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  1. [Modulation of Na+,K+-pump activity and Na+,Li+-exchange in rabbit erythrocytes at various stages of cholesterol feeding].

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    Makarov, V L

    1995-09-01

    The activities of the Na+,K(+)-pump and the Na+/Li(+)-exchange and the intracellular concentration of Na+ in erythrocytes of rabbits with experimental hypercholesterolemia have been studied at different stages of cholesterol (Ch) feeding as well as at different intervals after stopping of cholesterol-rich diets. After sufficiently long periods of feeding the animals with Ch (1.5-2 months), a significant activation of the Na+,K(+)-pump, reduction of the Na+/Li(+)-exchange rate and lowering of the intracellular sodium content in erythrocytes of rabbits from experimental groups were observed. Several months after stopping Ch-rich diets there was a partial normalization of the parameters under study. However, at the initial stage of the experiment (20 days after the beginning of Ch feeding) as well as two weeks after Ch feeding had been stopped, there occurred no changes in the activities of the ion transport systems or in [Na+]i despite substantial changes in the plasma Ch level. It is suggested that the observed effect of dietary Ch on the activity of ion carriers may be mediated by affecting the expression of the corresponding genes.

  2. Digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de alimentos para ruminantes True small intestinal protein digestibility of ruminant feeds

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    Antonio Ferriani Branco

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira de diferentes classes de alimentos usados em dietas para ruminantes foi avaliada por meio das técnicas in situ e in vitro. Foram utilizados dois bovinos machos castrados (450 kg PV com cânulas implantadas no rúmen para incubação in situ de concentrados protéicos de origens animal e vegetal e energéticos, resíduos da agroindústria e alimentos volumosos. Avaliou-se a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira dos alimentos submetidos à digestão apenas com pepsina ou com pepsina + pancreatina, precedida ou não da incubação ruminal. A incubação ruminal diminuiu a digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira da proteína de 24 dos 30 alimentos testados, com exceção da farinha de penas, da aveia preta, do grão de milho triturado a 2,5 mm e dos fenos de aveia e tifton, para os quais ocorreu aumento, e do farelo de girassol, para o qual não houve efeito da incubação ruminal. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR, na maioria dos alimentos utilizados em dietas para ruminantes, é menor que a da proteína original do alimento. Entre os alimentos avaliados, 29 apresentaram maior digestibilidade intestinal verdadeira quando incubados com pepsina + pancreatina, evidenciando a importância da etapa de digestão abomasal sobre as proteínas dos alimentos (com exceção à aveia preta. A digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos é variável e, portanto, deve ser considerada na formulação de dietas para atendimento das exigências de proteína metabolizável.The true protein digestibility in the small intestine of different ruminant feeds were measured using in situ and in vitro techniques. Two steers with average body weight of 450 kg and fitted with ruminal cannulas were used for in situ incubation of different feeds. The following feedstuffs were evaluated: animal and vegetable protein concentrate, energy concentrate, fiber by-products, and forage. Protein truly digested in

  3. Fitase na alimentação de poedeiras Phytase in feeds for laying hens

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    Alba Kyonara Barbosa Alves Tenório Fireman

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Os grãos utilizados nas rações possuem grande parte do seu fósforo na forma fítica, sendo indisponível para a absorção pelos não-ruminantes. Para corrigir esta indisponibilidade, têm-se suplementado as aves com fosfatas inorgânicos. Esta prática onera o custo das rações e pode apresentar efeitos adversos no desempenho das poedeiras, além de provocar problemas ambientais. A inclusão da enzima fitase na ração de poedeiras é uma das maneiras de aumentar a disponibilidade do fósforo de origem vegetal e, conseqüentemente diminuir a quantidade de fósforo inorgânico na ração, o que minimizará os efeitos ambientais provocados pelo excesso de fósforo na excreta. O objetivo desta revisão é enfocar o efeito do uso da enzima fitase em substituição aos fosfatas inorgânicos na alimentação de poedeiras.The phosphorus present in grains is in phytate form, which turns this mineral unavailable to non ruminants. Inorganic phosphates have been used to supplement phosphorus in poultry diets. This practice brings about an increase in diet cost, adverse effects on layer performance and environmental problems. The utilization of phytase is a way to lower the environmental effects caused by this excess of phosphorus excretion, once this enzyme increases vegetal phosphorus availability. This review aims to examine the effect of phytase in substitution of inorganic phosphates in layer diets.

  4. Uso de volumosos conservados na alimentação de equinos Use of conserved roughage in the horse feeding

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    José Luiz Domingues

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Revisão de artigos sobre características e uso de forragens conservadas na alimentação de equinos, considerando o bem estar animal e ressaltando a necessidade de integrar a atual tecnologia do uso, fisiologia, manejo e nutrição animal. Um ponto básico e critico no manejo alimentar de equinos é a disponibilidade de forragens de alta qualidade para uso como pastagens, ou forragens conservadas na forma de fenos e silagens. Os mais tecnificados sistemas de produção animal adotaram o feno para alimentação e este é o motivo pelo qual grande parte dos artigos científicos relativos à nutrição de equinos usou o feno como volumoso. Silagens são adotadas em alguns sistemas, porém poucos artigos técnicos estão disponíveis avaliando seu uso na nutrição de equinos. Devido às características anatômicas e fisiológicas, o equino deve receber grandes quantidades de forragem e a taxa de fornecimento deve permitir a seletividade da captura e fácil ingestão da forragem. Para qualquer volumoso, o perfil nutricional deste é diferente quando oferecido na forma de pastagem ou forragem conservada, situação atribuída a seletividade e individualidade animal bem como a variação nas partes da planta. Paralelamente com o conhecimento da composição nutricional e manejo de conservação de forragem, especial atenção deve ser dada as condições ambientais de alojamento e restrição de movimentos dos animais. O planejamento de atividade física para o equino conjuntamente com o manejo adequado ajuda a prevenir problemas que afetam animais que não tem acesso a pastagem. Os fenos, silagens e pré-secados, usados quando a pastagem não é disponível, divide com o concentrado o maior número de casos de problemas de saúde. Cólica, acidose, laminite, consumo de palha e madeira estão associados a deficiências nutricionais, desconsiderando erros humanos e condições ambientais desapropriadas. Informações técnicas para melhor

  5. Estudio comparativo de dos dietas enterales en ancianos hospitalizados: proteína de soja frente a proteína caseína Comparative study of two enteral feeding formulas in hospitalized elders: casein versus soybean protein

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    N. V. García-Talavera Espín

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Comparar la incidencia de complicaciones gastrointestinales de dos fórmulas de nutrición enteral (NE con distinta fuente proteica (caseína y proteína aisladade soja en ancianos hospitalizados. Métodos: Estudio transversal sobre pacientes portadores de SNG a los que se asignó aleatoriamente una fórmula basada en caseína o en proteína de soja. Las variables recogidas fueron: edad, sexo, motivo de indicación y duración de la NE, cantidad máxima diaria de NE administrada, situación nutricional al ingreso y al alta, mortalidad y complicaciones gastrointestinales. Se compararon ambos grupos mediante la Chi Cuadrado de Pearson y la T de Student, fijando en ambas el grado de significación en el 95%. Resultados: Muestra de 50 pacientes mayores de 65 años (48% caseína, 52% soja sin diferencias estadísticamente significativas en edad ni indicación de la NE . Tampoco hubo diferencias en el estado nutricional al inicio o al alta en ambos grupos. El grupo que recibió una fórmula basada en soja presentó menor incidencia de diarrea (C: 45,83%, S: 7,69%, p = 0,009 y vómitos (C: 41,66%, S: 15,38%, p = 0,05, mayor porcentaje de mejora del estado nutricional y menos mortalidad con diferencias estadísticamente significativas. Conclusiones: En el grupo que tomó proteína de soja se produjeron menos complicaciones gastrointestinales y de úlceras por presión al tiempo que la situación nutricional mejoraba. Se puede afirmar que esta NE es bien tolerada por el paciente y aporta importantes beneficios clínicos. Por otro lado, la valoración nutricional debe realizarse como rutina al ingreso de los ancianos en el hospital para detectar y tratar precozmente cualquier signo de malnutrición.Objectives: To compare the incidence of gastrointestinal side effects of two enteral feeding formulas with changes in the origin of protein (casein and isolated soy protein in hospitalised elderly patients. Method: A cross sectional survey was done

  6. Physiological and molecular analysis of the interactive effects of feeding and high environmental ammonia on branchial ammonia excretion and Na+ uptake in freshwater rainbow trout.

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    Zimmer, Alex M; Nawata, C Michele; Wood, Chris M

    2010-11-01

    Recently, a "Na(+)/NH(4)(+) exchange complex" model has been proposed for ammonia excretion in freshwater fish. The model suggests that ammonia transport occurs via Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins and is facilitated by gill boundary layer acidification attributable to the hydration of CO(2) and H(+) efflux by Na(+)/H(+) exchanger (NHE-2) and H(+)-ATPase. The latter two mechanisms of boundary layer acidification would occur in conjunction with Na(+) influx (through a Na(+) channel energized by H(+)-ATPase and directly via NHE-2). Here, we show that natural ammonia loading via feeding increases branchial mRNA expression of Rh genes, NHE-2, and H(+)-ATPase, as well as H(+)-ATPase activity in juvenile trout, similar to previous findings with ammonium salt infusions and high environmental ammonia (HEA) exposure. The associated increase in ammonia excretion occurs in conjunction with a fourfold increase in Na(+) influx after a meal. When exposed to HEA (1.5 mmol/l NH(4)HCO(3) at pH 8.0), both unfed and fed trout showed differential increases in mRNA expression of Rhcg2, NHE-2, and H(+)-ATPase, but H(+)-ATPase activity remained at control levels. Unfed fish exposed to HEA displayed a characteristic reversal of ammonia excretion, initially uptaking ammonia, whereas fed fish (4 h after the meal) did not show this reversal, being able to immediately excrete ammonia against the gradient imposed by HEA. Exposure to HEA also led to a depression of Na(+) influx, demonstrating that ammonia excretion can be uncoupled from Na(+) influx. We suggest that the efflux of H(+), rather than Na(+) influx itself, is critical to the facilitation of ammonia excretion.

  7. A STUDY ON BREAST FEEDING PRACTICES AMONG POST- NA TAL MOTHERS ATTENDING GOVT MATERNITY HOSPITAL AT HYDE RABAD, ANDHRA PRADESH

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    Bhavani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Breast feeding plays an essential and sometimes underestimate role in the treatment and prevention of infant and chi ldhood illness. Improving breast feeding is a highly feasible and cost effective approach to redu cing the number of infant who die from infectious disease and malnutrition early in their lives. Cont inuing to breastfeed alone could save 1 to 1.5 million lives a year. Well over 40% of 10.9 million deaths annually occur due to inappropriate feeding practices , during the 1 st year of life. Lack of breast feeding and especia lly exclusive breast feeding during the 1 st year of life are important risk factors for infant and child hood morbidity and mortality that are only compounded by inappropriat e complementary feeding . Current evidence that Breast feeding is beneficial for infant and ch ild health is based on exclusive observational studies. The experimental intervention increased th e duration and degree of breast feeding. These results provide a solid scientific under planning f or future interventions to promote Breast feeding. Breast feeding practices appear to be ineffective e ven in institutions due to lack of knowledge of importance of breast milk , colostrums, and pre-lac teal feeds. In the present study an effort is made to assess the knowledge of breast feeding practices am ong post natal women and mothers attending immunization clinic . OBJECTIVES: To study the sociodemografic factors influence on breast feeding behavior of post natal mothers and to study the awa reness of benefits of colostrums, and effect of media on breast feeding practices. MATERIALS AND METHODS : The present study is a cross- sectional, Descriptive Hospital based ,conducted i n the post natal ward at Govt Maternity Hospital, sultan Bazar, Hyderabad, A.P., participants are the Mothers who have delivered within 3days of interview, and the Mothers attending immunization c linic , having children below 1 year of age . sample

  8. Fontes não-convencionais de proteína na primeira alimentação do bagre sul americano (Rhamdia quelen Unconventional protein sources in the first feeding of South American catfish (Rhamdia quelen

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    David Roque Hernández

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes fontes de proteína na primeira alimentação de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen sob condições de laboratório. Foram testadas três rações balanceadas secas: ovo de peixe (TA, hidrolisado de carcaça do peixe (TB e fígado de frango cru (TC, na quais foram analisadas, pelo crescimento, a biomassa final produzida e a sobrevivência das larvas. O ensaio teve uma duração de 20 dias, e as rações foram fornecidas ad libitum. As larvas alimentadas com ovo de peixe apresentaram os melhores resultados com peso médio individual de 340mg, sobrevivência de 57% e biomassa final de 1.350mg, diferindo significativamente dos demais tratamentos. Os resultados indicaram que a formulação de rações balanceadas com ovos de peixes fornecida na primeira alimentação de larvas de jundiá pode tornar-se uma alternativa promissora na larvicultura dessa espécie.This study aimed to evaluate different proteins sources in first feeding of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen under laboratory conditions. Three balanced dry rations were tested, fish roe (TA, biological fish silage (TB and crude chicken liver (TC evaluating specific growth rate, final biomass produced and survival rate. The experiment was performed in 20 days, and all the rations were provided ad libitum. Larvae fed with fish roe presented better results, with 340mg of individual mean weight, 57% of survival rate and 1.350mg of final biomass, differing significantly with the other treatments. The results show that the inclusion of fish roe in balanced rations offered at the first feeding of jundiá larvae may become a promising alternative for the hatchering of the species.

  9. Farelo de trigo na alimentação de poedeiras semipesadas na fase de recria Wheat bran in growing phase laying hens feeding

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    Daniel de Magalhães Araujo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de farelo de trigo (FT na ração sobre o desempenho de frangas semipesadas nas fases de recria 1 (7 a 14 semanas de idade e recria 2 (15 a 19 semanasde idade e seu efeito residual durante a fase inicial de produção de ovos. Foram utilizadas 160 frangas Lohmann Brown distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro níveis de FT na ração: 0 (controle, 10, 20 e 30%, que resultaram em quatro tratamentos, com cinco repetições de oito aves na fase de recria 1. Ao completarem 14 semanas, as aves foram transferidas para gaiolas de arame galvanizado, redistribuídas em seis repetições de seis aves. Utilizaram-se 144 aves e descartaram-se, aleatoriamente, quatro aves por tratamento, constituindo a fase de recria 2. A adição de FT diminuiu linearmente o peso vivo final e o ganho de peso, resultando em reduções de 1,15 e 0,03 g, respectivamente, para cada 1% de inclusão de FT na ração. O consumo de água aumentou de forma quadrática e cresceu, em valores absolutos, com o aumento de 0 a 30% de farelo de trigo. A cada aumento de 1% de FT na ração, a idade das aves ao primeiro ovo elevou aproximadamente 0,6 dia e o peso do ovo em 0,22 g. A inclusão de farelo de trigo na ração reduz a taxa de crescimento de frangas, atrasa o início da postura, mas melhora o peso inicial dos ovos em relação a dietas à base de milho e de farelo de soja.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of the wheat bran (WB in the ration on egg brown chicken (Lohmann Brown performance in the growing phase 1 (7 to 19 week of age and growing phase 2 (15 to 19 week of age and its residual effects on initial egg production. One hundred-sixty chickens were allotted to a completely randomized design with four level of WB in the ration: 0 (control, 10, 20 and 30%, that resulted in four treatments, with five replicates of eight birds in the growing phase 1. At the

  10. Freqüência alimentar na larvicultura do trairão (Hoplias lacerdae Effects of feeding frequency on larval rearing of trairao (Hoplias lacerdae

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    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de se desenvolver estratégias de manejo alimentar durante a larvicultura de trairão. Larvas com oito dias de vida foram contadas individualmente e alojadas na densidade de 30 larvas/L em 20 unidades experimentais com volume útil de 5 L cada. As larvas foram submetidas a quatro tratamentos de freqüência alimentar: F1 - uma vez ao dia; F2 - duas vezes ao dia; F3 - três vezes ao dia; F4 - quatro vezes ao dia, cada um com cinco repetições. A alimentação foi fornecida na mesma quantidade em todos os tratamentos. Para avaliação do crescimento dos animais, foram realizadas biometrias a cada cinco dias. Após 15 dias sob os tratamentos, quando os animais estavam com 23 dias de vida, o experimento foi encerrado, avaliando-se também as taxas de sobrevivência, de mortalidade, de canibalismo e de resistência ao estresse. Na primeira avaliação biométrica, aos 13 dias de vida, não foram encontradas diferenças significativas no crescimento das larvas submetidas às diferentes freqüências alimentares. No entanto, aos 18 e 23 dias de vida, os animais do tratamento F1 apresentaram as menores médias de comprimento e peso. Não foi encontrado efeito significativo da freqüência alimentar sobre as taxas de crescimento específico durante a larvicultura. As diferentes freqüências de alimentação impostas não influenciaram as taxas de sobrevivência, de mortalidade, de canibalismo e de resistência ao estresse, destacando-se as elevadas taxas de sobrevivência (acima de 93% obtidas durante o período de larvicultura. Portanto, pelo menos durante a criação inicial (até 23 dias de vida, as larvas de trairão podem receber manejo mais simplificado, com fornecimento de alimento apenas duas vezes ao dia, sem prejuízo ao desenvolvimento e à produção de animais.The effects of feeding management strategies on larval rearing of trairao were evaluated in this trial. Eight-d old larvae were counted and

  11. Sobre a tutela dos corpos infantis na rotina alimentar da creche On the care of children's bodies in the nursery school feeding routine

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    Ana Cristina Richter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho trata do tema da alimentação na rotina de uma instituição de atendimento à pequena infância, focalizando dados de uma pesquisa de abordagem etnográfica. Os resultados revelam que os momentos de alimentação se inscrevem em um contexto no qual o corpo aparece como protagonista de processos disciplinares, direcionados à civilização da conduta de cada indivíduo em particular, e de controle, sustentados por saberes que se apoiam no impulso pela sobrevalorização da sobrevivência biológica, deixando-a "mais sadia". Trata-se de saberes que atuam sobre a redução somática à mera naturalidade do consumo do animal laborans.This article touches upon the feeding routine within daycare institutions; the data was collected via an ethnographic approach. The results reveal that feeding times fall within a context in which the body is the primary aspect of disciplinary processes, directed at civilizing and controlling the conduct of each individual based on an over-emphasized, biological impulse of survival to maintain the body's "healthiness". This belief sees the human body as merely a biological instrument of the natural act of consumption.

  12. Growth promoters additives in broilers feeding Aditivos promotores de crescimento na alimentação de frangos de corte

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    Bruno Pereira Ferreira

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This trial was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of growth promoters on broiler chicken diets, from 1 to 10 days. The experiment was in a completely randomized design, with six treatments, four replications and 30 chicks as experimental unity. The treatments were: a basal diet of corn and soybeans meal without additives and basal diet with inclusion of antibiotics (avilamicin and colistin; or prebiotic (mannanoligosaccharides; or prebiotic plus fumaric and propionic acids; or probiotic (Bacillus subtillis; or a pool of probiotics (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus thermophilus and Enterococcus faecium. The parameters assessed were weight gain; feeding intake; feeding conversion; carcass yield; thigh yield; weight of liver, heart and intestine. The results showed that the diets with inclusion of additives were not significant in all parameters studied. It was concluded that the use of antibiotics, prebiotic plus fumaric and propionic acids and the pool of probiotics improved ration intake and the feeding conversion in relation to diet without additives.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da adição de diferentes aditivos promotores de crescimento em dietas de frangos de corte de 1 a 10 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições, com 30 aves por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos foram: dieta sem aditivos, com antibióticos (avilamicina e colistina, com prebiótico (mananoligossacarídeos, com prebiótico mais ácidos fumárico e propiônico, com probiótico (Bacillus subtillis e com mistura de probióticos (Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Streptococcus thermophilus e Enterococcus faecium. Os parâmetros analisados foram: ganho de peso, consumo

  13. Protein digestibility of ruminant feeds by the three-step procedure Digestibilidade da proteína de alimentos utilizados na alimentação de ruminantes pelo método das três etapas

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    Norberto Mario Rodíguez

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The three-step procedure was used to evaluate ruminal degradable and undegradable protein of soybean meal (SM, sorghum grain (SG, cottonseed (CT, corn silage (CS and tomato byproduct (TBP. Feeds were initially incubated in rumen of fistulated steers for 16 h. After that, 15mg of nitrogen were submitted to acid pepsin, for one hour, and alkaline pepsin for 24 h. The SM and CT showed 97 and 93% total protein digestibility, which is the major portion available in the rumen (94 and 92% respectively. The SG protein showed the lowest digestibility (73% followed by TBP and CS that had 72 and 73% total protein digestibility. It was concluded that SM and CT showed high protein digestibility, however the most portion was degraded in the rumen and that besides the high lignin proportion, the TBP was the one which supplied more available intestinal protein.Avaliaram-se as proporções de proteína degradável e não-degradável no rúmen do farelo de soja (FS, sorgo grão (SG, caroço de algodão (CA, silagem de milho (SM e do resíduo industrial de tomate (RIT pelo método das três etapas. Os alimentos foram inicialmente incubados por 16h no rúmen de bovinos fistulados. Posteriormente, uma quantidade que continha 15mg de nitrogênio foi submetida à digestão em pepsina ácida por uma hora e em pancreatina alcalina por 24h. O FS e o CA apresentaram 97 e 93% de digestibilidade da PB, estando a maior parte desse nitrogênio disponível no rúmen (94 e 92% respectivamente. A proteína do SG apresentou o menor valor de digestibilidade (64%, sendo seguida pelo RIT e pela SM, que apresentaram 72 e 73% de proteína total digestível. Concluiuse que o FS e o CA apresentaram elevada digestibilidade da proteína, entretanto, a maior parte do desaparecimento ocorreu no rúmen. Apesar da elevada proporção de proteína indigestível, o RIT foi o alimento que mais disponibilizou proteína para ser digerida no intestino.

  14. Fósforo na alimentação de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus Phosphorus in feed for pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus

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    Arcangelo Augusto Signor

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o uso de fósforo na dieta de juvenis de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus sobre a qualidade da água, o desempenho zootécnico, o rendimento corporal e a composição química da carcaça. Foram utilizados 100 juvenis com peso médio inicial de 25,9±1,32 g, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em 20 tanques de fibra de vidro, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os peixes foram alimentados quatro vezes ao dia, às 8; 11; 14 e 17 h, com dietas extrusadas contendo 0,40; 0,55; 0,70; 0,85 e 1,0% de fósforo total. Não foram observadas diferenças nos parâmetros de qualidade de água, com exceção da concentração de ortofosfato na água, que apresentou aumento linear. Os parâmetros de desempenho zootécnico, rendimento corporal e composição química da carcaça não diferiram entre os níveis de suplementação de fósforo na dieta. A utilização de 0,40% de fósforo total atende às exigências de fósforo de juvenis de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus, além de disponibilizar menor concentração de ortofosfato da água.The objective of the present research was to evaluate phosphorus in diet for pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus juveniles on water quality, livestock performance, body yield and carcass chemical composition. A total of 100 juveniles, 25.9±1.32 g average weight were randomly assigned into 20 fiberglass tanks, with five treatments and four replications. The fish were fed four times a day (8 and 11 a.m.; 2 and 5 p.m., with extruded diets containing 0.40; 0.55; 0.70; 0.85 and 1.0 % total phosphorus. No differences were observed in water quality parameters, except for the concentration of orthophosphate in water, which presented linear increase. The parameters livestock performance, body yield and carcass chemical composition showed no differences for the levels of supplementation of phosphorus in diet. The use of 0.40% total phosphorus meets the requirements of phosphorus for pacu (Piaractus

  15. Casca de café melosa ensilada na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial Sticky coffee hull silage on pig starter feeding

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    Paulo Levi de Oliveira Carvalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram conduzidos, objetivando determinar o valor nutricional e verificar o desempenho de leitões na fase de inicial, alimentados com rações contendo casca de café melosa ensilada (CCEn. Os alimentos estudados foram casca de café melosa (CCM e CCEn. No Experimento I, foi conduzido um ensaio de digestibilidade utilizando 15 suínos mestiços, machos castrados, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A CCM foi moída em peneira de diâmetro de 4 mm e ensilada com a adição de 30% de água e inoculante enzimo-bacteriano. De forma geral, o processo de ensilagem não melhorou a digestibilidade da casca de café melosa. No Experimento II, foram utilizados 60 leitões (15,52 ± 2,19 a 32,52 ± 3,51 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% de CCEn, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. Não foi verificado efeito da inclusão de CCEn sobre o consumo diário de ração, ganho diário de peso, conversão alimentar e nitrogênio da uréia plasmática. Conclui-se que a casca de café melosa ensilada apresenta bom valor nutricional e pode ser utilizada em até 16% na alimentação de leitões na fase inicial (15-30 kg, sem prejuízo no desempenho, entretanto deve-se avaliar a viabilidade econômica em função da relação de preços dos ingredientes utilizados.Two experiments were carried out aiming to determine the nutritional value and to verify performance of starting piglets, fed on sticky coffee hull silage (SCHS diets. The evaluated feeds were sticky coffee hull (SCH and SCHS. In the Experiment I, a digestibility trial was carried out using fifteen crossbreed barrows, allotted in a completely randomized design. The SCH was ground on a 4 mm screen-opening diameter and was ensilaged with 30% water and enzymatic-bacterial inoculants. In general, the process of ensilage did not improve the SCHS digestibility. In the Experiment II, 60

  16. Alimentação na gestação e puerpério Feeding in pregnancy and postpartum

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    Mirian Ribeiro Baião

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Os preceitos científicos para uma alimentação saudável são bastante difundidos e reconhecidos como essenciais às demandas nutricionais da gestação e dos eventos a ela relacionados, como o puerpério e a lactação, e visam principalmente, à saúde do binômio mãe-filho. Por outro lado, as práticas alimentares de mulheres durante o ciclo gravídico-puerperal podem ser influenciadas por outras lógicas. Este artigo é um ensaio teórico que pretende refletir sobre a dinâmica da dimensão sociocultural e das relações sociais nas práticas alimentares de gestantes e puérperas. Procura avançar no entendimento da alimentação para além de uma leitura estritamente nutricional, biológica, majoritariamente interpretada sob a perspectiva bioestatística. Destaca a importância de abordar as questões que permeiam a alimentação por uma ótica interdisciplinar, que permita conjugar saberes fundamentados nas Ciências Sociais e na Biomedicina, a fim de repensar políticas públicas e requalificar a prática assistencial prestada a esse grupo.The scientific precepts for healthy eating have been widely divulged and are recognized as essential to the nutritional demands of pregnancy and its related events, such as postpartum and breastfeeding, aiming mainly at the health of the mother-child binomial. On the other hand, the eating habits of women during the pregnancy-postpartum cycle may be influenced by other logic. This article is a theoretical essay that aims to reflect on the dynamics of the socio-cultural dimension and on social relationships with respect to the eating habits of pregnant and postpartum women. It also aims to enhance the understanding of feeding beyond a strict nutritional and biological observation, in greater part interpreted from the bio-statistical perspective. It highlights the importance of approaching questions related to feeding from an interdisciplinary point of view, which allows for the conjugation of

  17. Avaliação de Programas de Alimentação para Matrizes de Corte na Fase de Produção Evaluation of Feeding Programs for Broiler Breeders Hens

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    João Artur Argenta

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de verificar o melhor programa de fornecimento de ração para matrizes de corte pós - pico de produção de ovos. Três mil, cento e sessenta e oito fêmeas e 352 machos matrizes de corte da linhagem Cobb foram distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado com quatro tratamentos e oito repetições por tratamento, sendo 99 fêmeas e 11 machos por unidade experimental. Os programas avaliados consistiram em: Programa 1 - Redução de 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana para cada redução de 0,5 pontos na massa de ovos; Programa 2 - Redução de 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana após o pico até o final do período de produção; Programa 3 - Redução de 3 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 1ª semana após o pico, 2 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 2ª semana e 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana nas semanas subsequentes; Programa 4 - Redução de 5 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 1ª semana após o pico, 3 g de ração/ave/dia/semana na 2ª semana e 1 g de ração/ave/dia/semana nas semanas subseqüentes. De acordo com os resultados obtidos para consumo de ração por ovo produzido, característica de importância na avaliação do desempenho das matrizes de corte, o melhor programa foi o programa 1, seguido pelo 3, 2 e 4. Para matrizes de corte da linhagem Cobb que atingem pico de postura no inverno, período no qual foi realizado este experimento, recomenda-se o programa 1 para alimentação após pico por ter proporcionado uma boa relação entre consumo de ração e produção de ovos.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the best feeding program post peak egg production for broiler breeders. Cobb broiler breeders (3168 females and 352 males were distributed in a randomized experimental design with four treatments and eight replicates per treatment, with 99 females and 11 males per replicate. The evaluated programs were: Program 1 - Reduction 1 g of feed/bird/day/week for each drop of 0

  18. Influência do alimento na produção e qualidade do leite de cabra Influence of feed on the production on quality of goat milk

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    Roberto Germano Costa

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O leite de cabra é considerado um dos alimentos mais completos por apresentar vários elementos importantes para a nutrição humana, constituído de proteínas de alto valor biológico e ácidos graxos essenciais, além de seu conteúdo mineral e vitamínico. Esta revisão tem como objetivo avaliar as variações referentes à composição química e propriedades físicoquímicas do leite, que ocorrem em função de alguns fatores, tais como: climáticos, raça, indivíduo, estágio de lactação e alimentação. O manejo alimentar tem sido considerado um fator preponderante na manipulação dos componentes do leite. Há um entendimento dominante que a gordura é o componente do leite que mais sofre influência dos alimentos. O uso de técnicas biológicas moleculares poderá contribuir para o entendimento do mecanismo de utilização do alimento no rúmen, estabelecendo um novo cenário para a microbiologia ruminal, que pode ser diferente do que tem sido estudado até o momento.Goat milk is considered one of the most complete foods, since it holds several elements which are important for human nutrition, and necessary for the constitution of tissues and blood. This revision aims to assess the variations of the chemical composition and physical-chemical properties of the milk which occur due to some factors, such as: climate, breed, the individual, lactation stage and food. Feed management has been considered a key factor in the manipulation of milk components. There is a general understanding that among the components of the milk fat is the most influenced by food. The use of molecular biological techniques might contribute to the understanding of the mechanism of utilization of food in rumen, establishing a new possibility for ruminal microbiology, which can be different from what has been studied so far.

  19. Molecular methods to evaluate effects of feed additives and nutrients in poultry gut microflora Metodologias moleculares para avaliar efeitos de aditivos e nutrientes na microflora intestinal das aves

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    Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondón

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Intestines of each animal are the niche of a complex and dynamic ecosystem with important effects to the host. The members or final products of this ecosystem influence nutrient digestion, absorption, mucosa metabolism, general physiology, and local and systemic immunological responses of avian hosts. Better understanding of the avian gut microbial ecosystem may lead to improvements on poultry productivity, health, welfare, and reduction of food borne pathogens and the environmental impact of poultry production for a more sustainable industry. Molecular methods of microbial ecology are key tools to gain this knowledge. The objective of this presentation is to outline the basic concepts, applications, advantages, limitations, and evolution of these molecular methods used to study intestinal microbial ecology. The final goal is to stimulate their application in poultry applied research and development of new feed additives. Some practical examples in poultry research will be described to illustrate their relevance to advance in control methods for pathogens, avoid or manage disbiosis or subclinical intestinal diseases, reduce environmental impact, elucidate effects of nutrients in gut mucosa, microflora, and in general to improve poultry performance.O intestino de cada animal é o nicho de um ecossistema complexo e dinâmico com efeitos importantes para o hospedeiro. As comunidades microbianas componentes deste ecossistema e/ou os produtos finais do metabolismo influenciam a digestão e absorção de nutrientes, o metabolismo das mucosas, a fisiologia geral e as respostas imunitárias locais e gerais da ave hospedeira. A melhor compreensão do ecossistema microbiano do intestino das aves pode levar a melhorias na produtividade, saúde, bem estar, e redução de agente patogênicos dos alimentos e do impacto ambiental da produção avícola para uma indústria mais sustentável. Os métodos moleculares da ecologia microbiana são ferramentas chaves

  20. Polpa de citros peletizada na alimentação de eqüinos Pelleted citrus pulp in equine feeding

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    Airton Manzano

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar três níveis de polpa de citros peletizada (PCP em substituição ao milho em dietas de potras em crescimento. Vinte e uma potras da raça Árabe e Cruza-Árabe, com peso inicial de 278+9,6 kg e 18 meses de idade, foram usadas. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais e diariamente exercitados. Foi usado delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos, dieta basal (T1, 7,5% PCP (T2 e 15% PCP (T3, e sete repetições, em que a potra foi a unidade experimental. O período experimental foi de 16 semanas. As dietas foram formuladas com 40% de volumoso (feno de Cynodon dactylon Pers cv coast-cross e 60% de concentrado, 14,5% de proteína bruta (PB e 2,77 kcal/g de energia digestível na matéria seca (MS. Ganho em peso, o consumo voluntário (gMS/kg0,75 e perímetro torácico dos animais não diferiram entre os tratamentos. A altura média na cernelha para animais T1 (6,8+1,0 cm foi superior à de T2 (3,4+1,0 cm e T3 (4,6+1,0 cm. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da MS para T2 (68,7+1,2% e T3 (67,52+1,2% foram superiores ao de T1 (58,62+1,2%. O mesmo fato ocorreu para a PB, sendo T2 (77,1+1,5% e T3 (78,6+1,5% maiores que T1 (70,8+1,5%. Para o teor de energia bruta, T2 (59,8+ 0,4% foi inferior a T1 (62,0+0,4% e T3 (61,2+0,4%. Não houve diferença entre os tratamentos para fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e taxas de passagem das fases sólida e líquida das digestas das diferentes dietas. A polpa de citrus peletizada pode ser usada até o nível de 15% em rações de potras em crescimento, sem influir no desempenho do animal.The objective of this research was to study three levels of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP in substitution to corn in diets of growing fillies. Twenty-one purebred and crossbred Arabian fillies averaging 278+9.6 kg of initial live weight and 18 months of age were used. The animals were maintained in individual pens and were daily exercised. A

  1. Utilização de NaCl no Suplemento como Alternativa para Viabilizar o Sistema de Alimentação de Bezerros em Creep-Feeding

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    Sampaio Alexandre Amstalden Moraes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 32 bezerros lactentes da raça Canchim, mantidos em sistema de pastejo rotativo de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, divididos em três grupos correspondentes aos tratamentos avaliados: controle (sem creep-feeding; SAL5 (adição de 5% de NaCl ao concentrado fornecido no creep-feeding; e SAL10 (adição de 10% de NaCl ao concentrado fornecido no creep-feeding. O arraçoamento em cocho privativo teve duração de 90 dias, divididos em três subperíodos de 30 dias. O ganho de peso corporal foi maior nos subperíodos 1 e 2 para os tratamentos SAL10 e SAL5, respectivamente. Não houve diferenças no terceiro subperíodo e, no período total, o tratamento SAL10 (0,91 kg.animal-1.dia-1 foi superior ao tratamento controle (0,81 kg.animal-1.dia-1. A rentabilidade proporcionada pelos tratamentos SAL5 e SAL10 em relação ao lote controle foi de -12,5 e 6,0% ao mês, respectivamente. As diferenças de peso corporal à desmama, em relação ao lote controle, para que o creep-feeding proporcionasse rentabilidade líquida de 0; 0,6; 1,2; e 6% ao mês, deveriam ser de 10,8; 11,0; 11,2; e 12,8 kg.animal-1 para o tratamento SAL5 e de 7,6; 7,7; 7,8; e 9,0 kg.animal-1 para o tratamento SAL10. Concluiu-se que a limitação do consumo de suplemento no creep-feeding foi necessária para obtenção de viabilidade econômica no uso desta técnica de criação.

  2. Utilização de diferentes programas de restrição alimentar na fase de crescimento de matrizes avícolas tipo corte e seus efeitos na fase de produção Broiler breeding performance influenced by feeding programs during the growing period

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    Neventon Santi Vieira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Matrizes avícolas tipo corte necessitam de rigoroso controle de peso nas fases de recria e produção, para que tenham um desenvolvimento adequado e conseqüentemente, espressem seu máximo potencial produtivo. Objetivando avaliar o efeito de diferentes programas de arraçoamento na fase de recria sobre parâmetros produtivos de matrizes avícolas tipo corte, conduziu-se este experimento no Setor de Avicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria/RS. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, constituído de 3 tratamentos com 4 repetições e, a unidade experimental foi de 67 aves. Na 1ª e 2ª semana de idade as aves receberam alimento à vontade, na 3ª e 4ª semana o arraçoamento foi diário controlado. Na fase de recria (5ª a 20ª semana de idade as aves foram submetidas aos tratamentos: T1: 5ª a 14ª semana = "Sip-a-Day"; 15ª a 17ª = 2 dias sim/1 dia não e da 18ª a 20ª semana, arraçoamento diário controlado; T2: 5ª a 8ª semana = "Skip-a-Day", 9ª a 16ª = 48-57-63 h de intervalo entre arraçoamentos. e da 17ª a 20ª semana = 2 dias sim/1 dia não; T3, 5ª a 20ª semana de idade = 48-57-63 h de intervalo entre arraçoamentos. Os resultados obtidos mostram que, o aumento do intervalo de arraçoamento (48-57-63h na fase de crescimento das aves, não afeta negativamente a performance produtiva das aves, podendo ser utilizado durante a fase de recria, tendo ainda por vantagem, a redução com os custos de mão de obra, pois as aves não são arraçoadas nos finais de semana.The body weight of broiler breeders must be rigorously controled during the growing and production periods in order to get on adequate development, and consequently to show his maximum potential of production. An experiment was conducted at the Poultry Section of the Animal Science Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria/RS, to evaluate the effect of different feeding programs during the growing period on

  3. Resíduos de mandioca na alimentação de ruminantes (Cassava residues in the feeding of ruminants

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    SILVA, Robério R.

    Full Text Available O aproveitamento de resíduos do processamento da Mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz, mostra-se como uma boa alternativa na alimentação animal, sendo um produto de grande potencial e disponibilidade na região nordeste do Brasil. As raízes da mandioca possuem grande valor energético, semelhante ao milho, apresentando de 20 e 45% de amido e 5% de açucares redutores. Outro resíduo é o bagaço da mandioca, subproduto da fabricação do polvilho, contendo até 60% de amido.Atualmente os resíduos da mandioca utilizados na alimentação animal, possuem limitações em relação à baixa padronização da composição bromatológica, ocasionado pela ausência de tecnologia na industria processadora, acompanhada por uma baixa qualidade sanitária.Os ruminantes conseguem utilizar outros alimentos como fontes de energia e nitrogênio, devendo assim, ser fornecido fontes de alimento que não causem desequilíbrio entre as proporções de bactérias celulolíticas e amilolíticas do rúmen. A degradabilidade da mandioca e resíduos de farinheiras (casca de mandioca e farinha de varredura não acarretam diferenças no pH ruminal, mas sim na concentração de N-NH3, sendo menor para a ração com farinha de varredura.Pesquisas recentes têm demonstrado que a substituição de milho por resíduos da mandioca na alimentação de bovinos em experimentos de confinamento, não ocasionou diferença quanto à conversão alimentar e ganho médio de peso, observando apenas redução no consumo.

  4. Qualidade das informações sobre aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar em sites brasileiros de profissionais de saúde disponíveis na internet The quality of information on maternal breast feeding and complementary feeding on Brazilian internet sites available for health professionals

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    Rosângela Quirino da Silva

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar as informações de sites da internet sobre o aleitamento materno e alimentação complementar de acordo com a adequação às recomendações do Ministério da Saúde do Brasil. MÉTODOS: realizado estudo transversal, com amostra de 103 sites de profissionais de saúde. Analisaram-se informações sobre aleitamento materno (AM e alimentação complementar (AC. As informações foram quantificadas e analisadas qualitativamente. RESULTADOS: as recomendações relativas ao AM foram: exclusivo até 6º mês (64,1%; sem água e chá (31,1%; duração de dois anos ou mais (36,9%; e não utilizar mamadeira e chupeta (33%. Para a AC foi utilizada a terminologia desmame (30,1%, recomendada a introdução alimentar no 6º mês (47,9%, introdução da primeira papa com fruta (11,6% ou suco (9,7%; e a oferta de sopa (14,6% como refeição. Na análise qualitativa, entre as informações incorretas, constavam recomendações de consumo de carne no 12º mês, horários regulares para refeições, introdução de alimentos no 7º mês e consumo de leite de vaca no 6º mês. CONCLUSÕES: a maior parte das informações sobre aleitamento materno está de acordo com o preconizado pelo Ministério da Saúde, mas são insuficientes para estimular a prática do aleitamento materno. Já as informações sobre alimentação complementar na sua maioria divergem do recomendado.OBJECTIVES: to analyze the information available on internet sites regarding maternal breast feeding and complementary feeding according to the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: a cross-sectional study was carried out using a sample of 103 sites for professional healthcare workers. Information was analyzed on maternal breast feeding (MB and complementary feeding (CF. The information was quantified and analyzed qualitatively. RESULTS: the recommendations for MB were: that it should be exclusive up to the 6th month of life (64.1%; that no water or tea

  5. Extrato etanóico de própolis na alimentação de vacas leiteiras Ethanoic extract of propolis in dairy cattle feeding

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    Marceli Joslin; Sálvio Rodolfo Pereira Nogueira; Josiane Lobato Ribeiro; Renata Prestes Antonangelo; Jose Antônio de Freitas; Júlio César de Souza

    2009-01-01

    Objetivou-se verificar o efeito da adição do extrato etanóico de própolis, na alimentação de vacas da raça Holandesa, sobre a produção de leite, produção de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura, teores de gordura e proteína do leite, contagem de células somáticas e consumo de matéria seca. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas da raça Holandesa com período de lactação variando entre 60 e 150 dias, com peso corporal médio de 546 kg e produção média de leite de 24 kg/dia, divididas em dois tratamentos dispos...

  6. Uso de mamadeira no primeiro mês de vida: determinantes e influência na técnica de amamentação Bottle feeding during the first month of life: determinants and effect on breastfeeding technique

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    Maristela Cavalheiro Tamborindeguy França

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a incidência e os determinantes do uso de mamadeira no primeiro mês de vida e possíveis efeitos dessa prática na técnica de amamentação. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal aninhado em uma coorte contemporânea de Porto Alegre, RS, de junho a novembro de 2003. Durante um mês foram acompanhados 211 pares de mãe e criança. A influência do uso de mamadeira sobre a técnica de amamentação foi avaliada comparando-se as freqüências de cinco itens desfavoráveis ao posicionamento mãe/criança e três itens desfavoráveis à pega da criança; e as médias do número de itens desfavoráveis entre as duplas que iniciaram o uso mamadeira no primeiro mês e as que não o fizeram. A regressão logística estimou o grau de associação das variáveis com os desfechos, utilizando modelo hierarquizado. RESULTADOS: Aos sete dias, 21,3% das crianças usavam mamadeira e, aos 30 dias, 46,9%. Coabitação com a avó materna esteve associada com uso de mamadeira tanto aos sete quanto aos 30 dias. Também estiveram associados ao uso de mamadeira aos sete dias: a mãe ser adolescente e trauma mamilar na maternidade. Os outros dois fatores associados ao uso de mamadeira aos 30 dias foram trauma mamilar aos sete dias e uso de chupeta aos sete dias. Não houve associação entre técnica de amamentação ensinada na maternidade e uso de mamadeira, mas aos 30 dias, crianças que usavam mamadeira apresentaram técnica menos adequada às que sugavam só no peito. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados mostram que a mamadeira foi bastante utilizada no primeiro mês de vida, principalmente: em crianças com mães adolescentes e com trauma mamilar, cujas avós maternas estavam presentes no domicílio e que faziam uso de chupeta. Além dos efeitos negativos já conhecidos, a mamadeira pode influenciar negativamente a técnica de amamentação.OBJECTIVE: To assess incidence rate and determinants of bottle feeding during the first month of life, and its potential

  7. Medidas objetivas das carcaças e composição química do lombo de cordeiros alimentados e terminados com três níveis de proteína bruta em creep feeding Measurements of carcass and chemical composition of loin of suffolk lambs fed three crude protein levels in creep feeding

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    Jessé Siqueira Ortiz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de três níveis de proteína (15, 20 e 25% PB na ração sobre as medidas objetivas das carcaças e do músculo Longissimus dorsi, os pesos e rendimentos dos cortes, além da composição química e maciez da carne de cordeiros Suffolk alimentados e terminados em creep feeding. Foram utilizados 15 cordeiros inteiros, originados de partos simples, abatidos ao atingirem peso vivo final de 28 kg. As carcaças foram mantidas em câmara de refrigeração a 5ºC, durante 24 horas, para registro das medidas objetivas, realizado após separação dos cortes comerciais, na meia-carcaça esquerda. A área do músculo Longissimus dorsi foi mensurada para determinação da área de olho de lombo (AOL cm². No lombo esquerdo congelado, realizou-se a análise de composição química e, no direito, também congelado, o teste de maciez peloWarner Bratzler Shear Force. Os níveis de proteína bruta não influenciaram as medidas objetivas de carcaça nem as do músculo Longissimus dorsi. Houve efeito significativo para peso e rendimento da paleta, com superioridade para o tratamento contendo 25% de proteína bruta. Nas análises químicas do músculo Longissimus dorsi, observou-se efeito significativo para extrato etéreo, cinzas e maciez. No sistema de alimentação e terminação de cordeiros Suffolk em creep feeding, a ração formulada com farelo de soja como fonte protéica deve ser balanceada com 25% de proteína bruta por diminuir o teor de gordura e melhorar a maciez da carne e o peso e rendimento da paleta, sem afetar as medidas objetivas da carcaça, os demais pesos e os rendimentos dos cortes.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of three concentrate protein levels (15, 20 or 25% CP on measurements of carcass and Longissimus dorsi muscle, weights and yields of cuts, and chemical composition and tenderness of meat of Suffolk lambs in creep feeding. Fifteen single birth lambs were used in this study

  8. Farelos de algodão com diferentes níveis de proteína na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial: digestibilidade e desempenho = Utilization of two cottonseed meal in starting pig feeding : digestibility and performance

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    Diovani Paiano

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos três experimentos, com o objetivo de estudar a utilização de farelos de algodão (FA com diferentes níveis de proteína bruta (36% de PB -FA36 e 42% de PB -FA42 na alimentação de leitões. O Exp. I foi um ensaio de digestibilidade, utilizando suínos machos castrados. O FA36 e o FA42 apresentaram 2.256 e 2.414 kcal de ED kg-1, 2.042 e 2.196 kcal de EM kg-1 e 77,54 e 79,75% para os coeficientes de digestibilidade d a PB, respectivamente. Nos Exp. II e III foram avaliados o desempenho de leitões (15 -30 kg alimentados com FA36 e FA42, respectivamente. Foram formuladas, para cada experimento, cinco rações com níveis crescentes de inclusão de FA (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% util izando 40 leitões, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos, quatro blocos e dois animais por unidade experimental. Com o aumento da inclusão de FA36 o consumo diário de ração (CDR não foi influenciado, o ganho diário de peso (GDP apresentou efeito quadrático com ponto de máximo e a conversão alimentar (CA aumentou linearmente. A análise econômica indicou viabilidade da inclusão de até 8%. Com a adição de níveis crescentes de FA42 houve efeito quadrático com ponto de mínimo sobre o CDR e GDP, e aumento para a CA. Os resultados indicaram que a inclusão de FA piorou a CA. Entretanto, a viabilidade econômica é dependente do custo relativo dosingredientes.Three experiments were carried out with the objective to study the use of cottonseed meals (CM with different crude protein level s, (36% CPCM36 and a 42% CP-CM42 on starting pig diets. The Exp. I was a digestibility trial using 12 barrows. The CM36 and CM42 showed 2,256 and 2,414 kcal DE kg-1, 2,042 and 2,196 kcal ME kg-1, and 77.54 and 79.75% to digestibility coefficients of CP, respectively. In theExp. II and III were studied the starting pigs performance (15 -30 kg fed with CM36 and CM42, respectively. In both experiments, five diets with

  9. Prevalência do aleitamento materno na região noroeste de Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil, 2001 Breast-feeding prevalence, northwest region of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 2001

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    Daniel Felipe Alves Cecchetti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Calcular a prevalência do aleitamento materno entre crianças menores de dois anos de idade, residentes na região Noroeste de Campinas, São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal foi conduzido, em 2001, junto a 4 103 crianças, questionando sobre data de nascimento, sexo, alimentação e serviço de saúde utilizado. O questionário foi aplicado em 42 postos de vacinação durante a Campanha Nacional de Vacinação contra Poliomielite (Campólio. A dieta foi classificada em amamentação exclusiva, predominante, continuada e aleitamento artificial. RESULTADOS: No primeiro semestre, a prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo foi de 31,6% e a de aleitamento total 74,5%. Das crianças com idade entre 6 e 12 meses, 38,0% recebiam leite materno. No segundo ano, a prevalência de aleitamento materno foi reduzida para 22,1%. O aleitamento materno exclusivo passou de 72,2% aos 7 dias de idade para 53,8% aos 15 dias, 33,3% aos 3 meses, 10,0% aos 4 meses e 5,7% aos 6 meses. A prevalência do aleitamento materno total foi de 100,0% aos 7 dias; 79,1% aos 3 meses; 54,3% aos 6; 34,4% aos 12 meses; 26,1% aos 18 e zero aos 24 meses. A mediana de amamentação exclusiva foi de 67 dias e a de amamentação total foi de 6,6 meses. Das crianças vinculadas ao Sistema Único de Saúde, 42,2% receberam aleitamento materno, em contraste com 34,4% das usuárias de serviços privados (pOBJECTIVE: To calculate the prevalence of breast-feeding among children less than two years old, in the northwest region of the city of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A survey was conducted in 2001, with 4 103 children, querying about birth date, gender, feeding practices and health services routinely used. The questionnaire was applied at the 42 public immunization centers during the 2001 National Campaign against Polyomielites. The child's diet was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, continued breast-feeding and bottle-feeding

  10. Nutritional characteristics and utilization of sugar cane in ruminants feeding/ Características nutricionais e formas de utilização da cana-de-açúcar na alimentação de ruminantes

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    Ivone Yurika Mizubuti

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The search for forage alternatives in dry season that are economically viable has taken many livestock farmers to use the sugar cane in the ruminants feeding. This bibliographical review was realized with the objective to discuss the sugar cane nutritional characteristics and its utilization in ruminants feeding. Positive and negative aspects had been told as the production potential, the growing easiness and nutritional limitations. Information had been approached as chemical composition, by-product uses and possible treatments, such as the chemical treatment that increases its digestibility and intake, improving the animals performance. The results of different researches suggest some ways of sugar cane use for the satisfactory results obtaining. However, considering that the sugar cane is poor in proteins and mineral elements, there is necessity of protein supplementation to supply the nutritional requirements.A busca por alternativas de volumosos na época da estação seca, que sejam economicamente viáveis, tem levado muitos pecuaristas a utilizarem a cana-de-açúcar na alimentação de ruminantes. Esta revisão bibliográfica foi realizada com o objetivo de discutir as características nutricionais da cana-de-açúcar e suas formas de utilização na alimentação de ruminantes. Foram relatados os aspectos positivos e negativos como o potencial de produção, facilidade de cultivo e as limitações nutricionais. Abordaram-se informações como composição química, utilização de subprodutos e possíveis tratamentos, tal como, o tratamento químico que aumenta a sua digestibilidade e consumo, melhorando o desempenho dos animais. Os resultados de diferentes trabalhos de pesquisa sugerem várias formas de utilização da cana-de-açúcar para a obtenção de resultados satisfatórios. Entretanto, considerando que este é um alimento pobre em proteínas e minerais há necessidade de suplementação destes componentes para suprir as exig

  11. Extrato etanóico de própolis na alimentação de vacas leiteiras Ethanoic extract of propolis in dairy cattle feeding

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    Marceli Joslin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se verificar o efeito da adição do extrato etanóico de própolis, na alimentação de vacas da raça Holandesa, sobre a produção de leite, produção de leite corrigida para 4% de gordura, teores de gordura e proteína do leite, contagem de células somáticas e consumo de matéria seca. Foram utilizadas 20 vacas da raça Holandesa com período de lactação variando entre 60 e 150 dias, com peso corporal médio de 546 kg e produção média de leite de 24 kg/dia, divididas em dois tratamentos dispostos da seguinte forma: no primeiro tratamento, utilizou-se dieta sem adição de extrato de própolis (controle e no segundo, dieta com a adição de 64 mL de extrato etanóico de própolis, cuja concentração foi de 30% peso/volume (p/v, perfazendo um consumo diário de 19,2 g de própolis/animal/dia e distribuídas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. A ração foi formulada segundo exigências do NRC (2001, e continha 17,5% de proteína bruta (PB e 75% de nutrientes digestíveis totais na matéria seca. A adição do extrato etanóico de própolis promoveu efeito significativo (P<0,05 sobre a produção de leite (25,62 vs 22,62 kg/dia e teores de proteína (2,92 vs 2,80%, não apresentando efeito (P>0,05 sobre o consumo de matéria seca em % do peso vivo (2,08 vs 2,17, teores de gordura do leite (3,10 vs 3,03% e sobre a contagem de células somáticas (766.700 vs 736.700. O uso de extrato de própolis pode ser uma importante ferramenta na manutenção das condições ruminais, que propiciem melhorias na produção de leite.The objective of this experiment was to verify the effect of adding etanoic extract of propolis in the diet of Holstein cows on milk production, milk production corrected to 4% of fat, protein and fat content of milk, somatic cells counting and dry matter intake. Twenty Holstein cows on lactation period ranging between 60 and 150 days, with average weight of 546 kg and milk production of 24 kg/day were

  12. Resíduos alimentares do lixo domiciliar: estudo do uso na alimentação de frangos de corte Food residues of domestic waste: case study of use in broiler chickens feeding

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    Ednilson Viana

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi elaborado com o propósito de se avaliar o uso de resíduos alimentares na ração de frangos de corte, obtidos através de coleta seletiva em um bairro popular da cidade de São Carlos, SP, Brasil, triturados, esterilizados, secados e caracterizados química e microbiologicamente. O componente final obtido, denominado Ingrediente de Ração dos Resíduos Alimentares (IRRA, foi testado em frangos como ingrediente de ração, nas proporções de 5, 10, 15, 20 e 25%, em associação com o farelo de milho, farelo de soja e outros ingredientes. A caracterização do IRRA mostrou ausência de micotoxinas, metais pesados, pesticidas organoclorados e microrganismos patogênicos. Houve valor da energia metabolizável alto (3.483 kcal kg-1, bom valor proteico (12% e diversos minerais. Detectaram-se baixos conteúdos de vitaminas, alguns minerais e aminoácidos. Os resultados mostraram que a inclusão do IRRA em até 20%, não alterou o desempenho das aves, como avaliado pelos índices de consumo de ração, o ganho de peso e a conversão alimentar.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of leftover food as chicken feed destined for poultry farms, obtained through selective collection in a popular neighborhood in the city of São Carlos, SP, Brazil, ground up, sterilized, dried and characterized chemically and microbiologically. The final component, called food leftover feed ingredient (FLFI, was tested on chickens as a chicken feed ingredient in proportions of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% mixed with corn and soybean bran and other ingredients. The characterization of the FLFI revealed the absence of mycotoxins, heavy metals, organochlorined pesticides and pathogenic microorganisms. The product showed a high metabolizable energy value (3.483 kcal kg-1, good protein value (12% and various minerals. The vitamin content was found to be low, as were some minerals and amino acids. The results revealed that the inclusion of up to 20% of FLFI

  13. Defatted corn-germ flour as an ingredient in swine feed and a source of endogenous antioxidants in porkFarelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado como ingrediente na dieta de suínos e fonte de antioxidante endógeno na carne

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    Piero da Silva Agostini

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of including defatted corn-germ flour (DCGF, a source of phytic acid, as an ingredient in pig feed for different periods in the growing-finishing phase were evaluated with respect to feed performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality. The test group consisted of 24 male pigs from the same genetic background, with an average initial weight of 75.41±4.41 kg and an average age of 123 days. The treatments consisted of adding 50% DCGF to the feed at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days before slaughter. The zootechnical performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and antioxidant effects of phytic acid were evaluated through the analysis of lipid oxidation in the meat of the slaughtered animals. There were no effects (P>0.05 for any period of DCGF feed supplementation on the zootechnical performance or carcass characteristics. Refrigerated meat showed less oxidation as the length of the DCGF-inclusion period in the diet was increased.O experimento avaliou os efeitos de diferentes períodos de inclusão do farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado (FGMD, como ingrediente e fonte de ácido fítico em rações de suínos em fase de terminação, sobre o desempenho, características de carcaça e qualidade da carne. Foram utilizados 24 suínos machos de mesma genética comercial com peso médio inicial de 75,41 ± 4,41 kg e idade média de 123 dias. Os tratamentos corresponderam a inclusão de 50% de FGMD na ração nos períodos de 0, 7, 14 e 21 dias antes ao abate. Foram avaliados o desempenho zootécnico, as características de carcaça e de qualidade da carne e o efeito antioxidante do ácido fítico, através da análise de oxidação lipídica na carne. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos (peso inicial dos animais ao acaso, com 4 tratamentos e 6 repetições por tratamento. Não houve efeito (P>0,05 do tempo de inclusão do FGMD na dieta no desempenho zootécnico e nas características de carcaça. Na qualidade de carne

  14. Inclusão de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado na alimentação de frangos de corte Feeding increasing defatted corn germ meal levels to broiler chickens

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    Sandra Regina Brunelli

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Dois ensaios foram realizados para avaliação do uso de farelo de gérmen de milho desengordurado (FGMD na alimentação de frangos de corte. No primeiro ensaio, para determinação do valor nutricional pelo método de coleta total de excretas, foram utilizados 120 pintos de corte com 19 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com três tratamentos e quatro repetições de dez aves por unidade experimental. As dietas experimentais, à base de milho e farelo de soja, variaram de acordo com os níveis de FGMD (0, 20 e 40%. Os valores médios dos coeficientes de metabolização de MS, FB, PB, EE e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pelo balanço de nitrogênio (EMAn foram, com base na matéria natural (MN, 60,99; 16,73; 53,80 e 82,71% e 2.413 kcal/kg, respectivamente. No segundo ensaio, foram utilizados 480 pintinhos de quatro dias de idade, distribuídos em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e oito repetições (quatro de cada sexo de 12 aves por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de dietas experimentais à base de milho e farelo de soja, com 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% de FGMD. Foram observados efeitos linear crescente do FGMD para ganho de peso (GP e consumo de ração (CR e linear decrescente para conversão alimentar (CA. A inclusão de 20% de FGMD proporcionou efeitos positivos nas características de desempenho de frangos de corte e não alterou as características de carcaça.Two trials were carried out to evaluate the effects of feeding of increasing defatted corn germ meal (DCGM levels to broilers. In the first trial, for determination of nutritional value by method of total excreta collection, 120 19-day old broilers were allotted to a completely randomized design with three treatments and four replications of 10 birds each. The treatments consisted of corn and soybean meal-based diets with increasing DCGM levels: 0, 20, and 40%. Mean values of

  15. Meta-análise do uso de ácido linoleico conjugado na alimentação de suínos Meta-analysis of conjugated linoleic acid use in pigs feeding

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    Ines Andretta

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar uma meta-análise da associação do ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA com o desempenho e a qualidade de carcaça e de carne em suínos (Sus scrofa domesticus. A base de dados utilizada contemplou 15 artigos publicados entre 1999 e 2006, e totalizou 216 dietas e 5.223 animais. A meta-análise foi realizada por meio de análises gráficas (para observar coerência biológica dos dados, de correlação (para identificar variáveis correlacionadas e de variância-covariância. O modelo da análise de variância incluiu apenas as variáveis de carne e carcaça mais correlacionadas com o consumo de CLA pelos animais, além das codificações para os efeitos inter e intra-experimentos. A inclusão do ácido linoleico apresentou correlação negativa com a eficiência alimentar e positiva com o consumo de ração e o ganho de peso dos animais. Não houve alteração do consumo de ração, do ganho de peso e da eficiência alimentar dos suínos. O ácido linoleico conjugado aumentou em 9% o conteúdo de carne magra na carcaça, e seu consumo variou a espessura média de toucinho. O ácido linoleico conjugado aumenta o conteúdo de carne magra e reduz a espessura de toucinho na carcaça, sem influenciar o desempenho e a qualidade da carne em suínos.This work aimed at meta-analyzing the association of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA with the performance and the carcass and meat quality in pigs (Sus scrofa domesticus. The database used assembled 15 scientific papers, published from 1999 to 2006, comprising 216 diets and 5,223 animals. Meta-analysis was carried out by graphical examination (to observe biological coherency, correlation (to identify correlated variables and variance-covariance analysis of the data. The analysis of variance included only meat and carcass variables with stronger correlation to CLA consumption by the animals, and encodings to inter and intra-experimental effects. The inclusion of CLA in diets

  16. Sunflower cake to sows feeding on gestation and lactation phases / Torta de girassol na alimentação de matrizes suínas em gestação e lactação

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    José Maurício Gonçalves dos Santos

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the use of sunflower cake in the rations to gestating and lactating sows. Forty eight sows, 24 gestating and 24 lactating, with the same genetic background were used. The treatments were represented by the levels of sunflower cake included in the rations of gestating and lactating sows, been: 0.0; 5.0; 10.0; 15.0%. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized block, with four treatments and six repetitions, been the block represented by the reproductive order. Each sow represented one repetition. The characteristics evaluated were back fat thickness, feed consumption, interval weaning to estrus, placenta’s weight and reproductive parameters. No significant effects were observed on reproductive performance, except the feed consumption during the lactation that was observed a negative linear effect. The sunflower cake can be included until the level of 20% in feeding programs to sows after 80-days of gestation and to the lactation phase.Foram realizados dois experimentos visando avaliar a utilização da torta de girassol nas rações de matrizes suínas em final de gestação (80 a 110 dias de prenhez e em matrizes em lactação (a partir do parto até o desmame aos 21 dias. Foram utilizadas 48 matrizes, 24 gestantes e 24 lactantes de mesma genética comercial. Os tratamentos consistiram na inclusão de 4 níveis de torta de girassol nas rações de gestação e lactação, sendo: 0,0; 5,0; 10,0 e 15,0% . O delineamento nos experimentos foi em blocos inteiramente casualizados, com quatro tratamentos e seis repetições, sendo o bloco representado pela ordem do parto. Cada matriz representou uma repetição. Foram avaliados a espessura de toucinho, o consumo diário de ração, o peso das placentas, o intervalo desmame-cio e parâmetros reprodutivos. Não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05 sobre nenhum dos parâmetros estudados, exceto para o consumo de ração na fase de lacta

