (60 Gy in 15 fractions versus 60 Gy in 3 fractions). A common requirement of the BR25 and RTOG protocols is that the dose must be calculated by the TPS without tissue heterogeneity (TH) corrections. Our results show that optimizing plans using the pencil beam algorithm with no TH corrections does not ensure that the BR25 planning constraint of 99% of the PTV receiving at least 95% of the prescription dose would be achieved as revealed by MC simulations. This is due to poor modelling of backscatter and lateral electronic equilibrium by the TPS. MC simulations showed that as little as 75% of the PTV was actually covered by the 95% isodose line. The under-dosage of the PTV was even more pronounced if plans were optimized with the TH correction applied. In the most extreme case, only 23% of the PTV was covered by the 95% isodose.

  8. Monte Carlo calculation of dose distribution in early stage NSCLC patients planned for accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy in the NCIC-BR25 protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moiseenko, V.; Liu, M.; Bergman, A. M.; Gill, B.; Kristensen, S.; Teke, T.; Popescu, I. A.

    2010-02-01

    The dosimetric consequences of plans optimized using a commercial treatment planning system (TPS) for hypofractionated radiation therapy are evaluated by re-calculating with Monte Carlo (MC). Planning guidelines were in strict accordance with the Canadian BR25 protocol which is similar to the RTOG 0236 and 0618 protocols in patient eligibility and total dose, but has a different hypofractionation schedule (60 Gy in 15 fractions versus 60 Gy in 3 fractions). A common requirement of the BR25 and RTOG protocols is that the dose must be calculated by the TPS without tissue heterogeneity (TH) corrections. Our results show that optimizing plans using the pencil beam algorithm with no TH corrections does not ensure that the BR25 planning constraint of 99% of the PTV receiving at least 95% of the prescription dose would be achieved as revealed by MC simulations. This is due to poor modelling of backscatter and lateral electronic equilibrium by the TPS. MC simulations showed that as little as 75% of the PTV was actually covered by the 95% isodose line. The under-dosage of the PTV was even more pronounced if plans were optimized with the TH correction applied. In the most extreme case, only 23% of the PTV was covered by the 95% isodose.

  9. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for tumor staging and definition of tumor volumes on radiation treatment planning in nonsmall cell lung cancer: A prospective radiographic cohort study of single center clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dan; Hu, Qiaoqiao; Qi, Liping; Wang, Juan; Wu, Hao; Zhu, Guangying; Yu, Huiming

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the impact of magnetic resonance (MR) on the staging and radiotherapy planning for patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC).A total of 24 patients with NSCLC underwent MRI, which was fused with radiotherapy planning CT using rigid registration. Gross tumor volume (GTV) was delineated not only according to CT image alone (GTVCT), but also based on both CT and MR image (GTVCT/MR). For each patient, 2 conformal treatment plans were made according to GTVCT and GTVCT/MR, respectively. Dose-volume histograms (DVH) for lesion and normal organs were generated using both GTVCT and GTVCT/MR treatment plans. All patients were irradiated according to GTVCT/MR plan.Median volume of the GTVCT/MR and GTVCT were 105.42 cm and 124.45 cm, respectively, and the mean value of GTVCT/MR was significantly smaller than that of GTVCT (145.71 ± 145.04 vs 174.30 ± 150.34, P definition of tumor volume, reduces organs at risk dose and does not increase the local recurrence rate.

  10. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  11. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  12. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  13. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  14. Ontogenic changes in the feeding ecology of the early life stages of the Antarctic silverfish ( Pleuragramma antarcticum) documented by stable isotopes and diet analysis in the Dumont d’Urville Sea (East Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Carolina; Cherel, Yves; Vallet, Carole; Mayzaud, Patrick; Tavernier, Eric; Moteki, Masato; Hosie, Graham; Koubbi, Philippe

    2011-08-01

    The feeding ecology of the notothenioid fish Pleuragramma antarcticum was studied in the Dumont d’Urville Sea (East Antarctica) near the French Antarctic station. Stable isotopes (δ 13C and δ 15N) and diet contents were used in order to study dietary shifts between fish larvae and juveniles. All specimens had low δ 13C values (<-24‰), a main characteristic of high-Antarctic pelagic species. Fish larvae showed differences in both carbon and nitrogen ratios when compared with juveniles. Muscle δ 15N values showed a difference of one trophic level (∼3‰) between larvae (6.7‰) and juveniles (9.7-10.0‰) and a trophic position of tertiary consumers. Diet content analyses (stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopes) indicated that larvae are omnivorous, feeding on phytoplankton (mainly diatoms) as well as on zooplankton species. A positive relationship between δ 15N values and size was found and indicated a carnivorous diet for older specimens.

  15. Staging Mobilities / Designing Mobilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, urban research has taken a ‘mobilities turn’. There has been a developing realisation that mobilities do not ‘just happen.’ Mobilities are carefully and meticulously designed, planned and staged (from above). However, they are equally importantly acted out, performed and lived...... as people are ‘staging themselves’ (from below). Staging mobilities is a dynamic process between ‘being staged’ (for example, being stopped at traffic lights) and the ‘mobile staging’ of interacting individuals (negotiating a passage on the pavement). Staging mobilities is about the fact that mobility...... asks: what are the physical, social, technical, and cultural conditions to the staging of contemporary urban mobilities? The theoretical framing in the Staging mobilities book is applied to four in-depth cases in the accompanying volume Designing mobilities.This book explore how places, sites...

  16. Assortment Planning Considering Consumers' Two-stage Choice Behavior%考虑消费者两阶段选择行为的品类规划研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵藜; 田澎; 李相勇

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the assortment planning problem considering consumers' two-stage choice behavior in the context of network revenue management. A two-stage choice model based on consumer preferences is proposed, and a dynamic programming model for assortment planning is developed. The choice deterministic linear programming method (CDLP) is used to approximate the optimal offer sets. Finally,through numerical examples,the effects of consumers' two-stage choice behavior on firm's average expected revenues are discussed.%在网络收益管理框架下,研究了考虑消费者两阶段选择行为的品类规划问题.提出了基于消费者产品偏好的两阶段选择行为模型,并建立了品类规划问题的动态规划模型.利用选择确定性线性规划方法对模型进行了近似求解,推导了最优的产品组合.最后通过数值算例讨论了消费者两阶段选择行为对厂商平均期望收益与产品组合选择的影响.

  17. Pursuing happiness in planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne Birte

    2015-01-01

    Experience economic planning. Towards an urban staging system? Vancouver's journey form regional ressource periphery to global metropolis. The chaning cityscape of Vancouver. Values guiding urban planning in Vancouver. Governance of urban transformation in Vancouver. Planners as stagers in Vancou...

  18. Pursuing happiness in planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne Birte

    2015-01-01

    Experience economic planning. Towards an urban staging system? Vancouver's journey form regional ressource periphery to global metropolis. The chaning cityscape of Vancouver. Values guiding urban planning in Vancouver. Governance of urban transformation in Vancouver. Planners as stagers in Vancou...

  19. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two stage optimization method of cut order planning for apparel mass customization%大批量定制服装裁剪分床计划的两阶段优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳梅; 颜少聪; 纪杨建; 祁国宁

    2012-01-01

    为解决大批量定制服装生产中裁剪分床计划尺码较多且各尺码数量不规则的问题,建立了裁剪分床计划的数学模型;提出基于概率搜索和遗传算法的两阶段优化方法进行求解,第一阶段随机生成若干满足生产约束的初始裁床铺料层数方案,利用搜索算法结合概率,按投入裁床数量最少的原则得到最优尺码组合方案和相应初始裁床铺料层数方案,第二阶段基于前一阶段得到的最优尺码组合方案,按照满足订单情况下生产多余服装的比例不超过企业允许的最大值原则,利用遗传算法再次优化得到最优裁床铺料层数方案。针对实际生产案例,分别利用本算法和人工经验算法求解并进行比较,结果表明在相同的生产条件下,两阶段优化方法能快速求解出服装裁剪分床方案,减少铺床数、节省面料并降低成本。%To solve the problems of variousness and irregular quantity of Cut Order Planning(COP)sizes in apparel mass customization, the mathematical model was built and two stage optimization method based on probability search and genetic algorithm was proposed. In the first stage, several initial cut table layout plans which satified the production constriction were generated randomly. Combined searching algorithm with probability, the optimal sizes combination plan as well as initial cut table layout plan were obtained according to the principle of minimum number of cut table. In the second stage, the plans obtained from first stage were optimized again by using genetic algo- rithm, and the optimal cut table layout plan was received according to the principle that the producting proportion of redundant apparel not exceeding the allowable maximum value. A practical production case was given and computed separately by two stage method and manual empirical method. The results and comparison showed that the two stage optimization method could rapidly

  1. Prediction of Exercise in Patients across Various Stages of Bariatric Surgery: A Comparison of the Merits of the Theory of Reasoned Action versus the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Hillary R.; Gross, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide health concern approaching epidemic proportions. Successful long-term treatment involves a combination of bariatric surgery, diet, and exercise. Social cognitive models, such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), are among the most commonly tested theories utilized in the…

  2. Prediction of Exercise in Patients across Various Stages of Bariatric Surgery: A Comparison of the Merits of the Theory of Reasoned Action versus the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Hillary R.; Gross, Alan M.

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a world-wide health concern approaching epidemic proportions. Successful long-term treatment involves a combination of bariatric surgery, diet, and exercise. Social cognitive models, such as the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), are among the most commonly tested theories utilized in the…

  3. Staged Radiosurgical Ablation for Choroid Melanoma: A Case Report with Emphasis on the Role of Patient Preparation, Treatment Planning, and Precision of Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Marta; Janiga, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The aim of reporting this case of choroid melanoma of the left eye is to introduce the in-house-designed treatment planning protocol for fractionated radiosurgical ablation of an intraocular lesion. This is a clinical case with emphasis on treatment preparation and delivery using the Accuray CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) for a patient immobilized with a head mask and our in-house-made eye fixation system.

  4. Cancer Staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tumor is to grow and spread The TNM Staging System The TNM system is the most widely used cancer staging system. Most hospitals and medical centers use the TNM system as their main method for cancer reporting. ...

  5. Behavioral Management of Feeding Disorders of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Feeding disorders, characterized by suboptimal intake and/or lack of age-appropriate eating habits, are common and may be seen in up to 45% of children. Feeding disorders are a significant concern to both the affected families and to the providers who treat them. Fortunately, there are well-established behavioral treatments which have been shown to be highly efficacious. This article provides an overview of behavioral assessment and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders, provides guidance in treatment planning, and provides information which may be useful in considering if additional psychological consultation may be beneficial.

  6. USE OF FEED YEAST IN FEEDING OF STURGEON (ACIPENSERINAE SPECIES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the use of feed yeast preparations in feeding of sturgeon species (Acipenserinae. Findings. The review of scientific works demonstrated that feed yeast in the feeding of sturgeons have been used as a source of vitamins and complete protein, the nutritional value of which is significantly higher than in the proteins of plant origin and are similar to the proteins of animal origin. In addition, a unit of yeast protein mass is significantly lower than in the feeds of animal origin. Moreover, based on the content of B group vitamins, feed yeast produced from the grain-potato spent wash exceed fish meal and meat-and-bone meal. The article highlights the peculiarities of the technological process of the production of different feed yeast species, amino acid and fatty acid composition of their preparations, basic physical and chemical parameters of their composition. The examples of feed yeast formulas for sturgeon species based on feed yeast preparations are presented. It was shown that sturgeon species, especially on early stages of their ontogenesis, could effectively use the feed yeast nucleotides. Thus, the latters can be an effective substitute of live zooplanktonic organisms. While the production of some feed yeast preparations (paprin, eprin was stopped in 1990s due to a number of social-economic reasons, the works on the creation of their full analogues was continued later. Currently, the trends of the development of world aquaculture anticipates the return to the use of yeast in fish feeding. Therefore, the interest of the agrarians of Ukraine in yeast lately increased and their use in agricultural sector increased by 2-2.5 times. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of feeding of sturgeon species, because the data about the use of yeast as sources of complete protein in fish feeds is important in a constant search for the

  7. [Parte III. Ethical and juridical aspects in end-stage chronic organ failures. A position paper on a shared care planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbisan, Camillo; Casonato, Carlo; Palermo Fabris, Elisabetta; Piccinni, Mariassunta; Zatti, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The specific target of an experts panel was to assess in terms of law and ethics the compliance of a new specific decision making algorithm described in the position paper proposed by the Gruppo di Lavoro Insufficienze Croniche d'Organo, with the main goal of the position paper consisting in the shared care planning process. The following specific aspects were assessed by the experts: a) the impact on case law and statute law of a new clinical pathway shared by scientific societies in light of good clinical practice and scientific evidence; b) the relevance of all tools useful to identify the appropriateness of care pathways, recognizing responsibilities and decision-making skills related to the end of life choices made by all stakeholders involved (healthcare professionals, patients and their beloved ones); c) the consistency of the healthcare professionals duties proposed in the position paper with the Italian legal order; d) the opportunity to take into account the role of all healthcare providers involved in care relationship; e) the consistency of the definition of patient rights at the end of life as proposed in the position paper with the Italian legal order and the relevance in this context of simultaneous palliative care; f) the relevance of shared care planning and its consistency with the proposed operative tools; g) the relevance of the conscientious objection issue and the compliance of management tools proposed in the position paper with the results of ethical and legal considerations; h) considerations about available resources allocation.

  8. STUDIES ON THE FEEDING BEHAVIOR AND MORPHOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS OFEPINEPHELUS MOARA IN EARLY DEVELOPMENT STAGES%云纹石斑鱼(Epinephelus moara)早期发育阶段的摄食与生长特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丽君; 陈超; 马爱军; 翟介明; 王新安; 李伟业

    2011-01-01

    采用随机取样实验生态学方法,对人工培育的云纹石斑鱼的仔、稚、幼鱼各发育阶段的形态特征及摄食变化状况进行了观察和描述。结果表明,云纹石斑鱼仔、稚鱼生长期间,分别以牡蛎幼体、轮虫、卤虫为饵料,幼鱼摄食配合饲料。形态学数据测量结果表明,云纹石斑鱼仔、稚、幼鱼的全长、体重和日龄三者之间存在相关关系。全长与日龄的关系式为L=2.8058e0.0287D;体重与日龄的关系式为W=0.0004e0.0825D;全长与体重的关系式为W=0.001e0.103L,相关系数分别为0.8954、0.9054、0.7982。云纹石斑鱼摄食状况测量结果表明,在人工投喂条件下,5日龄仔鱼的摄食率为90%,18日龄仔鱼饱食率为100%。实验结果还表明,在全天光照条件下,仔鱼16:00—18:00达摄食高峰;自然昼夜条件下,仔鱼14:00达摄食高峰;在全天黑暗条件下,仔鱼没有明显的摄食高峰。说明仔鱼摄食具有明显的昼夜节律,均表现为白天摄食为主。%We used ecological method of simple random sampling to observe morphological features, growth changes and feeding conditions during larval development of Epinephelus moara. The results showed that, under hatching conditions at dissolved oxygen (DO) 6.2mg/L, temperature 20℃, salinity 30, pH 7.9, light 100 lx, it took 45 hours to hatch the larvae. The yolk of four day-old larvae almost disappeared and these lava started consuming oyster larvae. The 8--13 day-old larvae ate both the oyster larvae and S-rotifer; the 14--22 day-old larvae consumed L-rotifer; the 23--66 day-old larvae and juvenile can be fed with brine shrimp. At about 67 days, the larvae metamorphosis completed and began to eat compound feed. The results of morphological data show that, total length, body weight and the age larval, juvenile and young E. moara showed significant correlations. The relationship between total length and age (in days) can be expressed as L = 2.8058e0.0287D

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document. ...

  10. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  11. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  12. Nasogastric feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000182.htm Nasogastric feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... the nose. It can be used for all feedings or for giving a person extra calories. It ...

  13. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child. These guidelines on breastfeeding and bottle feeding can help you make the decision that's right ... formula is a nutritious alternative to breast milk. Bottle feeding can offer more freedom and flexibility for moms, ...

  14. Massive facial teratoma managed with the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure and use of a 3-dimensional printed model for planning of staged debulking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie M. Hodges

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are the most frequent solid tumor found in neonates. However, only 1.5% of neonatal teratomas originate from facial structures. Neonatal facial teratomas are associated with polyhydramnios, preterm birth, pulmonary hypoplasia, cleft palate, cleft lip, and life-threatening airway compromise. The overall survival reported with these lesions has been between 17 and 87.5%; however survival in the setting of antenatally diagnosed facial teratomas has only been described anecdotally. We present a case of an antenatally diagnosed massive facial teratoma originating from the pterygomaxillary fossa, which was associated with polyhydramnios and pre-term birth. We managed this complex tumor with an ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT procedure, multidisciplinary medical and surgical team, and staged excision and reconstruction aided by use of a 3-dimensional printed model. Here we review the surgical management of this rare and complex tumor.

  15. Choosing not to dialyse: evaluation of planned non-dialytic management in a cohort of patients with end-stage renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carolyn; Da Silva-Gane, Maria; Chandna, Shahid; Warwicker, Paul; Greenwood, Roger; Farrington, Ken

    2003-01-01

    To study factors influencing the recommendation for palliative (non-dialytic) treatment in patients approaching end-stage renal failure and to study the subsequent outcome in patients choosing not to dialyse. Cohort study of patients approaching end-stage renal failure who underwent multidisciplinary assessment and counselling about treatment options. Recruitment was over 54 months, and follow-up ranged from 3 to 57 months. Groups were defined on the basis of the therapy option recommended (palliative or renal replacement therapy). Renal unit in a district general hospital serving a population of about 1.15 million people. 321 patients, mean age +/- SD 61.5 +/- 15.4 years (range: 16-92), 57% male, 30% diabetic. Survival, place of death (hospital or community). Renal replacement therapy was recommended in 258 patients and palliative therapy in 63 (19.6%). By logistic regression analysis, patients recommended for palliative therapy were more functionally impaired (modified Karnofsky scale), older and more likely to have diabetes. The comorbidity severity score was not an independent predictor. Thirty-four patients eventually died during palliative treatment, 26 of whom died of renal failure. Ten patients recommended for palliative treatment opted for and were treated by dialysis. Median survival after dialysis initiation in these patients (8.3 months) was not significantly longer than survival beyond the putative date of dialysis initiation in palliatively treated patients (6.3 months). 65% of deaths occurring in dialysed patients took place in hospital compared with 27% in palliatively treated patients (p = 0.001). In high-risk, highly dependent patients with renal failure, the decision to dialyse or not has little impact on survival. Dialysis in such patients risks unnecessary medicalisation of death. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  16. Well staged

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, Godfrey

    2011-06-15

    Packers Plus Energy Services Inc. has commercially launched QuickFRAC, a multi-stage completition system which can fracture four to five isolated stages in one treatment and set up a record of 23-stage slickwater frac in less than 10 hours. It could take up to 40 days to do 100 fracture treatments with other systems. This technology makes it possible to distribute fluid at each port thanks to the limited entry system. In order to make multiple isolated stages within one treatment zone, each zone includes multiple QuickPORT sleeves with packers on either side. The other technology which made this possible is the repeater port system, it allows them to perform more frac stages. This technology could be useful in the future since the need for stages will be doubling soon with microdarcy shale oil extraction which is more difficult than gas.

  17. Decapsulated brine shrimp cysts - an ideal feed for shrimps in aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    Feeding experiments have been carried out with Metapenaeus monoceros using different stages of Artemia salina as feed. The importance of using decapsulated cysts to obtain greater food conversion efficiency has been indicated...

  18. Trading stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Uli; Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Coulson, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Interest in stage-and age structured models has recently increased because they can describe quantitative traits such as size that are left out of age-only demography. Available methods for the analysis of effects of vital rates on lifespan in stage-structured models have not been widely applied ...... examples. Much of our approach relies on trading of time and mortality risk in one stage for time and risk in others. Our approach contributes to the new framework of the study of age- and stage-structured biodemography....

  19. Early-stage primary school children attending a school in the Malawian School Feeding Program (SFP) have better reversal learning and lean muscle mass growth than those attending a non-SFP school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhoma, Owen W W; Duffy, Maresa E; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A; Davidson, Philip W; McSorley, Emeir M; Strain, J J; O'Brien, Gerard M

    2013-08-01

    In developing countries, schoolchildren encounter a number of challenges, including failure to complete school, poor health and nutrition, and poor academic performance. Implementation of school feeding programs (SFPs) in less developed countries is increasing and yet there is mixed evidence regarding their positive effects on nutrition, education, and cognition at the population level. This study evaluated cognitive and anthropometric outcomes in entry-level primary school children in Malawi with the aim of generating evidence for the ongoing debate about SFPs in Malawi and other developing countries. A total of 226 schoolchildren aged 6-8 y in 2 rural Malawian public primary schools were followed for one school year. Children attending one school (SFP school) received a daily ration of corn-soy blend porridge, while those attending the other (non-SFP school) did not. Baseline and post-baseline outcomes included the Cambridge Neurological Test Automated Battery cognitive tests of paired associate learning, rapid visual information processing and intra-extra dimensional shift, and anthropometric measurements of weight, height, and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC). At follow-up, the SFP subcohort had a greater reduction than the non-SFP subcohort in the number of intra-extra predimensional shift errors made (mean 18.5 and 24.9, respectively; P-interaction = 0.02) and also showed an increase in MUAC (from 16.3 to 17.0; P-interaction nutritional and cognitive indicators of the most disadvantaged children.

