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Sample records for feed intake colostrum

  1. Effect of the mass of immunoglobulin (Ig)G intake and age at first colostrum feeding on serum IgG concentration in Holstein calves.

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    Osaka, I; Matsui, Y; Terada, F

    2014-10-01

    Forty-four Holstein calves (19 male and 25 female) were used in this study of the relationships among age at first colostrum feeding, IgG intake, and apparent efficiency of IgG absorption. Time of birth was recorded for each calf and the calves were fed colostrum ad libitum after birth at either 0930 or 1630 h. Blood samples were collected immediately before and 24h after colostrum feeding. Data from calves were then categorized into 4 groups representing time from birth to colostrum feeding: A=fed within 1h (n=5); B=fed from 1 to 6h (n=10); C=fed from 6 to 12 h (n=21); and D=fed from 12 to 18 h (n=8) after birth. Average total intake of colostrum was 3.6 ± 0.1L. Over 80% of the calves consumed ≥3 L of colostrum. Apparent efficiency of IgG absorption declined remarkably 12 h after birth. Mean apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG in group D (15.8 ± 3.0%) was lower than that in groups A (30.5 ± 3.9%) and B (27.4 ± 2.8%). Serum IgG concentration in calves was positively correlated with IgG intake in all groups. The relationship between mass of IgG consumed and calf serum IgG at 24 h was different for each time of colostrum feeding, with only limited differences observed between groups A and B. We concluded that failure of transfer of passive immunity in newborn calves may be avoided if calves consume ≥3 L of colostrum with IgG concentration >40 mg/mL within 6 h after birth. These findings help define the opportunity to minimize failure of transfer of passive immunity to newborn calves under management programs similar to those used on commercial dairy farms.

  2. Lying behaviour and IgG-levels of newborn calves after feeding colostrum via tube and nipple bottle feeding.

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    Bonk, Stephanie; Nadalin, Audrey; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Veira, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Oesophageal tube feeding colostrum is used to ensure sufficient colostrum intake in newborn calves but the impact of tube feeding on animal behaviour is unclear. Therefore the objective of this study was to compare lying behaviour of tube-fed or bottle-fed dairy calves. Calves (n = 37) in 3 groups were offered 3·5 l colostrum 2 h after birth. Calves of the bottle group were fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the placebo tubing group were tubed for 4 min but no colostrum was given and they were then fed with a nipple bottle. Calves of the tubing group received 3·5 l colostrum via tube feeding. Consumed amount of bottle and placebo tubing calves was recorded. If they refused some of the offered 3·5 l the rest was offered in a second feeding 2 h later. Lying behaviour was measured by data loggers fitted to right hind leg for 3 d. Blood samples were taken 24 h after birth for determination of IgG concentration. The voluntary colostrum intake differed significantly between bottle-fed and placebo tubed calves at first feeding. Considering both colostrum feedings, bottle-fed calves consumed 3·44 ± 0·14 l and placebo tubed calves consumed 3·20 ± 0·38 l colostrum. ImmunoglobulinG intake (255·6 ± 77·5 g IgG), serum IgG concentration 24 h after birth (22·8 ± 6·7 g/l) and total serum protein concentration (6·1 ± 0·6 g/dl) did not differ between groups. None of the calves had a failure of passive transfer. There was no effect of tubing on lying behaviour.

  3. The rapid increase of circulating adiponectin in neonatal calves depends on colostrum intake.

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    Kesser, J; Hill, M; Heinz, J F L; Koch, C; Rehage, J; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Hammon, H M; Mielenz, B; Sauerwein, H; Sadri, H

    2015-10-01

    Adiponectin, an adipokine, regulates metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Considering that the transplacental transfer of maternal proteins of high molecular weight is hindered in ruminants, this study tested the hypothesis that the blood concentration of adiponectin in neonatal calves largely reflects their endogenous synthesis whereby the intake of colostrum might modify the circulating concentrations. We thus characterized the adiponectin concentrations in neonatal and young calves that were fed either colostrum or formula. Three trials were performed: in trial 1, 20 calves were all fed colostrum for 3 d, and then formula until weaning. Blood samples were collected on d 0 (before colostrum feeding), and on d 1, 3, 11, 22, 34, 43, 52, 70, 90, and 108 postnatum. In trial 2, 14 calves were studied for the first 4 d of life. They were fed colostrum (n=7) or formula (n=7), and blood samples were taken right after birth and before each morning feeding on d 2, 3, and 4. In trial 3, calves born preterm (n=7) or at term received colostrum only at 24 h postnatum. Blood was sampled at birth, and before and 2 h after feeding. Additionally, allantoic fluid and blood from 4 Holstein cows undergoing cesarean section were sampled. Adiponectin was quantified by ELISA. In trial 1, the serum adiponectin concentrations recorded on d 3 were 4.7-fold higher than before colostrum intake. The distribution of the molecular weight forms of adiponectin differed before and after colostrum consumption. In trial 2, the colostrum group had consistently greater plasma adiponectin concentrations than the formula group after the first meal. In trial 3, the preterm calves tended to have lower concentrations of plasma adiponectin than the term calves at birth and before and 2 h after feeding. Furthermore, the adiponectin concentrations were substantially lower in allantoic fluid than in the sera from neonatal calves and from cows at parturition. Our results show that calves are born with very low

  4. Effects of high fiber intake during late pregnancy on sow physiology, colostrum production, and piglet performance.

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    Loisel, F; Farmer, C; Ramaekers, P; Quesnel, H

    2013-11-01

    Dietary fiber given during pregnancy may influence sow endocrinology and increase piglet BW gain during early lactation. The aim of the current study was to determine whether dietary fiber given to sows during late pregnancy induces endocrine changes that could modulate sow colostrum production and, thus, piglet performance. From d 106 of pregnancy until parturition, 29 Landrace×Large White nulliparous sows were fed gestation diets containing 23.4 [high fiber (HF); n=15] or 13.3% total dietary fiber [low fiber (LF); n=14]. In the HF diet, wheat and barley were partly replaced by soybean hulls, wheat bran, sunflower meal (undecorticated), and sugar beet pulp. After parturition, sows were fed a standard lactation diet. Colostrum production was estimated during 24 h, starting at the onset of parturition (T0) and ending at 24 h after parturition (T24) based on piglet weight gains. Jugular blood samples were collected from sows on d 101 of pregnancy, daily from d 111 of gestation to d 3 of lactation, and then on d 7 and 21 of lactation (d 0 being the day of parturition). Postprandial kinetics of plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were determined on d 112 of pregnancy. The feeding treatment did not influence sow colostrum yield (3.9±0.2 kg) or piglet weight gain during the first day postpartum to d 21 of lactation. Colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets (fiber in late pregnancy affected sow colostrum composition but not colostrum yield, increased colostrum intake of low birth weight piglets, and decreased preweaning mortality, but these effects were not related to changes in peripartum concentrations of the main hormones involved in lactogenesis.

  5. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits.

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    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  6. Colostrum and complementary feeding practices among Jordanian women.

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    Abuidhail, Jamila

    2014-01-01

    To identify the practice of Jordanian women regarding colostrum and complementary feeding during the postpartum period. A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive design was used to investigate the practices of colostrum and complementary feeding. A convenience sample of 572 postpartum women was recruited from postpartum units at three governmental hospitals and three private hospitals. Data were collected in two phases. In the first phase, trained research assistants conducted face-to-face structured interviews with the participants at the hospital. In the second phase, follow-up phone interviews were conducted at the end of the first month after birth. Almost all of the postpartum women breastfeed colostrum to their infants. Further, 79% of postpartum women intended to give their infants fluids other than breast milk and 68% of them actually gave fluids to their infants by the end of the first month. Postpartum Jordanian women value colostrum and breastfeed it to their infants. However, they generally start introducing complementary feeding to their infants during the postpartum period, which would discontinue exclusive breastfeeding practices and alter the nutritional status of the infants later in their life. Therefore, nurses and midwives should emphasize, through their antenatal and postnatal care, the recommended practices of exclusive breastfeeding up to the sixth month and complementary feeding.

  7. Serum immunoglobulins in newborn calves before and after colostrum feeding.

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    Merriman, M J

    1971-10-01

    Pre-colostral and post-colostral sera of seven Holstein calves and colostral whey were analyzed immunoelectrophoretically. IgM, IgG(1) (fast), and IgG(2) (slow) were demonstrated while IgA was not detected in serum of new-born calves before colostrum feeding. In post-colostral serum IgG, IgM, in relatively higher levels, and IgA were present which corresponded with the classes of immunoglobulins found in whey. These observations suggest that the developing bovine fetus may be capable of independent immune response.

  8. Effect of peripartal feeding strategy on colostrum yield and composition in sows.

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    Decaluwé, R; Maes, D; Cools, A; Wuyts, B; De Smet, S; Marescau, B; De Deyn, P P; Janssens, G P J

    2014-08-01

    Research showed a positive association between back fat (BF) change the week before farrowing and colostrum yield (CY). This study tested the causality of this association, hence to optimize CY by altering the sows' peripartal feeding strategy. Sows were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups at d 108 of gestation. The first group (L, n = 28) received 1.5 kg feed·d(-1), the second group (H, n = 22) received 3 times 1.5 kg feed·d(-1) until farrowing. Daily feed intake and CY were measured. Colostrum was analyzed for nutrient composition, AA and fatty acids, IgG and IgA. Sow serum was obtained at d 108 of gestation and d 1 of lactation after overnight fasting and analyzed for NEFA, (iso)butyrylcarnitine (C4), creatinine, urea, 3-OH-butyrylcarnitine (3-OH-C4), IgG, and IgA. Based on BF at d 108, sows were divided into body condition (BC) groups: skinny (23 mm, n = 14). We performed ANOVA with treatment and BC as fixed factors and Scheffé post-hoc test. The week before farrowing, the L group had the lowest daily feed intake (DFI; 1.5 kg), and within the H group, fat sows (3.8 kg) had a lower DFI than skinny sows (4.3 kg; p = 0.006). The H group tended to have a greater total CY (P = 0.074) and had a greater CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.018) than the L group. Compared with sows in moderate BC, fat sows had a lower total CY (P = 0.044) and a lower CY/kg liveborn piglet (P = 0.005). The H group had a greater concentration of lactose (p = 0.009) and n-3 PUFA (p colostrum than the L group. The concentration of IgG and IgA did not differ between treatment and BC groups. Serum parameters at d 108 were similar between the treatment groups and BC groups. At d 1, the H group mobilized less body fat (NEFA: p = 0.002) and protein (creatinine: p colostrum composition were obtained when sows entered the farrowing unit in a moderate BC and were provided a high peripartal feeding strategy.

  9. Effect of concentrate supplementation during the dry period on colostrum quality and effect of colostrum feeding regimen on passive transfer of immunity, calf health, and performance.

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    Dunn, A; Ashfield, A; Earley, B; Welsh, M; Gordon, A; McGee, M; Morrison, S J

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of (1) supplementing concentrates to multiparous Holstein cows during the dry period on colostral and milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration; and (2) feeding calves colostrum at either 5 or 10% of their body weight (BW) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance. Holstein multiparous cows (n=37) were assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments during an 8-wk dry period: (1) offered ad libitum grass silage only (GS) or (2) offered ad libitum access to the same grass silage plus concentrate [total mixed ration in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], providing a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day (GSC). Both treatment groups were offered identical levels of mineral and vitamin supplementation. Calves from these cows were weighed immediately after birth and fed either 5% (5BW) or 10% (10BW) of their BW in colostrum from their own dams within 2.5h of birth. Calves in the 10BW group received their second feed of colostrum from first-milking colostrum. Concentrate supplementation during the dry period had no effect on colostral IgG concentration, first-milking IgG yield, or fat, protein, and lactose contents. However, cows in GSC produced a greater mean milk yield over the first 8 milkings compared with cows in the GS group. Concentrate supplementation had no effect on calf BW or BW gain, serum IgG, or apparent efficiency of absorption (AEA) at 24h after birth. However, offspring from the GSC group had fewer cases of enteritis during the first 56d of life compared with offspring from the GS group. Calves in the 10BW group had greater mean serum IgG concentration for the first 3d following birth; however, at 24h after birth, we observed no treatment effect on AEA. The rate of enteritis was greater for calves in the 5BW treatment compared with 10BW. The colostrum-feeding regimen had no effect on BW gain or on the incidence of pneumonia among calf treatment groups. In conclusion, concentrate supplementation

  10. Influence of Breed, Parity and Food Intake on Chemical Composition of First Colostrum in Cow

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    Simona Zarcula

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to establish the influence of breed, parity and food intake on chemical composition of first colostrum. We observed that fat, proteins, lactose and dry matter were higher in cows from second and third lactation compared to those in fourth lactation. Cow's breed also influenced the colostrum composition, superior quality being obtained in case of Romanian White and Black comparing Holstein Friesian cows. The unbalanced energo-proteic ratio had a negative impact on chemical composition of first colostrum.

  11. Anaerobically fermented colostrum: an alternative for feeding calves

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    Mara Helena Saalfeld

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Milk or commercial milk replacer blends are the most expensive components in final costs of calves breeding. Colostrum is available and it is the appropriate sources for calves' nutrition, being an excellent option as milk substitute. Besides having both nutritional and immunological characteristics that are superior to milk, colostrum represents no costs to the producer. However, difficulties in preservation of colostrum generate controversy results. The aim of this study was to evaluate the anaerobically fermented colostrum (colostrum silage as liquid diet for dairy calves. We evaluated the microbiological and physicochemical properties of silage, and performance of 31 animals up to 60 days age. From 21 days until 360 days of fermentation we isolated only bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus spp. The physicochemical evaluation of colostrum silage revealed a tendency to maintain the protein, dry matter and fat values during the evaluation period. The average weight gain of calves fed with milk was 0.6kg day-1 for female and 0.6g day-1 for males while those fed with colostrum silage was significantly higher (P<0.05 with a mean of 0.7kg day-1 for female and 0.7kg day-1 for males. The results of this study demonstrated that colostrum silage keeps the properties necessary for the development of the calves and is a suitable replacement for calves' milk.

  12. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Flummer, Christine; Hurley, W L

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how...... were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n = 10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n = 8 per diet......) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil + 4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations...

  13. A Meta-Analysis: Colostrum Feeding Practices in Uttar Pradesh, India

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    Manish Chaturvedi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breast milk is the natural first food for babies. It continues to provide up to half or more of the child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one third during the second year of life. Breastfeeding is the safest, least allergic and best infant feeding method. It has nutritional, immunological, behavioral and economic benefits and provides desirable mother infant bonding.Objective: To do the meta- analysis of Colostrum feeding practices of baseline study of 2004 with other studies conducted after 2004 in Uttar Pradesh.Material & Methods: The Baseline study on Colostrum feeding practices in Uttar Pradesh was done in 2004. The meta-analysis was done taking seven other studies following this one taking same variable.Results: In baseline study of 2004, the colostrum given was found to be 22.22%.Conclusion: Deprivation from colostrum feeding and suboptimal breast feeding practices are significant risk factors for under-nutrition among under-fives. There is need for promotion and protection of optimal breast feeding practices for improving nutritional status of children.

  14. Long-term effects of maternal arginine supplementation and colostrum intake on pre- and postweaning growth in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Oksbjerg, Niels; Ramaekers, Peter

    2016-01-01

    /d (ARG; n = 11) or isonitrogenous amounts of alanine (CON; n = 10) from d 30 of gestation to d 28 of lactation (weaning). Colostrum intake of individual piglets was determined based on piglet birth weight, weight gain (0–24 h), and duration of suckling in the colostrum period (0–24 h). At weaning, all...... procedure of SAS was used to estimate effects of dietary treatment, sex, piglet colostrum intake, and birth weight on pre- and postweaning growth. Piglet birth weight and preweaning growth were not affected by dietary treatment (P > 0.10). Postweaning ADG of ARG pigs was increased compared with that of CON....... In conclusion, long-term growth performance was related to maternal arginine supplementation and piglet colostrum intake....

  15. Development of leukocytes countin blood of neonatal pigs after colostrum intake

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    Michal ROLINEC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the development of white blood cells in blood of neonatal piglets immediately after birth and colostrum intake. Together 8 newborn piglets (Large white were included in this study. Piglets were during whole experiment under his mother and the colostrum intake was ad libitum. Blood samples (1.0 mL were collected before colostrum intake (0 hour and on 3rd, 6th and 12th hour after first colostrum intake. Heparinized blood samples were used for total white blood cells, lymphocytes, mid-sized cells and granulocytes determinations. Blood samples were analyzed using haematological analyser Abacus Junior Vet (Diatron, Austria. The results were statistically analyzed by a one-way ANOVA, the differences in average means of blood cells between different sampling times were tested with T-test. The content of white blood cells (P<0.01, lymphocytes (P<0.001, mid-sized cells (P<0.05 as well as granulocytes (P<0.05 changed statistically during the first 12 hours of piglets life. Only in the samples collected on 6th and 12th hour of piglets life, the white blood cells (11.68 resp. 10.82 G*l-1 and lymphocytes (8.13 resp. 9.63 G*l-1 reached the lower physiological range for pigs. Other white blood cells indices of neonatal piglets did not reach the lower limit of the reference range. However in all white blood cells indices, we detected very high differences between minimal and maximal values. It points out, that some newborn piglets had very low, whereas some newborn piglets had very high content of white blood indices and it suggest, that some piglets of the litter had better protection, whereas another piglets not.

  16. Mechanistic model to predict colostrum intake based on deuterium oxide dilution technique data and impact of gestation and prefarrowing diets on piglet intake and sow yield of colostrum.