  17. O papel da clorofila na alimentação humana: uma revisão The role of chlorophyll in human feeding: a review

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    Ursula Maria Lanfer-Marquez

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Os eventuais efeitos biológicos benéficos da clorofila, presente em alimentos, suscitam polêmica e dúvidas entre os consumidores. As informações divulgadas nos meios de comunicação que atribuem à molécula da clorofila numerosos efeitos terapêuticos, quase miraculosos, se contrapõem à falta de aprovação dessas atribuições pela comunidade científica. Tornar disponíveis os resultados das pesquisas mais recentes sobre o assunto e analisar criticamente esses dados foi o objetivo desta revisão. São discutidos os mecanismos de degradação da clorofila durante a senescência, armazenamento e processamento de vegetais, bem como no processo digestivo, considerando que os produtos de degradação podem diferir em cada caso. Avalia-se a importância da modificação estrutural da clorofila tendo em vista possíveis atividades antioxidantes, antimutagênicas e quimiopreventivas. Infelizmente, não há evidências fortes o suficiente que possam ser consideradas conclusivas quanto ao retardo ou prevenção de doenças pela clorofila. Contudo, a variedade de hipóteses, embora algumas muito distantes de serem comprovadas em humanos, levantam estratégias para dar continuidade às investigacões. Sugere-se, ainda, que sejam conduzidos estudos relativos à atividade biológica do fitol, uma vez que existem evidências que esta molécula, na sua forma livre, pode ser absorvida para a corrente sanguínea e exercer importantes funções no metabolismo lipídico e na regulação de processos metabólicos.The eventual physiological beneficial effects of chlorophyll present in foods have been raised questions and caused some doubts among consumers. Disclosing reports from mass media ascribing to the molecule of chlorophyll manifold therapeutic effects, nearby miraculous, oppose to the lack of full approval by the academic community. This article provides an overview about this topic and points out recent scientific findings regarding this subject

  18. Degradação ruminal e digestibilidade intestinal da proteína bruta de alimentos para bovinos Rumen degradation and intestinal digestibility of crude protein in feeds for cattle

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    Marcos Inácio Marcondes

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido com os objetivos de determinar as frações A e B e a taxa de degradação ruminal (Kd da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB de 27 alimentos e avaliar a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína nãodegradada no rúmen pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três estágios. Os alimentos avaliados foram farelos de arroz, babaçu, gérmen de milho e trigo; milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo, milho desintegrado com sabugo, milho, polpa cítrica, sorgo, amireia, farelos de algodão com 28, 38 e 46% de PB, farelos de amendoim, girassol e soja; feijão-bandinha, glúten de milho, grão de soja, levedura, promil, refinazil, cascas de cacau, café e soja e silagens de capim-elefante e milho. Para obtenção da degradabilidade ruminal da MS e PB dos alimentos, utilizaram-se sacos de náilon de 10 × 20 cm e os tempos de incubação de 0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 16, 24, 48 e 72 horas. A digestibilidade intestinal foi determinada pelas técnicas do saco de náilon móvel e de três estágios. Os dados de degradação ruminal da matéria seca e da proteína bruta, em sua maioria, estão de acordo com a literatura. A técnica dos três estágios não estimou de forma satisfatória a digestibilidade interstinal de todos os alimentos estudados em conjunto, mas foi adequada para os alimentos proteicos. A maioria dos alimentos possui aproximadamente 90% de digestibilidade da PB, com exceção das cascas de soja, café e cacau e das silagens de milho e capimelefante. A técnica de três estágios estimou corretamente a digestibilidade intestinal dos alimentos proteicos, mas recomenda-se a utilização da equação DIPB (% = -5,1906 + 1,1053 × X para corrigir a digestibilidade obtida pela técnica dos três estágios para alimentos não-proteicos.The objective of the present study was to determine the A and B fractions and the rumen degradation rate (Kd of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP in 27 feeds and determine the

  19. Palma Forrageira (Opuntia Fícus- Indica Mill como alternativa na alimentação de ruminantes (Forage Palm (Opuntia Fícus- Indica Mill as alternative in ruminant feeding

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    Cristina Cavalcante Félix da Silva

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumoA exploração pecuária na região Nordeste éprejudicada pelas constantes secas eirregularidade das chuvas, causando assim,uma baixa produtividade de seu rebanho.Considerando essa má distribuição dechuvas, é necessária a busca de alimentosalternativos e mais baratos, como a palmaforrageira. A palma forrageira sem espinhonão é nativa do Brasil. No Nordeste do Brasilsão encontrados três tipos distintos depalma: gigante, redonda e miúda. Essaforrageira apresenta alta produção dematéria seca por unidades de área, é umaexcelente fonte de energia, rica emcarboidratos não fibrosos e nutrientesdigestíveis totais. Porém, a palma apresentabaixo teor de fibra em detergente neutro,necessitando sua associação a uma fonte defibra que apresente alta efetividade. Assim,torna-se possível a associação da palma comalimentos de baixo custo, permitindoprodução de leite e manutenção em níveisbastante próximos aos obtidos com alimentosde maior valor comercial. Com isso, estarevisão tem por objetivo demonstrar aeficiência da utilização da palma forrageira naalimentação de ruminantes. AbstractAnimal exploration in Northeast region isimpaired by constant droughts and rainirregularity, causing low herd productivity.Considering this bad rain distribution it isnecessary to search alternative and cheaperfeed, as forage palm. The forage palmwithout thorn is not native of Brazil. In BrazilNortheast there are three distinct types ofpalm: giant, round and small. This forageshows high dry matter production per unit ofarea, is an excellent energy source, rich innon fiber carbohydrates and total digestiblenutrients. However, palm shows low neutraldetergent fiber content, being necessary itsassociation to a fiber source that shows higheffectively. Thus, it become possible toassociate palm to low cost feed, allowing milkproduction and supporting in levels near tothat obtained with greater commercial feed.This review has the objective of

  20. Uso de indicadores na determinação da digestibilidade parcial e total em bovinos Use of markers for estimation of feed digestibility in cattle

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    Antônio Ferriani de branco

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar indicadores, externos e internos, nos estudos de digestibilidade parcial e total em bovinos. Como indicador externo, foi utilizado o óxido crômico (Cr2O5 e, como indicadores internos, a cinza insolúvel em ácido (CIA e a fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (FDNI. As rações fornecidas aos animais continham, em média, 13,67% de PB, com 50% concentrado e 50% de volumoso. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos, da raça holandesa, portadores de cânulas no rúmen e no duodeno e com peso vivo médio de 320 kg, para estudar os fluxos de matéria seca (MS e matéria orgânica (MO no duodeno e nas fezes e três vacas fistuladas no rúmen. Para comparar os indicadores, as médias de fluxos de MS e de MO foram estimadas utilizando-se o intervalo de confiança. Também foi utilizado o coeficiente de variação para determinar a precisão das estimativas das médias. Nas condições do presente trabalho, verificou-se que o Cr2O3 foi o indicador que apresentou menor variação na estimativa das médias de fluxo em relação à CIA e à FDNI.The objective of this work was to evaluate external and internal markers in studies of partial and total digestibility in cattle. Chromic oxide (Cr2O3 was used as external marker and acid-insoluble ash (AIA and indigestible neutral detergent fibre (INDF as internal markers. The animals were fed a diet 13.7% crude protein (CP, with 50% concentrate and 50% forage. Four Holstein steers with 320 kg average body weight implanted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas, and three cows with ruminal cannula for INDF determination were used. The experiment was carried to study duodenal and faecal dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM flows estimated by markers. To compare markers, the averages for DM and OM flow were estimated using the trust interval, and the coefficient of variation of average estimation. Under the conditions of the present work it was concluded that chromic oxide

  1. Crude propolis as an immunostimulating agent in broiler feed during the first stagePrópolis bruta como agente imunoestimulante na alimentação de frangos de corte na fase inicial

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    Cinthia Eyng

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The experiment herein was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of supplementing a broiler diet with crude propolis on the animals’ immune response (humeral and cellular, lymphoid organ weight and hematological profile. One hundred sixty-eight male broilers raised in metabolic cages until 21 days of age were used in the experiments. The birds were randomly distributed in an experimental design with six treatments that consisted of different crude propolis doses (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm; the experimental unit was repeated seven times with four birds each. Including crude propolis in the food did not affect (P0.05. The interdigital reaction to the phytohemagglutinin displayed quadratic behavior as a function of time and crude propolis dose. Using the adjusted equation, the 275.45 ppm crude propolis dose and 39.35 hours produced the lowest and highest reaction values. Inclusion of 100 ppm crude propolis in the broiler feed was an effective immunostimulatory agent for cell-mediated responses. Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar a eficácia da suplementação de própolis bruta nas dietas de frangos de corte sobre as respostas imunes (humoral e celular, peso dos órgãos linfóides e perfil hematológico. Foram utilizados 168 pintos de corte, machos, criados em gaiolas de metabolismo até os 21 dias de idade. As aves foram distribuídas em um delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos, que consistiram em diferentes níveis de inclusão da própolis (0, 100, 200, 300, 400 e 500 ppm, com sete repetições e quatro aves por unidade experimental. A inclusão de própolis bruta nas rações não afetou (P>0,05 o peso relativo do timo, baço e bolsa cloacal e a produção dos anticorpos sricos contra a doença de Newcastle. Observou-se comportamento quadrático (P0,05. A reação interdigital a fitohemaglutinina apresentou comportamento quadrático em função do tempo e dos níveis de inclusão. De acordo com

  2. Exclusive breast feeding and prevention of diarrheal diseases: a study in Qatar Aleitamento materno exclusivo na prevenção de doenças diarréicas: um estudo realizado no Qatar

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    Abdulbari Bener

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to explore the relationships between breast feeding and diarrhea and to assess the effect of exclusive breast feeding (EBF on reducing the risk of diarrhea in Qatar. METHODS: this is a cross sectional survey carried out at the Well baby clinics and Pediatric clinics in the 11 Primary Health Care Centers and Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, in Qatar. A multistage sampling design was used and a representative sample of 1500 Qatari infants and preschool children with an age range of 0-3 years and mothers agedbetween 18 to 47 years were surveyed during the period from October 2006 to September 2008 in Qatar. Out of the 1500 mothers, 1278 agreed to participate in this study, with a response rate of 85.2%. Questionnaires were administered to women who were attending Primary Health Care (PHC Centers for child immunization. Data about the child gathered included date of birth, gender, birth order, consanguinity, socio-economic conditions, age of mother, level of education of mother, occupation, mode of breast feeding, sterilization of bottle and incident of diarrhea during the interview. Univariate statistical methods were performed for statistical analysis. RESULTS: of the 1278 infants studied, more than half (59.3% were exclusively breastfed, and the mean duration was11.4 (SD=6.7. The risk for presenting diarrhea was higher in formula fed (48.7% and partiallybreastfed children (37.3% when compared to EBF(32.5%. CONCLUSION: EBF plays an important role in reducing the incidence and severity of infantile diarrhea.OBJETIVOS: investigar a relação entre a amamentação e a diarréia e avaliar o efeito do aleitamento maternao exclusivo (AME na redução do risco de diarréia noQatar. MÉTODOS: um estudo transversal realizado nos Well Baby Clinics and Pediatric Clinics dos 11 centros de atenção básica do Hamad General Hospital, Hamad Medical Corporation, no Qatar. Um desenho amostral de múltiplos estágios foi empregado com

  3. Uso da LIPE® como indicador externo na determinação da energia metabolizável de alimentos em frangos de corte Use of LIPE® as external indicator on the determination of metabolizable energy of broiler chickens feeds

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    C.H.F. Vasconcellos

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um ensaio metabólico para avaliar a lignina purificada de eucalipto (LIPE®, como indicador na determinação da digestibilidade da energia dos alimentos para frangos de corte. Os tratamentos corresponderam a uma dieta basal e outras oito dietas contendo os alimentos-teste. Os alimentos foram: milho, milho expandido, farelo de soja, farelo de soja expandido, glúten de milho 22%, glúten de milho 60%, farinha de carne e ossos e farinha de penas e vísceras. Os alimentos protéicos e os com menor teor de proteína substituíram 25 e 40% da dieta basal, respectivamente. Foram utilizados 270 pintos de corte, linhagem Ross, de ambos os sexos, dos 21 aos 31 dias de idade. Utilizou-se um delineamento experimental inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 9×3 (rações × métodos, com três repetições. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade (CD da energia bruta, os valores da energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e de energia metabolizável de sete das nove dietas, calculados pelos métodos da coleta total de excretas e dos indicadores de óxido crômico e LIPE®, foram semelhantes. Com os alimentos-teste, farelo de soja expandido e farinha de penas e vísceras, o uso de óxido crômico resultou em CD e valores de EMA mais altos, quando comparado com o uso da LIPE® e da coleta total de excretas que foram semelhantes entre si. Pode-se considerar que a energia metabolizável dos alimentos, calculada pelos três métodos, foram equivalentes. A LIPE® pode ser validada como indicador de digestibilidade da energia dos alimentos em frangos de corte.A metabolism trial was carried out to evaluate the utilization of LIPE® as an external indicator of energy digestibility in broilers. The treatments included a basal diet and other different eight diets. Corn grain, expanded corn, soybean meal, expanded soybean meal, 22% crude protein gluten meal, 60% crude protein gluten meal, meat and bone meal and feather and viscera meal, were used. The basal

  4. Os efeitos da estimulação sensório motora oral na sucção nutritiva na mamadeira de recém-nascidos pré-termo The sensory-motor-oral stimulation effects on nutritive sucking of preterm infants during bottle feeding

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    Raquel Coube de Carvalho Yamamoto

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar o desempenho da sucção nutritiva, na mamadeira, em recém-nascidos pré-termo submetidos à estimulação sensório-motora-oral. MÉTODOS: pesquisa do tipo ensaio clínico controlado de intervenção. 20 recém-nascidos pré-termo foram distribuídos em grupo estimulado e grupo controle. Estes grupos foram submetidos à avaliação fonoaudiológica em dois diferentes momentos: na liberação da alimentação por via oral; e quando atingiam alimentação plena por via oral num período de 24 horas. As avaliações foram filmadas, e os resultados foram analisados pela pesquisadora. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se o Teste exato de Fishe r e o Teste "T" de Studen t do software estatístico STATA 10.0. Considerou-se p PURPOSE: to check the nutritive sucking performance in preterm infants that underwent sensory-motororal stimulation. METHODS: a controlled clinical trial of intervention was performed in 20 preterm infants divided into experimental and control group. The infants received a speech therapist evaluation in two different times: at the beginning of the oral feeding (first speech therapist evaluation and when they reached full oral feeding (second evaluation. Statistical data analyses used STATA 10 package and they were analyzed for treatment group differences with Fisher's exact Test and Student's unpaired t-test (p<0.05. RESULTS: infants in the experimental group, in the second evaluation, differed statistically in the pressure of strong sucking (p=0.003, presence of the three adaptive reflexes (p=0.001, coordination among sucking, swallowing and breathing (p=0.003, the total time for sucking (p=0.01 and of number of sucking/time (p<0.01. The total number of sucks showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.05 among the evaluations of the control group. No differences were observed among the groups as for sucking rhythm, and prescribed and ingested milk volume. CONCLUSION: in this study, sensory

  5. True and apparent digestibility of protein and amino acids of feed in Nile tilapia Digestibilidade aparente e verdadeira de proteína e aminoácidos de alimentos em tilápia-do-nilo

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    Felipe Barbosa Ribeiro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It was determined in this work the coefficients of apparent and true digestibility of protein and amino acids of five feeds (corn, wheat bran, soybean meal, corn gluten meal, fish meal in Nile tilapia. It was used 252 reverted Thai strain Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus in growth phase, with weight of 310 ± 9.68 g, distributed in experimental randomized blocks design, with five treatments, six replicates per treatment and seven fish per experimental unit. Each experimental diet contained a single source of protein, composed by the studied ingredients. An additional group of fish was fed protein-free diet for quantification of the endogenous fraction and determination of true digestibility coefficients. Digestibility was estimated by the indirect method by using chromium oxide at the concentration of 0.50% of the diet as a marker, performing fecal collection at every four hour interval by using decantation technique. Coefficients of apparent digestibility of the protein and amino acids are: corn, 83.57 and 82.45%; wheat bran 82.87 and 81.47%; soybean meal 91.12 and 89.41%; corn gluten meal 90.07 and 87.78%; fish meal 83.53 and 81.65% respectively. Coefficients of true digestibility of protein and the mean of the amino acids are: corn, 90.02 and 89.60%; wheat bran 89.62 and 89.14%; soybean meal 93.58 and 91.88%; corn gluten meal 92.50 and 90.34%; fish meal 86.01 and 84.27%, respectively.Foram determinados nesta pesquisa os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente e verdadeira da proteína e dos aminoácidos de cinco alimentos (milho, farelo de trigo, farelo de soja, glúten de milho e farinha de peixe em tilápias-do-nilo. Utilizaram-se 252 tilápias revertidas (Oreochromis niloticus em fase de crescimento, da linhagem tailandesa, com peso de 310 ± 9,68 g, distribuídas em delineamento de blocos casualizados, composto de cinco tratamentos, seis repetições por tratamento e sete peixes por unidade experimental. Cada dieta experimental

  6. Farinha de carne e ossos na alimentação de larvas de tilápia do Nilo Meat and bone meal to feed Nile tilapia larvae

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    Arcangelo Augusto Signor

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a inclusão de farinha de carne e ossos (FCO na alimentação de larvas de tilápia do Nilo. As dietas foram formuladas de forma a apresentarem-se isoproteicas (38,6% e isoenergéticas (3500kcal de ED kg-1, com diferentes níveis de inclusão (0; 5; 10 e 15% de FCO. Em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, foram distribuídas 360 larvas de tilápia (6,59±0,02mg e 0,90±0,08cm em 24 aquários de 30L. Os peixes foram alimentados até a saciedade aparente às 8h, 10h30min, 13h, 15h30min e 18h, por 30 dias. Ao final do experimento, foram avaliados as médias de peso final (PF, o comprimento final (CF, o comprimento padrão (CP e a sobrevivência (SO, e os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão pelo programa SAEG. O nível de inclusão de até 15% de FCO na dieta não influenciou o peso final das larvas. Entretanto, o maior CP foi observado nas larvas alimentadas com o maior nível de inclusão de FCO na dieta. Portanto, pode ser utilizado o total de até 15% de inclusão de FCO em rações para larvas de tilápia do Nilo.The present study evaluated the inclusion of meat and bone meal (FCO in Nile tilapia larvae feeding. The diet was formulated to be isoproteic (38.6% DP and isocaloric (3500kcal DE kg-1 with different FCO levels at 0; 5; 10 and 15%. A 30-day trial was carried out in a complete randomized design with 360 Nile tilapia larvae (6.59 ± 0.02mg and 0.90 ± 0.08cm distributed in 24 50l-aquaria and fed until satiation five times a day at 8h00, 10h30, 13h00, 15h30 and 18h00. At the end of the experiment the average final weight (PF, final length (CF, standard length (CP and survival (% (SO were evaluated and the data was submitted to a regression analyses. The Inclusion level of up to 15% of FCO in the diet did not influence larvae weight gain. However, the higher CP was observed in larvae fed with the highest level of FCO inclusion in diet. Therefore, it can be used a total of up to

  7. Utilização do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grão na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial (15-30kg de peso vivo Utilization of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grain on feeding of starting pigs

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    Alexandre Orio Bastos

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a utilização do milheto (Pennisetum glaucum, (L. R. Brown na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial (15 aos 30kg de peso vivo. Foi conduzido um experimento de desempenho, utilizando-se 48 leitões híbridos comerciais, sendo metade machos e metade fêmeas, com peso inicial de 14,9 ± 2,01kg. Utilizou-se a variedade IAPAR-IA98301 de milheto (MS: 90,61%; PB: 11,64%; Ca: 0,05%, P: 0,29% e 3.181kcal ED kg-1. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos (0, 20, 40 e 60% de inclusão de milheto, seis repetições e dois animais por unidade experimental. A inclusão do milheto em rações para suínos na fase inicial não influenciou o consumo diário de ração, o ganho diário de peso, a conversão alimentar e o custo em ração por quilograma de suíno produzido. Em uma relação onde o preço do milheto corresponde a 70% do preço do milho, o custo em ração do quilograma de suíno produzido também não foi alterado. Os resultados sugerem que o milheto IAPAR-IA98301 pode ser incluído em rações de suínos na fase inicial até o nível de 60%.The objective of this study was to evaluate the pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown utilization on feeding of initial pigs (15-30kg of body weight. A performance trial was conducted by using 48 crossbred pigs (a half barrows and a half females with initial weight of 14.93 + 2.01kg with the use of IAPAR-IA98301 species of pearl millet (DM 90.61%; CP 11.64%; Ca 0.05%; P 0.29% and 3,182 kcal DE kg-1. A randomized blocks designwas used, with four treatments (0; 20; 40 and 60% of pearl millet inclusion, with six repetitions and two animals per experimental unit. The pearl millet inclusion on starting pigs diets did not influence on daily feed intake, average daily gain, feed:gain ratio and cost in diet per kilogram of pig produced during the initial phase. The results, suggest that the pearl millet IAPAR-IA98301 can be included in

  8. Lecitina, silicone e amido na adubação foliar de couve (Brassica oleracea L. Lecithin, silicon and starch in the foliar feeding on collard green (Brassica oleracea L.

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    Rosmany Aires Cunha Martins

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, no presente trabalho, avaliar os efeitos que a lecitina, amido e silicone possam ter na eficiência da adubação foliar, utilizando-se sais e quelatos como fonte de micronutrientes. Para isso foi realizado um experimento em que avaliaram-se os efeitos da adição de diferentes adjuvantes em relação à absorção e translocação de zinco e manganês na forma de sais e quelatos. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, com quatro fatores em estudo e dois níveis cada, perfazendo um fatorial 2x2x2x2, totalizando dezesseis tratamentos. Além dos tratamentos, foi adicionada testemunha como tratamento adicional, perfazendo, assim, um total de 102 parcelas. Cada parcela foi constituída por um vaso, contendo uma planta de couve-manteiga (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala DC.. Os tratamentos constaram de combinações entre 2 fontes (sulfato e quelato e de presença ou ausência de três substâncias na calda de pulverização: lecitina de soja desengordurada, um siliconado comercial e gel de amido de mandioca. A determinação dos efeitos constituiu-se na análise do teor de zinco e manganês nas folhas novas 30 dias após a pulverização. A adição de lecitina aumentou a absorção do sulfato de zinco ao passo que o produto siliconado aumentou a absorção do zinco quelatizado. Tanto a lecitina quanto o produto siliconado, quando adicionados à calda de pulverização, aumentaram o teor de manganês. O gel de amido não aumentou a absorção de nenhum micronutriente.The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of lecithin, starch and silicon may have in the efficiency of foliar feeding, using salts and chelates as source of nutrients. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse condition at Univerdidade Federal de Goiás (Jataí unit - GO, set in a completely randomized design, with six replications, four factors in study and two levels each, making a 2x2x2x2 factorial

  9. Dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja suplementadas com enzimas na alimentação de frangos de corte Corn and soybean meal based diets supplemented with enzymes in feed of broiler chicken

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    Delma Maria Torres

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da adição de enzimas digestivas exógenas em dietas à base de milho e farelo de soja sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte, conduziu-se este experimento. Foram utilizados 819 pintos Hubbard em DIC e esquema fatorial 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 (enzimas, proteínas, níveis de energia e um tratamento testemunha com 3 repetições de 21 aves por parcela. Os níveis de enzimas foram 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 g/kg de dieta, e os de proteína foram normais (21,18, 19,95 e 19,43% PB e reduzidos (20,54, 19,35 e 18,46% PB; os de energia também foram normais (3000, 3100 e 3200 kcal/kg de EM e reduzidos (2910, 3007 e 3040 kcal/kg de EM, respectivamente, para as fases inicial, de crescimento e final da criação, e para o testemunha, a ração continha níveis normais de EM e PB, sem enzimas. Os fatores avaliados foram ganho de peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e fator europeu de produção. Pelos resultados, verificou-se manutenção do desempenho zootécnico das aves em razão da aplicação de enzimas, constatado pela não significância desses fatores aos 42 dias de idade e pela melhora na conversão alimentar, redução do consumo de ração e maior fator europeu de produção aos 21 dias de idade. O estudo da interação dos níveis de enzima x proteína mostrou que a adição de 0,5 g/kg de enzima na dieta com nível de proteína reduzido resultou em maior ganho de peso das aves. Conclui-se que é viável o uso de enzimas exógenas adicionadas em rações para frangos de corte.The objective of the experiment was verify the effect of the addition of exogen digestive enzymes in corn and soybean meal based diets on performance of broiler chickens. Were used 819 Hubbard chickens in completely randomized design, and 3 x 2 x 2 + 1 check factorial (enzyme, protein and energy levels and one treatment check with 3 replications, of the 21 birds by replicate. Enzyme levels were 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg of diet, energy levels were

  10. Efeito do tamanho da presa e do acréscimo de ração na larvicultura de pacamã Effect of prey size selection and feeding on the larviculture of pacamã

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    Marcelo Mattos Pedreira

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito do tamanho da presa, com ou sem adição de ração na larvicultura do pacamã (Lophiosilurus alexandri, espécie nativa da bacia do Rio São Francisco ameaçada de extinção. As larvas foram cultivadas em aquários por 16 dias e alimentadas com zooplâncton natural, selecionado em malhas de 650 e 1.300 µm, com ou sem ração. A oferta de zooplâncton de maior tamanho resultou em melhor desenvolvimento das larvas de pacamã, comprovando a vantagem do fornecimento de partículas alimentares maiores para o potencial de crescimento da espécie. O aumento na quantidade de ração não influenciou o desempenho das larvas, evidenciando a baixa ou falta de capacidade das larvas em digerir a ração ofertada. O fornecimento de ração diminuiu o pH e aumentou a condutividade elétrica, prejudicando a qualidade da água, o que não afetou o desempenho das larvas.The effect of prey size selection and feeding on pacamã Lophiosilurus alexandri larvae culture (native specie of San Francisco basin classified as threatened of extinction was evaluated. The larvae were cultivated in aquariums during 16 days and fed with natural zooplankton, screened in 650 and 1300 µm sieve, with and without ration. The offer of zooplankton of largest size provided a better development of the pacamã larvae, demonstrating the need of alimentary particles larger for the growth potential of the species. The increase of the amount of ration did not affect the performance of the larvae, evidencing low or lack of capacity in digesting the offered ration. The ration fed reduced the pH and increased the electric conductivity, worsening water quality, which did not affect the performance of the larvae.

  11. Effects of different sampling intervals on apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients by juvenile oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus=Diferentes intervalos de coleta na determinação da digestibilidade aparente da proteína e da energia de ingredientes comuns para o apaiari (Astronotus ocellatus

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    João Batista Kochenborger Fernandes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the apparent protein and energy digestibility of common feed ingredients (soybean meal, fish meal, wheat meal and corn by juvenile oscars using two different sampling intervals (30 min. and 12h. The 160 juvenile oscar fish tested (22.37 ± 3.06 g BW were divided into four cylindrical plastic net cages, each one placed in a 1000 L feeding tank. The experiment was completely randomized in a 2 x 4 factorial design (2 feces collection intervals and 4 feed ingredients with four replications. The statistical tests did not detect an interaction effect of sampling interval and type of ingredient on digestibility coefficients. Sampling interval did not affect protein and energy digestibility. The physical characteristics of juvenile oscar feces likely make them less susceptible to nutrient loss by leaching and can therefore be collected at longer intervals. Protein digestibility of the different ingredients was similar, showing that apparent digestibility of both animal and plant ingredients by juvenile oscars was efficient. Energy digestibility coefficients of fish meal and soybean meal were higher than those of wheat meal and corn. Carbohydrate-rich ingredients (wheat meal and corn had the worst energy digestibility coefficients and are therefore not used efficiently by juvenile oscars.O presente estudo avaliou a digestibilidade aparente da proteína e da energia de ingredientes (farelo de soja, farinha de peixe, farelo de trigo e milho por juvenis de apaiari (Astronotus ocellatus usando dois diferentes intervalos de coleta (30 min. e 12h. Os 160 juvenis de apaiari utilizados (22,37 ± 3,06 g de peso corporal foram divididos em quatro tanques rede plásticos e cilíndricos, cada um colocado em um tanque de alimentação de 1.000 L. O experimento foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (2 intervalos de coleta de fezes e 4 ingredientes foram com quatro repetições. Os testes estatísticos não detectaram efeito da

  12. Valor nutricional e energético de espécies vegetais importantes na alimentação do Tambaqui Nutritional and energy value from important vegetal species in tambaqui feeding

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    Jorge Antonio Moreira da Silva

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Analisou-se o valor nutricional e energético de alguns frutos e sementes das florestas de várzea e igapó, próximas à região de Manaus-AM, importantes na alimentação do tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818. Para o levantamento das espécies e os tipos de frutos consumidos por esta espécie foram utilizadas informações da literatura, complementadas com os resultados de análises de conteúdo dos tratos digestivos coletados através de capturas de animais e no principal porto de desembarque e comercialização de peixes em Manaus, a feira da Panair. Foram realizadas, semanalmente, na feira, coleta de 15 tratos digestivos, durante nove meses. Após a evisceração, os tratos digestivos foram acondionados em sacos plásticos, armazenados em isopor com gelo e transportados até o laboratório onde permaneceram em freezer (-20ºC. As análises de conteúdo dos tratos digestivos consistiram na coleta dos frutos e sementes para identificação, após serem preservados em álcool a 70% constituindo uma coleção de referência. Após identificação, as espécies de frutos e sementes foram coletadas nas áreas de ocorrência na várzea e igapó para as análises bromatológicas, seguindo metodologia da A.O.A.C (1995 e a energia bruta (kJ/g através de bomba calorimétrica. Identificou-se 46 espécies vegetais, distribuídas em 21 famílias e classificados nove tipos de frutos. De acordo com os dados atuais, a alimentação do tambaqui engloba, pelo menos, 133 espécies, entre frutos e sementes, distribuídas em 38 famílias e 15 tipos de frutos. O consumo destes itens variou entre inteiros e/ou triturados. A composição bromatológica de 14 espécies de sementes e 40 de frutos demostrou que estes itens são mais energéticos do que protéicos.Nutritional and energy value of some fruits and seeds from the flooded forests, next to Manaus-AM, important in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum Cuvier, 1818 feeding were analyzed. For the species

  13. Níveis de proteína bruta na dieta e desempenho reprodutivo de fêmeas primíparas em gestação Effects of feeding crude protein on the reproductive performance of females in the first pregnancy

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    Kedson Raul de Souza Lima

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram testados três tratamentos (10,0; 13,5 e 17,0% de PB com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito dos níveis de proteína bruta na dieta sobre o desempenho eprodutivo de 36 fêmeas (12 por tratamento suínas primíparas em gestação. As dietas continham (ou excediam todos os nutrientes necessários para suprir as exigências dos animais, de acordo com o NRC (1998, à exceção dos níveis de proteína bruta. Embora a proteína tenha sido diluída com amido, a proporção aminoacídica foi mantida em todas as rações, em razão da relação constante nas quantidades de milho e farelo de soja. Foram avaliados o ganho de peso da fêmea durante a gestação, o número de leitões nascidos, o peso da leitegada, a espessura de toucinho e o desempenho da matriz durante a lactação e após o desmame. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre as médias das variáveis ganho de peso durante a gestação, espessura de toucinho, peso do leitão ao nascimento e número de leitões nascidos. Durante a lactação, não houve diferença entre os grupos de fêmeas alimentadas com níveis diferentes de proteína bruta na gestação para as variáveis consumo de ração, perda de peso, perda de espessura de toucinho, ganho diário de peso dos leitões e peso da leitegada ao desmame. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos no intervalo desmame-cio nos desempenhos reprodutivo e produtivo de fêmeas primíparas.Three treatments were accomplished (10.0, 13.5, and 17.0% of CP to evaluate the effect of dietary CP levels on the reproductive performance of 36 females (12 females per treatment in the first pregnancy. The diets were formulated to contain (or to exceed all the nutrients to meet the animal requirements, with the exception of CP, according to NRC (1998. Although the protein was diluted with starch, the amino acid proportion was constant in all diet, due to the constant relation of the amounts of corn and soy meal. Gilt weight gain during the gestation

  14. In situ ruminal degradability of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein of some concentrated supplements used in the feeding of bovines/ Degradabilidade ruminal “in situ” da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e proteína bruta de alguns suplementos concentrados usados na alimentação de bovinos

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    Marco Antônio da Rocha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Holstein steers, with permanent ruminal cannula, 650 kg of liveweight, maintained on pasture, and receiving mineral mixture “ad libtum” were used. The present study had the objective of evaluating the “in situ” ruminal degradation of the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and organic matter (OM of 12 concentrated feed: whole sunflower seed (WSF, partially degreased sunflower (DSF, sunflower meal (SFM, sunflower pie pressed one time (T 1x, sunflower pie pressed two time (T 2x, for extracting of the oil, whole soybean seed (WS, partially degreased soybean (DS, soybean meal (SM, whole cottonseed (WC, cottonseed meal (CM, degreased corn germ (CG and a commercial concentrate with 36% of CP (CC. The feed were grounded in a mill equipped with a screen with sieves of 2 mm of diameter. Samples 5 g of DM from each one of the mentioned feed were incubated in nylon bags with pores of 50 micras of diameter, measuring 14 x 7 cm, for the times of 12; 20; and 33 h of ruminal fermentation. The effective degradability (ED of CP, for a passage rate of 5%/h varied from 62.08 to 95.93% for commercial concentrate and sunflower pie pressed two time for OM varied from 48.17 to 85.28% for soybean meal and whole cottonseed. The CC and CG presented the smallest ED of CP, however only the CC have larger protein escapes to be digested in the intestines, because CG presents little PB in its constitution.Foram utilizados quatro bovinos da raça holandesa, machos castrados, fistulados no rúmen, pesando em média 650kg, mantidos em pastejo e recebendo mistura mineral “ad libtum”. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a degradação ruminal “in situ” da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e matéria orgânica (MO de 12 alimentos concentrados: grão de girassol integral (GI, grão de girassol parcialmente desengordurado (GD, farelo de girassol (FG, torta de girassol com uma passagem pela prensa (T 1x, torta de girassol com duas passagens pela prensa (T

  15. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your Newborn KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your Newborn ... giving up the breast. previous continue About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative ...

  16. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca e proteína bruta, e tempo de colonização microbiana de oleaginosas, utilizadas na alimentação de ovinos=Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein, and microbial colonization time of oil grains in sheep feeding.

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    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade in situ, dos grãos de linhaça, canola, colza e milho, caroço de algodão, e dos concentrados casca e farelo de soja, em ovinos. Foram utilizados três animais da raça Santa Inês, fistulados e providos de cânulas ruminais, mantidos em baias individuais, recebendo diariamente capim picado e ração concentrada. Os alimentos foram incubados em ordem decrescente de 72, 48, 24, 18, 6, 3 e 0h. O teor de proteína dos alimentos avaliados foram 34,77; 30,07; 23,70; 10,64; 26,12; 14,65 e 56,90% para canola, colza, linhaça, milho, caroço de algodão, casca de soja e farelo de soja, respectivamente. A canola e a colza apresentaram baixa degradabilidade efetiva para a MS, com valor médio de 33,68%. O grão de linhaça apresentou degradabilidade efetiva para a MS de 64,24%, com fração potencialmente degradável de 87,89%. O milho apresentou fração solúvel de 12,33% e uma degradação de 39,67% para a MS. O farelo de soja apresentou-se dentro dos parâmetros normais de degradação com 52,61% para a MS e 52,83% para PB. Para a linhaça, canola e colza a degradabilidade da proteína apresentou valor médio de 18,34%. Os grãos de avaliados apresentaram baixa degradabilidade efetiva para a matéria seca e proteína bruta.This study evaluated in situ ruminal degradability of grains of linseed, canola, rapeseed and corn, whole cottonseed, as well as soybean hulls and soybean meal, in sheep. Three Santa Inês sheep were fistulated and fitted with rumen cannulas. The animals were housed in individual stalls, receiving chopped grass and concentrated feed daily. Feeds were incubated in descending order of 72, 48, 24, 18, 6, 3 and 0h. Protein content was 34.77% for canola, 30.07% for rapeseed, 23.70% for linseed, 10.64% for corn, 26.12% for cottonseed, 14.65% for soybean hulls, and 56.90% for soybean meal. Canola and rapeseed showed low effective degradability of DM, with mean value of 33.68%. Linseed grain had DM

  17. Uso do grau de preferência alimentar para a caracterização da alimentação de peixes na APA de São Pedro e Analândia - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1337 The use of feeding preference degree to characterize feeding habits of fishes at APA in São Pedro and Analândia - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1337

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    Leandro Muller Gomiero

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho caracterizou a alimentação de quatro espécies de peixes em duas bacias da Área de Proteção Ambiental de São Pedro e Analândia, área central do Estado de São Paulo. O Grau de Preferência Alimentar (GPA foi utilizado para mostrar a importância de cada item alimentar para as espécies de peixes em cada bacia. A alimentação das duas espécies de lambaris foi muito variada, sendo que os itens insetos alóctones, autóctones e material vegetal foram muito importantes, caracterizando-a como onivoria. O bagre (Rhamdia quelen alimentou-se principalmente de insetos na bacia do Jacaré-pepira e também de peixes na bacia do Corumbataí. O cascudo, Hypostomus strigaticeps, ingeriu material vegetal autóctone e sedimentos em ambas baciasWe studied feeding habits of four fish species in two watershed at APA - Área de Proteção Ambiental (Area of Environmental Protection in São Pedro and Analândia, State of São Paulo, southeastern Brazil. Feeding Preference Degree (FPD was used to demonstrate the importance of each food item for the species of both basins. Feeding habits of both species of “lambari” was variable. The allochtonous items such as insects, autochtonous items, and vegetal material were very important, characterizing omnivory. The “bagre” (Rhamdia quelen fed mainly on insects at the Jacaré-pepira Basin and also on fishes at the Corumbataí basin. The “cascudo” Hypostomus strigaticeps ingested autochtonous vegetal material and sediments at both basins

  18. Probiotic and antibiotics on swine feeding during nursery phase/ Uso de probiótico e de antibióticos na alimentação de leitões em fase de creche

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    Bruna Bueno de Carvalho

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiment was to evaluate the use of two probiotic doses compared with diets formulated with two antibiotics principles (tylosin and doxicycline+gentamicin supplied to swines during nursery phase (ages of 21 to 63 days. Forty eight swines were submitted to the following treatments: T1 (Treatment 1 - diets with 39 ppm of tylosin phosphate; T2 (Treatment 2 - diets with 1.9 x 107 UFC/100g of ration; T3 (Treatment 3 - diets with 3.8 x 107 UFC/100g of ration and T4 (Treatment 4 - diets with 13.6 ppm of doxicycline chloridrate + 8.8 ppm of gentamicin sulfate. Were evaluated the daily weight gain, the daily feed intake, the feed conversion and the diarrhea occurrence. The experimental design was done in randomized blocks, with 4 treatments and 6 replications (each replication was represented by a pen with two swines. The performance data were submitted to a variance analysis (ANOVA and the results were compared by the Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test. To compare the occurrence of diarrhea (among 2 treatments was used the qui square test. There were no differences between treatments for performance parameters. The T1 presented the highest occurrence of diarrhea compared to the other treatments. The best economic efficiency results were observed to T4, T3, T1 and T2, respectively. The use of probiotics or antibiotics principles, on the applied doses, determined positive results in the performance of swines during nursery phase.O experimento foi conduzido visando avaliar o uso de duas doses de probióticos comparadas com rações medicadas com dois princípios antimicrobianos (tilosina e doxiciclina+gentamicina para leitões em fase de creche (21 a 63 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 48 animais submetidos aos seguintes tratamentos: T1- ração com 39 ppm de sulfato de tilosina ; T2 - ração com 1,9 x 107 UFC/100g de ração; T3 – ração com 3,8 x 107 UFC/100g de ração; e T4 – ração com 13,6 ppm de cloridrato de doxiciclina + 8,8 ppm

  19. Avaliação da Farinha de Carne e Ossos na Alimentação de Frangos de Corte Evaluation of Meat and Bone Meal in Broiler Chickens Feeding

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    DE Faria Filho

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Um mil quatrocentos e quarenta pintos de um dia, machos, foram utilizados com o objetivo de avaliar a utilização da farinha de carne e ossos (FCO sobre o desempenho e rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 x 2, com os fatores: níveis de inclusão da FCO (3 e 6%, tipos de FCO (37,51 e 41,58% de proteína bruta, valores de energia metabolizável da FCO conforme equações de predição sugerida pelo NRC (1994 ou tabela de Rostagno et al. (1994, mais um tratamento controle sem a inclusão de FCO, com quatro repetições de 40 aves cada. O consumo de ração e ganho de peso (GP foram influenciados pela inclusão de FCO, sendo verificado maior GP quando a FCO não foi utilizada. As demais características de desempenho não foram afetadas pelos fatores estudados. A gordura abdominal foi reduzida quando a FCO não foi utilizada. Concluiu-se que dietas de frangos de corte contendo até 6% de FCO proporcionam pior desempenho quando comparadas com aquelas a base de milho e farelo de soja.Fourteen hundred and forty day-old male chicks were used to evaluate the use of meat and bone meal (MBM on performance and carcass yield of broilers. The experimental design was a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial random arrangement: inclusion levels of MBM (3 and 6%, types of MBM (37.51 and 41.58% of crude protein, metabolizable energy values for MBM according to prediction equations (NRC, 1994 or by Rostagno et al.(1994, plus a control diet without MBM, with four replicates of forty chickens each. Feed intake and body weight gain (WG were influenced by inclusion levels of MBM, with higher WG when MBM was not used. The remaining performance characteristics were not altered by the factors studied. There was reduction in abdominal fat when MBM was not used. It was concluded that the performance was impaired due to the use of diets containing up to 6% of MBM when compared to corn-soybean meal diets.

  20. Efeito do tipo de sedimento na eficiência alimentar, crescimento e sobrevivência de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 = Effect of sediment type on feed efficiency, growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931

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    Daniele Bezerra dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho zootécnico do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em diferentes tipos de substratos não consolidados. Juvenis (0,97 ± 0,27 g foram aclimatados na densidade de 52 m-2, em 21 caixas de polietileno com biofiltros individuais, emum sistema fechado de filtração contínua, sendo submetidos aos tratamentos: 1 A = 25% silte + 25% argila + 25% areia muito fina + 25% areia fina; 2 B = 50% areia fina + 50% areia muito fina e 3 Controle = sem substrato, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições cada. Os animais foram alimentados com 12% da biomassa/dia com ração peletizada (35% de proteína bruta, ofertada em bandejas e parceladaem duas ofertas diárias (8 e 16h. O estudo teve duração de 48 dias, sendo avaliados: consumo aparente de ração, eficiência alimentar, taxa de crescimento específico, sobrevivência e ganho de peso. Foram acompanhados diariamente salinidade, pH, amônia e temperatura da água. A análise estatística dos dados se deu por meio dos testes Anova ou Kuskal-Wallis, em função da sua parametricidade. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação aos fatores avaliadosnas diferentes granulometrias de sedimento testadas, indicando que estas não exerceram influência sobre o desempenho zootécnico de L. vannamei juvenil.This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp at different types of unconsolidated substrate. Juvenile shrimp (0.97 ± 0.27 g were acclimatized, in a stocking density of 52 m-2, to 21 polyethylene boxes (50 L connected individually to biofilters in a closed water exchange system. The animals were submitted to the treatments: 1 A = 25% silt + 25% clay + 25% very fine sand + 25% fine sand; 2 B = 50% fine sand + 50% very fine sand and 3 Control = no sediment, with seven replications each. Photoperiod was set on 12L: 12D. Shrimps were fed twice a day (at08:00 and

  1. Utilização da levedura de recuperação (Saccharomyces sp., seca por rolo rotativo ou por spray-dry, na alimentação de leitões na fase inicial Use of rotative-roll-dried or spray dried sugar cane yeast in the feeding of piglets in the initial phase

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    Antonio Claudio Furlan

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido utilizando, 144 leitões, mestiços, machos e fêmeas, na fase inicial dos 48 a 69 dias de idade, peso inicial de 15,9kg, com o objetivo de se avaliar nutricional e economicamente a levedura de recuperação (Saccharomyces sp., seca por spray-dry (LRSD e por rolo rotativo (LRRR. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos em esquema fatorial 2x2, com dois níveis de levedura em rações fareladas (7 e 14% e dois processos de secagem da levedura (LRSD ou LRRR, com quatro repetições e nove animais por unidade experimental. Não foram observados efeitos da inclusão da levedura às rações sobre o consumo diário de ração e ganho diário de peso; entretanto, o nível de 7% de inclusão proporcionou melhora na conversão alimentar e redução no custo em ração por quilograma de peso vivo ganho. O processo de secagem reduziu o custo em ração por quilograma de peso vivo ganho quando os leitões consumiam rações contendo LRRR. O nível de 7% de inclusão de levedura às rações proporcionou redução no consumo por quilograma de peso vivo ganho de energia digestível, lisina e metionina+cistina, independentemente do processo de secagem.A trial was undertaken using 144 male and female half-breed piglets (15.9 kg, with the objective to evaluate nutritionally and economically sugar cane yeast (Saccharomyces sp., dried by spray-dryer (SCYSD or by rotative roll dryer (SCYRD. The experimental design was of randomized blocks, with four treatments, in a 2x2 factorial scheme, using two inclusion levels of yeast in meal diets (7 and 14% and two yeast drying processes (SCYSD or SCYRD, with four replications and nine animals per experimental unit. There were no effects of yeast inclusion in diets on feed intake and daily weight gain, nevertheless the 7% inclusion level provided an improvement in feed conversion and reduction in diet cost per kilogram of live weight gain. The drying process

  2. Efeitos de indicadores e dias de coleta na digestibilidade dos nutrientes e nas estimativas do valor energético de alimentos para vacas alimentadas com diferentes fontes de proteína Comparison of internal markers and extent of total fecal collection to estimate nutrient digestibility and energy value of feeds on dairy cows fed different protein sources

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    Douglas dos Santos Pina

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 12 vacas da raça Holandesa, entre puras e mestiças, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4, organizados de acordo com os dias em lactação, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de dois períodos de coleta de fezes (dois ou seis dias, em intervalos de 26 horas, e de dois indicadores (fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (FDNi ou fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAi na estimativa da excreção de matéria seca fecal (EMSF, do coeficiente de digestibilidade dos nutrientes e dos teores de NDT. Avaliou-se também a eficiência do conjunto de equações somativas propostas pelo NRC (2001 para estimar o valor energético dos alimentos utilizando-se 60% de silagem de milho com base da MS total das dietas. Os concentrados foram constituídos de diferentes fontes protéicas (FS - farelo de soja; FA38 - farelo de algodão 38%PB; FA28 - farelo de algodão 28%PB e FSU - farelo de soja + 5% de uréia/sulfato de amônia na MS do concentrado. Não foram observados efeitos dos dias de coleta de fezes e dos indicadores sobre as estimativas da EMSF, dos coeficientes de digestibilidade dos nutrientes e dos teores de NDT. As equações propostas pelo NRC (2001 subestimaram os consumos de CNF e EE digestíveis e NDT e superestimaram os de FDN e PB digestíveis. Dois dias de coleta de fezes são suficientes para estimativa da digestibilidade dos nutrientes e, conseqüentemente, do consumo de NDT. A FDNi foi o indicador mais preciso para estimar a excreção de MS fecal. As equações propostas pelo NRC (2001 não foram adequadas para estimar o valor energético dos alimentos em condições tropicais.Twelve lactating dairy cows (Holstein and crossbred Holstein x Zebu were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned to three replicate 4 x 4 Latin squares to compare two schedules of total fecal collection (two versus six days and the reliability of two internal markers [indigestible neutral detergent fiber (INDF or

  3. Levedura de cana-de-açúcar spray dry na alimentação de suínos na fase de crescimento e terminação Sugar cane spray dry yeast on growing and finishing pigs feeding

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    A.R. Poveda-Parra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o valor nutricional (digestibilidade total e ileal de duas leveduras spray dry (cana-de-açúcar - LEV35 e cerveja+cana-de-açúcar - LEV40 e o efeito da sua inclusão em rações para suínos na fase de crescimento e terminação. Os valores de ED (kcal/kg da LEV35 e da LEV40 foram 3.496 e 3.901 e EM (kcal/kg foram 3.475 e 3.862, respectivamente. Os valores de lisina, metionina+cistina e treonina digestível para a levedura de cana-de-açúcar e da levedura de cerveja+cana-de-açúcar são 2,66 e 2,64, 1,11 e 1,03, 1,95 e 1,92, respectivamente. No desempenho foram utilizados 40 suínos com peso inicial de 34,39± 7,57kg (crescimento e de 62,45± 5,68kg (terminação, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco níveis de inclusão (0, 5, 10, 15 e20% da LEV35. Na fase de crescimento, houve piora do GDP e da CA com o aumento da inclusão. Na fase de terminação, porém, houve efeito quadrático para o CDR, sendo o melhor nível 3.32%. Da mesma forma, ocorreu piora linear para o GDP, CA, peso de carcaça quente, rendimento de carcaça fria e peso de pernil. Os resultados sugerem que a adição de níveis crescentes da LEV35 pode prejudicar o desempenho dos suínos.The nutritional value of two spray dry yeast (sugar cane - SCYSD and brewer+sugar cane - BYSD and their inclusion effects on growing and finishing pigs feeding was studied. The DE (kcal/kg values for SCYSD and BYSD were 3.496 and 3.901 and for ME (kcal/kg they were 3.475 and 3.862. The values of digestible lysine, methionine+cistine and threonine for SCYSD and BYSD were: 2.66 and 2.64%; 1.11 and 1.03%: 1.95 and 1.92%. 40 pigs with initial weight of 34.39±7.57kg (growing and 62.45±5.68kg (finishing, allotted in a completely randomized design with five levels of SCYSD inclusion were used in the performance assay. In the growing phase, there was an impairing on DWG and F:G, however, in the finishing phase, DFI presented a quadratic effect, being 3

  4. Determinação dos valores de energia e do balanço de nitrogênio de alguns alimentos para leitões na fase inicial Determination of energy values and nitrogen balance of some feeds for the young pigs

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    Teresinha Marisa Bertol

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado para obter valores de energia digestível (ED e metabolizável (EM de quatorze alimentos, em cinco experimentos, utilizando-se 144 leitões com 28 dias de idade e peso médio de 9,42±0,76 kg. O teor de energia digestível (ED e o de energia metabolizável (EM foram determinados por intermédio do método de coleta total de fezes e urina. As fontes de proteína provenientes do leite foram superiores aos subprodutos da soja, com relação à digestibilidade da energia e da proteína. Entre os subprodutos da soja, a proteína concentrada e a proteína texturizada apresentaram os maiores valores de digestibilidade da energia e a soja integral extrusada, os menores. A digestibilidade da matéria seca e da energia do milho e do farelo de soja com 46,5% de proteína bruta foi semelhante à observada em avaliações com suínos adultos, indicando que a capacidade dos leitões jovens para digerir estes dois alimentos foi semelhante à dos suínos adultos. Houve redução da relação EM/ED, em virtude do aumento do teor de proteína e do desequilíbrio entre os aminoácidos da dieta e diminuição da relação entre energia bruta e N excretados na urina, com aumento do teor de proteína da dieta e vice-versa. Estes dados indicam a necessidade de se desenvolverem fatores de correção para EM específicos para diferentes grupos de alimentos e condições de experimentação.The objective of this work was to determine the digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy values of some feeds for weaned pigs. Fourteen feeds were evaluated in five experiments, using 144 piglets with an average initial weight of 9.42+0.76 kg at 28 days of age. The DE and ME contents were determined by means of the total collection of feces and urine method. The protein sources from milk had higher energy and protein digestibility than soybean by products. Among these, concentrated protein and textured protein had the highest energy digestibility, and

  5. Effect of varying dietary protein levels on growth, feeding efficiency, and proximate composition of yellow snapper Lutjanus argentiventris (Peters, 1869 Efecto de diferentes niveles de proteína en la dieta, sobre el crecimiento, eficiencia alimenticia y composición proximal del pargo amarillo Lutjanus argentiventris

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    Minerva Maldonado-García

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of dietary protein (31, 41, 45, and 55% was evaluated in quadruplicate in the yellow snapper (Lutjanus argentiventris. Specimens were kept in sixteen 200 L plastic tanks for 95 days and the values of growth rate, feeding efficiency and proximate composition of yellow snapper (18 g were examined. Every 15 days were carried out individual weight measurements and standard length of the total population. At the beginning and end of the experiment, liver and muscle samples were taken for proximate analysis of crude protein and ether extract. In general, the highest gain was obtained with fish fed with 55% crude protein in the diet. The best feed conversion ratio (FCR, specific growth rate (SGR, percent weight gain (WG%, average daily gain (ADG, and feed efficiency rate (FER were obtained with the fish fed 55% of protein (CP. The protein content in liver decreased in fish fed with protein levels and higher energy compared with the initial fish. Finally, the use of practical diets containing 55% CP is appropriate for optimal growth and efficiency of feed utilization of yellow snapper. The results obtained in this study may be due to the early stage of development of yellow snapper where protein and energy requirements are higher.El efecto de diferentes niveles de proteína en la dieta (31, 41, 45 y 55% fue evaluado por cuadruplicado en el pargo amarillo Lutjanus argentiventris. Los organismos fueron mantenidos en 16 tanques de plástico de 200 L por 95 días y los valores de crecimiento, eficiencia alimenticia y composición proximal del pargo amarillo (18 g fueron examinados. Cada 15 días se llevaron a cabo mediciones de peso individual y longitud estándar del total de la población. Al inicio y al final del experimento, muestras de hígado y músculo fueron tomadas para análisis proximal de proteína cruda y extracto etéreo. En general, la ganancia de peso más alta fue obtenida con los peces alimentados con 55% de proteína. La mejor

  6. Farelos de algodão com diferentes níveis de proteína na alimentação de suínos na fase inicial: digestibilidade e desempenho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.604 Utilization of two cottonseed meal in starting pig feeding : digestibility and performance - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v28i4.604

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    Yolanda Maria Sartori

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos três experimentos, com o objetivo de estudar a utilização de farelos de algodão (FA com diferentes níveis de proteína bruta (36% de PB -FA36 e 42% de PB -FA42 na alimentação de leitões. O Exp. I foi um ensaio de digestibilidade, utilizando suínos machos castrados. O FA36 e o FA42 apresentaram 2.256 e 2.414 kcal de ED kg-1, 2.042 e 2.196 kcal de EM kg-1 e 77,54 e 79,75% para os coeficientes de digestibilidade d a PB, respectivamente. Nos Exp. II e III foram avaliados o desempenho de leitões (15 -30 kg alimentados com FA36 e FA42, respectivamente. Foram formuladas, para cada experimento, cinco rações com níveis crescentes de inclusão de FA (0, 4, 8, 12 e 16% util izando 40 leitões, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos, quatro blocos e dois animais por unidade experimental. Com o aumento da inclusão de FA36 o consumo diário de ração (CDR não foi influenciado, o ganho diário de peso (GDP apresentou efeito quadrático com ponto de máximo e a conversão alimentar (CA aumentou linearmente. A análise econômica indicou viabilidade da inclusão de até 8%. Com a adição de níveis crescentes de FA42 houve efeito quadrático com ponto de mínimo sobre o CDR e GDP, e aumento para a CA. Os resultados indicaram que a inclusão de FA piorou a CA. Entretanto, a viabilidade econômica é dependente do custo relativo dos ingredientes.Three experiments were carried out with the objective to study the use of cottonseed meals (CM with different crude protein level s, (36% CPCM36 and a 42% CP-CM42 on starting pig diets. The Exp. I was a digestibility trial using 12 barrows. The CM36 and CM42 showed 2,256 and 2,414 kcal DE kg-1, 2,042 and 2,196 kcal ME kg-1, and 77.54 and 79.75% to digestibility coefficients of CP, respectively. In the Exp. II and III were studied the starting pigs performance (15 -30 kg fed with CM36 and CM42, respectively. In both experiments, five diets with

  7. Bromatology and fumonisin and aflatoxin contamination in aquaculture feed of the region of Londrina, State of Paraná, Brazil/ Bromatologia e contaminação com fumonisina e aflatoxina em rações utilizadas na piscicultura da região de Londrina, Estado do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro Bracarense

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available With intention to supply the demand and progress of aquaculture, the industrial sector invested in the production of feed, whose formulation depends on grains susceptible for mycotoxigenic fungi. The objective of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition (nutricional quality associated with the risk of mycotoxin contamination (aflatoxin and fumonisin in 42 feed samples, belonging to five commercial industries, and used in fishing activity of the Region of Londrina-PR. The analysis of chemical composition indicated adequate nutritional quality of feeds, without significant difference concerning bromatological composition between extruded and pellet feeds (p>0.05. The aflatoxin levels ranged from non-detectable to 15.60 ng/g, where 61.90% showed 0,05, but the aflatoxin/fumonisin co-occurrence in 23.8% feed samples suggested risk of toxic synergism, emphasizing the importance of mycotoxin monitoring in fish feeding quality. Taking into account the continuous renewal of feed in the fishing ones, there is low possibility of aflatoxin/fumonisin production due the storage, therefore the critical point should be targeted on crude material at field to pre-processing stage, independently of mark or nutritional differences.Com o intuito de suprir a demanda e o progresso na piscicultura, o setor industrial investiu na produção de rações, cuja formulação depende de ingredientes constituídos de grãos susceptíveis à contaminação por fungos micotoxigênicos. O trabalho visou avaliar a composição química (qualidade nutricional, aliada à susceptibilidade ao risco de contaminação por micotoxinas (aflatoxina e fumonisina, em 42 amostras de ração, pertencentes a cinco marcas comerciais, utilizadas nos pesqueiros da Região de Londrina-PR. A análise da composição química indicou qualidade nutricional adequada das rações, não se constatando diferença significativa na composição bromatológica geral entre os tipos de ra

  8. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  9. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding Print ... a lactation specialist. previous continue All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  10. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States Environmental ...

  11. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A What's in this article? All About Breastfeeding Breastfeeding Challenges All About Formula Feeding Formula Feeding Challenges Making a Choice en español Lactancia materna versus lactancia artificial Choosing whether to breastfeed or formula feed their ...

  12. Substituição parcial de silagem de milho por farelo de glúten de milho desidratado na alimentação de vacas holandesas em lactação Partial replacement of corn silage by corn gluten feed in the feeding of dairy Holstein cows in lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina do Nascimento Alves

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito da substituição de parte da silagem de milho por farelo de glúten de milho (FGM-21 desidratado na produção e composição do leite e nos parâmetros sangüíneos de vacas em lactação e avaliar economicamente essa substituição. Foram avaliados os níveis 0, 8 e 16% de inclusão de FGM-21 (% MS nas dietas. Trinta vacas foram utilizadas no estudo da produção e composição do leite e 15 vacas no estudo dos parâmetros sangüíneos. O delineamento experimental foi quadrado latino 3 ´ 3 com dez replicações. Houve diferença entre as dietas para a produção de leite e a produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. As demais características estudadas não diferiram entre as dietas. Para produção de leite, foram obtidos os valores de 22,44; 23,69 e 23,88 kg/vaca/dia; para produção de leite corrigida para 3,5% de gordura, 23,25; 24,71 e 24,44 kg/vaca/dia; para porcentagem de gordura, 3,69; 3,76 e 3,65%; para proteína no leite, 3,22; 3,20 e 3,25%; lactose, 4,29; 4,32 e 4,31%; sólidos totais, 12,12; 12,23 e 12,14%; N-uréico no leite, 16,57; 16,50 e 14,96 mg/dL; N-uréico plasmático, 19,92; 21,17 e 20,21 mg/dL; e para glicose sérica, 55,69; 56,50 e 54,78 mg/dL nos níveis 0, 8 e 16% de FGM-21, respectivamente. A dieta com 16% de FGM-21 resultou em maior lucro.The objective was to study the effects of partial replacing of corn silage by corn gluten feed (CGF-21 dehydrated on milk production and composition of milk and in the blood parameters of dairy cows, beyond the economic evaluation. Inclusion levels of 0, 8 and 16% of CGF-21 (% DM to the diets were evaluated. Thirty cows were used for study of milk production and composition and fifteen cows for blood parameters study. A 3 x 3 Latin Square experimental design with ten replications was used. There was difference among diets for milk yield and for 3.5% fat correct milk. No difference among diets was observed for the other studied

  13. A influência da iniciativa hospital amigo da criança na amamentação La influencia de la Iniciativa Hospital Amigo del Niño en el amamantamiento The influence of the 'Friend of Children Hospital' campaign on breast-feeding

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    Valéria Lerch Lunardi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho investiga a percepção de mulheres que foram parturientes num Hospital Amigo da Criança (HAC sobre a influência dessa proposta na sua decisão de aleitar. Realizamos entrevistas semi-estruturadas enfocando o processo de aleitamento materno (AM, expectativas, vivências e importância da equipe de saúde. A análise de conteúdo dos dados realizou-se a partir dos "Dez Passos para o Sucesso do Aleitamento Materno". Constatamos que em situações reconhecidas pelas mulheres como problemáticas e não encontrando respostas que atenuassem diferentes desconfortos e o sofrimento vivenciados, frente ao seu desejo de amamentar, interromperam o AM. Consideramos que com a manutenção do apoio à mulher, pelo HAC, para o enfrentamento dessas dificuldades, sua influência pode ser decisiva para a continuidade do AM.El trabajo investiga la percepción de las mujeres que eran parturientas en un Hospital Amigo del Niño (HAN sobre la influencia de esta propuesta en su decisión de amamantar. Realizamos entrevistas semiestructuradas enfocando el proceso de amamantar (AM; las expectativas; las vivencias; la importancia del equipo de salud, entre otros. El análisis de contenido de los datos se realizó a partir de los «Diez Pasos para el Éxito de Amamantamiento Materno». Constatamos que en situaciones reconocidas por las mujeres como problemáticas y no encontrando respuestas que atenuaran diferentes incomodidades y el sufrimiento vivenciado, frente a su deseo de amamantar, interrumpieron el AM. Consideramos que con el mantenimiento del apoyo a la mujer, por el HAC para el enfrentamiento de esas dificultades, su influencia puede ser decisiva para la continuidad del AM.The paper investigates the awareness of women who gave birth in a 'Friend of Children' Hospital (FCH of the influence of this campaign on their decision to breast-feed. We conducted semi-structured interviews, focusing the maternal breast-feeding process, expectations, experiences

  14. Fontes de proteína, ingestão de alimentos e fluxo esplâncnico de nutrientes em ovinos Protein sources, feed intake and splanchnic flux of nutrients in sheep

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    Antonio Ferriani Branco

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a ingestão de nutrientes e o fluxo esplâncnico de glicose, nitrogênio alfa-amino, amônia e uréia em ovinos alimentados com diferentes fontes de proteína. Foram utilizados três ovinos pesando, em média, 50 kg, implantados com quatro catéteres, sendo um na veia mesentérica, um na artéria mesentérica, um na veia porta e um na veia hepática. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 3x3. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização de três diferentes fontes de proteína: o farelo de soja, a farinha de penas e o farelo de glúten de milho. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos na ingestão de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN. As concentrações portal, hepática e arterial de glicose, N alfa-amino, amônia e uréia não diferiram com a utilização de diferentes fontes de proteína. Somente o fluxo portal de glicose aumentou e o esplâncnico de N alfa-amino diminuiu com a utilização do farelo de glúten de milho como fonte de proteína. As taxas de extração hepática dos nutrientes foram de -10,51; 4,07; 47,69 e -4,81%, para a glicose, N alfa-amino, amônia e uréia, respectivamente, e não diferiram entre os tratamentos.Three wethers averaging 50 kg LW, fitted with four catheters, in the mesenteric vein, mesenteric artery, portal vein and hepatic vein, were used to evaluate nutrient intake and glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen, ammonia and urea splanchnic fluxes in sheep fed with different protein sources. Statistical design was a 3x3 Latin square. Treatments consisted of three different protein sources utilization: soybean meal, hydrolyzed feather meal and corn gluten meal. There were no treatment effects over intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. Portal, hepatic and arterial concentrations for glucose, alpha-amino nitrogen, ammonia and urea were not affected by different

  15. Invloed van kunstmelk en voersamenstelling na spenen op energieopname en Streptococcus suis infecties bij biggen = Effect of milk intake and feed composition after weaning on energy intake and Streptococcus suis infection in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Dirx-Kuijken, N.C.P.M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Raymakers, R.