  20. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  1. Thyroid Cancer Staging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kwak, Jin Young [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-15

    The current prevalence of thyroid cancer in women is high. Likewise, other cancers and thyroid cancer have been based on the TNM classification system. Staging of thyroid cancer has an important role in determining the extent of surgical excision and lymph node dissection, planning the adjuvant therapy after surgery and predicting the recurrence rate and the prognosis of patients. Ultrasonography is the basic imaging modality to identify the tumor size and the extent of lymph node metastasis. More recently, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography provide additional help for the staging of thyroid cancer. So, this article describes the 7th edition of the TNM staging of thyroid cancer, as proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and the details of radiologic evaluation of the T, N and M stages

  2. Nectar and pollen feeding by insect herbivores and implications for multitrophic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Romeis, J.; Van Rijn, P.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Among herbivorous insects with a complete metamorphosis the larval and adult stages usually differ considerably in their nutritional requirements and food ecology. Often, feeding on plant structural tissue is restricted to the larval stage, whereas the adult stage feeds primarily or exclusively on p

  3. Nectar and pollen feeding by insect herbivores and implications for multitrophic interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wäckers, F.L.; Romeis, J.; Van Rijn, P.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Among herbivorous insects with a complete metamorphosis the larval and adult stages usually differ considerably in their nutritional requirements and food ecology. Often, feeding on plant structural tissue is restricted to the larval stage, whereas the adult stage feeds primarily or exclusively on p

  4. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring ... babies who are born prematurely, as are many twins and higher order multiples. Breast milk is easier ...

  5. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  6. 多效干燥过程的排产调度优化%Optimal plan and scheduling of multi-stage drying system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 伍联营; 商凤英; 吕世强; 胡仰栋

    2012-01-01

    Because industrial drying is one of the most energy-intensive batch unit operations, a scheduling plan of multi-effect drying was studied. Based on the rate of drying curve, operation time in each effect of multi-effect drying process was designed to be the same. An optimal plan and scheduling of multi-effect drying model was established. Defining the number of effects and the drying time as the decision variables, the minimum annual cost model of the batch n-effect drying process could be expressed as a mixed-integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problem, which could be solved by the GAMS software. An example of slit drying process (effect from 1 to 5) was analyzed with the model. The results indicated that the 4-effect drying was the optimal, and it could save 26% of the cost each year compared to the 1-effect drying. Optimal Gantt chart of scheduled process was also presented. According to the Gantt chart, the least period and the optimal operation process could be determined. It indicated that the batch multi-effect drying process could achieve continuous production.%针对干燥过程是一个高能耗的间歇单元操作,对多效干燥过程进行了排产调度研究.根据干燥速率曲线,将各效干燥过程设计为等操作时间,建立了多效干燥过程排产调度的优化模型.以效数和干燥器干燥时间为决策变量,以年费用最小为目标表达为一个混合整数非线性规划(MINLP)的数学模型,利用GAMS进行求解.以淤泥1~5效干燥为算例进行了优化调度分析,结果表明:在4效时年费用最小;与1效干燥相比,在最优条件下年生产费用可节约26%.同时获得了最优排产调度的Gantt图,从而可以得出干燥设备的最小操作周期,据此对多效干燥过程进行排产,使间歇多效干燥过程可以实现连续化生产,对多效干燥的工业化具有一定的意义.

  7. Personal Financial Planning: Failure to Plan Properly May Have Dire Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Jerry

    1988-01-01

    Effective personal financial planning results in sound decisions in the areas of insurance, accumulating capital, retirement planning, and tax planning. Appropriate financial planning concerns everyone--regardless of his or her stage in life. (MLW)

  8. Analysis of Tank 38H (HTF-38-15-119, 127) Surface, Subsurface and Tank 43H (HTF-43-15-116, 117 and 118) Surface, Feed Pump Suction and Jet Suction Subsurface Supernatant Samples in Support of Enrichment, Corrosion Control and Salt Batch Planning Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oji, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-17

    Compositional feed limits have been established to ensure that a nuclear criticality event for the 2H and 3H Evaporators is not possible. The Enrichment Control Program (ECP) requires feed sampling to determine the equivalent enriched uranium content prior to transfer of waste other than recycle transfers (requires sampling to determine the equivalent enriched uranium at two locations in Tanks 38H and 43H every 26 weeks) The Corrosion Control Program (CCP) establishes concentration and temperature limits for key constituents and periodic sampling and analysis to confirm that waste supernate is within these limits. This report provides the results of analyses on Tanks 38H and 43H surface and subsurface supernatant liquid samples in support of the ECP, the CCP, and the Salt Batch 10 Planning Program.

  9. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-02-16

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  10. Rapid methods : for food and feed quality determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Barug, D.; Lauwaars, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for rapid methods and instrumentation in the field of food and feed quality. Key issues dealt with in the food and feed industry include: monitoring of processes at all stages; showing due diligence in the control of food and nutritional quality; achieving rapid

  11. Rapid methods : for food and feed quality determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amerongen, van A.; Barug, D.; Lauwaars, M.

    2007-01-01

    There is an ever-increasing need for rapid methods and instrumentation in the field of food and feed quality. Key issues dealt with in the food and feed industry include: monitoring of processes at all stages; showing due diligence in the control of food and nutritional quality; achieving rapid resu

  12. Internet plan and planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kahriman Emina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper discuss specific features of internet plan as well as planning as management process in general in the contemporary environment. No need to stress out that marketing plan and marketing planning is core activity in approaching to market. At the same time, there are a lot specific c request in preparing marketing plan comparing to business planning due to marketing plan is an essential part. The importance of internet plan and planning rely on specific features of the internet network but as a part of general corporate as well as marketing strategy.

  13. Sport event marketing plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gašović Milan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A marketing plan details how an event organization will compete in the marketplace in terms of its service offerings, promotions and evaluation. During the first stage of the marketing plan process, a number of its consumers (current, former and prospective and competitors. Marketing objectives are developed and implemented using an action plan. The marketing plan objectives are evaluated using an objective-discrepancy approach to determine the extent to which they were attained.

  14. Crude propolis as an immunostimulating agent in broiler feed during the first stagePrópolis bruta como agente imunoestimulante na alimentação de frangos de corte na fase inicial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Eyng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment herein was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of supplementing a broiler diet with crude propolis on the animals’ immune response (humeral and cellular, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile. One hundred sixty-eight male broilers raised in metabolic cages until 21 days of age were used in the experiments. The birds were randomly distributed in an experimental design with six treatments that consisted of different crude propolis doses (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm; the experimental unit was repeated seven times with four birds each. Including crude propolis in the food did not affect (P0.05. The interdigital reaction to the phytohemagglutinin displayed quadratic behavior as a function of time and crude propolis dose. Using the adjusted equation, the 275.45 ppm crude propolis dose and 39.35 hours produced the lowest and highest reaction values. Inclusion of 100 ppm crude propolis in the broiler feed was an effective immunostimulatory agent for cell-mediated responses. Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar a eficácia da suplementação de própolis bruta nas dietas de frangos de corte sobre as respostas imunes (humoral e celular, peso dos órgãos linfóides e perfil hematológico. Foram utilizados 168 pintos de corte, machos, criados em gaiolas de metabolismo até os 21 dias de idade. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos, que consistiram em diferentes níveis de inclusão da própolis (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppm, com sete repetições e quatro aves por unidade experimental. A inclusão de própolis bruta nas rações não afetou (P>0,05 o peso relativo do timo, baço e bolsa cloacal e a produção dos anticorpos sricos contra a doença de Newcastle. Observou-se comportamento quadrático (P0,05. A reação interdigital a fitohemaglutinina apresentou comportamento quadrático em função do tempo e dos níveis de inclusão. De acordo com

  15. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  16. Complex Feeding Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  17. Percepción de la alimentación durante la etapa de formación universitaria, Chile Perception of feeding during the stage of higher education, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Troncoso Pantoja

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Una alimentación adecuada en calidad y cantidad de nutrientes, favorece el desarrollo y la mantención de un buen estado de salud en todos los grupos etarios. Una alteración de este equilibrio es lo que ha condicionado la aparición de patologías crónicas, especialmente aquellas relacionadas a la malnutrición por exceso. Objetivo: Interpretar la percepción de estudiantes universitarios sobre la alimentación en su etapa de formación académica. Materiales y método: Estudio cualitativo de tipo fenomenológico. Como instrumento de recolección de datos se aplicó una entrevista semi-estructurada, la que fue administrada a un total de 13 estudiantes pertenecientes a la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción que cumplían con los criterios de selección del estudio. Resultados: La falta de disponibilidad de tiempo es uno de los mayores factores identificados por los estudiantes entrevistados que complicarían el realizar una alimentación saludable mientras están en la etapa de formación profesional. Esta limitación condicionaría la calidad de los alimentos consumidos, la selección y adquisición de alimentos y la mantención de horarios de comidas. Discusión: Si bien los estudiantes identifican la importancia de mantener una alimentación saludable, la etapa de formación profesional es percibida como una instancia que limita el cumplimiento de este objetivoA suitable diet in terms of quality and quantity of nutrients promotes the development, and maintenance of good health in all age groups. A disturbance of this balance has conditioned the appearance of chronic pathologies, especially those related to over nutrition. Objective: Is to interpret the perception about nutrition by students during the stage of higher education. In order to achieve this goal, a phenomenological qualitative design was used. A semi-structured interview was applied as a data collection instrument, administered to 13 students who fulfilled the

  18. Post-pyloric feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Niv; Zvi Fireman; Nachum Vaisman

    2009-01-01

    Postpyloric feeding is an important and promising alternative to parenteral nutrition. The indications for this kind of feeding are increasing and include a variety of clinical conditions, such as gastroparesis, acute pancreatitis, gastric outlet stenosis, hyperemesis (including gravida), recurrent aspiration, tracheoesophageal fistula and stenosis in gastroenterostomy. This review discusses the differences between pre- and postpyloric feeding, indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, and provides an overview of the techniques of placement of various postpyloric devices.

  19. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  20. Danger of zooplankton feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, H.; Colin, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly and ther......Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly...

  1. Tools for Reactive Distillation Column Design: Graphical and Stage-to-Stage Computation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez Daza, O.; Cisneros, Eduardo Salvador P.; Hostrup, Martin

    2001-01-01

    Based on the element mass balance concept, a graphical design method and a stage-to-stage multicomponent design method for reactive distillation columns have been developed. For distillation columns comprising reactive and non-reactive stages, a simple design strategy based on reactive and non......-reactive bubble point calculations is proposed. This strategy tracks the conversion and temperature between the feed and the end stages of the column. An illustrative example highlights the verification of the design strategy through rigorous simulation....

  2. Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Videos)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old ... > For Parents > Special Needs: Planning for Adulthood (Video) Print A ...

  3. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...... localities of tensions between matter and the immaterial, the practical and the ideal, and subject and object. In the colloquial language there can, moreover, often seem to be something authentic or genuine about atmosphere, juxtaposing it to staging, which is implied to be something simulated or artificial....... This introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  4. Exploring intended infant feeding decisions among low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurka, Kelly K; Hornsby, Paige P; Drake, Emily; Mulvihill, Evan M; Kinsey, Emily N; Yitayew, Miheret S; Lauer, Claire; Corriveau, Sharon; Coleman, Valerie; Gulati, Guari; Kellams, Ann L

    2014-10-01

    Low-income women have the lowest rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Greater understanding of factors that predict intention to feed artificial breastmilk substitute is needed to inform the design and timing of interventions to promote breastfeeding among vulnerable women. This study aimed to identify demographic and reproductive characteristics and other factors associated with intent to feed artificial breastmilk substitute among low-income women. Data from 520 low-income women interviewed at 24-41 weeks of gestation during enrollment in a prenatal breastfeeding education intervention study were analyzed. Participant characteristics, reasons for feeding decision, and sources and types of information received were compared among women intending to feed only artificial breastmilk substitute and other women. Most participants (95%) had already chosen an infant feeding method at the time of interview. There were no differences in plans to return to work by feeding plan. Women reporting intention to feed only artificial breastmilk substitute were less likely to report receiving information about the benefits of breastfeeding, how to breastfeed, and pumps and were more likely to cite personal preference and convenience as reasons for their decision. Women were more likely to intend to feed artificial breastmilk substitute if they had a previous live birth or had not breastfed a child, including the most recent. These findings suggest breastfeeding promotion should target women early and include sensitive, effective ways to promote breastfeeding among women who have not previously successfully breastfed. Breastfeeding history should be elicited, and plans to pump should be supported prenatally.

  5. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  6. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  7. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  8. American Geriatrics Society feeding tubes in advanced dementia position statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    When eating difficulties arise, feeding tubes are not recommended for older adults with advanced dementia. Careful hand feeding should be offered because hand feeding has been shown to be as good as tube feeding for the outcomes of death, aspiration pneumonia, functional status, and comfort. Moreover, tube feeding is associated with agitation, greater use of physical and chemical restraints, healthcare use due to tube-related complications, and development of new pressure ulcers. Efforts to enhance oral feeding by altering the environment and creating patient-centered approaches to feeding should be part of usual care for older adults with advanced dementia. Tube feeding is a medical therapy that an individual's surrogate decision-maker can decline or accept in accordance with advance directives, previously stated wishes, or what it is thought the individual would want. It is the responsibility of all members of the healthcare team caring for residents in long-term care settings to understand any previously expressed wishes of the individuals (through review of advance directives and with surrogate caregivers) regarding tube feeding and to incorporate these wishes into the care plan. Institutions such as hospitals, nursing homes, and other care settings should promote choice, endorse shared and informed decision-making, and honor preferences regarding tube feeding. They should not impose obligations or exert pressure on individuals or providers to institute tube feeding. © 2014, Copyright the Author Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Feeding biology of Cerambycids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    2017-01-01

    There are more than 36,000 species of Cerambycidae recognized throughout the world (see Chapter 1), occurring on all continents except Antarctica (Linsley 1959). Given such numbers, it is not surprising that cerambycids display great diversity in their feeding habits. Both adults and larvae are almost exclusively phytophagous. Some adults appear not to feed at all,...

  10. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Common illnesses ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Family health & safety ') ...

  12. Feeding habits of Hyale media (Dana, 1853 (Crustacea-Amphipoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Santo Tararam

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Feeding of males and females of the Gammaridea Hyate media at mature and immature stages were tested in laboratory experiments. Macro and microscopic algae as well as dead or alive animals were utilized as food. This gammarid is omnivorous, feeding by predation, scavenging, browsing and scraping. Feeding behaviour was discontinuous. Padina vickersiae was more utilized in winter and Ulva fasciata in summer. The feeding activity of all the animals showed great variability in relation to the type of food. Higher temperatures probably account for the higher consumption observed in summer.

  13. Comparison of the finger-feeding versus cup feeding methods in the transition from gastric to oral feeding in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Cláudia M D; Cavalcante-Silva, Regina P G V; Fujinaga, Cristina I; Marson, Francine

    2017-07-14

    To assess the finger-feeding technique when compared with the cup feeding method during the early stage of preterm infant feeding transition regarding milk loss, milk ingestion period, and complications. Experimental, randomized, prospective study including 53 preterm infants with gestation age28 points in the Oral Feeding Readiness Assessment Scale. The preterm babies were randomized to be included in the control group, which underwent the feeding transition using a cup or in the experimental group, which used the finger-feeding technique. The analysis of data was performed using Student's t-test to evaluate differences between mean values of the appointed variables, and Fischer's test for categorical variables; the asymmetric variables were assessed by the Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA test. When compared with the control group, the experimental group showed lower milk loss, longer milk ingestion time, and a lower frequency of complications during feeding. The significance level was set at 5%, with a confidence interval of 90%. The finger-feeding technique was shown to be a better feeding transition method regarding efficacy when compared with cup feeding method, due to lower milk loss and fewer complication episodes. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. 医院的现金分期预测与短期筹资规划%Cash Prediction By Stages and S hort-term Financing Planning of the Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭海菁; 段光荣

    2013-01-01

    With the expanse of hospital insurance coverage, the scale of receivables in hospital would increase. Original inconspicuous or non-existent money problems gradually emerged, which put forward new challenges for the operation capital management in the hospital. The negative factors in hospital operation capital management are analyzed , and two aspects of wok are needed: firstly, to predict cash by stages to improve initiative and planning of capital operation;secondly, to implement financing plan under the circumstances of insufficient cash is expected, through utilizing the convenience brought by supply chain financing and commercial credit, to reduce the occupation of owned fund and improve the efficiency of fund arranging operation to achieve the innovation of financing management.%随着医疗保险覆盖面的扩大,医院的应收账款规模也将增加,原本不显眼或不存在的资金问题逐渐浮现,对医院营运资金的管理提出新的挑战。文章分析了医院在营运资金管理中的不利因素,提出医院在资金周转遇阻的情况下,需要着手做好两方面工作:一是进行现金的分期预测,提高资金运作的主动性和计划性;二是在现金预计不足的情况下进行筹资规划,通过利用供应链融资和商业信用带来的便利,减少自有资金的占用,提高资金统筹运作的效率,实现筹资管理的创新。

  15. Breast feeding among Brazilian adolescents: practice and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, J C S; Dias, F A; Stefanello, J; Reis, M C G; Nakano, A M S; Gomes-Sponholz, F A

    2014-03-01

    to characterise breast feeding practices among Brazilian adolescents and identify their breast feeding needs. the study was undertaken in Ribeirão Preto, Brazil in two stages. The first stage analysed data from the Second National Survey of Breast-feeding Prevalence, held in August 2008, which included 229 adolescent mothers. The second stage was a qualitative approach, and involved interviews with 10 adolescent mothers in a primary care unit. The data from the first stage were analysed in June 2010 based on descriptive statistics. The data obtained from the interviews were transcribed and organised using thematic content analysis. breast feeding was reported by 75% of the adolescent mothers. Of the 144 mothers with infants aged practice of breast feeding still failed to meet the recommendations of the World Health Organization. The interviews led to identification of the breast feeding needs and demands of adolescent mothers, many of which were related to the needs of their infants. It is important to know what adolescent mothers think about breast feeding, in order to encourage the establishment of practices to keep breastfeeding as longer as possible in a satisfactory way for both mothers and infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  17. Multi-stage Path Prediction Mission Planning Algorithm for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles%无人机多阶段航迹预测协同任务规划

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐骥; 王宇鹏; 钟志

    2016-01-01

    In this paper,a multi-stage path prediction algorithm of the decentralized mission planning for cooperative UAVs is presented. The planning horizon is defined as the period between the start of task assignment and completion of any task.In every planning horizon, each UAV utilizes the A* algorithm to predict the paths to all tasks and provide the path distances for task assignment.Furthermore,the cluster algorithm is introduced to modify the tasks value vector.The UAVs negotiate the task assignment solution and calculate the shortest path to assigned task in the detection range in real time.Finally,the B-spline curve is addressed to convert the shortest path into flyable smoothing trajectory that subject to the flight constraints.For validation,the scenario of multiple UAVs to perform cooperative missions is considered.Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve the quasi-optimal assignment solution and generate the flyable trajectory in real time.In addition,the satisfactory performance to accomplish the pop-up tasks is demonstrated.%针对多无人机(Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,UAVs)协同控制问题,提出了一种UAVs多阶段航迹预测分布式任务规划方法;定义从一次任务分配开始到其中一项任务完成为一个任务周期;在每个规划周期,首先,各UAV使用A*算法快速预测到所有任务目标的路径,提供至任务分配;然后,采用聚类算法修改目标价值向量,协商分配结果,并实时计算探测范围内的最短路径;最后,采用三次B样条曲线平滑所分配的最短路径,在线规划出满足飞行约束的飞行航迹;通过仿真实验对算法的有效性进行了验证,结果表明,提出的算法能够实时获得近似最优的任务分配结果并规划出可飞行航迹,并有效处理突发任务。

  18. Factors influencing initiation and duration of breast feeding in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Leahy-Warren, Patricia

    2013-03-05

    The aim of this research was to identify factors associated with mothers breast feeding and to identify, for those who breast fed, factors associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. BACKGROUND: breast-feeding rates in Ireland are amongst the lowest in Europe. Research evidence indicates that in order for mothers to be successful at breast feeding, multiplicities of supports are necessary for both initiation and duration. The nature of these supports in tandem with other influencing factors requires analysis from an Irish perspective. DESIGN: cross-sectional study involving public health nurses and mothers in Ireland. This paper presents the results of the mothers\\' evaluation. METHOD: mothers (n=1715) with children less than three years were offered a choice of completing the self-report questionnaires online or by mail. Data were analysed and reported using descriptive and inferential statistics. FINDINGS: four in every five participants breast fed their infant and two thirds of them breast fed as long as planned. The multivariate logistic regression analysis identified that third level education, being a first time mother or previously having breast fed, participating online, having more than two public health nurse visits, and having a positive infant feeding attitude were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding. Among mothers who breast fed, being aged at least 35 years, participating online, having a positive infant feeding attitude and high breast-feeding self-efficacy were independently and statistically significantly associated with breast feeding for as long as planned. CONCLUSIONS: findings from this study reinforce health inequalities therefore there needs to be a renewed commitment to reducing health inequalities in relation to breast feeding. RELEVANCE TO CLINICAL PRACTICE: this study has identified factors associated with initiation and duration of breast feeding that are potentially modifiable through

  19. Multi-stage Planning Optimization for Power Distribution Network Based on LCC and Improved PSO%基于LCC和改进粒子群算法的配电网多阶段网架规划优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海锋; 张建华; 梁志瑞; 牛胜锁

    2013-01-01

    市场环境下,配电网规划方案全寿命周期经济性变得越来越重要.基于设备全寿命周期成本建立了配电网多阶段网架及开关布置规划新模型,模型同时考虑了规划方案初始投资、运行维护成本、停电成本、报废成本;在满足各阶段负荷发展需求的条件下,以规划项目全寿命周期经济性最优为目标函数确定不同支路的建设时间;建立了配电网停电成本计算模型,该模型反映了停电频率、停电持续时间及停电电量对停电成本的综合影响.提出一种将均值聚类与随机粒子群算法相结合的改进离散粒子群算法对上述模型进行求解,该算法克服了基本粒子群算法的“早熟”问题.该规划方法使得规划方案不仅满足全寿命周期经济性最优,而且兼顾一定的可靠性水平.规划实例验证了上述模型和方法的正确性和有效性.%The life cycle economy of the power distribution network planning scheme is becoming more and more important in power markets. The new model of the distribution network multi-stage planning and the configuration of switches based on the life cycle cost (LCC) of equipment was presented. The initial investment, operation and maintenance cost, outage cost and disposal cost of planning scheme were considered. According to the development of the load, the construction time of the distribution feeders can be decided based on the optimal LCC. The function of fault cost was built, and the function reflected the comprehensive effect of the frequency, duration and quantity of outage to the fault cost. The improved algorithm based on the combined mean clustering algorithm and random particle swarm algorithm was presented. The new algorithm's global searching capability was improved. The distribution network planning method based on LCC is not only reliable, but also the most economical. The new model is feasible and practical by a realistic planning project.