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    Theil, P K; Flummer, C; Hurley, W L; Kristensen, N B; Labouriau, R L; Sørensen, M T

    2014-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to quantify colostrum intake (CI) of piglets using the D2O dilution technique, to develop a mechanistic model to predict CI, to compare these data with CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model developed for bottle-fed piglets, and to study how composition of diets fed to gestating sows affected piglet CI, sow colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition. In total, 240 piglets from 40 litters were enriched with D2O. The CI measured by D2O from birth until 24 h after the birth of first-born piglet was on average 443 g (SD 151). Based on measured CI, a mechanistic model to predict CI was developed using piglet characteristics (24-h weight gain [WG; g], BW at birth [BWB; kg], and duration of CI [D; min]: CI, g=-106+2.26 WG+200 BWB+0.111 D-1,414 WG/D+0.0182 WG/BWB (R2=0.944). This model was used to predict the CI for all colostrum suckling piglets within the 40 litters (n=500, mean=437 g, SD=153 g) and was compared with the CI predicted by a previous empirical predictive model (mean=305 g, SD=140 g). The previous empirical model underestimated the CI by 30% compared with that obtained by the new mechanistic model. The sows were fed 1 of 4 gestation diets (n=10 per diet) based on different fiber sources (low fiber [17%] or potato pulp, pectin residue, or sugarbeet pulp [32 to 40%]) from mating until d 108 of gestation. From d 108 of gestation until parturition, sows were fed 1 of 5 prefarrowing diets (n=8 per diet) varying in supplemented fat (3% animal fat, 8% coconut oil, 8% sunflower oil, 8% fish oil, or 4% fish oil+4% octanoic acid). Sows fed diets with pectin residue or sugarbeet pulp during gestation produced colostrum with lower protein, fat, DM, and energy concentrations and higher lactose concentrations, and their piglets had greater CI as compared with sows fed potato pulp or the low-fiber diet (Pcolostrum compared with other prefarrowing diets (Pcolostrum composition.

  17. The effect of colostrum source (goat vs. sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2h vs. 14h after birth) on body weight and immune status of artificially reared newborn lambs.

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    Hernández-Castellano, L E; Morales-delaNuez, A; Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Torres, A; Capote, J; Argüello, A; Castro, N

    2015-01-01

    Several factors can affect lamb body weight (BW) and immune status during the first days of life, including colostrum source and timing of the first colostrum feeding. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of colostrum source (goat or sheep) and timing of the first colostrum feeding (2 or 14h after birth) on lamb BW and immune status. In this study, 40 lambs were removed from their dams at birth and randomly assigned into 4 groups of 10 lambs each. Lambs were subsequently fed at 2 or 14h after birth with goat or sheep colostrum. Blood samples and BW recording were performed before feeding. Blood plasma was used to measure the immunoglobulin concentration (IgG and IgM), chitotriosidase activity, and complement system activity (total and alternative pathways). In general, no differences in any of the measured variables were observed among the 4 groups, indicating that neither colostrum source nor timing of the first colostrum feeding had an effect on these variables. These findings may improve management on lamb farms that raise animals under artificial conditions, because our results indicate that it is not necessary to feed colostrum to lambs immediately after birth and that goat colostrum may be used to feed newborn lambs.

  18. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

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    Shen, Rene L; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models......), and higher intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother's milk is absent during the first week after...

  19. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, René L.; Thymann, Thomas; Østergaard, Mette V.

    2015-01-01

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother’s milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement with either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models...... intestinal permeability, compared with BC pigs (all P Early feeding with formula induces intestinal dysfunction whereas bovine colostrum supports gut maturation when mother’s milk is absent during the first week after preterm birth...

  20. Residual Feed Intake

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    Sainz, Roberto D.; Paulino, Pedro V.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction Low rates of return on investment for livestock operations are a fact of life. Producers have little impact on the market price for their cattle; therefore management must be focused on the things producers can actually do something about. For many years, genetic selection programs have focused on production (output) traits, with little attention given to production costs (inputs). Recently, this view has begun to change, and the efficiency of conversion of feed (i.e., t...

  1. Heat-treated colostrum feeding promotes beneficial bacteria colonization in the small intestine of neonatal calves.

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    Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Chen, Yanhong; Liang, Guanxiang; Goonewardene, Laksiri A; Guan, Le Luo

    2015-11-01

    The present study investigated the effect of heat-treated colostrum feeding on the bacterial colonization in calf small intestine of neonatal calves within the first 12h of life. Newborn Holstein bull calves (n=32) were assigned to 3 treatment groups and fed with either fresh colostrum (FC, n=12) or heat-treated (60°C, 60 min) colostrum (HC, n=12) soon after birth, whereas the control (NC, n=8) group did not receive colostrum or water. Small intestinal tissues and contents were collected from proximal jejunum, distal jejunum, and ileum at 6 and 12h after birth, following euthanasia. Quantitative real time-PCR was used to explore the colonization of total bacteria, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia coli. The feeding of colostrum soon after birth increased the colonization of total bacteria in calf gut within the first 12h compared with NC. In contrast, the prevalence of Lactobacillus was lower in HC and FC compared to NC. Remarkable changes in the prevalence of small intestinal tissue-attached Bifidobacterium were observed with the feeding of HC, but not that in small intestinal contents. The prevalence of Bifidobacterium was 3.2 and 5.2 fold higher in HC than FC and NC, respectively, at 6h. Although the feeding of FC did not enhance the prevalence of tissue-attached Bifidobacterium at 6h compared with NC, it displayed a gradual increase over the time that was higher than NC, but similar to that of HC at 12h. Moreover, the colonization of E. coli was drastically reduced in HC calves compared with FC and NC. Thus, the present study suggests that the feeding of HC enhances the colonization of Bifidobacterium but lessens E. coli in the calf small intestine immediately postpartum compared with that of FC and NC. The increased colonization of beneficial bacteria along with the decreased colonization of potential pathogens in calf gut may also diminish the neonatal calf diarrhea when calves are fed heat-treated colostrum soon after birth.

  2. Effect of feeding whole compared with cell-free colostrum on calf immune status: Vaccination response.

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    Langel, S N; Wark, W A; Garst, S N; James, R E; McGilliard, M L; Petersson-Wolfe, C S; Kanevsky-Mullarky, I

    2016-05-01

    Vaccination contributes to improved herd health and production. Boosting immune development at a young age may have long-term effects by enhancing vaccine immune response and efficacy. In the bovine, colostrum is the sole source of maternal immunity, having a substantial effect on health status in the neonate. To date, colostral antibody concentration is used to evaluate colostrum quality. However, colostrum also contains proteins and cells, which may affect immune development and future responses to vaccines. To determine the effect of maternal colostral cells on immune development, 37 female Holstein and Jersey dairy calves were bottle-fed 4 quarts total of whole colostrum (WC) or cell-free colostrum (CFC) at birth. Calves were vaccinated with 2 series of multivalent vaccines. Series A consisted of vaccines given between 1 and 4mo of life. Series B consisted of vaccines given between 5 and 10mo of life. Calf peripheral blood samples were obtained before each vaccination series and monthly for 3mo after each vaccination series. Cellular blood parameters were determined by flow cytometry. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine cytokine gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells before vaccination series B and once a month for 2mo after vaccination series B. Calves fed CFC had fewer numbers of B cells in mo 2 after vaccination series A when compared with WC-fed calves. Calves fed CFC had decreased gene expression levels of IL-2 in mo 1 and numbers of CD4(+)CD62L(+)CD45RO(-) and CD4(+)CD62L(+)CD45RO(+) T cells in mo 0 and 1 after vaccination series B as compared with WC-fed calves. Our findings indicate a greater response to vaccines up to 6 to 10mo post-WC feeding when compared with CFC. These data suggest that adoptive transfer of maternal colostral cells at birth has a long-term effect on development of the neonatal immune system.

  3. Nutritional, hormonal, and environmental effects on colostrum in sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, C; Quesnel, H

    2009-04-01

    It is widely recognized that an early and high intake of colostrum is a major determinant of piglet survival during the early suckling period. The production of colostrum, however, is very variable among sows and the factors affecting this variability are not well known. Factors such as number of parity and genotype do seem to influence colostrum yield and composition. The endocrine status of the sow also affects the process of colostrogenesis and changes in the sow endocrine status can have an impact on quantity and quality of colostrum produced. Indeed, induction of parturition seems to play a role. Nutrition is undoubtedly a major factor that could be used as a tool to alter colostrum composition, with fat content being the most affected. Feed ingredients, such as yeast extracts and fermented liquid feed, were recently shown to alter colostrum composition, yet more research is needed to substantiate these effects. Very few data are available on the influence of environment on colostrum production; results suggest that heat stress has negative effects on colostrum composition. Considering the importance of colostrum for the survival, growth, and immune resistance of piglets, it is obvious that research on the development of new management systems is necessary to improve yield and composition of colostrum.

  4. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed intake is ... apportionment of consumed energy towards protein and ..... alia, genetic potential for protein deposition and its ... The content and dietary balance of feed nutrients, such as ...

  5. The effect of fermented liquid feeding on the faecal microbiology and colostrum quality of farrowing sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demecková, V; Kelly, D; Coutts, A G P; Brooks, P H; Campbell, A

    2002-11-15

    This study investigated the effects of fermented liquid feed (FLF) on the lactic acid bacteria (LAB):Coliform (L:C) ratio in the faeces of farrowing sows and the quality of sow colostrum. Eighteen multiparous sows were randomly allocated to one of three dietary treatments for approximately 2 weeks prior to farrowing and for 3 weeks after parturition. The three dietary treatments were dry pelleted feed (DPF), nonfermented liquid feed (NFLF), and fermented liquid feed (FLF). A rifampicin-resistant mutant of Lactobacillus plantarum was used to ferment liquid feed. Coliforms and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the faeces of farrowing sows and piglets were estimated by standard microbiological techniques. Intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6) and blood lymphocytes were used to evaluate the mitogenic activity of colostral samples taken at parturition. Results demonstrated that while the LAB population was not significantly affected by dietary treatment, significant differences in coliform population were observed in the sow faecal samples taken 7 days after parturition. Faeces excreted from sows fed FLF had significantly (P feed fed sows (53433 +/- 1568 and 1231 +/- 61.4 CPM, respectively). The combined effects of enhanced maternal/passive immunity and the reduction in the level of environmental contamination with faecal pathogens, achieved by FLF, may be important in achieving improved health status for both sows and piglets.

  6. Early gradual feeding with bovine colostrum improves gut function and NEC resistance relative to infant formula in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is unclear when and how to start enteral feeding for preterm infants when mother's milk is not available. We hypothesized that early and slow advancement of either formula or bovine colostrum stimulates gut maturation and prevents necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs, used as models fo...

  7. Breeding for feed intake capacity in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eissen, J.J.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis deals with feed intake capacity of pigs. By selection, breeding organizations try to achieve genetic improvement in production and reproduction efficiency. Future genetic improvement may become constrained by a limited feed intake capacity of growing pigs and lactating sows, respectively

  8. Effect of feeding whole compared with cell-free colostrum on calf immune status: The neonatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langel, S N; Wark, W A; Garst, S N; James, R E; McGilliard, M L; Petersson-Wolfe, C S; Kanevsky-Mullarky, I

    2015-06-01

    Mortality and decreased weight gain resulting from infection and disease in dairy calves are problems within the dairy industry. The bovine neonate relies solely on colostrum to acquire antibodies through passive transfer. To date, colostrum quality is determined by the concentration of antibodies. However, proteins and cells in the colostrum might also enhance immune development in the neonate. To determine the effect of maternal colostral immune cells on calf health and immune status, maternal colostrum was fed either fresh or after lysis of cells by flash-freezing in liquid nitrogen. Thirty-seven female Holstein and Jersey dairy calves were fed 4 quarts total of whole colostrum (WC) or cell-free colostrum (CFC) at birth. Respiratory and fecal scores were measured from birth to d 45 of life. Calf peripheral blood samples were obtained before and after feeding colostrum as well as on d 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of life. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected and analyzed for cellular parameters by flow cytometry. Total respiratory scores were greater in CFC-fed calves compared with WC-fed calves on d 38 of life. There were fewer CD4+ T cells and CD4+CD62L+CD45RO- T cells on d 1 and fewer CD4+CD62L+CD45RO+ T cells on d 1 and 3 in CFC-fed calves compared with WC-fed calves. Compared with WC-fed calves, CFC-fed calves had a greater percentage of CD4+CD62L-CD45RO+ T cells on d 0.25, 1, 3, and 7, and a greater percentage of monocytes on d 7. Our data suggest that colostral cells adoptively transfer and enhance neonatal immunity during the first month of life.

  9. Residual feed intake in beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J P.F. Arthur

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Providing feed is a major input cost in beef production, hence improvements in the efficiency of feed utilisation will reduce the cost of production. Residual feed intake (RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, and is defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake based on its size and growth. It is independent of the level of production, and the lower the value the more efficient the animal is. This paper examines the current state of knowledge on RFI. Available information indicates that postweaning RFI is moderately heritable, and that selection for low RFI will result in progeny that consume less feed for the same level of production as progeny of high RFI cattle. Under ad libitum feeding, RFI is phenotypically independent of growth traits. There is a weak genetic relationship between RFI and fatness but additional studies are needed to assess the magnitude of this relationship in different breeds, sexes, ages and feeding regimes. Residual feed intake is believed to represent inherent variation in basic metabolic processes which determine efficiency. Economic analyses of genetic improvement schemes that incorporate testing of individuals for RFI have yielded substantial economic benefits over and above existing schemes that do not include RFI testing. Selection for low RFI has an additional benefit of reducing greenhouse gas emissions by cattle.

  10. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  11. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  12. Physiological basis for residual feed intake

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herd, R. M; Arthur, P. F

    2009-01-01

    ...{at}dpi.nsw.gov.au Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency that is independent of level of production, such as size and growth rate in beef cattle, and thus is a useful new trait for studying the physiological mechanisms...

  13. Joint estimation for curves for weight, feed intake, rate of gain, and residual feed intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    Rate of gain and feed efficiency are very important traits in most breeding programs for growing farm animals. Rate of gain (GAIN) is usually expressed over a certain age period and feed efficiency is often expressed as residual feed intake (RFI), defined as observed feed intake (FI) minus expected...... feed intake based on live weight (WGT) and GAIN. In any case the basic traits recorded are always WGT and FI and other the traits are derived from these records. A bivariate longitudinal random regression model were employed on 9284 individual longitudinal records of WGT and FI from 2827 bulls of six...

  14. Influence of Feeding Pooled Colostrum or Colostrum Replacement on IgG Levels and Evaluation of Animal Plasma as a Milk Replacer Protein Source

    OpenAIRE

    Mowrey, Coleen Marie

    2001-01-01

    Newborn Holstein (n = 48) and Jersey (n = 30) calves were studied to compare the absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from maternal colostrum (n = 39) or a colostrum replacement product derived from bovine serum (n = 39). Calves were also fed milk replacer with (n = 38) or without (n = 40) animal plasma to 29 d of age to determine the effect of plasma protein on IgG status, health, and growth. Colostrum or colostrum replacement was fed at 1.05 and 13.5 h of age and provided a total of 250, 18...

  15. Effect of feeding colostrum at different volumes and subsequent number of transition milk feeds on the serum immunoglobulin G concentration and health status of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conneely, M; Berry, D P; Murphy, J P; Lorenz, I; Doherty, M L; Kennedy, E

    2014-11-01

    Transfer of sufficient IgG to the newborn calf via colostrum is vital to provide it with adequate immunological protection and resistance to disease. The objectives of the present study were to compare serum IgG concentration and health parameters of calves (1) fed different volumes of colostrum [7, 8.5, or 10% of body weight (BW)] within 2h of birth and (2) given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk (i.e., milkings 2 to 6 postcalving). Ninety-nine dairy calves were fed 7, 8.5, or 10% of BW in colostrum within 2h of birth and given 0, 2, or 4 subsequent feedings of transition milk. The concentration of IgG in the serum of calves was measured at 24, 48, 72, and 642 h of age by an ELISA. The apparent efficiency of absorption for IgG was determined. Health scores were assigned to calves twice per week and all episodes of disease were recorded. The effect of experimental treatment on calf serum IgG concentration differed by the age of the calf. Calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum had a greater mean serum IgG concentration than calves fed 7 or 10% of BW at 24, 48, and 72 h of age. At 642 h of age, serum IgG concentrations of calves fed 8.5% of BW (24.2g/L) and calves fed 10% of BW (21.6g/L) did not differ, although the serum IgG concentration of calves fed 8.5% of BW was still greater than that of calves fed 7% of BW (20.7 g/L). No difference in serum IgG concentration existed between calves fed 7% of BW and those fed 10% of BW at any age. No significant effect of number of subsequent feedings of transition milk on calf serum IgG concentration was detected. The apparent efficiency of absorption of calves fed 8.5% of BW in colostrum (38%) was greater than calves fed 7% of BW in colostrum (26%) and tended to be greater than in calves fed 10% of BW (29%). Calves fed further feedings of transition milk after the initial feeding of colostrum had a lower odds (0.62; 95% confidence interval: 0.41 to 0.93) of being assigned a worse eye/ear score (i.e., a more

  16. Effect of birth weight and colostrum intake on mortality and performance of piglets after cross-fostering in sows of different parities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, C V; Sbardella, P E; Bernardi, M L; Coutinho, M L; Vaz, I S; Wentz, I; Bortolozzo, F P

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of colostrum intake on mortality and growth performance of piglets until 42 days of age, taking into account the birth weight, and parity order of sows. Colostrum intake from birth to 24h after birth was estimated in 300 piglets each from primiparous and multiparous sows. The piglets were cross-fostered in 25 primiparous and 25 multiparous sows at 25.9±0.09 h after farrowing. The concentration of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) was determined in the sows after the end of farrowing and in the piglets before cross-fostering (24h after farrowing), at 10 and 20 days of age. For high birth weight piglets (HBW - >1.3-1.7 kg) the probability of death was low regardless of their colostrum intake. Intermediate birth weight (IBW - >1.2-1.3 kg) and low birth weight (LBW - 1.1-1.2 kg) piglets had the same probability of death compared to HBW piglets, when colostrum intake reached 200 and 250 g, respectively. The probability of low performance (colostrum intake. HBW piglets had higher weight at 14, 20, 28 and 42 days of age (PColostrum intake >250 g increased (Pcolostrum (P0.05). Piglets suckled by primiparous foster sows showed lower weight (Pcolostrum intake and serum IgG at 24 h after birth compared to surviving piglets, and lower values were also observed in piglets with low performance compared to high (>9.5 kg) performance piglets. There were no differences in serum IgG concentrations at 10 and 20 days of age (P>0.05) between high and low performance piglets. In conclusion, both colostrum intake and birth weight are important for survival and growth of suckling piglets. LBW and IBW piglets are more dependent on colostrum intake than HBW piglets to assure higher survival and better development up to 42 days of age. Piglets suckled by multiparous sows have better development than those suckled by primiparous sows.