    2011-01-01

    Op VIC Sterksel is onderzocht of het verstrekken van kunstmelk gedurende de eerste dagen 6 dagen na spenen en het verstrekken van een luxer speenvoer de energie-opname van de biggen verhoogt en het aantal biggen met klinische verschijnselen passend bij een S. suis infectie vermindert. De resultaten

  16. Feed transition in larval rearing of bocudo, Steindachneridion scripta (Pisces, Pimelodidae, using Artemia spp. nauplii and artificial diet Transição alimentar na larvicultura do bocudo, Steindachneridion scripta (Pisces, Pimelodidae, com o uso de náuplios de Artemia spp. e dieta artificial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.B. Adamante

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Feed transition of Steindachneridion scripta larvae was investigated using seven treatments in which the reference diet, Artemia spp. nauplii, was totally substituted for a 56% crude protein artificial diet in two-day intervals. Initially, all treatments were fed with Artemia spp. nauplii and, subsequently, during the transition period, feed was equally composed by Artemia sp. nauplii and artificial diet. Everyday, one of the treatments began the feed transition, which was implemented between the second and the eighth days of culturing. Two treatments were used as control: one exclusively fed Artemia spp. nauplii and another only with artificial diet. Total weight, total length, and survival rate were not influenced by the day in which feed transition was implemented (P>0.05, and their mean values (± SD were 31.1±25.0mg, 13.3±1.5mm and 58.8±12.0%, respectively. This suggests that Steindachneridion scripta larvae adapted well the transition to artificial diet.A transição alimentar de larvas de Steindachneridion scripta foi investigada utilizando-se sete tratamentos, nos quais a dieta básica, composta por náuplios de Artemia spp., foi integralmente substituída, em intervalo de dois dias, por uma dieta artificial contendo 56% de proteína bruta. Inicialmente, todos os tratamentos receberam náuplios de Artemia spp. No período de transição alimentar, metade da alimentação foi formada por náuplios de Artemia spp. e metade por dieta artificial. A cada dia, um dos tratamentos entrou na fase de transição, que foi implementada entre o segundo e o oitavo dia de cultivo. Utilizaram-se dois tratamentos como controle; em um as larvas foram alimentadas, exclusivamente, com náuplios de Artemia spp. e em outro, somente, com dieta artificial. Peso total, comprimento total e sobrevivência não foram influenciados pelo dia de implantação da transição alimentar (P>0,05 e, apresentaram valores médios iguais a (± desvio padrão 31,1±25,0mg

  17. Efeitos da inclusão de níveis crescentes de milheto (Pennisetum Glaucum (L. R. Brown grão na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação Effect of feeding increasing levels of pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Brown grain for growing and finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Orio Bastos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento de desempenho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a viabilidade nutricional e econômica da utilização de rações com níveis crescentes de milheto na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação. Foram utilizados 40 suínos (metade machos castrados e metade fêmeas, com peso inicial de 25,1±2,11 kg, distribuídos em quatro tratamentos, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições e dois animais (um macho castrado e uma fêmea por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram de rações com níveis crescentes de milheto (0, 25, 50 e 75%. Não foram observados efeitos dos níveis de milheto sobre o consumo diário de ração (CDR, o ganho diário de peso (GDP e a conversão alimentar (CA na fase de crescimento. Entretanto, na fase de terminação, constatou-se efeito quadrático para o CDR e GDP, comprovando que a inclusão de 26,44% de milheto otimizou o GDP. A inclusão de até 75% de milheto em rações para suínos em crescimento e terminação atende aos requerimentos nutricionais dos animais nessas fases, sendo economicamente viável quando o valor de mercado corresponde a 70% do valor do milho.A performance trial was carried out to evaluate the nutritional and economical analyses of feeding increasing dietary levels of pearl millet for growing and finishing pigs. Forty crossbreed pigs averaging initial body weight of 25.1 ± 2.1 kg were assigned to four treatments as a randomized blocks design with five replicates and two pigs (one barrow and one gilt per experimental unit. The treatments contained the followign levels of pearl millet: 0, 25, 50 and 75%. No effects on daily feed intake (DFI, daily weight gain (DWG, and feed:gain ratio (FGR in the growing phase was detected. However, in the finishing phase, quadratic effect on DWG and DFI was observed, showing that the inclusion of 26.44% of pearl millet increased DWG. The inclusion of pearl millet up to 75% in the diets of growing and

  18. Modelagem da redução do tamanho de partículas na alimentação de ruminantes Modeling of feed particle size reduction in the ruminants nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Alain Collao Saenz

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O tamanho de partícula influencia o valor nutricional do alimento porque pode afetar o consumo de matéria seca, a digestão e utilização de nutrientes pelos microorganismos ruminais e, o desempenho animal. Alguns modelos são apresentados para ilustrar a evolução da representação da redução do tamanho de partícula. Em geral, as diferentes propostas se comportam adequadamente e provêem informação útil para produção ou pesquisa. Porém, todos os modelos demonstram inexatidão em certos pontos. Nesta revisão são discutidas as razões para esses problemas e é proposta a inclusão de novas variáveis relacionadas com a cinética de partículas, ingestão descontínua de alimentos e liberação do conteúdo celular com o objetivo de aumentar a precisão de futuros modelos de consumo e digestão.Particle size seems to be an important factor influencing the nutritional value of the feed because it may affect dry matter intake, microbial digestion and utilization of nutrients and animal performance. Some models are described to present different attempts to represent particle size reduction. In general, the diverse approaches behave adequately and provide useful information for production or research. All models, however, demonstrate inaccuracy in some points. The reasons for these failures are discussed and the inclusion of new variables related to particle kinetics, pulses of feed and cell content release to increase accuracy of predictions in future models of feed intake and digestion of ruminants is proposed.

  19. Qualidade de cortes de suínos recebendo ractopamina na ração em diferentes programas alimentares = Quality of pork cuts from swine receiving ractopamine as ration in different feed programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a suplementação de ractopamina associada à restrição alimentar em rações com elevado teor de lisina sobre a composição de cortes suínos. Foram utilizados 30 suínos machos castrados (peso 107,2 ± 6,2 kg, recebendo as dietas experimentais durante28 dias pré-abate. Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados em fatorial 2 x 2 + 1 (dois níveis de ractopamina – 0 ou 5 ppm – em rações com 1,03% de lisina total; fornecidas à vontade ou 15% de restrição, e um tratamento controle, ad libitum, semractopamina, contendo 0,8% de lisina total com seis repetições. Os cortes foram obtidos da carcaça esquerda resfriada. Foram avaliados o rendimento do filezinho (RFIL, as porcentagens de carne no pernil (PCPER, a paleta (PCPAL, a sobrepaleta (PCSOP e o carré (PCCAR e a espessura (EB, a flexibilidade (FB, a quantidade de carne (QCB, agordura (QGB e a relação carne:gordura (RCGB da barriga. A ractopamina aumentou o RFIL, PCPER, PCPAL, PCSOP, PCCAR e RCGB quando comparada com rações sem ractopamina e 1,03% de lisina. Comparado ao controle, a ractopamina aumentou o PCCAR e a RCGB; diminuiu o QGB e, quando associada à restrição, aumentou a PCPER. A restrição diminuiu a FB. O uso de ractopamina aumenta a porcentagem de carne nos cortessuínos e a restrição alimentar diminui a FB.This study evaluated the supplementation of ractopamine associated with feeding restriction in diets with high lysine content on the composition of pork cuts. Thirty barrows (107.2 ± 6.2 kg were utilized, receiving the experimental diets during 28 days before slaughter. The randomized block design was applied in a 2 x 2 + 1factorial (two levels of ractopamine – 0 or 5 ppm – in rations with 1.03% of total lysine; ad libitum or 15% feed restriction; and a control treatment, ad libitum, without ractopamine, with 0.8% of total lysine with six replicates. The cuts were obtained from the left chilled carcass. The tenderloin percentage

  20. Hábitos alimentares e sobreposição trófica das raias Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae na planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, Brasil = Feeding habitats and trophic overlap of the freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae in the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milza Celi Fedatto Abelha

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available As raias Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro foram avaliadas em relação à composição de suas dietas e a sobreposição do nicho trófico nos períodos de seca (agosto/2004 e cheia (janeiro/2005 na planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, em três estações de coleta próximas à ilha Mutum. Foram analisados 49 conteúdos estomacais de P. falkneri e 16 de P. motoro, obtidos de espécimes capturados através de pesca com anzol, fisga (arpão e espinhel. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados de acordo com os métodos de freqüência volumétrica e de ocorrência. A similaridade da dieta foi quantificada pelo índicede sobreposição de Pianka. As espécies revelaram flexibilidade alimentar, com ambas consumindo predominantemente moluscos na cheia, enquanto na seca a dieta de P. falkneri foi composta principalmente por peixes e a de P. motoro por insetos aquáticos. Os valores doíndice de sobreposição de nicho variaram entre 0,38 na seca (moderado e 0,94 na cheia (acentuado. A variação da composição das dietas foi atribuída às oscilações na disponibilidade dos recursos alimentares no ambiente.Feeding habits and trophic overlap of freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro were evaluated in the upper Paraná river floodplain. Samples were collected during periods of drought (August/2004 and flood (January/2005 near Mutum island. Fishhook, harpoon and long line were used to capture the individuals and a total of 49 stomach contents of P. falkneri and 16 of P. motorowere analyzed. Diet composition was analyzed by the relative occurrence and volumetric frequencies. The trophic overlap was quantified by the index of niche overlap of Pianka. Results indicated that both species predominantly consumed mollusks during the floodseason, while in the drought season the diet of P. falkneri was composed mainly by fish and P. motoro for aquatic insects. The values of the index of niche overlap varied from 0.38, in

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document. ...

  2. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  3. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000181.htm Jejunostomy feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... vomiting Your child's stomach is bloated Alternate Names Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum ...

  4. Nasogastric feeding tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000182.htm Nasogastric feeding tube To use the sharing features on this ... the nose. It can be used for all feedings or for giving a person extra calories. It ...

  5. Feeding Your Newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child. These guidelines on breastfeeding and bottle feeding can help you make the decision that's right ... formula is a nutritious alternative to breast milk. Bottle feeding can offer more freedom and flexibility for moms, ...

  6. Morfologia e hábitos alimentares de duas espécies de Engraulidae (Teleostei, Clupeiformes na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro Morphology and feeding habits of two engraulid fish (Teleostei, Clupeiformes in the Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sergipensel

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados as hábitos alimentares dos peixes engraulídeos Anchoa januaria e Cetengraulis edentulus na Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, de julho de 1983 a julho de 1985. Os itens alimentares e as estruturas morfológicas relacionadas à alimentação indicaram que a área superficial dos rastros branquiais de A. januaria e C. edentulus é mais eficiente para a filtração dos alimentos, do que as distâncias entre os mesmos. Estas estruturas morfológicas possibilitam uma seletividade no tamanho dos itens alimentares, resultando em formas distintata de obtenção do alimento, entre as duas espécies. A. januaria seleciona o zooplâncton, por captura dos itens alimentares, enquanto C. edentuluss é um fitoplanctófago filtrador. Anchoa januaria tem hábitos alimentares diurnos e explgra diferentes estratos da coluna d'água durante os períodos frio e quente.Feeding habits of the engraulidid flsh - Anchoa januaria and Cetengraulis edentullus were studied in the Baía de Sepetiba, Rio de Janeiro, from July 1983 to July 1985. Dietary items and morphological structures "blted to feeding indicate that the surface structures of branchial rays of A. januaria and C. edentulus are more useful for food filtration than the distance between them. Those morphological structures provide a separation of the size of dietary items, thw resoltins in different forms of feeding behaviors between two species. A. januaria is a selective zooplanktivore, picking up food items, whereas C. edentulus is a filtering phytaplanktivore. Anchoa januaria is a diurnal feeder and exploits different layers in the water column during the warm and cold seasons.

  7. Métodos alternativos de restrição alimentar na muda forçada de poedeiras comerciais Alternative methods of feed restriction in the forced molt of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Márcia Ribeiro de Souza

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados métodos alternativos de restrição alimentar qualitativa em comparação à técnica convencional de muda forçada. Utilizaram-se 480 galinhas Babcock de 78 semanas distribuídas em três níveis de restrição alimentar (100, 75 e 50% e três percentuais de redução de peso corporal (15, 20 e 25%, cada um com cinco repetições de 32 aves. Quando as aves atingiram o percentual de redução de peso corporal, determinaram-se o volume globular, os percentuais de ovário, oviduto, moela, intestino e gordura abdominal e o comprimento de oviduto. A partir do 28º dia e durante cinco períodos de 28 dias, observaram-se as características quantitativas e qualitativas de produção pós-muda. O maior período de restrição foi observado no nível de 50% e proporcionou menores percentuais de gordura abdominal (0,66%, ovário (0,60%, oviduto (0,77% e comprimento de oviduto (32 cm. O percentual de produção de ovos foi maior no primeiro período para as aves submetidas aos métodos de 75 e 100% de restrição com 15 e 20% de redução de peso, respectivamente. Entretanto, para as aves com 50% de restrição e 25% de redução de peso, as maiores produções (86,80 e 83,20% ocorreram no quarto e quinto períodos. A restrição alimentar qualitativa, em 50% da dieta com ração e casca de arroz, por ser menos agressiva, proporciona melhores condições de bem-estar e facilita o manejo da granja.Alternative methods were assessed of qualitative feed restriction compared to the conventional forced molt technique. Four hundred and eighty Babcock hens were used distributed in three levels of feed restriction (100, 75 and 50% and three body weight reduction percentages (15, 20 and 25%, with five replications of 32 hens. When the birds reached the body weight reduction percentage the packed cell volume, percentages of ovary, oviduct, gizzard, intestine, abdominal fat and oviduct length were determined. Starting on day 28 and during five 28-day

  8. Metabolizable energy and amino acids relationships with the soluble fractions of protein and fiber of vegetable feed ingredients Energia metabolizável e relações de aminoácidos com as frações solúveis de proteína e fibra de ingredientes vegetais

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    Claudio Bellaver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available To estimate nutrient and energy digestion with animal from in vitro variables it is necessary to control factors that may interfere on digestion such as: source and concentration of digestor substance, as well as the origin and processing of test ingredients. In this study there were performed five laboratory assays, two with poultry and finally regression equations were established based on variables generated with twelve vegetable ingredients. The results showed that there is greater solubility of proteins with NaOH than with KOH. On average, both alkali produced better discrimination of soluble protein with concentration of 0.02% (range of 68.61% in relation to a concentration of 0.2% (range of 37.97%. Considering interaction between alkali and concentration, the best discrimination on protein solubility was reached with NaOH at 0.02%. The methods of protein or fiber solubilization together with the chemical analysis showed significant results variation among ingredients and when they were used to estimate in vivo variables they produced good estimates. It was concluded that reliable digestion estimates for energy or amino acids from vegetable feed ingredients could be obtained from in vitro variables, when considering solubilities of protein and fiber with chemical analysis.Para estimar a digestão de nutrientes e de energia dos animais a partir de variáveis in vitro, é necessário controlar os fatores que interferem na digestão - origem e concentração da substância digestora - e ter conhecimento da fonte e do processo que envolve o ingrediente em teste. Neste trabalho, foram conduzidos cinco ensaios laboratoriais, dois com animais e, por fim, estabelecidas equações de regressão a partir das variáveis geradas com a utilização de 12 ingredientes vegetais. Os resultados mostraram que há maior solubilidade das proteínas com o NaOH que com o KOH e que, na média de ambos os álcalis, a concentração de 0,02% permite maior

  9. Estimação da digestibilidade intestinal da proteína de alimentos por intermédio da técnica de três estádios Estimation of protein intestinal digestibility of feeds by means of three-steps technique

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    Luciano da Silva Cabral

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen de alimentos por intermédio da técnica de três estádios. Os alimentos avaliados foram os farelos de soja, algodão e trigo; fubá e glúten de milho; grão de soja e caroço de algodão; e farinhas de peixe, carne e sangue. Os alimentos foram inicialmente incubados no rúmen de bovinos fistulados, por 16 horas para determinação da proteína não-degradada no rúmen (PNDR, sendo o resíduo submetido à digestão com solução de pepsina, durante 1 hora, e solução de pancreatina a 38ºC, durante 24 horas, cujos resíduos foram analisados para nitrogênio total (N. A estimativa da PNDR variou de 18,83 a 94% e a digestibilidade intestinal da PNDR, de 25,07 a 83,25%. O glúten de milho e o farelo de soja foram os alimentos que apresentaram a melhor digestibilidade intestinal e o grão de soja e o farelo de trigo, a pior digestibilidade. Embora alguns sistemas de adequação de dietas para ruminantes considerem que a PNDR apresenta digestibilidade intestinal constante, os resultados encontrados neste estudo sugerem que esta foi variável.The objective of this research was to estimate the intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein (RUDP by a three-steps procedure. The evaluated feeds were the soybean meal, cottonseed meal, wheat middlings, corn meal, corn gluten meal, whole raw soybean, whole raw cottonseed, fishmeal, meat meal and blood meal. Firstly, the feeds were incubated in rumen during 16 hours to determine the rumen-undegradable protein, the residue was incubated with pepsin solution during 1 hour, and pancreatic solution during 24 hours at 38(0C, whose residues were analyzed for total nitrogen. The RUDP ranged from 18,83% to 94%, and the estimates of intestinal digestion of RUDP ranged from 25,07 to 83,25%. The corn gluten meal and soybean meal were the feeds that presented better intestinal digestibility, and the

  10. Composição química da glicerina produzida por usinas de biodiesel no Brasil e potencial de uso na alimentação animal Chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and potential utilization in animal feeding

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    Jackson Silva e Oliveira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Com a crescente produção de biodiesel no Brasil, aumenta também a produção de glicerina, co-produto dessa indústria. O principal componente da glicerina é o glicerol, altamente energético e, por isso, ela já vem sendo usada como alimento animal em vários países. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a composição química da glicerina produzida por indústrias de biodiesel no Brasil e discutir seu potencial de utilização na alimentação animal. Dezesseis usinas, responsáveis por 85,1% do biodiesel produzido no país, forneceram 41 amostras para análise. Cromo, cádmio e chumbo não foram detectados em nenhuma das amostras estudadas. Apenas quatro usinas, responsáveis por 36,8% da produção, produzem glicerina que atendem os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para os teores de umidade e glicerol. Apenas uma usina, responsável por 14,1% da produção, produz glicerina apta para uso na alimentação de ruminantes, por não utilizar sebo bovino como matéria prima para o biodiesel.The increasing production of biodiesel in Brazil also increases glycerin production, a co-product of this industry. The main component of glycerin, glycerol, is highly energetic and because of that, glycerin is already used as animal feed in many countries. The objective of this paper was to evaluate the chemical composition of glycerin produced by biodiesel plants in Brazil and discuss its potential utilization as animal feed. Forty one samples of glycerin from sixteen biodiesel plants, that together yield 85.1% of Brazilian biodiesel, were analyzed. Chromium, cadmium and lead were not detected in any studied sample. Only four plants, that together yield 36.8% of Brazilian glycerin, comply the glycerol and moisture content levels established by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply. Only one, responsible for 14.1% of Brazilian glycerin, delivers glycerin with the potential to be used as

  11. Substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho na alimentação de cabras leiteiras Substitution of soybean meal protein by corn gluten meal protein in dairy goat feeding

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    Luiz Gonzaga Pego de Macedo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se um experimento com cabras Saanen, primíparas, pesando em média, 50 kg, alojadas em baias individuais de 3 m², objetivando avaliar a substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína da farinha de glúten de milho (FGM, na produção e composição do leite, consumo voluntário e níveis de uréia plasmática. O delineamento experimental foi o triplo quadrado latino 4x4, com quatro períodos de 21 dias, sendo 14 dias de adaptação à dieta e sete dias para colheita das amostras. As cabras foram alimentadas e ordenhadas pela manhã e tarde. Os níveis de substituição estudados foram 0, 10, 30 e 50% de FGM (base na proteína bruta. A substituição do farelo de soja pela farinha de glúten de milho não afetou o consumo (kg/dia e %PV de matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente ácido, mas houve efeito quadrático, para o consumo de fibra em detergente neutro (kg/dia e % PV. Houve efeito sobre os níveis de uréia plasmática (UP, que foram inferiores para os menores níveis de substituição, sendo os maiores valores de UP observados para o tratamento que possuía somente FS. A produção de leite decresceu linearmente com a inclusão da farinha de glúten de milho. Os níveis de substituição resultaram em decréscimos lineares na produção de gordura (kg/dia, no teor de gordura do leite (% e no teor de sólidos totais. Houve efeito quadrático para produção de lactose (kg/dia, observando-se o menor valor estimado para o nível de substituição de 31,6%. Não foi observado efeito sobre a produção de proteína bruta no leite, cujo valor médio foi de 0,083 kg/dia. Os teores de proteina bruta, lactose e sólidos totais não sofreram efeito dos níveis de substituição, sendo os valores médios percentuais de 2,98; 4,35 e 11,51%, respectivamente.It was carried out an experiment with goats Saanen, on the first lactation, with 50 kg of body weight, housed in individual stalls of 3 m², to evaluate

  12. Palma Forrageira (Opuntia Fícus- Indica Mill como alternativa na alimentação se ruminantes (Forage Palm (Opuntia Fícus- Indica Mill As Alternative In Ruminant Feeding

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    Cristina Cavalcante Félix da Silva

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Resumo A exploração pecuária na região Nordeste é apresenta baixo teor de fibra em prejudicada pelas constantes secas e detergente neutro, necessitando sua irregularidade das chuvas, causando assim, associação a uma fonte de fibra que uma baixa produtividade de seu rebanho. apresente alta efetividade. Assim, torna-se Considerando essa má distribuição de possível a associação da palma com chuvas, é necessária a busca de alimentos alimentos de baixo custo, permitindo alternativos e mais baratos, como a palma produção de leite e manutenção em níveis forrageira. A palma forrageira sem espinho bastante próximos aos obtidos com não é nativa do Brasil. No Nordeste do alimentos de maior valor comercial. Com Brasil são encontrados três tipos distintos isso, esta revisão tem por objetivo de palma: gigante, redonda e miúda. Essa demonstrar a eficiência da utilização da forrageira apresenta alta produção de palma forrageira na alimentação de matéria seca por unidades de área, é uma ruminantes. excelente fonte de energia, rica em carboidratos não fibrosos e nutrientes

  13. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring ... babies who are born prematurely, as are many twins and higher order multiples. Breast milk is easier ...

  14. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

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    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  15. Substituição do milho por farelo de trigo ou farelo de glúten de milho na ração de bovinos de corte em terminação = Substitution of corn grain by wheat middlings or corn gluten feed in the finishing bulls diet

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    Eduardo Menegueli Pereira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a substituição do milho moído fino (MM por farelo de trigo (FT ou farelo de glúten de milho (FGM na ração de 36 bovinos não castrados, em terminação (14 meses; peso inicial de 382 kg durante 87 dias. A ração continha 24% de silagem de capim e 76% de concentrado, constituído por polpa cítrica, farelo de soja, uréia, minerais, bicarbonato de sódio e monensina sódica, além de uma das fontes energéticas testadas. A substituição de MM por FT aumentou a ingestão de FDN (pThe objective of this work was to evaluate the substitution of finely ground (GC corn by wheat middlings (WM or dried corn gluten feed (CGF in finishing feedlot diets. Thirty-six yearling bulls (382 kg average initial live weight; 14 months old were fed during 87 days. The diets contained 24% grass silage and 76% concentrate, formulated with dried citrus pulp, soybean meal, urea, mineral-vitamin mix,sodium bicarbonate, sodium monensin, and one of the energy sources tested. The substitution of wheat middlings for corn increased NDF intake (p<0.05. However, no effect was observed on other measured parameters. Substitution of corn gluten feed for ground corn reduced dry matter intake (p<0.05 and average daily gain (p<0.10, increasedNDF intake (p<0.05, but had no effect on feed efficiency. These diets showed no differences in the observed values of net energy of maintenance or gain. The ratio observed/expected net energy for the diet differs from the other treatments. For this type of diet, GC may be completely replaced by WM or CGF with no depression on feed efficiency or on diet net energy. NRC (2001 underestimates TDN values and net energy estimates for WM and CGF.

  16. Effects of adult feeding on the reproduction and longevity of Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae and Elachistidae species; Efeito da alimentacao da fase adulta na reproducao e longevidade de especies de Noctuidae, Crambidae, Tortricidae e Elachistidae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milano, Patricia; Berti Filho, Evoneo; Parra, Jose R. P.; Consoli, Fernando L., E-mail: patmilano@gmail.co, E-mail: eberti@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: jrpparra@esalq.usp.b, E-mail: fconsoli@esalq.usp.b [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz. (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia e Acarologia; Oda, Melissa L., E-mail: melissa.oda@gmail.co [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Florestais

    2010-04-15

    This research evaluates the effect of the adult diet on the reproduction of Anticarsia gemmatalis Hubner, Heliothis virescens (Fabr.), Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) (Noctuidae), Diatraea saccharalis (Fabr.) (Crambidae), Gymnandrosoma aurantianum Lima (Tortricidae) and Stenoma catenifer Walsingham (Elachistidae). Adults of all species were fed either water or a 10% honey solution. The egg viability for the 1{sup st} and 2{sup n}d egg masses, adult fecundity, longevity, number of mating and the ovigeny index (OI) (degree of ovarian maturation) were evaluated. Fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens was drastically reduced when females were fed only on water. Egg viability from both 1{sup st} and 2{sup nd} egg masses was variable between treatments. Females of A. gemmatalis, H. virescens and S. frugiperda, and males of some species had a reduced longevity when fed only on water. The number of matings was higher for A. gemmatalis and D. saccharalis when fed on water only. The OI was < 1.0 for all species evaluated indicating that all females may develop new oocytes as they age. Based on the OI and the reduced fecundity of A. gemmatalis and H. virescens, one observes that adult feeding is important for the reproduction of both species, and the IO is not a good parameter to indicate such condition. Spodoptera frugiperda, G. aurantianum, D. saccharalis and S. catenifer do not require any source of carbohydrates as adults to sustain their reproduction. (author)

  17. Freshwater sponges (Porifera, Demospongiae in a benthic filter feeding community at the Guanacaste Dry Forest, Costa Rica Esponjas continentais (Porifera, Demospongiae em uma comunidade bêntica filtradora na Floresta Decidual de Guanacaste, Costa Rica

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    Cecilia Volkmer-Ribeiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater sponges Trochospongilla variabilis Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago (1973, Radiospongilla crateriformis (Potts, 1882, Spongilla cenota Penney & Racek (1968 and Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera (Ezcurra de Drago, 1974 compose with the sphaerid bivalve Eupera cubensis (Prime, 1865 and several Phylactolaemata bryozoans a benthic filter feeding community living in seasonal lentic and lotic habitats with high Particulate Organic Carbon (POC, low conductivity and acid pH within the Costa Rica Dry Forest biome. The sponge specimens gathered led to the re-description of the four species.As esponjas de água doce Trochospongilla variabilis Bonetto & Ezcurra de Drago (1973, Radiospongilla crateriformis (Potts, 1882, Spongilla cenota Penney & Racek (1968 e Corvoheteromeyenia heterosclera (Ezcurra de Drago, 1974 compõem, com o bivalve esferídeo Eupera cubensis (Prime, 1865 e diversos briozoários Phylactolaemata, uma comunidade bêntica de filtradores em ambientes sazonais lênticos e lóticos com alto Carbono Orgânico Particulado (POC, baixa condutividade e pH ácido no bioma da Floresta Decidual da Costa Rica. Os espécimes de esponjas coligidos conduziram à redescrição das quatro espécies.

  18. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca e proteína bruta, e tempo de colonização microbiana de oleaginosas, utilizadas na alimentação de ovinos - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.11388 Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein, and microbial colonization time of oil grains in sheep feeding - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.11388

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    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade in situ, dos grãos de linhaça, canola, colza e milho, caroço de algodão, e dos concentrados casca e farelo de soja, em ovinos. Foram utilizados três animais da raça Santa Inês, fistulados e providos de cânulas ruminais, mantidos em baias individuais, recebendo diariamente capim picado e ração concentrada. Os alimentos foram incubados em ordem decrescente de 72, 48, 24, 18, 6, 3 e 0h. O teor de proteína dos alimentos avaliados foram 34,77; 30,07; 23,70; 10,64; 26,12; 14,65 e 56,90% para canola, colza, linhaça, milho, caroço de algodão, casca de soja e farelo de soja, respectivamente. A canola e a colza apresentaram baixa degradabilidade efetiva para a MS, com valor médio de 33,68%. O grão de linhaça apresentou degradabilidade efetiva para a MS de 64,24%, com fração potencialmente degradável de 87,89%. O milho apresentou fração solúvel de 12,33% e uma degradação de 39,67% para a MS. O farelo de soja apresentou-se dentro dos parâmetros normais de degradação com 52,61% para a MS e 52,83% para PB. Para a linhaça, canola e colza a degradabilidade da proteína apresentou valor médio de 18,34%. Os grãos de avaliados apresentaram baixa degradabilidade efetiva para a matéria seca e proteína bruta.This study evaluated in situ ruminal degradability of grains of linseed, canola, rapeseed and corn, whole cottonseed, as well as soybean hulls and soybean meal, in sheep. Three Santa Inês sheep were fistulated and fitted with rumen cannulas. The animals were housed in individual stalls, receiving chopped grass and concentrated feed daily. Feeds were incubated in descending order of 72, 48, 24, 18, 6, 3 and 0h. Protein content was 34.77% for canola, 30.07% for rapeseed, 23.70% for linseed, 10.64% for corn, 26.12% for cottonseed, 14.65% for soybean hulls, and 56.90% for soybean meal. Canola and rapeseed showed low effective degradability of DM, with mean value of 33.68%. Linseed grain had DM

  19. Effects of leaf herbivory on the bromeliad Aechmea blanchetiana: a study of selective feeding by the scraper Acentroptera pulchella Efeito da herbivoria foliar na bromélia Aechmea blanchetiana: estudo sobre o padrão seletivo de forrageamento do inseto raspador Acentroptera pulchella

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    Noa Magalhães

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The scraper Acentroptera pulchella (Chrysomelidae, Hispinae feeds on the leaves of Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae, but not indiscriminately. This insect apparently concentrates its attack on the apical region of the intermediate leaves from the bromeliad tank. To characterise the potential influence of leaf defensive strategies on the intraspecific feeding pattern of A. pulchella on the leaves of the bromeliad A. blanchetiana, we quantified the apparent intraspecific preference of this feeding pattern; compared distinct leaves and portions in relation to morpho-physiological, mechanical, nutritional and chemical anti-herbivore strategies; and investigated whether some or all these defensive strategies help explain the observed feeding pattern. A. pulchella preferentially attacked the mid-upper portions of mature and adult leaves of A. blanchetiana, but not the mid-lower portions of the same leaves, which are more resistant to punch, are thicker and present less nitrogen content than the upper portions. However, soft young leaves were not attacked. Attacked portions also presented higher total phenol content than did non-attacked portions, indicating that phenols do not act defensively. Other morpho-physiological and chemical anti-herbivore strategies evaluated did not differ between portions and leaves. This herbivore feeds preferentially on leaf portions that have higher nitrogen levels, avoiding others that present increased punch resistance. The scraper A. pulchella exhibits a clearly selective feeding pattern that is driven by nutritional benefits rather than strictly mechanical or chemical anti-herbivore strategies.O raspador Acentroptera pulchella (Chrysomelidae, Hispinae foi observado se alimentando de folhas de Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae, mas não de forma indiscriminada. Este inseto aparentemente concentra seu ataque na metade superior das folhas intermediárias do tanque da bromélia. A fim de caracterizar a potencial influ

  20. Inclusão de polpa de caju desidratada na alimentação de ovinos: desempenho, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio Effects of feeding dried cashew pulp on performance, digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep

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    Laí Alves Dantas Filho

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar o desempenho, a digestibilidade e o balanço de nitrogênio e analisar a viabilidade econômica da inclusão de polpa de caju desidratada na alimentação de ovinos em confinamento. Foram utilizados 20 ovinos machos mestiços da raça Santa Inês em confinamento, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualisados, com cinco tratamentos (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% de polpa de caju desidratada - PCD e quatro repetições. As dietas, isoprotéicas, foram compostas de feno de tifton - 85 moído (Cynodon spp. como volumoso e concentrado formulado com milho, farelo de soja, polpa de caju desidratada e sal mineral. Os níveis de polpa de caju desidratada na dieta não interferiram no consumo de MS e PB (g/dia e na conversão alimentar. O consumo de FDN elevou e o ganho de peso diminuiu com o aumento da inclusão da polpa de caju desidratada na dieta. Para ganho médio diário, a polpa de caju desidratada pode ser incluída em proporções de até 30% (nível que proporcionou o melhor retorno econômico. A inclusão de polpa de caju desidratada em rações para ovinos na fase de terminação reduziu a retenção de nitrogênio e afetou negativamente a digestibilidade dos nutrientes (MS, PB, FDN e FDA.Twenty crossbred male Santa Inês sheep were assigned to a completely randomized block design to evaluate the effects of feeding dried cashew pulp (DCP on performance, digestibility of nutrients, and nitrogen balance. It was also of particular interest to study the economical viability of adding DCP to diets of feedlot sheep. Diets were isonitrogenous and contained ground Tifton 85 hay (Cynodon spp, corn, soybean meal, salt, and one of the following levels of DCP: 0, 10, 20, 30 or 40%. Increasing the dietary levels of DCP had no significant effect on intakes of DM and CP and also on feed conversion. Neutral detergent fiber intake was increased while an opposite effect was observed for weight gain by adding DCP to the diets

  1. Is gastric sham feeding really sham feeding?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-03-01

    Rats were fitted with gastric cannulas, food deprived, and allowed to drink a sugar solution that drained out of the opened cannula; i.e., the rats sham-fed. Although this procedure is thought to prevent absorption of ingested food, it was found that the sham feeding of a 32% glucose or sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels. The addition of acarbose, a drug that inhibits the digestion of sucrose, to the 32% sucrose solution blocked the blood glucose rise, as did closing the pylorus with an inflatable pyloric cuff. Neither the drug nor the cuff, however, reduced the amount of sucrose solution consumed. These findings indicate that gastric sham feeding does not necessarily prevent the digestion and absorption of food, although absorption is not essential for the appearance of a vigorous sham-feeding response. Nevertheless the possibility that neural or hormonal feedback from the stomach contributes to the sham-feeding response cannot be excluded, and until this issue is resolved the results of gastric sham-feeding studies should be interpreted with caution.

  2. Complex Feeding Decisions

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    Anna Miles PhD

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Where swallowing difficulties are chronic or progressive, or a patient is palliative, tube feeding is often not deemed appropriate. Instead, patients continue to eat and drink despite the risks of pneumonia and death. There is currently little evidence to guide clinical practice in this field often termed “risk feeding.” This qualitative study investigated staff, patient, and family member perceptions of risk feeding practices in one New Zealand hospital. Method: Twenty-nine staff members and six patients and/or their family were interviewed. Results: Thematic analysis revealed four global themes: supporting practice, communication, complexity of feeding decisions, and patient and family-centered care. Staff described limited education and organizational policy around risk feeding decisions. Communication was considered a major factor in the success. Conclusion: Feeding decisions are complex in the hospital environment. The themes identified in this study provide a foundation for hospital guideline development and implementation.

  3. Probiotic in feeding of juvenile matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus: economic viability=Probiótico na alimentação de juvenis de matrinxã, Brycon amazonicus: viabilidade econômica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Tachibana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the economic feasibility of supplement probiotics Bacillus subtilis to “matrinxã” Brycon amazonicus, raised in cages. The experiment was conducted at the Polo Regional Vale do Ribeira, in Pariquera-açu municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, from February to July 2009. A total of 960 juvenile matrinxã were stocked in twelve 2.7 m³-net cages (1.5 x 1.5 x 1.2 m, in ponds with a total area of 600 m2 and an average depth of 1.50 m. The tests were conducted with a control treatment (T1 and two probiotic doses (T2 = 5 g and T3 = 10 g kg-1 of diet with four replicates. Results showed that T2 produced better economic performance for matrinxã at the juvenile stage in intensive rearing system.Objetivou-se analisar a viabilidade econômica do uso do probiótico Bacillus subtilis na alimentação de matrinxã Brycon amazonicus, em tanques-rede. O experimento foi conduzido no Polo Regional do Vale do Ribeira, no município de Pariquera-Açu, São Paulo, Brasil, entre fevereiro e julho de 2009. Foram avaliados 960 peixes juvenis, divididos em 12 tanques-rede de 2,7 m³ (1,5 x 1,5 x 1,2 m em uma área total de 600 m2, com profundidade média de 1,50 m. Os testes foram conduzidos com um tratamento testemunha (T1, duas doses de probiótico (T2 = 5 g e T3 = 10 g kg-1 de ração e quatro repetições. Os resultados mostraram que o T2 proporcionou melhor desempenho zootécnico e econômico da matrinxã na fase de engorda no sistema intensivo de criação.

  4. Utilização de alho e cobre na alimentação de frangos de corte Use of garlic and copper in the feeding of broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Kimie Togashi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de diversos níveis de alho e cobre sobre o desempenho produtivo, as características de carcaça e os teores de colesterol no soro e nos tecidos de frangos de corte. Foram utilizados 400 pintos machos Cobb nos primeiros 21 dias de idade, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 × 3, composto de três níveis de alho (0, 1,5 e 3,0% e três de cobre (0, 125 e 250 mg/kg ração, na forma de sulfato de cobre. Foram realizados dois abates - o primeiro aos 21 dias e o segundo aos 42 dias de idade das aves - para coleta de sangue e tecidos e determinação dos teores de gordura e colesterol. Os resultados obtidos comprovaram que a suplementação de alho e cobre nas rações, apesar de prejudicar a conversão alimentar das aves na fase de 1 a 21 dias de idade, promoveu reduções dos teores de gordura no peito (1 a 21 dias e de colesterol sérico (22 a 42 dias.Four hundred male Cobb chicks were used in an experiment to study the effects of different dietary levels of garlic and copper on the performance, carcass characteristics and serum and tissue cholesterol levels of broiler chicks. The experimental period was comprised between the first 21 days of age of the birds. A completely randomized design was used in a factorial 3 × 3 with the following levels: garlic (0, 1.5, and 3.0% and copper (0, 125, and 250 mg/kg of ration, in the form of copper sulfate. Two slaughters were realized, the first at 21 days, and the second at 42 days of age of the chicks. Samples of blood and tissues were collected to the determination of fatty acids and cholesterol. The results showed that the supplementation of garlic and copper in the diets may be done without great effects on the performance of the birds and it can result in reduction on serum and cholesterol tecidual of the broilers.

  5. Eficácia dos coadjuvantes de higiene bucal utilizados na alimentação de cães Effectiveness of buccal hygiene coadjutant used in the dogs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Paiva

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a utilização de coadjuvantes na diminuição da placa bacteriana e formação do cálculo dentário em 16 cães. O delineamento experimental foi casualizado com quatro tratamentos (T e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: T1- controle, T2- coadjuvante com ação mecânica, T3- coadjuvante com tripolifosfato de sódio e T4- coadjuvante com hexametafosfato de sódio. Após sete dias de adaptação, no dia anterior ao início dos tratamentos, os animais foram submetidos à remoção de cálculo dentário. O experimento teve duração de 21 dias e ao final realizaram-se as medições das placas bacterianas formadas com o uso de marcadores (fucsina. O coadjuvante somente com ação mecânica não foi efetivo em retardar o aparecimento da placa bacteriana. Os coadjuvantes com polifosfatos apresentaram uma ação efetiva e significativa na diminuição da formação do calculo dentário.The use of coadjutants in the decrease of the bacterial plate and formation of the dental calculus was evaluated in 16 dogs. The experimental design was randomized with four treatments (T and four repetitions. The treatments were the following: 1- control; 2- coadjutant 1 (one with mechanical action; 3- coadjutant 2 (two with tripolyphosphate of sodium and 4- coadjutant 3 (three with hexametaphosphate of sodium. After seven days of adaptation, on the day previous to the beginning of the treatments, the animals were submitted to the removal of dental calculus and after twenty-one days of treatment a measurement of the bacterial plaque formed through the use of markers (fucsin. The coadjutant only with mechanical action was not effective in delaying the appearance of the bacterial plaque. The coadjutant containing polyphosphates presented an effective and significant action decreasing the formation of the dental calculus.

  6. Post-pyloric feeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eva Niv; Zvi Fireman; Nachum Vaisman

    2009-01-01

    Postpyloric feeding is an important and promising alternative to parenteral nutrition. The indications for this kind of feeding are increasing and include a variety of clinical conditions, such as gastroparesis, acute pancreatitis, gastric outlet stenosis, hyperemesis (including gravida), recurrent aspiration, tracheoesophageal fistula and stenosis in gastroenterostomy. This review discusses the differences between pre- and postpyloric feeding, indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, and provides an overview of the techniques of placement of various postpyloric devices.

  7. Application of gamma radiation on disinfestation feed grain based food for domestic animals; Aplicacao da radiacao gama na desinfestacao de racoes a base de graos para alimentacao de animais domesticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, Amanda Cristina Oliveira

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to realize a survey to identify the associated insects to feed the city Sao Paulo / SP and also to assess the effect of gamma radiation on food ration for domestic animals infested by pests. Samples of 20 stores, 'Pet Shop' in different regions in Sao Paulo / SP were subjected to trials of 1 and 45 days for collection of insects with the aid of plastic tray and screens of different sizes. The species Sitophilus zeamais, Cryptolestes ferrugineus, Lasioderma serricorne and Oryzaephilus sp. showed a higher frequency. In assessing the effects of gamma radiation we used samples of maize, sunflower seeds and mix for rodents infested with adults of the species Sitophilus zeamais, Lasioderma serricorne and Plodia interpunctella, after the period of 7 to 10 days the insects were removed and samples subjected to increasing doses of gamma radiation. The species Sitophilus zeamais and Lasioderma serricorne subjected doses from 0,25 to 1,50 kGy and species Plodia interpunctella doses from 0,10 to 2,0 kGy. After 40 days of irradiation was evaluated the number of insects emerged. The results of bioassays with Sitophilus zeamais and with Lasioderma serricorne demonstrated that doses starting at 0,5 kGy was sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and newly emerged larvae. The results with Plodia interpunctella from the 1,5 kGy, hasn't emerged adult insects, concluding that these doses were sufficient to cause mortality of eggs and larvae. (author)

  8. Infant feeding: formula, solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barness, L A

    1985-04-01

    This article discusses and evaluates current formulas, traces their continual improvement (based largely on new information on breast milk composition), and then discusses the question of supplemental feedings.

  9. Danger of zooplankton feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Jiang, H.; Colin, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly and ther......Zooplankton feed in any of three ways: they generate a feeding current while hovering, cruise through the water or are ambush feeders. Each mode generates different hydrodynamic disturbances and hence exposes the grazers differently to mechanosensory predators. Ambush feeders sink slowly...

  10. Fatores interferentes na alimentação de crianças de 17 a 25 meses de uma creche municipal Aspects interfering in the feeding of children from 17 to 25 months of a municipal day-care center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paola Nicolielo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar fatores interferentes no padrão de alimentação de crianças de 17 a 25 meses. MÉTODOS: dados de avaliações fonoaudiológicas de todas as crianças do berçário (n=14 de uma creche no município de Bauru/SP. Aplicação de questionário aos pais a respeito das condições de saúde geral e desenvolvimento neuromotor, aleitamento natural ou artificial, hábitos orais e problemas respiratórios. Analisou-se a morfofuncionalidade dos constituintes do sistema estomatognático e características clínico-fisiológicas da mastiga��ão e deglutição. A análise estatística foi descritiva. RESULTADOS: constatou-se alteração em diversos aspectos da saúde nas crianças (92,8%; presença de má oclusão (28,6%; alterações morfológicas para lábio (21,4% e língua (21,4%; alterações de tonicidade de bochechas (57,1%, mento (21,4% e lábios (42,8%; respiração oral ou oronasal (42,8%; alterações na mastigação (35,7% e na deglutição de sólido (50% e líquido (42,8%. CONCLUSÃO: para esse grupo, a presença de hábitos orais, assim como as alterações morfológicas e de tonicidade influenciam o padrão de alimentação das crianças analisadas, evidenciando a necessidade de prevenir e detectar precocemente tais fatores para que a alimentação nas crianças ocorra de forma adequada, promovendo assim condições de saúde para um desenvolvimento hígido.PURPOSE: to check interfering aspects in the feeding standard of children from 17 to 25 months. METHODS: data of speech language pathology evaluation related to 14 children that attended a day-care center in the city of Bauru/SP. A questionnaire was applied in order to get information about general health conditions and neuromotor development, natural or artificial feeding, oral habits and breathing problems. The analysis was made under the following aspects: morpho-functionality of the physician-physiological characteristic constituting the stomatognathic system

  11. A influência do padrão de aleitamento no desenvolvimento de hábitos de sucção não nutritivos na primeira infância The influence of feeding methods in the development of nonnutritive sucking habits in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Sales Lins de Albuquerque

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo analisou a relação entre o padrão de aleitamento e o desenvolvimento de hábitos de sucção não-nutritivos em crianças de 12 a 36 meses de idade, de creches públicas na cidade de João Pessoa (PB. A amostra constou de 292 crianças, de ambos os gêneros e a coleta de dados abrangeu entrevistas com as mães/responsáveis. As informações dos formulários consistiam na descrição da frequência e duração dos hábitos de sucção não-nutritivos, bem como dos métodos de aleitamento. Os dados foram analisados através do programa SPSS, realizando-se distribuições de frequências e os testes estatísticos do qui-quadrado e Exato de Fisher. Observou-se que, com relação à presença de hábitos de sucção não-nutritivos, 69,2% das crianças tinham algum tipo de hábito, sendo 61,6% a sucção de chupeta e 8,2% a sucção digital. De toda a amostra, 10,2% realizaram aleitamento natural exclusivo, 4,9%, o aleitamento artificial exclusivo e 84,9%, o aleitamento misto. Considerando os tipos de aleitamento, 83,8% das crianças realizaram aleitamento natural exclusivo durante os seis primeiros meses de vida. O padrão de aleitamento apresentou associação significativa com a presença de hábitos de sucção não-nutritivos. Quanto maior a duração do aleitamento natural exclusivo, menor a prevalência de hábitos de sucção não-nutritivos e o padrão de aleitamento.This study verified the relationship between nonnutritive sucking habits and feeding methods in children from 12 to 36 months of age, attending public nursery schools in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba State. The sample consisted of 292 children of both gender and the data were collected by interviewing the children's mothers or minders. The information of the forms consisted on the description of the frequency and duration of the nonnutritive sucking habits, as well as on the feeding methods. The data were analyzed through the statistical program SPSS, taking

  12. Time of feed transition and inclusion levels of exogenous protease in rations for piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp. hatchery=Momento para a transição alimentar e níveis de inclusão de protease exógena na ração da larvicultura de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Pelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted which consisted of determining the ideal time to make a feed transition from larvae of ‘curimba’ Prochilodus hartii to ration (from third, fifth and seventh days of life, with three days of co-feeding, and assess inclusion levels of exogenous protease (0, 0.02 and 0.2% in the diet of larvae of piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., in a completely randomized experimental design and duration of 15 and 17 days, respectively. Biomass, survival, total length, weight and specific growth rate were measured at the end of the experiments. Water quality parameters were measured every three days. The different transition periods and levels of exogenous protease did not affect water quality. The animals subjected to feed transition on the seventh day of life showed better results for length (23.1 mm, weight (110.9 mg and SGR (25.5%, being similar in biomass and survival at the fifth day of life. Therefore, the transition can be made on the fifth day of life. The inclusion levels of exogenous protease in the commercial diet had no effect on performance.Foram realizados dois experimentos, que consistiram em determinar o momento ideal de se realizar a transição alimentar de larva de curimba Prochilodus hartii para ração (a partir do terceiro, quinto e sétimo dia de vida, com três dias de coalimentação, e avaliar níveis de inclusão de protease exógena (0; 0,02 e 0,2% na dieta de larvas de piabanha-do-Pardo Brycon sp., em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e duração de 15 e 17 dias, respectivamente. A biomassa, sobrevivência, comprimento total, peso médio e taxa de crescimento específico foram mensurados ao final dos experimentos. Já os parâmetros de qualidade de água foram aferidos a cada três dias. Os diferentes períodos de transição alimentar e níveis de protease exógena não interferiram na qualidade da água. Os animais submetidos à transição alimentar no sétimo dia de vida apresentaram melhores

  13. Alimentação de leitões na creche com rações contendo frutooligosacarídeos Feeding piglets in the nursey with rations containing fructooligosacharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogerio Saurin Visentini

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com 210 leitões desmamados, afim de avaliar os efeitos da adição de frutooligosacarídeos (FOS ou olaquindox nas rações sobre o desempenho dos 21 aos 63 dias de idade. Utilizou-se programa de alimentação por fases (pré-inicial, inicial-I e inicial-II, de zero aos 16, 17 aos 30 e dos 31 aos 42 dias, respectivamente. O delineamento foi de blocos ao acaso, seis tratamentos e sete repetições de cinco leitões cada: T1 - sem adição de FOS; T2 - com 0,1% de FOS; T3 - com 0,2% de FOS; T4 - com 0,3% de FOS; T5 - com 0,5% de FOS e T6 - sem FOS e 25ppm de olaquindox. A adição de FOS não afetou o consumo e o ganho diário de peso nas diferentes fases estudadas. Contudo, verificou-se melhor desempenho dos leitões que receberam olaquindox comparado à média dos demais tratamentos. Ao contrário do olaquindox, a adição de FOS foi ineficiente em promover melhora no desempenho.The experiment was performed with 210 weaned pigs to evaluate the effects of fructooligosacharides (FOS and olaquindox supplementation to the diet on their performance from 21 to 63 days of age. Feed program was pre-starter, starter I and starter II diets, 0 to16, 17 to 30 and 31 to 42 days, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with six treatments and seven repetitions of five each: T1 - without FOS; T2 - with 0.1% FOS; T3 - with 0.2% FOS; T4 - with 0.3% FOS; T5 - with 0.5% FOS and T6 - without FOS and 25 ppm olaquindox. Fructooligosacarides supplementation to the diet did not affect the daily consumption and daily weight gain in any of the different periods tested. However, improved performance was observed in pigs treated with olaquindox in comparison to FOS treated pigs. In conclusion, FOS supplementation was inefficient in improving pigs performance, contrasting with results for aloquindox supplementation.

  14. Application gamma radiation of cobalt-60 in disinfestation of some types of rations for feeding small animals; Emprego da radiacao gama do cobalto-60 na desinfestacao de alguns tipos de racoes para alimentacao de animais de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Paula Bergamin

    2012-07-01

    The pests as beetles, mites, moths and mushrooms among other, usually infest products stored as: grains, crumbs, flours, coffee, tobacco, dried fruits, animal rations, spices, dehydrated plants, causing the visual depreciation and promoting to deterioration of the products. The present research had as objective the use of the gamma radiation in the disinfestation of some types of rations used for feeding animals of small size. In the first experiment packing of free samples were used measuring 10 cm x 20 cm with capacity of 70 grams of substrate (ration) with 4 types of existent marks in the trade: (1), (2), e (3), and (4). Each treatment consisted of 10 repetitions, that were irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy, to do the disinfestation of the samples. After the irradiation (disinfestation) of the all irradiated packing and more the control was conditioned in plastic boxes of 80 cm x 50 cm with cover, where the insects were liberated Lasioderma serricorne, Plodia interpuctella, Sitophilus zeamais and Sitophilus oryzae, in a total of 400 for each box and maintained at room acclimatized with 27 {+-} 2 Deg C and relative humidity of 70 {+-} 5%. In the second experiment packing were used made with the materials of packing of the first experiment. Each packing was made of 10 cm x 15 cm, with capacity of 30 grams of substrate (ration). In each repetition was inoculated 10 insects of each species, in a total of 400 insects for experiment per box. The packing with substrate and insect, were stamped in commercial machine and irradiated with doses of: 0 (control) 0,5; 1,0 and 2,0 kGy. The irradiated packing and the control were maintained at room acclimatized same the mentioned in the first experiment. The counting of the number of insects and holes in the packing were made after 60 days. Concluded that only the packing of the ration type number 4 was susceptive to attack of all species of insects. The dose of 0,5 kGy was sufficient to induce the

  15. Degradabilidade e produção de gases in vitro de fontes energéticas alternativas na alimentação de ruminantes = Degradability and in vitro gas production of alternative energy sources in ruminant feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto de Camargo Wascheck

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O padrão fermentativo in vitro de dietas compostas por fubá de milho, farelo de arroz integral, farelo de arroz parboilizado e suas associações em diferentes proporções foi estudado, na porção concentrada da dieta de ruminantes. Até 12h de incubação, a produçãode gases foi superior (p The in vitro fermentation pattern of diets composed of corn meal, rice bran, parboiled rice bran and their associations was studied in different proportions in the concentrate portion in ruminants diets. Up to 12 hours of incubation, gas production was higher (p < 0.05 for the treatments with rice bran (FAI and parboiled rice bran (FAP; however, after 96 hours, the treatment with 100% corn meal (FMproduced more (p < 0.05 gases (379.41 mL g DM-1. Total degradability of dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM were higher (p < 0.05 for treatments FAI and FAP up to 12 hours; however, after 96 hours of incubation the total degradability of DM and OM was higher (p < 0.05 for the FM treatment (90.46 and 91.08%, respectively. The nutritional potential of rice bran or parboiled rice bran was confirmed in the diet of ruminants, as it provides a higher fractional rate of in vitro gas production (12.39 and 13.17 mL h-1 and faster degradation of DM and OM in initial times.

  16. Fitase na alimentação da tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. Desempenho e digestibilidade Phytase as feeding for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. Performance and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da adição de diferentes níveis de fitase (0, 500, 1500 e 3000 unidades de fitase ativa [UFA]/kg de ração em dietas para a tilápia do Nilo (8,88 ± 0,02 g. Todas as rações foram fornecidas até saciedade durante 45 dias. O nível de fitase baseou-se nos parâmetros de desempenho e digestibilidade e foi estimado pelos modelos quadrático e/ou LRP ("broken line". De acordo com os resultados obtidos com os níveis de fitase, o modelo LRP apresentou o melhor ajustamento de dados. A suplementação de fitase aumentou o desempenho, a retenção de minerais nos ossos, a digestibilidade da proteína e a disponibilidade de cálcio e fósforo. Os melhores resultados de desempenho, retenção de minerais nos ossos e digestibilidade foram obtidos com 700 UFA/kg de ração.This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of addition of different levels of phytase (0, 500, 1500 and 3000 units of active phytase [UFA]/kg diet in the diets for Nile tilapia (8.88 ± 0.02 g. All diets were fed to satiation daily for 45 days. The phytase level determination was based on the performance and digestibility parameters and was estimated by the quadratic and/or the broken line models. The broken line model showed a better adjustment for phytase levels according to the observed results. Phytase supplementation increased performence, bone minerals, protein digestibility and calcium and phosphorus availability. The best results of performance, bone mineral retentions and digestibility were obtained with 700 UFA/kg of diet.

  17. Influence of supplying bullfrog tadpoles with feed containing 28% crude protein on performance and enzymatic activities Influência do fornecimento de uma ração comercial com 28% de proteína bruta sobre o desempenho e a atividade de enzimas digestivas de girinos de rã-touro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Teixeira de Seixas Filho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was evaluate the influence of feeding bullfrog tadpoles on commercial feed containing 28% crude protein (CP, on their digestive enzyme performance and activities. The experiment lasted 60 days, at the density of one tadpole/L in boxes containing 30 L water. A hundred and twenty tadpoles at the 25 Gosner stage averaging weight and length was 0.046 g and 6.22 mm, respectively, were used. Survival rate, length, final weight, weight gain, feed consumption, apparent food conversion, specific growth rate and activities of chime, amylase, lipase and trypisin were the parameters evaluated, biweekly, in five biometries. Quadratic effect was observed for the length and the weight. There was larger growth of the tadpoles from the 15th to the 45th day (19.82 mm. On the 15th day, the tadpoles presented the largest specific growth rate (16.93%/day, and the largest weight gain (5.460 g, feed intake (14.099 g and the best apparent food conversion (2.46 was from the 45th to the 60th day. The specific activity of amylase was 205 times greater at 60 days when compared to the beginning of the experiment. The results demonstrated that, for the three enzymes studied, the action capacity over the tadpole chime increased significantly after the 30th experimental day. Moreover, they suggested a greater capacity of tadpoles to digest carbohydrates in detriment to proteins, and this fact was accentuated in the initial phase of the exogenous feeding of this amphibian. The commercial feed with 28% CP provide good performance in the bullfrog tadpoles, indicating the juvenile formation within commercial bullfrog farming standards.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a influência da alimentação de girinos de rã-touro com ração comercial contendo 28% de proteína bruta (PB no desempenho e nas atividades de enzimas digestivas desses animais. Utilizaram-se 120 girinos no estágio 25 de Gosner com 0,046 g e 6,22 mm, respectivamente, mantidos em

  18. Utilização de diferentes dietas na primeira alimentação do mandi-amarelo (Pimelodus maculatus, Lacépéde Different diets in the first feeding of the yellow mandi (Pimelodus maculates, Lacépéde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Kennedy Luz

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Um dos maiores problemas enfrentados na larvicultura de espécies nativas está relacionado à primeira alimentação e à ocorrência de canibalismo para algumas espécies desde o início da vida. Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar diferentes dietas na primeira alimentação do Pimelodus maculatus. As pós-larvas foram estocadas a uma densidade de 15 pós-larvas/L, em cubas de três litros com sistema de aeração contínua. Os tratamentos utilizados foram: alimentação composta de zooplâncton silvestre nas proporções de 300 organismos/pós-larva/dia (T1; 600 organismos/pós-larva/dia (T2; 900 organismos/pós-larva/dia (T3; 9 náuplios de Artemia/pós-larva/dia (T4; e ração granulada entre 150 e 250 µm (> 50% PB (T5. Ao final de cinco dias de experimento, o tratamento com Artemia apresentou os maiores valores de sobrevivência (39,3%, menores taxas de canibalismo (28,2% e maiores valores de peso e comprimento final (P Pimelodus maculatus nos primeiros dias de vidaOne of the greatest problems in larviculture of native species is first feeding and cannibalism in the some species since the first day of life. This experiment aims at evaluating different diets in the first feeding of Pimelodus maculates, popularly known as the yellow mandi. Post-larvae were stocked in a density of 15 post-larvae/L, in 3 L-glass aquariums with artificial aeration. Treatments were composed of wild zooplankton in the proportion of 300 organisms/post-larvae/day (T1; 600 organisms/post-larvae/day (T2; 900 organisms/post-larvae/day (T3; 9 nauplii of Artemia/post-larvae/day (T4 and artificial microdiet between 150 and 250 µm (>50% PB (T5. At the end of five days the Artemia treatment had the best survival values (39,3% and the least rate of cannibalism (28,2%. Since it registered the best final weight and length (P Pimelodus maculates was consequently demonstrated

  19. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  20. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  1. Feeding biology of Cerambycids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert A. Haack

    2017-01-01

    There are more than 36,000 species of Cerambycidae recognized throughout the world (see Chapter 1), occurring on all continents except Antarctica (Linsley 1959). Given such numbers, it is not surprising that cerambycids display great diversity in their feeding habits. Both adults and larvae are almost exclusively phytophagous. Some adults appear not to feed at all,...

  2. Creep Feeding Beef Calves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Creep feeding is the managerial practice of supplying supplemental feed (usually concentrates) to the nursing calf. Milk from a lactating beef cow furnishes only about 50 percent of the nutrients that a 3-4 month-old calf needs for maximum growth.