  20. 带缓冲多阶段系统的生产批量与维护计划集成优化%Joint Optimization of Production Lot and Maintenance Planning in a Multi-Stage System with Intermediate Buffers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝颖; 冷乔; 王丽亚; 赵世雄; 郑宇

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to minimize the sum of production costs and maintenance costs. The age reduction factor and improvement factor in hazard rate are introduced and with the comprehensive consideration of imperfect and perfect maintenance,a complex non-linear integrated production lot-size and maintenance planning model in a multi-stage system with intermediate buffers is proposed under the assumption of operation-dependent failures.A time-based-decomposition simulated annealing algorithm is designed to solve this problem.Numerical analysis validated the performance of the model.%以最小化生产与维护总成本为目标,通过引入役龄递减因子与失效率递增因子对设备故障率演化进行建模,综合考虑完美维护、非完美维护和故障维修,建立了在带缓冲多阶段的生产系统环境下,基于加工失效假设的生产与维护集成计划模型,并设计基于时间分解的模拟退火算法求解该问题。最后,算例分析验证了模型的有效性。

  1. 4MOST fiber feed concept design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, D. M.; Winkler, R.; Saviauk, Allar; Haynes, R.; Barden, S.; Bellido-Tirado, O.; Bauer, S.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Depagne, E.; Dionies, F.; Ehrlich, K.; Kelz, Andreas; Saunders, W.; Woche, M.

    2014-08-01

    4MOST, the 4m Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope, features a 2.5 degree diameter field-of-view with ~2400 fibers in the focal plane that are configured by a fiber positioner based on the tilting spine principle (Echidna/FMOS) arranged in a hexagonal pattern. The fibers feed two types of spectrographs; ~1600 fibers go to two spectrographs with resolution R>5000 and ~800 fibers to a spectrograph with R>18,000. Part of the ongoing optimization of the fiber feed subsystem design includes early prototyping and testing of key components such as fiber connectors and fiber cable management. Performance data from this testing will be used in the 4MOST instrument simulator (TOAD) and 4MOST system design optimization. In this paper we give an overview of the current fiber feed subsystem design, simulations and prototyping plans.

  2. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Missotten, Joris; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviat...

  3. Tank waste remediation system operation and utilization plan,vol. I {ampersand} II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkbride, R.A.

    1997-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) is in the first stages of contracting with private companies for the treatment and immobilization of tank wastes. The components of tank waste retrieval, treatment, and immobilization have been conceived in two phases (Figure 1.0-1). To meet RL's anticipated contractual requirements, the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) companies will be required to provide waste feeds to the private companies consistent with waste envelopes that define the feeds in terms of quantity, and concentration of both chemicals and radionuclides. The planning that supports delivery of the feed must be well thought out in four basic areas: (1) Low-activity waste (LAW)/high-level waste (HLW) feed staging plans. How is waste moved within the existing tanks to deliver waste that corresponds to the defined feed envelopes to support the Private Contractor's processing schedule and processing rate? (2) Single-shell tank (SST) retrieval sequence. How are Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) (Ecology et al. 1994) milestones for SST retrieval integrated into the Phase I processing to set the stage for Phase II processing to complete the mission? (3) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flowsheet. How do materials flow from existing tank inventories through: (1) blending and pretreatment functions in the double-shell tanks (DSTs), (2) contractor processing facilities, and (3) stored waste forms (Figure 1.0-2); (4) Storage and disposal of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) and immobilized high-level waste (IHLW) product. How is the ILAW and IHLW product received from the private companies, the ILAW disposed onsite, and the IHLW stored onsite until final disposal?

  4. VOYAGE PLANNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz SKÓRA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A sea voyage can be divided into three parts with varying degrees of risk: - from the berth at the port of departure to the pilot disembarkation point - from the pilot disembarkation to another pilot embarkation point near the port of call/destination - from the pilot embarkation point to the berth Results of statistical research into ship accidents at sea point to an increased number of incidents and accidents, including groundings, especially in restricted areas. Such areas are often narrow and have limited depths, while their short straight sections require frequent course alterations, often in varying hydrometeorological conditions. Due to all these factors, the voyage has to be carefully planned and all watchkeeping officers have to be well prepared to conduct the ship safely. The article presents the objectives, scope, legal basis and stages in the process of voyage planning. The compliance with the outlined principles will reduce the level of risk in maritime transport.

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? ...

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    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is ... and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  12. Advance Care Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallworthy, Elizabeth J

    2013-04-16

    Advance care planning should be available to all patients with chronic kidney disease, including end-stage kidney disease on renal replacement therapy. Advance care planning is a process of patient-centred discussion, ideally involving family/significant others, to assist the patient to understand how their illness might affect them, identify their goals and establish how medical treatment might help them to achieve these. An Advance Care Plan is only one useful outcome from the Advance Care Planning process, the education of patient and family around prognosis and treatment options is likely to be beneficial whether or not a plan is written or the individual loses decision making capacity at the end of life. Facilitating Advance Care Planning discussions requires an understanding of their purpose and communication skills which need to be taught. Advance Care Planning needs to be supported by effective systems to enable the discussions and any resulting Plans to be used to aid subsequent decision making.

  13. Staging of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

  14. Breast feeding in IMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A; Depondt, E; Evans, S; Daly, A; Hendriksz, C; Chakrapani A, A; Saudubray, J-M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has proven benefits for many infants with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) but, with the exception of phenylketonuria, there are few reports in other conditions. A questionnaire, completed by dietitians and clinicians from 27 IMD centres from 15 countries (caring for a total of over 8000 patients with IMDs on diet) identified breast feeding experience in IMD. Successful, demand breast feeding (in combination with an infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids) was reported in 17 infants with MSUD, 14 with tyrosinaemia type I, and 5 with homocystinuria. Eighty-nine per cent were still breast fed at 16 weeks. Fewer infants with organic acidaemias were demand breast fed (7 with propionic acidaemia; 6 with methylmalonic acidaemia and 13 with isovaleric acidaemia) (usually preceded by complementary feeds of a protein-free infant formula or infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids). Only 12 infants with urea cycle disorders were given demand breast feeds, but this was unsuccessful beyond 8 days in CPS deficiency. Further work is needed in developing guidelines for feeding and for clinical and biochemical monitoring for breast-fed infants with IMDs.

  15. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  16. Tobacco Dependence: Nursing Care Plans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora Miguel García

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco dependence is a major risk factor for health that requires a correct approach by all health workers. Nursing plays a key role both in identifying smokers, as in the systematic advice to quit smoking, or assist in smoking quit. This work presents three standardized care plans that enable the nursing work in accordance with a methodology and using a standardized language that allows both continuity of care such as research and development of knowledge nurse: Care plan to smoker in precontemplation stage; Care plan to smoker in contemplation stage; Care plan to smoker in preparation/action stage.

  17. 带时间窗的多无人机航迹规划两阶段启发式算法%A Two-stage Heuristic Method for Multi-UAVs Path Planning with Time Windows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马华伟; 王天晓; 胡笑旋

    2014-01-01

    Path planning of Multi-UAV with time windows is a class of important NP-Hard problems,and the researches on the heuristic methods of the problem are always the key point. In this paper,a UAV-flow model is built,and a two-stage heuristic method is proposed to solve it. In the first phase,a path construction heuristic based on “latest-service-finished-first”is proposed to gain the initial solution,and then the simulated annealing algorithm is used to improve it. Finally the heuristic method is tested on the Solomon Benchmark instances,and the experiment results showed that the method can solve the problem efficiently.%带时间窗的多无人机(Unmanned Aerial Vehicles,简称UAV)航迹规划问题是一类重要的NP-Hard问题,相关启发式算法研究一直是该问题的研究重点和难点。建立了问题的UAV流模型,并提出了一种两阶段启发式算法用于问题求解。算法的第一阶段提出了一种基于“最迟完成服务优先”规则的航迹构造算法,用于获取问题的初始解;第二阶段利用模拟退火算法对初始解进行改进。最后基于Solomon Benchmark数据集对算法进行了测试,实验结果表明该启发式算法可以有效地求解带时间窗的多UAV航迹规划问题。

  18. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double......-lumen duodenal perfusion/aspiration techniques over 6 hours. Subjects were assigned to no feeding (n = 7), duodenal feeding with a polymeric diet (n = 7) or low-fat elemental diet (n = 6), mid-distal jejunal feeding (n = 11), or intravenous feeding (n = 5). All diets provided 40 kcal/kg ideal body weight/d and 1...

  19. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustrell Josep M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Methods Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs, and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs. Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Results Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group was 5.83 ± 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 ± 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. Conclusions The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding during the learning stage and adopt their own

  20. Repeatability of feed efficiency, carcass ultrasound, feeding behavior, and blood metabolic variables in finishing heifers divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Crews, D H; Sweeney, T; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between feed efficiency and performance, and feeding behavior, blood metabolic variables, and various ultrasonic measurements in finishing beef heifers. Within-animal repeatability estimates of feed intake and behavior, performance, feed efficiency, ultrasonic body measures, and plasma analytes across the growing and finishing stages of the lifespan of the animal were also calculated. Fifty heifers previously ranked as yearlings on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) were used. Animals [initial BW = 418 (SD = 31.5) kg] were offered a TMR diet consisting of 70:30 concentrate and corn silage on a DM basis (ME 10.7 MJ/kg of DM; DM 530 g/kg) for 84 d. Feeding duration (min/d) and feeding frequency (events/d) were calculated for each animal on a daily basis using a computerized feeding system. Ultrasonic kidney fat and lumbar and rump fat and muscle depths were recorded on 3 equally spaced occasions during the experimental period. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture on 4 occasions during the experimental period and analyzed for plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, and various metabolites. Phenotypic RFI was calculated for all animals as the residuals from a regression model regressing DMI on ADG and midtest BW(0.75). Repeatability was calculated for several traits both within and between production phase using intraclass correlation and Pearson correlation coefficients as appropriate. Overall ADG, DMI, G:F, and RFI were 1.17 kg/d (SD = 0.19), 10.81 kg/d (SD = 1.02), 0.11 kg of BW gain/kg of DM (SD = 0.02), and 0.00 kg of DM/d (SD 0.59). Daily feeding events and eating rate tended to be positively correlated (P = 0.08) with RFI. Ultrasonic kidney fat depth tended to be related to G:F (r = -0.28; P = 0.07), and kidney fat accretion tended to be related to RFI (r = 0.29; P = 0.08). Plasma urea (r = 0.38; P glucose (r = -0.25; P = 0.07), glucose:insulin (r = 0.33; P 0.10) to any measure of feed efficiency

  1. Maternal feeding behaviour and young children's dietary quality: A cross-sectional study of socially disadvantaged mothers of two-year old children using the Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Kiezebrink Kirsty; Irvine Linda; Crombie Iain K; Power Kevin G; Swanson Vivien; Wrieden Wendy; Slane Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Having breakfast, eating food 'cooked from scratch' and eating together as a family have health and psychosocial benefits for young children. This study investigates how these parentally determined behaviours relate to children's dietary quality and uses a psychological model, the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), to investigate socio-cognitive predictors of these behaviours in socially disadvantaged mothers of young children in Scotland. Method Three hundred mothers of c...

  2. Confirmation of bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata, feeding on cucurbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.L. Koch

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of these studies was to assess the degree to which bean leaf beetle, Cerotoma trifurcata (Forster, will feed on cucurbits. In 2003, we documented an infestation of C. trifurcata in a commercial pumpkin field near Rosemount, MN, USA. To evaluate C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits, we conducted laboratory no-choice and choice test feeding studies. In the laboratory, C. trifurcata fed most heavily on cotyledon-stage cucumber plants, followed by pumpkin and squash. With soybean plants present, C. trifurcata still fed on cucumber plants. However, C. trifurcata appeared to prefer soybeans until the quality of the soybean plants was diminished through feeding damage. This is the first known report of C. trifurcata feeding on cucurbits. The pest potential of C. trifurcata in cucurbit cropping systems should be further evaluated.

  3. Feeding competition between larval lake whitefish and lake herring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, Jacqueline F.; Hudson, Patrick L.

    1995-01-01

    The potential for competition for food between larval lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and lake herring (C. artedi) 1- to 8-wk of age was explored in a series of 1-h laboratory feeding studies. Feeding started at 2-wk post-hatch. Learning and fish size appear to be more important than prey density at the onset of feeding. Species differed in their feeding behavior and consumption noticeably by 5-wk and substantially by 8-wk. Lake whitefish generally were more aggressive foragers than lake herring, attacking and capturing more prey. At high plankton density at 8-wk, lake herring feeding was depressed in mixed-fish treatments. This difference in competitive food consumption between the two coregonids occurs at a critical life stage, and when combined with other biotic and abiotic factors, may have a significant impact on recruitment.

  4. Bipolar disorder: staging and neuroprogression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues, Aline André

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In bipolar disorder illness progression has been associated with a higher number of mood episodes and hospitalizations, poorer response to treatment, and more severe cognitive and functional impairment. This supports the notion of the use of staging models in this illness. The value of staging models has long been recognized in many medical and malignant conditions. Staging models rely on the fact that different interventions may suit different stages of the disorder, and that better outcomes can be obtained if interventions are implemented earlier in the course of illness. Thus, treatment planning would benefit from the assessment of cognition, functioning and comorbidities. Staging may offer a means to refine treatment options, and most importantly, to establish a more precise diagnosis. Moreover, staging could have utility as course specifier and may guide treatment planning and better information to patients and their family members of what could be expected in terms of prognosis. The present study reviews the clinical and biological basis of the concept of illness progression in bipolar disorder.

  5. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; Pfood was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  6. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L.; KITZINGER, Jenny; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  7. 基于两阶段随机规划方法的灌区水资源优化配置%Optimal water resources planning based on interval-parameter two-stage stochastic programming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付银环; 郭萍; 方世奇; 李茉

    2014-01-01

    灌区水资源优化配置的不确定性研究,对于提高水分的利用效率,减少农业灌溉用水,建立节水型社会具有重要的意义,尤其是对于中国的干旱半干旱地区。该文针对灌区水资源系统中存在的不确定性,以西营灌区、清源灌区、永昌灌区为研究区域,运用区间2阶段随机规划的方法,建立了地表水和地下水联合调度的灌区之间水资源优化配置模型。该模型以多灌区、多水源联合调度系统的成本最小为目标函数,引入随机数和区间数表示该系统中存在的不确定性,将地下水和地表水水资源在不同地区之间进行优化,并以配置结果为输入数据,以作物全生育期的水分生产函数为基础,建立灌区不同农作物灌溉定额的非线性区间不确定性水资源优化配置模型,将优化配置水量分配到灌区典型农作物。2个模型均以区间的形式给出优化配置的结果,为决策者提供更为准确的决策空间,更真实地反映实际的水资源优化配置形式。%Studies on water resources allocation in irrigation area under uncertainty are important for increasing water use efficiency, reducing agricultural irrigation water amount and establishing water-saving society, especially for the arid and semi-arid areas in China. In this study, two models were established based on uncertainty theory in order to make plans for efficient water resources management. One of the models was an interval-parameter two-stage stochastic optimization model developed for dispatching the underground and surface water systems for irrigation area of Xiying, Qingyuan, Yongchuan (China) under the conditions of uncertainty and complexity. In the model, the minimal system operation cost was regarded as the objective function and the probability distribution and interval parameters were used to express the uncertainty of water supply. The process of water supply from multiple

  8. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  9. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  10. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  11. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  12. [History of complementary feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D

    2010-12-01

    Complementary feeding, which embraces all solid and liquid foods other than breast milk or infant formula, is strongly influenced by cultural, familial and economic factors. For many times, there was a strong taboo on the use of colostrum ("the white blood") during the first week after delivery, sometimes even the first month. Therefore, the newborn baby received complementary foods as gruel, or panada. However, in the Greek civilization, wet nurses were asked by contract to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months and to start complementary feeding thereafter. From the sixteenth century onwards, many writers deplored the practice of giving gruel and panada during the first six months before the teeth erupted. In 1921, a Swedish pediatrician, Jundell, reported for the first time that starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age was associated with a better growth and resistance to infections. The recommendation of the World Health Organization to start complementary feeding after a 6-month period of exclusive breastfeeding is often in contradiction with the habits of the populations to propose very early other food sources than breast milk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  14. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  16. The culture of sand goby, Oxyeleotris marmoratus I: Feed and feeding scheme of larvae and juveniles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uraiwan Chamnanwech

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural spawning of sand goby was carried out in earthen ponds and eggs were then collected. Fertilized eggs were incubated in a glass aquaria for hatching. The feed and feeding scheme experiments were done in the 500 liters (water volume 300 liters rearing tanks containing 1,000-1,500 of two-day old larvae (stage at first feeding. It was found that the larvae 3-18 days old (average total length 0.31-0.41 cm preferably fed only on rotifer while the 21-27 day-old larvae (average total length 0.44-0.65 cm fed on rotifer and Artemia, and the 30-45 day- old larvae (average total length 0.69-2.15 cm fed only on Moina.

  17. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed intake is ... apportionment of consumed energy towards protein and ..... alia, genetic potential for protein deposition and its ... The content and dietary balance of feed nutrients, such as ...

  18. Stages of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver cancer . The following stages are used for gastric cancer: Stage 0 (Carcinoma in Situ) In stage 0 , abnormal cells are ... check-ups. Treatment Options by Stage Stage 0 (Carcinoma in ... Stage I Gastric Cancer Treatment of stage I gastric cancer may ...

  19. Stages: A system for generating strategic alternaties for forest management.

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic planning is important in forest management. However, it has never been described clearly in literature. In this study a framework for strategic planning was developed and based on this a STrategic Alternatives Generating System (STAGES) to support decision making in strategic planning for forest management. This strategic planning consists of deciding on zoning, future forest and transition management. STAGES consists of a zoning model (which addresses the zoning decision problem th...

  20. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  1. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal’s production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by­products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken. PMID:28507415

  2. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Bijma, P.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower–finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refu

  3. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly distributed diurnal feeding patterns. However, differences in feeding patterns resulting from feed presentation did not persist after 8 wk of age, when all calves were fed a mixed ration. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Tank waste remediation system phase I high-level waste feed processability assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, S.L.; Stegen, G.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-01

    This report evaluates the effects of feed composition on the Phase I high-level waste immobilization process and interim storage facility requirements for the high-level waste glass.Several different Phase I staging (retrieval, blending, and pretreatment) scenarios were used to generate example feed compositions for glass formulations, testing, and glass sensitivity analysis. Glass models and data form laboratory glass studies were used to estimate achievable waste loading and corresponding glass volumes for various Phase I feeds. Key issues related to feed process ability, feed composition, uncertainty, and immobilization process technology are identified for future consideration in other tank waste disposal program activities.

  5. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  6. Larval starvation reduces responsiveness to feeding stimuli and does not affect feeding preferences in a butterfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Tobias; Fischer, Klaus

    2012-07-01

    It is commonly assumed that holometabolic insects such as Lepidoptera rely primarily on larval storage reserves for reproduction. Recent studies though have documented a prominent role of adult-derived carbohydrates for butterfly reproduction. Moreover, a few studies have shown that adult butterflies may also benefit from adult-derived amino acids, at least when larval storage reserves are reduced. Given that in holometabolous insects larval deficiencies are carried over into the adult stage, reduced storage reserves have the potential to modulate adult feeding preferences and responses in order to allow for a successful compensation. We tested this hypothesis here in the fruit-feeding butterfly Bicyclus anynana using larval food stress to manipulate storage reserves. Alcohols (methanol, ethanol, butanol, propanol), sugars (maltose, glucose, fructose, sucrose), and acetic acid acted as feeding stimuli, while butterflies did not respond to other substances such as amino acids, yeast, salts, or vitamins. Contrary to expectations, stressed butterflies showed a weaker response than controls to several feeding stimuli. In preference tests, butterflies preferred sugar solutions containing proline, arginine, glutamic acid, acetic acid, or ethanol over plain sugar solutions, but discriminated against salts. However, there were no general differences among starved and control butterflies. We conclude that larval food-stress does not elicit compensatory feeding behavior such as a stronger preference for amino acids or other essential nutrients in B. anynana. Instead, the stress imposed by a period of starvation yielded negative effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatial Distribution of Adult Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Damage to Cotton Flower Buds Due to Feeding and Oviposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigolli, J F J; Souza, L A; Fernandes, M G; Busoli, A C

    2016-12-12

    The cotton boll weevil Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is the main pest in cotton crop around the world, directly affecting cotton production. In order to establish a sequential sampling plan, it is crucial to understand the spatial distribution of the pest population and the damage it causes to the crop through the different developmental stages of cotton plants. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of adults in the cultivation area and their oviposition and feeding behavior throughout the development of the cotton plants. The experiment was conducted in Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in the 2012/2013 and 2013/2014 growing seasons, in an area of 10,000 m(2), planted with the cotton cultivar FM 993. The experimental area was divided into 100 plots of 100 m(2) (10 × 10 m) each, and five plants per plot were sampled weekly throughout the crop cycle. The number of flower buds with feeding and oviposition punctures and of adult A. grandis was recorded throughout the crop cycle in five plants per plot. After determining the aggregation indices (variance/mean ratio, Morisita's index, exponent k of the negative binomial distribution, and Green's coefficient) and adjusting the frequencies observed in the field to the distribution of frequencies (Poisson, negative binomial, and positive binomial) using the chi-squared test, it was observed that flower buds with punctures derived from feeding, oviposition, and feeding + oviposition showed an aggregated distribution in the cultivation area until 85 days after emergence and a random distribution after this stage. The adults of A. grandis presented a random distribution in the cultivation area.