  17. [Food intakes in breast-feeding mothers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bermond, S; Bonfante, G; Gallo, E; Oggero, R

    2001-06-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breastmilk composition is still an open issue. Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason breast feeding women usually pay attention about their alimentary practices and about their style of life during breast-feeding period. This research was conducted to verify the adequacy of lactating mother's diet in comparison with the Italian recommended daily assumption levels of nutrients (LARN 1996) for this category. We have also compared food intake of not breast feeding mothers with the LARN, and analyzed the differences between these groups of mothers. Forty-eight healthy infants were selected, 23 bottle fed, 25 breast fed. Mothers's diet in the previous 48 hours was investigated using a structured questionnaire. The data collected were processed using software Dietosystem to obtain the daily nutrient intakes. The wetnurses's diet in comparison with the LARN 1996 resulted hypocaloric and hyperproteic, deficient in Calcium, Iron, folic acid and vitamin E. Surprisingly not breast feeding mothers's intake of nutrients is closer to LARN levels than that of breast feeding mothers. Mothers are not informed enough about their alimentation during lactating period. Pediatricians must improve their knowledge about this subject and give the mothers the information they need to achieve the recommended food requirements.

  18. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis, milk production, and longevity in Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, S M; Wells, S; Donahue, M; Stabel, J; Oakes, J M; Sreevatsan, S; Fetrow, J

    2015-08-01

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled field trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. On each farm, colostrum was collected daily from fresh cows, pooled, divided into 2 aliquots, and then 1 aliquot was heat-treated in a commercial batch pasteurizer at 60°C for 60min. A sample from each batch of colostrum was collected for PCR testing (MAP-positive vs. MAP-negative). Newborn heifer calves were removed from the dam within 30 to 60min of birth and systematically assigned to be fed 3.8 L of either fresh (FR; n=434) or heat-treated (HT; n=490) colostrum within 2h of birth. After reaching adulthood (>2 yr old), study animals were tested once annually for 3 yr (2010, 2011, 2012) for infection with MAP using serum ELISA and fecal culture. Lactation records describing milk production data and death or culling events were collected during the 3-yr testing period. Multivariable model logistic and linear regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk for testing positive to MAP during the 3-yr testing period (positive/negative; logistic regression) and on first and second lactation milk yield (kg/cow; linear regression), respectively. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to investigate the effect of feeding HT colostrum on risk and time to removal from the herd. Fifteen percent of all study animals were fed PCR-positive colostrum. By the end of the 3-yr testing period, no difference was noted in the proportion of animals testing positive for MAP, with either serum ELISA or fecal culture, when comparing the HT group (10.5%) versus the FR group (8.1%). There was no effect of treatment on first- (HT=11.797kg; FR=11,671kg) or second-lactation (HT=11,013kg; FR=11,235kg) milk production. The proportion of cows leaving the herd by

  19. Genome-wide association analysis of feed intake and residual feed intake in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Miguel H A; Utsunomiya, Yuri T; Neves, Haroldo H R; Gomes, Rodrigo C; Garcia, José F; Fukumasu, Heidge; Silva, Saulo L; Oliveira Junior, Gerson A; Alexandre, Pâmela A; Leme, Paulo R; Brassaloti, Ricardo A; Coutinho, Luiz L; Lopes, Thiago G; Meirelles, Flávio V; Eler, Joanir P; Ferraz, José B S

    2014-02-11

    Feed intake plays an important economic role in beef cattle, and is related with feed efficiency, weight gain and carcass traits. However, the phenotypes collected for dry matter intake and feed efficiency are scarce when compared with other measures such as weight gain and carcass traits. The use of genomic information can improve the power of inference of studies on these measures, identifying genomic regions that affect these phenotypes. This work performed the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI) of 720 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). In general, no genomic region extremely associated with both phenotypic traits was observed, as expected for the variables that have their regulation controlled by many genes. Three SNPs surpassed the threshold for the Bonferroni multiple test for DMI and two SNPs for RFI. These markers are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 14 and 21 in regions near genes regulating appetite and ion transport and close to important QTL as previously reported to RFI and DMI, thus corroborating the literature that points these two processes as important in the physiological regulation of intake and feed efficiency. This study showed the first GWAS of DMI to identify genomic regions associated with feed intake and efficiency in Nellore cattle. Some genes and QTLs previously described for DMI and RFI, in other subspecies (Bos taurus taurus), that influences these phenotypes are confirmed in this study.

  20. Feeding heat-treated colostrum reduces morbidity in preweaned dairy calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have demonstrated that batch pasteurizers can be used on farms to heat-treat bovine colostrum at 60ºC for 60 minutes, resulting in a significant reduction in bacterial exposure to the calf while maintaining overall colostral Immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. However, studies h...

  1. Dissection of Koch's residual feed intake: implications for selection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aggrey, Samuel E; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2013-01-01

    For 50 yr, residual feed intake (RFI) has remained a black box even though many researchers have touted it as a more biological estimate of efficiency of feed utilization than feed conversion ratio (FCR...

  2. Effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on risk for infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, milk production and longevity in Holstein dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    In summer 2007, a randomized controlled clinical trial was initiated on 6 large Midwest commercial dairy farms to investigate the effect of feeding heat-treated (HT) colostrum on transmission of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis and on future milk production and longevity within the herd. ...

  3. Genetic parameters for feed intake and feed efficiency in growing dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korver, S.; Eekelen, van E.A.M.; Vos, H.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    1991-01-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency are of importance in cattle breeding programmes. A divergent selection experiment on feed intake was carried out during three generations. Young performance-tested bulls were selected on high or low dry matter roughage intake. The effective phenotypic selection

  4. International Genetic Evaluations for Feed intake in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Dognah; Coffey, Mike; Pryce, Jennie E

    2013-01-01

    Feed represents a large proportion of the variable costs in dairy production systems. The omission of feed intake measures explicitly from national dairy cow breeding objectives is predominantly due to a lack of information on which to make selection decisions. Individual cow feed intake data...... the populations representative of high input production systems...

  5. Evaluation of the transfer of immunoglobulin from colostrum anaerobic fermentation (colostrum silage) to newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Mara H; Pereira, Daniela I B; Borchardt, Jessica L; Sturbelle, Regis T; Rosa, Matheus C; Guedes, Marcio C; Gularte, Marcia A; Leite, Fábio P Leivas

    2014-11-01

    Colostrum silage is an anaerobic fermentation methodology of excess farm colostrum used to conserve and provide as milk replacement for calves. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of immunoglobulins present in bovine colostrum silage and its absorption by newborn calves. The concentration of immunoglobulins was determined in fresh colostrum and colostrum silage stored for 12 months. The absorption of immunoglobulins by calves was assessed immediately after birth and 24 h after colostrum silage intake. The immunoglobulin levels were evaluated by ELISA. The results highlighted that colostrum silage kept similar levels of immunoglobulins as the ones in colostrum in natura, and can be transferred to newborn calves with similar amounts to calves fed with colostrum in natura. It is concluded that colostrum silage keeps viable immunoglobulins, and is able to transfer passive immunity to newborn calves.

  6. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on pre-bred dairy heifer feed intake and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of pre-bred dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI), and offered diets with different energy levels. Pre-bred heifers (128, ages 4-9 months) were blocked by ...

  7. Investigations on the presence of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum of foals, prior to and after colostrum intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauš Saša

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The titer of specific antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 in blood serum was tested in two groups of mares and their foals. The first group consisted of 12 mares, Standardbred and Serbian Trotter breed, who were vaccinated against equine herpesvirus-1 and 4 in the 5th, 7th and 9th month of pregnancy. On the contrary, 12 mares from the second group, of Lipizzaner breed, were not vaccinated. The mares’ blood samples for antibodies titer investigation were taken 30, 15 and 7 days before the expected partus, then immediately after the partus, while their foals’ blood samples were taken immediately after foaling, then just before colostrum intake, and finally 1, 2, 3 and 7 days later. The titer of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 was tested by the method of virus - neutralization, on microtiter plates with constant dose of the virus and serial double dilutions of the serum. In unvaccinated mares, titer of antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 was either low or not present, but on the contrary, in the vaccinated ones the antibodies titer ranged from 1:32 to 1:256. In the foals originating from both vaccinated and unvaccinated there were not found specific antibodies in the serum before colostrum intake. After the colostrum intake, the values of specific antibodies against equine herpesvirus-1 significantly increased in the foals originating from the vaccinated mares, and ranged from 1:8 to 1:32.

  8. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows...

  9. Hematological profile of beef cattle with divergent residual feed intake, following feed deprivation

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes; Renata Farinelli de Siqueira; Michael Alan Ballou; Tiago Roberto Stella; Paulo Roberto Leme

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to characterize the hematological profiles of steers and bulls, according to residual feed intake (RFI), after feed deprivation. Twenty‑month‑old Nellore steers and bulls were fed feedlot diets for 70 and 56 days, respectively. RFI was calculated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake. More and less efficient steers and bulls, according to RFI, were subjected to 24 hours of food deprivation. Blood was sampled prior to a...

  10. Effect of selection for residual feed intake on feeding behavior and daily feed intake patterns in Yorkshire swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, J M; Cai, W; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between observed and predicted feed intake based on average requirements for growth and maintenance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of selection for decreased RFI on feeding behavior traits and to estimate their relationships with RFI. Three data sets from the 4th and 5th generations of a selection experiment with a line selected for reduced RFI (LRFI) and a randomly selected control line (CTRL) were analyzed. Lines were mixed in pens of 16 and evaluated for feeding behavior traits obtained from a single-space electronic feeder over a growing period of ~3 mo before ~115 kg. The following traits were evaluated as averages over the entire test period and over the first and second half of the test period: number of visits per day and hour; occupation time per day, visit, and hour; feed intake (FI) per day, visit, and hour; and FI rate per visit. Models used included fixed effects of line and feeder, covariates of on-test age and FI per day, and random effects of pen, on-test group, sire, and litter. Repeated measures models were used to analyze feeding patterns during the day. The LRFI pigs had significantly less FI per day than CTRL pigs for all 3 data sets. With adjustment for FI per day, line differences of all traits were in the same direction for all 3 data sets but differed in significance and size. Feed intake per visit and hour and visits per day and hour did not differ between lines, but the trend was for LRFI pigs to have fewer visits, in particular during peak eating times. The LRFI pigs had a greater feeding rate and less occupation time per day, visit, and hour than CTRL pigs, but this was not significant for all data sets. Correlations of RFI with FI per day and visit and visits per day were positive. Average daily gain was positively correlated with FI per day and visit and occupation time per visit but negatively correlated with visits per day

  11. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  12. Influence of colostrum preservation and sodium bicarbonate on performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, B F; Hodge, S E; O'Dell, G D; Ellers, J E

    1984-02-01

    Forty-eight Holstein calves were fed one of four liquid diets from 3 to 30 days of age to compare sodium benzoate, propionic acid, and formaldehyde as preservatives for colostrum. Colostrum batches were fermented at temperatures of 20 degrees C or higher. Diets were 2.73 kg of 1) naturally fermented colostrum, or colostrum treated with 2) sodium benzoate (.5% by weight), 3) propionic acid (1.0% by weight), or 4) formaldehyde (.05% by weight). Colostrum diets were diluted with .91 kg water. Prior to feeding, 25 g. sodium bicarbonate was added to liquid diets of one-half the calves on each treatment. Liquid diets were fed once daily. Water and a 15% crude protein complete starter were offered for ad libitum consumption. Calves were weaned abruptly at 30 days of age and received only water and starter from 31 to 44 days of age. Daily gain from 0 to 4 wk and 0 to 6 wk favored calves fed colostrum treated with sodium benzoate or propionic acid. Gains from 0 to 6 wk were .33, .44, .45, and .32 kg/day for the four diets, and feed efficiencies (kg dry matter intake/kg gain) were 3.23, 2.36, 2.76, and 2.89 during the same period. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to colostrum diets improved intake during the 1st wk of feeding. Gain and feed efficiency were similar during wk 0 to 4 but favored slightly calves not receiving sodium bicarbonate during the overall study, wk 0 to 6. Daily gain and efficiencies during wk 0 to 6 were .41 and 2.53 for calves without .36 and 3.01 with sodium bicarbonate added to colostrum diets.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Effect of limit feeding and genomic residual feed intake on bred dairy heifer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate growth, intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different predicted genomic residual feed intakes as lactating cows (RFI) offered diets for ad-libitum intake or limit-fed. Post-bred Holstein heifers (128, ages 14-20 months), were blocked by initi...

  14. Toward a new theory of feed intake regulation in ruminants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelaars, J.J.M.J.; Tolkamp, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    Part I of this thesis contains a critical appraisal of the commonly accepted theory with regard to feed intake regulation in ruminants and the presentation of a new theory. This new theory assumes that feed consumption creates both benefits to the animal (in a non-reproducing animal the intake of ne

  15. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  16. Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Donagh P; Lassen, Jan; de Hass, Y

    2015-01-01

    , the genetic variation in feed intake independent of animal performance is expectedly less than other performance traits. Nonetheless, exploitable genetic variation does exist and, if properly utilized, could augment further gains in feed efficiency. Genetic parameters for enteric methane (CH4) emissions...... in cattle are rare. No estimate of the genetic variation in enteric CH4 emissions independent of animal performance exists; it is the parameters for this trait that depict the scope for genetic improvement. The approach to the inclusion of feed intake or CH4 emissions in cattle breeding goals is not clear...... no explicit inclusion of environmental load (and in most instances, even feed efficiency) in these goals. Heritability of feed intake-related traits in cattle is moderate to high, implying that relatively high accuracy of selection can be achieved with relatively low information content per animal; however...

  17. Residual feed intake and breeding approaches for enteric methane mitigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berry, Donagh P; Lassen, Jan; de Hass, Y

    2015-01-01

    no explicit inclusion of environmental load (and in most instances, even feed efficiency) in these goals. Heritability of feed intake-related traits in cattle is moderate to high, implying that relatively high accuracy of selection can be achieved with relatively low information content per animal; however......, the genetic variation in feed intake independent of animal performance is expectedly less than other performance traits. Nonetheless, exploitable genetic variation does exist and, if properly utilized, could augment further gains in feed efficiency. Genetic parameters for enteric methane (CH4) emissions...... in cattle are rare. No estimate of the genetic variation in enteric CH4 emissions independent of animal performance exists; it is the parameters for this trait that depict the scope for genetic improvement. The approach to the inclusion of feed intake or CH4 emissions in cattle breeding goals is not clear...

  18. Selected hormonal and neurotransmitter mechanisms regulating feed intake in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartin, J L; Daniel, J A; Whitlock, B K; Wilborn, R R

    2010-11-01

    Appetite control is a major issue in normal growth and in suboptimal growth performance settings. A number of hormones, in particular leptin, activate or inhibit orexigenic or anorexigenic neurotransmitters within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, where feed intake regulation is integrated. Examples of appetite regulatory neurotransmitters are the stimulatory neurotransmitters neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related protein (AgRP), orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone and the inhibitory neurotransmitter, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Examination of messenger RNA (using in situ hybridization and real-time PCR) and proteins (using immunohistochemistry) for these neurotransmitters in ruminants has indicated that physiological regulation occurs in response to fasting for several of these critical genes and proteins, especially AgRP and NPY. Moreover, intracerebroventricular injection of each of the four stimulatory neurotransmitters can increase feed intake in sheep and may also regulate either growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, cortisol or other hormones. In contrast, both leptin and MSH are inhibitory to feed intake in ruminants. Interestingly, the natural melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) antagonist, AgRP, as well as NPY can prevent the inhibition of feed intake after injection of endotoxin (to model disease suppression of appetite). Thus, knowledge of the mechanisms regulating feed intake in the hypothalamus may lead to mechanisms to increase feed intake in normal growing animals and prevent the wasting effects of severe disease in animals.

  19. Influence of volume and method of administration of colostrum on total protein and eletrophoretic serum fractions in Holstein calves

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Alexandre Secorun [UNESP; Feitosa, Francisco Leydson Formiga [UNESP; F.J. Benesi; E.H. Birgel; Mendes, L. C. N. [UNESP

    2001-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the amount of colostrum (two and four liters) and methods of colostrum feeding (direct suckling from the cow, feeding colostrum using nipple bottle, and no feeding colostrum) on different blood traits. Thirty two Holstein calves (four groups of eight animals each) were randomly allotted to four treatments: treatment 1 - calves were hand fed four liters of colostrum; treatment 2 - calves were hand fed two liters of colostrum; treatment 3 - c...