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications ... write(' Feeding your baby ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Common illnesses ') document.write('') } ') document.write(' Family health & safety ') ...

  4. Níveis de concentrado na dieta de novilhos f1 Limousin x Nelore: consumo, conversão alimentar e ganho de peso Concentrate levels in the diet for crossbreed Limousin x Nellore bulls: intake, feed: gain ratio and weight gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gesualdi Júnior

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 45 bovinos F1 Limousin x Nelore, inteiros, com, em média, 14 meses de idade e peso vivo inicial de 330 kg, para avaliar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de concentrado na matéria seca (25,0; 37,5; 50,0; 62,5; e 75,0% e dois métodos de balanceamentos de rações (o primeiro, tendendo a ser isoprotéico e o segundo, variando proteína com energia sobre os consumos de matéria seca (CMS e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, conversão alimentar (CA, ganhos diários de peso vivo (GMDPV, corpo vazio (GMDPVZ e carcaça (GCAR. Cinco animais foram abatidos no início do experimento, como referência, para estimar o peso corporal vazio inicial dos animais que permaneceram no confinamento. Os animais receberam alimentação à vontade até atingirem o peso de abate preestabelecido de 500 kg. Foi utilizado o feno de capim-coastcross como fonte de volumoso na dieta. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com quatro repetições. As formas de balanceamento resultaram em igual desempenho dos animais. Os consumos de MS responderam de maneira quadrática, estimando-se os máximos de 8,04 kg MS, 1,99% PV e 89,22 g MS/kg0,75 para os níveis de 41,42; 36,71; e 37,96% de concentrado, respectivamente. Conversão alimentar, consumo de FDN e dias de confinamento decresceram e o GMDPVZ cresceu linearmente, com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado na ração. Os GMDPV e GCAR apresentaram resposta quadrática, com máximos de 1,16 e 0,81 kg para 61,11 e 64,47% de concentrado, respectivamente.Forty five crossbreed F1 Limousin x Nellore young bulls, averaging 14 months of age and initial 330 kg LW, were used to evaluate the effects of different concentrate levels (25.0, 37.5, 50.0, 62.5 and 75.0% as DM basis and two diet balance methods (one, almost isoprotein and the second, changing protein as energy of the diet change on the intakes of dry matter (DMI and neutral detergent fiber (NDFI, feed: gain ratio (FG, daily gains of

  5. Influência das avós na alimentação de lactentes: o que dizem suas filhas e noras Influencia de las abuelas en la alimentación de lactantes Influence of grandmothers on infant feeding: what they say to their daughters and granddaughters

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    Fabiana de Medeiros Gross

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar as práticas de primíparas sobre a alimentação de crianças lactentes aprendidas com a mãe e/ou sogra. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de pesquisa qualitativa, do tipo descritiva. Os sujeitos foram 11 primíparas, usuárias do Sistema Único de Saúde de Palmeira das Missões/RS. Os dados foram coletados por entrevista semiestruturada e analisados por meio da análise temática. RESULTADOS: Emergiram três temas: práticas de alimentação transmitidas pelas avós; influência das avós na alimentação do lactente; sentimentos das primíparas em relação às ações das avós relativas à alimentação do lactente. CONCLUSÕES: As avós são importantes no que diz respeito à transmissão de conhecimentos, saberes e experiências relativas à alimentação do lactente. Para que a assistência de enfermagem priviligie a autonomia dos sujeitos que envolve corresponsabilidade e congruência cultural, o enfermeiro deve considerar as interações do grupo familiar que, em seu movimento dialético, modulam e são moduladas pela cultura.OBJETIVO: Identificar las prácticas de primigestas sobre la alimentación de niños lactantes aprendidas con la madre y/o suegra. MÉTODOS: Se trata de una investigación cualitativa, de tipo descriptiva. Los sujetos fueron 11 primigestas, usuarias del Sistema Único de Salud de Palmeira das Missões/RS. Los datos fueron recolectados por entrevista semiestructurada y analizados por medio del análisis temático. RESULTADOS: Emergieron tres temas: prácticas de alimentación transmitidas por las abuelas; influencia de las abuelas en la alimentación del lactante; sentimientos de las primigestas en relación a las acciones de las abuelas relativas a la alimentación del lactante. CONCLUSIONES: Las abuelas son importantes en lo referente a la transmisión de conocimientos, saberes y experiencias relativas a la alimentación del lactante. Para que la asistencia de enfermería privilegie la autonomía de los

  6. Influência na qualidade final de metais retificados através da variação da velocidade de mergulho Variable feed-rate influence on the final quality of metal grinding

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    Manoel Cleber Sampaio Alves

    2009-03-01

    and cost-cutting for the grinding process and This work aimed to assess several output parameters in external cylindrical grinding: tangential force, acoustic emission, surface roughness, roundness, tool wear, and residual stress. Also, analysis of microstructural features through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM was carried out. Tests was developed for ABNT D6 steel, using a CBN grinding wheel with vitrified bond and two types of cutting fluids Analyzing cutting fluid performance, grinding wheel time and feed rate, the best grinding conditions were found, leading to a decrease in cutting fluid volume and grinding time without impairing the geometrical and dimensional parameters, surface finish and surface integrity of the parts.

  7. Challenges in measuring feed efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term feed efficiency is vague, and is defined differently by people. Historically, feed efficiency has been defined as the feed:gain (F:G) ratio or the inverse (G:F). Indexes have been developed to rank animals for feed efficiency. These indexes include residual feed intake (RFI) and residual...

  8. Tratamentos físicos do grão de aveia branca (Avena sativa na alimentação de bovinos Treatments of oats grain for beef cattle feeding

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    Léo José Goi

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido no Centro de Treinamento da COTRIJUÍ, e no Departamento de Zootecnia da UFSM, de maio a dezembro de 1993, para avaliar o efeito de diferentes formas de tratamento físico do grão de aveia sobre o desempenho e a digestibilidade de bovinos. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos para comparar o grão de aveia nas formas: grão inteiro seco (GAIS, grão moído (GAMO, grão machacado (GAMA e grão inteiro umedecido (GAIU. No experimento 1, foram utilizados 24 animais da raça Hereford, com idade média de 13 meses e peso médio de 260kg. Foi usado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado para avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão no ganho de peso. A duração do experimento foi de 84 dias. Os ganhos de peso médio diário obtidos foram: 1,047; 1,055; 1,107 e l,067 kg para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente. Não houve diferença significativa entre tratamentos. No experimento II foram utilizados, durante dois períodos, 8 novilhos da raça Holandês com idade média de 14 meses e peso médio de 243kg, em delineamento em blocos casualizados, objetivando avaliar o efeito do tratamento do grão sobre a digestibilidade da dieta. A dieta experimental foi similar ao experimento I, sendo o feno de bermuda (Cynodon dactylon substituído pelo feno de aveia (Avena sativa moído. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto aos coeficientes de digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, fibra bruta, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e extrativos não nitrogenados, nem para o NDT. Os valores de digestibilidade da matéria orgânica obtidos foram: 59,27; 57,10; 61,46 e 59,7 6% para os tratamentos GAIS, GAMO, GAMA e GAIU, respectivamente e para estes, o NDT foram 64,02; 66,56; 65,78 e 62,12%. Conclui-se que o grão de aveia branca pode ser utilizado inteiro na alimentação de bovinos sem afetar sua performance.The present work was conducted at COTRIJUÍ Experimental Farm-RS from

  9. Coccidiosis and performance in broilers with anticoccidial medicated feed starting at different ages Coccidiose e desempenho em frangos com anticoccidianos na ração a partir de diferentes idades

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    C.A.F. Costa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of age, litter reutilization, and anticoccidial programs were studied in broilers. The oocyst counts increased with litter reutilization up to third use, and T1 (no anticoccidial drug over the entire 42-day-period and T4 (anticoccidial medication starting from the first day showed the highest counts. The scores for Eimeria acervulina increased up to third use of litter and declined by the fourth use. The scores for E. maxima increased from first to second litter use, and from this to third and fourth use. The scores for E. tenella increased from first and second litter use to third litter use, and declined on fourth use. With high coccidial contamination, as in third use litter, the anticoccidial medication starting from the 1st, 7th (T3 and 14th (T2 day of age presented similar results of lesion scores and average weight gain. When coccidial contamination was low or moderate, as in first, second and fourth use litter, the anticoccidial medication starting at 14 days of age tended to result in a better broiler performance. These data suggest that, with low coccidial challenge, as in broilers raised in first use litter and in farms with single bird age, the delayed anticoccidial medication may provide advantages over the full medication starting from the first day of age.Estudou-se o efeito da idade das aves, da reutilização da cama vegetal e de programas anticoccidianos na coccidiose e desempenho de frangos. Utilizaram-se quatro lotes de 24 pintos cada (um dia de idade submetidos a quatro tratamentos (T: T1 - aves não tratadas com anticoccidiano, T2 - aves medicadas com anticoccidiano a partir do 14º dia de vida, T3 - aves medicadas com anticoccidiano a partir do sétimo dia de vida, T4 - aves medicadas com anticoccidiano a partir do primeiro dia de vida. As contagens de oocistos aumentaram com a reutilização da cama, no terceiro lote. T1 (sem anticoccidiano e T4 (anticoccidiano desde o primeiro dia apresentaram as maiores

  10. Níveis de nitrogênio e fósforo na água de tanques de cultivo de tilápia vermelha submetidas a diferentes manejos alimentares Nitrogen and phosphorus levels in the water of rearing red tilapia ponds submitted to different feeding strategies

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    Célia Maria Dóra Frascá-Scorvo

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em nove tanques, de 42 m2 cada, durante sete meses. Foram utilizados machos revertidos de tilápia vermelha com peso médio inicial de 290,64 ± 5,84g, numa densidade de dois peixes/m2, para avaliar o efeito de diferentes manejos alimentares (manual, self feeding e mecânica sobre a concentração de fósforo (P e nitrogênio (N na água. A ração continha 28% de proteína e 3000kcal de energia bruta por kg de ração. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, num esquema de parcela subdividida no tempo com três tratamentos, oito avaliações no tempo e três repetições. As médias foram comparadas usando-se teste de Tukey. A temperatura foi aferida diariamente e, mensalmente foram aferidos nutrientes e tempo de residência da água. O fluxo inicial de água foi de 0,235 l/s, sendo reduzida a 0,133 l/s, com tempo de residência de 1,88 e 3,33 dias, respectivamente. A temperatura variou de 18 a 24,67ºC. Foram obtidas concentrações de nitrato de 59,12 a 1087,72 µg/l; nitrito: 0,08 a 39,53 µg/l; amônia ionizada: 0 a 520,95 µg/l; fósforo total: 2,87 a 74,74 µg/l e ortofosfato: 0 a 23,79 µg/l. Os diferentes manejos alimentares não influenciaram a qualidade da águaThe experiment was carried out in nine tanks, of 42 m2, for 7 months. Males of red tilápia were used with medium weight of 290.64 ± 5.84g, in a density of two fishes/m2. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of different alimentary handling (manual, self feeding and mechanical on the phosphorus and nitrogen concentration in the water of the tanks. The ration contained 28% of protein and 3000kcal of gross energy for ration kg. The design was randomized entirely with three treatments and three repetitions. The averages were compared through tests of Tukey. Temperature was measured daily and, inorganic nutritions and time of residence of the water were measured monthly. The water flow was 0.235 L seg-1 at the beginning of the

  11. Degradabilidade ruminal In Situ da matéria seca e proteína bruta das silagens de milho e sorgo e de alguns alimentos concentrados Ruminal in situ degradability of dry matter and crude protein of corn and sorghum silages and some concentrate feeds

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    Adriana de Souza Martins

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A degradação ruminal da matéria seca (MS e a da proteína bruta (PB de alguns alimentos foram deterninadas pela técnica in situ, usando-se três vacas Holandesa. Os alimentos concentrados foram moídos em peneira de 2 mm e os volumosos e a raspa de mandioca, em peneira de 5 mm, e incubados em sacos de náilon (53µ. A degradabilidade efetiva (DE da MS (5%/h de silagem de milho, silagem de sorgo, milho, sorgo, farelo de trigo, triticale, raspa de mandioca, polpa cítrica, farelo de soja, farelo de algodão e farinha de carne e ossos foi, respectivamente: 54,8; 46,0; 37,6; 54,3; 80,4; 88,7; 75,0, 67,5; 74,1; 65,9; e 39,4%. As degradabilidades efetivas da PB, 70,4; 67,9; 40,2; 42,7; 86,5; 89,3; 71,7; 62,1; 57,3; 81,4; e 47,5%, respectivamente. Foi realizado agrupamento dos alimentos quanto à dinâmica de degradação ruminal da MS e PB foram por meio do método de Tocher. A fração potencialmente degradável e a sua taxa de degradação foram as variáveis de maior poder discriminatório na formação dos grupos.The ruminal dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability of some feeds were evaluated by the in situ technique, using three Holstein cows. The concentrate feeds were ground through a 2 mm screen and the forage and the cassava root, in 5 mm screen, and incubated in nylon bag (53µ. The effective degradability (ED of DM (5%/h for corn silage, sorghum silage, corn, sorghum, wheat bran, triticale, cassava scraping, citrus pulp, soybean meal, cottonseed meal and meat and bone meal was: 54.8, 46.0, 37.6, 54.3, 80.4, 88.7, 75.0, 67.5, 74.1, 65.9, and 39.4%, respectively. The effective degradabilities CP were: 70.4, 67.9, 40.2, 42.7, 86.5, 89.3, 71.7, 62.1, 57.3, 81.4, and 47.5%, respectively. The feed group was made according to ruminal DM and CP degradation dynamics, by means of Tocher method. The potentially degradable fraction and its degradation rate were the variables of the highest discrimination power for the group formation.

  12. Desempenho de frangos de corte sob suplementação com ácidos lático, fórmico, acético e fosfórico no alimento ou na água Performance of broilers supplemented with blends of lactic, formic, acetic, and phosphoric acids in the feed or water

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    Eduardo Spillari Viola

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar os efeitos da suplementação de ácidos orgânicos nas dietas e de ácidos orgânicos e ácido ortofosfórico na água de bebida sobre o desempenho de frangos de corte. Foram utilizadas 2.112 aves divididas em seis tratamentos, cada um com oito repetições. As dietas, exclusivamente vegetais, foram formuladas à base de milho e farelo de soja sem antibióticos ou anticoccidianos. A dieta controle não foi suplementada com ácidos orgânicos. As demais foram suplementadas com misturas de ácidos orgânicos, formuladas para cada fase de crescimento (1 a 7, 8 a 21 e 22 a 35 dias de idade: mistura A: ácidos lático (52%, fórmico (1% e acético (2%; mistura B: ácidos lático (76%, fórmico (2% e acético (4%; mistura C: ácidos lático (50%, fórmico (8% e acético (7%; mistura D: ácido fórmico (85%. A mistura E continha 40% de ácido lático, 5% de ácido acético e 5% de ácido ortofosfórico e foi adicionada à água de bebida. As doses adicionadas nas dietas, por fase, foram: 8,0; 4,5 e 2,5 kg/t para as misturas A, B e C e 2,5; 2,5 e 2,0 kg/t para a mistura D. A mistura E foi utilizada na água de bebida nas doses de 3,0; 2,0; 1,0 kg/1.000 L. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento completamente casualizado. Houve um benefício geral da suplementação da mistura de ácidos sobre o ganho de peso das aves. Entretanto, não houve diferença na conversão alimentar ao final do estudo. O consumo de alimento foi menor para a mistura B, enquanto o consumo de água foi negativamente afetado pela mistura E fornecida na água. O peso relativo das seções do intestino delgado aos 7 dias de idade foi menor nas aves da dieta controle, enquanto, aos 21 dias de idade, foi menor nas aves alimentadas com a dieta suplementada com as misturas A e C. A mistura E utilizada na água determinou redução no comprimento de jejuno aos 7 dias de idade, enquanto a mistura B teve efeito negativo sobre os comprimentos de

  13. Fermented liquid feed for pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Missotten, Joris; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël

    2010-01-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviat...

  14. Farinha de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias na alimentação de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus na fase de reversão sexual Effects of feeding tilapia filleting by-product meal for nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L. during the sexual reversion phase

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    Wilson Rogério Boscolo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduos da indústria de filetagem de tilápias (FT na alimentação da tilápia-do-nilo na fase de reversão sexual. Foram utilizadas 375 larvas com dois a três dias de idade, distribuídas em 25 aquários com capacidade para 30 L, em delineamento inteiramente casualisado, com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições, sendo a unidade experimental constituída por um aquário com 15 larvas. Foram elaboradas cinco rações isoprotéicas e isoenergéticas com 38,6% de proteína digestível e 3.800 kcal de ED/kg, com níveis de 0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% de inclusão de FT. Os valores de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e condutividade elétrica da água dos aquários durante o período experimental foram de 24,53 ± 1,60ºC; 4,81 ± 0,68 mg/L; 7,70 ± 0,25; e 175,97 ± 108,46 µS/cm, respectivamente. Ao final do experimento, não foram observadas diferenças no peso e comprimento final, no fator de condição, na sobrevivência e no índice de reversão sexual das larvas alimentadas com a FT. A inclusão de até 20% de FT em rações para tilápia do Nilo na fase de reversão sexual não causa prejuízo ao desempenho dos peixes.The effects of feeling tilapia filleting by-product meal (TF for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus L. during the sexual reversion phase were evaluated. Three hundred and seventy-five 2-3-d larvaes were allotted to 25 30L-aquariums, according to a complete randomized design with five treatments of five replications. Aquarium with 15 larvae comprised the experimental unit. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic and contained 38.6% of digestible protein and 3,800 kcal of ED/kg, on increasing levels of TF (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%. Mean temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity rates of water during the experimental period were of 24.53 ± 1.60ºC; 4.81 ± 0.68 mg/L; 7.70 ± 0.25; and 175.97 ± 108.46 µ

  15. Aspectos da reprodução e alimentação de Neoplecostomus microps (Loricariidae, Neoplecostominae na microbacia do Ribeirão Grande, serra da Mantiqueira oriental (Estado de São Paulo = Reproduction and feeding aspects of Neoplecostomus microps (Loricariidae, Neoplecostominae in the Ribeirão Grande system, eastern Serra da Mantiqueira (São Paulo State

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    Francisco Manoel de Souza Braga

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A microbacia do Ribeirão Grande situa-se nas vertentes da serra da Mantiqueira e está circundada pela floresta Atlântica. Foram amostrados oito locais na microbacia do Ribeirão Grande, no inverno (julho de 2001, primavera (outubro de 2001, verão (fevereiro de 2002 e outono (abril de 2002. As amostras foram coletadas com um aparelho elétrico de pesca. A maturação das gônadas, os graus de repleção do estômago e de gordura visceral foram distribuídasem um ciclo anual. Neoplecostomus microps tem período de desova que vai da primavera ao verão. O tamanho da primeira maturação gonadal para machos foi de 5,9 cm de comprimento total e de 6,9 cm para as fêmeas. O alto valor em outubro e fevereiro para a relação gonadossomática e para o fator de condição relativo coincidiram com o período de desova. Foram encontradas, na dieta de N. microps, larvas de Diptera (Simulium, Chironomus, ninfas de Plecoptera e larvas deColeoptera aquáticas (Psephenus. O aumento da alimentação, do verão ao outono, proporcionou acúmulo de gordura visceral. Durante as estações seguintes, o peixe pode utilizar as reservas de gordura para a manutenção e reprodução. O padrão reprodutivo e o de alimentação foram interpretados como sendo adaptações em relação às variações temporais e espaciais no ambiente e na disponibilidade de alimento.The Ribeirão Grande system is located in the slope of the Serra da Mantiqueira and is surrounded by Atlantic forest. Eight sites were surveyed in the Ribeirão Grande system, during the winter (July 2001, spring (October 2001, summer (February 2002 and fall (April 2002. Samples were made with an electrofishing device. Gonad maturation, levels of stomach fullness and fat content were analyzed and their distributions reported in an annual cycle. Neoplecostomus microps has a spawning in the spring through to summer. The size at sexual maturity is about 5.9 cm total length for males and 6.9 cm for females. The

  16. Efeito da restrição alimentar qualitativa no desempenho, na incidência de distúrbios metabólicos e no rendimento de carcaça em frangos de corte Qualitative feed restriction effects on growth performance, metabolic disorders and carcass traits of broiler chickens

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    Helenice Mazzuco

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para avaliar o desempenho, o controle da manifestação de doenças metabólicas e o rendimento de carcaça de frangos de corte machos submetidos à restrição alimentar no período de 8 a 14 dias de idade. A restrição nutritiva da dieta foi obtida diluindo-se a dieta inicial (21,5% PB e 3050 kcal/kg EM com 25 e 50% de casca de soja. Os tratamentos de restrição envolveram a oferta dessas dietas de forma contínua ou intercalada (com a dieta inicial não-diluída. Após o período de restrição, as aves retornaram ao consumo da ração inicial até os 21 dias de idade. No período seguinte, 22 a 35 dias de idade, as aves receberam ração de crescimento (21% PB e 3200 kcal/kg EM e de 36 a 42 dias, ração final (19% PB e 3200 kcal/kg de EM. Após terem sido submetidas à restrição alimentar, as aves mostraram pesos corporais inferiores aos das aves do tratamento controle em todas as idades avaliadas. A diluição da dieta não influenciou a manifestação da síndrome ascítica ou morte súbita. Não houve diferença no rendimento de carcaça, peito e coxas. O conteúdo em gordura abdominal não mostrou diferenças consistentes entre tratamentos. Os tratamentos em que se utilizou a diluição com 50% de casca de soja apresentaram menor margem bruta. A estratégia nutricional, para reduzir as perdas por mortalidades de origem metabólica e o teor de gordura abdominal na carcaça foi acompanhada por perdas em termos de desempenho das aves.This experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance, control of the of metabolic diseases incidence, and carcass yield of male broiler chickens allotted to a feed restriction from 8-14 days of age. The nutrient restriction was achieved by feeding a starter diet (21,5% CP and 3050 ME, kcal/kg with 25 or 50% soybean hulls. The treatment of restriction involved the feeding of these diets either on continuously or intercalated form (with the non-diluted starter diet. After the

  17. Effect of gamma radiation on the inactivation of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed crops Efeito da radiação gama na inativação de aflatoxina B1 em alimentos e ração

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    I. Ghanem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of food crops (peanut, peeled pistachio, unpeeled pistachio, rice, and corn and feed (barley, bran, corn were autoclave-sterilized, and inoculated with 10(6 of spore suspension of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus fungus known to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 . Following a 10-day period of incubation at 27 C to allow for fungal growth, food and feed samples were irradiated with gamma radiation at the doses 4, 6, and 10 kGy. Results indicated that degradation of AFB1 was positively correlated with the increase in the applied dose of gamma ray for each tested sample. At a dose of 10 kGy percentages of AFB1 degradation reached highest values at 58.6, 68.8, 84.6, 81.1 and 87.8% for peanuts, peeled pistachios, unpeeled pistachios, corn and rice samples, respectively. In feed samples percentages of AFB1 degradation were 45, 66, and 90% in barley, 47, 75, and 86% in bran, and 31, 72, and 84% in corn for the doses of 4, 6, and 10 kGy, respectively. AFB1 degradation in food samples correlated negatively with oil content in irradiated samples. Thus, in peanuts, which contained the highest oil content, percentage of AFB1 degradation at 10 kGy was not more than 56.6%, whereas, the corresponding value in corn, which contained the lowest oil content, reached as high as 80%. The above results indicate the possibility of using gamma radiation as a means of degradation of AFB1 in food and feed crops to levels lower than the maximum allowed levels.Amostras de alimentos (amendoim, pistache descascada, pistache com casca, arroz e milho e de ração (cevada, farelo de trigo e milho foram esterilizadas por autoclavação e inoculadas com uma suspensão de esporos (10(6 de um isolado de Aspergillus flavus produtor de aflatoxina B1 (AFB1. Após incubação por 10 dias a 27ºC para multiplicação do fungo, as amostras foram irradiadas com radiação gama nas doses de 4, 6 e 10 kGy. Os resultados indicaram que a degradação da AFB1 correlacionou-se positivamente

  18. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... sign in | my dashboard | sign out our cause health topics stories & media research & professionals get involved Search ... your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a question? ...

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    Full Text Available ... your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... hear about breakthroughs for babies and families. Ask a question Our health experts can answer questions about ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is ... and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Common illnesses Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  5. Breast feeding in IMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A; Depondt, E; Evans, S; Daly, A; Hendriksz, C; Chakrapani A, A; Saudubray, J-M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has proven benefits for many infants with inherited metabolic disorders (IMDs) but, with the exception of phenylketonuria, there are few reports in other conditions. A questionnaire, completed by dietitians and clinicians from 27 IMD centres from 15 countries (caring for a total of over 8000 patients with IMDs on diet) identified breast feeding experience in IMD. Successful, demand breast feeding (in combination with an infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids) was reported in 17 infants with MSUD, 14 with tyrosinaemia type I, and 5 with homocystinuria. Eighty-nine per cent were still breast fed at 16 weeks. Fewer infants with organic acidaemias were demand breast fed (7 with propionic acidaemia; 6 with methylmalonic acidaemia and 13 with isovaleric acidaemia) (usually preceded by complementary feeds of a protein-free infant formula or infant amino acid formula free of precursor amino acids). Only 12 infants with urea cycle disorders were given demand breast feeds, but this was unsuccessful beyond 8 days in CPS deficiency. Further work is needed in developing guidelines for feeding and for clinical and biochemical monitoring for breast-fed infants with IMDs.

  6. Efeitos de fertilização na biomassa e qualidade nutricional do zooplâncton utilizado para alimentação de alevinos na estação de hidrobiologia e piscicultura de Furnas, MG Fertilization effects on biomass and nutritional quality of zooplancton in feeding of fry in the Furnas (MG, Brazil hydrobiology and pisciculture station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Magalhães Santeiro

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O estudo objetivou avaliar os efeitos da adição intensiva de dejetos orgânicos e de nutrientes na qualidade do zooplâncton obtido em tanques de plâncton, empregado na alimentação de alevinos de “trairão” (Hoplias lacerdae. Os teores de lipídeos totais do zooplâncton bem como sua abundância e biomassa foram acompanhados, através de duas coletas semanais, em dois tanques de produção de plâncton durante dois meses seguidos. Foram medidos ainda a temperatura, pH, oxigênio dissolvido, condutividade elétrica na coluna de água. As concentrações de clorofila-a, fósforo total, amônia e nitrogênio total (TKN foram acompanhadas semanalmente. Nos primeiros trinta dias, foi feita a adubação a cada cinco dias e, nos últimos trinta dias, não houve qualquer adubação em ambos os tanques. A interrupção da fertilização causou uma notável e rápida mudança na qualidade físico-química da água bem como na estrutura da comunidade zooplanctônica. Houve um decréscimo nos teores de condutividade, amônia, nitrogênio total, fósforo total e clorofila-a. Em contraste, houve um aumento nos níveis de oxigênio dissolvido e pH. Logo após a parada da fertilização, houve um pico na biomassa total do zooplâncton que perdurou por cerca de 20 dias, em ambos os tanques. Nesse período, o cladócero Moina reticulata e o rotífero Brachionus calyciflorus foram os mais abundantes. No entanto, ao final do período de estudos, os ciclopóides voltaram a ser os organismos dominantes, embora com predominância de formas imaturas. Os teores de lipídeos totais do zooplâncton permaneceram baixos durante todo o período de estudos (6-10%, sugerindo a má qualidade do seu alimento dentro dos tanques. O estudo demonstra que a fertilização é necessária para que seja obtido um zooplâncton com maiores valores nutricionais mas a baixa qualidade da água causada pela hipereutrofização e os baixos níveis de lipídeos encontrados no zoopl

  7. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed....

  8. Características da sucção nutritiva na liberação da via oral em recém-nascidos pré-termo de diferentes idades gestacionais Characteristics of nutritive sucking in the release for oral feeding in preterm newborns of different gestational ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Coube de Carvalho Yamamoto

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar as características da sucção nutritiva na liberação da via oral em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT de diferentes idades gestacionais. MÉTODOS: A amostra constou de 32 RNPT, avaliados no momento da liberação para alimentação por via oral, dividida em dois grupos: Grupo 1 (G1 com idade gestacional inferior a 34 semanas; e Grupo 2 (G2 com idade gestacional igual ou superior a 34 semanas. O desempenho da sucção nutritiva foi avaliado observando-se presença ou ausência de blocos de sucção, número e tempo das sucções nos três primeiros blocos apresentados, e presença ou ausência de coordenação entre sucção/deglutição/respiração (S/D/R. Nenhum RNPT recebeu estimulação fonoaudiológica prévia. RESULTADOS: O G2 apresentou, na maioria dos RNPT, presença de coordenação entre S/D/R, além de melhor desempenho em relação ao número e ao tempo de sucção nos blocos de sucção quando comparado ao G1. Na correlação do número versus tempo de sucção por bloco, o G1 apresentou resultados aproximados aos do G2. Considerando-se a classificação quanto ao desenvolvimento intra-útero adequado para a idade gestacional, os RNPT do G1 apresentaram desempenho semelhante aos do G2, no primeiro e segundo blocos, observando-se queda, no G1, apenas no terceiro bloco. CONCLUSÃO: O melhor desempenho no padrão de sucção nutritiva foi apresentado pelo G2, sugerindo que a idade gestacional corrigida dos RNPT interfere diretamente nos resultados obtidos na avaliação da sucção nutritiva. Assim sendo, esta também é uma variável a ser considerada para liberação da alimentação por via oral.PURPOSE: To analyze the characteristics of nutritive sucking in preterm infants of different gestational ages after the medical prescription for oral feeding. METHODS: The sample comprised 32 preterm infants who were evaluated at the time they were released for oral feeding. The subjects were divided into two groups

  9. Perspectiva de alimentação infantil obtida com gestantes atendidas em centros de saúde na cidade de São Paulo Infant feeding expectations according to the pregnant women seen at the healthcare center in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Aparecida Moreira Takushi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: conhecer a dieta infantil pretendida por gestantes para o primeiro ano de vida. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal cujos dados foram obtidos em formulário estruturado, aplicado durante entrevista individual com 164 gestantes, usuárias da Assistência pré-natal, de centros de saúde da cidade de São Paulo. Para análise estatística foi aplicado teste do chi2 para verificar associação entre idade, escolaridade, paridade e conhecimento de variedade de frutas, legumes, verduras e carnes. RESULTADOS: todas as mulheres conheciam pelo menos uma variedade de fruta e de legume, enquanto que 20% delas não pretendiam introduzir verduras. Não foram obtidos resultados estatisticamente significantes entre idade, escolaridade, paridade e conhecimento de variedade de frutas e de legumes. Foram obtidos resultados estatisticamente significantes entre idade, paridade e conhecimento de variedade de verduras e de carnes. Os alimentos mais rejeitados, na intenção materna, foram o peixe (85,4% e o fígado (82,3%. Foram constatados mitos em relação ao teor de ferro de alimentos. CONCLUSÕES: a intenção de oferecer alimentos à criança em idade inferior ao sexto mês de vida foi freqüente. Reafirma-se a importância de se discutir a transição alimentar infantil durante a assistência prestada à mulher.OBJECTIVES: to obtain information from pregnant women on how they planned to feed their infants during the first year of life. METHODS: cross sectional study of the data obtained through structured questionnaires, filled by means of individual interviews with 164 pregnant women assisted by prenatal clinics in Outpatient Centers in the city of São Paulo. Statistical Chi- Square test was used to determine association between age, school level, parity and knowledge on the variety of fruits, vegetables and meats available. RESULTS: all women knew at least one type of fruit and vegetable while 20% of the women did not intend to offer vegetables

  10. Feeding habits, sexual dimorphism and size at maturity of the lizard Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae in a reforested restinga habitat in northeastern Brazil Hábito alimentar, dimorfismo sexual e tamanho na maturidade sexual do lagarto Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Spix, 1825 (Teiidae em restinga reflorestada no nordeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GG. Santana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The feeding habits, the sexual dimorphism in size and sexual maturity of the actively foraging lizard Cnemidophorusocellifer were analysed in an area of a reforested Restinga habitat located in the municipality of Mataraca, along the northern-most coast of Paraíba State, Brazil. Seventy-five specimens of C. ocellifer were examined (46 males and 29Â females. Of this total, only 23 specimens had prey in their stomachs. The most frequent prey consumed items were orthopterans (50%, coleopterans (23.9% and arachnids (10.9%; termites and insect larvae were less consumed (both with 2.2%. There were no significant differences observed between the numbers of prey consumed by either males or females. There were significant differences in SVL (snout-vent length between the sexes, with males attaining larger SVL values. When the influence of SVL was removed from the analyses, sexual dimorphism in the form was still reflected in the head size of these lizards. Sexual maturity in females and males was attained with SVL of 42.2 and 49.0 mm respectively. Although no significant difference was observed between the SVL of the females and the number of eggs produced, there was a clear tendency for larger females to produce more eggs. The low structural complexity of the vegetation and the poor soil quality in the reforested restinga area examined does not furnish favourable habitat for insect and termite larvae, contributing to the marked differences in the diet of the population of C. ocellifer observed in the present study in relation to the diet of their conspecifics in undisturbed areas of restinga, cerrado and caatinga.O hábito alimentar, dimorfismo sexual e tamanho na maturidade sexual do lagarto forrageador ativo Cnemidophorus ocellifer foram analisados em um habitat de restinga reflorestada, situado no município de Mataraca, extremo norte do litoral do Estado da Paraíba, Brasil. Foram examinados 75 espécimes de C. ocellifer, sendo 46 machos e 29 f

  11. Survey of quality of swine feed mixes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mašić Zoran

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of analyses of the chemical composition of 455 samples, microbiological analysis of 412 samples, and mucotoxicological analyses of 212 samples of feed mixes for different categories of swine which arrived for control at authorized laboratories from the territory of the Republic of Serbia during the period from 2000 until 2001. The analyses of 455 swine feed mix samples showed that as many as 185 feed mixes do not meet the quality condition on protein content envisaged by legal regulations, and the highest discrepancy was determined in feed mixes for piglets. Analyses of Ca, P and NaCl contents showed that the mixes in a large number of cases contain insufficient quantities, and in a considerable number even quantities which are not permitted. Analyses of the contents of certain microelements showed that mixes contain insufficient quantities in a large number of cases, especially of copper, manganese and zinc. The number of saprophytic bacteria greatly varied depending on the type of feed mix but all examined samples contained a permitted number of saprophytic bacteria. These analyses most often isolated Bacillus spp., Staphylococcus spp., coliform bacteries, and Micrococcus spp.. Most examined samples contained a permitted number of clostridia, and a smaller number of samples mostly for piglets, showed an impermissible number of clostridia. The quantity of mold fungi in mixes was significantly higher in mixes for young animals, and the determination of fungi most frequently resulted in the isolation of Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp., Fusarium spp., and Mucor spp.. The mucotoxin analysis of 212 feed mixes showed that only 30.2% were within permitted levels, and the differences between the mixes for young and adult animals were not significant. The mucotoxins most often present were zearalenon and ochratoxin, and all mixes in which aflatoxin and trychotecenes were identified contained these toxins in quantities

  12. EVALUACIÓN DE ENSILAJE BIOLÓGICO DE RESIDUOS DE PESCADO EN ALIMENTACIÓN DE TILAPIA ROJA (Oreochromis spp AVALIAÇÃO DA SILAGEM BIOLÓGICA DE RESÍDUOS DE PEIXE NA DIETA DE TILÁPIA VERMELHA (Oreochromis spp EVALUATION OF FISH WASTE BIOLOGICAL SILAGE IN RED TILAPIA FEEDING (Oreochromis spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRÍSPULO PEREA R

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La producción piscícola en la represa "La Salvajina" se ha incrementado en los últimos años, acentuando la acumulación de residuos resultantes del proceso. La presente investigación busca generar una alternativa de manejo de los residuos, aplicando la técnica de ensilaje biológico para su inclusión en la alimentación de Tilapia roja en etapa de engorde. Se evaluaron tres niveles de inclusión, 10% (T1, 20% (T2, 30% (T3, más una dieta testigo 0% (T0 sin ensilaje. Para ello, se determinó digestibilidad aparente (total, materia seca, proteína cruda, extracto etéreo y cenizas mediante la adición de óxido crómico como marcador inerte y los parámetros zootécnicos (ganancia de peso, incremento en talla y conversión alimenticia. Las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo en jaulas metabólicas, bajo un diseño completamente al azar, en tres réplicas. Los parámetros de digestibilidad no presentaron diferencias significativas (p>0,05, indicando que el ensilaje biológico de residuos de pescado al ser incluido en las raciones para tilapia, no afectan la ingestión de los componentes alimenticios. Los parámetros zootécnicos presentaron diferencias significativas (pA produção de peixes na represa "La Salvajina" tem aumentado nos últimos anos, acentuando a acumulação de resíduos resultantes do processo. Esta pesquisa visa criar uma alternativa de gestão de resíduos, aplicando a técnica de silagem biológica de inclusão na dieta de tilápia vermelha em processo de engorde. Três níveis de inclusão foram avaliados, 10% (T1, 20% (T2, 30% (T3, além de uma dieta controle de 0% (T0, que não tem inclusão de silagem. Para este fim, determinou-se a digestibilidade aparente (matéria seca total, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e cinzas por meio da adição de óxido de cromo como marcador inerte e parâmetros zootécnicos (ganho de peso, aumento no tamanho e na conversão alimentar. As avaliações foram realizadas em gaiolas metab

  13. Desempenho de porcas alimentadas durante a gestação, do primeiro ao terceiro parto, com rações com diferentes níveis de proteína bruta Effects of feeding different dietary crude protein levels on performance of sows during pregnancy, from the first to third parturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kedson Raul de Souza Lima

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram utilizadas 30 porcas mestiças (118,18±12,2 kg, espessura de toucinho de 13,82±1,42 mm e 220 dias de idade distribuídas em um fatorial 3 x 3 com parcelas subdivididas com dez repetições, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em que as ordens de parto constituíram as parcelas e os níveis de proteína, as subparcelas. Foram avaliados os efeitos da inclusão de três níveis de PB (10,0; 13,5 e 17,0% na ração durante a gestação sobre o desempenho das fêmeas em três ciclos reprodutivos sucessivos completos. O ganho de peso da porca na gestação foi influenciado pelo nível de proteína na dieta de gestação, mas não pela ordem de parto. O ganho em ET durante a gestação e a perda durante a lactação não foram influenciados significativamente pelos níveis de PB da ração e pela ordem de parto. A eficiência energética não diferiu entre os tratamentos nem conforme a ordem de parto. A ordem de parto afetou o peso médio da leitegada ao nascimento (PMLN, o peso médio da leitegada ao desmame (PMLD, o número de leitões nascidos totais (NT e nascidos vivos (NV e o número de leitões desmamados (ND. O desempenho da leitegada para ganho médio diário do leitão (GDP não variou entre os tratamentos. O peso relativo (% não sofreu efeito de nenhum dos fatores estudados. O consumo de ração (CR durante a lactação e o intervalo desmame-cobertura (IDC foram influenciados pelos tratamentos, sendo que o CR foi afetado também pela ordem de parto. Independentemente da ordem de parto, o nível de 17% de PB proporcionou o melhor ganho de tecido corporal durante a gestação e o menor IDC, enquanto o nível de 10% promoveu o maior consumo de ração. A ordem de parto influenciou o NT, NV, GPP, PMLN e PMLD, que foram melhores no terceiro parto.Thirty crossbred sows averaging 118.18±12.2 kg of BW, backfat thickness of 13.82±1.42 mm and 220 days old were assigned to a completely randomized design in a split plot scheme with 10

  14. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...... in enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation, with particular reference to trypsin, because the avoidance of trypsin stimulation may optimize enteral feeding in acute pancreatitis. METHODS: The pancreatic secretory responses to feeding were studied in 36 healthy volunteers by standard double......-lumen duodenal perfusion/aspiration techniques over 6 hours. Subjects were assigned to no feeding (n = 7), duodenal feeding with a polymeric diet (n = 7) or low-fat elemental diet (n = 6), mid-distal jejunal feeding (n = 11), or intravenous feeding (n = 5). All diets provided 40 kcal/kg ideal body weight/d and 1...

  15. Uso de técnicas de regressão na avaliação, em bovinos de corte, da eficiência de conversão do alimento em produto: comparação entre grupos experimentais Use of regression techniques in the evaluation, in beef cattle, of feed conversion into product: comparison between experimental groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo propor e discutir um método de avaliação comparativa da eficiência de conversão do alimento em produto entre dois grupos experimentais de bovinos de corte baseado na utilização de técnicas de regressão. Os procedimentos matemáticos e estatísticos foram desenvolvidos a partir de banco de dados formado pela mensuração do consumo de matéria seca e do ganho médio diário em 380 bovinos zebuínos puros ou mestiços em 15 experimentos constantes na base de dados do sistema BR-CORTE. Foram selecionados dois grupos constituídos por animais Nelore (n = 156 e animais F1 Europeu × Nelore (n = 139. Foram propostas duas aproximações baseadas no ajustamento de modelos de regressão linear e não-linear, tendo o ganho médio diário com variável independente e o consumo de matéria seca como variável dependente. A utilização do alimento pelo animal foi estratificada em demanda para mantença e eficiência real de conversão em produto e as diferenças entre grupos foram avaliadas por intermédio de variáveis dummy. O critério de informação de Akaike foi proposto como ferramenta para escolha entre os modelos linear e não-linear. A avaliação comparativa da eficiência de transformação do alimento em produto entre dois grupos experimentais de bovinos de corte por meio de técnicas de regressão permite, caso pertinente, a estratificação dos grupos em função da eficiência de uso da dieta para suprimento de demandas para mantença e para produção.The objective of this study was to propose and discuss a method to compare the feed into product conversion between two experimental groups of beef cattle based on regression techniques. The mathematical and statistical procedures were developed using a databank of dry matter intake and average daily gain of 380 purebred or crossbred zebu animals on the BR-CORTE nutritional system database. Two groups were selected from the databank and were formed by Nellore

  16. Composição bromatológica e digestibilidade aparente de alimentos encontrados na região semiárida brasileira para arraçoamento de tilapia rosa em cultivos Chemical composition and apparent digestibility of f eed found in the brazilian semiarid region for tilapia rosa feeding on cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ferraz Bacconi Campeche

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, avaliou-se o coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta e a energia digestível de seis alimentos (raspa de mandioca, grão de sorgo, feno de atriplex, feno de gliricídia, feno de leucena e resíduo de vitivinícola disponíveis no semiárido brasileiro, para a tilápia rosa. As rações foram marcadas com 0,1% de óxido crômico III. Utilizaram-se seis caixas circulares contendo 1000 litros de volume útil. Em cada caixa foi colocada uma gaiola circular de tela plástica, com 20 peixes cada (peso inicial de 80g. Os peixes foram arraçoados diariamente, três vezes ao dia. Para a coleta das fezes, cada gaiola foi colocada no início da noite em cubas de fibra de vidro cônicas com capacidade de 250L. O coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente dos ingredientes testados foi calculado com base no teor de óxido crômico III nas amostras de fornecidos e fezes, por análise de espectrofotometria de absorção atômica. Dentre os alimentos avaliados, os melhores valores de CDA para a MS foram referentes à raspa de mandioca e ao sorgo. Os melhores valores do CDA para a PB foram referentes à raspa de mandioca, sorgo e feno de gliricídia. O alimento avaliado com melhor valor de energia digestível foi o feno da atriplex.This study evaluated the apparent digestibility coefficient of dry matter, crude protein and digestible energy (Kcal kg-1 for six ingredients (cassava chips, sorghum grain, atriplex hay, gliricídia hay, leucaena hay and wine residues available in Brazilian semi-arid for pink tilapia feed. The feed were stained with 0.1% of chromic oxide III. A total of six circular tanks containing 1000 liters of volume were used. In each one was placed a circular cage of plastic screen with 20 fish each (initial weight of 80g. The fish were hand fed daily 3 times a day. To collect feces each cage was placed in the evening in conical 250L fiberglass tanks. Apparent digestibility of the ingredients tested

  17. Efeito do tamanho de partícula e da altura de corte de plantas de milho na dinâmica do processo fermentativo da silagem e no período de desensilagem Effect of particle size and cutting height of corn on the dynamics of the silage fermentation process and feed-out period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do tamanho de partícula (pequeno: 0,2 a 0,6 cm ou grande: 1,0 a 2,0 cm e da altura de corte de plantas de milho para ensilagem (baixa: 15 cm ou alta: 39 cm sobre a dinâmica do processo fermentativo das silagens e o período de desensilagem. Foram avaliados os seguintes tratamentos: silagem de partícula pequena com altura de corte baixa; silagem de partícula grande com altura de corte baixa; silagem de partícula pequena com altura de corte alta; e silagem de partícula grande com altura de corte alta. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos inteiramente casualizados com três repetições e parcelas subsubdivididas, em esquema fatorial 2 ´ 2 ´ 4, composto de dois tamanhos de partículas (pequeno e grande, duas alturas de corte (baixa e alta e quatro períodos de avaliação. Partículas pequenas determinaram maior eficiência de compactação da massa ensilada, diminuindo os gradientes de temperatura entre meio ambiente e silagem e o pH na desensilagem. As maiores deteriorações das silagens de milho ocorreram no estrato superior do silo, em decorrência da elevação da temperatura e dos maiores índices de pH e nitrogênio amoniacal desse estrato em relação ao inferior.The trial aimed to evaluate the effect of particle size (small: from 0.2 to 0.6 cm or large: from 1.0 to 2.0 cm and cutting height (low cut: 15 cm or high cut: 39 cm of the corn plant on the dynamics of the silage fermentation process and feed-out period. The treatments were: T1 - small particle size with low cutting height; T2 - large particle size with low cutting height; T3 - small particle size with high cutting height; and T4 - large particle size with high cutting height. A complete randomized blocks design with a factorial arrangement (2 x 2 x 4 in a split-plot was used, with three replications. Factors evaluated were particle size (2, cutting height (2, and feed out evaluation periods (4. Small

  18. Utilização da torta de girassol na alimentação de suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação: efeitos no desempenho e nas características de carcaça Effects of feeding sunflower cake on performance and carcass characteristics, for swine in the growing and finishing phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Ribeiro da Costa

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Quarenta e oito suínos (Landrace x Large White com peso médio inicial de 22,69 kg (24 machos castrados e 24 fêmeas foram submetidos a quatro tratamentos (dietas com 0; 5; 10 e 15% de inclusão de TG, com o objetivo de avaliar o uso da torta de girassol (TG na alimentação de suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação .Foram avaliados o ganho diário de peso (GDP, o consumo diário de ração (CDR e a conversão alimentar (CA durante as fases de crescimento I (20 a 50 kg de peso vivo, crescimento II (50 a 80 kg de peso vivo e terminação (80 a 100 kg de peso vivo. Ao abate, foram avaliados o peso (PC e o rendimento de carcaça (RC, a espessura de toucinho (ET, a profundidade do músculo Longissimus dorsi (PM, a área de olho de lombo (AOL, o comprimento de carcaça (CC, o rendimento (RCC% e a quantidade de carne na carcaça (QCC. Não houve diferença significativa no desempenho entre os tratamentos nos períodos avaliados. O efeito sexo foi significativo e em favor dos machos castrados apenas para o GPD em todas as fases, e para o CDR, na fase de terminação e no período total (20 a 100 kg de peso vivo. Para as características de carcaça, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos e o efeito sexo foi significativo para a ET, QCC e CC, com maiores médias para os machos castrados, e para o RCC, com maior média para as fêmeas. A TG pode ser utilizada em até 15% de inclusão nas rações de crescimento e terminação, mantendo-se os mesmos índices de desempenho e qualidade da carcaça. A inclusão de 15% de TG foi a que apresentou o melhor índice de eficiência econômica.Forty-eight (24 barrows and 24 females Landrace x Large White pigs (averaging 22.69 kg of initial body weight were assigned to four treatments to evaluate the effect of feeding sunflower cake (SC on performance and carcass characteristics for swine in the growing and finishing phases. The following increasing dietary levels of sunflower cake (SC

  19. Representing infant feeding: content analysis of British media portrayals of bottle feeding and breast feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, L.; KITZINGER, Jenny; Green, J.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To examine how breast feeding and bottle feeding are represented by the British media.\\ud Design: Content analysis.\\ud Subjects: Television programmes and newspaper articles that made reference to infant feeding during March 1999.\\ud Setting: UK mass media.\\ud Main outcome measures: Visual and verbal references to breast or bottle feeding in newspapers and television programmes.\\ud Results: Overall, 235 references to infant feeding were identified in the television sample and 38 in...

  20. Utilização de uréia no resíduo desidratado de vitivinícola associado à palma forrageira na alimentação de caprinos: consumo e digestibilidade de nutrientes Addition of urea to dehydrated vineyards residue, associated with forage cactus in goats feeding: intake and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silva Libanio Tosto

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a influência da adição de 0; 0,5; 1 ou 1,5% de uréia no resíduo desidratado de vitivinícolas - utilizado em associação a palma forrageira na alimentação de caprinos - no consumo e na digestibilidade dos nutrientes. Foram utilizados 24 caprinos machos castrados, sem padrão racial definido, com peso vivo médio de 18 kg, distribuídos em blocos ao acaso, de acordo com o peso vivo. O período experimental foi de 20 dias: 15 para adaptação e 5 para coleta. A adição de teores crescentes de uréia ao resíduo desidratado de vitivinícola possibilitou aumento do consumo de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, expressos em kg/dia, %PV e em g/kgPV0,75. Observou-se consumo linear crescente de nutrientes digest��veis totais (NDT, carboidratos totais (CT e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, em %PV e g/kgPV0,75. Não houve diferença significativa nos consumos de NDT, CT e CNF expressos em kg/dia, cujos valores médios foram 0,363; 0,575 e 0,258, respectivamente. Entretanto, a adição de uréia ao resíduo não influenciou os coeficientes de digestibildade de MS, MO e FDN (médias de 48,13; 46,08 e de 20,37%, respectivamente. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade de CNF apresentaram crescimento linear, enquanto os de PB apresentaram comportamento quadrático, com valor máximo de 48,93%, com a adição de 1,3% de uréia ao resíduo. O uso de uréia no resíduo desidratado de vitivinícola elevou linearmente o consumo de nutrientes, contudo, o nível de 1,3% é o mais indicado, pois promove melhor digestibilidade da proteína bruta de dietas contendo esse alimento alternativo.The effect of the addition of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of urea to dehydrated vineyards residue, associated to forage cactus palm in the feeding of goats on intake and nutrient digestibility was evaluated. Twenty-four castrated crossbred goats, without defined breed, with average 18 kg of BW were

  1. Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae and birds in the Lami Biological Reserve, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Associações alimentares entre capivaras (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus (Mammalia, Hydrochaeridae e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana C. Tomazzoni

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Feeding associations between capybaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 and some bird species were registered in the Lami Biological Reserve, southern Brazil, through observations in a set of transects established in the five major vegetation types of the study area: shrubby and herbaceous swamps, wet grasslands, sandy grasslands and forests. Data included: date and time, vegetation type, bird species, number of individuals (birds and capybaras, type of prey consumed, foraging strategy of the birds and the behavior of the capybaras in relation to the presence of birds. Five species of birds were registered: Caracara plancus (Miller, 1777, Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788, Machetornis rixosus (Vieillot, 1819, Milvago chimachima (Vieillot, 1816 and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin, 1789. The interactions were observed in the shrubby swamp (M. bonariensis, forest (C. plancus and wet grassland (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. chimachima. The foraging strategies were: (1 use of the capybara as a perch, hunting from its back (M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (2 use of the capybara as a beater, hunting in the ground (F. rufus, M. rixosus, M. bonariensis; (3 foraging in the skin of the capybara, by picking the ectoparasites (C. plancus, F. rufus, M. chimachima. Strategies (1 and (2 were employed to catch arthropods flushed from the vegetation. Sometimes, capybaras lay down and exposed the abdomen and lateral areas of their bodies to facilitate cleaning by M. chimachima, but the presence of other bird species seemed to be neutral to capybaras.Foram registradas associações alimentares entre capivaras Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766 e aves na Reserva Biológica do Lami, sul do Brasil, por meio de observações em um conjunto de transecções estabelecidas nos cinco principais tipos de vegetação existentes na área: banhado arbustivo, banhado herbáceo, campo úmido, campo arenoso e mata. As informações coletadas foram: data, horário, tipo de vegeta

  2. Práticas alimentares e estado nutricional de crianças no segundo semestre de vida atendidas na rede pública de saúde Feeding practices and nutritional status of children in the second semester of life who receive care in public health facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Paula Modesto

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o estado nutricional e as práticas alimentares de crianças no segundo semestre de vida atendidas na rede pública de saúde do município de Taboão da Serra, SP. MÉTODOS: Estudo de corte transversal conduzido em Unidades Básicas de Saúde, classificadas em dois agrupamentos (região central e região periférica. A amostra foi constituída por 180 crianças, sendo 90 de cada agrupamento. O consumo alimentar foi registrado pelo método recordatório de 24 horas. Foram tomadas medidas de peso e dosagem de hemoglobina por punção capilar. RESULTADOS: A prevalência de anemia encontrada foi de 30,5% sem diferença entre os grupos. Os valores das medianas do escore-Z (peso/idade foram: 0,02 e 0,03, para os agrupamentos central e periférico, respectivamente. A utilização de suplemento de ferro apresentou diferença entre os grupos (p=0,001, sendo mais presente no agrupamento periférico, enquanto que para a vitamina A, a suplementação foi significantemente maior no agrupamento central (p=0,044. Verificou-se introdução precoce de alimentos distintos do leite materno na dieta infantil e diferença significante entre os grupos na idade de introdução de chá, suco de fruta, sopa e sopa com carne no esquema alimentar. Em relação à ingestão de nutrientes verificou-se consumo adequado de energia e proteínas, mas quanto aos micronutrientes estudados, há grande probabilidade de inadequação do consumo de ferro e vitamina C. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de anemia é relativamente reduzida, comparada com os dados obtidos em outros locais, e o esquema de introdução de alimentos complementares é inadequado, frente às recomendações atuais. A utilização de suplementos de nutrientes deve ser revista.OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional status and feeding practices of children in the second semester of life who receive care in public health facilities of the city of Taboão da Serra, SP. METHODS: This is a cross

  3. Palma Forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em Substituição à Silagem de Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench na Alimentação de Vacas Leiteiras Replacement of Forage Cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill for Sorghum Silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench in the Dairy Cows Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmir Lima Wanderley

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho de vacas da raça Holandesa em lactação, alimentadas com rações contendo diferentes níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus indica Mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. Foram utilizadas oito vacas distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos (4x4. Cada período experimental teve duração de 21 dias, sendo 14 destinados à adaptação dos animais às rações e sete para coleta. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, em kg/dia, % de PV e em relação ao peso metabólico (g/kg0,75, e matéria orgânica e carboidratos totais, expressos em kg/dia, não foram influenciados pela adição de palma na ração, apresentando valores médios de 20,18; 3,41; 167,80; 18,86; e 14,85, respectivamente. O consumo de carboidratos não-fibrosos, em kg/dia, aumentou, e os de fibra em detergente neutro, em kg/dia e % de PV, fibra em detergente ácido; proteína bruta e extrato etéreo, expressos em kg/dia, diminuíram linearmente com a inclusão de palma na ração. O consumo de sódio não foi influenciado pela adição de palma na ração, com valor médio de 29,45g/dia. Os consumos de potássio e magnésio aumentaram e o de fósforo diminuiu linearmente com a adição de palma na ração. Não houve efeito da inclusão de palma sobre a produção de leite com e sem correção para 3,5% de gordura, cujos valores médios foram de 25,01 e 26,97kg/dia, respectivamente. O teor de gordura do leite foi influenciado de forma quadrática, sendo o teor máximo estimado em 4,08%, com 20,51% de palma na ração. A conversão alimentar aumentou linearmente com a inclusão de palma.The experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of lactating Holstein cows fed diet with different replacement levels (0, 12, 24 and 36% of forage cactus (Opuntia ficus indica Mill for sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench. Eight cows were assigned to a two 4x4 latin

  4. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  5. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  6. Low Emission Feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely affected.

  7. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  8. [History of complementary feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turck, D

    2010-12-01

    Complementary feeding, which embraces all solid and liquid foods other than breast milk or infant formula, is strongly influenced by cultural, familial and economic factors. For many times, there was a strong taboo on the use of colostrum ("the white blood") during the first week after delivery, sometimes even the first month. Therefore, the newborn baby received complementary foods as gruel, or panada. However, in the Greek civilization, wet nurses were asked by contract to breastfeed exclusively for the first 6 months and to start complementary feeding thereafter. From the sixteenth century onwards, many writers deplored the practice of giving gruel and panada during the first six months before the teeth erupted. In 1921, a Swedish pediatrician, Jundell, reported for the first time that starting complementary feeding at 6 months of age was associated with a better growth and resistance to infections. The recommendation of the World Health Organization to start complementary feeding after a 6-month period of exclusive breastfeeding is often in contradiction with the habits of the populations to propose very early other food sources than breast milk. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  10. Feed sources for livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Cu

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump In This Topic Breastfeeding ... healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  12. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed intake is ... apportionment of consumed energy towards protein and ..... alia, genetic potential for protein deposition and its ... The content and dietary balance of feed nutrients, such as ...

  13. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  14. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigh, Yasir Afzal; Ganai, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Haidar Ali

    2017-01-01

    Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal’s production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial by­products, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken. PMID:28507415

  15. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly distributed diurnal feeding patterns. However, differences in feeding patterns resulting from feed presentation did not persist after 8 wk of age, when all calves were fed a mixed ration. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Preferência alimentar, efeito da planta hospedeira e da densidade larval na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Feeding preference, host-plant and larval density effects on survivorship and growth rates of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidica Bianchi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Dez espécies de passifloraceas ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul foram avaliadas em relação à preferência alimentar e performance larval de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus, 1753; P. capsularis Linnaeus, 1753; P. edulis Sims, 1818; P. elegans Masters, 1872; P. misera Humbold, Bonpland et Kunth, 1817; P. suberosa Linnaeus, 1753; P. tenuifila Killip, 1927 e P. warmingii Masters, 1872. O efeito da densidade larval na performance foi também testado em P. edulis: grupos de uma, duas, quatro, oito, dezesseis, trinta e duas, e sessenta e quatro larvas. A preferência das larvas foi avaliada com base em teste utilizando-se discos foliares, com e sem chance de escolha. As larvas obtiveram maior sobrevivência em P. misera, P. tenuifila e P. edulis. Nenhuma sobreviveu em P. alata, P. capsularis, P. amesthystina, P. suberosa e P. warmingii. As larvas escolheram P. edulis nos testes com chance de escolha. Ingeriram quantidades semelhantes de P. tenuifila, P. misera e P. caerulea nos testes sem chance de escolha. A taxa de crescimento larval e o tamanho dos adultos foi maior quando criadas em P. misera, quando comparado com P. edulis. A sobrevivência foi significativamente reduzida nos grupos com uma, duas e quatro larvas, o que pode explicar em parte o comportamento gregário desta espécie. Concluiu-se que poucas espécies de passifloráceas além de P. edulis podem constituir-se em hospedeiras potenciais de D. juno juno no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Numa perspectiva ecológica, no entanto, muitas destas hospedeiras alternativas apresentam limitações a respeito de sua adequabilidade, tamanho ou abundância da planta.Ten passion vine species from Rio Grande do Sul were evaluated regarding larval feeding preference and performance of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus

  17. Utilização de soja integral tostada na dieta de vacas em lactação, em pastagem de coastcross (Cynodon dactylon, L. Pers. Utilization of roasted whole soybean for lactating cows feeding, grazing coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon, L Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Vilela

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão da soja integral tostada (SIT no concentrado suplementar de vacas da raça Holandesa em pastagem de coastcross. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas no início da lactação, divididas em dois grupos: A as que receberam concentrado padrão (testemunha, contendo farelo de soja (23,5% PB e 80% NDT e B as que receberam concentrado com SIT (19,5% PB, 86% NDT. Nos dois tratamentos, foram fornecidos, diariamente, 9 kg de concentrado por vaca. Usou-se cerca eletrificada para auxiliar no manejo da pastagem, que se baseou em pastejo rotativo, com um dia de ocupação dos piquetes, por 25 dias de descanso. O experimento teve duração de 100 dias, durante o verão, quando foram aplicados na pastagem 140, 32 e 112 kg/ha de N, P2O5 e K2O, respectivamente, divididos em quatro aplicações. A inclusão de SIT aumentou a produção de leite, a produção de leite corrigido para 3,5% de gordura, que foram, em média: 22,2 e 23,6; 19,8 e 19,7 kg/vaca/dia, para os tratamentos SIT e testemunha, respectivamente. Os teores de gordura no leite foram de 4,16 e 3,49% nos tratamentos em que os animais receberam concentrado com SIT e concentrado padrão, respectivamente. As vacas que receberam concentrado com SIT mostraram produção superior ao grupo testemunha, atingindo 145,4 kg/ha/dia de leite. Nos dois tratamentos, as vacas ganharam peso.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of roasted whole soybean (RWS in the concentrate composition to be employed to supplement feeding of Holstein cows on coastcross-1 pasture. Twelve early-lactating cows were utilized, divided into two groups as follows: A the ones fed standard concentrate (control containing soybean meal (23.5% CP and 80% TDN and B the ones fed RWS-enriched concentrate (19.5% CP and 86% TDN. In two treatments, daily feeding was of 9 kg/cow of concentrate. An electric fence was utilized for helping pasture management, which was based

  18. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  19. Live feeds in aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Dhert, Ph.; Sorgeloos, P

    1995-01-01

    Over the past two decades intensive larviculture of several fish and shellfish species has expanded into a multimillion dollar industry. Although much progress has been made in identifying the dietary requirements of the larvae of various aquaculture species, the mass culture of their early larval stages still requires the use of live feeds. Selected either through trial and error approaches or because of their convenience in mass production and use, hatcheries are relying today on three grou...

  20. Feed sources for livestock

    OpenAIRE

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  1. Residual Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sainz, Roberto D.; Paulino, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Low rates of return on investment for livestock operations are a fact of life. Producers have little impact on the market price for their cattle; therefore management must be focused on the things producers can actually do something about. For many years, genetic selection programs have focused on production (output) traits, with little attention given to production costs (inputs). Recently, this view has begun to change, and the efficiency of conversion of feed (i.e., t...