  8. Project Planning: An Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.S.S.Riaz Ahamed

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the Planning stage is to analyze the project in terms of work breakdown, cost, resources, and timing. At the end of this stage all team members should be clear on the sub tasks and deliverables with the project, the time constraints they are working too and the roles and responsibilities that are expected from them.Software Project Plan defines what the work is, and how this work can be completed. This plan is developed at the beginning of the software project and is continually refined and improved as the work rocesses. It can be useful to management as a frame work for review and control the process of developing the software. Additionally, the Software Project Plan can define each of the major tasks and estimate the time and resources that are required to complete these tasks.

  9. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  10. Residual Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz, Roberto D.; Paulino, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Low rates of return on investment for livestock operations are a fact of life. Producers have little impact on the market price for their cattle; therefore management must be focused on the things producers can actually do something about. For many years, genetic selection programs have focused on production (output) traits, with little attention given to production costs (inputs). Recently, this view has begun to change, and the efficiency of conversion of feed (i.e., t...

  11. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk, vi...

  12. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network....

  13. Food Safety Information RSS feed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is an RSS Feed of Food Safety information that’s produced in real-time by the CDC. This RSS feed is the integration of two other XML feeds, one from the USDA's...

  14. Multiple part feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design/methodology/approach - Th......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design....../methodology/approach - The necessary AIMM technologies exist at a mature level - the reason that no mobile manipulators have yet been implemented in industrial environments, is that research in the right applications have not been carried out. We propose a pragmatic approach consisting of: a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile...... manipulator system design ("Little Helper"), a suitable and comprehensive industrial application (multiple part feeding), and a general implementation concept for industrial environments (the "Bartender Concept"). Findings - Results from the three days of real-world demonstration show that "Little Helper...

  15. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Racial and Ethnic Disparities March of Dimes Plan Aims to Make United States a Leader in Preterm ... Collaborative Info for your patients Medical resources Professional education Awards, scholarships & grants For policy makers Policies & positions ...

  16. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Racial and Ethnic Disparities March of Dimes Plan Aims to Make United States a Leader in ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  17. 40 CFR 51.152 - Contingency plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Contingency plans. 51.152 Section 51... FOR PREPARATION, ADOPTION, AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Prevention of Air Pollution Emergency Episodes § 51.152 Contingency plans. (a) Each contingency plan must— (1) Specify two or more stages of...

  18. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram

    OpenAIRE

    James Lalthansanga; Samanta,A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves...

  19. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram

    OpenAIRE

    James Lalthansanga; Samanta, A K

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves...

  20. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  1. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child.

  2. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children What are ... children with feeding and swallowing disorders ? What are feeding and swallowing disorders? Feeding disorders include problems gathering ...

  3. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How To Feed Your Baby Either breast- or bottle-feeding works well for babies with heart problems, but ... do best with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is ...

  4. Determination of macrocyclic lactones in food and feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarini, Roberta; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Giusepponi, Danilo; Dusi, Guglielmo

    2013-01-01

    A confirmatory high-performance liquid chromatography method with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of the following anti-parasitic veterinary drugs in foodstuffs (liver, muscle and milk) and feed: abamectin, doramectin, emamectin, eprinomectin, ivermectin and moxidectin. Samples were extracted, purified and analysed by HPLC-FLD after prior derivatisation of analytes with N-methylimidazole, trifluoracetic anhydride and acetic acid to produce stable fluorescent derivatives. Recoveries were in the range of 73-98% (liver), 82-93% (muscle), 77-84% (milk), and 93-110% (feed). In all matrices the coefficients of variation for repeatability and intra-laboratory reproducibility were satisfactory. For emamectin in liver the worst method performance was observed. As this multi-analyte method fully met the required criteria and applicability both to food and feed, it has been successfully applied in National Control Plans in food and feed.

  5. USO DE SUBPRODUCTOS AGRÍCOLAS EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN DE CONEJOS EN FASES DE CEBA Y REPRODUCCIÓN O USO DE SUBPRODUTOS AGRÍCOLAS NA ALIMENTAÇÃO DE COELHOS EM FASE DE ENGORDE E REPRODUÇÃO USE OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS FOR RABBIT FEEDING DURING FATTENING AND BREEDING STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE DUBAN HENAO

    2012-12-01

    ês tipos de alimentos tanto para engorde quanto para reprodução; encontraram-se incrementos totais de peso superiores as 1300 g utilizando como complemento o alimento de casca de cacau, o qual é considerado satisfatório para o estágio de engorde; os dois alimentos formulados com suplementos de subprodutos gerados pelo beneficiamento do café e do cacau não afetaram a fase de reprodução nas amostras avaliadas, atingindo-se até 11 filhotes por fêmea reprodutora.By-products prepared from leaves remaining after the harvest of cocoa and coffee were compared in rabbit feeding during fattening and breeding stages. 16 female and 4 male New Zeland White rabbits there were assessed the total increase of weight and number of young; the variable response depending on the type of food treatment; ANOVA was performed in a completely randomized design to determine statistically significant differences between the treatments. There were not found statistically significant differences (P> 0,05 between the three types of food for both fattening and breeding stages; there was found a total increase of weight exceeding the 1.300 g. using cocoa shells as a complement of the food, which is satisfactory for the fattening stage; the two formulated types of food added with supplement of byproducts remaining from the coffee and cocoa benefits, didn´t affect the breeding stage, reaching up to 11 young per breeding female.

  6. Feeding the Beast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Anders; Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of fear, we argue, this predisposes people to vote for anti-immigration parties. Our analysis highlights the position of anti-immigration parties; hence, the Sweden Democrats (SD) in Sweden and the Danish People’s Party (DPP) in Denmark. We use frame analysis to detect recurrent frames in the media debate...... as such plays a similar role and provides the DPP with an identity. We conclude that we are confronted with a two-faced beast that feeds on perceptions of the people as ultimately afraid of what are not recognized as native goods....

  7. Food and feed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  8. Recent developments in the application of live feeds in the freshwater ornamental fish culture

    OpenAIRE

    L C Lim; Dhert, P.; Sorgeloos, P

    2003-01-01

    The industrial development of freshwater ornamental fish culture has been hampered by the lack of suitable live feeds for feeding the fish at the various production stages. This paper reports the recent developments in the applications of the freshwater rotifers (Brachionus calyciflorus), Artemia nauplii, decapsulated Artemia cysts and on-grown Artemia in the freshwater ornamental fish culture. Results demonstrate that the rotifers are an ideal starter feed for dwarf gourami (Colisa lalia), a...

  9. Planning Lessons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linda Jensen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jensen's "Lesson Planning"article serves aS a guide fOr novice teachers who need to create formalized lesson plans.The article covers why,when,and how teachers plan lessons,as well aS basic lesson plan principles and a lesson plan template.

  10. Parenteral and Early Enteral Feeding in Patients with Colonic Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Malkov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to provide evidence whether it is expedient to use an early enteral feeding protocol in patients with colonic malignancies in the postoperative period to prevent and to correct hemodynamic disorders, oxygen imbalance, and malnutrition. Subjects and methods. A hundred patients (61 males and 39 females aged 66.2±5.0 years, who had Stages 2—3 colonic malignancies, were examined. Two algorithms of postoperative management were analyzed using the traditional diet and early enteral feeding. Results. The early enteral feeding protocol improves central hemodynamics and oxygen and nutritional status, prevents moderate protein-energy deficiency in the early postoperative period and reduces the number of complications and fatal outcomes in patients with colonic malignancies. Key words: malignancies, malnutrition, hemo-dynamics, oxygen status, enteral feeding.

  11. Feeding and growth in a captive-born bottlenose dolphin Tursiops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-06-12

    Jun 12, 1991 ... The feeding and growth of a captive-born bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus calf were studied for 30 .... Age determination through tooth sectioning indicated the ..... ineffectual, but is a prerequisite behaviour in later stages.

  12. BREAST FEEDING SUPPORT IN PREMATURE INFANTS: PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Support of long-term breast feeding is a pressing issue of neonatology. It is known that the unique composition of breast milk ensures proper physical and neuropsychic development of infants, as it contains all the necessary nutrients in the sufficient amount and optimal proportion. The authors gave specific attention to provision of premature infants, especially with very low and extremely low birth weight, with breast milk. However, it is very difficult to launch and maintain breast feeding in this very category of patients. There are many reasons impeding adequate provision of premature infants with breast milk. The main problem on the part of the mother is hypogalactia, which may be caused by preterm labor stress, lack of confidence in successful lactation, temporary medical contraindications and, therefore, deviant formation of the lactation dominant, motivation towards prolonged breast feeding etc. On the part of the child: severe condition, no or weak sucking reflex, often — prolonged parenteral and tube feeding, need in supplementary feeding. The article presents published data on various methods of maintaining breast feeding at the stage of hospital developmental care of premature infants and experience of breast feeding support accumulated at the Scientific Center of Children’s Health, which proves that simultaneous support and follow-up of the child’s mother and her family in whole by several specialists (neonatologist/pediatrician, psychologist, breast physician, dietician and recreation therapist not only at the stages of labor and development care, but also after discharge from hospital are required to ensure rational and prolonged breast feeding of premature infants and normal growth and development thereof. 

  13. Glass fabrication and analysis literature review and method selection for WTP waste feed qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peeler, D. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2013-06-01

    The waste feed qualification program is being developed to protect the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) safety basis, technical basis, and design by assuring waste acceptance requirements are met for each staged waste feed Campaign prior to transfer from the Hanford Tank Farm to the WTP.

  14. Feeding Children with Disabilities: An Overview of Strategies and Specialized Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2011-01-01

    During the first years of life, children progress through a number of developmental stages related to feeding. By the age of five, a child typically has the skills, behaviors and habits that will be used throughout their lives. However, data indicates that 60 to 70% of children with disabilities have one or more feeding difficulties. Importantly,…

  15. Evolution of Family Enterprises of Feed and Veterinary Drugs and Introduction of Professional Manager System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua; LIANG; Zhongming; SHEN

    2015-01-01

    Overall socio-economic development of urban and rural areas and laying solid foundation for agricultural and rural development are closely connected with sustainable development of family enterprises of feed and veterinary drugs.This paper analyzed evolution stages and three-ring administration mode of family enterprises of feed and veterinary drugs and discussed the inevitable requirement for introducing perfect professional manager system.

  16. Enhanced nitrogen removal in constructed wetlands: effects of dissolved oxygen and step-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengmin; Lu, Lun; Zheng, Xiang; Ngo, Huu Hao; Liang, Shuang; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Xiuwen

    2014-10-01

    Four horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCWs), named HSFCW1 (three-stage, without step-feeding), HSFCW2 (three-stage, with step-feeding), HSFCW3 (five-stage, without step-feeding) and HSFCW4 (five-stage, with step-feeding) were designed to investigate the effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) and step-feeding on nitrogen removal. High removal of 90.9% COD, 99.1% ammonium nitrogen and 88.1% total nitrogen (TN) were obtained simultaneously in HSFCW4 compared with HSFCW1-3. The excellent TN removal of HSFCW4 was due to artificial aeration provided sufficient DO for nitrification and the favorable anoxic environment created for denitrification. Step-feeding was a crucial factor because it provided sufficient carbon source (high COD: nitrate ratio of 14.3) for the denitrification process. Microbial activities and microbial abundance in HSFCW4 was found to be influenced by DO distribution and step-feeding, and thus improve TN removal. These results suggest that artificial aeration combined with step-feeding could achieve high nitrogen removal in HSFCWs.

  17. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  18. Oxytocin, feeding and satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy eSabatier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.

  19. Language Planning: Corpus Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldauf, Richard B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the historical and sociolinguistic studies that illuminate corpus planning processes. These processes are broken down and discussed under two categories: those related to the establishment of norms, referred to as codification, and those related to the extension of the linguistic functions of language, referred to as elaboration. (60…

  20. A treatment planning and delivery comparison of volumetric modulated arc therapy with or without flattening filter for gliomas, brain metastases, prostate, head/neck and early stage lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasic, Daniel; Ohlhues, Lars; Brodin, N. Patrik

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Flattening filter-free (FFF) beams are an emerging technology that has not yet been widely implemented as standard practice in radiotherapy centers. To facilitate the clinical implementation of FFF, we attempted to elucidate the difference in plan quality and treatment delivery time c...

  1. Performance and economic analysis of the production of Nile tilapia submitted to different feeding management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Bevitorio Passinato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The productive performance and the variable cost of production were evaluated for different feeding strategies for tilapia during the production cycle. A sample of 2,000 juvenile tilapia was distributed (23.55 ± 2.38 g into five treatments and with four repetitions as follows: C (feed consumption to apparent satiety, R20 (beginning feed restriction when fish reached an average weight of 20 g, R200 (beginning feed restriction when fish reached an average weight of 200 g, R400 (beginning feed restriction when fish reached an average weight of 400 g and R600 (beginning feed restriction when fish reached an average weight of 600 g. The fish were given extruded commercial feed containing 34% crude protein until they reached a weight of 200 g, at which time they received feed containing 32% crude protein. Monthly biometrics were performed in order to determine the food restriction starting point, which was one day of restriction followed by six feeding days. The following parameters were evaluated: water quality, productive performance variables, the variable costs of production and excreted nitrogen. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and the means were compared using Tukey’s test (5% significance. No statistical differences were observed in final weight, weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion or survival. The fish from the R20 treatment had the lowest variable cost of production (g fish-1 and the lowest nitrogen excretion into the water. This suggests that feed restriction from the early stages of life does not compromise the productive performance and contributes to reducing the variable costs and the quantity of nitrogen excreted into the environment. Thus, a one-day per week feed restriction strategy can be applied from the earliest stages of life without compromising the productive performance or body composition of Nile tilapia. This strategy can also reduce variable costs of production by means of reducing relative

  2. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information...

  3. Scenario Based Network Infrastructure Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a method for IT infrastructure planning that take into account very long term developments in usages. The method creates a scenario for a final, time independent stage in the planning process. The method abstracts relevant modelling factors from available information...

  4. Understanding cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provide more detailed information about the cancer stage. TNM Staging System The most common system for staging ... in the form of solid tumor is the TNM system. Most providers and cancer centers use it ...

  5. Cervical Cancer Stage IVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 756x576 ... Large: 3150x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IVA Description: Stage IVA cervical cancer; drawing and inset ...

  6. 山区高速铁路初步设计阶段方案比选的模糊数学方法%Fuzzy Mathematical Method for Comparison and Selection of Plans at Preliminary Design Stage of High-speed Railway in Mountainous Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王明慧

    2013-01-01

    In construction of high-speed railways in mountainous area,the preliminary design stage often faces comparison and selection among multiple plans.Since there are so many factors influencing the scheme selection,therefore,it is difficult for quantitative analysis.in order to solve the problem,the article introduced the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model to select the most appropriate plan.Taking the construction of Chongqing-Wanzhou railway for example,the article selected the appropriate plan by the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model.Ultimately,we adopt the first plan.%在山区高速铁路建设中,初步设计阶段常遇到多方案比选问题.而方案选择涉及因素众多,难以定量分析.针对此问题,引入模糊综合评价模型对各方案进行比选.以渝万铁路客运专线为例,应用模糊综合评价模型对有关方案进行了比选研究,最终得到了首选方案.

  7. The crisis in infant feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, A

    1978-01-01

    This article maintains that the dramatic decline in breast-feeding in low-income countries is extracting a substantial cost, both in infant health and in outright economic loss. From the 6th to 12th month of life, breast-feeding can supply up to 3/4 of a child's protein needs. The breast-fed child has received about 375 liters of breast milk by age 2. The nutritional equivalent in cow's milk would cost about $65; in packaged dried milk formulas, close to $140. Yet in the few developing countries where surveys of breast-feeding have been conducted over the years, the common pattern is one of significant decline, with greatest decline in urban areas. As communication techniques become more effective in developing countries, urban life styles will have increasing influence on rural societies. Estimates show that losses in breast milk can produce losses in the billions of dollars to developing countries. In terms of national development, lactation has another major economic asset: its link to family planning as a major form of contraception. One investigation reports that the incidence of pregnancy in the 1st 9 months after childbirth of nonnursing mothers was twice that of mothers who breast-fed, including those who simultaneously used other foods. Just as breast milk can be the major source of nutrition, the failure to provide breast milk is a major cause of infant malnutrition and mortality. Poor parents often dilute milk formulas to extend their supply; many cannot read labels and instructions; and hygienic needs often cannot be met by the parents. Breast-fed babies are more resistant to a host of diseases. The costs and obstacles of designing campaigns to encourage breast-feeding in developing countries may be less imposing than those of alternate nutrition intervention programs designed to achieve the same ends. Such a campaign calls for: 1) attracting the public's attention to the benefits of breast-feeding and the dangers of foregoing it through the media

  8. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    The transition period from late gestation to early lactation is rather short, but it is nonetheless of major importance for the productivity of high-prolific sows. The transition period, here defined as the last 10 d of gestation and the first 10 d of lactation, encompasses substantial changes...... for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  9. Stages: A system for generating strategic alternaties for forest management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic planning is important in forest management. However, it has never been described clearly in literature. In this study a framework for strategic planning was developed and based on this a STrategic Alternatives Generating System (STAGES) to support decision making in strategic planning for

  10. The association between cesarean delivery on maternal request and method of newborn feeding in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxue Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery has increased significantly during the last decades. This study aimed to investigate the association between planned mode of delivery and method of feeding. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cohort was created retrospectively using data from a population-based maternal and child health surveillance system, which covers 27 study sites in China from 1993 to 2006. The cohort consisted of 431,704 women for analysis, including 22,462 women with planned cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR and 409,242 women with planned vaginal delivery (VD. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between mode of delivery and method of feeding adjusting for selected covariates. In this cohort, 398,176 (92.2% women exclusively breastfed their baby, 28,798 (6.7% women chose mixed feeding, and 4,730 (1.1% women chose formula feeding before hospital discharge. Women who planned CDMR were less likely to exclusively breastfeed and more likely to formula feed their babies than those who planned VD. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.89 for exclusive breastfeeding and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45-1.79 for formula feeding. Associations between planned mode of delivery and method of feeding in the south, north, rural and urban areas yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that planned CDMR was associated with a lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding and a higher rate of formula feeding in a low-risk Chinese population.

  11. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati...

  12. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  13. Impact of biofilm accumulation on transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop: Effects of crossflow velocity, feed spacer and biodegradable nutrient

    KAUST Repository

    Dreszer, C.

    2014-03-01

    Biofilm formation causes performance loss in spiral-wound membrane systems. In this study a microfiltration membrane was used in experiments to simulate fouling in spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules without the influence of concentration polarization. The resistance of a microfiltration membrane is much lower than the intrinsic biofilm resistance, enabling the detection of biofilm accumulation in an early stage. The impact of biofilm accumulation on the transmembrane (biofilm) resistance and feed channel pressure drop as a function of the crossflow velocity (0.05 and 0.20ms-1) and feed spacer presence was studied in transparent membrane biofouling monitors operated at a permeate flux of 20Lm-2h-1. As biodegradable nutrient, acetate was dosed to the feed water (1.0 and 0.25mgL-1 carbon) to enhance biofilm accumulation in the monitors. The studies showed that biofilm formation caused an increased transmembrane resistance and feed channel pressure drop. The effect was strongest at the highest crossflow velocity (0.2ms-1) and in the presence of a feed spacer. Simulating conditions as currently applied in nanofiltration and reverse osmosis installations (crossflow velocity 0.2ms-1 and standard feed spacer) showed that the impact of biofilm formation on performance, in terms of transmembrane and feed channel pressure drop, was strong. This emphasized the importance of hydrodynamics and feed spacer design. Biomass accumulation was related to the nutrient load (nutrient concentration and linear flow velocity). Reducing the nutrient concentration of the feed water enabled the application of higher crossflow velocities. Pretreatment to remove biodegradable nutrient and removal of biomass from the membrane elements played an important part to prevent or restrict biofouling. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. High Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  15. Mothers' perceptions of the influences on their child feeding practices - A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-10-01

    Children's diets are important determinants of their health, but typically do not meet recommendations. Parents' feeding practices, such as pressure or restriction, are important influences on child diets, but reasons why parents use particular feeding practices, and malleability of such practices, are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of influences on their feeding practices, and assess whether an intervention promoting recommended feeding practices was perceived as influential. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 families aiming to improve child diets. Following the trial, when children were two years old, 81 intervention arm mothers were invited to participate in qualitative interviews, and 26 accepted (32%). Thematic analysis of interview transcripts used a tabular thematic framework. Eight major themes were identified regarding perceived influences on child feeding practices. Broadly these encompassed: practical considerations, family setting, formal information sources, parents' own upbringing, learning from friends and family, learning from child and experiences, and parents' beliefs about food and feeding. Additionally, the Melbourne InFANT Program was perceived by most respondents as influential. In particular, many mothers reported being previously unaware of some recommended feeding practices, and that learning and adopting those practices made child feeding easier. These findings suggest that a variety of influences impact mothers' child feeding practices. Health practitioners should consider these factors in providing feeding advice to parents, and researchers should consider these factors in planning interventions.

  16. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  17. Strategic and tactiocal planning for managing national park resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; David L. Peterson

    2001-01-01

    Each National Park Service unit in the United States produces a resource management plan (RMP) every four years or less. These plans constitute a strategic agenda for a park. Later, tactical plans commit budgets and personnel to specific projects over the planning horizon. Yet, neither planning stage incorporates much quantitative and analytical rigor and is devoid of...

  18. Between Stage and Screen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tornqvist, Egil

    1996-01-01

    Ingmar Bergman is worldwide known as a film and stage director. Yet no-one has attempted to compare his stage and screen activities. In Between stage and screen Egil Tornqvist examines formal and thematical correspondences and differences between a number of Bergman's stage, screen, and radio produc

  19. [Force-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon

    2014-09-01

    In contrast to the position of the World Medical Association and the Ethics Council of the Israel Medical Association, the author argues for forced-feeding of hunger-striking prisoners when their condition reaches a stage of danger of death or permanent injury. This position is based on the priority of human life over autonomy, and of a communitarian ethic. This position is supported by a District Court decision ordering the feeding of a hunger-striking prisoner, by a Supreme Court decision imposing surgery on a non-consenting prisoner, and in line with Israel's Patient's Right Law.