  20. Growth, feed intake and body composition of ostriches (Struthio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different patterns of energy intake, growth rate, feed conversion ratio, body composition and the composition of ... was closely related to deposition rate of body fat and inversely related to energy loss as heat expenditure. ... of feed to animal tissue is expressed ... The diet was initially formulated according to poultry values.

  1. Genetic regulation of feed intake and energy balance in poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M P

    2003-06-01

    Intensive selection by poultry breeders over many generations for economically important production traits such as growth rate and meat production has been accompanied by significant changes in feed intake and energy balance. For example, the modern commercial broiler, selected for rapid growth and enhanced muscle mass, does not adequately regulate voluntary feed intake to achieve energy balance. When given unrestricted access to feed, broilers exhibit hyperphagia leading to an excessive accumulation of energy (fat) stores, making these birds prone to obesity and other health-related problems. Humoral and neural pathways have been identified and studied in mammals that link appetite and energy balance. A series of highly integrated regulatory mechanisms exists for both of these processes involving complex interactions between peripheral tissues and the central nervous system. Within the central nervous system, the brainstem and the hypothalamus play critical roles in the regulation of feed intake and energy balance. Genes encoding key regulatory factors such as hormones, neuropeptides, receptors, enzymes, transcription factors, and binding/transport proteins constitute the molecular basis for regulatory systems that derive from integrated sensing, signaling, and metabolic pathways. However, we do not yet have a complete understanding of the genetic basis for this regulation in poultry. This review examines what is currently known about the regulation of feed intake and energy balance in poultry. A better understanding of the genes associated with controlling feed intake and energy balance and how their expression is regulated by nutritional and hormonal stimuli will offer new insights into current poultry breeding and management practices.

  2. Colostrum and milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quesnel, H; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2015-01-01

    for the sow. More specifically, fetal growth, mammary growth, colostrum production and sow maintenance require substantial amounts of nutrients during late gestation. After parturition, nutrients are mainly required for milk synthesis and sow maintenance, but the regressing uterus supplies considerable...... becomes catabolic due to the high priority of milk production and to current feeding practices. Indeed, feed is changed from a gestation to a lactation diet for most sows and the feed supply typically goes from a restricted supply to an ad libitum allowance. In addition, transition sows are often exposed...... to shifts in housing, and in Europe, this shift is now associated with a change from loose group housing to individual housing. Around parturition, colostrum is being secreted and milk synthesis is initiated in the mammary glands. After the onset of lactation, milk composition changes, especially during...

  3. Grazed grass herbage intake and performance of beef heifers with predetermined phenotypic residual feed intake classification

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lawrence, P; Kenny, D A; Earley, B; McGee, M

    2012-01-01

    ... behaviour were measured for all heifers. Phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated for each animal as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI during the indoor winter period...

  4. Selection response and genetic parameters for residual feed intake in Yorkshire swine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cai, W; Casey, D. S; Dekkers, J. C. M

    ...{at}iastate.edu Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between the observed feed intake and that predicted from the average requirements for growth and maintenance...

  5. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig

    OpenAIRE

    Bidanel, Jean Pierre; Billon, Yvon; Lagant, Herve; Guillouet, Philippe; Sellier, Pierre; NOBLET, Jean; Hermesch,

    2012-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements. Selection experiments have found that low RFI in the growing pig is genetically correlated with reduced fatness and feed intake. Selection for feed conversion ratio also reduces sow appetite and fatness, which, together with increased prolificacy, has been seen as a hindrance for so...

  6. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  7. Food intakes in a group of breast-feeding and not breast-feeding mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, F; Bonfante, G; Muratore, M C; Peltran, A; Cresi, F; Mostert, M; Oggero, R

    2000-01-01

    The relation between mother's diet and breast milk composition is still an open question. An important issue is whether mothers who are breast feeding modify, respect to before lactation, food intake to satisfy the increased requirements.

  8. Implementation of Health Education, Based on Ethnographic Study, to Increase the Colostrum and Decrease Early Solid Food Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiryo, Hananto; Hakimi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Traditionally, mothers provide banana to their neonates as well as discharge their colostrum prior to breastfeeding, increasing the risk of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Health education modules, based on ethnographic study, to discourage these detrimental practices were developed for use by community leaders. Two thousand six hundred and…

  9. Short communication : Validation of genomic breeding value predictions for feed intake and feed efficiency traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pryce, J.E.; Wales, W.J.; Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Hayes, B.J.; Coffey, M.P.; Marett, L.C.; Bornhill, J.B.; Gonzalez-Recio, O.

    2014-01-01

    Validating genomic prediction equations in independent populations is an important part of evaluating genomic selection. Published genomic predictions from 2 studies on (1) residual feed intake and (2) dry matter intake (DMI) were validated in a cohort of 78 multiparous Holsteins from Australia. The

  10. Residual Feed Intake and its Effect on Salmonella enteritidis Infection in Growing Layer Hens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, van E.; Brand, van den H.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Parmentier, H.K.; Jong, de M.C.M.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    Previous phenotypic selection on residual feed intake (RFI) identified 20 efficient R- chickens and 20 nonefficient R+ chickens. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed feed intake (FI) and expected FI based on metabolic BW and BW gain, and was used as a measure for feed

  11. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein deposition in pigs fed ... of 82 genetically lean and 90 obese Landrace pigs was allotted to three dietary ... Diets were fed ad libitum from 8 weeks of age up to slaughter for whole body ...

  12. Factors associated with feed intake of Angus steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estimates of variance components were obtained from 475 records of average (AFI) and residual feed intake (RFI). Covariates in various (8) models included average daily gain (G), age (A) and weight (W) on test, and slaughter (S) and ultrasound (U) carcass measures (fat thickness, ribeye area and ma...

  13. Exploring breeding opportunities for reduced thermal sensitivity of feed intake in the lactating sow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, R.; Hermesch, S.

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate the effects of climatic variables on daily feed intake of lactating sows and, second, to establish whether the response of sows to variation in temperature on feed intake during lactation was heritable. A total of 82,614 records for daily feed intake d

  14. Effects of residual feed intake classification and method of alfalfa processing on ewe intake and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redden, R R; Surber, L M M; Grove, A V; Kott, R W

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of residual feed intake (RFI) determined under ad libitum feeding conditions on DMI and performance of yearling ewes fed either chopped or pelleted alfalfa hay. In Exp. 1, 45 ewe-lambs had ad libitum access to a pelleted grower diet for 63 d and individual DMI was determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Residual feed intake values were assigned to each ewe-lamb as a measure of feed efficiency. Sixteen ewe-lambs with the most positive RFI values were classified as high RFI (inefficient) and 16 ewe-lambs with the most negative RFI values were classified as low RFI (efficient). In Exp. 2, half of the ewes from each efficiency group were placed into 1 of 2 pens and provided ad libitum access to either pelleted or chopped alfalfa hay. Individual DMI was again determined using an electronic feed delivery system. Body weight, LM area (LMA), and 12th-rib back fat thickness (BF) were measured at the beginning and end of both experiments. In Exp. 1, DMI by ewe-lambs in the low RFI group was 9% less (P = 0.01) than by ewe-lambs in the high RFI group (2.21 vs. 2.43 kg/d); however, ADG and initial and final BW, LMA, and BF did not differ (P > 0.27) among RFI groups. In Exp. 2, there were no feed processing × RFI group interactions (P > 0.14) for any trait. By design, RFI values were lower (P intake was 22% less (P 0.45) between RFI groups but were greater (P intake and efficiency were more apparent when alfalfa was pelleted.

  15. Efficiency of energy utilisation and voluntary feed intake in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkamp, B J

    2010-07-01

    Energy requirements of animals are most readily expressed in terms of net energy (NE), while the energy yield of feed is, at least initially, expressed in terms of metabolisable energy (ME). Energy evaluation systems 'translate' NE requirements into ME requirements (ME systems) or assign NE values to feeds (NE systems). Efficiency of ME utilisation is higher for maintenance than for production and the NE yield of a feed varies, therefore, with ME intake. In addition, energetic efficiency for maintenance and production is thought to be different for lactating and non-lactating animals and to be affected by diet quality. As a result, there are currently many national energy evaluation systems that are complex, differ in their approach and are, as a result, difficult to compare. As ruminants in most production systems are fed ad libitum, this is also the most appropriate intake level at which to estimate energetic efficiency. Analyses of older as well as more recent data suggest that ad libitum feeding (i) abolishes the effects of diet quality on energetic efficiency (almost) completely, (ii) abolishes the differences between lactating and non-lactating animals (almost) entirely and (iii) results in overall energetic efficiencies that are always close to 0.6. The paper argues that there is now sufficient information to develop an international energy evaluation system for ad libitum fed ruminants. Such a system should (i) unify ME and NE systems, (ii) avoid the systematic bias and large errors that can be associated with current systems (iii) be simpler than current systems and (iv) have as a starting point a constant efficiency of ME utilisation, with a value of around 0.6. The remarkably constant efficiency of ME utilisation in ad libitum fed ruminants could be the result of energetic efficiency as well as feed intake regulation being affected by the same variables or of a direct role of energetic efficiency in feed intake regulation. Models to predict intake on the

  16. Colostrum from Different Animal Species – A Product for Health Status Enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Mirela Ahmadi; Oana Boldura; Cornelia Milovanov; Dorel Dronca; Călin Mircu; Ioan Hutu; Sorina Popescu; Ioan Padeanu; Camelia Tulcan

    2016-01-01

    The first milk after birth is also known as colostrum. The composition of animal and human colostrum depends very much on different factors such as: animal species, animal breed and genetical characteristics, feeding program, diet. Bovine colostrum is used in different therapies due to its composition in nutraceuticals, but also because the cow gives high quantity colostrum compared to other animal species (goats or ewes). The immunological properties of colostrum are acknowledged in various ...

  17. Genetic aspects of feed intake and efficiency in lactating dairy heifers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Nieuwhof, G.J.; Vos, H.; Korver, S.

    1991-01-01

    In 1982, an experiment was initiated to study the relationships between feed intake and feed efficiency of young AI bulls, growing heifers and lactating heifers. This paper focuses on the genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and efficiency of lactating heifers. Measurements of feed

  18. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P feed efficiency.

  19. Hematological profile of beef cattle with divergent residual feed intake, following feed deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to characterize the hematological profiles of steers and bulls, according to residual feed intake (RFI, after feed deprivation. Twenty‑month‑old Nellore steers and bulls were fed feedlot diets for 70 and 56 days, respectively. RFI was calculated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake. More and less efficient steers and bulls, according to RFI, were subjected to 24 hours of food deprivation. Blood was sampled prior to and following the withdrawal period. Hematological analyses included total and differential white blood cell count, red blood cell count and morphology, and plasma glucose concentration. Variation in RFI did not influence plasma glucose concentration or blood cell profiles. Glucose concentrations in bulls decreased from 114 to 97 mg dL‑1, but remained unchanged in steers, and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio increased from 0.39 to 0.57 following deprivation. Hematological profiles do not differ between more and less efficient steers and bulls, according to RFI.

  20. Colostrum from Different Animal Species – A Product for Health Status Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirela Ahmadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The first milk after birth is also known as colostrum. The composition of animal and human colostrum depends very much on different factors such as: animal species, animal breed and genetical characteristics, feeding program, diet. Bovine colostrum is used in different therapies due to its composition in nutraceuticals, but also because the cow gives high quantity colostrum compared to other animal species (goats or ewes. The immunological properties of colostrum are acknowledged in various studies. Due to its immunoglobiline content, it is an alternative therapy in immunity enhancement. Colostrum is also used in athletes’ supplementation plan with very good results in their competition performance. Dry matter composition of cow, goat and ewe’s colostrum can give very good information about the nutritional composition, especially proteins. Thus, proteins, lipids, minerals, vitamins are significantly higher in colostrum right after parturition and decrease very much in time in mature milk. Lactose – in most of the studies – presents an increase in concentration from colostrum to milk. Our study reflects the highest content of dry matter in ewe colostrum, with significant decrease in goat and cow. Total lipid content was highest also in ewe’s colostrum, lower in cow’s, and the lowest in goat colostrum. In most samples, minerals (copper, manganese, zinc had – the highest concentration in colostrum milking with a decrese from the 6 hour colostrum to the 48 hour colostrum collected after parturition. Iron composition increases in ewe colostrum from the 6 hours to 48 hours.

  1. Dissection of Koch's residual feed intake: implications for selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrey, Samuel E; Rekaya, Romdhane

    2013-10-01

    For 50 yr, residual feed intake (RFI) has remained a black box even though many researchers have touted it as a more biological estimate of efficiency of feed utilization than feed conversion ratio (FCR). We successfully dissected the efficiency of feed utilization by decomposing the components of RFI and ascertained the contributions of its components. Currently, a fixed effect model is used to predict RFI, which we term RFIF. We used a random effect model to predict RFIR, which allowed a separate estimation of RFI for maintenance (RFIM) and for growth (RFIG) and also ascertained their respective efficiencies. Judged by residual variance, R(2) and deviance information criterion, the random effect model was superior to the traditional fixed effect model used to generate RFIF. Under the traditional method, the h(2) of RFIF was 0.13 but h(2) of RFIR was 0.35. The heritability of RFIM and RFIG were moderate (~0.50), but the genetic correlation between them was highly negative (-0.95), suggesting that these 2 efficiencies contribute in an opposing way toward RFI. As a result, there should be caution in ascribing a biological basis to RFI. Under the current methodology, a biological basis can be ascribed to RFIM and RFIG. Selecting on RFIM will lead to smaller but efficient birds. The genetic gains in feed efficiency will be achieved by reductions in feed required for maintenance. The RFIG is not an efficiency parameter and should not be used as a sole criterion for selection. The ability of the current method to estimate efficiency values for metabolic BW and BW gain provides geneticists with additional parameters to use to discriminate between animals with similar RFIR. It also provides the flexibility to impose weights on RFIM and RFIG to meet a desired objective.

  2. Residual feed intake: a nutritional tool for genetic improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Paula, Ney Rômulo Oliveira; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Rêgo, Wagner Martins Fontes

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this bibliographical study was to provide information about residual feed intake (RFI), a new criterion used in the selection of beef cattle for growth rate, food ingestion, and feed efficiency. RFI is calculated as the difference between real consumption and the quantity of food an animal is expected to eat based on its mean live weight and rate of weight gain. In studies of RFI, many speculations are made among researchers about the reliability of this criterion. However, there is a high genetic correlation with characteristics related to post-weaning consumption and maturity, indicating that the biological processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in young animals are similar to the processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in animals of greater age. In contrast to feed conversion, selection based on RFI seems to select for lower rates of consumption and lower animal maintenance requirements without changing adult weight or weight gain. Therefore, we conclude that the data indicate that there are extraordinary benefits to be gained from changing the goals of selection from increased weight gain to improved nutritional efficiency. Given the importance of animal production for economic development in Brazil choosing the best selection goals for livestock improvement is essential. To include an index of feed efficiency in future goals would be desirable, and RFI may play a part in this if economic methods of implementation can be developed.

  3. Effect of diet energy level and genomic residual feed intake on dairy heifer performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of dairy heifers with different genomically predicted residual feed intakes (RFI), and offered diets differing in energy density. Post-bred Holstein heifers (N=128; ages 14-20 months) were blocked by initial we...

  4. Technical note: A model to estimate individual feed intake of swine in group feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, M D; Kim, B G

    2007-04-01

    In most animal growth experiments, groups of animals are housed within a pen. Occasionally, an individual animal shows a very different growth rate than its pen mates or dies during the experiment. When this happens, if pen feed intake (PFI) cannot be reestimated for the calculation of ADFI and feed efficiency, an observation will be lost from the data set. Therefore, we propose a model to estimate individual feed intake (IFI) of pigs in group feeding, with subsequent validation of the model using group feeding simulation studies. In the proposed model, the feed intake (FI) of each affected pen is partitioned into FI for maintenance (FI(m)) and FI for growth (FI(g)) for each animal within that pen. First, individual pig FI(m) for the period is calculated using the 1998 National Research Council estimation of ME for maintenance. Then, FI(m) for all pigs in the pen is summed. The difference between the summed FI(m) and the total PFI is that which supported growth in the pen. Next, FI(g) is calculated by apportioning the remaining feed equally to each unit of gain within the pen. Finally, the estimated IFI for the pig being removed from the pen is the sum of FI(m) and FI(g) for that pig; this FI estimate is subtracted from the original PFI to leave the new PFI for the remaining pigs. The validity of the estimated IFI is dependent on the accuracy of the maintenance energy equation and the energy analysis of the feedstuffs. In simulation studies, we compared the accuracy of the proposed method with 2 other methods. In simulation study 1, the proposed model showed better accuracy than at least one of the other methods during all tested periods (P Excel spreadsheet containing macros for FI correction. All of the calculation procedures in the proposed model are included within the feed intake correction spreadsheet. The Excel file and instructions are being made available via a Web site.

  5. Systems genetics and genome-wide association approaches for analysis of feed intake, feed efficiency, and performance in beef cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santana, M. H. A.; Freua, M. C.; Do, D. N.

    2016-01-01

    and 943,577 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a genome-wide association analysis was performed for dry matter intake, average daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio, and residual feed intake with a Bayesian Lasso procedure. Genes within 50-kb SNPs, most relevant for explaining the genomic variance......Feed intake, feed efficiency, and weight gain are important economic traits of beef cattle in feed lots. In the present study, we investigated the physiological processes underlying such traits from the point of view of systems genetics. Firstly, using data from 1334 Nellore (Bos indicus) cattle...... phenotypes and showed that almost all genomic variances were in the SNPs located in the intergenic and intronic regions. We further identified five main metabolic pathways related to ion transport, body composition, and feed intake control, which influenced the four phenotypes simultaneously. The systems...