  2. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk, vi...

  3. Coupling between crossed dipole feeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans; Lessow, H.

    1974-01-01

    as a function of orientation and feeding network properties. The antennas are used as feeds for a parabolic reflector, and the effect of coupling on the secondary fields is analyzed. Especially significant is the polarization loss and it may, to some extent, be reduced by a proper choice of feeding network....

  4. Food Safety Information RSS feed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This is an RSS Feed of Food Safety information that’s produced in real-time by the CDC. This RSS feed is the integration of two other XML feeds, one from the USDA's...

  5. Multiple part feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilshøj, Mads; Bøgh, Simon; Nielsen, Oluf Skov

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design/methodology/approach - Th......Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present experience from a real-world demonstration of autonomous industrial mobile manipulation (AIMM) based on the mobile manipulator "Little Helper" performing multiple part feeding at the pump manufacturer Grundfos A/S. Design....../methodology/approach - The necessary AIMM technologies exist at a mature level - the reason that no mobile manipulators have yet been implemented in industrial environments, is that research in the right applications have not been carried out. We propose a pragmatic approach consisting of: a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile...... manipulator system design ("Little Helper"), a suitable and comprehensive industrial application (multiple part feeding), and a general implementation concept for industrial environments (the "Bartender Concept"). Findings - Results from the three days of real-world demonstration show that "Little Helper...

  6. FEEDING INDEX AND REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE IN MALE RED-PIAU Leporinus copelandii (STEINDACHNER, 1875 IN THE LOW BASIN OF PARAIBA DO SUL RIVER ÍNDICES DE ALIMENTAÇÃO E CICLO REPRODUTIVO EM MACHOS DE PIAU-VERMELHO Leporinus copelandii (STEINDACHNER, 1875 NA BACIA DO BAIXO RIO PARAÍBA DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vazquez Vidal Jr.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The aim of this article was evaluate de relationship among feeding index and reproductive cycle in male red-piau (Leporinus copelandii, in the low basin of paraiba do sul river. Fishes were collected monthly, from February 1998 to march 1999, and obtained the following param-eters: total condition factor (k1 and somatic (k2, stomach repletion index (SRI and stomach repletion stage (SRS, and gonadal maturation. in general, condition and gonadal parameters showed an inverse relation with nutritional parameters. during the spawning season (september to January, was observed low values of SRS and SRI, fol-lowing an increase of these parameters after spawning, and it seems to be a natural mechanism of corporal condition recovering.

    Key-Words: Leporinus, fish, reproduction, reproductive biology.

    Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a relação entre índices de alimentação e ciclo reprodutivo de machos de piau-vermelho, na região do baixo rio Paraíba do Sul (latitude 21° 41’ 15” S e longitude 42° 03’ 45” W. amostras foram coletadas mensalmente, entre fevereiro de 1998 a janeiro de 1999, sendo obtidos os seguintes parâmetros: fator de condição total (k1 e somático (k2, índice gastro-somático (IGas e estádio de repleção estomacal (ERE, e estádios de maturação gonadal. em geral, parâmetros de condição corporal e gônadas apresentaram uma relação inversamente proporcional aos parâmetros de alimentação. durante a estação reprodutiva (setembro–janeiro, foram observados os menores valores de IGas e ERE, seguidos por um incremento desses parâmetros após a reprodução, mostrando ser um mecanismo natural de reposição da condição corporal.

    Palavras-chaves: biologia reprodutiva, Leporinus, peixe, reprodução.

  7. Prospects of Applying Feed Processing Technologies Based on Industrial Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Petrus Ginting

    2012-06-01

    priority to the processing technology such as hydrolitic treatment using NaOH, ammoniation, hydrothermal, pelleting, wafering or cubing. The types of products that possibly produced in this large operation scales are (i concentrate feed, (ii complete feed or (iii basal feeds (roughages. The chain of ruminant feed production systems could be developed further by including the feed industry sector into the system. Within this system the plantation industry will have main role to supply the raw materials for the feed industries. As these local raw materials are readily available, the feed industries could further produce various types of balanced feed or rations based on the principles of feeding standard to meet the nutrient requirements of various classes of ruminant animals.

  8. Probiotic with yeast in Nile tilapia feeding during the sexual reversion period cultivated in water of tank of fish culture Probiótico com levedura na alimentação da tilápia do Nilo, durante o período de reversão sexual, cultivada em água de tanque de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur dos Santos Mascioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment objectified to evaluate the Saccharomyces cerevisiae as probiotic in rations for the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus during sexual reversion period. Were distributed 320 larvae in a completely randomized design with two treatments and eight replications in 25 L aquarium. The treatments consisted of a commercial ration for tilapia during sexual reversion added 0.1% of S. cerevisiae (1010 S. cerevisiae CFU/g of product and another one without the inclusion of the probiotic. Fingerlings had been counted, measured and weighed after 29 days, two fingerlings from each treatment, were randomized chosen and has their liver weighed for hepatic-somatic index determination. For microbiological studies, two samples of the water of the aquaria and one larvae of each aquarium had been carried through, in days 5 and 29 of the experiment. The number of total mesophilic bacterial did not present significant difference between the larvae of the first collection and nor between the water samples of the two carried through collections. For the second collection it had significantly higher difference in the counting for TP larvae. Any total coliforms appear in samples of water and larvae. The performance and survival were not influenced by the inclusion of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (P>0.05. Hepatic-somatic index had a significant difference (P<0.01 between treatments, being smaller to the TP than TT. The inclusion of S. cerevisiae in feed of Nile tilapia, during the period of sexual reversion, promotes intestinal colonization and reduction in hepatic-somatic index.Avaliou-se o fornecimento da Saccharomyces cerevisiae como probiótico em rações para a tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, durante o período de reversão sexual, criadas em água proveniente de tanque de cultivo. Foram distribuídas 320 larvas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dois tratamentos e oito repetições em aquários de 25L. Os tratamentos constituíram-se de

  9. Resíduo desidratado de vitivinícolas associado a diferentes fontes energéticas na alimentação de ovinos: consumo e digestibilidade aparente Winery dehydrated residues wineries associated to different energetic sources in sheep feeding: intake and nutrients digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daerson Dantas Barroso

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes foram determinados em ovinos confinados, objetivando avaliar a combinação do resíduo desidratado de vitivinícolas a diferentes fontes energéticas. Foram utilizados dezoito ovinos não castrados, com idade aproximada de sete meses e 21 kg de peso vivo, distribuídos num delineamento em blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e seis repetições. As dietas foram compostas de 50% de resíduo de vitivinícolas e 50% de concentrados energéticos: grão de milho moído (Zea mays L. (T1, raspa de mandioca (Manihot esculenta Crantz enriquecida com 1,8% de uréia (T2 e farelo de palma forrageira (Opuntia fícus-indica L. enriquecido com 1,1% de uréia (T3. As maiores ingestões foram observadas para as combinações de resíduo com grão de milho moído e resíduo com farelo de palma, respectivamente, com valores para a matéria seca de 84,34 e 107,37 g/PV0,75/dia/animal, proteína bruta 133 e 160 g/dia/animal e NDT 461 e 497 g/dia/animal. As digestibilidades da matéria seca, proteína bruta e fibra em detergente neutro foram de 52,89, 47,12 e 42,37; 54,36, 49,63 e 54,95; 36,96, 34,22 e 32,82 %, respectivamente para as dietas com grão de milho, raspa de mandioca e farelo de palma. Os resultados obtidos para o consumo e para a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, revelaram um bom potencial do resíduo de vitivinícolas combinado as fontes energéticas estudadas.To evaluate the diet combination of the dried winery residue with different energy sources, intake and apparent digestibility were determined in feedlot sheep. Eighteen male sheep with seven months of age, non-defined breed, weighting initially 21 kg, were used, distributed in a randomized blocks design with three treatments and six replication. The diets were composed with 50% of dried grapes residue and 50% of energetic concentrate: corn meal (Zea mays L. (T1, cassava meal (Manihot esculenta Crantz enriched with 1,8% of urea (T2

  10. Efeito do tipo de sedimento na eficiência alimentar, crescimento e sobrevivência de Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6134 Effect of sediment type on feed efficiency, growth and survival of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931 - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i4.6134

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fúlvio Aurélio Morais Freire

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo avaliou o desempenho zootécnico do camarão marinho Litopenaeus vannamei em diferentes tipos de substratos não consolidados. Juvenis (0,97 ± 0,27 g foram aclimatados na densidade de 52 m-2, em 21 caixas de polietileno com biofiltros individuais, em um sistema fechado de filtração contínua, sendo submetidos aos tratamentos: 1 A = 25% silte + 25% argila + 25% areia muito fina + 25% areia fina; 2 B = 50% areia fina + 50% areia muito fina e 3 Controle = sem substrato, em um delineamento experimental completamente casualizado, com três tratamentos e sete repetições cada. Os animais foram alimentados com 12% da biomassa/dia com ração peletizada (35% de proteína bruta, ofertada em bandejas e parcelada em duas ofertas diárias (8 e 16h. O estudo teve duração de 48 dias, sendo avaliados: consumo aparente de ração, eficiência alimentar, taxa de crescimento específico, sobrevivência e ganho de peso. Foram acompanhados diariamente salinidade, pH, amônia e temperatura da água. A análise estatística dos dados se deu por meio dos testes Anova ou Kuskal-Wallis, em função da sua parametricidade. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas com relação aos fatores avaliados nas diferentes granulometrias de sedimento testadas, indicando que estas não exerceram influência sobre o desempenho zootécnico de L. vannamei juvenil.This study aimed to evaluate the zootechnical performance of Litopenaeus vannamei shrimp at different types of unconsolidated substrate. Juvenile shrimp (0.97 ± 0.27 g were acclimatized, in a stocking density of 52 m-2, to 21 polyethylene boxes (50 L connected individually to biofilters in a closed water exchange system. The animals were submitted to the treatments: 1 A = 25% silt + 25% clay + 25% very fine sand + 25% fine sand; 2 B = 50% fine sand + 50% very fine sand and 3 Control = no sediment, with seven replications each. Photoperiod was set on 12L: 12D. Shrimps were fed twice a day (at 08

  11. Utilização da casca de café na alimentação de suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação Coffee hulls utilization in growing and finishing pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Rocio Poveda Parra

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos com o objetivo de determinar os valores nutricionais das cascas de café melosa (CM e seca (CS e avaliar seus níveis de inclusão sobre o desempenho e as características da carcaça de suínos nas fases de crescimento e terminação. As cascas foram moídas em peneiras de 2,5 mm (CM2 e CS2 e 4,0 mm (CM4 e CS4. No experimento I, foram conduzidos dois ensaios de digestibilidade, utilizando 15 suínos machos castrados, com peso inicial de 45,7 ± 4,12 kg e de 77,5 ± 6,28 kg para as fases de crescimento e terminação, respectivamente. Os valores de ED (kcal/kg para CM2, CM4, CS2 e CS4 foram 2.494, 2.498, 1.236 e 1.345. A CM apresentou valores de energia digestível (ED superiores à CS; entretanto, a moagem não melhorou os valores de ED. No experimento II, foram utilizados 40 suínos híbridos comerciais com peso inicial de 33,42 ± 0,53 kg e de 59,0 ± 4,17 kg para as fases de crescimento e terminação, respectivamente. Foram avaliados cinco níveis de inclusão (0, 5, 10, 15 e 20% de CM4. Na fase de crescimento, o consumo diário de ração (CDR apresentou diferença no último nível de inclusão (20% quando comparado à ração-testemunha (RT. Foi observada redução linear do ganho diário de peso (GDP com o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da CM4. A conversão alimentar (CA foi semelhante entre os níveis de inclusão e a RT. Na fase de terminação, houve redução linear do CDR com o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da CM4. Houve efeito quadrático para o GDP, que foi melhor no nível de inclusão de 8,43%. Os valores de espessura de toucinho dos tratamentos com CM4 foram menores quando comparados à RT nas duas fases. Houve redução linear do peso de carcaça quente e peso de pernil nos níveis de inclusão. O rendimento de carcaça quente piorou com cada nível de inclusão em relação à RT. Os resultados sugerem que a CM pode ser incluída em níveis de até 5,0% na fase de crescimento e 9,5% na

  12. Effect of probiotic and prebiotic upon the gain of weight, feed intake and diarrhoea occurrence in piglets at the suckling phase Efeito da adição de probiótico e prebiótico sobre o ganho de peso, consumo de ração e ocorrência de diarréia em leitões na fase de aleitamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Luís Fraga

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study intended to assess the effect of probiotic and/or prebiotic added in sows feed on piglets weight (WE, feed intake (FI and the percentage of diarrhoea (ID, during lactation. There were used 24 sows and 289 piglets, distributed in a completely randomized, with four treatments (T1 = control; T2 = addition of prebiotic; T3 = addition of probiotic; and T4 = addition of prebiotic + probiotic. From 0 to 14 days of age, the prebiotic addition increased the piglets weight gain. Meanwhile, in the period of 15 to 21 days, the piglets from treatments T3 and T4 showed better GP in comparison to the groups T1 and T2. From 0 to 7 days of life, control group piglets had higher incidence of diarrhoea (ID. The only probiotic addition received the lowest average cost in sow feed and the best economic efficiency.Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito de probiótico e/ou prebiótico adicionados na ração de matrizes suínas sobre o ganho de peso (GP e consumo de ração (CR dos leitões e porcentagem de diarréia nos mesmos (PD durante a fase de aleitamento. Foram utilizadas 24 matrizes e 289 leitões provenientes destas, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (T1= controle; T2= adição de prebiótico; T3 = adição de probiótico; e T4 = adição de prebiótico + probiótico. Os resultados demonstraram que de 0 a 14 dias de idade, a adição de prebiótico aumentou o ganho de peso (GP dos leitões. Entretanto, no período de 15-21 dias, os leitões dos tratamentos T3 e T4 demonstraram melhor GP em comparação aos dos grupos T1 e T2. De 0-7 dias de vida, os leitões do grupo controle apresentaram maior ocorrência de diarréia (OD. Entretanto de 15-21 dias o grupo controle (T1 e o T4 apresentaram menor OD. Conclui-se que o prebiótico adicionado na ração das matrizes proporciona melhor GP dos leitões de 0-14 dias de vida; a utilização de probiótico adicionado ou não de prebiótico melhoram o GP dos leit

  13. Fermented liquid feed for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missotten, Joris A M; Michiels, Joris; Ovyn, Anneke; De Smet, Stefaan; Dierick, Noël A

    2010-12-01

    Since the announcement of the ban on the use of antibiotics as antimicrobial growth promoters in the feed of pigs in 2006 the investigation towards alternative feed additives has augmented considerably. Although fermented liquid feed is not an additive, but a feeding strategy, the experimental work examining its possible advantages also saw a rise. The use of fermented liquid feed (FLF) has two main advantages, namely that the simultaneous provision of feed and water may result in an alleviation of the transition from the sow milk to solid feed and may also reduce the time spent to find both sources of nutrients, and secondly, that offering FLF with a low pH may strengthen the potential of the stomach as a first line of defence against possible pathogenic infections. Because of these two advantages, FLF is often stated as an ideal feed for weaned piglets. The results obtained so far are rather variable, but in general they show a better body weight gain and worse feed/gain ratio for the piglets. However, for growing-finishing pigs on average a better feed/gain ratio is found compared to pigs fed dry feed. This better performance is mostly associated with less harmful microbiota and better gut morphology. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge of FLF for pigs,dealing with the FLF itself as well as its effect on the gastrointestinal tract and animal performance.

  14. First feeding of larval herring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  15. Uso de matéria seca de cará e de mandioquinha-salsa na composição da ração para frangos de corte Yam and Peruvian carrot dry matter use in ration composition for broiler feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Vieira

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido no aviário experimental localizado na horta do Núcleo Experimental de Ciências Agrárias (NCA da UFMS, em Dourados - MS, entre 21 de fevereiro e 3 de abril de 1997. Foram estudadas quatro fórmulas de ração para alimentação de frangos de corte, sendo elas: 1 - 30% ração concentrada (RC + 70% milho (M; 2 - 30% RC + 15% matéria seca de cará + 55% M; 3 - 30% RC + 15% matéria seca de resíduos de mandioquinha-salsa + 55% M e 4 - 30% RC + 30% matéria seca de cará + 40% M. A unidade experimental foi uma ave e os tratamentos arranjados no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com dez repetições. As matérias secas de cará (mistura de rizomas e tubérculos e dos resíduos de mandioquinha-salsa (rebentos, coroas e raízes não-comercializáveis foram obtidas de plantas propagadas na horta do NCA-UFMS e secadas ao sol, em terreiro cimentado. As aves foram pesadas aos 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 e 42 dias após o início do experimento. As curvas de pesos médios dos frangos foram características para a espécie e as taxas de crescimento foram significativamente dependentes dos tratamentos. Os frangos alimentados com a ração 3 apresentaram peso médio final de 2.113,7 g e conversão alimentar de 2,1186 kg de ração/kg de peso do frango, que foi inferior em 2,2%; 9,7% e 23,9% quando comparada com as dos frangos alimentados com as rações 1, 2 e 4, respectivamente. A maior quantidade de carne a ser realmente consumida - cozida ou assada (com custo/kg de R$ 0,7158 e R$ 0,9825, respectivamente - foi dos frangos criados com a ração 3. Os frangos alimentados com ração contendo resíduos de mandioquinha-salsa ou cará apresentaram sabor de frango caipira e baixo teor de gordura.An experiment was carried out in the experimental aviary at the Farmer Science Experimental Center - NCA of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul (UFMS in Dourados-MS between February 21st and April 3rd, 1997. The following

  16. Analysis of self-feeding in children with feeding disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Kristi M; Piazza, Cathleen C; Roane, Henry S; Volkert, Valerie M; Stewart, Victoria; Kadey, Heather J; Groff, Rebecca A

    2014-01-01

    In the current investigation, we evaluated a method for increasing self-feeding with 3 children with a history of food refusal. The children never (2 children) or rarely (1 child) self-fed bites of food when the choice was between self-feeding and escape from eating. When the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed an identical bite of food, self-feeding was low (2 children) or variable (1 child). Levels of self-feeding increased for 2 children when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of the same food. For the 3rd child, self-feeding increased when the choice was between self-feeding 1 bite of food or being fed multiple bites of a less preferred food. The results showed that altering the contingencies associated with being fed increased the probability of self-feeding, but the specific manipulations that produced self-feeding were unique to each child.

  17. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for the Public / Speech, Language and Swallowing / Swallowing Feeding and Swallowing Disorders (Dysphagia) in Children What are ... children with feeding and swallowing disorders ? What are feeding and swallowing disorders? Feeding disorders include problems gathering ...

  18. Feeding Tips For Your Baby with CHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How To Feed Your Baby Either breast- or bottle-feeding works well for babies with heart problems, but ... do best with a combination of breast- and bottle-feeding. Breast-Feeding Your Baby If your baby is ...

  19. Spatial distribution and functional feeding groups of aquatic insect communities in Serra da Bocaina streams, southeastern Brazil Distribuição espacial e categorização funcional trófica de comunidades de insetos aquáticos em rios na Serra da Bocaina, Sudeste Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Henriques de Oliveira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the spatial distribution and functional feeding structure of aquatic insect communities of 18 streams at different altitudes in Mambucaba River Basin, Serra da Bocaina, Southeastern Brazil; METHODS: Samples were collected in two consecutive dry periods (August of 2003 and 2004 being sampled four substrate types in each stream: litter from riffles, litter from pools, rocks and gravel; RESULTS: We identified 75,581 aquatic insect individuals belonging to 201 taxa. Most of the fauna was found in litter substrates (64%, and riffle litter substrate had the majority of the specimens (32,572 individuals. Gravel was the substrate with highest values of richness (29.84 taxa expected for 187 individuals; rarefaction method and Shannon's diversity (H' = 2.370. Rock substrate showed the lowest richness (20.24 taxa. Distribution of taxa across substrates shows that only 28 taxa are restricted to a single substrate, while 78 taxa occurred in all substrates. The indicator analysis showed that 20 taxa were characteristic of pool litter, 25 of riffle litter, 22 of gravel and only nine to rock. In relation to organic and inorganic substrates, 29 taxa were characteristic of litter, and 17 of inorganic substrates. Cluster analysis based on Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index and UPGMA linkage method showed that aquatic insects were distributed according to substrate and food resource. In all substrates, the main functional feeding group was collector-gatherer (40.64%, and the least representative was shredder (6.67%. ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests showed that collector-gatherers and shredders were predominant in pool substrates, collector-filters in riffle substrate and scrapers in hard substrates; CONCLUSION: Ours results show that independently of stream or altitude, substrate of the same type have similar faunal assemblages. The abundance and relative proportion of the functional feeding group showed variation across habitats

  20. Energia metabolizável de alimentos utilizados na formulação de rações para papagaios-verdadeiros (Amazona aestiva Metabolizable energy of raw feeds utilized in commercial rations for blue-fronted parrot (Amazona aestiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo do Prado Saad

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a energia metabolizável de 16 alimentos comumente utilizados em rações para psitacídeos, foram utilizados 34 papagaios-verdadeiros alojados em gaiolas metabólicas e distribuídos em blocos ao acaso em 17 tratamentos (T1 - ração referência, T2 - semente de girassol, T3 - aveia, T4 - gema de ovo, T5 - ovo integral, T6 - clara de ovo, T7 - germe de trigo, T8 - farelo de trigo, T9 - milho moído, T10 - milho gelatinizado, T11- farelo de girassol, T12 - levedura, T13 - polpa cítrica, T14 - mamão, T15 - banana, T16 - farelo de soja, T17 - soja micronizada, durante três períodos de colheita, totalizando seis repetições (102 unidades experimentais. Para avaliação dos alimentos utilizou-se o método de substituição. Foram avaliados os coeficientes de metabolização da energia bruta (aparente CMA E, verdadeiro - CMV E, aparente corrigido pelo N - CMAnE e verdadeiro corrigido pelo N - CMVnE e os valores de energia metabolizável (energia metabolizável aparente - EMA, verdadeira - EMV, aparente corrigida pelo nitrogênio - EMAn e verdadeira corrigida pelo nitrogênio - EMVn dos alimentos testados. Foram comparados os tratamentos dois a 17. O tratamento um (ração referência foi utilizado apenas para os cálculos de substituição, não fazendo parte das análises estatísticas. Os coeficientes de metabolização da EB foram comparados pelo teste Scott-Knott, enquanto que para os valores de energia a análise estatística foi descritiva (média e desvio padrão. Os resultados obtidos permitiram concluir que: 1- o valor de energia metabolizável aparente da semente de girassol foi alto e a utilização deste alimento como única fonte de alimento pode, em médio prazo, provocar o surgimento de obesidade nas aves em manutenção; 2- os valores energéticos de alimentos como o milho moído, farelo de trigo, germe de trigo, farelo de soja e soja micronizada para papagaios foram semelhantes àqueles encontrados na literatura

  1. Re-feeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadaba, A; Paine, J; Adlard, R; Dilkes, M

    2001-09-01

    The effect of a therapeutically administered high calorie diet in a severely malnourished patient is discussed in this case report. In patients with advanced head and neck cancer prolonged periods of malnutrition prior to admission are frequently encountered. This case report highlights the need to constantly monitor the electrolyte and vitamin levels during the early stages of instituting enteral or parenteral nutrition. By vigilant monitoring and a high index of suspicion re-feeding syndrome or severe hypophosphataemia and its associated complications can be avoided.

  2. Feeding the Beast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström, Anders; Hervik, Peter

    2014-01-01

    of fear, we argue, this predisposes people to vote for anti-immigration parties. Our analysis highlights the position of anti-immigration parties; hence, the Sweden Democrats (SD) in Sweden and the Danish People’s Party (DPP) in Denmark. We use frame analysis to detect recurrent frames in the media debate...... as such plays a similar role and provides the DPP with an identity. We conclude that we are confronted with a two-faced beast that feeds on perceptions of the people as ultimately afraid of what are not recognized as native goods....

  3. Food and feed enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  4. NA44 experiment

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    General view of NA44 experiment. NA44 is one of the seven experiments (NA44, NA45, NA49, NA50, NA52, WA97/NA57 and WA98) involved in CERN'S Heavy Ion programme which provided evidence for the existence of a new state of matter in which quarks, instead of being bound up into more complex particles such as protons and neutrons, are liberated and roam freely. Theory predicts that this state must have existed at about 10 microseconds after the Big Bang, before the formation of matter as we know it today.

  5. Effects of leaf herbivory on the bromeliad Aechmea blanchetiana: a study of selective feeding by the scraper Acentroptera pulchella Efeito da herbivoria foliar na bromélia Aechmea blanchetiana: estudo sobre o padrão seletivo de forrageamento do inseto raspador Acentroptera pulchella

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The scraper Acentroptera pulchella (Chrysomelidae, Hispinae) feeds on the leaves of Aechmea blanchetiana (Bromeliaceae), but not indiscriminately. This insect apparently concentrates its attack on the apical region of the intermediate leaves from the bromeliad tank. To characterise the potential influence of leaf defensive strategies on the intraspecific feeding pattern of A. pulchella on the leaves of the bromeliad A. blanchetiana, we quantified the apparent intraspecific preference of this ...

  6. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  7. Oxytocin, feeding and satiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy eSabatier

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxytocin neurones have a physiological role in food intake and energy balance. Central administration of oxytocin is powerfully anorexigenic, reducing food intake and meal duration. The central mechanisms underlying this effect of oxytocin have become better understood in the past few years. Parvocellular neurones of the paraventricular nucleus project to the caudal brainstem to regulate feeding via autonomic functions including the gastrointestinal vago-vagal reflex. In contrast, magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei release oxytocin from their dendrites to diffuse to distant hypothalamic targets involved in satiety.The ventromedial hypothalamus, for example, expresses a high density of oxytocin receptors but does not contain detectable oxytocin nerve fibres. Magnocellular neurones represent targets for the anorexigenic neuropeptide α-melanocyte stimulating hormone. . In addition to homeostatic control, oxytocin may also have a role in reward-related feeding. Evidence suggests that oxytocin can selectively suppress sugar intake and that it may have a role in limiting the intake of palatable food by inhibiting the reward pathway.

  8. Validação das relações dos aminoácidos metionina, treonina, triptofano e valina com a lisina digestível na proteína ideal em rações para porcas em lactação Validation of the relationships of methionine, threonine, tryptophan and valine amino acids with the digestible lysine in the ideal protein in feedings for lactating sows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Haese

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de validar as relações de aminoácidos digestíveis com a lisina digestível propostas com base no conceito da proteína ideal, foi realizado um experimento com 120 matrizes suínas em lactação, distribuídas em delineamento em blocos, composto de seis dietas, 20 blocos e uma matriz por unidade experimental. As dietas foram formuladas a partir de uma dieta-referência - contendo 19,5% de proteína bruta (PB e 0,95% de lisina digestível - suplementada com metionina, treonina, triptofano e/ou valina digestíveis para atingir as relações com a lisina digestível determinadas com base na proteína ideal. As dietas não influenciaram a perda e a variação de peso, a espessura e a variação da espessura de toucinho, a proteína e a variação de proteína corporal, a gordura e a variação de gordura corporal nem alteraram o intervalo desmame-estro ou a produção de leite das porcas. As relações dos aminoácidos metionina + cistina, treonina, triptofano e valina digestíveis com a lisina digestível propostas com base na proteína ideal atendem às exigências de porcas em lactação para melhores desempenhos produtivo e reprodutivo.This experiment aimed at validating the relationship between digestible amino acids with the digestible lysine proposed on the basis of the ideal protein concept. This experiment used 120 lactating sows distributed in a complete randomized block design with six treatments and 20 repetitions and one sow per experimental unity. The diets were formulated based on a reference diet - which contained 19.5% of crude protein (CP and 0.95% of digestible lysine supplemented with digestible methionine, threonine, tryptophan and/or valine to meet the ideal protein based determined relationships with digestible lysine. The diets did not change weight loss and variation, thickness and thickness variation of backfat, protein and body protein variation, fat and body fat variation, neither they changed the

  9. Meal from tilapia filleting industrial waste in the feed of the bullfrog tadpoles (Rana Catesbeiana Shaw, 1802/ Inclusão de farinha de resíduos da indústria de filetagem de tilápias na alimentação de girinos de rã-touro (Rana Catesbeiana Shaw,1802

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleiton Manske

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the inclusion of meal of tilapia industrial waster in bullfrog tadpoles’ diets (Rana Catesbeina Shaw, 1802. Two hundred fifty tadpoles with initial weight and length of 0,18 ± 0,05g and 2,50 ± 0,18 centimeters were used, respectively, they were used and distributed in 25 aquariums of 30 liter each in a complete randomized design with five treatments and five repetitions. The tadpoles were fed four times a day with diets containing 0, 5, 10 and 15% of inclusion of tilapia filleting and another diet with 0% of supplemented tilapia filleting with synthetic methionine, being supplied four times a day at ease. The experiment period was 30 days. The diets with tilapia filleting inclusion and methionine supplementation did not have influence in the final weight and length averages, feed survival and conversion of bullfrog tadpoles. It cam be used until 15% of tilapia filleting inclusion in the bullfrog tadpoles food. The synthetic methionine supplementation in diets for bullfrog tadpoles is not necessary in diets with levels over 0,47% of the total methionine.Este experimento objetivou avaliar a inclusão da farinha de resíduos de filetagem de tilápias (FT em rações para girinos de rã-touro (Rana Catesbeina Shaw,1802. Foram utilizados 250 girinos com peso e comprimento inicial de 0,18 ± 0,05g e 2,50 ± 0,18 cm, respectivamente, distribuídos em 25 aquários de 30 L cada, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os girinos foram alimentados quatro vezes ao dia, com rações contendo 0, 5, 10, 15% de inclusão de FT e outra ração com 0% de FT suplementada com metionina sintética, sendo fornecidas quatro vezes ao dia a vontade. O período do experimento foi de 30 dias. As rações com inclusão de FT e suplementação de metionina não influenciaram nas médias de peso final, comprimento final, sobrevivência e conversão alimentar dos girinos de r

  10. Efeitos de fontes protéicas na dieta sobre a morfologia intestinal e o desenvolvimento pancreático de leitões recém-desmamados Effects of feeding protein sources on morphology and pancreas development for weaned piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio João Scandolera

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho analisar os efeitos do uso de hidrolisado protéico do conteúdo celular de levedura (HPCCL, da proteína isolada de soja (PIS, do hidrolisado protéico de mucosa intestinal de suínos (HPMIS e do leite em pó integral em substituição parcial ao farelo de soja sobre a morfologia do intestino delgado e o desenvolvimento pancreático de leitões aos 7 e 14 dias pós-desmame. Foram utilizados 44 leitões desmamados aos 21 dias de idade, com peso de 5,5 ± 0,6 kg, alimentados desde o desmame com as seguintes dietas isonutritivas: FS - ração à base de milho e farelo de soja; LPI - ração FS + leite em pó integral; LPI+HPMIS - ração LPI mais HPMIS; LPI+PIS - ração LPI mais PIS; LPI+HPCCL- ração LPI mais HPCCL. Os tratamentos não influenciaram a morfologia intestinal dos leitões, evidenciando que nenhuma das fontes protéicas utilizadas foi capaz de minimizar os efeitos deletérios da mudança da alimentação sobre a vilosidade intestinal. Os animais alimentados com LPI+PIS e LPI+HPMIS apresentaram, aos sete dias pós-desmame, o maior desenvolvimento pancreático. Concluiu-se, portanto, que todas as fontes protéicas estudadas foram igualmente adequadas para a formulação de dietas de desmame.This trial was carried out to evaluate the effects of replacing soybean meal with hydrolyzed protein of the cellular content of yeast (HPCCY, isolated protein of soy (IPS, hydrolyzed protein of intestinal mucosa membrane of swine (HPIMS and dried whole milk on intestinal mucosa membrane morphology and pancreas development of weaned pigs at 7 and 14 days post weaning. Fourty-four piglets (averaging 5.5 ± 0.6 kg were fed the following isonutritive diets: SM - yellow corn-soybean meal based diet; DWM - SM plus dried whole milk; DWM+HPIMS - DWM plus HPIMS; DWM+IPS DWM plus IPS; DWM+HPCCY- DWM plus HPCCY. The treatments did not influence the pig intestinal structure, showing that none of the protein sources minimized the

  11. Feeding ecology of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Squamata, Tropiduridae in two areas with different degrees of conservation in Marambaia Island, Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil Ecologia alimentar de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied (Sauria, Tropiduridae em duas áreas com diferentes níveis de conservação na Ilha da Marambaia, Rio de Janeiro, Sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André L. G. de Carvalho

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared the effects of habitat disturbance on the feeding ecology of two local populations of Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 in restinga habitats on Ilha da Marambaia, Southeastern Brazil. Both populations presented a relatively diverse diet and differ in the number (D Max = 0.22, DF = 2, p = 0.00 and volume of prey consumed (D Max = 0.82, DF = 2, p = 0.00. Ants were the most frequent and numerous preys in both areas, and plant matter and coleopterans were the most important alimentary items in volume. The population from the disturbed area presented a larger niche breadth for number of prey items consumed (Bi num = 3.06 and volume (Bi vol = 2.98, when compared to the other population (Bj num = 2.44, Bj vol = 1.52. Niche overlap was higher for number of items consumed between the populations (Oij num = 0.82 but lower for volume (Oij vol = 0.05. Our data suggest dietary differences between the two lizard populations, and these differences may be associated with environmental modifications. Our main hypothesis to explain the dietary differences is based in the Optimal Foraging Theory. However, the alimentary behavior, and consequently the diet of these lizards, seems to be constrained phylogenetically, with a pattern that may have evolved in the ancestor of all iguanids.Comparamos os efeitos da degradação ambiental sobre a ecologia alimentar de duas populações de Tropidurus torquatus (Wied, 1820 em áreas de restinga da Ilha da Marambaia, sudeste do Brasil. Ambas as populações apresentaram dieta relativamente diversa e deferiram em número (D Max = 0,22; DF = 2; p = 0,00 e volume de presas consumidas (D Max = 0,82; DF = 2; p = 0,00. Formigas foram os itens mais freqüentes e numerosos em ambas as áreas, e material vegetal e coleópteros os mais importantes em volume. A população da área perturbada apresentou maior largura de nicho alimentar para número de presas consumidas (Bi num = 3,06 e volume (Bi vol = 2,98, quando comparada

  12. Processamento da casca de mandioca na alimentação de ovinos: desempenho, características de carcaça, morfologia ruminal e eficiência econômica Processing of cassava peel in sheep feeding: performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal morphology and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bitencourt Faria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de diferentes formas de processamento da casca de mandioca na alimentação sobre o desempenho e as características de carcaça, a morfologia ruminal e a viabilidade técnico-econômica da criação de ovinos. Foram utilizados 20 ovinos machos da raça Santa Inês, desmamados, com peso inicial de 19,02±0,21 kg e 90 dias de vida. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por dieta. Durante o período experimental de 84 dias, incluindo 14 dias de adaptação, os animais foram mantidos em sistema de semiconfinamento em pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens. Foram avaliadas quatro formas de processamento da casca de mandioca: desidratada triturada em peneira de 12 ou de 5 mm; úmida triturada e ensilada; e úmida triturada e hidrolisada com 0,5% de cal virgem (óxido de cálcio - CaO. O peso médio ao abate foi 30,72±1,46 kg. Não houve influência do tipo de processamento da casca sobre as características de desempenho analisadas, as características quantitativas de carcaça e a morfologia ruminal, sendo influenciado somente o rendimento de paleta. A casca de mandioca hidrolisada foi a que promoveu melhor eficiência econômica. Os tipos de processamento da casca de mandioca não alteram o desempenho, as características de carcaça, os rendimentos de corte e a morfologia ruminal dos ovinos Santa Inês.The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effect of different forms of processing of cassava peel in sheep feeding on performance traits, carcass, morphology and rumen and economic technical feasibility. Twenty non-castrated male Santa Ines lambs of 19.02±0.21 kg of initial body weight and 90 days of age at the beginning of the study were used in this trial. The design was completely randomized design with five replications per treatment. During the experimental period of 84 days, including 14 days of adaptation, animals were kept in semi-confinement on Brachiaria decumbens. Four forms

  13. Transition feeding of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    The transition period from late gestation to early lactation is rather short, but it is nonetheless of major importance for the productivity of high-prolific sows. The transition period, here defined as the last 10 d of gestation and the first 10 d of lactation, encompasses substantial changes...... for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... practices do not acknowledge these changes. Development of new feeding strategies specifically adapted for the transition sow is likely of importance to match the rapid changes in nutrient requirements....

  14. Hábitos alimentares, infecção natural e distribuição de triotomíneos domiciliados na região nordeste do Brasil Feeding habits, natural infection and distribution of domiciliary Triatominae bugs Northeast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswaldo Paulo Forattini

    1981-04-01

    . brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata e R. nasutus em relação à caatinga, e do P. megistus em relação às regiões florestais atlânticas e de inclusão. Este último revelou caráter invasivo no que concerne à caatinga, enquanto T. infestans e T. sordida mostraram o mesmo aspecto quanto à região nordeste como um todo. Os resultados permitem concluir que, na transmissão regional epidemiologicamente significante da tripanossomíase americana, desempenha papel relevante o P. megistus, em primeiro lugar, e o T. brasiliensis, em segundo. Dependendo de fatores vários, provavelmente da densidade, poderão atuar secundariamente nesse sentido o T. pseudomaculata e o T. sordida. Quanto à T. infestans, a sua presença, em número reduzido, representa, no momento, risco apenas potencial. O controle rotineiro, mediante a desinsetização domiciliar, deverá fornecer bons resultados no que concerne à interrupção da transmissão. Todavia a reinfestação, pelo menos do peridomicílio, deverá provavelmente continuar. E isso em virtude de focos extradomiciliares que fornecem espécimens com tendência à colonização no ambiente humano. É de se prever que ela se fará a custa do P. megistus nas áreas florestais atlânticas e de inclusão e de T. brasiliensis, T. pseudomaculata e R. nasutus nas áreas da caatinga. A vigilância epidemiológica deverá pois levar em conta esses aspectos e tender a aumentar sua eficiência pela continuidade das pesquisas.This is the presentation of data obtained by a study carried out in the Northeast of Brazil, where the biogeographical characteristics include the "caatinga" (a semi-arid savanna and ample transitional strips with other features. Among them are the Atlantic tropical forest and the larger forest inclusions. From 1975 to 1980, a total of 15,342 bugs collected in domiciliar environment were examined to discover the blood feeding habits of and natural infection by Trypanosoma of the cruzi type. Intestinal content was submitted to

  15. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati...

  16. Aquaculture and feeding ecology: Feeding behaviour in turbot larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruno, Eleonora

    challenging for larval rearing. After the start of exogenous feeding, another intense and likely critical period of change occurs in the early life stages of fish. This stage is the metamorphosis, during which the larvae transform organs and body morphology to become juveniles. Compared to other teleosts...... metamorphosis in flatfish species is often unsuccessful, resulting in different types of abnormal development. The objective of this thesis was to analyse the feeding behaviour of the flatfish species turbot (Psetta maxima L.) larvae during the two crucial life periods, 1) first feeding and 2) metamorphosis....... To analyse whether these two periods are critical for the correct development and survival of turbot, feeding behaviours of larvae during the period of first feeding and during the first stages of metamorphosis was studied using video recordings. This provided qualitative and quantitative descriptions...

  17. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  18. USO DE SUBPRODUCTOS AGRÍCOLAS EN LA ALIMENTACIÓN DE CONEJOS EN FASES DE CEBA Y REPRODUCCIÓN O USO DE SUBPRODUTOS AGRÍCOLAS NA ALIMENTAÇÃO DE COELHOS EM FASE DE ENGORDE E REPRODUÇÃO USE OF AGRICULTURAL BY-PRODUCTS FOR RABBIT FEEDING DURING FATTENING AND BREEDING STAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE DUBAN HENAO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta la evaluación de tres tipos de alimentos, uno de ellos correspondió a alimento tradicional y los otros dos incluyeron en su formulación subproductos generados en el beneficio del café y cacao, utilizados en dieta para ceba y reproducción en conejos raza Nueva Zelanda Blanco. Se utilizó una muestra de 16 conejas y 4 conejos, en los que se evaluaron el incremento total de peso y el número de crías, como variables respuesta en función del tipo de alimento utilizado, se realizó análisis de varianza en un diseño completamente al azar para determinar si existen diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los tratamientos. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas (P > 0,05 en los tres tipos de alimentos tanto para ceba y reproducción; se encontraron incrementos totales de peso superiores a los 1300 g utilizando como complemento en el alimento cáscara de cacao, lo cual es considerado satisfactorio para la etapa de ceba; los dos alimentos formulados con suplementos de subproductos generados en el beneficio del café y cacao no afectaron la fase de reproducción en las muestras evaluadas, alcanzándose hasta 11 crías por hembra reproductora.Este artigo apresenta a avaliação de três tipos de alimentos, um deles correspondeu ao alimento tradicional e os outros dois incluíram na sua formulação subprodutos gerados do beneficiamento do café e do cacau, utilizados na dieta para engorde e reprodução dos coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia Branco; utilizou-se uma amostra de 16 coelhas e 4 coelhos, nos quais foi avaliado o incremento de peso e o número total de filhotes, como variáveis de resposta em função do tipo de alimentação utilizada, realizou-se análise de variância em um desenho totalmente aleatório para determinar se existem diferenças estatísticas significativas entre os tratamentos. Não foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significativas (P/gt; 0,05 nos tr

  19. Efeitos da estimulação da sucção não-nutritiva na idade de início da alimentação via oral em recém-nascidos pré-termo Effects of nonnutritive sucking stimulation on the age at introduction of oral feeding in preterm newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Cristina B. Neiva

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar os efeitos da estimulação da sucção não-nutritiva (SNN sobre a idade de início da alimentação via oral (VO em recém-nascidos pré-termo (RNPT. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 95 RNPT, com idade gestacional (IG de nascimento OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effects of nonnutritive sucking stimulation (NNS on the age of introduction of oral feedings in preterm newborns (PTNB. METHODS: 95 PTNB with gestational age (GA at birth < 33 weeks, born at the Nursery Annex to the Maternity of the Clinical Hospital of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine, São Paulo, Brazil, were studied. They were distributed into the following groups: Group 1 (G1, control group, without a specific incentive for oral feedings; Group 2 (G2, stimulation of NNS with an orthodontic pacifier (Nuk® for premature infants; and Group 3 (G3, stimulation of NNS with a gloved finger. RESULTS: The GA varied from 26 to 32.7 weeks (30.5±1.6, the corrected GA at the moment of enrollment in the study varied from 27.4 to 33 weeks (31.6 ±1.3, and the average birthweight was 1,390g, without statistic differences among groups. G2 and G3 NB with GA at enrollment <32 weeks started oral feeding earlier than the control group. G1 started oral feeding was 34 weeks of corrected GA. The lower the GA at enrollment, the lower the corrected GA for beginning of oral feeding among NB that received NNS stimulation. CONCLUSIONS: Early NNS stimulation lowered the corrected GA at the introduction of oral feeding, contributing to the oral motor development and maturation of PTNB.

  20. Enteral Tube Feeding and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, David Sheridan; Kimmel, David

    2006-01-01

    To determine the effects of enteral tube feeding on the incidence of pneumonia, we performed a retrospective review of all clients at our institution who had gastrostomy or jejunostomy tubes placed over a 10-year period. Ninety-three subjects had a history of pneumonia before feeding tube insertion. Eighty had gastrostomy and 13, jejunostomy…

  1. Dinâmica da alimentação natural de Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae na Lagoa da Conceição, Florianôpolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil Feeding natural dynamics of Callinectes danae Smith (Decapoda, Portunidae from Lagoa da conceição, Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Olinto Branco

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available From March/91 to February/92 monthly collcction surveys were carried out to obtain basic information about the dynamics of feeding and trophic spectrum of C. danae Smith, 1869. A total of 456 males and 527 females were caught. The diet of the species was not sex related. The trophic spectrum of C. danae is composed by a high number of items. The 35 items were assembled in 14 categories and the feeding index was applied. Mollusca, Polychaeta and Crustacea were observed to be basic elements in the species diet, Osteichthyes and MOND appear as secondary resource whereas vegetal material were found to be of less importance.

  2. Categorização funcional trófica das comunidades de macroinvertebrados de dois reservatórios na região Centro-Oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.331 Functional feeding groups of benthics macroinvertebrates communities of two lentic systems in the central west region of São Paulo State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v31i1.331

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandira Liria Biscalquini Talamoni

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do conceito de guilda pode ser útil para a categorização funcional trófica de comunidades, pois não há obrigatoriedade da identificação dos organismos em nível de espécie, nem de tratar cada espécie como uma entidade separada. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar os grupos funcionais tróficos (coletores-catadores, coletores-filtradores, fragmentadores, predadores e raspadores das comunidades de macroinvertebrados de dois reservatórios da região Centro-Oeste do Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As amostragens foram realizadas nos períodos chuvoso (março/abril - 2001 e de seca (julho/agosto - 2001 e os dados obtidos indicam que os coletores-catadores foram a guilda mais frequente. Este fato sugere grande importância da matéria orgânica como recurso alimentar na dieta dos macroinvertebrados analisados.The aim of this study was analyze the functional feeding groups (collectors, shredders, predators and grazer-scrapers of benthic macroinvertebrates communities in two lentic systems in the central west region of São Paulo State. The samples were realized in rainy (March/April - 2001 and dry (July/August - 2001 seasons. The results obtained contribute for the best knowledgement of benthic macroinvertebrate community on those two systems.

  3. Produção de proteína microbiana, concentração plasmática de uréia e excreções de uréia em novilhos alimentados com diferentes níveis de uréia ou casca de algodão Effects of feeding different levels of urea or cottonseed hulls on microbial protein synthesis, plasma urea concentration and urea excretion in steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Alves Magalhães

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos dos níveis de uréia ou casca de algodão sobre a produção de proteína microbiana, estimada por meio dos derivados de purinas na urina, a concentração de uréia plasmática (NUP e as excreções de uréia em novilhos, foram realizados dois experimentos. No primeiro, 24 novilhos mestiços castrados, com peso vivo médio inicial de 300 kg, foram alocados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos quatro tratamentos: 0; 0,65; 1,30 e 1,95% de uréia na base da MS total, em substituição à proteína do farelo de soja. No segundo, 16 novilhos mestiços, com peso vivo médio inicial de 230 kg, foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, nos quatro tratamentos: 0, 10, 20 e 30% de casca de algodão na base da MS total, em substituição à silagem de capim-elefante. As amostras de urina foram obtidas por meio da coleta de urina spot, na qual foram determinados os derivados de purinas (alantoína e ácido úrico. No soro sanguíneo e na urina, foram analisadas as concentrações de uréia e creatinina. Não houve efeito dos níveis de uréia, tampouco dos de casca de algodão, sobre os derivados de purinas e sobre a eficiência de síntese microbiana. A concentração de NUP e a excreção de uréia não foram influenciadas pelos níveis de uréia das rações. A concentração de NUP decresceu linearmente com a inclusão da casca de algodão na dieta. Tanto a uréia quanto a casca de algodão podem ser utilizadas, até os níveis de 1,95% e 30%, respectivamente, na MS total da dieta de novilhos de origem leiteira, sem afetar a eficiência de síntese microbiana.Two trials were conducted to study the effects of different levels of urea or cottonseed hulls on yield of microbial protein, estimated by the urinary excretion of purine derivatives, concentration of plasma urea, and excretion of urea in steers. In the first trial, 24 crossbred castrated steers averaging 300 kg of initial live

  4. Angelite: Paziteli na vhoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerov Georgi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (bugarski Statijata prosledjava ikonografskata evoljucija na izobraženijata na arhangelite Mihail i Gavriil, pomesteni pri vhoda na pravoslavnija hram. Povraten moment v neja e 13 vek. Togava arhangel Mihail započva da se izobrazjava kato voin. S tova apotropejnite mu funkcii namirat adekvaten vizualen izraz. K'm kraja na stoletieto arhangel Gavriil započva da se izobrazjava kato pisar - ikonografija, kojato šče b'de dorazvita i utv'rdena prez 14 vek. Prez postvizantijskata epoha v obraza na Mihail se pojavjavat elementi, koito akcentirat v'rhu roljata mu na psihopomp.

  5. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure... additives, and feed supplements in violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. ...

  6. Schistosome feeding and regurgitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J Skelly

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomes are parasitic flatworms that infect >200 million people worldwide, causing the chronic, debilitating disease schistosomiasis. Unusual among parasitic helminths, the long-lived adult worms, continuously bathed in blood, take up nutrients directly across the body surface and also by ingestion of blood into the gut. Recent proteomic analyses of the body surface revealed the presence of hydrolytic enzymes, solute, and ion transporters, thus emphasising its metabolic credentials. Furthermore, definition of the molecular mechanisms for the uptake of selected metabolites (glucose, certain amino acids, and water establishes it as a vital site of nutrient acquisition. Nevertheless, the amount of blood ingested into the gut per day is considerable: for males ∼100 nl; for the more actively feeding females ∼900 nl, >4 times body volume. Ingested erythrocytes are lysed as they pass through the specialized esophagus, while leucocytes become tethered and disabled there. Proteomics and transcriptomics have revealed, in addition to gut proteases, an amino acid transporter in gut tissue and other hydrolases, ion, and lipid transporters in the lumen, implicating the gut as the site for acquisition of essential lipids and inorganic ions. The surface is the principal entry route for glucose, whereas the gut dominates amino acid acquisition, especially in females. Heme, a potentially toxic hemoglobin degradation product, accumulates in the gut and, since schistosomes lack an anus, must be expelled by the poorly understood process of regurgitation. Here we place the new observations on the proteome of body surface and gut, and the entry of different nutrient classes into schistosomes, into the context of older studies on worm composition and metabolism. We suggest that the balance between surface and gut in nutrition is determined by the constraints of solute diffusion imposed by differences in male and female worm morphology. Our conclusions have

  7. Feed palatability and the alternative protein sources in shrimp feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chutima Tantikitti

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Feed palatability in carnivorous aquaculture species, shrimps in particular, has been crucially related to the presence of compounds acting as attractants that are commonly associated with the prey components under wild conditions. Thus a nutritionally adequate and organoleptically-pleasing diet is essential to achieve satisfactory intake and growth in shrimps. Historically, fishmeal has been an essential dietary component of intensive shrimp cultures because of its nutrient composition and compounds of high attractability. However, in recent years the fishmeal supplies have been dwindling due to over hunting, a diminishing natural fish-stock, elevating prices and market volatility. This has led to search for cheaper sources of suitable protein as fishmeal substitutes. To improve the palatability of diets, various substances have been investigated for their effectiveness in aqua-feed including natural feed ingredients and synthetic flavor substances. For crustacean, attractants characteristically are of low molecular weight, water and ethanol soluble, and amphoteric or basic compounds that are released from potential prey items. Compounds such as free amino acids, especially taurine, hydroxyproline, glycine, arginine, glutamic acid and alanine have been identified to stimulate feeding in shrimps. The same has been identified with organic acids, nucleotides and nucleosides, betaine, and some small peptides. Palatability also has been associated with animal’s past experience with the feed. Understanding the factors that regulate feed palatability is therefore primary for successful shrimp culture.

  8. Comparison of four feed proteases for improvement of nutritive value of poultry feather meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Yu, S; Plumstead, P

    2012-01-01

    Feed industries are seeking new ways to cope with increased raw material costs, and one approach is to apply enzymatic treatment in the production of feed ingredients from animal by-products. Keratinases, a group of proteases, are capable of hydrolyzing keratin-rich material and have been applied...... such as dithiothreitol (DTT) and Na2SO3. In general, the protease from B. subtilis was more efficient in degrading feather keratin compared to the other 3 feed proteases at both pH 5.5 and 7.0. For commercial production, the application of protease from B. subtilis is even more advantageous considering the lower cost-in-use....

  9. LOW ACTIVITY WASTE FEED SOLIDS CARACTERIZATION AND FILTERABILITY TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, D.; Crawford, C.; Duignan, M.; Williams, M.; Burket, P.

    2014-04-03

    a Supplemental LAW feed simulant has previously been prepared, this feed composition differs from that simulant because those tests examined only the fully soluble aqueous solution at room temperature, not the composition formed after evaporation, including the insoluble solids that precipitate after it cools. The conceptual flow sheet for Supplemental LAW immobilization has an option for removal of {sup 99}Tc from the feed stream, if needed. Elutable ion exchange has been selected for that process. If implemented, the stream would need filtration to remove the insoluble solids prior to processing in an ion exchange column. The characteristics, chemical speciation, physical properties, and filterability of the solids are important to judge the feasibility of the concept, and to estimate the size and cost of a facility. The insoluble solids formed during these tests were primarily natrophosphate, natroxalate, and a sodium aluminosilicate compound. At the elevated temperature and 8 M [Na+], appreciable insoluble solids (1.39 wt%) were present. Cooling to room temperature and dilution of the slurry from 8 M to 5 M [Na+] resulted in a slurry containing 0.8 wt% insoluble solids. The solids (natrophosphate, natroxalate, sodium aluminum silicate, and a hydrated sodium phosphate) were relatively stable and settled quickly. Filtration rates were in the range of those observed with iron-based simulated Hanford tank sludge simulants, e.g., 6 M [Na+] Hanford tank 241-AN-102, even though their chemical speciation is considerably different. Chemical cleaning of the crossflow filter was readily accomplished with acid. As this simulant formulation was based on an average composition of a wide range of feeds using an integrated computer model, this exact composition may never be observed. But the test conditions were selected to enable comparison to the model to enable improving its chemical prediction capability.

  10. Uso de técnicas de regressão na avaliação, em bovinos de corte, da eficiência de conversão do alimento em produto: proposição de método e significância nutricional Use of regression techniques in the evaluation, in beef cattle, of feed conversion into product: proposition of method and nutritional significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo propor e discutir método de avaliação da eficiência de conversão do alimento em produto em bovinos de corte com base na utilização de técnicas de regressão. Os procedimentos matemáticos e estatísticos foram desenvolvidos a partir de banco de dados formado pela mensuração do consumo de matéria seca e do ganho médio diário em 380 bovinos zebuínos puros ou mestiços em 15 diferentes experimentos constantes na base de dados do sistema BR-CORTE. Foram propostas duas aproximações baseadas no ajustamento de modelos de regressão linear e não-linear, tendo o ganho médio diário como variável independente e o consumo de matéria seca como variável dependente. A utilização do alimento pelo animal foi estratificada em demanda para mantença e eficiência real de conversão em produto. O parâmetro demanda para mantença possui interpretação similar em ambas as aproximações. Na solução linear, assume-se que a eficiência real de conversão em produto seja fixa e independente do ganho médio diário. Por outro lado, na solução não-linear, assume-se que a eficiência real de conversão em produto seja variável e dependente do ganho. O critério de informação de Akaike foi proposto como ferramenta para escolha entre os modelos linear e não-linear. A avaliação da eficiência de transformação do alimento em produto em bovinos de corte por meio de técnicas de regressão possibilita o entendimento mais amplo da eficiência de uso do alimento em sistemas de produção, pois permite estratificar as demandas em mantença e produção. Muitos inconvenientes associados ao uso de índices baseados em razões, como a conversão alimentar, são eliminados, ampliando a acurácia e a precisão das inferências nutricionais.The objective of this study was to propose and discuss a method to evaluate the efficiency of feed conversion into product from beef cattle based on regression techniques. The

  11. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  12. Feeding profiles of tame moose

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report is on the feeding profiles of tame moose. 3 moose were observed for 99 hours while in natural range, each bite plant species, browse conditions and size...

  13. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  14. Social theory and infant feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  15. Feed quality in swine diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  16. Alimentação nos primeiros três meses de vida dos bebês de uma coorte na cidade de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul Alimentación en los primeros tres meses de vida de los bebés de una coorte en la ciudad de Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul (Brasil Feeding during the first three months of life for infants of a cohort in Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Corrêa Kaufmann

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o padrão alimentar nos primeiros três meses de vida de crianças nascidas na cidade de Pelotas (RS. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte prospectivo com os bebês nascidos entre setembro de 2002 e maio de 2003, na cidade de Pelotas (RS. Incluíram-se 2.741 bebês nas maternidades e uma amostra aleatória de 30% acompanhada no primeiro e terceiro meses de vida. Foram realizadas análises uni, bi e multivariada. Somente as variáveis com pOBJETIVO: Estudiar el estándar alimentar en los primeros tres meses de vida de niños nascidos en la ciudad de Pelotas (RS, Brasil. MÉTODOS: Estudio de coorte prospectivo con bebés nascidos entre septiembre de 2002 y mayo de 2003, en la ciudad de Pelotas (RS, Brasil. Se incluyó a 2.741 bebés en las maternidades y una muestra aleatoria de 30%, seguida en el primero y el tercero meses de vida. Se realizaron análisis uni, bi y multivariados, y solamente las variables con pOBJECTIVE: To study the feeding pattern in the first three months of babies born in the Pelotas city, in Sothern Brazil. METHODS: Prospective cohort study, with babies born between september 2002 and may 2003. Among 2,741 babies whose mothers were interviewed at the maternity ward, a random sample of 30% was followed up on the first and third months of age. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate analyses were applied. Variables with a p<0.05 were considered as associated. RESULTS: 951 babies were followed up on the first month, 60% were under exclusive maternal breastfeeding, and 10% were already weaned. Smoking during pregnancy, father's educational level lower than four years and the use of a pacifier were associated to weaning. On the third month, 29% had been weaned, 39% received maternal milk exclusively, and 59% were bottle fed. Smoking during pregnancy, father schooling and the use of a pacifier were associated with weaning. There was an increase in the pacifier use - from 56 to 66% between the first and the third month of

  17. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  18. Physical and chemical characteristics studies during the processing of soybean used in monogastric feedingEstudos das características físicas e químicas durante o processamento da soja integral utilizada na alimentação de monogástricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lúcio Corazza

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed of evaluating the processing of full fat soybean, collected after the reactor exit vacuum. It was collected a total of 10 samples of the final product, classified into six groups: total sample grain; normal whole; spoiled whole; burnt whole; normal broken, and burnt broken. Analyses were performed based on the quality controls such as moisture; crude protein; soluble protein, and urease. It was verified that the sample of normal whole grains presented crude protein, soluble protein, humidity and urease values similar (P Este estudo objetivou avaliar o processamento da soja integral, coletada após saída do reator a vácuo. Foram coletadas um total de 10 amostras do produto final, classificadas em 6 grupos: amostra grãos total, inteiros estragados, inteiros queimados, quebrados normais e grãos quebrados queimados. As análises foram realizadas baseadas nos controles de qualidade como: umidade, proteína bruta, proteína solúvel e urease. Verificou-se que a amostra de grãos inteiros normais apresentou valores de proteína bruta, proteína solúvel (Psol, umidade e urease semelhantes (P <0 ,05 à amostra total da soja desativada. No entanto, os resultados das análises bromatológicas encontrados para o grão inteiro normal foram, em sua maioria, diferentes (P < 0,05 daqueles encontrados para as demais amostras avaliadas. Os grãos quebrados queimados tiveram menor (P < 0,05 valor de umidade, proteína bruta, Psol, Urease em relação aqueles obtidos para o grão inteiro normal. Concluiu-se que as amostras de grãos inteiros normais e grãos quebrados normais constituem a maior parte (90% da parcela total da soja integral, e que possuem valores de Psol e urease adequados para uso em rações de aves e suínos. As amostras restantes possuem pouco valor na qualidade da soja, devido a baixa participação na amostra total. Ainda, de acordo com os resultados obtidos, pode-se inferir que a moagem do grão de soja antes da

  19. Complementary feeding patterns in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A V

    2012-10-01

    There are far too many children in the world who suffer from under-nutrition and growth faltering, with life time consequences such as reduced work capacity, increased infections, impaired intellectual performance and an increased risk of non communicable diseases later in life. These changes occur early in life, and consequently, complementary feeding has been receiving increased attention in the international nutrition community. In India, common problems relate not only to insufficient breastfeeding, but also to detrimental feeding practices. Only about 20% of children aged 6-23 months were fed according to the three recommended Infant and Child Feeding practices. The most common types of solid or semi-solid foods fed to both breastfeeding and non-breastfeeding children under 3 years of age were foods made from grains and roots. These complementary feeding practices were found to be significantly associated with poor socioeconomic status, undesirable socio-cultural beliefs, maternal illiteracy, and ignorance. Although many initiatives have been carried out in India to promote Infant and Young Child Feeding, the progress in reducing the number of undernourished children in India over the last decade has been slow and modest. Equally, with the growing evidence and interest in the role of infant nutrition in the development of over nutrition and non-communicable disease, it is important to plan appropriate complementary feeding interventions that result in optimal growth. Contact opportunities with parents, specifically mothers, must be used for counseling through multiple communication channels such as local media, in order to constantly educate the population with consistent and simple messages on child feeding. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. 9 CFR 89.5 - Feeding pens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding pens. 89.5 Section 89.5... TWENTY-EIGHT HOUR LAW § 89.5 Feeding pens. (a) Stock pens and other enclosures for feeding, watering, and... same time, (2) properly designed facilities for feeding and watering the livestock, (3) reasonably...

  1. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including stereoty

  2. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  3. Determination of virginiamycin in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, H S; Black, L J; Waisner, D L

    1979-05-01

    Virginiamycin was extracted from the feed by ethanol-pH 2.5 phosphate buffer (1 + 1). The pH during extraction was adjusted (when necessary) to between 4 and 5. Sample dilutions and the standard dose response line were prepared to contain ethanol pH 6 phosphate buffer (2 + 8), and the test organism was Sarcina lutea. Three feeds (a poultry ration, a swine finishing ration, and a swine starter ration) showed virginiamycin recovery of 88.8--108.9% when standard solutions were added at concentrations of 4.54--90.8 g/ton. The coefficient of variation (4--20%) was larger for low potency feeds (10 g/ton) compared to the higher feeds (100 g/ton). Similarly, excellent recovery was obtained when the swine starter feed was fortified by a commercial premix. Amprolium, roxarsone, and monensin can be present at 20 times the concentration of virginiamycin with little or no interference in the antibiotic determination. Lasalocid at 10 times the concentration of virginiamycin caused a slightly positive bias (recovery, 107.4%).