  20. Effects of different nutritional plans on broiler performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CB Buteri

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at the Department of Animal Science of the Federal University of Viçosa, Brazil, to evaluate the effects of different nutritional plans on the performance of male and female Ross broilers. A completely randomized experimental design with a 6x2 factorial arrangement (six nutritional plans x two sexes with six replicates of 20 birds per experimental unit was applied. The nutritional plans adopted for males and females included 3, 5, or 28 feeds, and the other 3 plans included 28 feeds containing 92.5, 100, and 107.5% of digestible lysine requirements established according to a mathematical model developed exclusively for Ross broilers. The results showed that the tested 28-feed feeding programs are equivalent, and allow similar performance as compared to 3- and 5-feed feeding programs. Based on the lysine levels included in the different nutritional plans, it was possible to fit the equations: Y = -0.0079x + 1.2435 (R² = 0.981 for males and Y = -0.0084x + 1.1925 (R² = 0.978 for females, where "Y" is digestible lysine level (% and "x" is average age in days. These equations are specific for multiple-phase feeding programs. The performance of male and female broilers fed the lysine levels established by the mathematical models was similar as to that of birds fed the other nutritional plans. This demonstrates that it is possible to determine broiler lysine.

  1. Application of ''Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for Low-Activity waste feed batch X'' to specific feed batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JO, J.

    1999-02-23

    This document addresses the characterization needs of tanks as set forth in the ''Confirm Tank T is an Appropriate Feed Source for Low-Activity Waste Feed Batch X'' Data Quality Objective (DQO) (Certa and Jo 1998). The primary purpose of this document is to collect existing data and identify the data needed to determine whether or not the feed source(s) are appropriate for a specific batch before transfer is made to the feed staging tanks. To answer these questions, the existing tank data must be collected and a detailed review performed. If the existing data are insufficient to complete a full comparison, additional data must be obtained from the feed source(s). Additional information requirements need to be identified and formally documented, then the source tank waste must be sampled or resampled and analyzed. Once the additional data are obtained, the data shall be incorporated into the existing database for the source tank and a reevaluation of the data against the DQO must be made.

  2. A Boolean Approach to Interactive Program Planning

    OpenAIRE

    George Abonyi; Nigel Howard

    1980-01-01

    Program planning refers to the process of selecting an integrated set of projects for implementation. Ultimately, decisions tend to be "political" in the sense that they involve compromises and tradeoffs among different interests, though the arguments may be couched in technical terms. Program planning may be structured as a multi-stage process. One stage involves the assessment of various alternatives for the project components of the program. A second stage then involves the selection of th...

  3. Understanding Personal and Family Financial Planning Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Council of Life Insurance, Washington, DC. Education and Community Services.

    This publication for teachers focuses on one specific content area of consumer education--financial planning. The first major section begins by identifying eight competencies in financial planning education. It describes the financial planning process used to anticipate changes in moving from one stage of life to another, choosing the options, and…

  4. Collaborative Planning in Process: An Ethnomethodological Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Josephine; Burch, Alfred Rue

    2017-01-01

    Following Ellis's (2005) call for more social and process-oriented planning research, this study explores how learners approach collaborative planning tasks in the classroom as a locally contingent activity in situ. Drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis, the present study focuses on a group planning stage that precedes the final…

  5. Supplemental feeding of captive neonatal koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Eri; Shindo, Izumi; Miyakawa, Etsuko; Kido, Nobuhide

    2017-01-01

    Koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are cautious animals, making supplemental feeding of neonates challenging because of disturbances to the normal routine. However, supplemental feeding is beneficial in improving juvenile nutrition using less formula than required for hand-rearing, and allowing maternal bonding to continue through suckling. In this study, two neonatal koalas, delivered by the same mother in 2 years, exhibited insufficient growth post-emergence from the pouch; supplemental feeding was therefore initiated. The amount of formula fed was determined according to the product instructions, and offspring weight was monitored. Slower than normal growth was not initially noticed in the first offspring. This caused delayed commencement of supplemental feeding. An attempt was made to counteract this by providing more formula for a longer period; however, this meant No. 1 was unable to eat enough eucalyptus when weaning. Supplemental feeding was started earlier for the second offspring than for the first, and was terminated at weaning; this juvenile showed a healthy body weight increase. Furthermore, it was able to eat eucalyptus leaves at an earlier stage than No. 1. Although No. 1 showed delayed growth, both koalas matured and are still living. This study showed that supplemental feeding is useful for koalas, if the mother will accept human intervention. The key factors for successful supplemental feeding of koalas identified by comparing the two feeding systems observed in this study are that: (1) it should be initiated as soon as insufficient growth is identified; and (2) it should be terminated before weaning age. Zoo Biol. 36:62-65, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Birth Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child will happen — labor involves so many variables, you can't predict exactly what will happen. ... bottle feed ? Would you like the baby to sleep next to you or in the nursery? Hospitals ...

  7. Pretreatment platelet count improves the prognostic performance of the TNM staging system and aids in planning therapeutic regimens for nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a single-institutional study of 2,626 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Pei; Zhao, Bing-Cheng; Chen, Chen; Shen, Lu-Jun; Gao, Jin; Mai, Zhuo-Yao; Chen, Meng-Kun; Chen, Gang; Yan, Fang; Liu, Su; Xia, Yun-Fei

    2015-03-05

    Thrombocytosis has been identified as an unfavorable prognostic factor in several types of cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of pretreatment platelet count in association with the TNM staging system and therapeutic regimens in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 2,626 patients with NPC were retrospectively analyzed. Platelet count >300 × 10(9)/L was defined as thrombocytosis. Matched-pair analysis was performed between patients receiving chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy. Multivariate analysis showed that platelet count was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for overall survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.810, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.531-2.140, P TNM classification (all P ≤ 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves verified that the predictive value of TNM classification for OS was improved when combined with pretreatment platelet count (P = 0.030). Matched-pair analysis showed that chemoradiotherapy significantly improved OS only in advanced-stage NPC with thrombocytosis (HR = 0.416, 95% CI = 0.226-0.765, P = 0.005). Pretreatment platelet count, when combined with TNM classification, is a useful indicator for metastasis and survival in patients with NPC. It may improve the predictive value of the TNM classification and help to identify patients likely to benefit from more aggressive therapeutic regimens.

  8. Schistosome feeding and regurgitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Skelly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect >200 million people worldwide, causing the chronic, debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Unusual among parasitic helminths, the long-lived adult worms, continuously bathed in blood, take up nutrients directly across the body surface and also by ingestion of blood into the gut. Recent proteomic analyses of the body surface revealed the presence of hydrolytic enzymes, solute, and ion transporters, thus emphasising its metabolic credentials. Furthermore, definition of the molecular mechanisms for the uptake of selected metabolites (glucose, certain amino acids, and water establishes it as a vital site of nutrient acquisition. Nevertheless, the amount of blood ingested into the gut per day is considerable: for males ∼100 nl; for the more actively feeding females ∼900 nl, >4 times body volume. Ingested erythrocytes are lysed as they pass through the specialized esophagus, while leucocytes become tethered and disabled there. Proteomics and transcriptomics have revealed, in addition to gut proteases, an amino acid transporter in gut tissue and other hydrolases, ion, and lipid transporters in the lumen, implicating the gut as the site for acquisition of essential lipids and inorganic ions. The surface is the principal entry route for glucose, whereas the gut dominates amino acid acquisition, especially in females. Heme, a potentially toxic hemoglobin degradation product, accumulates in the gut and, since schistosomes lack an anus, must be expelled by the poorly understood process of regurgitation. Here we place the new observations on the proteome of body surface and gut, and the entry of different nutrient classes into schistosomes, into the context of older studies on worm composition and metabolism. We suggest that the balance between surface and gut in nutrition is determined by the constraints of solute diffusion imposed by differences in male and female worm morphology. Our conclusions have

  9. Social Foundation of Scenario Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spaniol, Matthew Jon; Rowland, Nicholas James

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors establish that models of scenario planning typically involve a series of phases, stages, or steps that imply a sequenced (i.e., linear or chronological) process. Recursive models, in contrast, allow phases to repeat, thus, incorporating iteration. The authors......” phase of a planning process with a non-governmental organization in Denmark. The upshot for facilitators is practical insight into how transition between phases and phase iteration in scenario planning can be identified, leveraged, and, thus, managed. The upshot for scholars is a related insight...... into why scenario planning is a kind of laboratory for futures studies wherein the future is experimented upon....

  10. Feeding a fierce demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zlontinov, D.

    2008-09-15

    Wolverine is a metallurgical coal mining project located in British Columbia (BC). The Wolverine project is owned by Western, who is currently expanding the project by developing an open pit mine property with a reserve of 18 million tonnes located close to its current mine. The company has purchased several new trucks, front shovel loaders, and blasthole drills, and is now shifting over 65,000 bank cubic meters (BCM) per day. Western is also planning to develop an underground mine in the region. The company has formed contracts and business relationships with several smaller companies in order to allow for more rapid startups of its mining operations. However, the company's expansion has been impeded by shortages in qualified mining personnel. The Wolverine project had been engaged in long-term contracts with the Japanese steel industry. Western has now established a number of relationships with clients in Europe, China, and South Korea. 3 figs.

  11. Planning ahead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farquharson, B. [Gemcom Software International (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    The paper explains how Colombian coal producer and exporter, Carbones del Cerrejon, has increased recovered coal with an end-to-end mine planning solution. It was Gemcon's Minex software for geology and mine planning. 4 photos.

  12. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  13. Planning Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Medard

    1984-01-01

    To solve societal problems, both local and global, a global approach is needed. Serious diseases that are crippling present-day problem solving and planning are discussed, and the characteristics of a healthy, effective planning approach are described. (RM)

  14. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composition and compounds of high attractability. However, in recent years the fishmeal supplies have been dwindling due to over hunting, a diminishing natural fish-stock, elevating prices and market volatility. This has led to search for cheaper sources of suitable protein as fishmeal substitutes. To improve the palatability of diets, various substances have been investigated for their effectiveness in aqua-feed including natural feed ingredients and synthetic flavor substances. For crustacean, attractants characteristically are of low molecular weight, water and ethanol soluble, and amphoteric or basic compounds that are released from potential prey items. Compounds such as free amino acids, especially taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine, arginine, glutamic acid and alanine have been identified to stimulate feeding in shrimps. The same has been identified with organic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides, betaine, and some small peptides. Palatability also has been associated with animal’s past experience with the feed. Understanding the factors that regulate feed palatability is therefore primary for successful shrimp culture.

  15. Overall survival and local recurrence of 406 completely resected stage IIIa-N2 non-small cell lung cancer patients: questionnaire survey of the Japan Clinical Oncology Group to plan for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Y; Kato, H; Koike, T; Tsuchiya, R; Fujisawa, T; Shimizu, N; Watanabe, Y; Mitsudomi, T; Yoshimura, M

    2001-10-01

    the group of completely resected stage IIIA-N2 non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) is considered to be heterogeneous in various aspects including survival and the recurrent pattern. In the present study, we attempted to clarify the factors which separate these patients into high and low risk groups based on the survival and local recurrence. a questionnaire survey on the survival and local recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer patients with pathological stage IIIA-N2 disease who underwent a complete resection from January 1992 to December 1993 was performed by the Japan Clinical Oncology Group as of July 1999. The information on the survival of 406 patients and that of local recurrence in 332 of them was available. the 5-year survival of the 406 patients was 31.0%. In a univariate analysis, the age, clinical and pathological T status, number of N2 stations, pathological N1 disease, operative modality and postoperative radiotherapy were all found to be important prognostic factors. Clinical N2 disease marginally influenced the survival (P=0.07). In a multivariate analysis of these variables including clinical N2 disease, the survival was significantly worse in the case of multiple N2 stations (hazard ratio=1.741), the presence of pathological N1 disease (1.403), pathological T2 or 3 disease (1.399) and an age older than 65 (1.327). The rate of freedom from any local recurrence at the bronchial stump, or in the hilar, mediastinal or supraclavicular lymph nodes at 5 years was 64%. In a univariate analysis of the freedom from local recurrence, the clinical N status, pathological T status, pathological N1 disease and number of N2 stations were all found to be important prognostic factors. A multivariate analysis revealed the freedom from local recurrence to be adversely influenced by multiple N2 stations (hazard ratio=2.05), and the presence of either clinical N1 or 2 (1.733) disease. The 5-year survival and the rate of freedom from local recurrence at 5

  16. Fire Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  17. Fire Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    Many libraries have disaster recovery plans, but not all have prevention and action plans to prepare for an emergency in advance. This article presents the author's review of the prevention and action plans of several libraries: (1) Evergreen State College; (2) Interlochen Public Library; (3) University of Maryland, Baltimore-Marshall Law Library;…

  18. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  19. Feeding profiles of tame moose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the feeding profiles of tame moose. 3 moose were observed for 99 hours while in natural range, each bite plant species, browse conditions and size...

  20. Pretreatment platelet count improves the prognostic performance of the TNM staging system and aids in planning therapeutic regimens for nasopharyngeal carcinoma:a single-institutional study of 2,626 patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Pei Chen; Su Liu; Yun-Fei Xia; Bing-Cheng Zhao; Chen Chen; Lu-Jun Shen; Jin Gao; Zhuo-Yao Mai; Meng-Kun Chen; Gang Chen; Fang Yan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction:Thrombocytosis has been identified as an unfavorable prognostic factor in several types of cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of pretreatment platelet count in association with the TNM staging system and therapeutic regimens in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods:A total of 2,626 patients with NPC were retrospectively analyzed. Platelet count>300 × 109/L was defined as thrombocytosis. Matched-pair analysis was performed between patients receiving chemoradiotherapy and radiotherapy. Results:Multivariate analysis showed that platelet count was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for overal survival (OS) [hazard ratio (HR)=1.810, 95%confidence interval (CI)=1.531–2.140, P<0.001] and distant metastasis–free survival (DMFS) (HR=1.873, 95%CI=1.475–2.379, P<0.001) in the entire patient cohort. Further subgroup analysis revealed that increased platelet count was an independent unfavorable prognostic factor for OS and DMFS in patients with NPC stratified by early and advanced T category, N category, or TNM classification (al P≤0.001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves verified that the predictive value of TNM classification for OS was improved when combined with pretreatment platelet count (P=0.030). Matched-pair analysis showed that chemoradiotherapy significantly improved OS only in advanced-stage NPC with thrombocytosis (HR=0.416, 95%CI=0.226–0.765, P=0.005). Conclusions:Pretreatment platelet count, when combined with TNM classification, is a useful indicator for metastasis and survival in patients with NPC. It may improve the predictive value of the TNM classification and help to identify patients likely to benefit from more aggressive therapeutic regimens.

  1. Stages of Esophageal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage 0 , abnormal cells are found in the mucosa or submucosa layer of the esophagus wall. These ... found. Stage IA : Cancer has formed in the mucosa or submucosa layer of the esophagus wall. The ...

  2. Stages of Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  3. Cervical Cancer Stage IVB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the body, such as the lymph nodes, lung, liver, intestine, or bone. Stage IVB cervical cancer. Topics/Categories: Anatomy -- Gynecologic Cancer Types -- Cervical Cancer Staging Type: Color, ...

  4. Dynamic Stage Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Florian von Hofen[GER

    2013-01-01

    Concepts and methods for dynamic stage designs were introduced ranging from different ifelds of TV live shows, exhibitions and theatre performances, and a special emphasis was put on solution to the theatre stage design.

  5. Ages and Stages: Teen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Ages & Stages Prenatal Baby Toddler Preschool Gradeschool Teen Dating & ... Safety School Substance Abuse Young Adult Healthy Children > Ages & Stages > Teen Teen Article Body Adolescence can be ...

  6. Breast cancer staging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000911.htm Breast cancer staging To use the sharing features on this ... Once your health care team knows you have breast cancer , they will do more tests to stage it. ...

  7. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  8. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  9. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  10. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1425x1326 View Download Large: 2850x2651 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIB Description: Stage IIIB cervical cancer; drawing ...

  11. Cervical Cancer Stage IB

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IB Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1613x1200 View Download Large: 3225x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IB Description: Stage IB1 and IB2 cervical ...

  12. Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1275x1275 View Download Large: 2550x2550 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IIIA Description: Stage IIIA cervical cancer; drawing ...

  13. Cervical Cancer Stage IA

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Cervical Cancer Stage IA Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1500x1200 View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Cervical Cancer Stage IA Description: Stage IA1 and IA2 cervical ...

  14. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  15. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  16. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  17. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage I Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  18. Nasogastric tube feeding: a safe option for patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Trish

    2016-01-01

    This article will show that fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding can be facilitated for patients when long term percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) or radiologically inserted gastrostomy (RIG) options are not suitable. How the safe replacement of these tubes is facilitated, and what instructions the patient and the nursing home are given to support patient care and safety are also discussed. The decision to support this type of feeding must be completely individualised, considering home and external support agencies available to each patient. The risk assessment completed to facilitate this has been based on the patients' individual circumstances, and a nasogastric tube home passport developed to help in the assessment and decision-making process. For fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding to be safe, it does have to be supported once the patient is discharged from the hospital. A good knowledge of the home support and carer support agencies, and what is available, should be discussed. Multidisciplinary team support is essential in ensuring a safe discharge can be planned and managed. Good patient risk assessment and nursing considerations are discussed to show how the challenges that may prevent a patient discharge with this type of feed are managed. This article will show how two very different patients discharges were facilitated by safe fine-bore nasogastric tube feeding in the community. Patient assessment and nursing considerations are discussed, as well as the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to show how this was successfully achieved in a local district hospital.

  19. Carbon Capture Systems Optimal Allocation Scheme for Multi-stage Emission Reduction Planning in Power Plants%基于多阶段减排规划的发电厂碳捕集系统优化配置

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢志刚; 夏明昭; 张晓辉

    2011-01-01

    According to the requirements of the carbon dioxide emission reduction planning and taking full account of the progressive and uncertainty of the development of the current carbon dioxide capture and storage technology (CCS), a model of emission reduction planning in power plants with the goal to minimum general expenses was developed. By introducing technology readiness level factor and considering the future changes in power plants operation parameters, the progressive and uncertainty of the CCS technology were quantified. Emission reduction index of the carbon capture systems was decomposition by the rate of technological progress. An algorithm based on the discrete bacterial colony chemotaxis (DBCC) was used to solve this problem, the optimal allocation and investment strategy of carbon capture systems under different emission reduction scenarios was obtained by the simulation analysis on the practical example. Finally, the impact of different factors on the mitigation costs in different emission reduction scenarios was obtained by sensitivity analysis. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the model and the optimization algorithm.%根据二氧化碳减排规划的要求,并充分考虑目前二氧化碳捕集和封存(carbon capture and storage,CCS)技术发展的阶段性与不确定性,建立以阶段综合费用最小为目标函数的发电厂减排规划模型。引入技术成熟度因子,并考虑到发电厂运行参数未来的变化,将CCS技术的阶段性与不确定因素进行量化,依据技术进步率对碳捕集系统减排指标进行分解。采用离散细菌群体趋药性算法(discrete bacterial colony chemotaxis,DBCC)进行求解,通过对实际算例的方针分析,得到系统在不同减排场景下的碳捕集系统最优配置方案与碳捕集系统投资策略。最后通过灵敏度分析得到在不同减排场景下各因素对减排成本的影响。结果证明了所提模型以及

  20. Typology and Characteristics of Strategic Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Barbu Andreea Mihaela

    2012-01-01

    The process of strategic planning has been addressed by many authors in the international specialty literature, aspects as planning’s typology, stages or advantages for companies having been analysed and described in various management - marketing scientific articles or books. The present paper tries to define the concepts of strategic planning, long-term planning, and marketing planning, by highlighting their content and the differences between them, in terms of time or level of implementing...

  1. 如何写好商业计划%HOW TO WRiTE A BUSINESS PLAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.E.Yandle

    2005-01-01

    @@ Thinking about starting a business? Great. Have you got a Plan? That's Plan with a capital "P" for Business Plan. If you haven't written your plan yet, your business is still in the fantasy1 stages.

  2. Laparo-endoscopic Assisted Percutaneous Drainage Gastrostomy and Feeding Jejunostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishwanath Golash

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Acquired tracheo-esophageal Fistula (TEF is a rare but serious complication of prolonged endotracheal intubation. Patients of TEF are usually very critically ill and prone to repeated aspiration and pneumonia. The first stage of treatment involves the diversion of salivary and gastric contents away from the fistula site, improving the nutritional status and control of sepsis. A drainage gastrostomy and feeding jejunostomy is often required to divert the gastric contents away from the fistula and for nutrition.

  3. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer...... parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod...... and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h...

  4. Modelling gastric evacuation in gadoids feeding on crustaceans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Niels Gerner; Chabot, Denis; Couturier, C. S.

    2016-01-01

    A mechanistic, prey surface-dependent model was expanded to describe the course and rate of gastric evacuation in predatory fishes feeding on crustacean prey with robust exoskeletons. This was accomplished by adding a layer of higher resistance to the digestive processes outside the inner softer...... parts of a prey cylinder abstraction and splitting up the prey evacuation into two stages: an initial stage where the exoskeleton is cracked and a second where the prey remains are digested and evacuated. The model was parameterized for crustaceans with different levels of armour fed to Atlantic cod...... and Chionoecetes opilio. In accordance with the apparent intraspecific isometric relationship between exoskeleton mass and total body mass, the model described stage duration and rate of evacuation of the crustacean prey independently of meal and prey sizes. The duration of the first stage increased (0-33 h...