  6. Deriving Genomic Breeding Values for Residual Feed Intake from Covariance Functions of Random Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Strathe, Anders B; Mark, Thomas; Nielsen, Bjarne; Do, Duy Ngoc; KADARMIDEEN, Haja N.; Jensen, Just

    2014-01-01

    Random regression models were used to estimate covariance functions between cumulated feed intake (CFI) and body weight (BW) in 8424 Danish Duroc pigs. Random regressions on second order Legendre polynomials of age were used to describe genetic and permanent environmental curves in BW and CFI. Based on covariance functions, residual feed intake (RFI) was defined and derived as the conditional genetic variance in feed intake given mid-test breeding value for BW and rate of gain. The heritabili...

  7. Gastrointestinal and metabolic effects of feeding schedule on voluntary feed intake and growth of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Goedegebuur, B.J.; Bloemhof, G.; Flach, R.B.; Jong, de G.D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Gastrointestinal and metabolic influences on short- and medium-term control of voluntary feed intake of European eel were investigated for groups of fish fed at different feeding schedules: 1 meal 2 days(-1), 1 meal day(-1), 2 meals day(-1) and continuous feeding for 12 h and 24 h daily. For fish fe

  8. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ngoc Do, Duy; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2014-01-01

    Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual...... daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions...

  9. Growth performance, feed digestibility, body composition, and feeding behavior of high- and low-residual feed intake fat-tailed lambs under moderate feed restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaei Sharifabadi, H; Naserian, A A; Valizadeh, R; Nassiry, M R; Bottje, W G; Redden, R R

    2016-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate feed restriction on productivity of lambs classified on the basis of phenotypic expression of residual feed intake (RFI). In Exp. 1, 58 fat-tailed Kurdi ram lambs (32.1 ± 4.2 kg BW) were individually fed, ad libitum, a pelleted diet (35% alfalfa hay and 65% concentrate). Feed intake and ADG were determined for a 6-wk period and 3 feed efficiency measures including RFI, G:F, and partial efficiency of maintenance (PEM) were calculated. The lambs were sorted based on RFI and the 16 highest RFI (RFI ≥ mean + 0.5 SD) and 16 lowest RFI (RFI ≤ mean - 0.5 SD) lambs were subjected to body composition (BC) and DM digestibility (DMD) analysis. Feeding behavior traits (FB) were also evaluated for 24 h using a regular 5-min interval observation method. The high- and low-RFI lambs (14 lambs/RFI group) so classified in Exp. 1 were used in Exp. 2. Half of the lambs in each RFI group were randomly selected to be fed ad libitum or 85% of ad libitum (restricted feeding), which resulted in 4 experimental groups: 1) ad libitum high-RFI, 2) feed restricted high-RFI, 3) ad libitum low-RFI, and 4) feed restricted low-RFI. The lambs were fed the same diet as Exp. 1, and growth efficiency during a 6-wk test period as well as BC, DMD, and FB were also determined in Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the low-RFI lambs consumed 14% ( feed than high-RFI lambs. Differences were also observed between high- and low-RFI groups for G:F ( = 0.01), RFI ( 0.72), and FB ( > 0.24). In Exp.2, the restriction feeding regime negatively affected ADG ( feed restriction condition. No effects of feed restriction on DMD ( = 0.87) and BC ( > 0.05) were observed. The lambs fed at the restricted level of intake presented a greater time ( feeding events were decreased ( feed restriction, no interaction ( > 0.05) was detected between RFI phenotype and feeding regime for FB. In summary, feeding high-RFI lambs at 85% of ad libitum level improved G:F with no effect

  10. 初乳饲喂时间和量对新生犊牛腹泻的影响%Influence of Feeding Amount and Time of Colostrum on Diarrhea in Newborn Calves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳科; 李超; 段一新; 代少华; 董强; 靳亚平

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨初乳饲喂时间和饲喂量对奶牛犊牛腹泻发病率的影响,随机选取48头健康新生犊牛,将其分为6组,每组8头,对照组(初乳/体重为10%,初乳饲喂时间为产后1.0 h),试验组 A(初乳/体重为9%,初乳饲喂时间为产后1.0 h),试验组 B(初乳/体重为11%,初乳饲喂时间为产后1.0 h),试验组Ⅰ(初乳/体重为10%,初乳饲喂时间为产后0.5 h),试验组Ⅱ(初乳/体重为10%,初乳饲喂时间为产后1.5 h),试验组Ⅲ(初乳/体重为10%,初乳饲喂时间为产后2.0 h)。各组的犊牛分别于出生时(0 d)和断奶时(60 d)空腹称重,观察并记录犊牛腹泻情况。结果表明,对照组、试验组 A、试验组 B、试验组Ⅰ、试验组Ⅱ和试验组Ⅲ的犊牛腹泻发病率分别为37.5%、20%、0%、0%、62.5%和50%,试验组 B 和试验组Ⅰ的腹泻发病率显著低于对照组和其他试验组。因此,初乳饲喂时间为1.0 h,初乳/体重为11%;饲喂时间0.5 h,初乳/体重为10%两种情况可有效降低新生犊牛腹泻发病率。%To investigate the influence of feeding amount and time of colostrum the diarrhea in calves,48 newborn calves were randomly selected and divided into 6 groups as following:control group (colostrum/weight is 10%,feeding time is 1.0 h after delivery),experimental group A (colostrum/weight is 9%,feed-ing time is 1.0 h),experimental group B (colostrum/weight is 11%,feeding time is 1.0 h),experimental group Ⅰ (colostrum/weight is 10%,feeding time is 0.5 h),experimental group Ⅱ (colostrum/weight is 10%,feeding time is 1.5 h),experimental group Ⅲ (colostrum/weight is 10%,feeding time is 1.5 h).All the calves were weighted at 0 d and 60 d (at weaning).Diarrhea and growth performance were observed and recorded.The result showed that calf diarrhea morbidity of the control group,experimental group A

  11. Effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to garlic and aniseed flavour on pre- and postweaning feed intake in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, P.; Bolhuis, J.E.; Laurenssen, B.F.A.

    2007-01-01

    The low nutrient intake shortly after weaning is a major cause of post-weaning problems. Feed intake after weaning is strongly related to feed intake during lactation. Feed intake during lactation, however, varies considerably between litters. We hypothesised that prenatal and postnatal exposure to

  12. Immunological parameters and residual feed intake of Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleisy Ferreira Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The residual feed intake (RFI is a parameter used in the identification of animals with respect to more efficient feed utilization. However, physiological basis are still unknown, however, the interrelationships between nutrition an immunity of the animal can contribute to the investigation of biological phenomena relevant to the RFI, since the defense system to oxidative effects caused by free radicals, is formed by acid polyunsaturated fatty acids, water soluble substances and enzymes, which derive mainly from the use of nutrients in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunological parameters of Nellore heifers classified according to RFI. It were evaluated 176 heifers (born between 2008 and 2010, Traditional Nellore herd from Instituto de Zootecnia - Sertãozinho/SP, forming three groups of evaluation, submitted to test post weaning feed efficiency and classified into high (> mean + 0.5 SD, n= 55, medium (± 0.5 SD, n= 65 and low RFI (< mean – 0.5 SD, n= 56. The diet was formulated based on Brachiaria decumbens hay, corn, cottonseed meal and mineral mixture (45:55, forage: concentrate. The weight of the animals were performed in fasting blood samples collected by venipuncture vein, using tubes of 10 ml type vacuntainer with EDTA anticoagulant. In the clinical laboratory, we measured the values of leukocytes (LEU; Targeted (SEG and lymphocytes (LIN. The experimental design was a randomized block design using PROC GLM of SAS, considering the fixed effects of year and the age covariate in the statistical model and the averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no significant difference (P>0,005 between variables leukocyte (LEU, SEG and LIN and class of RFI (table 1, indicating that there is no distinction between animals more efficient (low RFI and less efficient (high RFI, for inflammatory and immune responses to oxidative effects. Therefore the variables measured leukocytes not explain the differences

  13. Herbal adaptogens combined with protein fractions from bovine colostrum and hen egg yolk reduce liver TNF-α expression and protein carbonylation in Western diet feeding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobley, C Brooks; Toedebusch, Ryan G; Lockwood, Christopher M; Heese, Alexander J; Zhu, Conan; Krieger, Anna E; Cruthirds, Clayton L; Hofheins, John C; Company, Joseph M; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kim, Dae Y; Booth, Frank W; Roberts, Michael D

    2014-01-01

    We examined if a purported anti-inflammatory supplement (AF) abrogated Western-diet (WD)-induced liver pathology in rats. AF contained: 1) protein concentrates from bovine colostrum and avian egg yolk; 2) herbal adaptogens and antioxidants; and 3) acetyl-L-carnitine. Nine month-old male Brown Norway rats were allowed ad libitum access to WD for 41-43 days and randomly assigned to WD + AF feeding twice daily for the last 31-33 days (n = 8), or WD and water-placebo feeding twice daily for the last 31-33 days (n = 8). Rats fed a low-fat/low-sucrose diet (CTL, n = 6) for 41-43 days and administered a water-placebo twice daily for the last 31-33 days were also studied. Twenty-four hours following the last gavage-feed, liver samples were analyzed for: a) select mRNAs (via RT-PCR) as well as genome-wide mRNA expression patterns (via RNA-seq); b) lipid deposition; and, c) protein carbonyl and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Serum was also examined for TAC, 8-isoprostane and clinical chemistry markers. WD + AF rats experienced a reduction in liver Tnf-α mRNA (-2.8-fold, p < 0.01). Serum and liver TAC was lower in WD + AF versus WD and CTL rats (p < 0.05), likely due to exogenous antioxidant ingredients provided through AF as evidenced by a tendency for mitochondrial SOD2 mRNA to increase in WD + AF versus CTL rats (p = 0.07). Liver fat deposition nor liver protein carbonyl content differed between WD + AF versus WD rats, although liver protein carbonyls tended to be lower in WD + AF versus CTL rats (p = 0.08). RNA-seq revealed that 19 liver mRNAs differed between WD + AF versus WD when both groups were compared with CTL rats (+/- 1.5-fold, p < 0.01). Bioinformatics suggest that AF prevented WD-induced alterations in select genes related to the transport and metabolism of carbohydrates in favor of select genes related to lipid transport and metabolism. Finally, serum clinical safety markers and liver pathology

  14. Feed intake of gilts following intracerebroventicular injection of the novel hypothalamic RFamide (RFa) neuropeptide, 26RFa

    Science.gov (United States)

    RFamide (RFa) peptides have been implicated in a broad spectrum of biological processes including energy expenditure and feed intake. 26RFa is a recently discovered hypothalamic neuropeptide that altered the release of pituitary hormones and stimulated feed intake via a NPY-specific mechanism in rat...

  15. Quality of foraging material and the effect on hens feed intake, egg production and - quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Hammershøj, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August......In a project with organic egg laying hens, the effect of different kind of foraging material was studied on feed intake, egg-production and -quality. Udgivelsesdato: August...

  16. Regulation of feed intake in sheep. The role of hormones and metabolites.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuvenink, H.G.D.

    1998-01-01

    In the search for factors involved in the regulation of feed intake, many experiments have been performed in various species. In ruminants, very little is known about the physiological background of the mechanisms involved in feed intake regulation. In earlier experiments, much attention was paid to

  17. Partial-genome evaluation of postweaning feed intake and efficiency of crossbred beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), and variation explained by sets of SNP associated with dry matter intake (DMI), metabolic mid-test weight (MBW), BW gain (GN) and feed efficiency expressed as phenotypic and genetic residual feed intake (RFIp; RFIg) were estimated from wei...

  18. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI), residual feed intake (RFI), average daily gain (ADG), mid-period body weight (MBW), gain to feed ratio (G:F) and flight speed (FS) were estimated using 1165 steers from a mixed-breed population using restricted maximum likelihood methodology applied to...

  19. An Evaluation of Residual Feed Intake Estimates Obtained with Computer Models Versus Empirical Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Data on individual daily feed intake, bi-weekly BW, and carcass composition were obtained on 1,212 crossbred steers, in Cycle VII of the Germplasm Evaluation Project at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center. Within animal regressions of cumulative feed intake and BW on linear and quadratic days on fe...

  20. Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

  1. Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake stability in rabbit males reduce sperm abnormalities and improve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L

    2016-08-01

    Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake (DFI) stability in rabbit males could be useful to ensure successful coverage of their nutritional requirements and for continued production of quality semen. To evaluate two feeding systems designed to reduce DFI variability, 115 rabbit males at age 1.2 years were randomly assigned to three different treatments for 294 days: CS, animals fed ad libitum with a control diet (127-g starch and 281-g total soluble fiber [hemicellulose + soluble fiber] kg(-1) dry matter); SF, males fed ad libitum with diet enriched in soluble fiber (86-g starch and 330-g total soluble fiber kg(-1) dry matter); and R, animals fed with CS diet but daily restricted to maintenance requirements. Feed intake, body weight, body condition, and variability of DFI were controlled every 42 days, and individual semen volume and sperm motility, concentration, acrosome status, and abnormalities every 15 days. In six commercial farms, the number of females inseminated, pregnant and kindling, as well as the number of kits born alive, was registered for 15,893 inseminations with pooled semen from each treatment. DFI was significantly lower for R males than for the other treatments (on average, -12 ± 4 g/day; P rabbit males may be useful to fit their needs and provide a constant daily supply of nutrients, with some sperm morphologic characteristics being improved, as well as the fertility of their pooled semen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Deriving Genomic Breeding Values for Residual Feed Intake from Covariance Functions of Random Regression Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders B; Mark, Thomas; Nielsen, Bjarne

    . Based on covariance functions, residual feed intake (RFI) was defined and derived as the conditional genetic variance in feed intake given mid-test breeding value for BW and rate of gain. The heritability of RFI over the entire period was 0.36, but more interestingly, the genetic variance of RFI was 6......Random regression models were used to estimate covariance functions between cumulated feed intake (CFI) and body weight (BW) in 8424 Danish Duroc pigs. Random regressions on second order Legendre polynomials of age were used to describe genetic and permanent environmental curves in BW and CFI......% of the genetic variance in feed intake, revealing that a minor component of feed intake was genetically independent of maintenance and growth. In conclusion, the approach derived herein led to a consistent definition of RFI, where genomic breeding values were easily obtained...

  3. Heat-treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms: Effects on colostrum characteristics and calf health and performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to describe the effect of heat-treatment, at 60 deg C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and IgG concentration, and describe the effect of feeding heat-treated colostrum on preweaning calf health and performance. The study design was a randomized controlled clinical tri...

  4. Carbohydrate supplements and their effects on pasture dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and blood factors associated with intake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, A J; Kay, J K; Roche, J R

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeds are offered to grazing dairy cows to increase dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes; however, offering feed supplements reduces pasture DM intake, a phenomenon known as substitution. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in blood factors associated with intake regulation in monogastric species in pasture-fed dairy cows supplemented with either a starch- or nonforage fiber-based concentrate. Fifteen multiparous Friesian × Jersey cross cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at calving. Measurements were undertaken in wk 8 of lactation. Treatments were pasture only, pasture plus a starch-based concentrate (3.5 kg of DM/cow per day; STA), and pasture plus a nonforage fiber-based concentrate (4.4 kg of DM/cow per day). Pelleted concentrates were fed at an isoenergetic rate in 2 equal portions at a.m. and p.m. milkings. Measurements were undertaken to investigate differences in pasture DM intake, feeding behavior, and profiles of blood factors for 4h after a.m. and p.m. milkings, the periods of intensive feeding in grazing cows. Supplementing cows with STA concentrate reduced pasture DM intake to a greater extent than the fiber concentrate, although time spent eating did not differ between treatments. The blood factor response to feeding differed between the a.m. and p.m. feeding events. Blood factors associated with a preprandial or fasted state were elevated prefeeding in the a.m. and declined following feeding, whereas satiety factors increased. In comparison, the blood factor response to feeding in the p.m. differed, with responses to feeding delayed for most factors. Plasma ghrelin concentration increased during the p.m. feeding event, despite the consumption of feed and the positive energy state remaining from the previous a.m. feeding, indicating that environmental factors (e.g., sunset) supersede physiological cues in regulating feeding behavior. The greater reduction in pasture DM intake for the STA treatment

  5. Feed intake and competition in ewes on ad libitum or semi-restricted feeding of grass silage and hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bøe, K E; Ottosen, A M; Andersen, I L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate the effect of feeding level and type of roughage on feed intake, feeding behavior and competition of ewes. A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted with amount of roughage available (ad libitum or semi restricted) and type of roughage (grass silage or hay) as main factors. Forty-eight ewes were randomly assigned to 8 groups of 6 ewes. All groups were subjected to all 4 treatments, each treatment period lasted 7 d, and the order of treatments was rotated systematically. The ewes were video recorded for the 2 last days of each treatment period and feeding and general activity were scored every 10 min. All aggressive interactions and displacement at the feed barrier were scored continuously the first 3 h after feeding. Daily feed intake (P less time feeding (P < 0.0001), had a greater individual variation in feeding time (P < 0.05) and spent more time queuing for feed (standing maximum 1.5 m from the feeding barrier with the head towards the feed; P < 0.0001). Individual data showed that 5 ewes fed hay and 3 ewes fed silage reduced their time spent feeding more than 50% when the feeding level was reduced. When fed hay, the level of feeding did not affect number of aggressive interactions or displacements, but when fed silage the number of aggressive interactions (P < 0.01) and the number of displacements (P < 0.05) were much greater in the semi-restricted than in the ad libitum treatment. We conclude that even a minor restriction in the level of feeding will decrease time spent feeding and increase queuing and number of aggressive interactions when feeding space is also restricted, and that the increase in aggressive interactions is mainly for ewes fed grass silage.