  4. Feeding the Monster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  5. Efektite na prostaciklin vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija kaj staorci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Trojacanec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Mikrovaskularnite komplikacii, a pred se dijabeticnata nefropatija, se edni od najteskite komplikacii na dijabetot, od koi vo golema mera zavisi i prognozata na dijabetot kaj ovie pacienti. Etiopatogenezata na ovaa komplikacija e multifaktorijalna i za sega se uste ne kompletno rasvetlena, a vklucuva morfoloski, patolosko-anatomski i biohemiski metabolni narusuvanja. Se smeta deka narusuvanjeto na modularnata funkcija na endoteliumot moze da bide kriticen i inicijalen faktor vo razvojot na dijabeticnite vaskularni komplikacii. Vrz osnova na farmakodinamskite efekti koi sto gi poseduva prostaciklinot (PGI2 i negovite analozi, se smeta deka istite moze da bidat korisni vo tretmanot na dijabeti~nata nefropatija. Osnovna cel na ovaa studija be{e da se procenat efektite na prostaciklin (PGI2 vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija, eksperimentalno predizvikana so streptozocin. Kaj normotenzivni staorci od sojot Wistar, eksperimentalno bese induciran najprvin dijabet so ednokratna i.p. administracija na streptozocin (STZ, a kako komplikacija na dijabetot i jasni znaci i simptomi na dijabeticna nefropatija (proteinurija, zgolemeno serumsko nivo na urea i kreatinin, poliurija, zgolemena aktivnost na NAG vo mockata. Tretman so prostaciklin (p.o. vo doza od 0.1 mg/kg /t.t./den, vo tekot na 4 nedeli, dovede do signifikantno namaluvanje na simptomite i znacite na bubreznite ostetuvanja, vo odnos na grupata zivotni koi ne primaa prostaciklin. Vrz osnova na dobienite rezultati moze da se zakluci deka prostaciklinot moze da ima znacajna uloga vo tretmanot na dijabeticnata nefropatija, eksperimentalno inducirana so streptozocin.

  6. Development and evaluation of a tropical feed library for the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Rrotein System model Desenvolvimento e avaliação de uma biblioteca de alimentos tropicais para o modelo "Sistema de Carboidrato e Proteína Líquidos" da Universidade de Cornell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Orlindo Tedeschi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS model has been increasingly used in tropical regions for dairy and beef production. However, the lack of appropriate characterization of the feeds has restricted its application. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate a feed library containing feeds commonly used in tropical regions with characteristics needed as inputs for the CNCPS. Feed composition data collected from laboratory databases and from experiments published in scientific journals were used to develop this tropical feed library. The total digestible nutrients (TDN predicted at 1x intake of maintenance requirement with the CNCPS model agreed with those predicted by the Weiss et al. (1992 equation (r² of 92.7%, MSE of 13, and bias of 0.8% over all feeds. However, the regression r² of the tabular TDN values and the TDN predicted by the CNCPS model or with the Weiss equation were much lower (58.1 and 67.5%, respectively. A thorough comparison between observed and predicted TDN was not possible because of insufficient data to characterize the feeds as required by our models. When we used the mean chemical composition values from the literature data, the TDN predicted by our models did not agree with the measured values. We conclude using the TDN values calculated using the Weiss equation and the CNCPS model that are based on the actual chemical composition of the feeds result in energy values that more accurately represent the feeds being used in specific production situations than do the tabular values. Few papers published in Latin America journals that were used in this study reported information need by models such as the CNCPS.O uso do Sistema de Carboidrato e Proteina Líquidos da Universidade de Cornell (CNCPS tanto para produção de leite como carne tem aumentado durante o últimos anos nas regiões tropicais. Entretanto, a falta de uma caracterização adequada de alimentos tem restringido o seu uso

  7. China's Feed Companies Eye Safety Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Richard Zhu

    2011-01-01

    @@ China's feed companies in China are looking to strengthen safety control substantially according to the highest international standard.The first step will be improving the feed safety control in the pre-mixture and compound feed production.The next step will be extending this control to the whole feed supply chain, covering feed ingredients and services like transport and storage.Besides, a joint program will be defined in cooperation with GMP+ International.

  8. Some thoughts about infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickse, R G

    1983-12-01

    This article summarizes the nutritional considerations, impact on infection and immunity, and psychosocial aspects of the breast versus bottle feeding debate and concludes with guidelines for reorganizing government health services to promote breastfeeding. Its aim is to encourage reappraisal on the part of physicians of the direct implications of infant feeding for the health and well-being of people in all societies, but especially in developing countries. As a result of widespread abandonment of breastfeeding in developing countries, marasmus and infant diarrhea have increased. Although the biologic advatages of breast over bottle feeding are indisputable, the social and economic advantages are more difficult to quantify. Many Third World women curtail breastfeeding to meet the conditions of employment; however, the economic advantages of artificial feeding diminish as one descends down the pay scale. The counterproductive trend toward bottle feeding has been compounded by adoption of this method on the part of the educated elite in Third World countries, including medical and nursing professionals, thus conferring on it as status associated with progress and affluence. The present trend can be reversed only if communities are convinced of the advantages of breastfeeding and make adjustments to facilitate this practice. Preparation for motherhood must be viewed as an integral function of the health care system, with emphasis placed on the nutrition of pregnant and lactating women, preparation for breastfeeding, and the initiation and continuation of breastfeeding. Obstetric units must actively discourage the removal of infants from their mothers or routine artificial feeding. In addition, facilities must be provided at workplaces for breastfeeding, the working day should be modified to allow brestfeeding, maternity leaves should be extended, and appropriate payments should be made to nursing mothers. The nutrition needs of infants must be viewed as a shared

  9. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P < .0001). All 3 EFS handling techniques displayed low bacterial growth. RTH was superior in bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs. Since not all pediatric formulas are available in RTH, we conclude that refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  10. A serendipidade na medicina e na anestesiologia

    OpenAIRE

    Vale,Nilton Bezerra do; Delfino,José; Vale,Lúcio Flávio Bezerra do

    2005-01-01

    JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Neste trabalho foram examinados mais de uma centena dos mais felizes acoplamentos de uma mente brilhante com a sorte benfazeja (serendipidade), através da releitura das mais relevantes histórias sobre invenções e descobertas relacionadas à ciência (n = 46), à Medicina (n = 46) e à Anestesiologia (n = 16). CONTEÚDO: Conceito de serendipidade; exemplos célebres de serendipidade em Ciência e Tecnologia; serendipidade na pesquisa e prática médicas; serendipidade na Anes...

  11. Floral arrangements and hummingbird feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainsworth, F Reed; Mercier, Theresa; Wolf, Larry L

    1983-05-01

    The influence of simulated inflorescence design on feeding behavior of 3 male Eugenes fulgens (Rivoli's hummingbird) and one female Lampornis clemenciae (Bluethroated hummingbird) was studied in the laboratory using artificial flowers. Five two-dimensional and three three-dimensional arrangements provided constant rewards per artificial flower. Visits to two-dimensional arrangements had more flower visits per feeding bout, proportionally more flower revisits, and shorter time between flowers than visits to three-dimensional arrangements. This suggests inflorescence design may influence pollen movement by hummingbirds.

  12. Hábitos alimentares e sobreposição trófica das raias Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae na planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.208 Feeding habitats and trophic overlap of the freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro (Chondrichthyes, Potamotrygonidae in the upper Paraná river floodplain, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i3.208

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Fontes de Oliveira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available As raias Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro foram avaliadas em relação à composição de suas dietas e a sobreposição do nicho trófico nos períodos de seca (agosto/2004 e cheia (janeiro/2005 na planície alagável do alto rio Paraná, em três estações de coleta próximas à ilha Mutum. Foram analisados 49 conteúdos estomacais de P. falkneri e 16 de P. motoro, obtidos de espécimes capturados através de pesca com anzol, fisga (arpão e espinhel. Os conteúdos estomacais foram analisados de acordo com os métodos de freqüência volumétrica e de ocorrência. A similaridade da dieta foi quantificada pelo índice de sobreposição de Pianka. As espécies revelaram flexibilidade alimentar, com ambas consumindo predominantemente moluscos na cheia, enquanto na seca a dieta de P. falkneri foi composta principalmente por peixes e a de P. motoro por insetos aquáticos. Os valores do índice de sobreposição de nicho variaram entre 0,38 na seca (moderado e 0,94 na cheia (acentuado. A variação da composição das dietas foi atribuída à s oscilações na disponibilidade dos recursos alimentares no ambiente.Feeding habits and trophic overlap of freshwater stingrays Potamotrygon falkneri e Potamotrygon motoro were evaluated in the upper Paraná river floodplain. Samples were collected during periods of drought (August/2004 and flood (January/2005 near Mutum island. Fishhook, harpoon and long line were used to capture the individuals and a total of 49 stomach contents of P. falkneri and 16 of P. motoro were analyzed. Diet composition was analyzed by the relative occurrence and volumetric frequencies. The trophic overlap was quantified by the index of niche overlap of Pianka. Results indicated that both species predominantly consumed mollusks during the flood season, while in the drought season the diet of P. falkneri was composed mainly by fish and P. motoro for aquatic insects. The values of the index of niche overlap varied from 0

  13. Phosphorus accumulation and eutrophication in feed-supply freshwater fishponds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ming-kui; FANG Li-ping

    2006-01-01

    The rapid growth and intensification of freshwater fishery can cause imbalances between phosphorus (P) input in feed and its output in produce. This aquaculture can result in enriching exogenous P in fishponds and, consequently, accelerates the process of eutrophication. To assess relations among input, accumulation, release of P and as a consequence degrading water quality in terms of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in freshwater fishponds, fourteen fishponds with feed supply, nine fishponds without feed supply, and five nonfish ponds in Shaoxing Plain, southeast China were selected for comparing P accumulation in their waters and surface sediments.Surface sediment samples were collected from each pond to evaluate their total P, water soluble P, Olsen P, algal available P, and P fractions. Water samples were also collected from the ponds to measure concentrations of dissolved P and Chl-a. Total P in the sediments ranged from 0.88 to 1.73 g/kg in the fishponds with feed supply, that in the non-fish ponds ranged from 0.47 to 0.86 g/kg.Organic P, accounted for 23% to 60% of total P in the sediments, was an important P fraction and increased linearly with increasing organic matter. Long-term application of feeds resulted in increased P availability in the bottom sediments and degradation of water quality in the freshwater fishponds. Compared with non-fish ponds, sediments from the feed-supplied fishponds contained considerably higher Olsen P, algal available P, and water soluble P. Higher proportions of the labile P (NH4Cl-P) and potentially labile P (NaOH-IP) were also found in the sediments from the fishponds. High solubility of P in the sediments resulted in elevation of P and chlorophyl1-a concentration in the pond water. The dissolved P concentration in the pond water increased in the order of non-fish ponds (12 μg/L) < fishponds without feed supply (24 μg/L) < fishponds with feed supply (66 μg/L). Linear correlations between concentrations of total P, Olsen

  14. Bolonja na hrvatski način

    OpenAIRE

    Krstović, Jasna

    2009-01-01

    Iako je osnovna značajka obrazovnog sustava Republike Hrvatske horizontalna i okomita protočnost, ova se značajka još uvijek ne odnosi na obrazovanje odgajatelja. No u posljednje vrijeme događaju se pomaci i kvalitativne promjene koje su zahvatile i sustav obrazovanja hrvatskih odgajatelja.

  15. Corporal composition of swine feed fron 10 to 20 kg with diet containing different levels of lysine and crude protein Composição corporal de suínos alimentados dos 10 aos 20 kg com rações contendo diferentes níveis de lisina e proteína bruta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Gilberto Zangeronimo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to verify the effect of different levels of true digestible lysine (TDL and crude protein (CP on diets on the carcass composition of the swine in the nursery phase. Eighty piglets Landrace x Large White, barrows and females, with initial weight of 9.1±1.2 kg and final weight of 21.5±4.8 kg, weaned at the 28 days, allotted in groups of two during 35 days in the nursery. A randomized block design in factorial 2x4 (two levels of CP - 16 and 18% - and four of TDL - 0.7; 0.9; 1.1 and 1.3% with five repetitions was used. After weighing, one animal of each stall was sacrificed and the carcass utilized for determination of water (CWP, protein (CPP and lipid (CLP percentage and deposition tax of the protein (DTP and lipid (DTL. There were no differences for CWP, but there was had quadratic effect of the lysine levels on the CPP and DTP in the carcasses only in 18% CP diets, being 1.02% of TDL that propitiated the best result for DTP. There was no difference in 16% CP diets. For the CLP, there were no differences when 18% CP diets were utilized, however there was had quadratic effect with 16% CP diets, being 0.99% the level of TDL that provided the higher deposition. For the DTL, the 1.08 and 1.00% of TDL resulting in higher values in 18 and 16% CP diets, respectively. One concluded that 18% CP diets is the ideal and the 1.02% of TDL must be kept for the best carcass composition of swine in the initial phase.Objetivou-se verificar o efeito dos níveis de lisina digestível verdadeira (LDV e proteína bruta (PB nas rações sobre a composição de carcaça de suínos na fase inicial. Foram utilizados 80 suínos Landrace x Large White, machos castrados e fêmeas, com peso inicial de 9,1±1,2 kg e final de 21,5±4,8 kg, desmamados aos 28 dias, alojados em grupos de dois, durante 35 dias na creche. Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 2x4 (dois níveis de PB - 16 e 18% e quatro de LDV - 0,7; 0

  16. Local feed resources for poultry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenstra, F.R.

    2013-01-01

    In poultry ‘no input’, ‘low input’ and commercial production can be distinguished. ‘No input’ implies scavenging poultry with some kitchen waste or crop residues as supplemental feed. Input is negligible and economic efficiency is high, provided there is any output. Commercial production is capital

  17. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  18. Alfalfa non-feed uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-feed uses for alfalfa such as biomass energy and phytoremediation could increase alfalfa acreage and improve farm profitability. The new bio-energy alfalfa and production system increased forage yield and ethanol production. New alfalfas with enhanced nitrogen cycling capacities would protect wa...

  19. Food and feed safety assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  20. Catalytic reforming feed characterisation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larraz Mora, R.; Arvelo Alvarez, R. [Univ. of La Laguna, Chemical Engineering Dept., La Laguna (Spain)

    2002-09-01

    The catalytic reforming of naphtha is one of the major refinery processes, designed to increase the octane number of naphtha or to produce aromatics. The naphtha used as catalytic reformer feedstock usually contains a mixture of paraffins, naphthenes, and aromatics in the carbon number range C{sub 6} to C{sub 10}. The detailed chemical composition of the feed is necessary to predict the aromatics and hydrogen production as well as the operation severity. The analysis of feed naphtha is usually reported in terms of its ASTM distillation curve and API or specific gravity. Since reforming reactions are described in terms of lumped chemical species (paraffins, naphthenes and aromatics), a feed characterisation technique should be useful in order to predict reforming operating conditions and detect feed quality changes. Unfortunately online analyzer applications as cromatography or recently introduced naphtha NMR [1] are scarce in most of refineries. This work proposes an algorithmic characterisation method focusing on its main steps description. The method could help on the subjects previously described, finally a calculation example is shown. (orig.)

  1. Prevalência de más oclusões na primeira infância e sua relação com as formas de aleitamento e hábitos infantis First childhood malocclusion’s prevalence and its relation with breast feeding and oral habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Melleiro Gimenez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: identificar a prevalência e os tipos de má oclusão encontrados em crianças dentro da faixa etária de 2 a 4 anos; e correlacionar a presença de más oclusões com a forma de aleitamento e com os hábitos bucais infantis. METODOLOGIA: foram avaliadas por meio de exame clínico 226 crianças de 2 a 4 anos, sendo 100 delas inseridas no programa de prevenção do Centro de Pesquisa e Atendimento a Pacientes Especiais (Cepae - FOP UNICAMP, e 126 pertencentes a creches municipais da cidade de Piracicaba. Foi também aplicado um questionário dirigido aos responsáveis a respeito dos hábitos infantis e formas de aleitamento, sendo os dados submetidos à análise estatística de Fischer (p OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence and the different types of malocclusions in children, with ages from 2 to 4 years, correlationing this findings with the feeding methods and oral habits. METHODOLOGY: 226 children ware evaluated through the clinical oral examination; being 100 children that were participating in the early dental caries prevention program of the Research and Dental Treatment Center for Special Pacients (Cepae of the State University of Campinas Dental School, 126 children belonged to the City Hall day-care services of Piracicaba. A questionnaire was applied to children’s parents in relation to feeding methods and oral habits. The data was submitting to Fischer’s statistical analyses (p < 0.05 . RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: it was find high prevalence of malocclusions (plus than 50% of the analyzed sample, positives correlations between the absence of breast feeding, the presence of deleterious oral habits, when compared with the presence of malocclusions in the analyzed sample. The suction oral habit was the most important variable in the contribution to malocclusion’s installation.

  2. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  3. [Current views on breast feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüttner, R

    1983-07-01

    One of the greatest advantages of feeding exclusively breast-milk is the continuous provision of immunoglobulin A, especially during the first days of life, and of leucocytes with macrophage function as well as unspecific, antiinfectious agents like lactoferrin, lysozyme and neuraminic acid. It seems, that the organism is protected against allergic reactions at the mucosa level of the small intestine caused by the penetration of "foreign" protein by feeding exclusively breast-milk especially during the first weeks and months of life. During the first months of the infant's life an increased supply of iron results from the higher content of iron in breast-milk as compared to cow's milk, and the better absorption of the iron from breast-milk. Just because of this (the better provision with iron from natural food) solid foods should not be added to the infant's diet before 6 months of age. One of the disadvantages of breast-feeding is the passage of unwanted substances from breast-milk to the infant. First of all the chlorinated hydrocarbons have to be mentioned within this context. However, a decreasing tendency can be assumed according to recent investigations. An increasing tendency in breast-milk, though not confirmed, seems possible only for the polychlorinated biphenyls. Nevertheless, for the pediatrician no reason to advise against breast-feeding results from the unwanted admixtures of chlorinated hydrocarbons in breast-milk. One should rather vigorously propagate to feed as many children as possible exclusively with breast-milk over a period of 4 to 6 months.

  4. Avaliação de Dois Métodos in vitro para Determinar a Cinética Ruminal e a Digestibilidade Intestinal da Proteína de Vários Alimentos Application of Two in Vitro Methods for Evaluation of Ruminal Disappearance and Intestinal Digestibility of Feed Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Iván Londoño Hernández

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal e a digestibilidade intestinal dos compostos nitrogenados de 18 alimentos concentrados e quatro alimentos volumosos, utilizando o método de inibidores com digestão intestinal em HCL-pepsina-pancreatina e o método de três estádios. No método dos inibidores, cada alimento foi incubado, nos tempos 0 e 2 horas, na quantidade de 1,875 mg de N, utilizando-se três tubos de incubação, sendo um deles deixado para avaliação da digestão intestinal. No segundo método, aproximadamente 5 g da amostra de cada alimento foram incubados durante 16 horas no rúmen de bovino recebendo dieta com 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado. Uma quantidade de 15 mg de N residual do rúmen de cada alimento foi colocada em tubos de digestão (frascos de 50 mL para serem incubados em HCL-pepsina-pancreatina durante 25 horas. A digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen dos alimentos avaliados não foi constante. O método dos inibidores estimou melhor a degradação ruminal da proteína bruta e o método de três estádios, a digestibilidade intestinal da proteína não-degradada no rúmen.The objective of this work was to evaluate the ruminal disappearance and nitrogen intestinal digestibility of 18 concentrate feedstuffs and four grasses, using an in vitro inhibitor with HCL-pepsin-pancreatin solutions and the three-step method. The disappearance of nitrogen compounds of feedstuffs was determined at 0 and 2 hours using 1.875 mg of N incubated on each three vessels. One of the vessels was submitted to intestinal digestion. On the second method, approximately 5 g of samples were incubated, during 16 hours, in the rumen of a steer fed a diet with 60:40 forage to concentrate ratio. After the incubation period, samples containing 15 mg of residual N were incubated in HCL-pepsin-pancreatin solutions during 25 hours. Data of intestinal digestibility of ruminal

  5. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  6. Environmental persistence of porcine coronaviruses in feed and feed ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampedro, Fernando; Urriola, Pedro E.; Shurson, Gerald C.; Goyal, Sagar M.

    2017-01-01

    Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus (PEDV), Porcine Delta Corona Virus (PDCoV), and Transmissible Gastroenteritis Virus (TGEV) are major threats to swine health and contaminated feed plays a role in virus transmission. The objective of our study was to characterize inactivation of PEDV, PDCoV, and TGEV in various feed ingredient matrices. Samples of complete feed, spray dried porcine plasma, meat meal, meat and bone meal, blood meal, corn, soybean meal, and corn dried distillers grains with solubles were weighed (5 g/sample) into scintillation vials and inoculated with 1 mL of PEDV, PDCoV, or TGEV. Samples were incubated at room temperature for up to 56 days. Aliquots were removed at various time points followed by preparing serial 10-fold dilutions and inoculating in cell cultures to determine the amount of surviving virus. Inactivation kinetics were determined using the Weibull model, which estimates a delta value indicating the time necessary to reduce virus concentration by 1 log. Delta values of various ingredients were compared and analyzed as to their nutrient composition. Soybean meal had the greatest delta value (7.50 days) for PEDV (P < 0.06) as compared with all other ingredients. High delta values (P < 0.001) were observed in soybean meal for PDCoV (42.04 days) and TGEV (42.00 days). There was a moderate correlation between moisture content and the delta value for PDCoV (r = 0.49, P = 0.01) and TGEV (r = 0.41, P = 0.02). There was also a moderate negative correlation between TGEV survival and ether extract content (r = -0.51, P = 0.01). In conclusion, these results indicate that the first log reduction of PDCoV and TGEV takes the greatest amount of time in soybean meal. In addition to this, moisture and ether content appear to be an important determinant of virus survival in feed ingredients. PMID:28542235

  7. Enhanced yield of medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates from nonanoic acid by co-feeding glucose in carbon-limited, fed-batch culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiyong; Ramsay, Juliana; Guay, Martin; Ramsay, Bruce

    2009-09-25

    Medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (MCL-PHAs) were produced in carbon-limited, single-stage, fed-batch fermentations of Pseudomonas putida KT2440 by co-feeding nonanoic acid (NA) and glucose (G) to enhance the yield of PHA from NA. An exponential (mu=0.25 h(-1)) followed by a linear feeding strategy at a NA:G ratio of 1:1 (w/w) achieved 71 g l(-1) biomass containing 56% PHA. Although the same overall PHA productivity (1.44 g l(-1) h(-1)) was obtained when NA alone was fed at the same specific growth rate, the overall yield of PHA from NA increased by 25% (0.66 g PHA g NA(-1) versus 0.53 g g(-1)) with glucose co-feeding. Further increasing glucose in the feed (NA:G=1:1.5) resulted in a slightly higher yield (0.69 g PHA g NA(-1)) but lower PHA content (48%) and productivity (1.16 g l(-1) h(-1)). There was very little change in the PHA composition.

  8. Advanced Illness: Feeding Tubes and Ventilators

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the feedings may be difficult. There is some debate, for example, about whether feeding tubes actually extend ... pneumonia cannot, but people can now get a vaccination to prevent many kinds of viral pneumonia. Aspiration ...

  9. Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids and Milk KidsHealth > For Parents > Formula Feeding FAQs: Starting Solids ... When can I start giving my baby cow's milk? Before their first birthday, babies still need the ...

  10. Feeding patterns and diet -- babies and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000712.htm Feeding patterns and diet - babies and infants To use ... prevent childhood obesity Alternative names Babies and infants - feeding; Diet - age appropriate - babies and infants; Breastfeeding - babies ...

  11. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  12. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  13. High performance liquid chromatographic method fo pyrantel tartrate in swine feeds and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goras, J T

    1981-11-01

    A new method for the determination of pyrantel tartrate in swine feed an supplements has been developed because the current official AOAC method is not applicable to feeds co-medicated with tylosin. The new method involves: (a) leaching of drug from feed with methanolic NaCl solution, (b) removal of interfering substances by ion pair liquid-liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography, and (c) quantitation of pyrantel tartrate by monitoring the ultraviolet absorption of the effluent stream at 313nm. The method of standard addition is used to compensate for the effect of the feed matrix on drug recovery. No interference is encountered from tylosin, carbadox, lincomycin, non-drug components of feeds and supplements, or potential degradation products of pyrantel tartrate, i.e., cis isomer of pyrantel tartrate and (E)-N-(3-methylaminopropyl)-2-thiopheneacrylamide. Results for the assay of 3 lots each of feeds and supplements containing 0.0106 and 0.106% pyrantel tartrate, respectively, were within +/-4% of label claim. Coefficients of variation ranged from 1.6 to 1.8% for feeds and from 1.9 to 3.9% for supplements.

  14. PECULIARITIES OF BREAST FEEDING OF PREMATURE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.К. Kotlukov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents main strategies of breast feeding of prematurely born infants support, such as use of Philips AVENT breast pumpfor lactation formation and feeding of the infant with native breast milk.Key words: premature infants, nursing mother, breast feeding support, modern accessories for breast feeding support. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (6: 170–175

  15. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  16. Análise da efetividade de um programa de incentivo ao aleitamento materno exclusivo em comunidade carente na cidade de São Paulo Effectiveness analysis of an exclusive breast feeding program in a poor community in the city of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Zanon Narchi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: analisar a efetividade do Programa de Incentivo ao Aleitamento Materno Exclusivo implantado em uma comunidade carente do município de São Paulo a fim de redirecionar-lhe as ações. MÉTODOS: pesquisa descritivo-exploratória, retrospectiva, quantitativa, com dados coletados nas 56 fichas de mulheres atendidas pelo Programa no período de agosto de 2002 a novembro de 2003. Variáveis: situação empregatícia, idade, número de filhos e tipo de assistência recebida no parto e nascimento; adesão e abandono às consultas; motivos de abandono; situação do aleitamento no momento da alta. RESULTADOS: 100% das mulheres não trabalhavam, 39,3% eram adolescentes, 48,2% eram primíparas, 67,9% referiram parto normal, 78,6% permaneceram em sistema alojamento conjunto e 68,6% não referiram contato precoce com o bebê após o parto; 51,8% de adesão ao Programa e 48,2% de abandono por motivos desconhecidos. No momento da alta, 17,3% das mães referiram aleitamento exclusivo durante os seis meses, 58,6% misto e 24,1% artificial. O desmame precoce ocorreu em média aos 96 dias de vida do bebê. CONCLUSÕES: evidenciou-se que o Programa, apesar da aparente baixa efetividade, necessita ser mantido pelo benefício que traz ao binômio mãe-filho tendo em vista as condições socioeconômicas daquela comunidade, sendo necessárias novas estratégias que melhorem a adesão e a média de aleitamento exclusivo.OBJECTIVES: to analyze effectiveness of an exclusive breast feeding program in a needy community in the city São Paulo in order to redirect its actions. METHODS: descriptive-exploratory survey, retrospective, quantitative with data collected in 56 medical files of women seen by the Program from August 2002 to November, 2003. Variables: employment status, age, number of children and type of care received during delivery and birth; adhesion and abandonment of medical visits; reasons for abandonment; nursing situation at discharge. RESULTS: 100

  17. Institutional feeding of the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Not only is there a high prevalence of malnutrition among the elderly admitted to hospital and other institutions, but nutritional status seems to decline during admission, not only as a result of disease but also problems with catering and feeding policies, which are not well-geared to the needs of the sick. This results in high food wastage rates and inadequate macro- and micronutrient intakes to meet requirements. In the elderly, decreased portion size and increased energy, protein and micronutrient density have been shown to be effective in decreasing wastage and improving intake. Other strategies for improving intake are reviewed, including a better environment, a reduction in drugs causing anorexia, help with eating, and less interruption of meals by procedures and ward rounds. Targets for nutritional intake and aims of feeding are reviewed.

  18. [Updating enteral feeding by catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, T; Planas, M

    2005-12-01

    Intestinal nutrition can be administered orally or by means of a catheter; the latter method is the focus of this article. The authors' objective is to provide up-to-date information in a succinct manner about the enteral feeding technique. The authors hope health professionals know the advantages as well as the inconveniences of the latest intestinal nutrition advances regarding access ways and the means to administer these. Intestinal nutrition formulas will not be dealt with in this article. However, a health professional should know that there is a wide variety of diets available depending on the complexity of macronutrients included in a diet, the quantity of proteins in a mixture, and that these are designed, in addition to feeding, to treat the specific pathological process a patient suffers from, such as diabetes of cancer.

  19. Evaluation of the feeding value of palm press fibre using in vitro digestibility techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obese, F Y; Osafo, E L; Okai, D B

    2001-04-01

    Palm press fibre (PPF) was obtained from two sources, a small-scale oil palm processing unit and a large-scale factory processing unit, and its chemical composition was determined. In vitro digestibility techniques were used to assess the feeding value of untreated, defatted and sodium hydroxide-treated PPF. For the NaOH treatment, 0.5 g oven-dried PPF was treated for 24 h with 5% NaOH in three ways: treated and not washed (NaNW); treated and washed (NaW); and treated after milling (NAD). The results indicate that, on a dry matter basis, PPF is low in nitrogen (12-13 g/kg), moisture (37-90 g/kg) and ash (53-62 g/kg), but high in ether extract (269-355 g/kg), neutral detergent fibre (532-768 g/kg), acid detergent fibre (375-548 g/kg) and lignin (219 g/kg). The in vitro dry matter digestibility values were low for the samples from both sources, but the large-scale factory-processed PPF had higher in vitro dry matter digestibility (0.215 vs 0.166) and in vitro organic matter digestibility (0.196 vs 0.145). Defatting the PPF and treating it with 5% NaOH solution significantly (p defatting and treatment with 5% NaOH would improve the feeding value of PPF.

  20. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  1. Feeding and Swallowing Dysfunction in Genetic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper-Brown, Linda; Copeland, Sara; Dailey, Scott; Downey, Debora; Petersen, Mario Cesar; Stimson, Cheryl; Van Dyke, Don C.

    2008-01-01

    Children with genetic syndromes frequently have feeding problems and swallowing dysfunction as a result of the complex interactions between anatomical, medical, physiological, and behavioral factors. Feeding problems associated with genetic disorders may also cause feeding to be unpleasant, negative, or even painful because of choking, coughing,…

  2. Farelo de cacau (Theobroma cacao L. e torta de dendê (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq na alimentação de cabras em lactação: consumo e produção de leite Effects of feeding cocoa meal (Theobroma cacao L. and palm kernel cake (Elaeis guineensis, Jacq on milk intake and yield for lactating goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herymá Giovane de Oliveira Silva

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados o consumo e a produção de leite de cabras recebendo dietas contendo farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD em substituição ao milho e ao farelo de soja da ração concentrada. Foram utilizadas cinco cabras da raça Saanen, com produção média diária de 2,0 kg de leite e aos 60 dias de lactação, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 5 x 5. Os períodos experimentais tiveram duração de 14 dias, em que os dez primeiros foram destinados à adaptação e os quatro últimos, à coleta de amostras. As rações foram isoprotéicas, com 13,2% de proteína bruta. As dietas constituíram-se de 36% de volumoso (silagem de milho e 64% de concentrado na matéria seca. Os tratamentos consistiram de concentrado à base de milho e soja com 0, 15 e 30% de FC ou TD. Os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, nutrientes digestíveis totais, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não-fibrosos reduziram com a inclusão de 30% de FC. Os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro e extrato etéreo (EE não foram alterados pelas dietas. O consumo de fibra em detergente ácido diferiu apenas entre os tratamentos com 30% de TD e 30% de FC, sendo 0,94 e 0,59% do peso vivo animal, respectivamente. O tratamento com 30% de FC proporcionou menor produção de leite (1,208 kg/dia, se assemelhando apenas ao tratamento com inclusão de 30% de TD quando a produção foi corrigida para 3,5% de gordura. O FC e a TD apresentam viabilidade de uso como alternativa na dieta de cabras em lactação em até 9,13 e 18,81% da matéria seca, respectivamente.The effects of replacing corn and soybean meal with cocoa meal (CF or palm kernel cake (PKC in the concentrate on milk intake and yield of goats were evaluated. Five Saanen goats, averaging 2 kg daily milk yield at 60 days of lactation, were assigned to a 5 x 5 Latin square experimental design. The experiment lasted 14 days, with 10 days for adaptation period and four days for sample

  3. A malfunctioning nasogastric feeding tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Cereda

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A critical point of nasogastric feeding tube placement, potentially resulting in an unsafe and/or non-effective operation of the device, is the monitoring of its proper placement into the stomach. A properly obtained and interpreted radiograph is currently recommended to confirm placement. We reported the case of a 68-year-old demented woman referred for complicated dysphagia. A nasogastric tube was blindly inserted and its placement was confirmed by the radiologist. Enteral nutrition was initiated but the patient began to vomit immediately. After reviewing the radiograph it was understood that a gastric loop in the tube and its tip pointing upwards did not allow a safe infusion of the feeding formula. It is not enough having the radiologist reporting that a nasogastric feeding tube is placed in the stomach; the inclusion in the report of specific warnings on any potential cause of malfunctioning of the device should be considered. The presence of a gastric loop should be taken into account as a cause of potential malfunctioning.

  4. Analysis of feeding preference experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, C H; Renaud, P E

    1989-03-01

    Published studies of consumer feeding preferences using foods that experience autogenic change in mass, numbers, area, etc., on the time scale of a feeding trial fail to employ appropriate statistical analyses to incorporate controls for those food changes occurring in the absence of the consumer. The studies that run controls typically use them to calculate a constant "correction factor", which is subtracted prior to formal data analysis. This procedure constitutes a non-rigorous suppression of variance that overstates the statistical significance of observed differences. The appropriate statistical analysis for preference tests with two foods is usually a simple t-test performed on the between-food differences in loss of mass (or numbers, area, etc.) comparing the results of experimentals with consumers to controls without consumers. Application of this recommended test procedure to an actual data set illustrates how low replication in controls, which is typical of most studies of feeding preference, inhibits detection of an apparently large influence of previous mechanical damage (simulated grazing) in reducing the attractiveness of a brown alga to a sea urchin.

  5. At NA2

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    One of the NA2 calorimeter sections is moved in. The NA2 calorimeter was divided in two halves, to the left and the right of the beam, each half consisting of sheets of passive high Z material interleaved with blades of plastic scintillators. The photo shows on the right, the upstream 'electron' module with eleven lead plates for a total radiation length of 20.

  6. Hábito alimentar e osteologia da boca do peixe-rei, Odontesthes humensis de Buen (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae na Lagoa Mirim, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil Feeding habits and mouth osteology of silverside, Odontesthes humensis de Buen (Atheriniformes, Atherinopsidae in the Mirim Lagoon, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Lameiro Rodrigues

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Gut contents of 304 individuals of the silverside Odontesthes humensis de Buen, 1953 were analyzed using frequency of occurrence (FO% and gravimetric (P% methods. A total of 207 individuals (68.1% had some food itens in the gut, while 97 individuals (31.9% had empty guts. The silverside Odontesthes humensis has presented a benthic carnivorous diet, preying mainly on molluscs and arthropods. The molluscs Heleobia sp. (FO = 61.35% and Corbicula fluminea (Müller, 1774 (FO = 57.97% were the most frequent itens, followed by Neocorbicula limosa (Maton, 1811 (FO = 17.39%. Among the arthropods, the coleoptera insects (FO= 18.84% were dominant followed by, insect larvae (FO = 6.76%, the crustacean Palaemonetes argentinus Nobili, 1901 (FO = 1.93% and isopods (FO = 1.45%. Vegetal remains, organic matter and digested fish were grouped due to low frequency (FO = 9.13% being considered occasional. Juvenile fed mainly on insect larvae and moluscs, while the adults preferred molluscs and coleoptera. On the description of its feeding apparatus the importance of a protrusible upper jaw was observed, being important on the capture of prey in inaccessible places. A protrusible mouth and the format of the pharingean plates, are important morphological characters that assist on the capture and handling of prey. The molariform shaped pharingean teeth help break hard food items, as shells and carapaces.

  7. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with the

  8. Feed value of Gliricidia fodder salt for sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gabriel Alves Cirne

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with Gliricidia fodder salt on intake, nutrient digestibility, and feeding behavior of lambs. Twenty-five Santa Inês crossbred male sheep at approximately 180 days of age, with an average live weight of 25 kg, were confined in individual 1-m2 stalls and distributed in a randomized complete design with five treatments and five replications. Treatments consisted of 0 (1,000 g/kg?1 NaCl, 930, 950, 970, and 990 g/kg?1 inclusion of Gliricidia hay (70, 50, 30, and 10 g/kg?1 NaCl in the formulation of the fodder salt, respectively. The animals were fed ground Tifton-85 (Cynodon spp. hay, ground fodder salt and or mineral salt, and water ad libitum, at 07h00 and 17h00. Intakes of dry matter, mineral matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and neutral detergent fiber were influenced (P<0.05 by supplementation with Gliricidia fodder salt. Crude protein intake increased linearly (P<0.01, while mineral-salt intake decreased linearly (P<0.01 as the levels of Gliricidia hay in the fodder salt were increased. There was no difference (P>0.05 in nutrient digestibility due to supplementation. Rumination time and number of cuds ruminated per day decreased (P<0.05, whereas rumination chews per cud increased (P<0.05. Feed and rumination efficiencies (g DM and NDF h?1 increased (P<0.01 with supplementation, and so did the rumination efficiency (P<0.01 expressed in g DM and NDF cud?1. Supplementation with Gliricidia fodder salt increases nutrient intake and positively changes the feeding behavior of lambs. 

  9. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  10. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  11. Feeding difficulties in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Morag J; Parr, Jeremy R; Sullivan, Peter B

    2012-12-01

    Feeding difficulties are common in children with cerebral palsy and have an effect on growth, nutritional state, general health, social interaction and behaviour and developmental outcomes. Many factors have an effect on feeding ability. Identification of these factors and amelioration of their impact on feeding difficulties is essential to promote adequate growth and nutrition. Appropriate assessment and management is best achieved by a multiprofessional team skilled in the care of children with cerebral palsy and feeding impairments. Feeding difficulties must be considered within the wider context of family and social circumstance.

  12. ETAŽNA LASTNINA S POUDARKOM NA ZVEtL

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetko, Tadej

    2014-01-01

    Etažna lastnina je lastnina posameznega dela zgradbe in solastnina na skupnih delih, ki služijo vsem ali nekaterim posameznim delom zgradbe. Etažna lastnino na območju Republike Slovenije je uvedel Zakon o lastnini na delih stavbe kot odgovor na potrebo po hitri nacionalizaciji stanovanj in odrazu doslednega uvajanja osnovne ideje takratnega socialističnega duha t.j. družbene lastnine. Slovenija kot mlada demokratična država je ob tranziciji iz socialističnega v demokratični sistem poskušala ...

  13. Photoperiod and feeding behavior of the Antarctic fish Notothenia rossii (Perciformes: Nototheniidae and functional morphology of chemical and visual sensory structures used in foraging Comportamento alimentar do peixe antártico Notothenia rossii (Perciformes: Nototheniidae em diferentes fotoperíodos e a morfologia funcional das estruturas quimio-foto sensoriais usadas na detecção do alimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucélia Donatti

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of photoperiod on the ability of Notothenia rossii Richardson, 1844 to detect prey was studied experimentally. In 12L/12D there was the highest number of individuals stimulated visually and chemically while in 24D chemical perception was the same as that observed in 12L/12D, the latter being lower than in 24L. The ultrastructure of chemo- and photo-sensory structures, involved in the detection of food, was studied. The photoreceptor cells of the retina are single and double cones, and rods. Taste buds were concentrated in the central part of upper and lower lips. Their shape is even, but the size is variable. The olfactory rosette has a sensory and a non-sensory epithelium, being rich in different mucosubstances. The conclusion was that in different photoperiods there is a difference in the response to visual and chemical stimulation for prey detection and that all sensory systems are more stimulated in periods of more luminosity, mainly when there is an alternation between light and dark periods. Sensory organs are complex when compared to some other Antarctic fish such as Gobionotothen gibberifrons Lönnberg, 1905 and Ophthalmolycus amberensis Tomo, Marshoff & Torno, 1977 but similar to those of N. coriiceps Rchardson, 1844.A capacidade de Notothenia rossii Richardson, 1844 detectar presas in diferentes fotoperíodos (24L, 24D e 12L/12D foi estudada em tanques experimentais. Em 12L/12D houve um maior número de indivíduos estimulados visual e quimicamente enquanto que em 24D a percepção química foi a mesma que a observada em 12L/12D, sendo este ultimo inferior a 24L. A morfologia das estruturas quimio-foto sensoriais, envolvidas na detecção do alimento, foi estudada. As células fotorreceptoras da retina são os cones simples e duplos e os bastonetes. Os botões concentraram-se na região central dos lábios superior e inferior. Seu formato é constante, mas o tamanho é variável. A rosseta olfatória possui um epit

  14. Cue-Based Feeding in the NICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whetten, Cynthia H

    In NICU settings, caring for neonates born as early as 23 weeks gestation presents unique challenges for caregivers. Traditionally, preterm infants who are learning to orally feed take a predetermined volume of breast milk or formula at scheduled intervals, regardless of their individual ability to coordinate each feeding. Evidence suggests that this volume-driven feeding model should be replaced with a more individualized, developmentally appropriate practice. Evidence from the literature suggests that preterm infants fed via cue-based feeding reach full oral feeding status faster than their volume-feeding counterparts and have shorter lengths of stay in the hospital. Changing practice to infant-driven or cue-based feedings in the hospital setting requires staff education, documentation, and team-based communication.

  15. Effect of sodium butyrate on the small intestine development in neonatal piglets fed [correction of feed] by artificial sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotunia, A; Woliński, J; Laubitz, D; Jurkowska, M; Romé, V; Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R

    2004-07-01

    Feeding of neonates with artificial milk formulas delays the maturation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Na-butyrate has a complex trophic effect on the gastrointestinal epithelium in adults. The present study aimed to determine the effect of milk formula supplementation with Na-butyrate on the gut mucosa in neonatal piglets. Sixteen 3 day old piglets were randomly divided into two groups: control (C, n = 8), and Na-butyrate (B, n = 8). Animals were feed for 7 days with artificial milk formula alone (C) or supplemented with Na-butyrate (B). At the 10(th) day of life the piglets were sacrificed and whole thickness samples of the upper gut were taken for analyses. Administration of Na-butyrate led to significant increase in daily body weight gain as compared to control. In the duodenum, the villi length and mucosa thickness were reduced, however, in the distal jejunum and ileum, the crypt depth, villi length and mucosa thickness were increased in Na-butyrate supplemented piglets as compared to control. Supplementation with Na-butyrate did not affect the intestinal brush border enzyme activities but increased plasma pancreatic polypeptide and cholecystokinin concentrations. These results suggest that supplementation with Na-butyrate may enhance the development of jejunal and ileal mucosa in formula-fed piglets.

  16. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequat...... predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling....

  17. Breast feeding and infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G V; Calvert, L J; Kanto, W P

    1978-04-01

    Breast feeding is a management problem requiring knowledge of the physiology of lactation, maternal and infant nutritional requirements, and specifics such as drugs which enter the milk. The job of the physician is to allay anxiety; this helps establish the let-down reflex and increases milk production. "Caking," mastitis and even abscesses are not indications for weaning. Rest, warm compresses and frequent nursing are indicated. Breast-fed infants have less tendency to obesity than those who are bottle-fed. Early solid foods in the diet are not needed.

  18. Feeding helium to superconducting magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    1979-01-01

    The photo shows two of the 3 superconducting magnets (two MBS dipoles (CESAR) of 150 mm bore and 4.5 T, and one quadrupole (CASTOR) of 90 mm bore and 54 T/m) which were installed in the hall EHN1 (Annual Report 1978 p. 134) and ran until 1985. They formed a section of the beam H6 travelling from target T4 (down the bottom of the photo) towards the NA30 setup followed by the NA11 setup. The two big transversal pipelines are the quench lines of the two magnets (on the right, one quadrupole and one dipole, the other dipole lays down the photo and is not visible). The Jura side of the hall is on the right.

  19. Growth performance, feed digestibility, body composition, and feeding behavior of high- and low-residual feed intake fat-tailed lambs under moderate feed restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei Sharifabadi, H; Naserian, A A; Valizadeh, R; Nassiry, M R; Bottje, W G; Redden, R R

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate feed restriction on productivity of lambs classified on the basis of phenotypic expression of residual feed intake (RFI). In Exp. 1, 58 fat-tailed Kurdi ram lambs (32.1 ± 4.2 kg BW) were individually fed, ad libitum, a pelleted diet (35% alfalfa hay and 65% concentrate). Feed intake and ADG were determined for a 6-wk period and 3 feed efficiency measures including RFI, G:F, and partial efficiency of maintenance (PEM) were calculated. The lambs were sorted based on RFI and the 16 highest RFI (RFI ≥ mean + 0.5 SD) and 16 lowest RFI (RFI ≤ mean - 0.5 SD) lambs were subjected to body composition (BC) and DM digestibility (DMD) analysis. Feeding behavior traits (FB) were also evaluated for 24 h using a regular 5-min interval observation method. The high- and low-RFI lambs (14 lambs/RFI group) so classified in Exp. 1 were used in Exp. 2. Half of the lambs in each RFI group were randomly selected to be fed ad libitum or 85% of ad libitum (restricted feeding), which resulted in 4 experimental groups: 1) ad libitum high-RFI, 2) feed restricted high-RFI, 3) ad libitum low-RFI, and 4) feed restricted low-RFI. The lambs were fed the same diet as Exp. 1, and growth efficiency during a 6-wk test period as well as BC, DMD, and FB were also determined in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the low-RFI lambs consumed 14% ( feed than high-RFI lambs. Differences were also observed between high- and low-RFI groups for G:F ( = 0.01), RFI ( 0.72), and FB ( > 0.24). In Exp.2, the restriction feeding regime negatively affected ADG ( feed restriction condition. No effects of feed restriction on DMD ( = 0.87) and BC ( > 0.05) were observed. The lambs fed at the restricted level of intake presented a greater time ( feeding events were decreased ( feed restriction, no interaction ( > 0.05) was detected between RFI phenotype and feeding regime for FB. In summary, feeding high-RFI lambs at 85% of ad libitum level improved G:F with no effect

  20. Variação da alimentação natural de Serrasalmus spilopleura Kner, 1860 (Pisces, Serrasalmidae em função do ciclo lunar e das estações do ano na lagoa de Extremoz, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2003 Natural feeding of Serrasalmus spilopleura KNER, 1860 (Pisces, Serrasalmidae from Extremoz Lake, in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v25i2.2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio de Castro Bezerra Gurgel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados aspectos da alimentação natural de 377 exemplares de Serrasalmus spilopleura (Kner, 1860, capturados na lagoa de Extremoz, (5º 42’76”S e 35º17’69”W, Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, no período entre julho de 1998 e abril de 1999, associando-se o ciclo lunar às estações do ano. Foram utilizadas 5 redes de espera com malhas, variando de 2,0cm a 5,0cm entre nós opostos em 4 pontos, com despesca a cada cinco horas, horário (17h-22h. A espécie mostrou atividade alimentar durante todo o período de estudo, independentemente da estação do ano e fases da lua, havendo pequenas variações nos itens alimentares. Insetos aparecem como o principal item alimentar, caracterizando a espécie como carnívora com tendência a insetívora.The present paper aims to study feeding aspects of Serrasalmus spilopleura (Kner, 1860 from Extremoz Lake (5º 42’76”S and 35º17’69”W, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil, in the period from July/1998 to April/1999 connecting lunar cycle to the seasons of the year. 337 specimens were collected in each phase of the moon, being used five ambush nets which varied from 2,0 to 5,0 centimeters with knots in four different points and catchings of five hours, times (17h00 - 22h00. The species showed feeding activity during the study period, independently of the season of the year and the phase of the moon, with small variations in the alimentary items. Insects appeared as principal food characterizing the species as carnivorous with tendency to insectivorous.

  1. Percepções de educadores de creches acerca de práticas cotidianas na alimentação de lactentes: impacto de um treinamento Perceptions of day care center teachers about daily practices of infant feeding: the impact of training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Longo-Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta a importância da capacitação dos profissionais envolvidos com alimentação das crianças em creches, para que estes ofereçam alimentos adequados e promovam ações para que os lactentes incorporem práticas alimentares saudáveis desde o nascimento. Desta forma, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o impacto de um treinamento de educadores de creches nas percepções e práticas acerca da alimentação infantil. Para avaliação do impacto do treinamento foi utilizada abordagem qualitativa, com aplicação da técnica do grupo focal. Foram realizados 16 grupos, sendo oito com as creches expostas ao treinamento e oito com as não-expostas, tendo em média de seis a 11 participantes por instituição, os quais apresentavam idades entre 19 e 66 anos. O discurso das educadoras que participaram do treinamento está pontuado de indícios de pequenas mudanças, ou pelo menos, de reconhecimento de que é preciso e possível mudar. Destaca-se a relevância de elaborar e executar programas de treinamento e educação nutricional para educadores de creches com supervisão contínua dos efeitos da capacitação como estratégia de saúde infantil.This article stresses the importance of the qualification of professionals involved in thefeeding of children in daycare centers, such that they offeradequate food and programs are developed in order to fosterhealthy food habits in infantsfrom birth. Thus, the scope of this paper was to evaluate the impact of a training program for these daycare teachers in their perceptions and practicesin infant feeding. A qualitative approach was used to evaluate the impact of training, with the application of the focus grouptechnique. Sixteen groups were created, eight of whichwere daycare centerswith training and eight without training, the average number of participants being 6 to 11 per institution agedbetween 19 and 66. The discourse of the teachers who took part in the training program is

  2. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselia A.P. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. Source of data: A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. Synthesis of data: The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Conclusion: Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families.

  3. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Giselia A P; Costa, Karla A O; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  4. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  5. NAKUPOVANJE NA SPLETU

    OpenAIRE

    Visenjak, Monika

    2013-01-01

    Nakupovanje na spletu je prihodnost poslovanja. Za podjetja pomeni manjše stroške, lažje prilagajanje tržnim pogojem. Hitreje lahko razvijajo odnose in analizirajo uporabnike, saj jim je dan dostop o nakupnih podatkih uporabnika. Za potrošnike je nakupovanje na spletu možnost hitrega, preprostega in učinkovitega nakupovanja od doma ali pisarne. Pomembno je, da se seznanijo z vsemi informacijami in pogoji spletnih trgovin, saj se lahko le tako izognejo nezadovoljstvu ob nakupu v spletni trgovi...

  6. Effect of the oral administration of monosodium glutamate during pregnancy and breast-feeding in the offspring of pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da administração de glutamato monossódico durante a gestação e amamentação na prole de ratas Wistar prenhes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius von Diemen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Determine the effects of the MSG (monosodium glutamate in the offspring of pregnant rats through the comparison of the weight, NAL (nasal-anal length and IL (Index of Lee at birth and with 21 days of life. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats and their offspring were divided into 3 groups: GC, G10 and G20. Each of the groups received 0%, 10% and 20% of MSG, respectively from coupling until the end of the weaning period. RESULTS: Neither weight nor NAL were different among the groups at birth. The group G20 at birth had an IL lower than the group GC (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do glutamato monossódico (GMS nos fetos de ratas prenhes por meio da comparação do peso, comprimento nasal-anal (CNA e índice de Lee (IL ao nascimento e com 21 dias de vida. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas ratas prenhes da linhagem Wistar distribuídas em três grupos: grupo controle (GC, G10 e G20. Estes, respectivamente, foram alimentados com ração contendo 0, 10 e 20% de GMS desde o período de acasalamento até o final da amamentação. RESULTADOS: O peso e o CNA não foram diferentes entre os grupos ao nascimento. O grupo G20, ao nascimento, teve IL menor que o grupo GC (p < 0,05 e, aos 21 dias de vida, apresentou peso e CNA menores que o grupo G10, o qual foi menor que o GC (p < 0,01. O grupo G20, aos 21 dias de vida, teve IL semelhante aos outros dois grupos. O percentual de ganho de peso do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida foi menor no G20 em relação aos outros dois grupos (p < 0,01. O grupo G20 teve percentual de aumento de CNA do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida menor que o grupo G10, e este menor que o grupo GC (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÕES: O GMS nas concentrações de 10 e 20% na ração de ratas prenhes Wistar apresentou uma relação dose-dependente nas variáveis peso e CNA. Houve diminuição no padrão de ganho de peso e de aumento de CNA do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida com uso de GMS. O IL na prole do grupo G20 aumentou em relação ao do grupo GC após 3

  7. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring for cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (i) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (ii) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed because the ML in the latter group is usually lower. In seaweed/algae products a relatively large number of samples contained arsenic concentrations that exceeded the ML. Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programs, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  8. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki

    2016-02-01

    The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most

  9. Effect of nutrition pump on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia of mechanical ventilation for na-sal feeding patients%鼻饲患者应用营养泵对降低机械通气患者呼吸机相关性肺炎发生率的作用探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹤

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨鼻饲患者应用营养泵对降低机械通气患者呼吸机相关性肺炎( Ventilator associated pneumonia,VAP)发生率的作用。方法选择2012年6月至2013年6月在我院收治的78例机械通气患者作为研究对象,将患者按照随机数字表法分成观察组和对照组,输入营养液成分一致,观察组采用持续24h肠内营养泵行鼻饲营养支持治疗;对照组采用50ml注射器间断推注营养液,3次/d。比较两组患者营养状态、胃内容物反流、口咽分泌物误吸、VAP的发生率及不良反应发生率情况。结果观察组患者营养状态(谷草转氨酶、血清白蛋白、血红蛋白及前白蛋白水平)明显优于对照组(t=4.230,7.348,4.592,6.916,P<0.05);观察组患者的胃内容物的反流率、误吸率及VAP发生率明显低于对照组(χ2=5.342,5.186,4.044,P<0.05);观察组患者的不良反应发生率明显低于对照组(χ2=7.86,5.64,4.13,4.52,P<0.05),差异有统计学意义。结论机械通气鼻饲患者应用营养泵输注可明显降低胃内容物反流率、口咽分泌物误吸率,降低患者VAP的发生率,减少腹胀、腹泻等胃肠道不良反应,同时有助于改善患者营养状态。%Objective To investigate the effect of nutrition pump on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia of mechanical ventilation for nasal feeding patients. Methods 78 patients with mechanical ventilation in our hospital were selected as the research object, and they were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group. All patients were given the same nutrient solution, and the observation group used persistent 24h enter-al nutrition pump for nasal feeding nutrition support therapy while the control group used 50ml syringe to discontinu-ously inject the nutrient solution, 3 times/d. The nutritional status, reflux of gastric contents, oropharyngeal secre-tionsaspiration, the incidence of VAP and the incidence of

  10. Beta-delayed neutron decay of {sup 33}Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radivojevic, Z. E-mail: zoran.radivojevic@phys.jyu.fi; Baumann, P.; Caurier, E.; Cederkaell, J.; Courtin, S.; Dessagne, Ph.; Jokinen, A.; Knipper, A.; Scornet, G.L.G. Le; Lyapin, V.; Miehe, Ch.; Nowacki, F.; Nummela, S.; Oinonen, M.; Poirier, E.; Ramdhane, M.; Trzaska, W.H.; Walter, G.; Aeystoe, J

    2002-04-01

    Beta-delayed neutron decay of {sup 33}Na has been studied using the on-line mass separator ISOLDE. The delayed neutron spectra were measured by time-of-flight technique using fast scintillators. Two main neutron groups at 800(60) and 1020(80) keV were assigned to the {sup 33}Na decay, showing evidence for strong feeding of states at about 4 MeV in {sup 33}Mg. By simultaneous {beta}-{gamma}-n counting the delayed neutron emission probabilities P{sub 1n}=47(6)% and P{sub 2n}=13(3)% were determined. The half-life value for {sup 33}Na, T{sub 1/2}=8.0(3) ms, was measured by three different techniques, one employing identifying gamma transitions and two employing beta and neutron counting.

  11. Riso na epilepsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edymar Jardim

    1967-06-01

    Full Text Available São estudados três casos de síndrome convulsiva temporal, com manifestações concomitantes de riso na sua fase inicial. As características principais foram a imotivação e á incoercibilidade do riso. Esses sintomas desapareceram com o uso de anticonvulsivantes.

  12. The NA48 experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    1995-01-01

    The NA48 experiment is designed to study the Charge-Parity (CP) violation. CP violation is observed in certain very rare decays. Its study is important in understanding Nature's preference of matter over antimatter, which resulted in asymmetry soon after the Big Bang, creating a matter-dominated Universe.

  13. Biotecnologia na agricultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helaine Carrer

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A expectativa de o crescimento populacional atingir 9 bilhões de habitantes em 2050 em adição às questões da sustentabilidade e do aquecimento global nos desafiam a aumentar a oferta de alimentos. Uma metodologia alternativa que contribua para a redução do impacto desse cenário envolve a biotecnologia, que, nas últimas décadas, trouxe marcantes oportunidades tecnológicas na agricultura, resultando em relevante desenvolvimento na obtenção de novas variedades de plantas, na melhoria da qualidade de diversos alimentos e atualmente também na bioenergia. As técnicas biotecnológicas envolvendo os marcadores moleculares, a genômica e a transformação genética estão transformando a agricultura e são discutidas neste artigo.The expected population growth to reach 9 billion by 2050 in addition to issues of sustainability and global warming challenges us to increase the supply of food. An alternative approach to help reducing the impact of this scenario involves biotechnology which in recent decades has brought remarkable technological opportunities in the agriculture that resulted in relevant development in obtaining new plant varieties, improved quality of different foods, and now also in bioenergy. The biotechnology techniques involving molecular markers, genomics and genetic transformation are transforming agriculture and will be discussed in this article.

  14. Mandioca e Resíduos das Farinheiras na Alimentação de Ruminantes: pH, Concentração de N-NH3 e Eficiência Microbiana Cassava and Cassava By-products on Ruminants Feeding: pH, Ammonia Concentration and Microbial Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Maria Zeoula

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a concentração de N-NH3, o pH do líquido ruminal e a eficiência de síntese microbiana de rações que continham diferentes fontes energéticas: milho (MI, milho + casca de mandioca desidratada (MC, raspa de mandioca (RM e farinha de varredura de mandioca (FV. Foram utilizados quatro novilhos da raça Holandesa (270 kg, portadores de cânulas ruminal e duodenal, distribuídos em um delineamento Quadrado Latino 4x4. A cinza insolúvel em ácido foi utilizada como indicador do fluxo duodenal e fecal. Não houve efeito das rações experimentais no pH ruminal. No entanto, menor concentração de N-NH3 foi observada para a ração com FV. O fluxo duodenal de matéria orgânica e nitrogênio e a composição química das bactérias ruminais não foram influenciados pelas rações experimentais. A maior eficiência microbiana aparente foi obtida para a ração com FV. Nas condições do presente experimento a FV, possivelmente apresentou uma melhor sincronização com a fonte protéica (farelo de soja, diminuindo a perda de nitrogênio na forma de N-NH3 e aumentando a eficiência microbiana.The objective of this paper was evaluate ammonia concentration, pH of ruminal liquid and microbial synthesis efficiency in diets with different energetic sources: corn (CO, corn/cassava hulls (CC, cassava root (CR and cassava by-product flour (CB. Four Holstein steers (270 kg were used, in a 4 X 4 Latin Square design. The marker utilized for determination of duodenal and fecal flow was the acid insoluble ash. There was not effect in the ruminal pH of the experimental diets, however smaller ammonia concentration was observed to the diet with CB. The organic matter and nitrogen flow to duodenum and chemical composition of ruminal bacteria were not influenced by experimental diets. The higher apparent microbial efficiency was obtained to CB diet. In the conditions of the present experiment the CB possibly presented

  15. Fontes de energia em suplementos múltiplos de auto-regulação de consumo na recria de novilhos mestiços em pastagens de Brachiaria decumbens durante o período das águas Energy sources in multiple supplements of self-feed of growing crossbred steers at pastures of Brachiaria Decumbens in wet season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário Fonseca Paulino

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes fontes energéticas em suplementos múltiplos de auto-regulação de consumo sobre o ganho médio diário (GMD, ganho de peso total (GPT, pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal em novilhos recriados em pastejo no período das águas. Foram avaliados suplementos contendo grão de milho moído (GMM, milho desintegrado com palha e sabugo (MDPS, sorgo moído (SM e tratamento controle (mistura mineral - MM. Utilizaram-se 16 novilhos mestiços Holandês-Zebu, não-castrados, com 12 meses de idade e peso médio inicial de 265 kg para avaliar o desempenho. Os parâmetros ruminais foram obtidos utilizando-se quatro novilhos mestiços Holandês-Zebu fistulados no rúmen. O pH do líquido ruminal variou de 6,43 a 6,62 (média de 6,55, não sendo influenciado pelas quantidades de sal e de suplemento consumidas. As concentrações de amônia foram de 9,61; 25,71; 24,45 e 26,04 mg/dL, respectivamente para os tratamentos MM, GMM, MDPS, SM. Não se verificou diferença entre os tratamentos, contudo o suplemento MDPS proporcionou ganhos adicionais em torno de 220 g/animal/dia. Maiores concentrações de amônia ruminal foram observadas nos animais suplementados.The effect of different energy sources in multiple supplements of self-feed on the average daily gain (ADG, total weight gain (TWG, pH and ruminal ammonia concentration of steers grazed at pasture in the wet season was evaluated. Treatments were supplements containing ground corn grain (GCG, corn, ears and cob (CEC, ground sorghum (GS and control treatment (mineral mix - MM. Sixteen crossbreed steers with initial age and weight of 12 months old and 265 kg were used. Ruminal parameters were obtained from four crossbreed steers fistulated in the rumen. The pH values ranged from 6.43 to 6.62, with an average of 6.55 not having effect for the amounts of salt and supplement consumed. Concentrations were 9.61, 25.71, 24.45 and 26.04 mg/dL, respectively, for MM, GCG

  16. Feed grain improvement through biopreservation and bioprocessing

    OpenAIRE

    Olstorpe, Matilda

    2008-01-01

    Fermentation is an environmentally friendly method to improve feed quality. Fermented liquid feed and airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain systems that are of increasing importance in agricultural practice were studied. Both rely on spontaneous microbial developments with poorly understood population dynamics, resulting in unpredictable final quality. Temperature, fermentation time and ingredients affected final properties of the feed. Molecular-based species identification showed that ...