  5. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  6. Improvement of multi-parameter-based feed-forward coagulant dosing control systems with feed-back functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W; Ratnaweera, H

    2016-01-01

    Coagulant dosing control in drinking and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is often limited to flow proportional concepts. The advanced multi-parameter-based dosing control systems have significantly reduced coagulant consumption and improved outlet qualities. Due to the long retention time in separation stages, these models are mostly based on feed-forward (FF) models. This paper demonstrates the improvement of such models with feed-back (FB) concepts with simplifications, making it possible to use even in systems with long separation stages. Full-scale case studies from a drinking water treatment plant and a WWTP are presented. The model qualities were improved by the dosage adjustment of the FB model, ranging from 66% to 197% of the FF model. Hence, the outlet qualities became more stable and coagulant consumption was further reduced in the range of 3.7%-15.5%.

  7. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  8. In vitro ruminal fermentation of treated alfalfa silage using ruminal inocula from high and low feed-efficient lactating cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to assess the effect of two additives on alfalfa silage and on in vitro ruminal fermentation when using ruminal inocula prepared from high feed-efficient (HE) and low feed-efficient (LE) lactating cows. Second and third cut alfalfa was harvested at 40% bloom stage, treated with con...

  9. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... same time, (2) properly designed facilities for feeding and watering the livestock, (3) reasonably...

  10. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including stereoty

  11. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  12. Hábitos alimentares e sobreposição trófica das raias Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae na planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, Brasil = Feeding habitats and trophic overlap of the freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae in the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milza Celi Fedatto Abelha

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As raias Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro foram avaliadas em relação à composição de suas dietas e a sobreposição do nicho trófico nos períodos de seca (agosto/2004 e cheia (janeiro/2005 na planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, em três estações de coleta próximas à ilha Mutum. Foram analisados 49 conteúdos estomacais de P. falkneri e 16 de P. motoro, obtidos de espécimes capturados através de pesca com anzol, fisga (arpão e espinhel. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados de acordo com os métodos de freqüência volumétrica e de ocorrência. A similaridade da dieta foi quantificada pelo índicede sobreposição de Pianka. As espécies revelaram flexibilidade alimentar, com ambas consumindo predominantemente moluscos na cheia, enquanto na seca a dieta de P. falkneri foi composta principalmente por peixes e a de P. motoro por insetos aquáticos. Os valores doíndice de sobreposição de nicho variaram entre 0,38 na seca (moderado e 0,94 na cheia (acentuado. A variação da composição das dietas foi atribuída às oscilações na disponibilidade dos recursos alimentares no ambiente.Feeding habits and trophic overlap of freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro were evaluated in the upper Paraná river floodplain. Samples were collected during periods of drought (August/2004 and flood (January/2005 near Mutum island. Fishhook, harpoon and long line were used to capture the individuals and a total of 49 stomach contents of P. falkneri and 16 of P. motorowere analyzed. Diet composition was analyzed by the relative occurrence and volumetric frequencies. The trophic overlap was quantified by the index of niche overlap of Pianka. Results indicated that both species predominantly consumed mollusks during the floodseason, while in the drought season the diet of P. falkneri was composed mainly by fish and P. motoro for aquatic insects. The values of the index of niche overlap varied from 0.38, in

  13. Staged electrostatic precipitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Stanley J.; Almlie, Jay C.; Zhuang, Ye

    2016-03-01

    A device includes a chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet. The device includes a plurality of stages including at least a first stage adjacent a second stage. The plurality of stages are disposed in the chamber and each stage has a plurality of discharge electrodes disposed in an interior region and is bounded by an upstream baffle on an end proximate the air inlet and bounded by a downstream baffle on an end proximate the air outlet. Each stage has at least one sidewall between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The sidewall is configured as a collection electrode and has a plurality of apertures disposed along a length between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The upstream baffle of the first stage is positioned in staggered alignment relative to the upstream baffle of the second stage and the downstream baffle of the first stage are positioned in staggered alignment relative to the downstream baffle of the second stage.

  14. Determination of virginiamycin in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, H S; Black, L J; Waisner, D L

    1979-05-01

    Virginiamycin was extracted from the feed by ethanol-pH 2.5 phosphate buffer (1 + 1). The pH during extraction was adjusted (when necessary) to between 4 and 5. Sample dilutions and the standard dose response line were prepared to contain ethanol pH 6 phosphate buffer (2 + 8), and the test organism was Sarcina lutea. Three feeds (a poultry ration, a swine finishing ration, and a swine starter ration) showed virginiamycin recovery of 88.8--108.9% when standard solutions were added at concentrations of 4.54--90.8 g/ton. The coefficient of variation (4--20%) was larger for low potency feeds (10 g/ton) compared to the higher feeds (100 g/ton). Similarly, excellent recovery was obtained when the swine starter feed was fortified by a commercial premix. Amprolium, roxarsone, and monensin can be present at 20 times the concentration of virginiamycin with little or no interference in the antibiotic determination. Lasalocid at 10 times the concentration of virginiamycin caused a slightly positive bias (recovery, 107.4%).

  15. Feeding the Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  16. Agroecohydrology: Key to Feeding 9 Billion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrick, J.

    2011-12-01

    Agricultural production necessary to feed 9 billion people in 2050 depends on increased production on existing croplands, and expanding onto 'marginal' lands. A high proportion of these lands are marginal because they are too steep or too dry to reliably support crop production. These same characteristics increase their susceptibility to accelerated erosion, leading (for most soil profiles) to further reductions in plant available water as infiltration and soil profile water holding capacity decline. Sustaining production on these marginal lands will require careful land use planning. In this paper, we present a land use planning framework that integrates 4 elements: (1) potential production (based on soil profile characteristics), (2) edaphic, topographic and climatic limitations to production, (3) soil resistance to degradation, and (4) resilience. This framework expands existing land capability classification systems through the integration of biophysical feedbacks and thresholds. State and transition models, similar to those currently applied to rangelands in the United States and other countries, are used to organize and communicate knowledge about the sustainability of different land use changes and management actions at field to regional scales. This framework emphasizes hydrologic characteristics of soil profiles and landscapes over fertility because fertility declines are more easily addressed through increased inputs. The presentation will conclude with a discussion of how research in ecohydrology can be more effectively focused to support sustainable food production in the context of increasingly rapid social and economic changes throughout the world.

  17. Planning of marketing activity in an insurance company

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Е.A. Smirnova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article theoretical approaches in relation to planning of marketing activity in an insurance company are examined. Stages of marketing activity planning in insurance company are offered.

  18. The influence of culture on breast-feeding decisions by African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Darlene Joyner; Lewallen, Lynne Porter

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine how culture influenced breast-feeding decisions in African American and white women, using the Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality as a framework. One hundred eighty-six participants responded to the following: The word culture means beliefs and traditions passed down by your family and friends. How has culture affected how you plan to feed your baby? Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four categories of responses were identified: influences of family, known benefits of breast-feeding, influences of friends, and personal choice. The findings suggest that race alone may not be as influential in infant feeding decisions as other factors. Although some women acknowledged the effect of their cultural background and experiences, most women reported that their culture did not affect their infant feeding decision. In this population, breast-feeding decisions were based on the influences of family, friends, self, and the perceived knowledge of breast-feeding benefits. Although breast-feeding statistics are commonly reported by race, cultural influences on infant feeding decisions may transcend race and include the influence of family and friends, learned information from impersonal sources, and information that is shared and observed from other people.

  19. China's Feed Companies Eye Safety Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's feed companies in China are looking to strengthen safety control substantially according to the highest international standard.The first step will be improving the feed safety control in the pre-mixture and compound feed production.The next step will be extending this control to the whole feed supply chain, covering feed ingredients and services like transport and storage.Besides, a joint program will be defined in cooperation with GMP+ International.

  20. Multi-stage Production Plan Modeling and Management Information System Design of Electric Resistant Welding Steel Pipe Enterprises%高频直缝电阻焊管企业多阶段生产计划建模及管理信息系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱星光; 杨公振

    2015-01-01

    The production plan, as the start and the proof of production management, aims to avoid manual production planning causing the waste of resources and to achieve the optimal production planning strategy. Based on Electric Resistance Welding ( ERW) steel pipe enterprises′production characteristics, the produc-tion plan is optimized.In mathematical modeling, a mathematical model of earliness/tardiness punishment for multi-stage production plan was established with the limitation of the due window, inventory, production capacity, maintenance shutdown date etc., aiming to optimize the production plan and to minimize the tardi-ness punishment.The mathematical model was solved and optimized through genetic algorithm.In develo-ping the management information system, the B/S model information system with Visual Studio 2010 on the basis of the database was created.With the linkage of MATLAB and B/S system through the COM port of MATLAB, the algorithm was perfectly embedded with a user friendly interface and in turn realized the calcu-lation and expression of the production plan.The results show that applied in a specific enterprise, the mod-el and management information system realized the management of the ERW steel pipes enterprises′orders, inventory and production plan data management, achieving the expected goal, with a good academic value and practical significance.%生产计划是企业生产管理的重要起点和依据. 为避免以往采用人工排产方式所导致的资源浪费,达到最优排产策略,基于高频直缝电阻焊管( Electric Resistance Welding,ERW)企业的生产特点,针对多阶段生产计划建立了提前/拖期惩罚数学模型. 考虑了交货期窗口、库存影响、企业产能、维修停机等约束条件,以惩罚费用最小作为优化生产计划的目标,采用遗传算法有效求解及优化了该问题. 利用Visual Studio2010建立B/S模式的管理信息系统对数学模型进行功能实现,通过COM接口

  1. Wolf spider feeding strategies: optimality of prey consumption in Pardosa hortensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samu, F

    1993-05-01

    Feeding behaviour of the wolf spider Pardosa hortensis Thorell (Araneae, Lycosidae) was studied in the laboratory. Characteristics of feeding were measured while prey availability was increased and the results were compared with the predictions of three models: the marginal value theorem (MVT), gut limitation theory (GLT) and the digestion rate limitation model (DRL). As a result of more frequent encounters with prey, the wolf spiders were able to modify their feeding behaviour so that their net energy intake rate increased substantially. Handling time decreased by 30%, and consumption rate increased by 40%. Partial consumption of prey did not occur until the spiders became nearly satiated. This indicated that spiders did not reach the optimum predicted by MVT. The most plausible mechanism for the increased efficiency was prey-stimulated digestive enzyme production as suggested in DRL. The predictions of GLT were not applicable for most of the feeding session, though gut satiation had an influence on the final stages of feeding. P. hortensis seemed to apply a "responsive but cautious" strategy: (i) spiders improved feeding efficiency on entering the higher quality habitat, but (ii) feeding times appeared to be sub-optimal and (iii) spiders were also willing to continue feeding when, as they approached satiation, the previously high efficiency could not be maintained. Such feeding behaviour optimizes long-term energy intake when food is scarce and unpredictable, which corresponds well with the known degree of natural food limitation of these animals.

  2. Some thoughts about infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickse, R G

    1983-12-01

    This article summarizes the nutritional considerations, impact on infection and immunity, and psychosocial aspects of the breast versus bottle feeding debate and concludes with guidelines for reorganizing government health services to promote breastfeeding. Its aim is to encourage reappraisal on the part of physicians of the direct implications of infant feeding for the health and well-being of people in all societies, but especially in developing countries. As a result of widespread abandonment of breastfeeding in developing countries, marasmus and infant diarrhea have increased. Although the biologic advatages of breast over bottle feeding are indisputable, the social and economic advantages are more difficult to quantify. Many Third World women curtail breastfeeding to meet the conditions of employment; however, the economic advantages of artificial feeding diminish as one descends down the pay scale. The counterproductive trend toward bottle feeding has been compounded by adoption of this method on the part of the educated elite in Third World countries, including medical and nursing professionals, thus conferring on it as status associated with progress and affluence. The present trend can be reversed only if communities are convinced of the advantages of breastfeeding and make adjustments to facilitate this practice. Preparation for motherhood must be viewed as an integral function of the health care system, with emphasis placed on the nutrition of pregnant and lactating women, preparation for breastfeeding, and the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Obstetric units must actively discourage the removal of infants from their mothers or routine artificial feeding. In addition, facilities must be provided at workplaces for breastfeeding, the working day should be modified to allow brestfeeding, maternity leaves should be extended, and appropriate payments should be made to nursing mothers. The nutrition needs of infants must be viewed as a shared

  3. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  4. Floral arrangements and hummingbird feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, F Reed; Mercier, Theresa; Wolf, Larry L

    1983-05-01

    The influence of simulated inflorescence design on feeding behavior of 3 male Eugenes fulgens (Rivoli's hummingbird) and one female Lampornis clemenciae (Bluethroated hummingbird) was studied in the laboratory using artificial flowers. Five two-dimensional and three three-dimensional arrangements provided constant rewards per artificial flower. Visits to two-dimensional arrangements had more flower visits per feeding bout, proportionally more flower revisits, and shorter time between flowers than visits to three-dimensional arrangements. This suggests inflorescence design may influence pollen movement by hummingbirds.

  5. 78 FR 78326 - Revision of the Land Management Plans for the Inyo, Sierra and Sequoia National Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... notice should be addressed to Land Management Plan Revision, U.S. Forest Service, Ecosystem Planning... planning process, which is revising the land management plans. The first task of plan revision is to... second stage of the planning process, the development of the land management plan revisions. Once the...

  6. Suspended solid concentration reduces feeding in freshwater mussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle-Raycraft, Shaylah; Morris, Todd J; Ackerman, Josef D

    2017-11-15

    We examined the effect of TSS concentration on the clearance rates (CR) of newly transformed juvenile and adult Lampsilis fasciola, L. siliquoidea, Ligumia nasuta, and Villosa iris, as increased total suspended solids (TSS) are thought to interfere with feeding processes. Mussel CR were measured in aerated (or swirled for juveniles) chambers at TSS concentrations up to 15mgL(-1) for laboratory-transformed juveniles, and up to 100mgL(-1) for adult mussels. The CR of one-week old animals increased with TSS concentration, likely due to ontological differences in feeding (pedal vs. suspension feeding) and gill development, but CR decreased monotonically with TSS concentration in older animals (two-, three- and four-week old juveniles). The CR of adult mussels were significantly lower at TSS concentrations ≥8mgL(-1), which represented a threshold in CR. Although this threshold occurred at similar concentrations across the four species, the decline in CR was largest in L. fasciola (46% compared to no-TSS control), and smallest in V. iris (21%). Differences among species are likely related to differences in the TSS and substrate found in their source rivers given that greater decline occurred for species in rivers with relatively lower TSS. The decrease in CR as TSS increased is consistent across marine and freshwater bivalves, at both juvenile and adult stages. The decrease in feeding was five times greater in juvenile compared to adult bivalves, which indicates how the vulnerability to environmental stressors differ across life stages. These results demonstrate that TSS reduces suspension feeding rates in freshwater unionids, therefore TSS should be managed to ensure their survival. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: a planning parameters study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q Jackie

    2013-11-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (~2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning). Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency. All online reoptimized plans were finished within ~2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the original plan fluence map as the

  8. Strategies for automatic online treatment plan reoptimization using clinical treatment planning system: A planning parameters study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Taoran; Wu, Qiuwen; Zhang, You; Vergalasova, Irina; Lee, W. Robert; Yin, Fang-Fang; Wu, Q. Jackie [Duke Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: Adaptive radiation therapy for prostate cancer using online reoptimization provides an improved control of interfractional anatomy variations. However, the clinical implementation of online reoptimization is currently limited by the low efficiency of current strategies and the difficulties associated with integration into the current treatment planning system. This study investigates the strategies for performing fast (∼2 min) automatic online reoptimization with a clinical fluence-map-based treatment planning system; and explores the performance with different input parameters settings: dose-volume histogram (DVH) objective settings, starting stage, and iteration number (in the context of real time planning).Methods: Simulated treatments of 10 patients were reoptimized daily for the first week of treatment (5 fractions) using 12 different combinations of optimization strategies. Options for objective settings included guideline-based RTOG objectives, patient-specific objectives based on anatomy on the planning CT, and daily-CBCT anatomy-based objectives adapted from planning CT objectives. Options for starting stages involved starting reoptimization with and without the original plan's fluence map. Options for iteration numbers were 50 and 100. The adapted plans were then analyzed by statistical modeling, and compared both in terms of dosimetry and delivery efficiency.Results: All online reoptimized plans were finished within ∼2 min with excellent coverage and conformity to the daily target. The three input parameters, i.e., DVH objectives, starting stage, and iteration number, contributed to the outcome of optimization nearly independently. Patient-specific objectives generally provided better OAR sparing compared to guideline-based objectives. The benefit in high-dose sparing from incorporating daily anatomy into objective settings was positively correlated with the relative change in OAR volumes from planning CT to daily CBCT. The use of the

  9. STAGES : a system for generating strategic alternatives for forest management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Strategic planning is important in forest management. However, it has never been described clearly in literature. In this study a framework for strategic planning was developed and based on this a STrategic Alternatives Generating System (STAGES) to support decision making in strategic

  10. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF INTERVENTIONAL FEEDING PRACTICES ON GROWTH OF CLEFT LIP AND PALATE BABIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One year hospital based non - randomised trial to evaluate the effect of interventional feeding practices on the growth of cleft lip and palate patients was conducted at K.L.E.S’s Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka state, India. This trial was planned to study the various feeding modalities, the feeding problems, the incidence of morbidities, and the effect of different types of clefts on the growth parameters in control group. At the same time, evaluation of the effect of interve ntional feeding practices in terms of difference in the incidence of morbidities and the growth parameters between the interventional and control groups was studied. 22 and 33 cleft patients, who satisfied the criteria for the interventional and the contro l groups respectively, were enrolled for the trial. The feeding problems were quite prevalent in both the groups, with nasal regurgitation being the commonest, followed by vomiting and chocking. Isolated cleft lip did not interfere with breast feeding as a ll the cases in both the groups practiced direct breast feeding. Cleft palate/lip interfered with the technique of direct breast feeding resulting in the practice of top feeds, commonly with cup and spoon modality even when the mother were eager to breast feed, indicating the less technical difficulties in the cup and spoon feeding modality. Isolated cleft lip did not have statistically significant over the growth parameters in contrast to the combined cleft palate and lip. There were no statistically signi ficant differences in the growth parameters between males and females among different types of clefts in both interventional and control groups. The interventional feeding practices in combined cleft palate and lip cases resulted in statistically significa nt decrease in various morbidities and also better growth parameters. The use of obturators was not associated with improved growth parameters secondary to small sample size and inherent disadvantages of its

  11. Steel Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    China releases a new plan for the iron and steel industry centered on industrial upgrades The new 12th Five-Year Plan (2011-15) for China’s iron and steel industry, recently released on the website of the Ministry of Industry and Information

  12. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  13. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  14. Systemic Planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    This book presents principles and methodology for planning in a complex world. It sets out a so-called systemic approach to planning, among other things, by applying “hard” and “soft” methodologies and methods in combination. The book is written for Ph.D and graduate students in engineering......, business and other fields, and it is useful for all professionals, across a wide range of employment areas, who share an interest in renewing planning practice. Such an endeavour is seen as both important and timely, recognising that many complex planning tasks necessitate organisations – be they public...... or private – to engage in planning to prepare proactive decision-making....

  15. A Staged Muon Accelerator Facility For Neutrino and Collider Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Delahaye, Jean-Pierre; Brice, Stephen; Bross, Alan David; Denisov, Dmitri; Eichten, Estia; Holmes, Stephen; Lipton, Ronald; Neuffer, David; Palmer, Mark Alan; Bogacz, S Alex; Huber, Patrick; Kaplan, Daniel M; Snopok, Pavel; Kirk, Harold G; Palmer, Robert B; Ryne, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Muon-based facilities offer unique potential to provide capabilities at both the Intensity Frontier with Neutrino Factories and the Energy Frontier with Muon Colliders. They rely on a novel technology with challenging parameters, for which the feasibility is currently being evaluated by the Muon Accelerator Program (MAP). A realistic scenario for a complementary series of staged facilities with increasing complexity and significant physics potential at each stage has been developed. It takes advantage of and leverages the capabilities already planned for Fermilab, especially the strategy for long-term improvement of the accelerator complex being initiated with the Proton Improvement Plan (PIP-II) and the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF). Each stage is designed to provide an R&D platform to validate the technologies required for subsequent stages. The rationale and sequence of the staging process and the critical issues to be addressed at each stage, are presented.

  16. Work through the valley: plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Meade, Barbara; Koegel, Paul; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Young-Brinn, Angela; Terry, Chrystene; Norris, Keith

    2009-01-01

    This first of three chapters on the Valley stage, or main work of a Community-Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) initiative, concerns the planning phase of the work cycle. The main goal of this phase is to develop an action plan, which clarifies the goals, methods, responsible individuals, and timeline for doing the work. Further, this chapter reviews approaches, such as creativity and use of humor, that help level the playing field and assure community co-leadership with academic partners in developing effective action plans.

  17. Home enteral feeding: analysis and improvement of organizational models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paccagnella, Agostino; Marcon, Maria Lisa; Rebuffi, Stefania; Garna, Antonella; Mauri, Alessandra; Maccari, Daniela; Paiusco, Patrizia; Spinella, Nello

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the organizational models of home enteral feeding used in 5 local health authorities (LHAs) in the Veneto region (Italy). By comparing these models with the main guidelines, the authors have attempted to determine the "minimum standards" to be adopted at an organizational level. This 3-stage study analyzes procedures, precoded actions, and recordable processes. Stage 1: objectives were defined, work methods selected, and reference guidelines chosen. Stage 2: flowcharts were drafted to show the actions and work paths taken for the 5 LHAs. Stage 3: flowcharts were compared with data from the literature. The study shows that very different organizational models exist. For instance, by comparing organizational processes with the procedures prescribed by the guidelines, it can be seen that the mean percentages of actions taken by the 5 LHAs, for patients in both rest homes and nursing homes, rarely exceeds the threshold of 50% (on a scale from 0% to 100%). This study shows that home enteral feeding is neither optimized nor uniform in the 5 LHAs and that standardized methods are not used for clinical monitoring.