  6. Ontogenic Changes of Villus Growth, Lactase Activity, and Intestinal Glucose Transporters in Preterm and Term Born Calves with or without Prolonged Colostrum Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff-Wagner, Julia; Schönhusen, Ulrike; Zitnan, Rudolf; Hudakova, Monika; Pfannkuche, Helga; Hammon, Harald M

    2015-01-01

    Oral glucose supply is important for neonatal calves to stabilize postnatal plasma glucose concentration. The objective of this study was to investigate ontogenic development of small intestinal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporter in calves (n = 7 per group) that were born either preterm (PT; delivered by section 9 d before term) or at term (T; spontaneous vaginal delivery) or spontaneously born and fed colostrum for 4 days (TC). Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, protein concentration of mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV), total DNA and RNA concentration of mucosa, mRNA expression and activity of lactase, and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1) and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) in mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and immunochemical localization of GLUT2 in the enterocytes were determined. Villus height in distal jejunum was lower in TC than in T. Crypt depth in all segments was largest and the villus height/crypt depth ratio in jejunum was smallest in TC calves. Concentration of RNA was highest in duodenal mucosa of TC calves, but neither lactase mRNA and activity nor SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA and protein expression differed among groups. Localization of GLUT2 in the apical membrane was greater, whereas in the basolateral membrane was lower in TC than in T and PT calves. Our study indicates maturation processes after birth for mucosal growth and trafficking of GLUT2 from the basolateral to the apical membrane. Minor differences of mucosal growth, lactase activity, and intestinal glucose transporters were seen between PT and T calves, pointing at the importance of postnatal maturation and feeding for mucosal growth and GLUT2 trafficking.

  7. Ontogenic Changes of Villus Growth, Lactase Activity, and Intestinal Glucose Transporters in Preterm and Term Born Calves with or without Prolonged Colostrum Feeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Steinhoff-Wagner

    Full Text Available Oral glucose supply is important for neonatal calves to stabilize postnatal plasma glucose concentration. The objective of this study was to investigate ontogenic development of small intestinal growth, lactase activity, and glucose transporter in calves (n = 7 per group that were born either preterm (PT; delivered by section 9 d before term or at term (T; spontaneous vaginal delivery or spontaneously born and fed colostrum for 4 days (TC. Tissue samples from duodenum and proximal, mid, and distal jejunum were taken to measure villus size and crypt depth, protein concentration of mucosa and brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV, total DNA and RNA concentration of mucosa, mRNA expression and activity of lactase, and mRNA expression of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-1 (SGLT1 and facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2 in mucosal tissue. Additionally, protein expression of SGLT1 in BBMV and GLUT2 in crude mucosal membranes and immunochemical localization of GLUT2 in the enterocytes were determined. Villus height in distal jejunum was lower in TC than in T. Crypt depth in all segments was largest and the villus height/crypt depth ratio in jejunum was smallest in TC calves. Concentration of RNA was highest in duodenal mucosa of TC calves, but neither lactase mRNA and activity nor SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA and protein expression differed among groups. Localization of GLUT2 in the apical membrane was greater, whereas in the basolateral membrane was lower in TC than in T and PT calves. Our study indicates maturation processes after birth for mucosal growth and trafficking of GLUT2 from the basolateral to the apical membrane. Minor differences of mucosal growth, lactase activity, and intestinal glucose transporters were seen between PT and T calves, pointing at the importance of postnatal maturation and feeding for mucosal growth and GLUT2 trafficking.

  8. Effect of supplementing sows' feed with alpha-tocopherol acetate and vitamin C on transfer of alpha-tocopherol to piglet tissues, colostrum, and milk: aspects of immune status of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli-Saavedra, A; Calderón de la Barca, A M; Hernández, J; Valenzuela, R; Scaife, J R

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of sows with alpha-tocopherol acetate (ATA) and vitamin C on deposition of alpha-tocopherol (AT) in piglet lymphoid organs, such as bone marrow, thymus, and spleen at birth and at weaning, as well as on indicators of immune response in piglets. Sows were given the following treatment diets: control, vitamin C 10 g/day, ATA 500 mg/kg feed, and combined vitamins (ATA 500+Vit-C 10). Supplementation with vitamins started at the beginning of pregnancy and lasted until weaning at 21+/-3 days of age. AT was determined in colostrum, milk, piglet plasma (cord blood) and tissues at birth and on day 21. Immunoglobulins were measured in piglet plasma, milk, and colostrum. Lymphocyte proliferation in response to PHA and ConA was determined in sow and piglet blood. ATA supplementation resulted in a significant increase (Ppiglet plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow, and spleen at weaning. The AT content of colostrum and milk significantly (Ppiglet plasma and tissues at weaning (day 21). Total Ig and IgG concentrations in piglet plasma were significantly increased in piglets given the combined vitamin treatment. No effect of AT supplementation was observed on IgG and IgA in colostrum and milk. In sows, vitamin C given alone significantly increased lymphocyte response to ConA and PHA; whereas, in piglets, there was no significant effect of treatments on lymphocyte response to PHA and ConA.

  9. Effect of bovine colostrum feeding in comparison with milk replacer and natural feeding on the immune responses and colonisation of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in the intestinal tissue of piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sugiharto, Sugiharto; Poulsen, Ann-Sofie Riis; Canibe, Nuria;

    2015-01-01

    (23-d-old) were allocated to one of the following four groups: (1) killed at the beginning of the experiment (Base); (2) separated from the sow and fed BC (BC-fed); (3) separated from the sow and fed a MR (MR-fed); (4) kept with the sow (Sow-Milk). Blood was sampled on days 1 and 8, and faecal samples......The present study investigated the effect of feeding bovine colostrum (BC) to piglets in comparison with feeding a milk replacer (MR) and conventional rearing by the sow on the intestinal immune system and number of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) colonising the intestinal tissue. Piglets...... were collected on days 1, 3, 5 and 8. On day 8, piglets were killed and gastrointestinal digesta and intestinal segments were collected. The frequency of diarrhoea was found to be higher (P≤ 0·019) in MR-fed piglets than in BC-fed and Sow-Milk piglets. Piglets from the MR-fed group had the lowest...

  10. Creep feed intake during lactation enhances net absorption in the small intestine after weaning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuller, W.I.; Beers-Schreurs, van H.M.G.; Soede, N.M.; Langendijk, P.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Kemp, B.; Verheijden, J.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the effect of creep feeding during lactation on net absorption in the small intestine at 4 days after weaning. Intermittent suckling was used to increase creep feed intake during lactation. Creep feed containing chromic oxide was provided. Based on the colour of t

  11. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R

    2015-02-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for POS compared with NEG RFI in the LACT and NOLACT periods. In LACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for HI and MED RFI compared with LOW RFI, and in NOLACT, DMI was greater (P < 0.01) for the HI compared with MED and LOW RFI cows and MED compared with LOW RFI cows. During NOLACT, DMI was 8.9% greater (P < 0.01) for the HEV (12.4 ± 0.22 kg) compared with LIT (11.3 ± 0.19 kg) BW cows. Change in BCS was greater (P ≤ 0.03) in higher RFI cows in both RFI groups only in the NOLACT period. Differences in T3 and T4 on d 0 and 70 were 25% and 15% greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the LIT BW group compared with the HEV BW group. A negative correlation existed (P ≤ 0.04) between BW group and T3 and T4, as well as leptin and RFI (P = 0.03). Although cow BW was

  12. Colostrum production in ewes: a review of regulation mechanisms and of energy supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banchero, G E; Milton, J T B; Lindsay, D R; Martin, G B; Quintans, G

    2015-05-01

    In sheep production systems based on extensive grazing, neonatal mortality often reaches 15% to 20% of lambs born, and the mortality rate can be doubled in the case of multiple births. An important contributing factor is the nutrition of the mother because it affects the amount of colostrum available at birth. Ewes carrying multiple lambs have higher energy requirements than ewes carrying a single lamb and this problem is compounded by limitations to voluntary feed intake as the gravid uterus compresses the rumen. This combination of factors means that the nutritional requirements of the ewe carrying multiple lambs can rarely be met by the supply of pasture alone. This problem can overcome by supplementation with energy during the last week of pregnancy, a treatment that increases colostrum production and also reduces colostrum viscosity, making it easier for the neonatal lamb to suck. In addition, litter size and nutrition both accelerate the decline in concentration of circulating progesterone that, in turn, triggers the onsets of both birth and lactogenesis, and thus ensures the synchrony of these two events. Furthermore, the presence of colostrum in the gut of the lamb increases its ability to recognize its mother, and thus improves mother-young bonding. Most cereal grains that are rich in energy in the form of starch, when used as supplements in late pregnancy will increase colostrum production by 90% to 185% above control (unsupplemented) values. Variation among types of cereal grain in the response they induce may be due to differences in the amount of starch digested post-ruminally. As a percentage of grain dry matter intake, the amount of starch entering the lower digestive tract is 14% for maize, 8.5% for barley and 2% for oats. Supplements of high quality protein from legumes and oleiferous seeds can also increase colostrum production but they are less effective than cereal grains. In conclusion, short-term supplementation before parturition

  13. Exploring breeding opportunities for reduced thermal sensitivity of feed intake in the lactating sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergsma, R; Hermesch, S

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were, first, to evaluate the effects of climatic variables on daily feed intake of lactating sows and, second, to establish whether the response of sows to variation in temperature on feed intake during lactation was heritable. A total of 82,614 records for daily feed intake during lactation were available for 848 sows with 3,369 litters farrowing from January 2000 to December 2007. Climatic parameters available from the nearest weather station were maximum 24 h outside temperature, day length changes, and humidity. Although ambient room temperature was modified at the animal level in the farrowing shed, these climatic variables still had a significant effect on feed intake during lactation. Regression coefficients temperature and humidity were 0.01385 ± 0.00300 (temperature) - 0.00031 ± 0.00009 (temperature(2)) and 0.01443 ± 0.00620 (humidity) - 0.00009 ± 0.00004 (humidity(2)). There was an interaction between temperature and humidity, partly due to the climate control in the farrowing shed. At low temperature, feed intake increased considerably with greater humidity, in contrast to a small reduction in feed intake with greater humidity at high temperature. Day length change was modeled with a cosine function. At the start of autumn (September 21), sows ate 0.36 ± 0.056 kg/d less feed than at the start of spring (March 21). Daily feed intake during lactation was described as a function of days in lactation and as a function of both days in lactation and temperature using random regression models. The average heritability and repeatability summarized over the day in lactation at the mean temperature were 0.21 and 0.69, respectively. Genetic variance of temperature response on feed intake was less than 20% of the day effect. The permanent environmental variance was 2-fold (day) and 4-fold (temperature) greater than the corresponding additive genetic variance. Heritabilities of daily feed intake were greater during the first week of

  14. Influence of production factors on feed intake and feed conversion ratio of grow-finishing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio Abércio da Silva

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify and quantify, through mathematical models, the production factors of grow-finishing (GF phases that influence the daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR in pigs. Sixty-five GF farms were evaluated between 2010 and 2013, linked to a cooperative system located in the western Parana State, Brazil, representing 463 batches, with a mean of 642.79 ± 363.29 animals per batch, equalling approximately 300,000 animals. Forty production factors were considered that related to management, sanitation, installations and equipment, nutrition, genetics and environment on the farms. The DFI was influenced by the barn's position relative to the sun (P = 0.048, initial body weight (P < 0.0001 and final body weight (P < 0.0001. It was observed that the FCR was influenced by the barn’s position relative to the sun (P = 0.0001, the use of humidifiers/misting (P = 0.03, the presence of composters (P = 0.006, trees on the sides of barns (P < 0.045, the initial body weight of the pigs (P < 0.0001 and duration of the grow-finishing phase (P < 0.0001. The variables selected in the models explained approximately 44 and 20% of the total variance in the DFI and FCR, respectively, demonstrating that this resource is a good tool for interpreting the factors related to the parameters evaluated.

  15. Possible reasons for differences in residual feed intake: An overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    marcelle

    2013-09-05

    Sep 5, 2013 ... production, with low-RFI animals producing up to 21% less heat than .... mitochondria of low feed efficient chickens was higher than in high feed efficient ... that protein turnover, tissue metabolism and stress explain 37% of the.

  16. Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mäntysaari Esa A

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32. This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10, indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection.

  17. Maternal feeding strategies and child's food intake: considering weight and demographic influences using structural equation modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Warschburger Petra; Kröller Katja

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Research concerning child's food intake have considered various influencing factors, for example parental feeding strategies, demographic and weight factors. At this time, however, there are few findings that explore these factors simultaneously. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to test a structural equation model regarding the associations between maternal feeding strategies and child's food intake. Methods 556 mothers and their children between 1 and 10 years of ag...

  18. Relationship between residual feed intake and enteric methane emission in Nellore cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Feed intake and average daily gain (ADG) in Nellore cattle were determined to calculate residual feed intake in two performance tests: first during the growth phase (RFIgrowth) and then during a measurement of the methane emission phase (RFImet). During the RFIgrowth test, 62 males and 56 females were classified as low-, medium-, and high-RFI. Enteric methane emission was measured in 46 animals; 23 males used for RFImet measurement plus 23 females (22 low-RFIgrowth and 24 high-RFIgrowth). Die...

  19. Feed intake as explanation for density related growth differences of common sole Solea solea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Ivar; Steenfeldt, Svend Jørgen; Herrmann, Bent

    2013-01-01

    correlated to both fish size and individual SGR. Feed conversion ratio was likewise positively correlated to feed intake. The relative feed intake (g feed g fish−1) was not correlated to fish size at any density tested, but was significantly highest for the LD population. This explains a substantial part......Growth of common sole Solea solea is negatively correlated to density, which affects productivity in culture and hence commercial success. Studies of individual feed intake were performed to examine growth and population dynamics at different densities. Three initial stocking densities: 1.0, 2.......1 and 3.9 kg m−2 of individually tagged sole, referred to as low density (LD), medium density and high density HD), were examined during 145 days. Despite that tank productivity (g m−2 day−1), was highest for the HD group, the specific growth rate (SGR) decreased significantly with increase in stocking...

  20. Use of residual feed intake in Holsteins during early lactation shows potential to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, E E; Hutchison, J L; Norman, H D; Olson, K M; Van Tassell, C P; Leith, J M; Baldwin, R L

    2013-08-01

    Improved feed efficiency is a primary goal in dairy production to reduce feed costs and negative impacts of production on the environment. Estimates for efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle are limited, primarily due to a lack of individual feed intake measurements for lactating cows. Feed intake was measured in Holstein cows during the first 90 d of lactation to estimate the heritability and repeatability of RFI, minimum test duration for evaluating RFI in early lactation, and its association with other production traits. Data were obtained from 453 lactations (214 heifers and 239 multiparous cows) from 292 individual cows from September 2007 to December 2011. Cows were housed in a free-stall barn and monitored for individual daily feed consumption using the GrowSafe 4000 System (GrowSafe Systems, Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada). Animals were fed a total mixed ration 3 times daily, milked twice daily, and weighed every 10 to 14 d. Milk yield was measured at each milking. Feed DM percentage was measured daily, and nutrient composition was analyzed from a weekly composite. Milk composition was analyzed weekly, alternating between morning and evening milking periods. Estimates of RFI were determined as the difference between actual energy intake and predicted intake based on a linear model with fixed effects of parity (1, 2, ≥ 3) and regressions on metabolic BW, ADG, and energy-corrected milk yield. Heritability was estimated to be moderate (0.36 ± 0.06), and repeatability was estimated at 0.56 across lactations. A test period through 53 d in milk (DIM) explained 81% of the variation provided by a test through 90 DIM. Multiple regression analysis indicated that high efficiency was associated with less time feeding per day and slower feeding rate, which may contribute to differences in RFI among cows. The heritability and repeatability of RFI suggest an opportunity to improve feed efficiency through genetic

  1. Associations between maternal feeding style and food intake of children with a higher risk for overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröller, Katja; Warschburger, Petra

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the impact of different feeding strategies on the child's food intake as well as the effect and influence socio-economic status and weight have on the use of feeding strategies. 219 mothers and their children between 3 and 6 years of age at risk for becoming overweight took part in this cross-sectional study. The participating mothers were recruited from inpatient-clinics and kindergartens with a lower socio-economic background. Besides demographic and weight data, which describe the child's risk for overweight, the mothers were asked for their use of feeding strategies and their child's food intake. Maternal feeding practices have an important impact (22.2-26.9% explained variance) on the child's food intake. There are three strategies (rewarding, child's control and pressure) which turned out to be significant predictors. Additionally, the child's weight, family income and educational level have an effect on the choice of feeding strategies and their impact on the child's food intake. The results are evidence of the influence of parental feeding practices on the child's food intake. Parent training in prevention and intervention of childhood obesity should include the discussion and modification of feeding practices.