  17. 7 CFR 905.142 - Animal feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Animal feed. 905.142 Section 905.142 Agriculture... TANGELOS GROWN IN FLORIDA Rules and Regulations Non-Regulated Fruit § 905.142 Animal feed. (a) The handling of citrus for animal feed shall be exempt from the provisions of §§ 905.52 and 905.53 and...

  18. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  19. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported.

  20. Fur animal botulism hazard due to feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllykoski, J; Lindström, M; Bekema, E; Pölönen, I; Korkeala, H

    2011-06-01

    To assess the botulism hazard in fur animal feed production, 236 fur animal feed components and feed samples were analysed for Clostridium botulinum by detecting BoNT-encoding genes (botA, botB, botC, botE or botF) by PCR and for sulphite-reducing clostridia (SRC) by iron sulphite agar. The quality of the hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) -based in-house control system (IHCS) was evaluated with respect to botulism risk in feed plants (n=32). The overall prevalence of C. botulinum was 13% in different feed components and 5% in feed. The estimated MPN count of C. botulinum in feed components was 6.4 × 10(3)/kg at the highest and was shown to poorly correlate with SRC count. The critical control points in IHCSs were variable, and control limits were improperly set in most feed-producing plants. C. botulinum possesses a persistent safety hazard for fur animals by feed production, and control practices should be reassessed.

  1. Successful breast feeding: the mother's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M J; Morse, J M; Prowse, M

    1985-05-01

    A content analysis of 141 articles on breast feeding by discipline revealed differences in the factors considered necessary for breast feeding success and in the criteria used to determine success. Whereas medical articles focused on maternal factors prenatally and infant health post-natally, or the length of time breast feeding was maintained, lay articles focused on the relationship of the mother with her infant (the nursing couple) and the mother's ability to manage breast feeding within the family context. The implications of this discrepancy for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  2. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  3. "Spoon-feeding" an AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Mainetti, Deborah; Colpi, Monica; Lodato, Giuseppe; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Evans, Phil; Moretti, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Tidal disruption events (TDEs) occur when a star, passing too close to a massive black hole, is ripped apart by tidal forces. A less dramatic event occurs if the star orbits just outside the tidal radius, resulting in a mild stripping of mass. Thus, if a star orbits a central black hole on one of these bound eccentric orbits, weaker outbursts will occur recurring every orbital period. Thanks to five Swift observations, we observed a recent flare from the close by (92 Mpc) galaxy IC 3599, where a possible TDE was already observed in December 1990 during the Rosat All-Sky Survey. By light curve modeling and spectral fitting, we account for all these events as the non-disruptive tidal stripping of a single star into a 9.5 yr highly eccentric bound orbit. This is the first example of periodic partial tidal disruptions, possibly spoon-feeding the central black hole.

  4. Date stones in broiler's feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtieri, M.

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate date stones as dietary component for broilers, two trials were carried out. In the first trial, Tunisian Deglet date stones were used and in the second one, stones were the waste product of an Italian distillery. One-day-old Arbor Acres chickens were cage reared and fed for 6 weeks on 4 experimental diets, which were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and differed in cereal component (maize or low tannin sorghum and in inclusion level (0 or 10 % of ground date stones. Birds ' performances were slightly different in the two trials, but overall results indicate that date stones are suitable for use in broiler's feeding under such conditions.

  5. Effects of floral scents and their dietary experiences on the feeding preference in the blowfly, Phormia regina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru eMaeda

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe flowers of different plant species have diverse scents with varied chemical compositions. Hence, every floral scent does not uniformly affect insect feeding preferences. The blowfly, Phormia regina, is a nectar feeder, and when a fly feeds on flower nectar, its olfactory organs, antennae, and maxillary palps are exposed to the scent. Generally, feeding preference is influenced by food flavor, which relies on both taste and odor. Therefore, the flies perceive the sweet taste of nectar and the particular scent of the flower simultaneously, and this olfactory information affects their feeding preference. Here, we show that the floral scents of 50 plant species have various effects on their sucrose feeding motivation, which was evaluated using the proboscis extension reflex (PER. Those floral scents were first categorized into three groups, based on their effects on the PER threshold sucrose concentration, which indicates whether a fly innately dislikes, ignores, or likes the target scent. Moreover, memory of olfactory experience with those floral scents during sugar feeding influenced the PER threshold. After feeding on sucrose solutions flavored with floral scents for 5 days, the scents did not consistently show the previously observed effects. Considering such empirical effects of scents on the PER threshold, we categorized the effects of the 50 tested floral scents on feeding preference into 16 of all possible 27 theoretical types. We then conducted the same experiments with flies whose antennae or maxillary palps were ablated prior to PER test in a fly group naïve to floral scents and prior to the olfactory experience during sugar feeding in the other fly group in order to test how these organs were involved in the effect of the floral scent. The results suggested that olfactory inputs through these organs play different roles in forming or modifying feeding preferences. Thus, our study contributes to an understanding of underlying

  6. Utilização do farelo de germe de milho desengordurado na alimentação de suínos em crescimento e terminação: digestibilidade e desempenho Utilization of defatted corn germ meal on growing-finishing pigs feeding: digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Moreira

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Foram conduzidos dois experimentos (Digestibilidade e Desempenho, objetivando avaliar o valor nutricional e a viabilidade de utilização do farelo de germe de milho desengordurado (FGMD em rações de suínos, na fase de crescimento e terminação. I Ensaio de digestibilidade: foram utilizados 12 suínos com peso vivo médio de 42,0±5,4 kg, alojados em gaiolas de metabolismo, em que seis receberam rações compostas de 70% de ração referência e 30% de FGMD e seis receberam ração referência. O FGMD apresentou coeficiente de digestibilidade da energia de 80,98 % e coeficiente de metabolização de 78,04%, o que corresponde a 3.060 kcal de ED/kg e 2.949 kcal de EM/kg. II Ensaio de desempenho: foram utilizados 32 suínos mestiços, sendo metade de fêmeas e metade de machos castrados, com peso inicial médio de 31,9±3,6 kg. Os suínos foram alojados em 16 baias, perfazendo, assim, 2 animais por baia. Os animais receberam ração à vontade, contendo níveis crescentes (0, 15, 30 e 45% de farelo de germe de milho desengordurado. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro tratamentos, quatro repetições, com dois animais por unidade experimental. A inclusão de níveis crescentes de FGMD prejudicou o desempenho dos suínos, reduziu a espessura de toucinho e não influenciou a profundidade do lombo, medidas no animal vivo. A análise econômica, considerando o preço do FGMD, sendo 80% do preço do milho, mostrou que o nível de 15% de inclusão do FGMD é o mais econômico, tanto para a fase de crescimento, quanto para a fase de terminação.Two studies (Digestibility and Performance were carried out to evaluate the nutritional value and the feasibility of using defatted corn germ meal (DCGM fed to growing-finishing pigs. I Digestibility trial: Twelve pigs with initial body weight of 42.0±5.4 kg were hold in metabolism cage. Six pigs were fed a diet with 70% of basal diet plus 30% of DCGM and six received basal diet

  7. O JORNALISTA NA PESQUISA E NA ARTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Marocco

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O jornalista tem sido objeto das artes e das ciências. Nesta incisão no tema do painel “Configurações e perspectivas da pesquisa em jornalismo no Brasil em diálogo com os estudos latinoamericanos em jornalismo”, realizado no Encontro Nacional da Sociedade Brasileira de Pesquisadores em Jornalismo/SBPJor (Curitiba, 10/11/2012, reconheci que o âmbito acadêmico projeta dois tipos de ação: em rede de pesquisadores de diferentes países e regiões do mundo, com participação de países da América Latina, na pesquisa colaborativa e em projetos de investigação com outras bases de colaboração. Ambas as modalidades dialogam com a produção do cinema e da literatura – que visibiliza a grande potência do profissional para tramas e tensões. 

  8. Determination of inorganic elements in animal feeds by NIRS technology and a fibre-optic probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Martín, Inmaculada; Alvarez-García, Noelia; González-Pérez, Claudio; Villaescusa-García, Virginia

    2006-05-15

    In the present work we study the use of near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) technology together with a remote reflectance fibre-optic probe for the analysis of the mineral composition of animal feeds. The method allows immediate control of the feeds without prior sample treatment or destruction through direct application of the fibre-optic probe on the sample. The regression method employed was modified partial least squares (MPLS). The calibration results obtained using forty samples of animal feeds allowed the determination of Fe, Mn, Ca, Na, K, P, Zn and Cu, with a standard error of prediction (SEP(C)) and a correlation coefficient (RSQ) of 0.129 and 0.859 for Fe; 0.175 and 0.816 for Mn; 5.470 and 0.927 for Ca; 2.717 and 0.862 for Na; 4.397 and 0.891 for K; 2.226 and 0.881 for P; 0.153 and 0.764 for Zn, and 0.095 and 0.918 for Cu, respectively. The robustness of the method was checked by applying it to 10 animal feeds samples of unknown mineral composition in the external validation.

  9. Evaluation of dry feeding and liquid feeding to lactating sows under high temperature environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, J S; Jin, S S; Jung, S W; Fang, L H; Kim, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Liquid feeding system has been introduced to domestic swine farms, but negative cognition about liquid feeding system has been remained for feed waste decay related with poor management and microbial contamination. For these reasons, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding method in lactating sows. A total of 30 mixed-parity (average 4.13) lactating sows (Yorkshire × Landrace) with an initial BW of 218.8 ± 19.5kg was used in a 3 week trial. Sows were allotted to 1 of 2 treatments in a completely randomized design by their body weight, backfat thickness, parity and alive litter weight. One of treatments was dry feeding and the other was liquid feeding (water to feed ratio, 1:1). Experimental diets contained 3265 kcal ME/kg, 12.6 % CP, 5.76 % EE, 1.09 % total lysine, 0.25 % total methionine, as fed basis. Dry feeding treatment had high body weight loss rather than liquid feeding treatment (P = 0.04). Dry feeding treatment had tendency to increase litter weight at 21d of lactation (P = 0.06) and litter weight gain (P = 0.04) during lactation period (0-3 week). Sows fed dry feeding method made milk containing high content of casein and total solid rather than sows fed liquid feeding method (P = 0.04). In addition, dry feeding treatment had tendency to higher content of milk fat, protein and solid not fat on 21d of lactation (P = 0.07). Sows fed dry feeding type also showed higher milk energy content in milk of 21d lactation (P = 0.05). Furthermore, liquid feeding treatment showed high occurrence in feed waste during lactation period (P sows under high temperature environment like lactating barn.

  10. Hematological profile of beef cattle with divergent residual feed intake, following feed deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes; Renata Farinelli de Siqueira; Michael Alan Ballou; Tiago Roberto Stella; Paulo Roberto Leme

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the hematological profiles of steers and bulls, according to residual feed intake (RFI), after feed deprivation. Twenty‑month‑old Nellore steers and bulls were fed feedlot diets for 70 and 56 days, respectively. RFI was calculated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake. More and less efficient steers and bulls, according to RFI, were subjected to 24 hours of food deprivation. Blood was sampled prior to a...

  11. Feeding problems in healthy young children: prevalence, related factors and feeding practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banchaun Benjasuwantep

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, characteristics, and factors related to feeding problems among normal children, and the differences in feeding practices between those with and without feeding problems. Caregivers of 402 healthy children aged between one and four years of age were interviewed by pediatricians involved in the research. Data included the child’s medical history, food intake within a day, and feeding behaviors and practices. Parental socio-economic and demographic information, as well as information on parental education and occupation, and their concerns about feeding their children, was collected. Physical examination and anthropometric measurements were taken. The percentage of children identified as having feeding problems was 26.9%. The first child of a family had an increased risk of having feeding problems [P=0.032, odds ratio 1.68, 95% confidence interval (95%CI 1.04-2.71]. Children with feeding problems were fed less frequently, were less likely to be fed at their own table or at the family table, and had mealtimes longer than 30 min when compared with children without feeding problems (P=0.015, 0.004 and 0.025, respectively. The results highlight that feeding problems in normally developing children are common. During consultations about feeding issues, pediatricians should focus on families with a first child. Topics such as frequency of meals per day, duration of meal-times, and appropriate places for feeding should be discussed.

  12. The environmental impacts of the production of concentrated feed: the case of pig feed in Bretagne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, H.M.G.; Petit, J.; Sanders, J.

    2005-01-01

    Pig production systems often depend to a large extent on concentrated feed imported from outside the farm. This study used the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method to assess major environmental impacts associated with the production and on-farm delivery of concentrated feed for pigs. Feed composition

  13. The environmental impacts of the production of concentrated feed: the case of pig feed in Bretagne

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, H.M.G.; Petit, J.; Sanders, J.

    2005-01-01

    Pig production systems often depend to a large extent on concentrated feed imported from outside the farm. This study used the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method to assess major environmental impacts associated with the production and on-farm delivery of concentrated feed for pigs. Feed composition

  14. Genetic parameters for feed intake and feed efficiency in growing dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, S.; Eekelen, van E.A.M.; Vos, H.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency are of importance in cattle breeding programmes. A divergent selection experiment on feed intake was carried out during three generations. Young performance-tested bulls were selected on high or low dry matter roughage intake. The effective phenotypic selection

  15. Leptin mediates discriminate response to feed restriction in feed efficient pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic mechanisms that control feed efficiency (FE) and feed intake are not well understood. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of FE, in which low RFI designates high FE. Transcriptional profiling coupled with serum metabolite analyses were used to identify genes and pathways that respond to ...

  16. Health effects of airborne exposures from concentrated animal feeding operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heederik, Dick; Sigsgaard, Torben; Thorne, Peter S

    2006-01-01

    effects related to low-level gas and particulate emissions. Most information comes from studies among workers in CAFO installations. Research over the last decades has shown that microbial exposures, especially endotoxin exposure, are related to deleterious respiratory health effects, of which cross......-shift lung function decline and accelerated decline over time are the most pronounced effects. Studies in naïve subjects and workers have shown respiratory inflammatory responses related to the microbial load. This working group, which was part of the Conference on Environmental Health Impacts...... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations: Anticipating Hazards-Searching for Solutions, concluded that there is a great need to evaluate health effects from exposures to the toxic gases, vapors, and particles emitted into the general environment by CAFOs. Research should focus not only on nuisance and odors...

  17. Vaginose Bacteriana na Colpocitologia

    OpenAIRE

    Consolaro,Márcia Edilaine Lopes; Suzuki, Linda Emiko

    2008-01-01

    A flora vaginal representa um ecossistema dinâmico influenciado por fatores diversos, existindo mecanismos desconhecidos que alteram esta flora, desencadeando distúrbios como vaginoses bacterianas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a incidência de vaginoses bacterianas detectadas por colpocitologia na população atendida pelo Setor de Citologia Clínica do Laboratório de Ensino e Pesquisa em Análises Clínicas (LEPAC) da Univers...

  18. Preparing for NA4

    CERN Multimedia

    1977-01-01

    Here, in one of the EF workshop, Albert Duchêne works on a pretty piece of mechanics. A few others await to be attended on the left. There are indications that the pipes were meant to house the carbon target (subdivided in eight sections) to be installed inside the toroid magnet of the NA4 experiment. The external strips were designed to possibly correct the magnetic field (???).

  19. Uso de ingredientes provenientes de OGM em rações e seu impacto na produção de alimentos de origem animal para humanos Use of ingredients from OGM in feed and its impact on the production of food of animal origin for human

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal E. Vercesi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Desde os primórdios o homem buscou selecionar as plantas alimentícias para maior produtividade. O conhecimento da estrutura do DNA permitiu que a engenharia genética se desenvolvesse consideravelmente fornecendo ferramentas para a realização de alterações específicas no genoma. Os produtos destas alterações são denominados transgênicos ou organismos geneticamente modificados (OGM e apresentam alto potencial de aplicação em diversas áreas da atividade humana como: agricultura, medicina, saúde, produção e processamento de alimentos, produção bioquímica, controle de doenças e biorremediação. Atualmente, as plantas transgênicas, oriundas da tecnologia do DNA recombinante, trouxeram novas variedades já cultivadas em mais de 100 milhões de hectares em 23 países, incluindo o Brasil, onde 8 variedades já foram aprovadas pela Comissão Técnica Nacional de Biossegurança (CTNBio. Esse método de melhoramento genético facilitou a introdução de características desejáveis em plantas, como resistência a estresses bióticos e abióticos e otimização da composição de alguns nutrientes essenciais à saúde animal e humana. Enquanto estes avanços da biotecnologia abrem novas perspectivas para a solução de problemas em áreas como a agricultura, a liberação de transgênicos para uso na natureza traz preocupações quanto a possíveis problemas de natureza ecológica e para a saúde humana e animal. Estas preocupações deram origem à criação de agências governamentais para controlar o uso desta tecnologia e regulamentar a segurança dos alimentos transgênicos e seus derivados. Até o momento, os estudos científicos mostram que os transgênicos liberados comercialmente são tão seguros ou mais ao meio ambiente e a saúde animal e humana que os convencionais.From the origins the man has looked and selected vegetables with nutritive value for larger productivity. The knowledge of DNA structure allowed genetic

  20. Diagnostics of the BIOMASS feed array prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellin, Cecilia; Pivnenko, Sergey; Pontoppidan, Kennie Nybo

    2013-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction algorithm is applied to the prototype feed array of the BIOMASS synthetic aperture radar, recently measured at the DTU-ESA Spherical Near-Field Antenna Test Facility in Denmark. Careful analysis of the measured feed array data has shown that the test support structure...

  1. 78 FR 75515 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 514 and 558 RIN 0910-AG95 Veterinary Feed... Administration (FDA) is proposing to amend its animal drug regulations regarding veterinary feed directive (VFD..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-220), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville,...

  2. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on January... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration,...

  3. Quality assurance for animal feed analysis laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balthrop, J.; Brand, B.; Cowie, R.A.; Danier, J.; Boever, de J.L.; Jonge, de L.H.; Jackson, F.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Piotrowski, C.

    2011-01-01

    Every sector of the livestock industry, the associated services and the wellbeing of both animals and humans are influenced by animal feeding. The availability of accurate, reliable and reproducible analytical data is imperative for proper feed formulation. Only reliable analysis can lead to the gen

  4. 9 CFR 3.129 - Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.129 Section 3.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.129 Feeding. (a) The food shall be wholesome,...

  5. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively

  6. Coplanar waveguide feed for microstrip patch antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R. L.; Williams, J. T.

    1992-01-01

    A coplanar waveguide (CPW) loop is shown to be an effective low VSWR feed for microstrip antennas. The low VSWR transition between the CPW and the antenna is obtained without the use of a matching circuit, and it is relatively insensitive to the position of the antenna and the feed.

  7. Parental perceptions of childhood feeding problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lucy; Bryant-Waugh, Rachel; Watkins, Beth; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Previous research suggests that parental report of children's feeding corresponds with their child's nutritional intake (Cooke et al., 2006; Ekstein et al., 2010). The current study aimed to determine whether there is a relationship between parental report of children's feeding problems and their child's nutritional intake in a non-clinical population and, in addition, to establish whether parental anxiety (Cooke et al., 2003) can predict whether parental report of feeding problems correspond with the child's intake. Sixty-one parents of children aged two to seven years completed the parent report measure; the Behavioural Paediatric Feeding Assessment Scale as well as a food diary detailing their child's intake, which was analysed using CompEAT nutritional software. They also completed the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Previous findings of an association between parent report of feeding problems and child's intake (Cooke et al., 2006) were not replicated. However, an association was found between parents' anxiety and their reports of feeding problems. Parental anxiety was also found to independently predict whether parent report of feeding problems matched the child's intake. Findings highlight the importance of a multifactorial approach to understanding childhood feeding difficulties. This requires replication with a clinical sample.

  8. Analysis of phenolic compounds for poultry feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds have generated significant interest recently as feed additives that can impart bioactive characteristics such as anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, and anti-fungal properties to a feed formulation [1-2]. Such natural compounds may offer some preventive benefit to the routine administra...

  9. Does breast feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Marianne Hørby; Ott, Peter; Juul, Anders

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  10. Physiological basis for residual feed intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herd, R. M; Arthur, P. F

    2009-01-01

    ...{at}dpi.nsw.gov.au Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency that is independent of level of production, such as size and growth rate in beef cattle, and thus is a useful new trait for studying the physiological mechanisms...

  11. Robotic milking: Feeding strategies and economic returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Alex; Cabrera, Victor

    2017-02-16

    Cows in herds equipped with conventional milking parlors follow a structured, consistent, and social milking and feeding routine. Furthermore, in most cases cows in conventional herds receive all their nutrients from a total mixed ration, whereas in herds equipped with robotic or automatic milking systems (AMS) a fraction of their nutrients is provided during milking, mainly as a means to attract cows to the milking system. In this regards, AMS present both a challenge and an opportunity for feeding cows. The main challenge resides in maintaining a minimum and relatively constant milking frequency in AMS. However, milking frequency is dependent on many factors, including the social structure of the herd, the farm layout design, the type of traffic imposed to cows, the type of flooring, the health status of the cow (especially lameness, but also mastitis, metritis, among others), the stage of lactation, the parity, and the type of ration fed at the feed bunk and the concentrate offered in the AMS. Uneven milk frequency has been associated with milk losses and increased risk of mastitis, but most importantly it is a lost opportunity for milking the cow and generating profit. On the other hand, the opportunity from AMS resides in the possibility of milking more frequently and feeding cows more precisely or more closely to their nutrient needs on an individual basis, potentially resulting in a more profitable production system. But, feeding cows in the parlor or AMS has many challenges. On one side, feeding starchy, highly palatable ingredients in large amounts may upset rumen fermentation or alter feeding behavior after milking, whereas feeding high-fiber concentrates may compromise total energy intake and limit milking performance. Nevertheless, AMS (and some milking parlors, especially rotary ones) offer the possibility of feeding the cows to their estimated individual nutrient needs by combining different feeds on real time with the aim of maximizing profits rather

  12. Aspectos da reprodução e alimentação de Neoplecostomus microps (Loricariidae, Neoplecostominae na microbacia do Ribeirão Grande, serra da Mantiqueira oriental (Estado de São Paulo - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.301 Reproduction and feeding aspects of Neoplecostomus microps (Loricariidae, Neoplecostominae in the Ribeirão Grande system, eastern Serra da Mantiqueira (São Paulo State - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v30i4.301

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursulla Pereira Souza

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A microbacia do Ribeirão Grande situa-se nas vertentes da serra da Mantiqueira e está circundada pela floresta Atlântica. Foram amostrados oito locais na microbacia do Ribeirão Grande, no inverno (julho de 2001, primavera (outubro de 2001, verão (fevereiro de 2002 e outono (abril de 2002. As amostras foram coletadas com um aparelho elétrico de pesca. A maturação das gônadas, os graus de repleção do estômago e de gordura visceral foram distribuídas em um ciclo anual. Neoplecostomus micropstem período de desova que vai da primavera ao verão. O tamanho da primeira maturação gonadal para machos foi de 5,9 cm de comprimento total e de 6,9 cm para as fêmeas. O alto valor em outubro e fevereiro para a relação gonadossomática e para o fator de condição relativo coincidiram com o período de desova. Foram encontradas, na dieta de N. microps, larvas de Diptera (Simulium, Chironomus, ninfas de Plecoptera e larvas de Coleoptera aquáticas (Psephenus. O aumento da alimentação, do verão ao outono, proporcionou acúmulo de gordura visceral. Durante as estações seguintes, o peixe pode utilizar as reservas de gordura para a manutenção e reprodução. O padrão reprodutivo e o de alimentação foram interpretados como sendo adaptações em relação às variações temporais e espaciais no ambiente e na disponibilidade de alimento.The Ribeirão Grande system is located in the slope of the Serra da Mantiqueira and is surrounded by Atlantic forest. Eight sites were surveyed in the Ribeirão Grande system, during the winter (July 2001, spring (October 2001, summer (February 2002 and fall (April 2002. Samples were made with an electrofishing device. Gonad maturation, levels of stomach fullness and fat content were analyzed and their distributions reported in an annual cycle. Neoplecostomus microps has a spawning in the spring through to summer. The size at sexual maturity is about 5.9 cm total length for males and 6.9 cm for females. The

  13. Estimation of costs for control of Salmonella in high-risk feed materials and compound feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wierup

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Feed is a potential and major source for introducing Salmonella into the animal-derived food chain. This is given special attention in the European Union (EU efforts to minimize human food-borne Salmonella infections from animal-derived food. The objective of this study was to estimate the total extra cost for preventing Salmonella contamination of feed above those measures required to produce commercial feed according to EU regulation (EC No 183/2005. The study was carried out in Sweden, a country where Salmonella infections in food-producing animals from feed have largely been eliminated. Methods: On the initiative and leadership of the competent authority, the different steps of feed production associated with control of Salmonella contamination were identified. Representatives for the major feed producers operating in the Swedish market then independently estimated the annual mean costs during the years 2009 and 2010. The feed producers had no known incentives to underestimate the costs. Results and discussion: The total cost for achieving a Salmonella-safe compound feed, when such a control is established, was estimated at 1.8–2.3 € per tonne of feed. Of that cost, 25% relates to the prevention of Salmonella contaminated high-risk vegetable feed materials (mainly soybean meal and rapeseed meal from entering feed mills, and 75% for measures within the feed mills. Based on the feed formulations applied, those costs in relation to the farmers’ 2012 price for compound feed were almost equal for broilers and dairy cows (0.7%. Due to less use of protein concentrate to fatten pigs, the costs were lower (0.6%. These limited costs suggest that previous recommendations to enforce a Salmonella-negative policy for animal feed are realistic and economically feasible to prevent a dissemination of the pathogen to animal herds, their environment, and potentially to human food products.

  14. Disproportionate mosquito feeding on aggregated hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppa, Ivo M; Moore, Jerrilynn; Caillouët, Kevin A; Wesson, Dawn M

    2011-11-01

    Despite the importance of per-capita feeding rates for mosquito-borne transmission dynamics, the relationship between host aggregation and per-capita feeding rates remains poorly characterized. We conducted indoor experiments to investigate how Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) mosquitoes distribute their blood feeding on variably aggregated domestic chickens (Callus gallus domesticus L.) (one chicken vs. a flock of seven to nine birds). Mosquitoes were always more likely to feed on the larger chicken group; yet, the single chicken tended to be fed on at a higher per-capita rate. When 10 chickens were available the feeding intensity was 4.5 times higher for the single chicken compared with the flock. We conclude that more highly aggregated hosts may experience lower exposure to mosquito bites than less aggregated hosts.

  15. A epilepsia na neurocisticercose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Marques-Assis

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 131 casos de epilepsia com etiologia cisticercótica comprovada. A idade variou de 2 a 68 anos; 75 pacientes eram de sexo masculino e 56 de sexo feminino; 117 eram brancos, 10 pardos, três pretos e um amarelo. A idade de início da doença predominou na primeira década. O estudo foi feito em relação ao tipo de epilepsia, ao tempo decorrido após a primeira crise, à freqüência das crises e ao eletrencefalograma relativamente às epilepsias em geral. Investigação foi feita também em relação à cefaléia, aos achados neurológicos, liquóricos, radiológicos simples e contrastados e anátomo-patológicos. A análise dos resultados permitiu aos autores as seguintes conclusões: 1 No grupo de neurocisticercose o início da doença predominou na primeira e a partir da quarta década em relação às epilepsias em geral. 2 Dentre as manifestações clínicas predominaram as formas convulsivas da doença (61%, sendo as crises bravas-jacksonianas as menos freqüentes (4%; quando comparadas com as epilepsias em geral, verifica-se incidência menor das convulsões generalizadas na neurocisticercose. 3 Quanto ao tempo de doença, verifica-se predomínio das formas de duração mais curta (um ano ou menos na neurocisticercose. 4 A severidade da epilepsia, traduzida pela freqüência das crises, foi menor no grupo com neurocisticercose. 5 Excluídos os casos com anormalidades eletrencefalográficas contínuas, foram encontrados maiores índices percentuais de EEG normal na neurocisticercose que nas epilepsias em geral. 6 A cefaléia estava presente em 68% dos casos, assumindo caráter paroxístico na maior parte (78%; em 67% dos casos com cefaléia paroxística não havia concomitantemente sinais de hipertensão intracraniana; nos casos com cefaléia contínua, em apenas dois (13% esses sinais não estavam presentes. 7 Na maior parte dos casos (62% as manifestações epilépticas se apresentaram isoladamente, sem sinais neurol

  16. Joint estimation for curves for weight, feed intake, rate of gain, and residual feed intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    Rate of gain and feed efficiency are very important traits in most breeding programs for growing farm animals. Rate of gain (GAIN) is usually expressed over a certain age period and feed efficiency is often expressed as residual feed intake (RFI), defined as observed feed intake (FI) minus expected...... feed intake based on live weight (WGT) and GAIN. In any case the basic traits recorded are always WGT and FI and other the traits are derived from these records. A bivariate longitudinal random regression model were employed on 9284 individual longitudinal records of WGT and FI from 2827 bulls of six...

  17. Relative Bioavailability of Niacin Supplements for Dairy Cows: Effects of Rumen Protection and of Feed Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reka Tienken

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to examine the effective systemic bioavailability of niacin— with particular focus on its galenic form—and feed processing. Experiment 1 was conducted with 35 dairy cows to investigate the effects of various doses of oral supplemented nicotinic acid (NA either in differing galenic forms (non-rumen protected (nRP vs. rumen protected form (RP on serum niacin concentrations. Experiment 2 was designed as a pharmacokinetic study examining the serum niacin kinetics over 24 h after giving a single oral bolus of 24 g nRP or RP NA admixed in either pelleted or ground concentrate. In both experiments, only the niacin vitamer nicotinamide (NAM was detected. Results of experiment 1 showed that both galenic forms at a dose of 24 g/cow daily elevated NAM concentrations at the beginning of the experiment. Despite a daily supplementation, NAM concentrations decreased continuously towards the end of the experiment which was more steeply in nRP NA (p = 0.03. On experimental day 21, NAM concentrations were higher when feeding RP NA (p = 0.03 and the highest dose (24 g/day and cow (p < 0.01. Results of experiment 2 indicated that nRP and RP were characterized by similar pharmacokinetic profiles resulting in similar areas under the curves as a net result of the kinetic counterbalancing alterations. Pelleting seemed not to influence the relative bioavailability.

  18. Feeding Problems in Children with Cerebral Palsy and the Effect of Feeding Problems on Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Tarsuslu Şimşek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine of feeding problems and the effect of feeding problems on growth in children with cerebral palsy (CP. Materials and Methods: The study was included 278 children who have cerebral palsy. Socio-demographic data and clinical characteristics and feeding problems of the children were recorded. Gross motor function levels and anthropometric measurements (body weight, height, knee length, upper arm length, mid upper arm area, arm and thigh circumferences, arm and forearm length, tibia length, triceps and subscapular skin-fold thickness were taken. Results: Average age of the children was 8.50±4.49 years. 130 (46.8% of the children have had feeding problems and 148 (53.2% have had no feeding problems. Feeding problems were more in children with moderate and severe disability then mild disability (p<0.05. Most common feeding problems were difficulty in swallowing, vomiting, aspiration, difficulty in chewing, slaver and difficulty in holding of food in mouth. There was a significant different between weight, height, body weight, height, knee length, upper arm length, mid upper arm area, arm and thigh circumferences, upper extremities length (arm and forearm length, tibia length, triceps and subscapular skin-fold thickness in children who have feeding problems and have not feeding problem (p<0.05. Conclusions: Periodic anthropometric measurements is most important factors in early determine of feeding problems and feeding deficiency in children with CP and should be considered in the process of rehabilitation.

  19. Demand-feeding rhythms and feeding-entrainment of locomotor activity rhythms in tench (Tinca tinca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, M J; Pascual, M; Madrid, J A; Sánchez-Vázquez, F J

    2005-03-31

    Tench (Tinca tinca) has been described as a strictly nocturnal species whose locomotor activity rhythms, albeit strongly synchronised by light, have an endogenous nature. Aside from light, a number of other environmental factors, such as mealtime, can act as circadian system synchronisers in fish; however, there is a scarcity of information on tench feeding rhythms. This study describes daily self-feeding rhythms in tench, and analyses the role of feeding time on synchronisation of locomotor activity rhythms. Tench were able to operate string sensor-activated self-feeders, and they displayed a strictly nocturnal behavior, both under indoor and outdoor conditions. Locomotor activity remained strictly nocturnal irrespective of whether tench were fed only during the scotophase (D-feeding) or the photophase (L-feeding). However, no statistically significant differences were detected between both groups in terms of food intake or growth performance. Furthermore, unlike L-feeding, D-feeding elicited a clear anticipatory activity (FAA). When tench were given the possibility of feeding at both times of the day, they showed a clear preference for D-feeding. Finally, in fish exposed to constant darkness (DD), feeding time acted as a true zeitgeber and FAA was observed. When animals were fasted under DD conditions, locomotor activity free-run and 6 out of 12 individuals yielded significant results in the periodogram analysis. Under DD, fish resynchronised when regular food was resumed, with some tench displaying FAA. The obtained results indicated the existence of a feeding-entrainable oscillator (FEO) in tench.

  20. Material awareness on natural feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Plagens-Rotman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Natural breastfeeding is the only proper way to feed newborns and infants because it ensures their proper development. Breastfeeding enhances health and protects against the development of many diseases in childhood and adulthood. The primary benefits of breastfeeding include reduced incidences of infection in the respiratory system as well as a reduction in gastrointestinal and systemic infections. The benefits of breastfeeding also include decreased inflammation and improved immunity to disease in the infant. Further benefits of breastfeeding are reduced incidences of type 1 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and rheumatoid arthritis. objective. The aim of the study was to assess the degree of knowledge on maternal breastfeeding among current expecting mothers. materials and method. The study comprtisded 147 mothers hospitalized in the Gynecology-Obstetrics Hospital University of Medical Sciences in Poznań, Poland, during late July – August 2012. results. For 139 (93.88% of the surveyed women, breastfeeding was a priority regarding the health of the child. Respondents most often used professional literature in order to gain knowledge about breastfeeding (63.27%. The least popular way of acquiring knowledge was through the media (27.21%. conclusions. Analysis of the collected material on the surveyed women showed that women have a diverse range of knowledge about breastfeeding. Currently, breastfeeding is required to be promoted and supported by midwives, paediatricians and other health professionals.

  1. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Chen, Lei; Qi, Desheng; Zhang, Niya

    2016-06-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 2528 feed ingredient and complete feed samples were collected from central China. Numbers of 2083, 255 and 190 samples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON), respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV or fluorescence detection. The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 33.9%, 90.2% and 77.4%, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for AFB1 ranged from 13.1% to 97.1%. Cottonseed meal presented the most serious contamination by AFB1. ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 50% to 100%, indicating serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. This study demonstrates that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feeds in central China is serious and differs over the years. Feeds are mostly contaminated with ZEN, followed by DON and AFB1.

  2. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants' oral feeding skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, R J

    2015-06-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a 'self-paced' feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants' oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). 'Feeders and growers' born between 26-29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1-2 and 6-8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants' RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants' true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance.

  3. USE OF FEED YEAST IN FEEDING OF STURGEON (ACIPENSERINAE SPECIES (REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Simon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To review scientific sources on the use of feed yeast preparations in feeding of sturgeon species (Acipenserinae. Findings. The review of scientific works demonstrated that feed yeast in the feeding of sturgeons have been used as a source of vitamins and complete protein, the nutritional value of which is significantly higher than in the proteins of plant origin and are similar to the proteins of animal origin. In addition, a unit of yeast protein mass is significantly lower than in the feeds of animal origin. Moreover, based on the content of B group vitamins, feed yeast produced from the grain-potato spent wash exceed fish meal and meat-and-bone meal. The article highlights the peculiarities of the technological process of the production of different feed yeast species, amino acid and fatty acid composition of their preparations, basic physical and chemical parameters of their composition. The examples of feed yeast formulas for sturgeon species based on feed yeast preparations are presented. It was shown that sturgeon species, especially on early stages of their ontogenesis, could effectively use the feed yeast nucleotides. Thus, the latters can be an effective substitute of live zooplanktonic organisms. While the production of some feed yeast preparations (paprin, eprin was stopped in 1990s due to a number of social-economic reasons, the works on the creation of their full analogues was continued later. Currently, the trends of the development of world aquaculture anticipates the return to the use of yeast in fish feeding. Therefore, the interest of the agrarians of Ukraine in yeast lately increased and their use in agricultural sector increased by 2-2.5 times. Practical value. The array of the summarized information will be important for scientists who study the peculiarities of feeding of sturgeon species, because the data about the use of yeast as sources of complete protein in fish feeds is important in a constant search for the

  4. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  5. Gastroenteric tube feeding: Techniques, problems and solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision. PMID:25024606

  6. Gastroenteric tube feeding: techniques, problems and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenstein, Irina; Shastri, Yogesh M; Stein, Jürgen

    2014-07-14

    Gastroenteric tube feeding plays a major role in the management of patients with poor voluntary intake, chronic neurological or mechanical dysphagia or gut dysfunction, and patients who are critically ill. However, despite the benefits and widespread use of enteral tube feeding, some patients experience complications. This review aims to discuss and compare current knowledge regarding the clinical application of enteral tube feeding, together with associated complications and special aspects. We conducted an extensive literature search on PubMed, Embase and Medline using index terms relating to enteral access, enteral feeding/nutrition, tube feeding, percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy/jejunostomy, endoscopic nasoenteric tube, nasogastric tube, and refeeding syndrome. The literature showed common routes of enteral access to include nasoenteral tube, gastrostomy and jejunostomy, while complications fall into four major categories: mechanical, e.g., tube blockage or removal; gastrointestinal, e.g., diarrhea; infectious e.g., aspiration pneumonia, tube site infection; and metabolic, e.g., refeeding syndrome, hyperglycemia. Although the type and frequency of complications arising from tube feeding vary considerably according to the chosen access route, gastrointestinal complications are without doubt the most common. Complications associated with enteral tube feeding can be reduced by careful observance of guidelines, including those related to food composition, administration rate, portion size, food temperature and patient supervision.

  7. Practical Recommendations on Supplemental Feeding Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Makarova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the availability of a national consensus document describing in detail modern approaches to feeding infants, pediatricians keep on giving most diverse recommendations on the time of supplemental feeding introduction. The article presents a brief historical review, as well the modern view on the issue of introduction of supplemental feeding to children. In the previous century, it was common both in Russia and most European countries to introduce supplemental feeding to children at the age of 2 or even 1.5 months. In 2002, the World Health Organization put forward an initiative in support of breastfeeding and recommended not to introduce supplemental feeding before the age of 6 months. A certain “golden mean” has apparently been achieved on the basis of results of studies and a longterm discussion among the specialists in feeding from different countries — all scientific communities and national recommendations of most countries define the optimal age for supplemental feeding introduction as “from 4 (completed months to 6 (completed months” with certain individual approach. 

  8. Poultry offal meal in broiler chicken feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edney Pereira da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An outstanding feature of poultry production that provides animal protein yield for human feeding is its short production cycle. This characteristic has a linear relationship with waste production. Increasing the inclusion of this residue in diets in the near future is desirable in step with the growth of poultry production since it offers a better environmental and nutritional alternative to current methods. We evaluated the effects on the performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens produced by the inclusion of poultry offal meal (POM in their feed. Treatments consisted of a control diet (corn, Zea mays and soybean, Glycine max and four diets with inclusion of 30, 60, 90 and 120 g kg-1 of POM. The diets were formulated based on the level of digestible amino acid once categorized as isocalcic, isophosphoric, isosodic, isoenergetic and isonutritive for protein, methionine+cystine, lysine and threonine. The feed's electrolytes were corrected so that each diet had the same electrolytic balance. The variables analyzed were feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, body weight, carcass yield, chicken cut yield and abdominal fat. Feed intake was not affected by the quantities of POM added. The weight gain, feed conversion, carcass yield and noble cuts presented quadratic responses to the treatments. Abdominal fat increased linearly. The performance of the poultry, and carcass characteristics were maximized by the inclusion of 53 and 65 g kg-1, respectively, of POM in the diet, and the inclusion of 120 g kg-1 of POM provided greater disposition of abdominal fat.

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL FEED ADDITIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The new feed additives for animals based on milk whey, enriched with sprouting wheat, barley, maize grains and lactic-acid bacterium have been presented in this article. This study explores the possibility of combining the prebiotics ability of milk whey and sprouting grains with feed probiotic attributes of microbe to enhance gut health of animals and digestibility of the feed. Twelve variants of products were tested in the study using the microbial and physical-chemical approaches. All the assays showed high count of microorganism and high content of reducing sugar. The results of investigation indicate that selected feed additive show high quality. An additional point is that it contains useful organic acids (lactic, acetic and propionic acids and 2,1×109 colony-forming unit of probiotics microorganism that hold the concentration for 4 months. There are not yeast, must, coliform bacteria and Staphylococcus aureus in the developed functional feed product. It contributes to the normalization of the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract of animal, suppression of conditionally pathogenic and putrefactive microflora. The elaborated feed component will help to provide combined feed companies with accessible high-quality raw material

  10. Air flow exploration of abrasive feed tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shijin; Li, Xiaohong; Gu, Yilei

    2009-12-01

    An abrasive water-jet cutting process is one in which water pressure is raised to a very high pressure and forced through a very small orifice to form a very thin high speed jet beam. This thin jet beam is then directed through a chamber and then fed into a secondary nozzle, or mixing tube. During this process, a vacuum is generated in the chamber, and garnet abrasives and air are pulled into the chamber, through an abrasive feed tube, and mixes with this high speed stream of water. Because of the restrictions introduced by the abrasive feed tube geometry, a vacuum gradient is generated along the tube. Although this phenomenon has been recognized and utilized as a way to monitor nozzle condition and abrasive flowing conditions, yet, until now, conditions inside the abrasive feed line have not been completely understood. A possible reason is that conditions inside the abrasive feed line are complicated. Not only compressible flow but also multi-phase, multi-component flow has been involved in inside of abrasive feed tube. This paper explored various aspects of the vacuum creation process in both the mixing chamber and the abrasive feed tube. Based on an experimental exploration, an analytical framework is presented to allow theoretical calculations of vacuum conditions in the abrasive feed tube.

  11. Dielectric rod feed for compact range reflector

    CERN Document Server

    Balabukha, Nikolay P; Shapkina, Natalia E

    2014-01-01

    A dielectric rod feed with a special radiation pattern of a tabletop form used for the compact range reflector is developed and analyzed. Application of this feed increases the size of the compact range quiet zone generated by the reflector. The feed consists of the dielectric rod made of polystyren, the rod is inserted into the circular waveguide with a corrugated flange. The waveguide is excited by the H11-mode. The rod is covered by the textolite biconical bushing and has a fluoroplastic insert in the vicinity of the bushing. Mathematical modeling was used to obtain the parameters of the feed for the optimal tabletop form of the radiation pattern. The problem of the electromagnetic radiation was solved for metal-dielectric bodies of rotation by method of integral equations with further solving of the problem of the synthesis for feed parameters. The dielectric rod feed was fabricated for the X-frequency range. Feed amplitude and phase patterns were measured in the frequency range 8.2-12.5 GHz. Presented re...

  12. na Perua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Carvalho

    1989-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes de se caracterizar como tentativa de ensaio ou de análise a qualquer coisa, o presente artigo tem, antes de mais nada, a pretensão de se constituir uma provocação ao debate acerca da questão do esporte na escola. A provocação parte basicamente do relato da minha experiência pessoal como Secretário da Educação do Município de Aracaju, cargo que exerci no período de 1º de janeiro de 1986 a 27 de janeiro de 1987.

  13. Fractais na arquitectura

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Uma forma de inovar na simplicidade, em Arquitectura, é usar a geometria dos fractais. Uma técnica simples de iterativamente chegar a formas fantásticas e muito agradáveis de integrar no desenho de uma obra de arte: sejam edifícios, pontes, jardins, e outros. Vamos abordar o conceito essencial da geometria dos fractais e analisar exemplos da sua aplicação em edifícios e cidades. Para isso faz-se uma introdução ao tema pelos primórdios da geometria fractal referindo exemplos como o Co...

  14. A escola na internet

    OpenAIRE

    Albino, Ayrán Lavra

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. O presente trabalho pretendeu analisar o uso do suporte tecnológico do ensino a distância (computador e internet) como elemento complementar do ensino presencial. Procurou-se demonstrar, na fundamentação teórica, que as tendências pedagógicas contemporâneas e as características da tecnologia digital viabilizam esta possibilidade. Operacionalizou-se essa ...

  15. Fractais na arquitectura

    OpenAIRE

    Ganhão, Susana Maria Gouveia Rosado

    2009-01-01

    Uma forma de inovar na simplicidade, em Arquitectura, é usar a geometria dos fractais. Uma técnica simples de iterativamente chegar a formas fantásticas e muito agradáveis de integrar no desenho de uma obra de arte: sejam edifícios, pontes, jardins, e outros. Vamos abordar o conceito essencial da geometria dos fractais e analisar exemplos da sua aplicação em edifícios e cidades. Para isso faz-se uma introdução ao tema pelos primórdios da geometria fractal referindo exemplos como o Co...

  16. Report from NA49

    CERN Document Server

    Gazdzicki, M; Anticic, T; Baatar, B; Barna, D; Bartke, Jerzy; Betev, L; Bialkowska, H; Billmeier, A; Blume, C; Boimska, B; Botje, M; Bracinik, J; Bramm, R; Brun, R; Buncic, P; Cerny, V; Christakoglou, P; Chvala, O; Cramer, J G; Csató, P; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, A; Dinkelaker, P; Eckardt, V; Farantatos, G; Filip, P; Flierl, D; Fodor, Z; Foka, P Y; Freund, P; Friese, V; Gál, J; Georgopoulos, G; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Grebieszkow, K; Hegyi, S; Höhne, C; Kadija, K; Karev, A; Kliemant, M; Kniege9, S; Kolesnikov, V I; Kollegger, T; Kornas, E; Korus, R; Kowalski, M; Kraus, I; Kreps, M; Van Leeuwen, M; Lévai, Peter; Litov, L; Lungwitz, B; Makariev, M; Malakhov, A I; Markert, C; Mateev, M; Mayes, B W; Melkumov, G L; Meurer, C; Mischke, A; Mitrovski, M; Molnár, J; Mrówczynski, S; Pálla, G; Panagiotou, A D; Panayotov, D; Petridis, A; Pikna, M; Pinsky, L; Pühlhofer, F; Reid, J G; Renfordt, R E; Richard, A; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rybczynski, M; Rybicki, A; Sandoval, A; Sann, H; Schmitz, N; Seyboth, P; Siklér, F; Sitár, B; Skrzypczak, E; Stefanek, G; Stock, R; Ströbele, H; Susa, T; Szentpétery, I; Sziklai, J; Trainor, T A; Varga, D; Vassiliou, Maria; Veres, G I; Vesztergombi, G; Vranic, D; Wetzler, A; Wlodarczyk, Z; Yoo, I K; Zaranek, J; Zimányi, J

    2004-01-01

    The most recent data of NA49 on hadron production in nuclear collisions at CERN SPS energies are presented. Anomalies in the energy dependence of pion and kaon production in central Pb+Pb collisions are observed. They suggest that the onset of deconfinement is located at about 30 AGeV. Large multiplicity and transverse momentum fluctuations are measured for collisions of intermediate mass systems at 158 AGeV. The need for a new experimental programme at the CERN SPS is underlined.

  17. Effects of feeding level and access to rooting material on behaviour of growing pigs in situations with reduced feeding space and delayed feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Margit Bak; Pedersen, Lene Juul

    2010-01-01

    Seventy-two pigs, housed in groups of four, were allocated to either (1) ad libitum feeding with access to wood chip, (2) restrictive feeding with access to wood chip or (3) restrictive feeding without access to wood chip. The effects of feeding level (treatment 1 vs. 2) and access to wood chip (...

  18. CFD simulation on membrane distillation of NaCl solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhaoguang XU; Yanqiu PAN; Yalan YU

    2009-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simu-lation that coupled an established heat and mass transfer model was carried out for the air-gap membrane distillation (AGMD) of NaCl solution to predict mass and heat behaviors of the process. The effects of temperature and flowrate on fluxes were first simulated and compared with available experimental data to verify the approach. The profiles of temperature, temperature polarization factor, and mass flux adjacent to the tubular carbon membrane surface were then examined under different feed Reynolds number in the computational domain. Results show that the temperature polarization phenomena can be reduced, and mass flux can be enhanced with increase in the feed Reynolds number.

  19. Activation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase with DRm217 attenuates oxidative stress-induced myocardial cell injury via closing Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/Src/Ros amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaofei; Xun, Meng; Dou, Xiaojuan; Wu, Litao; Zhang, Fujun; Zheng, Jin

    2017-04-01

    Reduced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity has close relationship with cardiomyocyte death. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) also plays an important role in cardiac cell damage. It has been proved that Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and ROS form a feed-forward amplifier. The aim of this study was to explore whether DRm217, a proved Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase's DR-region specific monoclonal antibody and direct activator, could disrupt Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier and protect cardiac cells from ROS-induced injury. We found that DRm217 protected myocardial cells against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced cardiac cell injury and mitochondrial dysfunction. DRm217 also alleviated the effect of H2O2 on inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase cell surface expression, and Src phosphorylation. H2O2-treatment increased intracellular ROS, mitochondrial ROS and induced intracellular Ca(2+), mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. DRm217 closed Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase/ROS amplifier, alleviated Ca(2+) accumulation and finally inhibited ROS and mitochondrial ROS generation. These novel results may help us to understand the important role of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in oxidative stress and oxidative stress-related disease.

  20. Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors associated with infant feeding practices and nutritional status among children ... and practices on infant feeding, socio-demographic factors that influence choice of ... refusal by the child to breastfeed or feeding on complementary food.

  1. Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old KidsHealth > For ... help with the transition from the bottle . continue Feeding Safety Never leave your baby unattended while eating ...

  2. Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest formula more slowly, so if you're bottle-feeding, your baby may have fewer feedings than a ... pour out. Also, resist the urge to finish feeding the bottle when your baby shows those signs of being ...

  3. Dissection of Koch's residual feed intake: implications for selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aggrey, Samuel E; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2013-01-01

    For 50 yr, residual feed intake (RFI) has remained a black box even though many researchers have touted it as a more biological estimate of efficiency of feed utilization than feed conversion ratio (FCR...

  4. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...

  5. Behavioral Management of Feeding Disorders of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Alan H

    2015-01-01

    Feeding disorders, characterized by suboptimal intake and/or lack of age-appropriate eating habits, are common and may be seen in up to 45% of children. Feeding disorders are a significant concern to both the affected families and to the providers who treat them. Fortunately, there are well-established behavioral treatments which have been shown to be highly efficacious. This article provides an overview of behavioral assessment and treatment of pediatric feeding disorders, provides guidance in treatment planning, and provides information which may be useful in considering if additional psychological consultation may be beneficial.

  6. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote development of animal husbandry and veterinary.In 2009,Wu Chu(USA-China)Science&Culture Media Co.(Cranston,USA)and Anhui Wuchu Science,Technology and Culture Communication Co.,Ltd(Hefei,China)issued the journal Animal Husbandry and Feed Science(ISSN 1943-9911).The main content is basic theory and applied research about animal husbandry,veterinary,feed science and other related fields.The journal covers many research areas

  7. Effect of selection for residual feed intake on feeding behavior and daily feed intake patterns in Yorkshire swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J M; Cai, W; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between observed and predicted feed intake based on average requirements for growth and maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selection for decreased RFI on feeding behavior traits and to estimate their relationships with RFI. Three data sets from the 4th and 5th generations of a selection experiment with a line selected for reduced RFI (LRFI) and a randomly selected control line (CTRL) were analyzed. Lines were mixed in pens of 16 and evaluated for feeding behavior traits obtained from a single-space electronic feeder over a growing period of ~3 mo before ~115 kg. The following traits were evaluated as averages over the entire test period and over the first and second half of the test period: number of visits per day and hour; occupation time per day, visit, and hour; feed intake (FI) per day, visit, and hour; and FI rate per visit. Models used included fixed effects of line and feeder, covariates of on-test age and FI per day, and random effects of pen, on-test group, sire, and litter. Repeated measures models were used to analyze feeding patterns during the day. The LRFI pigs had significantly less FI per day than CTRL pigs for all 3 data sets. With adjustment for FI per day, line differences of all traits were in the same direction for all 3 data sets but differed in significance and size. Feed intake per visit and hour and visits per day and hour did not differ between lines, but the trend was for LRFI pigs to have fewer visits, in particular during peak eating times. The LRFI pigs had a greater feeding rate and less occupation time per day, visit, and hour than CTRL pigs, but this was not significant for all data sets. Correlations of RFI with FI per day and visit and visits per day were positive. Average daily gain was positively correlated with FI per day and visit and occupation time per visit but negatively correlated with visits per day

  8. Piso intertravado produzido com rejeito de sinter feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Costa

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho apresenta a viabilidade técnica do aproveitamento e da conveniência ecológica do emprego do rejeito de sinter feed,oriundo de atividades mineradoras de ferro, como agregado na produção do concreto, inicialmente para a fabricação de elementos pré-fabrica dos destinados à pavimentação, com possibilidade de expansão para outras finalidades. Inicialmente, foram realizados os seguintes ensaios de caracterização dos materiais: caracterização física, química e ambiental do rejeito, caracterização física dos demais agregados utilizadose ensaio de qualidade do rejeito quando empregado como agregado miúdo na produção de argamassas, por comparativo de resistência àcompressão das mesmas. Posteriormente, após a produção de peças para piso intertravado, em uma indústria de pré-fabricados, os mesmosforam amostrados e submetidos aos ensaios resistência à compressão, absorção e desgaste por abrasão, segundo as normas NBR 9780[33], NBR 12118 [34] e NBR 12042 [35]. Quanto aos resultados, as resistências à compressão aos 28 dias, sofreram variações entre -2,5% e -11%; quanto às absorções de água, as variações ficaram entre -14% e +3,8%; quanto à abrasão, observaram-se variações entre -80% e -62%, percentuais estes referidos sempre aos valores de referência. A grande relevância do uso do rejeito de sinter feed como agregado naprodução de concreto se refere ao desenvolvimento sustentável da indústria da construção civil. Para as indústrias mineradoras, o descarte desse rejeito de maneira produtiva significa grande vantagem na relação custo-benefício que se caracterizará pela ausência tanto das pilhas de estocagem em suas áreas quanto pela ausência de despesas com sua operacionalização.

  9. Broiler short-term feed preferences measured with SRAbox, a new feed choice procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagneau, A M; Bessonneau, D; Bouchot, C; Lescoat, P; Picard, M; Lessire, M

    2006-04-01

    Three dietary compositions and 3 methods of pellet preparation were used in different choice situations to improve our understanding of the factors perceived by broiler chickens in the physical structure of their diet. Within the same visual field, broiler chickens were offered 8 microfeeders containing different pelleted feeds that could be reached from the same position of the bird. Chickens were daily tested during 5-min tests following a 45-min period of feed withdrawal, after adaptation to individual cages and experimental feeders. Two feeds (4 microfeeders/feed in alternate positions) were weighed prior to and after the test. Behavior of the chickens was videotaped during the test to count the number of pecks given to each microfeeder. In a first experiment, 2 feeds of distinct composition were either steam or cold-pelleted. The tests of choice were repeated daily from 22 to 25 and from 35 to 38 d of age on 96 male broiler chickens. Significant preferences were measured from the first test. Similar preferences were measured when chickens received the same choice or alternating choices from one test to another. Differences of feed intake between 2 feeds during 5 min were significantly correlated to differences of number of pecks (R2 = 0.85). In most cases, preferences were established within the first minute of pecking. Steam pellets were significantly preferred to cold pellets for one feed composition but not for the other. Preferences for compositions were consistent whatever the pellet preparation and probably associated with the color of the feeds. A second experiment confirmed that 38-d-old broiler chickens seemed to prefer light colors. Short-term preferences of a chicken for a feed were rather influenced by physical characteristics of feed particles (size, color, hardness) than by the origin of raw materials. Feed pecking may change because of feed composition itself, because of its consequences on color or texture cues, or both.

  10. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.

  11. Laser na medicina: avanços na Oftalmologia

    OpenAIRE

    João Alberto Holanda de Freitas

    2007-01-01

    Entre os grandes avanços tecnológicos dos últimos anos, o laser sem dúvida ocupa lugar de destaque. Desde a construção do primeiro aparelho a laser em 1959, novas aplicações surgem continuadamente. O laser está presente de maneira marcante na pesquisa básica, na indústria e na medicina.

  12. Renal plasticity in response to feeding in the Burmese python, Python molurus bivittatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbaugh, A J; Secor, S M; Grosell, M

    2015-10-01

    Burmese pythons are sit-and-wait predators that are well adapted to go long periods without food, yet subsequently consume and digest single meals that can exceed their body weight. These large feeding events result in a dramatic alkaline tide that is compensated by a hypoventilatory response that normalizes plasma pH; however, little is known regarding how plasma HCO3(-) is lowered in the days post-feeding. The current study demonstrated that Burmese pythons contain the cellular machinery for renal acid-base compensation and actively remodel the kidney to limit HCO3(-) reabsorption in the post-feeding period. After being fed a 25% body weight meal plasma total CO2 was elevated by 1.5-fold after 1 day, but returned to control concentrations by 4 days post-feeding (d pf). Gene expression analysis was used to verify the presence of carbonic anhydrase (CA) II, IV and XIII, Na(+) H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), the Na(+) HCO3(-) co-transporter (NBC) and V-type ATPase. CA IV expression was significantly down-regulated at 3 dpf versus fasted controls. This was supported by activity analysis that showed a significant decrease in the amount of GPI-linked CA activity in isolated kidney membranes at 3 dpf versus fasted controls. In addition, V-type ATPase activity was significantly up-regulated at 3 dpf; no change in gene expression was observed. Both CA II and NHE3 expression was up-regulated at 3 dpf, which may be related to post-prandial ion balance. These results suggest that Burmese pythons actively remodel their kidney after feeding, which would in part benefit renal HCO3(-) clearance.

  13. Responsive Feeding: Strategies to Promote Healthy Mealtime Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M; Hurley, Kristen M

    2017-01-01

    Responsive feeding is a derivative of responsive parenting that has been applied to infant and young child feeding. With a theoretical basis in the reciprocal interactions between parents and children, responsive feeding is particularly relevant during complementary feeding as young children progress from an exclusively milk-based liquid diet to the family diet and self-feeding. The period of complementary feeding includes multiple developmental changes that may threaten a successful transition and lead to growth and feeding problems. In spite of high rates of global childhood underweight, stunting, overweight, and obesity, and the inclusion of responsive feeding in the World Health Organization's Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding, there have been few intervention trials of responsive feeding. The aim of this chapter is to examine how parents and young children navigate the progression in feeding, with an emphasis on complementary feeding, and to address the following topics: (1) navigating the progression of feeding development, (2) provision of responsive feeding, (3) preventing or resolving growth and feeding problems, (4) responsive feeding research, and (5) strategies to promote healthy mealtime interactions. To advance responsive feeding research and practice, clarity is needed in both measurement and intervention strategies, guided by the reciprocity between parent and child interactions inherent in the theoretical basis of responsive feeding. © 2017 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Nutritional status, complementary feeding practices and feasible ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-02-03

    Feb 3, 2012 ... and wasting, feeding patterns, water use and sanitation patterns, and identify feasible .... followed by diarrhoea (17%) and coughing (4%). Older children ..... Strategy for improved nutrition of children and women in developing ...

  15. Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) Transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Theo; Broek, van den Egon; Kittler, J.; Petrou, M.; Nixon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Fast Exact Euclidean Distance (FEED) transformation is introduced, starting from the inverse of the distance transformation. The prohibitive computational cost of a naive implementation of traditional Euclidean Distance Transformation, is tackled by three operations: restriction of both the number o

  16. How to Build an RSS 20 Feed

    CERN Document Server

    Woodman, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The little orange feed icons are everywhere on the web. From search engines to shopping sites to blogs, Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0) has become one of the hottest web technologies going. RSS 2.0 is a powerful - yet surprisingly easy - way to distributing timely content to a web-based audience. This Short Cut will give you the hands-on knowledge you need to build an RSS 2.0 feed. Along the way you'll learn not only the mechanics of building a feed, but industry-accepted best practices for creating feeds that perform well in various situations. Are you ready? Roll up your sleeves, c

  17. Technical inventions that enabled artificial infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obladen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Artificial feeding of infants, called hand-feeding, was unsafe well into the 19th century. This paper aims to identify technical innovations which made artificial feeding less dangerous. In rapid succession from 1844 to 1886, the vulcanization of rubber, production of rubber teats, cooling machines for large-scale ice production, techniques for milk pasteurization, evaporation and condensation, and packing in closed tins were invented or initiated. Remarkably, most of these inventions preceded the discovery of pathogenic bacteria. The producers of proprietary infant formula made immediate use of these innovations, whereas in the private household artificial feeding remained highly dangerous - mostly because of ignorance about bacteria and hygiene, and partly because the equipment for safe storage, transport, preparation and application of baby food was lacking.

  18. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  19. MODERN PRODUCTS FOR FEEDING PREMATURE BABIES

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. V. Surzhik

    2012-01-01

    .... Adequate feeding is one of the fundamental factors of premature babies nursing. To ensure a premature baby with all necessary components for power saving in breast milk intake, breast milk fortifiers...

  20. Premigratory feeding patterns in the American Avocet

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A study aiming to identify feeding methods of the American Avocet, characterize such method and determine the type preference and success. Relatively little is known...

  1. Food preferences during complementary feeding period among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food preferences during complementary feeding period among nursing mothers ... transition between breastfeeding and family diets being mostly implicated. ... of nursing mothers attending the immunization clinic at a secondary health care ...

  2. The feeding behaviour of the redbilled oxpecker

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1981-04-22

    Apr 22, 1981 ... Suidae and Hippopotamidae with a nearly hairless skin, this feeding method is lacking. In the Equidae and Bovini with relatively short or few hairs, it had a relatively low ..... of Saldanha Bay polluted by fish factory effluent.