  18. Theoretical evaluation on nitrogen removal of step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Gui-bing; PENG Yong-zhen

    2006-01-01

    Evaluation on nitrogen removal of step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process at the standpoint of reaction kinetics and process kinetics was conducted. Theoretical biological nitrogen removal efficiency was deduced based on the mass balance of nitrate in the last stage. The comparison of pre-denitrification process and step feed process in the aspects of nitrogen removal efficiency, volume of reactor and building investment was studied, and the results indicated that step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process was superior to pre-denitrification process in these aspects.

  19. Marketing planning by learning: "Plearning" approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Milovan M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This work emphasizes that the final outcome of planning is not only the benefit of having the ready plan but showing that the very process of planning through which a business goes through, is important. Here we consider the process of learning in order to get a complete picture of current and future business processes. Three stages of learning are included. The first stage describes the current position of the business; the second stage describes the position of the business in the future and the last stage shows how the business will achieve these objectives. The focus of planning should be deciding on internal communication which form the basis for gaining the competitive advantage. One of the ways for carrying out this analysis is creating the matrix based on gaining competitive advantage through using resources.

  20. Local feed resources for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  1. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  2. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  3. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  4. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  5. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  6. [Current views on breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, R

    1983-07-01

    One of the greatest advantages of feeding exclusively breast-milk is the continuous provision of immunoglobulin A, especially during the first days of life, and of leucocytes with macrophage function as well as unspecific, antiinfectious agents like lactoferrin, lysozyme and neuraminic acid. It seems, that the organism is protected against allergic reactions at the mucosa level of the small intestine caused by the penetration of "foreign" protein by feeding exclusively breast-milk especially during the first weeks and months of life. During the first months of the infant's life an increased supply of iron results from the higher content of iron in breast-milk as compared to cow's milk, and the better absorption of the iron from breast-milk. Just because of this (the better provision with iron from natural food) solid foods should not be added to the infant's diet before 6 months of age. One of the disadvantages of breast-feeding is the passage of unwanted substances from breast-milk to the infant. First of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons have to be mentioned within this context. However, a decreasing tendency can be assumed according to recent investigations. An increasing tendency in breast-milk, though not confirmed, seems possible only for the polychlorinated biphenyls. Nevertheless, for the pediatrician no reason to advise against breast-feeding results from the unwanted admixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons in breast-milk. One should rather vigorously propagate to feed as many children as possible exclusively with breast-milk over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  7. Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäntysaari Esa A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32. This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10, indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection.

  8. GRIPS Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-31

    The GRIPS (Geothermal Resources Impact Projection Study) Commission was established by a Joint Powers Agreement between the California Counties of Lake, Mendocino, Napa, and Sonoma. The objectives of GRIPS are primarily to develop and use a cooperative environmental data collection and use system including natural, social, and economic considerations to facilitate their independent decisions and those of State and Federal agencies related to the environmental effects of geothermal development. This GRIPS Plan was prepared from a wide range of studies, workshops, and staff analyses. The plan is presented in four parts: summary and introduction; environmental data status report; planned programs; and budget. (MHR)

  9. Marketing plan

    OpenAIRE

    Jantunen, Essi; Hellman, Annika

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this bachelor’s thesis was to draw up an efficient marketing plan for Pohjolan Vihreä Polku Oy, which offers meeting and nature activity services. The company was in a process of conversion and needed a structured marketing plan. The objectives of the company were perceived through severe research. The main purposes of the marketing plan were to raise the visibility of the company and increase its clientele. The proposed marketing actions are also to be used to improve the company’...

  10. Two-stage continuous fermentation of Saccharomycopsis fibuligeria and Candida utilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admassu, W; Korus, R A; Heimsch, R C

    1983-11-01

    Biomass production and carbohydrate reduction were determined for a two-stage continuous fermentation process with a simulated potato processing waste feed. The amylolytic yeast Saccharomycopsis fibuligera was grown in the first stage and a mixed culture of S. fibuligera and Candida utilis was maintained in the second stage. All conditions for the first and second stages were fixed except the flow of medium to the second stage was varied. Maximum biomass production occurred at a second stage dilution rate, D(2), of 0.27 h (-1). Carbohydrate reduction was inversely proportional to D(2), between 0.10 and 0.35 h (-1).

  11. Enteral Feeding in Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. V Grigoryev

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to substantiate the choice of a gastrointestinal tract (GIT function support regimen as a mode for correction of the abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS. Subjects and methods. Forty-three patients with different causes of inadequate GIT function of various origin and ACS (disseminated peritonitis (45%, pancreatitis (24%, and severe concomitant injury (31% were examined. Group 1 (control received complete parenteral nutritional feeding (n=23; APACHE II scores, 21±4; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 33.5%. In Group II (study, complete parenteral feeding in the first 24 hours after stabilization was supplemented with GIT function support with Pepsisorb (Nutricia in doses of 500, 1000, and 1500 ml on days 1, 2, and 3, respectively (n=20; APACHE II scores, 20±6; calculated probability of fatal outcome, 37.1%. During early enteral nutritional support, the SOFA score was significantly less than that in Group 1 on days 2—3; the oxygenation index significantly increased on day 3; the value of intra-abdominal hypertension decreased to the control values. The positive effect of the GIT function support regimen on regression of the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS was confirmed by the lowered levels of biological markers (von Willebrand factor (WF and endothelin-1 as markers of endothelial damage of MODS. Correlation analysis showed a direct correlation between the markers of endothelial damage and the SOFA scores (r=0.34; p=0.05 for WF and r=0.49;p=0.03 for endothelin. Conclusion. The GIT function support regimen via early enteral alimentation with Peptisorb, which was initiated in the first 24 hours after admission, is able to level off the manifestations of the early stages of the abdominal compartment syndrome, with the acceptable values of oxygen balance and water-electrolyte and osmotic homeostasis being achieved. Key words: abdominal compartment syndrome, nutritional support, biological markers, oxygenation index

  12. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    The primary treatment of the tank waste at the DOE Hanford site will be done in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) that is currently under construction. The baseline plan for the WTP Pretreatment facility is to treat the waste, splitting it into High Level Waste (HLW) feed and Low Activity Waste (LAW) feed. Both waste streams are then separately vitrified as glass and sealed in canisters. The LAW glass will be disposed onsite in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). There are currently no plans to treat the waste to remove technetium in the WTP Pretreatment facility, so its disposition path is the LAW glass. Options are being explored to immobilize the LAW portion of the tank waste, i.e., the LAW feed from the WTP Pretreatment facility. Removal of {sup 99}Tc from the LAW Feed, followed by off-site disposal of the {sup 99}Tc, would eliminate a key risk contributor for the IDF Performance Assessment (PA) for supplemental waste forms, and has potential to reduce treatment and disposal costs. Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is developing some conceptual flow sheets for LAW treatment and disposal that could benefit from technetium removal. One of these flowsheets will specifically examine removing {sup 99}Tc from the LAW feed stream to supplemental immobilization. The conceptual flow sheet of the {sup 99}Tc removal process includes a filter to remove insoluble solids prior to processing the stream in an ion exchange column, but the characteristics and behavior of the liquid and solid phases has not previously been investigated. This report contains results of testing of a simulant that represents the projected composition of the feed to the Supplemental LAW process. This feed composition is not identical to the aqueous tank waste fed to the Waste Treatment Plant because it has been processed through WTP Pretreatment facility and therefore contains internal changes and recycle streams that will be generated within the WTP process. Although

  13. Staging for vaginal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaram, Shalini; Maheshwari, Amita; Srivastava, Astha

    2015-08-01

    Vaginal cancer is a rare cancer comprising about 3% of all gynecologic cancers. Primary vaginal cancer should be carefully assigned as spread from cervix, vulva, and other metastatic tumors to vagina can occur. Although vaginal cancer traditionally occurs in older postmenopausal women, the incidence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers is increasing in younger women. Squamous cell carcinoma is still the most common histopathologic type followed by adenocarcinoma. With decreasing use of diethylstilbestrol in pregnancy, non-diethylstilbestrol-associated cancers are described. The Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique (FIGO) staging of vaginal cancer (2009) follows the same rules as cervical cancer; it is clinically staged and allows the use of routine investigative modalities for staging. Although FIGO encourages the use of advanced imaging modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and positron emission tomography (PET), to guide therapy, the imaging findings may not be used to change or reassign the stage. TNM staging is the pathologic staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, and information available from examination of the resected specimen, including pelvic and inguinal lymph nodes, may be used for staging. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  15. Strategic School Planning in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Mohammad Saleem; Hasan, Manal Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to measuring the applying degree of the strategic school planning stages at the Governmental high schools from the educational supervisors and principals perspective in the directorates related to Amman city, the study society was formed of the educational supervisors and principals working at Educational directorates related to…

  16. Strategic School Planning in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Zboon, Mohammad Saleem; Hasan, Manal Subhi

    2012-01-01

    The study aimed to measuring the applying degree of the strategic school planning stages at the Governmental high schools from the educational supervisors and principals perspective in the directorates related to Amman city, the study society was formed of the educational supervisors and principals working at Educational directorates related to…

  17. Treatment planning in conservative dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, Andamuthu; Thangaswamy, Vinod; Ravi, Vaiyapuri

    2012-08-01

    A patient attending for treatment of a restorative nature may present for a variety of reasons. The success is built upon careful history taking coupled with a logical progression to diagnosis of the problem that has been presented. Each stage follows on from the preceding one. A fitting treatment plan should be formulated and should involve a holistic approach to what is required.

  18. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  19. Nectar feeding by the early-spring mosquito Aedes provocans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S M; Gadawski, R M

    1994-07-01

    Nectar feeding by males and females of the mosquito Aedes provocans was studied at a site near Belleville, Ontario, Canada. Canada plum, Prunus nigra, and especially pin cherry, P. pensylvanica, bloomed contemporaneously with the emergence of Ae. provocans and were important nectar sources for adult mosquitoes during their first week of life. Blossoms of P. pensylvanica shielded for 24 h from foragers produced an average of 0.14 mg of sugar (approximately 2.3J). This nectar was avidly sought by both sexes of Ae. provocans; > 97% of the blossoms were visited by mosquitoes in the first few days of blooming. Young adult mosquitoes were found on blossoms at all hours of the day and night; feeding on P. nigra was strongly eocrepuscular, whereas on P. pensylvanica feeding was much less strongly periodic. Adults foraged for nectar in an energy-conserving, pedestrian strategy, devoting 56% (females) and 68% (males) of their time on blossoms to nectar feeding during foraging bouts that lasted a median of 5.3 min. Both sexes sought nectar soon after emergence--males before they had completed hypopygial rotation or swarmed, and females before mating or host seeking. Female Ae. provocans sought nectar in all stages of oogenesis, but primarily at the initiation of a gonotrophic cycle. Energy stores in the crop averaged 18J per female, with a distribution that depended on gonotrophic age and parity.

  20. Optimizing Nutrition in Pediatric Heart Failure: The Crisis Is Over and Now It's Time to Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kylie D; Conway, Jennifer; Cunningham, Chentel; Larsen, Bodil M K

    2017-06-01

    Pediatric heart failure is a complex disease occurring when cardiac output is unable to meet the metabolic demands of the body. With improved surgical interventions and medical therapies, survival rates have improved, and care has shifted from focusing on survival to optimizing quality of life and health outcomes. Based on current literature, this review addresses the nutrition needs of infants and children in heart failure and describes the pathophysiology and metabolic implications of this disease. The prevalence of wasting in pediatric heart failure has been reported to be as high as 86%, highlighting the importance of nutrition assessment through all stages of treatment to provide appropriate intake of energy, protein, and micronutrients. The etiology of malnutrition in pediatric heart failure is multifactorial and involves hypermetabolism, decreased intake, increased nutrient losses, inefficient utilization of nutrients, and malabsorption. Children in heart failure often present with tachypnea, tachycardia, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting and consequently may not be able to meet their nutrition requirements through oral intake alone. Nutrition support, including enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition, should be considered an essential part of routine care. The involvement of multiple allied health professionals may be needed to create a feeding therapy plan to support patients and their families. With appropriate nutrition interventions, clinical outcomes and quality of life can be significantly improved.

  1. Environmental persistence of porcine coronaviruses in feed and feed ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E.; Shurson, Gerald C.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV), and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample) into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days) for PEDV (P < 0.06) as compared with all other ingredients. High delta values (P < 0.001) were observed in soybean meal for PDCoV (42.04 days) and TGEV (42.00 days). There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01) and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02). There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients. PMID:28542235

  2. Sign Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Union Slough National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  3. Hunting Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan provides guidelines for administration of hunting activity and for development, maintenance, and enforcement of regulations and guidelines on Tamarac...

  4. Do hospitals practice strategic planning? An empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zallocco, R; Joseph, B; Furey, N

    1984-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the extent of strategic planning management and specific planning techniques used in hospitals today. Results indicate that approximately one-half of all hospitals use some sort of formalized strategic planning, although many of these are in the early stages of development. Data is also provided on other strategic planning issues such as budget allocations to planning, planning process participants, and aspects of planning needing improvement. A general discussion of the value of strategic planning to hospital management is offered.

  5. Predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women: a comparison of two theoretical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloeblen, A S; Thompson, N J; Miner, K R

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the applicability of the transtheoretical model and a model derived from the theory of reasoned action for predicting breast-feeding intention among low-income pregnant women. Participants completed a 70-item self-report questionnaire assessing their breast-feeding attitudes, intentions, and support. A positive correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of Processes of Change used by respondents. A negative correlation existed between Stages of Change for breast-feeding and the number of negative breast-feeding beliefs held by respondents. Furthermore, women's normative beliefs and outcome beliefs were significantly correlated with breast-feeding intention in manners consistent with the model developed from the theory of reasoned action. After accounting for significant sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, the Processes of Change and outcome beliefs remained independently correlated with breast-feeding intention. These models are capable of predicting the intention to breast-feed and might offer an innovative approach for further breast-feeding research and intervention development.

  6. Business Plan

    OpenAIRE

    Radošinská, Jana

    2014-01-01

    Diploma thesis deals with the processing of a business plan to establish a tour operator, which will offer tours to Puerto Rico. Thesis is divided into theoretical and practical part. The theoretical part explains what is business and related terms. Defines the tourism business and the procedure for the establishment of tour operators. There are also theoretically explained individual chapters of a business plan. The practical part is dedicated to the establishment of tour operator, where is ...

  7. Bryan Mound SPR cavern 113 remedial leach stage 1 analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudeen, David Keith; Weber, Paula D.; Lord, David L.

    2013-08-01

    The U.S. Strategic Petroleum Reserve implemented the first stage of a leach plan in 2011-2012 to expand storage volume in the existing Bryan Mound 113 cavern from a starting volume of 7.4 million barrels (MMB) to its design volume of 11.2 MMB. The first stage was terminated several months earlier than expected in August, 2012, as the upper section of the leach zone expanded outward more quickly than design. The oil-brine interface was then re-positioned with the intent to resume leaching in the second stage configuration. This report evaluates the as-built configuration of the cavern at the end of the first stage, and recommends changes to the second stage plan in order to accommodate for the variance between the first stage plan and the as-built cavern. SANSMIC leach code simulations are presented and compared with sonar surveys in order to aid in the analysis and offer projections of likely outcomes from the revised plan for the second stage leach.

  8. Characterization of zebrafish larvae suction feeding flow using μPIV and optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkan, Kerem; Chang, Brian; Uslu, Fazil; Mani, Karthick; Chen, Chia-Yuan; Holzman, Roi

    2016-07-01

    The hydrodynamics of suction feeding is critical for the survival of fish larvae; failure to capture food during the onset of autonomous feeding can rapidly lead to starvation and mortality. Fluid mechanics experiments that investigate the suction feeding of suspended particles are limited to adult fishes, which operate at large Reynolds numbers. This manuscript presents the first literature results in which the external velocity fields generated during suction feeding of early zebrafish larvae (2500-20,000 μm total length) are reported using time-resolved microscopic particle image velocimetry. For the larval stages studied, the maximum peak suction velocity of the inflow bolus is measured at a finite distance from the mouth tip and ranges from 1 to 8 mm/s. The average pressure gradient and the velocity profile proximal to the buccal (mouth) cavity are calculated, and two distinct trends are identified. External recirculation regions and reverse flow feeding cycles are also observed and quantified. One of the unresolved questions in fish suction feeding is the shape and dynamics of the buccal cavity during suction feeding; optical coherence tomography imaging is found to be useful for reconstructing the mouth kinematics. The projected area of the mouth cavity during the feeding cycle varies up to 160 and 22 % for the transverse and mid-sagittal planes, respectively. These findings can inspire novel hydrodynamically efficient biomedical and microfluidic devices.

  9. Advanced Illness: Feeding Tubes and Ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the feedings may be difficult. There is some debate, for example, about whether feeding tubes actually extend ... pneumonia cannot, but people can now get a vaccination to prevent many kinds of viral pneumonia. Aspiration ...

  10. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids ... When can I start giving my baby cow's milk? Before their first birthday, babies still need the ...

  11. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  12. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  13. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  14. [Contraception and breast feeding. Spacing of pregnancies. Present concepts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrón-García-Figueroa, Rafael; Malanco-Hernández, Luz María; Lara-Ricalde, Roger; García-Hernández, Alejandra

    2014-06-01

    The risk of pregnancy in breastfeeding should be a concern of women. Family planning programs in the postnatal period contraceptive choices offer high efficiency. Breastfeeding is a natural contraception method (LAM) as a contraceptive shield has 98 % efficiency. Women should consider using an alternate contraceptive method when feeding requirements for this method to be effective are not met. Some of contraceptive alternatives in lactation include hormonal methods. According to the Medical Eligibility Criteria for Contraceptive Use WHO combined hormonal methods are contraindicated during breast feeding, hormonal progestogen only method are considered only in Group 3 and Group 1 immediate postpartum after 6 weeks postpartum. There are modifications to these criteria by the CDC and the UK for the use of these hormones in early in lactation.

  15. Staged bilateral carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Engell, Hans Christian

    1986-01-01

    In a series of 56 staged bilateral carotid endarterectomies, new neurologic symptoms developed in 5% and 20% following the first and second procedure, respectively. All complications were transient or minor. The incidence of postendarterectomy hypertension was significantly higher following...

  16. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  17. Multiple Stages 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, John

    Multiple stages 2: theatrical futures, set design, community plays, cultural capitals, democracy & drama, WWII dramas, performance on adoption, promenade about emigration, qualities in political theatre, performance analysis, dramaturgical education, Toulmin Variations...

  18. Staging of Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2010. Online Version Reviewed September 2013 ATS Patient Education Series © 2010 American Thoracic Society LIVER BONE www.thoracic.org ATS PATIENT INFORMATION SERIES How will my lung cancer be staged? ...

  19. Individualized Career Plan (ICP): Implementation Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batsche, Catherine; And Others

    This implementation manual was designed to assist local education agency personnel implement the individualized career plan (ICP) concept in high schools. Questions commonly asked about the ICP are answered. Guidelines are then provided for implementing the four stages of the process: planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating/refining.…

  20. Bottom Up Succession Planning Works Better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Paul

    Most succession planning practices are based on the premise that ambitious people have and want only one career direction--upwardly mobile. However, employees have 10 career direction options at any stage of their working lives. A minority want the career action requiring promotion. Employers with a comprehensive career planning support program…

  1. Single-stage fluidized-bed gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, F. S.; Rue, D. M.; Weil, S. A.; Punwani, D. V.

    1982-04-01

    The single-stage fluidized-bed gasification process, in addition to being a simple system, maximizes gas production and allows the economic exploitation of small peat deposits. The objective of this gasification project is to conduct experiments in order to obtain data for designing a single-stage fluidized-bed gasifier, and to evaluate the economics of converting peat to synthesis gas and to SNG by this process. An existing high-temperature and high-pressure process development unit (PDU) was modified to permit the direct feeding of peat to the fluidized bed. Peat flows by gravity from the feed hopper through a 6-inch line to the screw-feeder conveyor. From there, it is fed to the bottom tee section of the reactor and transported into the gasification zone. Oxygen and steam are fed through a distributing ring into the reactor. Gasification reactions occur in the annulus formed by the reactor tube and a central standpipe. Peat ash is discharged from the reactor by overflowing into the standpipe and is collected in a solids receiver.

  2. Effectiveness of carbohydrate feeding in delaying fatigue during prolonged exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F; Coggan, A R

    1984-01-01

    Prolonged exercise in the fasted state frequently results in a lowering of blood glucose concentration, and when the intensity is moderate (i.e. 60-80% of VO2 max), muscle often becomes depleted of glycogen. The extent to which carbohydrate feedings contribute to energy production, and their effectiveness for improving endurance during prolonged exercise, are reviewed in this article. Prolonged exercise (i.e. greater than 2 hours) results in a failure of hepatic glucose output to keep pace with muscle glucose uptake. As a result, blood glucose concentration frequently declines below 2.5 mmol/L. Despite this hypoglycaemia, fewer than 25% of subjects display symptoms suggestive of central nervous system dysfunction. Since fatigue rarely results from hypoglycaemia alone, the effectiveness of carbohydrate feeding should be judged by its potential for muscle glycogen sparing. Carbohydrate feeding during moderate intensity exercise postpones the development of fatigue by approximately 15 to 30 minutes, yet it does not prevent fatigue. This observation agrees with data suggesting that carbohydrate supplementation reduces muscle glycogen depletion. It is not certain whether carbohydrate feeding increases muscle glucose uptake throughout moderate exercise or if glucose uptake is higher only during the latter stages of exercise. In contrast to moderate intensity exercise, carbohydrate feeding during low intensity exercise (i.e. less than 45% of VO2 max) results in hyperinsulinaemia. Consequently, muscle glucose uptake and total carbohydrate oxidation are increased by approximately the same amount. The amount of ingested glucose which is oxidised is greater than the increase in total carbohydrate oxidation and therefore endogenous carbohydrate is spared. The majority of sparing appears to occur in the liver, which is reasonable since muscle glycogen is not utilised to a large extent during mild exercise. Although carbohydrate feedings prevent hypoglycaemia and are readily

  3. Improving supplementary feeding in species conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewen, John G; Walker, Leila; Canessa, Stefano; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-01-01

    Supplementary feeding is often a knee-jerk reaction to population declines, and its application is not critically evaluated, leading to polarized views among managers on its usefulness. Here, we advocate a more strategic approach to supplementary feeding so that the choice to use it is clearly justified over, or in combination with, other management actions and the predicted consequences are then critically assessed following implementation. We propose combining methods from a set of specialist disciplines that will allow critical evaluation of the need, benefit, and risks of food supplementation. Through the use of nutritional ecology, population ecology, and structured decision making, conservation managers can make better choices about what and how to feed by estimating consequences on population recovery across a range of possible actions. This structured approach also informs targeted monitoring and more clearly allows supplementary feeding to be integrated in recovery plans and reduces the risk of inefficient decisions. In New Zealand, managers of the endangered Hihi (Notiomystis cincta) often rely on supplementary feeding to support reintroduced populations. On Kapiti island the reintroduced Hihi population has responded well to food supplementation, but the logistics of providing an increasing demand recently outstretched management capacity. To decide whether and how the feeding regime should be revised, managers used a structured decision making approach informed by population responses to alternative feeding regimes. The decision was made to reduce the spatial distribution of feeders and invest saved time in increasing volume of food delivered into a smaller core area. The approach used allowed a transparent and defendable management decision in regard to supplementary feeding, reflecting the multiple objectives of managers and their priorities. Mejoría de la Alimentación Suplementaria en la Conservación de Especies Resumen La alimentaci

  4. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  5. Normalization: A Preprocessing Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Patro, S. Gopal Krishna; Sahu, Kishore Kumar

    2015-01-01

    As we know that the normalization is a pre-processing stage of any type problem statement. Especially normalization takes important role in the field of soft computing, cloud computing etc. for manipulation of data like scale down or scale up the range of data before it becomes used for further stage. There are so many normalization techniques are there namely Min-Max normalization, Z-score normalization and Decimal scaling normalization. So by referring these normalization techniques we are ...