  2. Relationships of feeding behaviors with average daily gain, dry matter intake, and residual feed intake in Red Angus-sired cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, M; Welch, C M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A

    2014-11-01

    Feeding behavior has the potential to enhance prediction of feed intake and to improve understanding of the relationships between behavior, DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. Two cohorts, born in 2009 and 2010, the progeny of Red Angus bulls (n = 58 heifers and n = 53 steers), were evaluated during the growing phase, and the latter group of steers was also evaluated during the finishing phase. All behavior analyses were based on 7 feeding behavior traits (bunk visit frequency, bunk visit duration [BVDUR], feed bout frequency, feed bout duration, meal frequency, meal duration, and average meal intake) and their relationships with ADG, DMI, and RFI. During the growing phase, feeding duration traits were most indicative of DMI with positive correlations between BVDUR and DMI for cohort 1 steers, growing phase (n = 28, r = 0.52, P = 0.00); cohort 2 steers, growing phase (n = 25, r = 0.44, P = 0.01); and cohort 2 heifers, growing phase (n = 29, r = 0.28 P = 0.05). There were similar trends toward correlation of BVDUR and RFI for both steer groups and cohort 1 heifers, growing phase (C1HG; n = 29; r = 0.27, P = 0.06; r = 0.30, P = 0.07; and r = 0.26, P = 0.08, respectively). Feed bout frequency was correlated with ADG in C1HG and in cohort 2 steers, finishing phase (r = -0.31, P = 0.04, and r = 0.43, P = 0.01, respectively). Feed bout duration was correlated with ADG in heifer groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.28, P = 0.05 for both groups) and DMI for all growing phase animals (r = 0.29 to 0.55, P ≤ 0.05 for all groups). Evaluation of growing vs. finishing phase steer groups suggests that all behaviors, RFI, and DMI, but not ADG, are correlated through the growing and finishing phases (P ≤ 0.01 for all variables excluding ADG), implying that feeding behaviors determined during the growing phase are strong predictors of DMI in either life stage. Sire maintenance energy EPD effects (measured as high or low groups) on progeny feeding behaviors revealed a

  3. Asssociations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited inc...

  4. Expression of candidate genes for residual feed intake in Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Husseini, W; Gondro, C; Quinn, K; Herd, R M; Gibson, J P; Chen, Y

    2014-02-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been adopted in Australia for the purpose of genetic improvement in feed efficiency in beef cattle. RFI is the difference between the observed feed intake of an animal and the predicted feed intake based on its size and growth rate over a test period. Gene expression of eight candidate genes (AHSG, GHR, GSTM1, INHBA, PCDH19, S100A10, SERPINI2 and SOD3), previously identified as differentially expressed between divergent lines of high- and low-RFI animals, was measured in an unselected population of 60 steers from the Angus Society Elite Progeny Test Program using quantitative real-time PCR. Results showed that the levels of gene expression were significantly correlated with RFI. The genes explain around 33.2% of the phenotypic variance in RFI, and prediction equations using the expression data are reasonably accurate estimators of RFI. The association of these genes with economically important traits, such as other feed efficiency-related traits and fat, growth and carcass traits, was investigated as well. The expression of these candidate genes was significantly correlated with feed conversion ratio and daily feed intake, which are highly associated with RFI, suggesting a functional role for these genes in modulating feed utilisation. The expression of these genes did not show any association with average daily gain, eye muscle area and carcass composition. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. Influência da forma de administração e da quantidade fornecida de colostro sobre a concentração de proteína total e de suas frações eletroforéticas no soro sangüíneo de bezerros da raça Holandesa Influence of volume and method of administration of colostrum on total protein and eletrophoretic serum fractions in Holstein calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Borges

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of the amount of colostrum (two and four liters and methods of colostrum feeding (direct suckling from the cow, feeding colostrum using nipple bottle, and no feeding colostrum on different blood traits. Thirty two Holstein calves (four groups of eight animals each were randomly allotted to four treatments: treatment 1 - calves were hand fed four liters of colostrum; treatment 2 - calves were hand fed two liters of colostrum; treatment 3 - calves were fed colostrum directly from the cow, and treatment 4 - calves were not fed colostrum. Higher values of total serum protein, betaglobulins and gamaglobulins were observed in the calves after 24 hours of colostrum feeding. No differences among animals fed colostrum directly from the cow and hand fed two or four liters of colostrum were observed for total protein and eletrophoretic fractions. However lower values of total and eletrophoretic fractions were observed for calves that were not fed colostrum.

  6. Importance and utilization of colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajka Božanić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Colostrum is natural concentrate of nutritional and protection factors, immunoglobulins and growth factors. Since the unique components and characteristics of colostrum are not specific for species, colostrum can bee excellent food supplement for people of all ages. In this paper the composition of cow’s and human colostrum is discussed, as well as main imunofactors and growth factors in it. Special emphasis is given on therapeutic effect of colostrum in prevention and therapy of some disorders.

  7. Importance and utilization of colostrum

    OpenAIRE

    Rajka Božanić

    2004-01-01

    Colostrum is natural concentrate of nutritional and protection factors, immunoglobulins and growth factors. Since the unique components and characteristics of colostrum are not specific for species, colostrum can bee excellent food supplement for people of all ages. In this paper the composition of cow’s and human colostrum is discussed, as well as main imunofactors and growth factors in it. Special emphasis is given on therapeutic effect of colostrum in prevention and therapy of some disorde...

  8. Short-term feed intake is regulated by macronutrient oxidation in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derno, M; Nürnberg, G; Schön, P; Schwarm, A; Röntgen, M; Hammon, H M; Metges, C C; Bruckmaier, R M; Kuhla, B

    2013-02-01

    In addition to plasma metabolites and hormones participating as humoral signals in the control of feed intake, oxidative metabolic processes in peripheral organs also generate signals to terminate feeding. Although the degree of oxidation over longer periods is relatively constant, recent work suggests that the periprandial pattern of fuel oxidation is involved in regulating feeding behavior in the bovine. However, the association between periprandial oxidative metabolism and feed intake of dairy cows has not yet been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate possible associations existing between single feed intake events and whole-body net fat and net carbohydrate oxidation as well as their relation to plasma metabolite concentrations. To this end, 4 late-lactating cows equipped with jugular catheters were kept in respiratory chambers with continuous and simultaneous recording of gas exchange and feed intake. Animals were fed ad libitum (AL) for 24h and then feed restricted (RE) to 50% of the previous AL intake for a further 24h. Blood samples were collected hourly to analyze β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), glucose, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, and acylated ghrelin concentrations. Cross-correlation analysis revealed an offset ranging between 30 and 42 min between the maximum of a feed intake event and the lowest level of postprandial net fat oxidation (FOX(net)) and the maximum level of postprandial net carbohydrate oxidation (COX(net)), respectively. During the AL period, FOX(net) did not increase above -0.2g/min, whereas COX(net) did not decrease below 6g/min before the start of the next feed intake event. A strong inverse cross-correlation was obtained between COX(net) and plasma glucose concentration. Direct cross-correlations were observed between COXnet and insulin, between heat production and BHBA, between insulin and glucose, and between BHBA and ghrelin. We found no cross-correlation between FOX(net) and NEFA. During RE, FOX

  9. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea solea) Reared in Captivity

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Mas-Muñoz; Hans Komen; Oliver Schneider; Visch, Sander W.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg(0.8)/d were selected on their growth during a 4-week period in which they were housed communally with 84 other fish. Selected fish were housed individually during a second 4-week period to measure individual feed in...

  10. Cerebrospinal fluid prohormone processing and neuropeptides stimulating feed intake of dairy cows during early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, Björn; Laeger, Thomas; Husi, Holger; Mullen, William

    2015-02-01

    After parturition, feed intake of dairy cows increases within the first weeks of lactation, but the molecular mechanisms stimulating or delaying the slope of increase are poorly understood. Some of the molecules controlling feed intake are neuropeptides that are synthesized as propeptides and subsequently processed before they bind to specific receptors in feeding centers of the brain. Cerebrospinal fluid surrounds most of the feed intake regulatory centers and contains numerous neuropeptides. In the present study, we used a proteomic approach to analyze the neuropeptide concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid taken from dairy cows between day -18 and -10, and between day +10 and +20 relative to parturition. We found 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken before parturition, 13 proteins which were only present in samples taken after parturition, and 25 proteins which were commonly present, before and after parturition. Among them, differences in pro-neuropeptide Y, proenkephalin-A, neuroendocrine convertase-2, neurosecretory protein VGF, chromogranin-A, and secretogranin-1 and -3 concentrations relative to parturition highlight propeptides and prohormone processings involved in the control of feed intake and energy homeostasis. Scaffold analysis further emphasized an increased tone of endogenous opioids associated with the postparturient increase of feed intake.

  11. Selection on Feed intake or Feed Efficiency: A Position Paper from gDMI Breeding Goal Discussions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerkamp, R.F.; Pryce, J.; Spurlock, D.M.; Berry, D.P.; Coffey, M.; Lovendahl, P.; Linde, van der R.; Bryant, J.M.; Migliore, G.; Wang, Z.; Winters, M.; Krattenmacher, N.; Haas, de Y.

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use of genomic information in dairy cattle breeding programs has opened up the possibility to select for novel traits, especially for traits that are traditionally difficult to record in a progeny testing scheme. Feed intake and efficiency is such a difficult to measure trait. In Febr

  12. Rumen function in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus after sub-maintenance feed intake and subsequent feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this experiment was to ascertain how different feeding strategies affect the rumen function of reindeer after nutritional deprivation. Rumen adaptation to various diets, after restricted feeding, was studied in 44 eight-month-old semi-domesticated female reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus. All animals were initially fed a simulated winter diet based on lichens (lichen diet. A control group, continuously offered the lichen diet ad libitum, was compared to four groups of reindeer that were first restrictively fed (half the ad libitum ration for eight days followed by one day without feed. The rumen content of restrictively fed animals had higher pH, lower dry matter content and volatile fatty acid (VFA concentration, a changed composition of VFAs, and lower counts of bacteria compared to that of the control group. The effect was less dramatic than previously reported for reindeer starved for several days. On day 10, the four restrictively fed groups were introduced to different diets. One group was re-fed the lichen diet ad libitum and did not differ from the control group when the experiment ended after five weeks of feeding. Two groups were fed grain-based reindeer feed (pellets combined with either lichens or grass silage, and one group was fed silage with a gradually increased addition of pellets. Diarrhoea and so called “wet belly” occurred initially in the three latter groups. After five weeks of feeding, the reindeer in the three pellet-fed groups had an altered composition of VFAs and higher counts of protozoa, and also tended to have higher total VFA concentration in the rumen, compared to the control animals and those re-fed the lichen diet. Only small changes were observed in the size of rumen papillae and these could be associated with energy intake. Protozoa decreased over time on the lichen diet. This study confirmed that rumen function was significantly affected by a relatively short period of restricted feed intake

  13. Effect of a bovine colostrum whey supplementation on growth performance, faecal Escherichia coli population and systemic immune response of piglets at weaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudry, C; Dehoux, J-P; Wavreille, J; Portetelle, D; Théwis, A; Buldgen, A

    2008-05-01

    This study examined the effect of a bovine colostrum whey supplementation on growth performance, feed intake, faecal Escherichia coli population and systemic immune response of piglets at weaning. A total of 96 piglets weaned at 26 ± 2 days of age were assigned for 4 weeks to one of the two treatments: (1) the control (commercial diet with bovine milk whey powder) and (2) the colostrum (commercial diet with freeze-dried bovine colostrum whey) treatments. The two supplements were incorporated in the diet at a level of 20 g/kg during the first 2 weeks after weaning and lowered to a level of 10 g/kg for the next 2 weeks. BW and feed intake were measured weekly. Faecal E. coli counts were determined weekly on specific culture media. Blood samples were collected weekly and submitted to a cell counter analyser for their main components (red and white blood cells, platelets) and flow cytometry was used to determine the lymphocyte population (B, T, Th and Tc). Finally, total seric immunoglobulin (IgM, IgG and IgA) concentrations were determined by the ELISA method. During the first week of the trial, the piglets from the colostrum treatment had improved average daily gain (170 g/day v. 81 g/day, P IgA (P = 0.03) compared with the control treatment the first week. It is concluded that a distribution of bovine colostrum whey (20 g/kg diet) during the first week post-weaning induces a systemic IgA response and has a beneficial action on growth performances and feed efficiency.

  14. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( feed conversion. These results suggest that calves exposed to repeated transport may decrease feed intake compared to nontransported calves as an initial response to transport; however, overall feed conversion was not affected and these Holstein calves may have

  15. Effects of deoxynivalenol in naturally contaminated wheat on feed intake and health status of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Anna-Katharina; Kersten, Susanne; Dänicke, Sven; Coenen, Manfred; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the short-term effects of deoxynivalenol (DON), administered at two different concentrations via a feed preparation using naturally contaminated wheat, on feed intake, liver and kidney metabolism and immunomodulatory properties in horses. Twelve geldings were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 21 days. DON was provided via naturally contaminated wheat (14.6 ± 6.5 mg DON/kg dry matter). The daily feed intake was adjusted to 4 kg of wheat and 1.7 kg of silage per 100 kg of body weight (BW). Horses were fed one of the following diets: control wheat with 0% contaminated wheat (CON), wheat mixture containing 53 ± 2% of DON-contaminated wheat [low DON intake (LDI)] or wheat mixture containing 78 ± 4% of DON-contaminated wheat [high DON intake (HDI)]. CON, LDI and HDI corresponded to a targeted daily DON intake via the complete ration of horses demonstrated any clinical signs commonly associated with the intake of DON such as colic or depression. HDI was associated with lower daily wheat intake on day 21. Serum DON concentrations increased with higher DON intake. The non-toxic DON metabolite, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1) was only detected on day 21 of the DON feeding period. No changes in haematological and serum parameters or serum globulins or in the ex vivo proliferation response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were observed. These results suggest that horses are less sensitive to DON exposure than other domestic species, for example, swine. Therefore, the European Commission guidance value for critical DON concentrations in swine feed (complete diet) of 0.9 mg/kg could be safely applied for rations intended for feeding adult horses as well.

  16. Cyclic variation in cattle feed intake data: characterization and implications for experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroup, W W; Nielsen, M K; Gosey, J A

    1987-06-01

    Feed intake data were collected every 6 h in a 140-d feeding trial involving two pens of 15 bull calves, each using one Pinpointer single-animal feeding stall per pen. Spectral analysis of these data revealed strong cyclic patterns of feed intake. These patterns were unique to each animal and consisted of two or more cycle lengths, some up to 28 d, for each animal. Feed intake behavior is an important factor in many forms of animal experimentation. Animal researchers frequently use row-column designs, where columns represent animals and rows represent periods. Latin squares and crossover designs are common examples. Standard analysis of variance procedures are appropriate for these experiments only if certain assumptions are met; one is that if cyclic variation is present, it is identical for all animals, i.e., there is no row X column interaction. If this assumption is not satisfied, standard analysis of variance procedures will result in upward bias of the mean square error and may result in serious distortion of treatment effect estimates. This occurred using the data from the feeding trial reported in this paper. Time-series analysis of covariance greatly improved the accuracy and efficiency of estimates of treatment effects. Consideration of variations in cyclic behavior should be part of the design process in experiments using feed intake data. Guidelines for the design of experiments to take advantage of time-series methodology are given.

  17. Gene expression profiling of hormonal regulation related to the residual feed intake of Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y M; Yang, Z; Wu, F; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2015-09-11

    An accumulation of over a decade of research in cattle has shown that genetic selection for decreased residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, is a viable option for improving feed efficiency and reducing the feed requirements of herds, thereby improving the profitability of cattle producers. Hormonal regulation is one of the most important factors in feed intake. To determine the relationship between hormones and feed efficiency, we performed gene expression profiling of jugular vein serum on hormonal regulation of Chinese Holstein cattle with low and high RFI coefficients. 857 differential expression genes (from 24683 genes) were found. Among these, 415 genes were up-regulated and 442 genes were down-regulated in the low RFI group. The gene ontology (GO) search revealed 6 significant terms and 64 genes associated with hormonal regulation, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) selected the adipocytokine signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the study indicated that the molecular expression of genes associated with hormonal regulation differs in dairy cows, depending on their RFI coefficients, and that these differences may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin-NPY and insulin signaling pathways. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of feed intake on composition of sheep rumen contents and their microbial population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Redondo, R; Cajarville, C

    2003-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of feed intake on the composition of the rumen contents of sheep and on their bacterial densities. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous inter-rumen infusion of 15NH3 from four rumen-cannulated wethers successively fed on a hay-concentrate diet (2:1, w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight0.75. Total weight and chemical composition of rumen contents, as well as the distribution by size and chemical composition of particles, were determined. The populations of bacteria associated with the liquid (liquid-associated bacteria, LAB) and solid (solid-associated bacteria, SAB) fractions of rumen digesta and the distribution of SAB according to feed particle size were also examined. The greater feed intake caused an increase in the mass of the rumen contents, while its chemical composition did not change, except for a higher content of organic matter (P=0.023). The distribution of feed particles by size was similar at both levels of intake. The concentrations of neutral- and acid-detergent fibre in feed particles decreased and those of total, dietary, and microbial N increased, both with a quadratic response (P=0.001), as particle size decreased. The proportion of LAB in the microbial biomass of rumen digesta reached only 8.0 %. This proportion and the density of LAB were unaffected by the level of feed intake, whereas an apparent reduction (10.4 %) occurred with the SAB biomass in whole rumen contents. A systematic, but not significant, reduction (mean value 11.9 %) in the level of microbial colonisation in the different particle fractions with the increase of feed intake was also observed.