  3. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  4. Hydrodynamics of Microbial Filter-Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Anders; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Dolger, Julia; Kiorboe, Thomas

    2016-11-01

    Microbial filter-feeders form an important group of plankton with significance to the aquatic food webs. While the concept of filter-feeding is straightforward, our quantitative understanding of microbial filter-feeding leaves a lot to be desired. As a model organism, we focus on the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis. We quantify the feeding flow using particle tracking, and demonstrate that hydrodynamic theory underestimates the observed clearance rate by an order of magnitude. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. To resolve the paradox we argue that D. grandis and other choanoflagellates must have so far unbeknownst morphological features. Specifically, we suggest a flagellar vane that connects the flagellum to the filter, as known in choanocytes of sponges, creating a radically different, and order of magnitude more capable, pumping mechanism. The Centre for Ocean Life is a VKR Centre of Excellence supported by the Villum Foundation.

  5. Nutrition and feeding of organic poultry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blair, Robert

    2008-01-01

    ... information on organic standards in certain countries; IFOAM and the Soil Association for their advice; and the Brill Corporation, Norcross, Georgia, USA, for the gift of the Brill Feed Formulati...

  6. Maternal feeding practices associated with food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cin Cin; Holub, Shayla C

    2012-10-01

    The current study examined the associations between children's and mother's food neophobia and parental feeding practices. Eighty-five mothers of 3- to 12-year old children (M=5.7 years; 52% girls) completed a questionnaire online about food neophobia and feeding practices. Mothers with children high in food neophobia used more restriction for health and less monitoring. Mothers with food neophobic children and mothers who were themselves food neophobic also reported that they do not make healthy foods readily available for their children. Mothers high in food neophobia also used more restriction for weight. This study is a starting point for understanding the link between neophobia and feeding practices, but future longitudinal work is needed in order to determine direction of effects. However, interventions could be created to help parents understand the importance of feeding practices for promoting children's food acceptance.

  7. Fewer Advanced Alzheimer's Patients on Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160456.html Fewer Advanced Alzheimer's Patients on Feeding Tubes Practice dropped by half ... organizations -- is declining, a new study finds. One Alzheimer's expert who reviewed the new findings was heartened ...

  8. 6. EXCLUSIVE BREAST FEEDING PRACTICE IN ZAMBIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    mother, knowledge on benefits of breast feeding and support from spouse. ... water, formula milk, cereals or porridge, vegetables and fruits. .... professionals were different from the findings of. 14 ... Health (MOH), Tropical Disease Research.

  9. About Animal Husbandry and Feed Science

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>Animal Husbandry and Feed Science is published to introduce the research achievements of animal husbandry and veterinary workers to the world,enhance their chances to participate in international academic exchange,and promote

  10. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  11. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  12. Mothers who formula feed: their practices, support needs and factors influencing their Infant feeding decision

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tarrant, R C

    2013-01-01

    The majority of mothers in Ireland provide formula milk to their infants during the initial weeks postpartum; however, data are lacking on their formula feeding practices and support needs. This prospective Dublin-based observational study, which included 450 eligible mother-term infant pairs recruited and followed up to 6 months postpartum, aimed to advance our understanding of maternal formula feeding practices, their reasons for deciding to formula feed, sources of feeding information and perceived support needs; insights into infant formula milk consumption patterns in relation to current feeding guidelines are also provided. In summary, the vast majority of infants at 6 weeks were provided with formula milk (n = 368; 81.8%). Positive maternal perceptions of formula feeding were among the most frequently reported reasons underlying mothers’ decision to formula feed (e.g. convenience, 17.3%). Potential public health concerns over the large formula milk volumes consumed by infants (mean 205ml\\/kilogram\\/day) relative to infant feeding guidelines (150ml\\/kilogram\\/day) were raised from this study. Some mothers continue to add solid foods to infant bottle feeds at 6 weeks (3.8%) and 6 months (6%), a non-recommended feeding practice posing a choking risk for infants. Crucially, this study highlights the need to provide greater support and information to mothers who decide to formula feed postpartum including practical information on sterilisation and formula reconstitution. While breastfeeding promotion and research continues to be a public health priority in Ireland, addressing the support and information needs of mothers who formula feed, an underrepresented and understudied population in the literature, also needs to be considered to ensure optimal health and safety for their infants.

  13. Na Cauda do Cometa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Quando viam um cometa, os antigos gregos imaginavam uma estrela com uma vasta cabeleira. Não à toa, a palavra deriva do termo koma, que significa cabelo. Constituídos por fragmentos de gelo e gases, os cometas possuem um núcleo sólido, que pode ter vários quilômetros de diâmetro, e uma cauda que sempre aponta na direção contrária ao Sol, devido aos ventos solares. Graças à aparência de pontos luminosos em movimento (ao contrário de outros astros, que parecem estáticos), esses corpos celestes foram interpretados por diferentes povos com muito misticismo, inspirando mitos tanto de boas-novas como de maus presságios. Conheça algumas dessas histórias:

  14. O real na psicose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Castejón Herrmann

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo discute a noção de real na psicose, a partir das formulações de Lacan sobre o tema, presentes no Seminário 3 - As Psicoses, no Seminário 20 - Mais, Ainda e no texto Televisão. Considerando-se que a concepção de real tem uma indicação clínica, a hipótese que se formula é a de que a noção de real trabalhada no Seminário 20, Mais, Ainda representa uma continuidade da concepção de real desenvolvida no Seminário 3, As Psicoses

  15. NA48 prototype calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This is a calorimeter, a detector which measures the energy of particles. When in use, it is filled with liquid krypton at -152°C. Electrons and photons passing through interact with the krypton, creating a shower of charged particles which are collected on the copper ribbons. The ribbons are aligned to an accuracy of a tenth of a millimetre. The folding at each end allows them to be kept absolutely flat. Each shower of particles also creates a signal in scintillating material embedded in the support disks. These flashes of light are transmitted to electronics by the optical fibres along the side of the detector. They give the time at which the interaction occurred. The photo shows the calorimeter at NA48, a CERN experiment which is trying to understand the lack of anti-matter in the Universe today.

  16. Leadeship: na effective relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Sergio Roberto Guimarães Pantoja

    2005-01-01

    Resumo: O presente trabalho tem por objetivo analisar a eficácia da liderança em três instituições de ensino superior em São Luís -MA, sendo a instituição A (particular), a B (pública federal) e a C (pública estadual). Adotou-se os estilos de liderança: democrático, autocrático e liberal, baseando-se na Teoria dos Estilos de Kurt Lewin e seus colaboradores e nas qualidades de liderança (objetividade, compreensão dos outros, flexibilidade, comunicação e autoridade), definidas por Uris A.(196...

  17. Raytracing na GPU

    OpenAIRE

    Straňák, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Raytracing je základnou technikou pro vizualizaci trojrozměrných objektů. Cílem práce je demonstrovat možnost implementace sledovaní paprsků pomocí grafického akcelerátoru.  Popíšem základní algoritmus a jeho modifikovanou verzi, která byla implementována pomocí jazyka CUDA C. Výsledný raytracer je optimalizovaný pro dynamické scény. Pro tento účel byla použita akcelerační struktura KD strom, hierarchické obalové tělesa a přenos dat pomocí PBO. Pro realističtější výstupy byla také implementov...

  18. Comprometimento pulmonar na leptospirose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Eduardo Manhães de Carvalho

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available Em 23 pacientes com leptospirose apresentando comprometimento pulmonar, internados no Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro da XJFF, Niterói, hemoptise e hemoptóicos foram observados em 21,7% e 30,4%, respectivajnente. Gasometria arterial revelou hipoxemia e hipocapnia na maioria dos casos. Radiografia de tórax em 15 pacientes mostrou comprometimento alveolar em 60%, comprometimento intersticial-reticular em 6%, padrão misto (alveolar e intersticial em20%e ausência de alterações radiológicas em 14%. A necrópsiade 13 pacientes mostrou edema, congestão e hemorragia nos pulmões em 100% dos casos. A hemorragia foi focal em 46% e difusa em 54% dos casos. Houve formação de membrana hialina em 30% e trombos de fibrina em 46% dos pulmões estudados, o que estabelece o diagnóstico da coagulação intravascular disseminada e a ocorrência da síndrome de angústia respiratória na leptospirose.Tostudy thepulmonary complications in leptospirosis case records of 23 such patients admitted at the Hospital Universitário Antônio Pedro, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niterói, Brasil, were reviewed. Hemoptysis were seen in 21.7% and sputal blood in 30.4% of patients. Arterial gasometry detected hypoxemia and hypocapnia in most cases. Thoracic radiology showed an alveolar pattern in 60% of the patients, alveolo-interstitial in 20%, interstitial in 6%, and in 14% the lungs were considered to be normal Necropsy of 13 cases showed edema, congestion and hemorrhage in the lungs in all cases. Hyaline membrane was found in 30% and fibrin thrombi in 46% of these cases, resulting in a diagnosis of adult respiratory distress syndrome and acute disseminated intravascular coagulation (consumption coagulopathy in leptospirosis.

  19. A Limited Survey of Aflatoxins and Zearalenone in Feed and Feed Ingredients from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Nisar, Sonia; Zia, Khalid Mahmood; Jinap, Selamat; Malik, Noeen

    2016-10-01

    This work presents current information on the presence of aflatoxins (AFs) and zearalenone (ZEN) in feed and feed ingredients from Punjab, Pakistan. The 105 samples tested were concentrated feed, i.e., cotton seed meal (18 samples) and soybean meal (14), and feed ingredients, i.e., crushed corn (17), crushed wheat (15), barley (17). and poultry feed (24). Samples were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with a fluorescence detector. Analysis revealed that 69 of 105 samples were contaminated with AFs, and the highest mean concentrations of AFB1 (6.20 μg/kg) and total AFs (9.30 μg/kg) were found in poultry feed samples. The mean total AF concentrations ranged from the limit of quantification to 165.5 μg/kg. However, 75 of the 105 samples were positive for ZEN. The highest mean concentration (19.45 μg/kg) was found in poultry feed samples. The mean ZEN concentrations were 0.15 to 145.30 μg/kg. The prevalence of AFs and ZEN was high in feed and feed ingredients and needs urgent attention.

  20. Patterns of synchrony for feed-forward and auto-regulation feed-forward neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Manuela A D; Dias, Ana Paula S; Ferreira, Flora

    2017-01-01

    We consider feed-forward and auto-regulation feed-forward neural (weighted) coupled cell networks. In feed-forward neural networks, cells are arranged in layers such that the cells of the first layer have empty input set and cells of each other layer receive only inputs from cells of the previous layer. An auto-regulation feed-forward neural coupled cell network is a feed-forward neural network where additionally some cells of the first layer have auto-regulation, that is, they have a self-loop. Given a network structure, a robust pattern of synchrony is a space defined in terms of equalities of cell coordinates that is flow-invariant for any coupled cell system (with additive input structure) associated with the network. In this paper, we describe the robust patterns of synchrony for feed-forward and auto-regulation feed-forward neural networks. Regarding feed-forward neural networks, we show that only cells in the same layer can synchronize. On the other hand, in the presence of auto-regulation, we prove that cells in different layers can synchronize in a robust way and we give a characterization of the possible patterns of synchrony that can occur for auto-regulation feed-forward neural networks.

  1. Improving aquaculture feed in Bangladesh: From feed ingredients to farmer profit to safe consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Mamun-Ur-Rashid, M.; Belton, B.; Phillips, M; Rosentrater, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Use of manufactured feeds in aquaculture in Bangladesh has grown rapidly over the last five years. More than 1 million tonnes of commercially formulated feeds and 0.3-0.4 million tonnes of farm-made feeds were produced in 2012, and sectoral growth is projected to increase substantially over the medium term. This working paper summarizes findings from a study, conducted as part of the WorldFish/USAID “Feed the Future-Aquaculture†project in 2012, assessing the current status of the aquacult...

  2. Feed Assist”- An Expert System on Balanced Feeding for Dairy Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.B Angadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Inadequate feeding is the major factor for low livestock productivity in India. In dairying, feed cost is a major input and feeding practices has to be improved to ensure profits. Still the small scale farmers are following traditional feeding practices and fail to address the complexities involved in ration formulation. To address the complexities in ration balancing based on the nutrient requirements for different categories of livestock, nutrient composition of wide range of feed resources and the cost - a number of expert systems have been developed. However existing expert systems have not been widely used by majority of small farmers due to lack of awareness, access and basic skills required to operate. To address these limitations, “Feed Assist” a farmer friendly expert system for balanced feeding of dairy animals at least cost has been developed using linear programming. “Feed Assist” does not require much expertise to operate and enables the farmers to formulate least cost rations for different categories of livestock using locally available feed resources.

  3. A ENGENHARIA NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pelizzer Casara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Este projeto teve por objetivo principal mostrar às jovens do ensino médio, como as áreas de exatas e de engenharia podem estar inseridas em situações rotineiras por elas vivenciadas e incentivá-las para ingressarem nessas áreas. O projeto foi executado na escola de ensino Médio Nelson Horostecki na cidade de Chapecó, Santa Catarina. Mostrou-se de forma simples que as áreas de exatas e de engenharia têm aplicações práticas nas nossas vidas. No desenvolvimento do projeto, realizaram-se oficinas na escola cujo tema principal abordado foi o processo de fabricação do chocolate, visto que o mesmo é um produto muito apreciado pelas adolescentes. Dentro dessa temática, foram trabalhadas as questões que envolvem conhecimentos das áreas de exatas e de engenharia, mais especificamente a Engenharia Ambiental. O projeto auxiliou na formação cidadã e também na escolha profissional das meninas. Muitas das alunas participantes nunca haviam tido contato direto com alunos graduandos de cursos na área das exatas. Mais ainda, este projeto oportunizou a aproximação da universidade com a comunidade externa. Palavras-chave: Extensão Universitária, Ciências Exatas e Engenharia, Chocolate, Oficinas.   Engineering in the school Abstract: The main objective of this project was to show high school female students how the exact sciences and engineering can be included in their routine situations encouraging them to entering in these areas. The project was carried out at the Nelson Horostecki High School in Chapecó, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. It was showed in a simple manner how exact sciences and engineering have practical applications in our lives. Workshops were conducted in the school during the execution of the project in which the main subject was the chocolate manufacturing process, since chocolate is a product greatly appreciated by the young female people. Within this matter, the activities were performed using the knowledge of

  4. Aspectos psicobiológicos do comportamento alimentar Psychobiological aspects of feeding behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Passos Beinner Cambraia

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta revisão aborda alguns aspectos psicobiológicos ligados à manifestação do comportamento alimentar, e tem como objetivo evidenciar a relação entre os principais processos neuropsicológicos e a neurociência nutricional. Algumas estruturas neurais estão associadas ao controle alimentar por mecanismos distintos e correlatos que ocorrem no hipotálamo, hipocampo e em outras áreas como no cerebelo, bulbo olfatório, glândulas pituitária e pineal que exercem funções distintas, porém influênciam o comportamento alimentar, intermediadas geralmente por neurotransmissores comuns. Os precursores dos neuroquímicos apresentam funções específicas, sendo a influência na alimentação relevante no contexto comportamental da escolha de alimentos. Os processos sensoriais na alimentação como paladar, olfato, visão e audição interagem entre si e com outras estruturas e vias neurais, participando também do controle do apetite e da saciedade, que culminam na iniciação e no término da alimentação. A interação entre aspectos neurais no processo de consumo de alimento promove a manifestação do comportamento alimentar específico para cada espécie em seu ambiente.This review shows how some psychobiological aspects are related to feeding behavior manifestation, and has as it objective to provide evidence as to the relation between neuropsychological processes and nutritional neuroscience. Several neural structures are associated with alimentary controls, which are distinct but correlated mechanisms; for example: hypothalamus, hypocampus, cerebellum, olfactory bulb, pituitary and pineal glands, all presenting distinct functions, but affecting feeding behavior directly or indirectly through common neurotransmitters. Neurochemical precursors present specific functions and their influence on feeding is evident in behavioral food selection. The sensory processes in feeding, principally taste, olfaction, vision and hearing, interact with

  5. Forest residues in cattle feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Elzeário Castelo Branco Iapichini

    2012-12-01

    amount of 1% over the live weight + 10% of intake. The results of the first phase of the research, for steers supplemented in pasture, showed good acceptability and consumption in the three levels of substitution, with an average of 3.0 kg of concentrate per head. No rejection was observed for consumption of the mixture, as well as any physiological negative / change and clinical levels tested The pine cone (strobilus without the pine nuts (seeds was obtained as a residue of genetically improved seed collection. Likely source of tannins and fiber, dried and triturated pine cones can contribute to lower production costs due to the substitution of an ingredient in feed formulation, as an aid in control of internal parasites and also in the possible mitigation of methane gas production, resulting from digestion of ruminants, one of the gases responsible for the greenhouse effect. The potential use of pine cone as an ingredient in replacement of roughage and concentrate in the diet of ruminants qualifies as a new source of revenue in pine forestry activity, since no such product currently has no commercial value timber and its accumulation along the dried leaves among the trees, increase the risk of forest fires. Finally, these technological and social innovations result in remarkable potential to leverage Regional Programs Sustainable Development.

  6. Reciprocating Feed System Development Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trewek, Mary (Technical Monitor); Blackmon, James B.; Eddleman, David E.

    2005-01-01

    The reciprocating feed system (RFS) is an alternative means of providing high pressure propellant flow at low cost and system mass, with high fail-operational reliability. The RFS functions by storing the liquid propellants in large, low-pressure tanks and then expelling each propellant through two or three small, high-pressure tanks. Each RFS tank is sequentially filled, pressurized, expelled, vented, and refilled so as to provide a constant, or variable, mass flow rate to the engine. This type of system is much lighter than a conventional pressure fed system in part due to the greatly reduced amount of inert tank weight. The delivered payload for an RFS is superior to that of conventional pressure fed systems for conditions of high total impulse and it is competitive with turbopump systems, up to approximately 2000 psi. An advanced version of the RFS uses autogenous pressurization and thrust augmentation to achieve higher performance. In this version, the pressurization gases are combusted in a small engine, thus making the pressurization system, in effect, part of the propulsion system. The RFS appears to be much less expensive than a turbopump system, due to reduced research and development cost and hardware cost, since it is basically composed of small high- pressure tanks, a pressurization system, and control valves. A major benefit is the high reliability fail-operational mode; in the event of a failure in one of the three tank-systems, it can operate on the two remaining tanks. Other benefits include variable pressure and flow rates, ease of engine restart in micro-gravity, and enhanced propellant acquisition and control under adverse acceleration conditions. We present a system mass analysis tool that accepts user inputs for various design and mission parameters and calculates such output values payload and vehicle weights for the conventional pressure fed system, the RFS, the Autogenous Pressurization Thrust Augmentation (APTA) RFS, and turbopump systems

  7. Tolerance and safety evaluation of N,N-dimethylglycine, a naturally occurring organic compound, as a feed additive in broiler diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Isabelle D; Verstegen, Martin W A; Maenner, Klaus; Zentek, Jurgen; Meulemans, Godelieve; Janssens, Geert P J

    2012-06-01

    N,N-Dimethylglycine (DMG) is a tertiary amino acid that naturally occurs as an intermediate metabolite in choline-to-glycine metabolism. The objective of the present trial was to evaluate tolerance, safety and bioaccumulation of dietary DMG in broilers when supplemented at 1 g and 10 g Na-DMG/kg. A feeding trial was conducted using 480 1-d-old broiler chicks that were randomly allocated to twenty-four pens and fed one of three test diets added with 0, 1 or 10 g Na-DMG/kg during a 39 d growth period. Production performance was recorded to assess tolerance and efficacy of the supplement. At the end of the trial, toxicity was evaluated by means of haematology, plasma biochemistry and histopathology of liver, kidney and heart (n 12), whereas bioaccumulation was assessed on breast meat, liver, blood, kidney and adipose tissue (n 8). Carcass traits were similar between the control and 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed groups (P>0·05), but the feed:gain ratio was significantly improved at 1 g Na-DMG/kg feed compared with the control or the 10-fold dose (P=0·008). Histological examinations showed no pathological effects and results of haematology and plasma biochemistry revealed similar values between the test groups (P>0·05). Bioaccumulation occurred at the 10-fold dose, but the resulting DMG content in breast meat was comparable with, for instance, wheat bran and much lower than uncooked spinach. In conclusion, DMG at 1 g Na-DMG/kg improved the feed:gain ratio in broilers without DMG being accumulated in consumer parts. Furthermore, dietary supplementation with DMG up to 10 g Na-DMG/kg did not induce toxicity or impaired performance in broilers.

  8. A comparative study of cultural methods for the detection of Salmonella in feed and feed ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haggblom Per

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Animal feed as a source of infection to food producing animals is much debated. In order to increase our present knowledge about possible feed transmission it is important to know that the present isolation methods for Salmonella are reliable also for feed materials. In a comparative study the ability of the standard method used for isolation of Salmonella in feed in the Nordic countries, the NMKL71 method (Nordic Committee on Food Analysis was compared to the Modified Semisolid Rappaport Vassiliadis method (MSRV and the international standard method (EN ISO 6579:2002. Five different feed materials were investigated, namely wheat grain, soybean meal, rape seed meal, palm kernel meal, pellets of pig feed and also scrapings from a feed mill elevator. Four different levels of the Salmonella serotypes S. Typhimurium, S. Cubana and S. Yoruba were added to each feed material, respectively. For all methods pre-enrichment in Buffered Peptone Water (BPW were carried out followed by enrichments in the different selective media and finally plating on selective agar media. Results The results obtained with all three methods showed no differences in detection levels, with an accuracy and sensitivity of 65% and 56%, respectively. However, Müller-Kauffmann tetrathionate-novobiocin broth (MKTTn, performed less well due to many false-negative results on Brilliant Green agar (BGA plates. Compared to other feed materials palm kernel meal showed a higher detection level with all serotypes and methods tested. Conclusion The results of this study showed that the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the investigated cultural methods were equivalent. However, the detection levels for different feed and feed ingredients varied considerably.

  9. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7–10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. Results: A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Conclusions: Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus

  10. Low-income mothers' feeding goals predict observed home mealtime and child feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, M H; Miller, A L; Appugliese, D P; Kaciroti, N; Rosenblum, K L; Lumeng, J C

    2016-11-01

    Mothers' goals are important for health behavior change, and engagement in child obesity interventions. It is unknown if maternal feeding goals are associated with observed home mealtime or feeding practices. The objective of this study was to examine the association of four common feeding goals (restrict junk food, promote fruit or vegetable intake, promote autonomy in eating and prevent obesity) with mothers' observed home mealtime and feeding practices. Low-income mothers (N = 265) of children (mean child age 70.8 months) participated in a semi-structured interview about child feeding. A coding scheme was developed and reliably applied to identify mothers' feeding goals from transcripts. Mothers' observed home mealtime and feeding practices were reliably coded from home mealtimes and a laboratory eating protocol. Mothers completed a questionnaire and reported demographics. Participant weights and heights were obtained. Regression models were used to test the association of each feeding goal with observed maternal practices, controlling for covariates. The goal of restricting junk food was associated with the child always eating at a table (OR 2.87, 95% CI (1.39-5.96) p = 0.005), but not with the mother restricting junk food. The goal of promoting fruit or vegetable intake was associated with observationally promoting vegetables (OR 1.41, 95% CI (1.09-1.84), p = 0.01). The goals of promoting autonomy and preventing obesity were not associated with any observed maternal home mealtime or feeding practices. While mothers' goals to restrict junk food and promote fruit or vegetable intake were associated with observed home mealtime and feeding practices, promoting autonomy and preventing obesity were not. Increased understanding of why low-income mothers may not translate certain feeding goals into practices may inform childhood obesity interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. 46 CFR 56.50-30 - Boiler feed piping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler feed piping. 56.50-30 Section 56.50-30 Shipping... APPURTENANCES Design Requirements Pertaining to Specific Systems § 56.50-30 Boiler feed piping. (a) General... least two separate means of supplying feed water for the boilers. All feed pumps shall be fitted...

  12. Mechanisms for Nitrogen Oxide Formation during Ensiling of Dairy Feeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silage (ensiled feed), as a dairy’s greatest operational cost, is its most critical feed commodity. Ensiling is the process of converting entire harvested feed plants such as corn, sorghum, or alfalfa into fermented, stable anaerobic animal feed (i.e., silage). The continued use...

  13. Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Print A ... calories. Your toddler will continue to explore self-feeding, first with fingers and then with utensils at ...

  14. Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old KidsHealth > For Parents > Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Print A ... 3-month-old baby? As your infant grows, feeding will change. Babies move toward consuming more milk ...

  15. The Role of Parental Emotions in the Context of Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research regarding the effect of parental feeding on young children has focused on specific feeding practices. The systematic measurement of broader feeding styles has been neglected. Similar to general parenting styles, feeding styles can be described in terms of what parents do during parent-chi...

  16. Assessment and Intervention for Young Children with Nonphysiological Feeding Concerns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, Melissa

    2004-01-01

    Among families who have young children, feeding concerns are quite common (Brazelton, 1992). Feeding concerns can include, but are not limited to, inappropriate mealtime behaviors, lack of self-feeding, food selectivity, and food refusal (Kerwin, 1999). Given the complex nature of assessment of and intervention for feeding concerns in young…

  17. Feeding and welfare of domestic animals: A Darwinistic framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2006-01-01

    This chapter explores the natural feeding behaviour, domestic feeding, behavioural problems related to feeding in captivity and welfare of domestic animals, particularly cattle, horse and chicken. The solutions for feeding problems and poor welfare are discussed. The concept of environment of evolut

  18. Valores na escola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menin Maria Suzana De Stefano

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste texto pretende-se discorrer sobre valores morais na escola e suas implicações para a formação de professores. Para tanto discutir-se-á, em primeiro lugar, e brevemente, o que são valores morais, ou éticos, e como a escola pode situar-se em relação a eles. Em seguida, serão relatadas algumas observações a respeito de valores de professores e práticas daí decorrentes. São comentados resultados de pesquisa que ilustram a transmissão de valores de forma doutrinal e a educação moral e cívica tal como realizada na ditadura militar, e, por outro lado, a posição relativista e/ou de laissez-faire que certas escolas podem adotar, metodologicamente, sobre a educação em valores. Finalmente, defender-se-á a idéia de que é necessária uma discussão sobre valores pelos diversos membros da escola e uma opção por uma metodologia para ensiná-los, seja os professores, em sua formação inicial e continuada, seja os alunos. A teoria de desenvolvimento moral de Jean Piaget será apresentada como uma referência possível para a educação em valores. Exemplos de situações escolares de conflito de valores entre direção, pais e alunos são discutidas para ilustrar como uma escola pode adotar um procedimento democrático de educação em valores, que se apresenta como um terceiro caminho possível de educação moral nas escolas, além das posições doutrinárias ou relativistas.

  19. Economy in the feeding of infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, E; Delaney, J; Dwyer, J T

    1977-02-01

    The food costs of various infant feeds were examined with focus on how these vary and the cost differences between different feeding patterns in the 1st year of life. The objectives were: 1) to compare prices for branded commercial milk-based products with other types of formulas and breast milk, and with each other according to source of supply, 2) to compare prices of different sources of Beikost (foods other than milk or formulas) used in feeding babies and how these vary by form (home made versus various types of commercially prepared products) and among brands, 3) to review total annual costs of 5 different hypothetical feeding patterns and actual patterns; and 4) to summarize factors other than price which may be significant in the economics and efficiency of infant feeding. National price survey data on a large number of commercial products from several companies producing food for infants were made available for this study. In addition, during June 1976 price surveys were conducted in several large supermarkets, small grocery stores, and drugstores in the Boston area to furnish information on local price differentials. The least expensive acceptable food for an infant was found to be a home made evaporated milk formula. While food costs were quite low, the formula must be prepared, and preparation time was slightly longer than it was with pre-mixed products. Whole milk was the most inexpensive milk-based feed but was undesirable for infant feeding, at least in the early months of life. On a moderate cost diet which supplies the extra nutrients required for lactation primarily from animal resources, lactation ranked in the middle from the standpoint of food cost. The various commercial milk-based feeds were nearly twice the cost of evaporated milk formulas. Concentrated formulas were least expensive, followed by powdered, with ready-to-feed products being the most expensive. Costs of breast feeding for a year ranged from $156 to $281, depending on the diet

  20. Thermodynamic analysis of multicomponent distillation columns: identifying optimal feed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L.O. Maia

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology for the optimisation of feed conditions as well as the calculation of minimum reflux ratio of distillation columns is presented. The reversible profile approach used for saturated liquid feeds is extended to consider other feed conditions. For flashed feed, the liquid fraction of the feed stream is used to compute the column pinch conditions and the minimum reflux ratio. The modifications required for subcooled liquid and superheated vapor feed are discussed, and a procedure to estimate the minimum reflux for those conditions is proposed. The methodology presented allows the identification of the optimal feed condition, without having to resort to a full stage-by-stage procedure.

  1. Feeding through artificial membranes reduces fecundity for females of the blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, R Gary; Chiang, Jennifer A

    2010-06-01

    The blood-feeding insect, Rhodnius prolixus, has been raised in the laboratory for close to 100 years. Various feeding techniques have been employed ranging from the use of warm-blooded hosts, to the use of previously collected blood offered through artificial membranes. This study compared the fecundity in mated and unmated females fed rabbit blood directly from the shaved belly of a rabbit to that of females fed defibrinated rabbit blood through an artificial membrane. These results confirm previous reports that this insect's feeding efficacy is reduced using an artificial membrane. It also demonstrates for the first time that the fecundity index, which measures the efficiency of turning the blood meal into eggs, is significantly reduced. We suggest that the natural feeding on a warm-blooded host may provide cues that have the short-term effect of enhancing the act of feeding and the long-term effect of increasing egg production efficiency. Until an artificial feeding method that does not interfere with feeding and fecundity is devised, experiments on reproduction in R. prolixus warrant the use of a warm-blooded host to emulate feeding in its natural setting.

  2. Perceiving the algae: How feeding-current feeding copepods detect their nonmotile prey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Feeding-current feeding copepods detect and capture prey individually, but the mechanism by which nonmotile prey is detected has been unclear. Early reports that copepods detect phytoplankton prey at distances of one body length or more led to the hypothesis that solutes leaking from the prey wou...

  3. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.; Canibe, N.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond...

  4. Estimating feed efficiency of lactating dairy cattle using residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising feed costs and ever increasing concerns about the negative impacts of agriculture and animal production on the environment have made the improvement of feed efficiency of all livestock species a high-priority area of agricultural research. Improving production efficiency of lactating dairy ca...

  5. Effect of limit feeding and genomic residual feed intake on bred dairy heifer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI) offered diets for ad-libitum intake or limit-fed. Post-bred Holstein heifers (128, ages 14-20 months), were blocked by initi...

  6. Feeding difficulties in neonates following cardiac surgery: determinants of prolonged feeding-tube use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKean, Elissa B; Kasparian, Nadine A; Batra, Shweta; Sholler, Gary F; Winlaw, David S; Dalby-Payne, Jacqueline

    2017-08-01

    Aim The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and potential correlates of feeding difficulties in infants who underwent cardiac surgery in the neonatal period and to investigate resource utilisation by infants with feeding difficulties. All neonates who underwent their first cardiac surgery at the Heart Centre for Children, The Children's Hospital at Westmead, between January and December, 2009 were included. Demographic, preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative data were collected via electronic medical records. For the purpose of this study, feeding difficulty was defined as the requirement for ongoing tube feeding at the time of discharge home or transfer to another hospital. Out of a total of 79 neonates, 24 (30%) were discharged home or transferred to another hospital with a feeding tube. Feeding difficulties were associated with the presence of a genetic syndrome (pcardiac clinical nurse consultants (M=1.2, SD=1.4) compared with those without feeding difficulties. This study identified factors that can be used in the early recognition of infant feeding difficulties, to help guide the direction of limited health resources, as well as being focal points for future research and clinical practice improvement.

  7. Local enhancement promotes cockroach feeding aggregations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Lihoreau

    Full Text Available Communication and learning from each other are part of the success of animal societies. Social insects invest considerable effort into signalling to their nestmates the locations of the most profitable resources in their environment. Growing evidence also indicates that insects glean such information through cues inadvertently provided by their conspecifics. Here, we investigate social information use in the foraging decisions by gregarious cockroaches (Blattella germanica L.. Individual cockroaches given a simultaneous choice in a Y-olfactometer between the odour of feeding conspecifics and the mixed odour of food plus non-feeding conspecifics showed a preference for the arm scented with the odour of feeding conspecifics. Social information (the presence of feeding conspecifics was produced by cockroaches of all age classes and perceived at short distance in the olfactometer arms, suggesting the use of inadvertently provided cues rather than signals. We discuss the nature of these cues and the role of local enhancement (the selection of a location based on cues associated with the presence of conspecifics in the formation of feeding aggregations in B. germanica. Similar cue-mediated recruitments could underpin a wide range of collective behaviours in group-living insects.

  8. Mercury-contaminated sediments affect amphipod feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Seitz, Frank; Newman, Michael C; Schulz, Ralf

    2011-04-01

    A 125-mile reach of the South River, Virginia, was contaminated with mercury during the first half of the 20th century. As increased concentrations of mercury have persisted, researchers have carefully studied its distribution in the river biota and estimated associated risks. The present study evaluated the influence of mercury on feeding rate and uptake by the amphipod Hyalella azteca. The test organisms were exposed for 7 days with leaf discs to reference and contaminated field sediment during the preliminary experiment and additionally to Sedimite (a commercial mercury-sequestering agent) amended sediments during the final experiment. The preliminary experiment demonstrated a decreased feeding rate (approximately 35%) of H. azteca in sediment from a contaminated site relative to sediment from a reference site. The test design of the final experiment took advantage of the knowledge gained in the preliminary experiment by increasing the number of replicates, which decreased the type II error rate. First, the results of the final experiment confirmed the results of the preliminary experiment by again demonstrating differences in the feeding rate of approximately 35% between reference and contaminated sediment. Second, the results indicated a lower feeding rate in reference sediment in the presence of Sedimite. Third, an opposite tendency, although not significant, was apparent for Sedimite-amended contaminated sediment. Thus, Sedimite appears to decrease sediment quality, whereas this conclusion is based on the feeding rate of H. azteca. However, Sedimite and its value as a mercury-sequestering agent requires further evaluation.

  9. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R

    2001-06-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  10. Solar Powered Automatic Shrimp Feeding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dindo T. Ani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available - Automatic system has brought many revolutions in the existing technologies. One among the technologies, which has greater developments, is the solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. For instance, the solar power which is a renewable energy can be an alternative solution to energy crisis and basically reducing man power by using it in an automatic manner. The researchers believe an automatic shrimp feeding system may help solve problems on manual feeding operations. The project study aimed to design and develop a solar powered automatic shrimp feeding system. It specifically sought to prepare the design specifications of the project, to determine the methods of fabrication and assembly, and to test the response time of the automatic shrimp feeding system. The researchers designed and developed an automatic system which utilizes a 10 hour timer to be set in intervals preferred by the user and will undergo a continuous process. The magnetic contactor acts as a switch connected to the 10 hour timer which controls the activation or termination of electrical loads and powered by means of a solar panel outputting electrical power, and a rechargeable battery in electrical communication with the solar panel for storing the power. By undergoing through series of testing, the components of the modified system were proven functional and were operating within the desired output. It was recommended that the timer to be used should be tested to avoid malfunction and achieve the fully automatic system and that the system may be improved to handle changes in scope of the project.

  11. A CORPOREIDADE NA ESCOLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Xavier Bonorino Figueiredo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Com este estudo, visa-se a investigar como a escola tem construído um corporeidade para a submissão dos estudantes ao sistema de dominação vigente. Propõe-se, também, a descobrir a corporeidade expressa nas brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos das crianças. Realizaram-se observações do espaço escolar de uma sala de aula durante um ano letivo, bem como duas entrevistas com cada uma das crianças de uma turma de 1ª série do 1º grau, em uma escola pública de periferia. Constatou-se que a escola, através de uma série de normas, explícitas ou implícitas, vai construindo uma corporeidade baseada no individualismo, na massificação e nos privilégios de uma minoria. A análise das brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos infantis revelou que estes veiculam valores contrários àqueles impostos pela escola. Em vista disso, elaborou-se uma proposta incipiente de trabalho corporal que tenha nas brincadeiras, jogos e desenhos das crianças o seu ponto de partida para uma práxis transformadora.

  12. O SUBLIME NA MODERNIDADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha de Almeida

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available A obra Uma investigação filosófica sobre a origem de nossas idéias do sublime e dobelo, do sensualista inglês Edmund Burke (1757, data as origens do sublime na Modernidade. Nosublime ocorre é um prazer ligado à dor, um "horror delicioso" que sentimos quando acreditamosque estamos em perigo sem que isso esteja ocorrendo realmente. Em O mundo como Vontade erepresentação Schopenhauer assume as influências que sofreu de Kant no que diz respeito à suainterpretação sobre o belo e o sublime, porém difere dele quanto à natureza dessa impressão. ParaSchopenhauer a experiência estética pressupõe a dissolução da subjetividade num movimento decontemplação das idéias livre do querer imposto pela vontade individual. As idéias deSchopenhauer influenciaram a estética do Nietzsche de O nascimento da tragédia.

  13. A aposta na filosofia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Suzuki

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Para Hume, filosofar é uma atividade semelhante às demais ocupações humanas. A decisão que leva à atividade filosófica é menos resultado de uma argumentação teórica do que fruto de um cálculo prático, que é entendido como uma caça ou um jogo. O objetivo deste trabalho será o de mostrar que no jogo filosófico perde quem joga sério demais. A aposta na filosofia tem que passar pelo bom humor e pela diversão: uma resposta a Pascal?For Hume, philosophy is in itself neither more nor less important than other human activities. On the contrary, it can be explained from its resemblance with game and hunting. If one chooses to dedicate himself to philosophy, his decision is not the consequence of logical reasoning, but depends on practical evaluation, which has something to do with gambling. The following text tries to show that in philosophy, like in other games, the loser will be the one who plays too earnestly. The philosophical game requires good humour and some relaxation: Is this a good answer to Pascal's pari?

  14. Recovery Of Chromium Metal (VI) Using Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM) Method, A study of Influence of NaCl and pH in Receiving Phase on Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholid Djunaidi, Muhammad; Lusiana, Retno A.; Rahayu, Maya D.

    2017-06-01

    Chromium metal(VI) is a valuable metal but in contrary has high toxicity, so the separation and recovery from waste are very important. One method that can be used for the separation and recovery of chromium (VI) is a Supported Liquid Membrane (SLM). SLM system contains of three main components: a supporting membrane, organic solvents and carrier compounds. The supported Membrane used in this research is Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), organic solvent is kerosene, and the carrier compound used is aliquat 336. The supported liquid membrane is placed between two phases, namely, feed phase as the source of analyte (Cr(VI)) and the receiving phase as the result of separation. Feed phase is the electroplating waste which contains of chromium metal with pH variation about 4, 6 and 9. Whereas the receiving phase are the solution of HCl, NaOH, HCl-NaCl and NaOH-NaCl with pH variation about 1, 3, 5 and 7. The efficiency separation is determined by measurement of chromium in the feed and the receiving phase using AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry). The experiment results show that transport of Chrom (VI) by Supported Liquid membrane (SLM) is influenced by pH solution in feed phase and receiving phase as well as NaCl in receiving phase. The highest chromium metal is transported from feed phase about 97,78%, whereas in receiving phase shows about 58,09%. The highest chromium metal transport happens on pH 6 in feed phase, pH 7 in receiving phase with the mixture of NaOH and NaCl using carrier compound aliquat 336.

  15. Fear reactions to snakes in naïve mouse lemurs and pig-tailed macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Lucie; Brandl, Pavel; Frynta, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Primates have been predated on by snakes throughout their evolution and as a result, antipredator responses accompanied by signs of fear are often witnessed in the wild. In captivity, however, the fear of snakes is less clear, as experiments with naïve nonhuman primates have given inconsistent results. In this study, we present evidence that naïve mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus) and putatively naïve pig-tailed macaques (Macaca nemestrina) do exhibit fear of snakes, even though the apparent reactions are mild. In an experiment with control- or snake-odoured boxes, mouse lemurs clearly avoided feeding in the latter. When the latency of touching rubber models was measured, pig-tailed macaques took longer to touch a toy snake compared with a toy lizard. Our findings that fear of snakes is shown by naïve individuals support the hypothesis that it is innate in primates.

  16. Species identification of processed animal proteins (PAPs) in animal feed containing feed materials from animal origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Adler, Andreas; Brandstettner, Agnes Josephine; Spadinger, Gabriela; Weiss, Roland; Strnad, Irmengard

    2015-01-01

    Since June 2013 the total feed ban of processed animal proteins (PAPs) was partially lifted. Now it is possible to mix fish feed with PAPs from non-ruminants (pig and poultry). To guarantee that fish feed, which contains non-ruminant PAPs, is free of ruminant PAPs, it has to be analysed with a ruminant PCR assay to comply with the total ban of feeding PAPs from ruminants. However, PCR analysis cannot distinguish between ruminant DNA, which originates from proteins such as muscle and bones, and ruminant DNA, which comes from feed materials of animal origin such as milk products or fat. Thus, there is the risk of obtaining positive ruminant PCR signals based on these materials. The paper describes the development of the combination of two analysis methods, micro-dissection and PCR, to eliminate the problem of 'false-positive' PCR signals. With micro-dissection, single particles can be isolated and subsequently analysed with PCR.

  17. Feeding behavior and stress response explain individual differences in feed efficiency in juveniles of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Feed efficiency is a trait of enormous importance in any animal production sector including aquaculture. Individuals that are more feed efficient need to use less feed to achieve similar growth rates as compared to less efficient individuals. Considering that feed represents the largest cost of prod

  18. 21 CFR 579.40 - Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients. 579.40 Section 579.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... § 579.40 Ionizing radiation for the treatment of poultry feed and poultry feed ingredients....

  19. Feeding behavior and stress response explain individual differences in feed efficiency in juveniles of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, C.I.; Conceição, L.E.C.; Schrama, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Feed efficiency is a trait of enormous importance in any animal production sector including aquaculture. Individuals that are more feed efficient need to use less feed to achieve similar growth rates as compared to less efficient individuals. Considering that feed represents the largest cost of

  20. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  1. Progress in developing an infant and child feeding index

    OpenAIRE

    Arimond, Mary; Ruel, Marie T., ed.

    2002-01-01

    "Feeding practices are an important determinant of the nutritional status of infants and children. It is therefore useful to measure and describe infant and child feeding practices in a number of contexts. Such measurements could enable (1) international comparisons of the adequacy of infant and child feeding, (2) research linking infant and child feeding to determinants or outcomes, (3) advocacy regarding the importance of adequate infant and child feeding, and (4) monitoring and evaluation ...

  2. Feed intake, growth, digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen in young pigs as affected by dietary cation-anion difference and supplementation of xylanase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Schulze, H.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to test the effect of dietary cation-anion difference (CAD, Na K -Cl, mEq/kg diet) and xylanase addition on feed consumption, digestibility of nutrients, plasma electrolyte balance and growth performance in young pigs. A 2 3 factorial arrangement with three dietary CAD le

  3. Feeding proteins to livestock: Global land use and food vs. feed competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manceron Stéphane

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition between direct consumption of plant production and the feeding of livestock is key to global food availability. This is because livestock consume edible commodities that could be available for (food insecure populations but also because it diverts arable land from food production. The share of total plant production redirected towards feeding livestock is (roughly known but estimations of land surfaces virtually occupied by livestock production are scarce. In this study, following up on the Agrimonde Terra** project, we estimate areas devoted to the feeding livestock. First, we estimate the protein composition of an averaged feed basket at the global scale in 2005 and detail the evolution of the protein-source feed component during the period 1961–2009. We focus on protein-rich crops such as oil crops and show its proportion in the global livestock diets has tripled since 1960, though only accounting for about one fourth of total proteins. Then, we estimate land virtually occupied by crop feed at the global scale using a set of straightforward hypotheses. Our estimates suggest that, although livestock and feed production has continuously increased and despite uncertainties in available data, competition for land between feed and food uses has decreased over the last two decades. The share of areas cultivated for feed requirements decreased from about 50% in the 1970s to 37% nowadays. This trend is attributable to the increase of crop yields and to a decrease of the share of cereals in livestock diets to the benefit of oilseeds by-products. However, estimating the share of total areas used for feed is complicated by the significant role played by by-products.

  4. Low-level waste feed staging plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, P.J.; Grams, W.H.; McConville, C.M.; L. W. Shelton, L.W.; Slaathaug, E.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-12

    The `Preliminary Low-Level Waste Feed Staging Plan` was updated to reflect the latest requirement in the Tank Waste Remediation Privatization Request for Proposals (RFP) and amendments. The updated plan develops the sequence and transfer schedule for retrieval of DST supernate by the management and integration contractor and delivery of the staged supernate to the private low-activity waste contractors for treatment. Two DSTs are allocated as intermediate staging tanks. A transfer system conflict analysis provides part of the basis for determining transfer system upgrade requirements to support both low-activity and high-level waste feed delivery. The intermediate staging tank architecture and retrieval system equipment are provided as a planning basis until design requirements documents are prepared. The actions needed to successfully implement the plan are identified. These include resolution of safety issues and changes to the feed envelope limits, minimum order quantities, and desired batch sizes.

  5. Feeding of newborns and infants (cultural aspects).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lala, V R; Desai, A B

    1970-07-01

    A total of 435 mothers in the postnatal ward of the Civil Hospital in Ahmedabad, India were interviewed to determine the cultural beliefs and traditional practices influencing the feeding of newborns and infants. A thorough physical and neurological examination of the newborns was conducted. All newborns and mothers were followed for a period varying from 3-7 days to detect any complications either in the newborn or the mother related to feeding patterns. The various methods of feeding were observed. In most of the cases the deciding factor to giving the 1st feed was the cry of the baby. As a 1st feed, various liquid preparations were used by the mothers. 66.2% of the mothers offered boiled water as a 1st feed. In the postnatal ward boiled water is an easily available preparation for newborns and is usually provided by the ward sister whenever the mother requests it. In most of the cases the mother herself was the initiator. 40.3% of the mothers began supplementing breast milk with milk or solid food before the age of 1 year, and 18% by the age of 1 1/2 years. 27.3% of the mothers kept their children on breast milk only until the age of 1 year, and 12.7% until the age of 2 years. 46.5% of the mothers did not give milk at all during infancy and childhood. The most common age for introducing solid food was 1-1 1/2 (61.4%); only 10.2% of the mothers introduced solid food during the 1st year of life. The various sweet carbohydrate preparations used as 1st feed are known as "Galthuthi." 25.9% of the mothers gave "Galthuthi" to their newborns during the 1st 3 days of life and 16.9% of the mothers used it as a 1st feed. Most mothers were giving it as a custom or community tradition. The infants exposed to "Galthuthi" are exposed to gastrointestinal infections. The common practice of giving fresh milk as a prelacteal feed during the 1st 3 days of life appears to be harmful to subsequent breastfeeding. It seems that prelacteal feed is not harmful as long as it is given in a

  6. 4MOST fiber feed concept design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, D. M.; Winkler, R.; Saviauk, Allar; Haynes, R.; Barden, S.; Bellido-Tirado, O.; Bauer, S.; de Jong, Roelof S.; Depagne, E.; Dionies, F.; Ehrlich, K.; Kelz, Andreas; Saunders, W.; Woche, M.

    2014-08-01

    4MOST, the 4m Multi-Object Spectroscopic Telescope, features a 2.5 degree diameter field-of-view with ~2400 fibers in the focal plane that are configured by a fiber positioner based on the tilting spine principle (Echidna/FMOS) arranged in a hexagonal pattern. The fibers feed two types of spectrographs; ~1600 fibers go to two spectrographs with resolution R>5000 and ~800 fibers to a spectrograph with R>18,000. Part of the ongoing optimization of the fiber feed subsystem design includes early prototyping and testing of key components such as fiber connectors and fiber cable management. Performance data from this testing will be used in the 4MOST instrument simulator (TOAD) and 4MOST system design optimization. In this paper we give an overview of the current fiber feed subsystem design, simulations and prototyping plans.

  7. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to control a non-linear, multivariable, noisy process using trained neural networks. The basis for the method is a trained neural network controller acting as the inverse process model. A training method for obtaining such an inverse process model is applied....... A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...

  8. Lateral hypothalamic circuits for feeding and reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuber, Garret D; Wise, Roy A

    2016-02-01

    In experiments conducted over 60 years ago, the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) was identified as a critical neuroanatomical substrate for motivated behavior. Electrical stimulation of the LHA induces voracious feeding even in well-fed animals. In the absence of food, animals will work tirelessly, often lever-pressing thousands of times per hour, for electrical stimulation at the same site that provokes feeding, drinking and other species-typical motivated behaviors. Here we review the classic findings from electrical stimulation studies and integrate them with more recent work that has used contemporary circuit-based approaches to study the LHA. We identify specific anatomically and molecularly defined LHA elements that integrate diverse information arising from cortical, extended amygdala and basal forebrain networks to ultimately generate a highly specified and invigorated behavioral state conveyed via LHA projections to downstream reward and feeding-specific circuits.

  9. Sensitive cooperation: a basis for assisted feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Bente; Harder, Ingegerd; Biering-Sørensen, Fin

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To describe sensitive cooperation as a basis for assisted feeding through the experiences of people with high cervical spinal cord injury (hcSCI). BACKGROUND: People who contract a complete hcSCI will require lifelong assistance from others with all activities of daily living. Initially......, they prefer getting help from people they already know and are reluctant to cooperate with personal assistants. Assisted feeding is a situation where the nature of the cooperation between the two parties involved is crucial. DESIGN: Qualitative. METHOD: Sixteen people with hcSCI were interviewed twice within...... needing assisted feeding, but has the temporality of the helper as a necessary condition. A particular meal draws on the experiences from all previous meals and is a significant forerunner of future meals. CONCLUSIONS: Sensitive cooperation implies genuine acquaintance and sincere concern for the person...

  10. Additive Feed Forward Control with Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1999-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a method to control a non-linear, multivariable, noisy process using trained neural networks. The basis for the method is a trained neural network controller acting as the inverse process model. A training method for obtaining such an inverse process model is applied....... A suitable 'shaped' (low-pass filtered) reference is used to overcome problems with excessive control action when using a controller acting as the inverse process model. The control concept is Additive Feed Forward Control, where the trained neural network controller, acting as the inverse process model......, is placed in a supplementary pure feed-forward path to an existing feedback controller. This concept benefits from the fact, that an existing, traditional designed, feedback controller can be retained without any modifications, and after training the connection of the neural network feed-forward controller...

  11. Cannabinoid receptors and cholecystokinin in feeding inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alén, Francisco; Ramírez-López, M Teresa; Gómez de Heras, Raquel; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Orio, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The endocannabinoid system functions as a potent regulator of feeding behavior and energy balance through complex central and peripheral mechanisms. Recent findings have demonstrated the existence of cooperation between peripheral cannabinoid CB1 receptors and the satiety hormone cholecystokinin (CCK). The two systems have opposing actions in the modulation of feeding: while endocannabinoids such as anandamide promote feeding, CCK controls gastrointestinal motility and appetite suppression. In this review, we examine the individual contribution of endocannabinoids and CCK in the modulation of appetite and explore the interaction between the two systems. We also highlight the potential benefits of simultaneously targeting peripheral CB1 and CCK1 receptors to design new therapies to fight obesity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Confined Feeding Operations - CONFINED_FEEDING_OPERATIONS_IDEM_IN: Confined Feeding Operation Facilities in Indiana (Indiana Department of Environmental Management, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — CONFINED_FEEDING_OPERATIONS_IDEM_IN is a point shapefile that contains confined feeding operation facility locations in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  13. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccini, Gabriela dos Santos; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding). Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as "baby friendly", required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  14. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  15. Feed training of peacock bass (Cichla sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, M A; Kubitza, F; Cyrino, J E

    2000-11-01

    The Amazonian cichlid peacock bass (Cichla sp.) is a highly marketable food and sport fish, therefore a suitable species for aquaculture. However, because of its piscivorous feeding preferences, the species does not accept dry feeds voluntarily, turning its intensive culture difficult and costly. This study aimed to wean fingerling peacock bass from inert moist food to dry diets. In a first experiment, 1,134 fingerlings weighting 0.27 g were divided in two 0.37 m3 hapas and fed ground fish flesh with 35% success. Then, 1.3 g fish were pooled, stocked in six 25 L cages and fed two pellet sequences with 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% and 0% ground fish flesh (GFF). One sequence was flavored with 10% krill meal (Euphausia sp.). Training success of fish fed the GFF-00 diet flavored with krill reached 12%a compared to 11.6%a (p GFF with 39.8% success. After the feed training period, 2.2 g fish were then fed a sequence of moist pellets containing 80%, 60% and 45% GFF. Fish trained to feed on moist pellets with 45% ground fish were pooled and stocked into nine 25 L cages. Fish were weaned to dry pellets without ground fish flesh (GFF-00) using three diet sequences: 1) dry pellets; 2) moist pellets; and 3) dry pellets flavored with 4% cod liver oil; all three diets contained 30, 10 and 0% GFF. The three sequences yielded, respectively 30.8%a, 23.6%a, and 24.7%a (p GFF-00. There were no apparent beneficial effects of increasing moisture or addition of cod liver oil as flavor enhancers in the weaning diets. This study revealed the feasibility of training peacock bass to accept dry pellets, but feeding young fish ground fish flesh seemed to be a major bottleneck in improving feed training success.

  16. Kinematic Diversity in Rorqual Whale Feeding Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, David E; Friedlaender, Ari S; Calambokidis, John; Goldbogen, Jeremy A

    2016-10-10

    Rorqual whales exhibit an extreme lunge filter-feeding strategy characterized by acceleration to high speed and engulfment of a large volume of prey-laden water [1-4]. Although tagging studies have quantified the kinematics of lunge feeding, the timing of engulfment relative to body acceleration has been modeled conflictingly because it could never be directly measured [5-7]. The temporal coordination of these processes has a major impact on the hydrodynamics and energetics of this high-cost feeding strategy [5-9]. If engulfment and body acceleration are temporally distinct, the overall cost of this dynamic feeding event would be minimized. However, greater temporal overlap of these two phases would theoretically result in higher drag and greater energetic costs. To address this discrepancy, we used animal-borne synchronized video and 3D movement sensors to quantify the kinematics of both the skull and body during feeding events. Krill-feeding blue and humpback whales exhibited temporally distinct acceleration and engulfment phases, with humpback whales reaching maximum gape earlier than blue whales. In these whales, engulfment coincided largely with body deceleration; however, humpback whales pursuing more agile fish demonstrated highly variable coordination of skull and body kinematics in the context of complex prey-herding techniques. These data suggest that rorquals modulate the coordination of acceleration and engulfment to optimize foraging efficiency by minimizing locomotor costs and maximizing prey capture. Moreover, this newfound kinematic diversity observed among rorquals indicates that the energetic efficiency of foraging is driven both by the whale's engulfment capacity and the comparative locomotor capabilities of predator and prey. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  17. Ulogata na endoetelin-1 vo razvojot na dijabeticna nefropatija inducirana so streptozocin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmina Trojacanec

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Dijabeticnata nefropatija pretstavuva edna od hronicnite mikrovaskularni komplikacii na dijabetot, so multifaktorijalna i ne do kraj rasvetlena etiopatogeneza. So ogled na toa sto kaj pacientite so dijabet, osobeno kaj onie so dijabeticna nefropatija, se najdeni zgolemeni vrednosti na endotelin-1, se pretpostavuva deka istiot moze da ima znacajna uloga vo razvojot na dijabeticnata nefropatija. Osnovna cel na nasata studija bese da se detektiraat promenite vo plazmatskoto nivo na endotelin-1 po eksperimentalno induciran dijabet, i dijabeticna nefropatija kaj staorci so streptozocin. So ogled na dobro poznatite efekti na AKE-inhibitorite, vo ovaa studija go ispituvavme i vlijanieto na enalapril (AKE inhibitor na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1, kako i negovite efekti vo tretmanot na dijabeti~na nefropatija. Ednokratnata i.p. administracija na streptozocin (STZ predizvika signifikantno zgolemuvanje na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1, proprateni so jasno izrazeni simptomi i znaci na dijabeticna nefropatija (mikroalbuminurija, zgolemeni urinarni vrednosti na N-acetyl-fl-D-glucosamidase, zgolemeni serumski koncentracii na urea, poliurija. Cetiri nedelniot tretman so enalapril dovede do signifikantno namaluvanje na plazmatskite koncentracii na endotelin-1 i do podobruvanje na simtomite i znacite na dijabeticnata nefropatija. Dobienite rezultati potvrduvaat deka endotelin-1 moze da ima znacajna uloga vo razvojot i progresijata na dijabeticnata nefropatija, a AKE inhibitorite, odnosno enalapril, mozat da ja ublazat i usporat progresijata na dijabeticnata nefropatija

  18. Approaching the Children with Feeding Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra Kurt

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Feeding problems in childhood are common, occurring in 25-45% of healthy children and the ratio can be increased up to 80% in children with growth deficiency. Studies with healthy children reported that 20-60% of parents think that their children don’t eat enough. Serious eating disorders which requires intensive medical and behaviour treatment is seen in 3-10% of children. In this review, approach and follow up of a child who was brought to the hospital with feeding problems was studied.

  19. Planck LFI flight model feed horns

    CERN Document Server

    Villa, F; Pecora, M; Figini, L; Nesti, R; Simonetto, A; Sozzi, C; Sandri, M; Battaglia, P; Guzzi, P; Bersanelli, M; Butler, R C; Mandolesi, N; 10.1088/1748-0221/4/12/T12004

    2010-01-01

    this paper is part of the Prelaunch status LFI papers published on JINST: http://www.iop.org/EJ/journal/-page=extra.proc5/jinst The Low Frequency Instrument is optically interfaced with the ESA Planck telescope through 11 corrugated feed horns each connected to the Radiometer Chain Assembly (RCA). This paper describes the design, the manufacturing and the testing of the flight model feed horns. They have been designed to optimize the LFI optical interfaces taking into account the tight mechanical requirements imposed by the Planck focal plane layout. All the eleven units have been successfully tested and integrated with the Ortho Mode transducers.

  20. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  1. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-06-14

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system.

  2. Dificuldades da aprendizagem na leitura

    OpenAIRE

    Nascimento, Solange Oliveira; Trugillo, Edneuza Alves

    2011-01-01

    Este presente artigo propôs verificar os fatores que influenciam no desenvolvimento da aprendizagem na leitura dos alunos da 4º ano no Ensino Fundamental na Escola Municipal Armando Dias no município de Sinop/MT, cujo tema é dificuldade da aprendizagem na leitura. O objetivo do trabalho foi investigar as relações interpessoais em sala de aula e de que forma a professora introduz a leitura nos conteúdos dados aos alunos. Como fundamentação teórica, recorremos a vários autores, entre eles: Enri...

  3. SPOLNO NADLEGOVANJE NA DELOVNEM MESTU

    OpenAIRE

    Rubič, Gašper

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu smo v uvodu predstavili problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu in predstavili podjetje TEKSTIL d.d. V nadaljevanju smo z anketo raziskali, ali problem spolnega nadlegovanja na delovnem mestu v obravnavanem podjetju obstaja in če, kako se nanj odziva okolje. V teoretičnem delu smo nadaljevali in predstavili definicijo spolnega nadlegovanja, ki je kakršna koli oblika nezaželenega verbalnega in neverbalnega ali fizičnega ravnanja spolne narave z učinkom ali nameno...

  4. [Early oral feeding versus classic oral feeding after appendicectomy for acute appendicitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassi Assamoi, B F; Yenon, K S; Lebeau, R; Traore, M; Akpa-Bedi, E; Kouassi, J C

    2010-01-01

    The appendectomies for acute appendicitis are the most frequent surgical interventions (43.6%) in our service. The recent studies demonstrated the feasibility and the economical gain of the early oral feeding vs. classic oral feeding, after elective digestive surgery. We wanted to spread these results therefore to the appendectomy for acute appendicitis. It is about a prospective survey carrying on 110 patients also left in two groups, and comparing the classic postoperative oral feeding vs. the early postoperative oral feeding on one year. The two groups were comparable and the studied parameters were : the length of the postoperative ileus, the hospitable morbidity, the length of the hospitalization and the cost of the hold in charge. The length of the postoperative ileus was not different in the two groups as well as the morbidity. The difference of the median length of hospitalization in the two groups was not meaningful. The cost of the hold in charge was meaningfully more elevated in the group with classic postoperative feeding. In conclusion, the early postoperative oral feeding in our survey doesn't reduce the length of the postoperative ileus and don't drag a morbidity anymore that the classic oral feeding. However if it doesn't shorten the length of the hospitalization, it drags a reduction of the cost of the hold in charge. There is a gain therefore precociously to nourish the patients after appendectomy for acute appendicitis.

  5. Prevalence and severity of feeding and nutritional problems in children with neurological impairment: Oxford Feeding Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, P B; Lambert, B; Rose, M; Ford-Adams, M; Johnson, A; Griffiths, P

    2000-10-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of feeding and nutritional problems in children with neurological impairment within a defined geographical area. In a cross-sectional study, a validated questionnaire was sent to 377 parents of children (aged 4 to 13 years) on the Oxford Register of Early Childhood Impairments with oromotor dysfunction. The return rate was 72%. Of these, 93% had cerebral palsy; 47% were unable to walk; 78% had speech difficulty; and 28% continuous drooling of saliva. Gastrointestinal problems were commonly encountered: 59% were constipated; 22% had significant problems with vomiting, and 31% had suffered at least one chest infection in the previous 6 months. Feeding problems were prevalent: 89% needed help with feeding and 56% choked with food; 20% of parents described feeding as stressful and unenjoyable. Prolonged feeding times (3h/day) were reported by 28%. Only 8% of participants received caloric supplements and 8% were fed via gastrostomy tube. Even though 38% of respondents considered their child to be underweight, 64% of children had never had their feeding and nutrition assessed. The results highlight that feeding problems in children with neurological impairment are common and severe, causing parental concern. Many of these children would benefit from nutritional assessment and management as part of their overall care.

  6. Studies on NaXe Clusters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The chemical shift of 23Na in excimer NaXe was measured by using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, which is in good agreement with the theoretical value obtained by ab initio calculations. The bond length, dissociation energy, dipole of NaXe and Mulliken charges at Na and Xe in NaXe were calculated, respectively. The spectra of ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence and surface-enhanced Raman scattering of NaXe were also measured.

  7. MONITORING FEED NUTRIENT CONTENT OF AVAILABLE COMMERCIAL POULTRY FEEDS IN BOTSWANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. AGANGA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient quality in a feedstuff is the concentration of that nutrient in quantities that are sufficient for normal metabolic activities of a particular animal. Hence the study was carried out to determine nutrient qualit