  6. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  7. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  8. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-10-11

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O&M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis.

  9. Scenario planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzmann, Dieter R; Beauchamp, Norman J; Norbash, Alexander

    2011-03-01

    In facing future developments in health care, scenario planning offers a complementary approach to traditional strategic planning. Whereas traditional strategic planning typically consists of predicting the future at a single point on a chosen time horizon and mapping the preferred plans to address such a future, scenario planning creates stories about multiple likely potential futures on a given time horizon and maps the preferred plans to address the multiple described potential futures. Each scenario is purposefully different and specifically not a consensus worst-case, average, or best-case forecast; nor is scenario planning a process in probabilistic prediction. Scenario planning focuses on high-impact, uncertain driving forces that in the authors' example affect the field of radiology. Uncertainty is the key concept as these forces are mapped onto axes of uncertainty, the poles of which have opposed effects on radiology. One chosen axis was "market focus," with poles of centralized health care (government control) vs a decentralized private market. Another axis was "radiology's business model," with one pole being a unified, single specialty vs a splintered, disaggregated subspecialty. The third axis was "technology and science," with one pole representing technology enabling to radiology vs technology threatening to radiology. Selected poles of these axes were then combined to create 3 scenarios. One scenario, termed "entrepreneurialism," consisted of a decentralized private market, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. A second scenario, termed "socialized medicine," had a centralized market focus, a unified specialty business model, and enabling technology and science. A third scenario, termed "freefall," had a centralized market focus, a disaggregated business model, and threatening technology and science. These scenarios provide a range of futures that ultimately allow the identification of defined "signposts" that can

  10. Institutional feeding of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Not only is there a high prevalence of malnutrition among the elderly admitted to hospital and other institutions, but nutritional status seems to decline during admission, not only as a result of disease but also problems with catering and feeding policies, which are not well-geared to the needs of the sick. This results in high food wastage rates and inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes to meet requirements. In the elderly, decreased portion size and increased energy, protein and micronutrient density have been shown to be effective in decreasing wastage and improving intake. Other strategies for improving intake are reviewed, including a better environment, a reduction in drugs causing anorexia, help with eating, and less interruption of meals by procedures and ward rounds. Targets for nutritional intake and aims of feeding are reviewed.

  11. [Updating enteral feeding by catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, T; Planas, M

    2005-12-01

    Intestinal nutrition can be administered orally or by means of a catheter; the latter method is the focus of this article. The authors' objective is to provide up-to-date information in a succinct manner about the enteral feeding technique. The authors hope health professionals know the advantages as well as the inconveniences of the latest intestinal nutrition advances regarding access ways and the means to administer these. Intestinal nutrition formulas will not be dealt with in this article. However, a health professional should know that there is a wide variety of diets available depending on the complexity of macronutrients included in a diet, the quantity of proteins in a mixture, and that these are designed, in addition to feeding, to treat the specific pathological process a patient suffers from, such as diabetes of cancer.

  12. Career Planning Education Problems of the Higher Vocational Students in Substituted Post Exercitation Stage and Its Countermeasures%高职学生顶岗实习阶段职业生涯规划教育的问题与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凤麟

    2015-01-01

    顶岗实习期是学生快速提升就业能力、及时修正自身生涯发展路径的“黄金时期”,也是全程化职业生涯教育最重要的一个阶段。但在此阶段生涯教育的实施过程中,存在着学校管理难、企业培训少、学生自身不重视等多方困难。因此,有必要从校、企共同构建生涯教育全程化管理模式,共同组成多方参与的生涯辅导团队,分类型引导不同需求、不同专业的学生提升职业规划能力三个方面展开行动,以帮助学生完成对自我生涯的探索与最初职业方向的选择。%Substituted post exercitation is the "golden age" of students to rapidly promote employability and timely modify the career development path, it also is an important stage of the thoroughly career education. But in the implementation process stage of the career education, there are many difficulties, such as the difficult school management, less corporate training, students’ indifference and so on. Therefore, it is necessary to build thoroughly management pattern of career education from school and enterprises, set up the common multi-stakeholder career counseling team, guide the different requirements, students improve career planning ability to help students complete the exploration of self career and the selection of initial career direction.

  13. Multiple stage railgun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Scudder, Jonathan K.; Aaland, Kristian

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  14. European spatial planning: past, present, future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faludi, A.K.F.

    2009-01-01

    Three stages have been identified in the development of the EU: the launch era; the doldrums era and the renaissance/boom era. Presently though, the EU is in a crisis. These stages serve as a framework for discussing the past, present and future for European spatial planning. Thus, during the launch

  15. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  16. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  17. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  18. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cereda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  19. Analysis of feeding preference experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C H; Renaud, P E

    1989-03-01

    Published studies of consumer feeding preferences using foods that experience autogenic change in mass, numbers, area, etc., on the time scale of a feeding trial fail to employ appropriate statistical analyses to incorporate controls for those food changes occurring in the absence of the consumer. The studies that run controls typically use them to calculate a constant "correction factor", which is subtracted prior to formal data analysis. This procedure constitutes a non-rigorous suppression of variance that overstates the statistical significance of observed differences. The appropriate statistical analysis for preference tests with two foods is usually a simple t-test performed on the between-food differences in loss of mass (or numbers, area, etc.) comparing the results of experimentals with consumers to controls without consumers. Application of this recommended test procedure to an actual data set illustrates how low replication in controls, which is typical of most studies of feeding preference, inhibits detection of an apparently large influence of previous mechanical damage (simulated grazing) in reducing the attractiveness of a brown alga to a sea urchin.

  20. PLANNING AND POLICY DEVELOPMENT FIRM IN TRAFFIC INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Stošić Mihajlović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Planning and policy development firm may transport activity is traffic management. This activity is a dynamic process that takes place in four stages: 1 forecast and quantitative determination of the demand; 2 planning of operations ; 3 establishing measures for the implementation of plans ; and 4 control and coordination of the execution of plans. In this paper, the subject of research planning and business development poslitike transportation systems as part of a special feature of the traffic management.

  1. Co-feeding transmission facilitates strain coexistence in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. States

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. Most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. In a laboratory study, we demonstrated that co-feeding transmission can occur for a rapidly-cleared strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, between two stages of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis while feeding on their dominant host, Peromyscus leucopus. In contrast, infections rapidly became systemic for the persistently infecting strain. In a field study, we assessed opportunities for co-feeding transmission by measuring co-occurrence of two tick stages on ears of small mammals over two years at multiple sites. Finally, in a modeling study, we assessed the importance of co-feeding on R0, the basic reproductive number. The model indicated that co-feeding increases the fitness of rapidly-cleared strains in regions with synchronous immature tick feeding. Our results are consistent with increased diversity of B. burgdorferi in areas of higher synchrony in immature feeding – such as the midwestern United States. A higher relative proportion of rapidly-cleared strains, which are less human pathogenic, would also explain lower Lyme disease incidence in this region. Finally, if co-feeding transmission also occurs on refractory hosts, it may facilitate the emergence and persistence of new pathogens with a more limited host range.

  2. Co-feeding transmission facilitates strain coexistence in Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    States, S L; Huang, C I; Davis, S; Tufts, D M; Diuk-Wasser, M A

    2016-12-26

    Coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. Most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. In a laboratory study, we demonstrated that co-feeding transmission can occur for a rapidly-cleared strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, between two stages of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis while feeding on their dominant host, Peromyscus leucopus. In contrast, infections rapidly became systemic for the persistently infecting strain. In a field study, we assessed opportunities for co-feeding transmission by measuring co-occurrence of two tick stages on ears of small mammals over two years at multiple sites. Finally, in a modeling study, we assessed the importance of co-feeding on R0, the basic reproductive number. The model indicated that co-feeding increases the fitness of rapidly-cleared strains in regions with synchronous immature tick feeding. Our results are consistent with increased diversity of B. burgdorferi in areas of higher synchrony in immature feeding - such as the midwestern United States. A higher relative proportion of rapidly-cleared strains, which are less human pathogenic, would also explain lower Lyme disease incidence in this region. Finally, if co-feeding transmission also occurs on refractory hosts, it may facilitate the emergence and persistence of new pathogens with a more limited host range.

  3. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with the

  4. Neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R expression in saliva predicts feeding immaturity in the premature neonate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill L Maron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current practice in newborn medicine is to subjectively assess when a premature infant is ready to feed by mouth. When the assessment is inaccurate, the resulting feeding morbidities may be significant, resulting in long-term health consequences and millions of health care dollars annually. We hypothesized that the developmental maturation of hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior is a predictor of successful oral feeding in the premature infant. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed the gene expression of neuropeptide Y2 receptor (NPY2R, a known hypothalamic regulator of feeding behavior, in neonatal saliva to determine its role as a biomarker in predicting oral feeding success in the neonate. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Salivary samples (n = 116, were prospectively collected from 63 preterm and 13 term neonates (post-conceptual age (PCA 26 4/7 to 41 4/7 weeks from five predefined feeding stages. Expression of NPY2R in neonatal saliva was determined by multiplex RT-qPCR amplification. Expression results were retrospectively correlated with feeding status at time of sample collection. Statistical analysis revealed that expression of NPY2R had a 95% positive predictive value for feeding immaturity. NPY2R expression statistically significantly decreased with advancing PCA (Wilcoxon test p value<0.01, and was associated with feeding status (chi square p value  =  0.013. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Developmental maturation of hypothalamic regulation of feeding behavior is an essential component of oral feeding success in the newborn. NPY2R expression in neonatal saliva is predictive of an immature feeding pattern. It is a clinically relevant biomarker that may be monitored in saliva to improve clinical care and reduce significant feeding-associated morbidities that affect the premature neonate.

  5. CULTIVATION OF CLADOCERAN (CLADOCERA FOR INCREASING PROVISION OF YOUNG-OF-THE-YEAR CARP (CYPRINUS CARPIO WITH NATURAL FEEDS (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tuchapska

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Natural feeds are important in pond fish diet because they contain all nutrients necessary for fish growth and development. The share of natural feeds in fish diet has great effect on fish growth and immunity, assimilation of artificial feeds. The main way of assured procurement of natural feeds for fish feeding at different stages of their development is artificial cultivation of aquatic organisms. However, cultivation of natural feeds is not virtually performed in aquaculture enterprises of Ukraine, therefore an analysis of available data on zooplankton cultivation is important for looking for optimal and economically profitable methods of enrichment of pond fish diet with natural feeds. Methodology. Methods of cladoceran cultivation were the object of the study, material for the study – literature data on ways and methods of zooplankton cultivation. Findings. Cultivation of various species of zooplankton is performed for feeding of pond fish on different life stages. Main object of cultivation in aquaculture is Daphnia magna Straus, juvenile forms of which are consumed by fish larvae, while adult organisms are the most valuable for yearlings and older fish. The efficiency of hydrobiont cultivation highly depends on the selected object, containers, where cladocerans are cultivated, optimum conditions, peculiarities of water supply, species, and application of fertilizers and feeds. Originality. The highest production of zooplankton can be obtained when cultivating D. magna in tanks with continuous flow and in net cages installed in ponds under condition of ensuring requirements of the culture in bacterial and algae feeds (due to application of fertilizers and feeding with feeds and microalgae taking into account their presence in water, which is in the tank-cultivator. Practical value. Simplicity of the methods and high efficiency of zooplankton cultivation for preparation of pond fish juveniles is the basis of its wide use in

  6. Akutan, Alaska bottomfish harbor study feasibility stage: Planning aid report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Six alternatives are presently being studied by the Corps of Engineers, in conjunction with facilitating construction of a bottomfish harbor at Akutan Harbor located...

  7. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  8. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  9. Feeding difficulties in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Morag J; Parr, Jeremy R; Sullivan, Peter B

    2012-12-01

    Feeding difficulties are common in children with cerebral palsy and have an effect on growth, nutritional state, general health, social interaction and behaviour and developmental outcomes. Many factors have an effect on feeding ability. Identification of these factors and amelioration of their impact on feeding difficulties is essential to promote adequate growth and nutrition. Appropriate assessment and management is best achieved by a multiprofessional team skilled in the care of children with cerebral palsy and feeding impairments. Feeding difficulties must be considered within the wider context of family and social circumstance.

  10. Effect of environmental temperature and feeding level on heat production and lower critical temperature of pregnant sows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, J.M.F.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Geuyen, T.P.A.; Kemp, B.

    1986-01-01

    Effect of feeding level and ambient temperature on thermal demand of pregnant sows was studied. Two experiments with 12 and 10 sows were carried out. Per experiment two climatized respiration chambers were used; per chamber 6 or 5 pregnant sows were tethered. Stage of pregnancy ranged from 37 (exp. I) to 48 (exp. II) days at start. Initial liveweight of the animals was around 165 kg. In exp. I the temperature changed stepwise in both respiration chambers by 3K every 5 to 7 days from 21 to 12/sup 0/C and then from 12 to 21/sup 0/C. Temperature treatments in exp. II changed stepwise in both respiration chambers by 2K every 3.5 days from 25 to 11/sup 0/C and then from 11 to 25/sup 0/C. In each experiment two feeding levels were applied, each to one group. Difference in feeding level was around 20%. Low feeding was 495 and 479 kJ of ME in exp. I and II; high feeding levels were 598 and 590 kJ of ME respectively. At low ambient temperatures daily gain was clearly depressed. Lower critical temperature for animals at the low feeding levels was near 21/sup 0/C; at the higher feeding this temperature was 3K lowered. Extra thermal requirement was dependent on feeding level. Extra thermoregulatory demand can be met by 55 or 72 g of feed for animals on the high and low feeding level respectively.

  11. Research on Evaluation of M&A Financing Risk in the Preliminary Planning Stage for Listed Company%关于我国上市公司并购融资前期规划阶段的风险评价——基于AHP—GEM模糊综合分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖振红; 孙凤玲

    2012-01-01

    利用AHP、GEM和模糊综合评价方法相结合,构建了上市公司并购融资前期规划阶段风险评价指标体系和评价模型,并以某上市公司并购融资方案选择为例全面介绍了AHP—GEM模糊综合评价法在并购融资风险评价中的应用,为上市公司并购融资方案选择和融资风险控制提供理论依据。%With the combination of AHP, GEM and Fuzzy synthesis evaluation method, this paper constructed the evaluation system and evaluation model of M&A financial risk in the preliminary planning stage for listed company, and given an example that selection of a listed company M&A financing project, then introduced the apply of e- valuation system and evaluation model been constructed in the field of M&A financing risk evaluation. Finally, the paper supplied the theoretical basis for selection of M&A financing project and control of M&A financing risk.

  12. Minimum amount of extracting solvent of AB/BC countercurrent extraction separation using organic feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程福祥; 吴声; 张玻; 刘艳; 王嵩龄; 廖春生; 严纯华

    2014-01-01

    For an AB/BC countercurrent extraction separation using organic feed, the conditions to have minimum amount of ex-tracting solvent (Smin) and minimum amount of scrubbing agent solution (Wmin) were discussed, and the formulae of bothSmin and Wmin were deduced. It was shown that only when the ratio of flowrate of central component B leaving aqueous outlet to that leaving organic outlet took a certain optimal value, the AB/BC separation could have Smin as well asWmin, and this optimal ratio was decided by the separation factors between the three components but independent of feed composition.Smin was only relative to the separation factor of A/C pair but regardless of the separation factors of other pairs as well as feed composition, whereasWmin was determined by the separation factors between the components together with feed composition. Meanwhile it was also found that the organic stream out of feed stage was same composition as the initial organic feed when the separation system was given by the two minimum amounts and its steady state was achieved. Finally the results above were used to design a LuYb/YbTm separation case and the stage-wise compositions of each component in both the organic and the aqueous phase at steady state were given by computer simulation.

  13. Cue-Based Feeding in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Cynthia H

    In NICU settings, caring for neonates born as early as 23 weeks gestation presents unique challenges for caregivers. Traditionally, preterm infants who are learning to orally feed take a predetermined volume of breast milk or formula at scheduled intervals, regardless of their individual ability to coordinate each feeding. Evidence suggests that this volume-driven feeding model should be replaced with a more individualized, developmentally appropriate practice. Evidence from the literature suggests that preterm infants fed via cue-based feeding reach full oral feeding status faster than their volume-feeding counterparts and have shorter lengths of stay in the hospital. Changing practice to infant-driven or cue-based feedings in the hospital setting requires staff education, documentation, and team-based communication.

  14. Composers on stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    A trend on the scene of contemporary music is composers going on stage, performing their pieces themselves. Within a discourse of popular music, this is more the rule than exception, but when it comes to the context of contemporary scored music, the historical and aesthetic context differs......, and something quite different is undergoing. This paper intends to discuss three examples of performances in which the composer’s appearance on stage was an important part of the piece, - both when it came to the role as a performer and as an individual person – as representer and presenter. The paper intends...... 2011 and Fischer-Lichte 2008) Hereby, the role of the composer appearing on stage is discussed from an aesthetic point of view; meanwhile social and political aspects of the phenomenon are also addressed. The three artistic works discussed are Simon Steen-Andersen’s Run Time Error (2009-), Niels...

  15. Rapid and routine detection of melamine in animal feed and food by FT-Raman technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of melamine contaminated animal feed ingredients on food safety and animal health has become a major public concern in the past 2 years. As the part of Food Protection Plan, US federal agencies, such as USDA/FSIS and FDA, and other organizations have established the GC-MS and LC-MS/MS pro...

  16. Staging Collaborative Innovation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe; Clausen, Christian

    Organisations are currently challenged by demands for increased collaborative innovation internally as well as with external and new entities - e.g. across the value chain. The authors seek to develop new approaches to managing collaborative innovative processes in the context of open innovation...... and public private innovation partnerships. Based on a case study of a collaborative design process in a large electronics company the paper points to the key importance of staging and navigation of collaborative innovation process. Staging and navigation is presented as a combined activity: 1) to translate...

  17. Generating breakthrough new product ideas feeding the innovation funnel

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Senior executives are experiencing a shortage of game-changing ideas that drive growth. This book explains how to feed the innovation funnel with a steady stream of breakthrough new product ideas, providing numerous examples of the methods, approaches and techniques used by leading companies such as Motorola and Procter & Gamble. Learn more about the impact you can make by leveraging an innovation strategy, voice-of-customer research, external ideas via open innovation, employees? creative talent and fundamental research. Establish a proactive Discovery Stage that focuses on the drivers of innovation performance to transform your organization into an innovation machine.

  18. Natural Family Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sex and Birth Control Birth Control Natural Family Planning Natural Family Planning Birth ControlPrevention and WellnessSex and Birth Control Share Natural Family Planning Natural Family PlanningWhat is natural family planning?Natural ...

  19. Motor Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aaron L; Haith, Adrian M; Krakauer, John W

    2015-08-01

    Motor planning colloquially refers to any process related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time prior to movement onset. However, this broad definition encompasses processes that are not strictly motor-related, such as decision-making about the identity of task-relevant stimuli in the environment. Furthermore, the assumption that all motor-planning processes require processing time, and can therefore be studied behaviorally by measuring changes in the reaction time, needs to be reexamined. In this review, we take a critical look at the processes leading from perception to action and suggest a definition of motor planning that encompasses only those processes necessary for a movement to be executed-that is, processes that are strictly movement related. These processes resolve the ambiguity inherent in an abstract goal by defining a specific movement to achieve it. We propose that the majority of processes that meet this definition can be completed nearly instantaneously, which means that motor planning itself in fact consumes only a small fraction of the reaction time. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Kaizen planning, implementing and controlling

    CERN Document Server

    García-Alcaraz, Jorge Luis; Maldonado-Macías, Aidé Aracely

    2017-01-01

    This book reports a literature review on kaizen, its industrial applications, critical success factors, benefits gained, journals that publish about it, main authors (research groups) and universities. Kaizen is treated in this book in three stages: planning, implementation and control. The authors provide a questionnaire designed with activities in every stage, highlighting the benefits gained in each stage. The study has been applied to more than 400 managers and leaders in continuous improvement in Mexican maquiladoras. A univariate analysis is provided to the activities in every stage. Moreover, structural equation models associating those activities with the benefits gained are presented for a statistical validation. Such a relationship between activities and benefits helps managers to identify the most important factor affecting their benefits and financial income.