  19. Feed intake and performance of growing lambs raised on concentrate-based diets under cafeteria feeding systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A B; Bodas, R; Fernández, B; López-Campos, O; Mantecón, A R; Giráldez, F J

    2007-03-01

    Two trials were undertaken to study the effects of cafeteria feeding systems on the feed intake, animal performance and carcass characteristics of growing lambs. Trial 1 was designed to compare conventional and cafeteria feeding systems in terms of the growth of individually reared lambs. For this assay, 26 weaned Merino lambs (15.5 ± 0.20 kg live weight) were assigned to three dietary treatment groups: (1) a control group fed barley straw and commercial concentrate under a conventional feeding system, (2) group W100S, fed soya-bean meal, whole barley grain and a mineral-vitamin supplement under a cafeteria feeding system, and (3) group W100S-T, fed as in the W100S treatment but allowing the lambs an initial training period so they could learn to identify a number of feeds. The feeding system had no significant effect ( P>0.05) on either average daily live-weight gain, carcass weight, or carcass conformation. The food conversion ratio was lower ( P cafeteria-reared animals (2.9 ± 0.16 v. 2.5 ± 0.08 g dry-matter intake per g average daily gain) than those of the control group. This might be related to the higher crude protein intake seen in the cafeteria groups (150 ± 5.6 v. 208 ± 12.5 g per animal per day; P cafeteria and conventional feeding system were compared in terms of the growth of feedlot lambs. Two hundred weaned Merino lambs (13.1 ± 0.10 kg) were divided into two experimental groups: (1) a control group, offered commercial concentrate and barley straw, and (2) a cafeteria group fed the same diet as W100ST in trial 1. The average daily gain (282 ± 5.8 and 309 ± 6.5; P cafeteria than in the control group. Whereas neither carcass conformation nor fatness were affected by the feeding system, the dressing percentage was slightly higher ( P>0.001) in the conventional than in the cafeteria system lambs.The use of cafeteria systems for fattening lambs can improve the feed conversion efficiency and body growth rate over those

  20. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus x Hereford heifers were used in two successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if ovarian function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed in...

  1. Effects of feed composition on life history developments in feed intake, metabolism, growth and body composition of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Hooff, P.L.A.; Swinkels, W.; Tanck, M.W.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of feed composition on changes in feed intake and subsequent feed utilization with age, five populations of European eel, with an average initial body weight of 5 g each fed a different diet, were monitored for 302 d. The five feeds differed in their content of crude protein

  2. Effects of feed composition on life history developments in feed intake, metabolism, growth and body composition of European eel, Anguilla anguilla

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinsbroek, L.T.N.; Hooff, P.L.A.; Swinkels, W.; Tanck, M.W.T.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effect of feed composition on changes in feed intake and subsequent feed utilization with age, five populations of European eel, with an average initial body weight of 5 g each fed a different diet, were monitored for 302 d. The five feeds differed in their content of crude protein (3

  3. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovani Jacob Kolling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P<0.01 and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P<0.10. No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake.

  4. Oregano Extract Added into the Diet of Dairy Heifers Changes Feeding Behavior and Concentrate Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolling, Giovani Jacob; Stumpf, Marcelo Tempel; da Cruz, Eduardo Augusto

    2016-01-01

    This experiment aimed to describe the effects of Oregano extract (OE) inclusion into the concentrate fed to dairy heifers on physiological parameters, feeding behavior, intake, and performance. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly distributed into four treatments: C = control, without addition of OE; OE2.5 = 2.5 g; OE5.0 = 5.0 g and OE7.5 = 7.5 g of Oregano extract per heifer/day. Feeding behavior and concentrate intake were assessed individually every day and total dry matter intake (DMI) was determined on the last week of the trial. Compared to control group, OE7.5 reduced by 32% the latency time to approach the feed bunk but increased by 6% the time spent eating the concentrate. Each inclusion of 2.5 grams of OE into the concentrate increased the occurrence of postingestive licking the feed bunk with abundant saliva production 1.2 times (P < 0.01) and tended to increase the occurrence of sneeze events 1.2 times (P < 0.10). No statistical difference was detected between treatments for total DMI, but concentrate DMI was 9% lower for OE7.5 when compared to control and OE2.5. The inclusion of 7.5 grams/day of OE causes small but negative effects in feeding behavior and concentrate intake, without change on total dry matter intake. PMID:28116344

  5. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%, Hispanic (29%, and White (28%. The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent, indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups, respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime.

  6. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feeding behavior with feed intake, growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Mao, F; Crews, D H; Vinsky, M; Li, C

    2014-03-01

    Feeding behavior traits including daily feeding duration (FD), daily feeding head down time (HD), average feeding duration per feeding event (FD_AVE), average feeding head down time per feeding event (HD_AVE), feeding frequency (FF), and meal eating rate (ER) were analyzed to estimate their phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake, growth performance, residual feed intake (RFI), ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais finishing steers. Heritability estimates for FD, HD, FD_AVE, HD_AVE, FF, and ER were 0.27 ± 0.09 (SE), 0.25 ± 0.09, 0.19 ± 0.06, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.24 ± 0.08, and 0.38 ± 0.10, respectively, in the Angus population and 0.49 ± 0.12, 0.38 ± 0.11, 0.31 ± 0.09, 0.29 ± 0.10, 0.43 ± 0.11, and 0.56 ± 0.13, respectively, in the Charolais population. In both the Angus and Charolais steer populations, FD and HD had relatively stronger phenotypic (0.17 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.04) and genetic (0.29 ± 0.17 to 0.54 ± 0.18) correlations with RFI in comparison to other feeding behavior traits investigated, suggesting the potential of FD and HD as indicators in assessing variation of RFI. In general, feeding behavior traits had weak phenotypic correlations with most of the ultrasound and carcass merit traits; however, estimated genetic correlations of the feeding behavior traits with some fat deposition related traits were moderate to moderately strong but differed in magnitude or sign between the Angus and Charolais steer populations, likely reflecting their different biological types. Genetic parameter estimation studies involving feeding behavior traits in beef cattle are lacking and more research is needed to better characterize the relationships between feeding behavior and feed intake, growth, feed utilization, and carcass merit traits, in particular with respect to different biological types of cattle.

  7. Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J

    2011-09-01

    Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed

  8. Prediction of genetic values for feed intake from individual body weight gain and total feed intake of the pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A J; Ferrell, C L; Cundiff, L V; Van Vleck, L D

    2010-06-01

    Records of individual feed intake (FI) and BW gain (GN) were obtained from the Germ Plasm Evaluation (GPE) program at US Meat Animal Research Center (USMARC). Animals were randomly assigned to pens. Only pens with 6 to 9 steers (n = 289) were used for this study (data set 1). Variance components and genetic parameters were estimated using data set 1. Estimated genetic values (EGV) for FI were calculated by 5 methods using single and 2-trait analyses: 1) individual FI and individual GN, 2) individual FI alone, 3) 2-trait with individual GN but with FI missing, 4) individual GN and pen total FI, and 5) pen total FI alone. Analyses were repeated but with some of the same records assigned artificially to 36 pens of 5 and 4 paternal half sibs per pen (data sets 2 and 3). Models included year as a fixed factor and birth and weaning weights, age on test, and days fed as covariates. Estimates of heritability were 0.42 +/- 0.16 and 0.34 +/- 0.17 for FI and GN. The estimate of the genetic correlation was 0.57 +/- 0.23. Empirical responses to selection were calculated as the average EGV for the top and bottom 10% based on rank for each method but with EGV from method 1 substituted for the EGV on which ranking was based. With data set 1, rank correlations between EGV from method 1 and EGV from methods 2, 3, 4, and 5 were 0.99, 0.53, 0.32, and 0.15, respectively. Empirical responses relative to method 1 agreed with the rank correlations. Accuracy of EGV for method 4 (0.44) was greater than for method 3 (0.35) and for method 5 (0.29). Accuracies for methods 4 and 5 were greater than indicated by empirical responses and correlations with EGV from method 1. Comparisons of the 5 methods were similar for data sets 2 and 3. With data set 2, rank correlations between EGV from method 1 and EGV from methods 3, 4, and 5 were 0.47, 0.64, and 0.62. Average accuracies of 56, 75, and 75% relative to method 1 (0.67) generally agreed with the empirical responses to selection. As expected

  9. Feed intake and growth performance of goats supplemented with soy waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mijanur Rahman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplemental feeding of soy waste on the feed intake and growth rate of goats. Twenty male crossbred (Boer x local goats were assigned to two isonitrogenous diet groups: one of commercial pellet and the other of soy waste. The commercial pellet (1.0% and soy waste (0.8% were provided on the dry matter basis of body weight (BW per day, to the respective group of each diet. The soy waste group had lower daily intakes of total dry matter (0.79 vs. 0.88 kg and organic matter (665.71 vs. 790.44 g than the group fed pellet; however, the differences on daily intakes for grass (0.62 vs. 0.64 kg, crude protein (96.81 vs. 96.83 g, and neutral detergent fibre (483.70 vs. 499.86 g were not significant. No differences were observed between groups for BW gain. The feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kilogram of BW gain were lower for the group fed soy waste than for the one fed pellet. Goats fed supplemental soy waste have a lower total dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, and feed cost per kilogram of body weight gain than those fed commercial pellets.

  10. Feed intake, live mass-gain, body composition and protein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary CP content had no significant effect on mean voluntary DE intakes and .... selffeeder and an automatic water nipple. ... 154. 156. 150. Monocalcium phosphate. 2. Limestone powder. 7. 13. Salt. 10 ... 500g sample was taken to be freeze-dried for chemical .... Because of the break point in growth identified at an age.

  11. Repeatability of feed efficiency, carcass ultrasound, feeding behavior, and blood metabolic variables in finishing heifers divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Crews, D H; Sweeney, T; Boland, T M; Kenny, D A

    2010-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between feed efficiency and performance, and feeding behavior, blood metabolic variables, and various ultrasonic measurements in finishing beef heifers. Within-animal repeatability estimates of feed intake and behavior, performance, feed efficiency, ultrasonic body measures, and plasma analytes across the growing and finishing stages of the lifespan of the animal were also calculated. Fifty heifers previously ranked as yearlings on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) were used. Animals [initial BW = 418 (SD = 31.5) kg] were offered a TMR diet consisting of 70:30 concentrate and corn silage on a DM basis (ME 10.7 MJ/kg of DM; DM 530 g/kg) for 84 d. Feeding duration (min/d) and feeding frequency (events/d) were calculated for each animal on a daily basis using a computerized feeding system. Ultrasonic kidney fat and lumbar and rump fat and muscle depths were recorded on 3 equally spaced occasions during the experimental period. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture on 4 occasions during the experimental period and analyzed for plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, and various metabolites. Phenotypic RFI was calculated for all animals as the residuals from a regression model regressing DMI on ADG and midtest BW(0.75). Repeatability was calculated for several traits both within and between production phase using intraclass correlation and Pearson correlation coefficients as appropriate. Overall ADG, DMI, G:F, and RFI were 1.17 kg/d (SD = 0.19), 10.81 kg/d (SD = 1.02), 0.11 kg of BW gain/kg of DM (SD = 0.02), and 0.00 kg of DM/d (SD 0.59). Daily feeding events and eating rate tended to be positively correlated (P = 0.08) with RFI. Ultrasonic kidney fat depth tended to be related to G:F (r = -0.28; P = 0.07), and kidney fat accretion tended to be related to RFI (r = 0.29; P = 0.08). Plasma urea (r = 0.38; P glucose (r = -0.25; P = 0.07), glucose:insulin (r = 0.33; P 0.10) to any measure of feed efficiency

  12. Effects of feeding frequency on intake, ruminal fermentation, and feeding behavior in heifers fed high-concentrate diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, V; González, L A; Ferret, A; Manteca, X; Calsamiglia, S

    2007-10-01

    Four ruminally fistulated Holstein heifers (BW = 385 +/- 6.2 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square experiment to determine the effect of feeding frequency on intake, water consumption, ruminal fermentation, and feeding and animal behavior. The treatments consisted of different feeding frequencies: a) once daily (T1); b) twice daily (T2); c) 3 times daily (T3); and d) 4 times daily (T4). Heifers were offered ad libitum access to concentrate and barley straw. Feeding frequency did not affect DMI (P >0.10), but water consumption tended to increase linearly as feeding frequency increased (P = 0.08). Average ruminal pH was not affected (P >0.10) by feeding frequency, but at 12 h after feeding ruminal pH was greater for T2 than for the other treatments. Total VFA concentration and VFA proportions were not affected (P >0.10) by feeding frequency, except valerate proportion, which increased linearly (P = 0.05) as feeding frequency increased. The concentration of ammonia-N was affected (P 0.05), except for observational behavior, for which there was a linear decrease as feeding frequency increased (P = 0.02). Heifers spent the same time on chewing activities, independent of feeding frequency. However, meal criteria tended to be affected (P = 0.07) by feeding frequency, with T2 (39.4 min) showing the longest intermeal interval. Total daily meal time, meal frequency, and meal size were not affected by feeding frequency (P >0.10), whereas meal length and eating rate showed cubic tendencies (P = 0.10 and P = 0.06, respectively) as feeding frequency increased. These results suggest that in the present experimental conditions, with heifers fed high-concentrate diets and with noncompetitive feeding, a smaller range of ruminal pH values was observed when feed was offered twice daily. Although heifers spent the same time on chewing activities, more stable ruminal conditions were probably achieved by feeding twice daily due to the rumination pattern, which was more constant during

  13. Random regression models for daily feed intake in Danish Duroc pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Mark, Thomas; Jensen, Just

    The objective of this study was to develop random regression models and estimate covariance functions for daily feed intake (DFI) in Danish Duroc pigs. A total of 476201 DFI records were available on 6542 Duroc boars between 70 to 160 days of age. The data originated from the National test station...... and were collected using ACEMO electronic feeders in the period of 2008 to 2011. The pedigree was traced back to 1995 and included 17222 animals. The phenotypic feed intake curve was decomposed into a fixed curve, being specific to the barn-year-season effect and curves associated with the random pen....... Eigenvalues of the genetic covariance function showed that 33% of genetic variability was explained by the individual genetic curve of the pigs. This proportion was covered by linear (27%) and quadratic (6%) coefficients. Genetic eigenfunctions revealed that altering the shape of the feed intake curve...

  14. Expression of genes related to mitochondrial function in Nellore cattle divergently ranked on residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Larissa Fernanda Simielli; Gimenez, Daniele Fernanda Jovino; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Ferro, Jesus Aparecido; Baldi, Fernando; de Souza, Fábio Ricardo Pablos; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2015-02-01

    Several measures have been proposed to investigate and improve feed efficiency in cattle. One of the most commonly used measure of feed efficiency is residual feed intake (RFI), which is estimated as the difference between actual feed intake and expected feed intake based on the animal's average live weight. This measure permits to identify and select the most efficient animals without selecting for higher mature weight. Mitochondrial function has been indicated as a major factor that influences RFI. The analysis of genes involved in mitochondrial function is therefore an alternative to identify molecular markers associated with higher feed efficiency. This study analyzed the expression of PGC1α, TFAM, UCP2 and UCP3 genes by quantitative real-time PCR in liver and muscle tissues of two groups of Nellore cattle divergently ranked on RFI values in order to evaluate the relationship of these genes with RFI. In liver tissue, higher expression of TFAM and UCP2 genes was observed in the negative RFI group. Expression of PGC1α gene did not differ significantly between the two groups, whereas UCP3 gene was not expressed in liver tissue. In muscle tissue, higher expression of TFAM gene was observed in the positive RFI group. Expression of PGC1α, UCP2 and UCP3 genes did not differ significantly between the two groups. These results suggest the use of TFAM and UCP2 as possible candidate gene markers in breeding programs designed to increase the feed efficiency of Nellore cattle.

  15. Educational Intervention to Modify Bottle-Feeding Behaviors among Formula-Feeding Mothers in the WIC Program: Impact on Infant Formula Intake and Weight Gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Katherine F.; Cohen, Roberta J.; Heinig, M. Jane; Dewey, Kathryn G.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Formula-fed infants gain weight faster than breastfed infants. This study evaluated whether encouraging formula-feeding caregivers to be sensitive to infant satiety cues would alter feeding practices and reduce infant formula intake and weight gain. Design: Double-blind, randomized educational intervention, with intake and growth…

  16. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DM digestibility was not influenced (P = 0.28) by feeding level, but was linearly reduced (P EO 0.05) as C: R ratio decreased ... and in C: R ratio increased rumen OM retention linearly (P EO 0.1>1).Volatile fatty .... program of Harvey (1977).

  17. Correlated responses in sow appetite, residual feed intake, body composition, and reproduction after divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H; Bidanel, J-P; Billon, Y; Lagant, H; Guillouet, P; Sellier, P; Noblet, J; Hermesch, S

    2012-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been explored as an alternative selection criterion to feed conversion ratio to capture the fraction of feed intake not explained by expected production and maintenance requirements. Selection experiments have found that low RFI in the growing pig is genetically correlated with reduced fatness and feed intake. Selection for feed conversion ratio also reduces sow appetite and fatness, which, together with increased prolificacy, has been seen as a hindrance for sow lifetime performance. The aims of our study were to derive equations for sow RFI during lactation (SRFI) and to evaluate the effect of selection for RFI during growth on sow traits during lactation. Data were obtained on 2 divergent lines selected for 7 generations for low and high RFI during growth in purebred Large Whites. The RFI was measured on candidates for selection (1,065 pigs), and sow performance data were available for 480 sows having from 1 to 3 parities (1,071 parities). Traits measured were sow daily feed intake (SDFI); sow BW and body composition before farrowing and at weaning (28.4 ± 1.7d); number of piglets born total, born alive, and surviving at weaning; and litter weight, average piglet BW, and within-litter SD of piglet BW at birth, 21 d of age (when creep feeding was available), and weaning. Sow RFI was defined as the difference between observed SDFI and SDFI predicted for sow maintenance and production. Daily production requirements were quantified by litter size and daily litter BW gain as well as daily changes in sow body reserves. The SRFI represented 24% of the phenotypic variability of SDFI. Heritability estimates for RFI and SRFI were both 0.14. The genetic correlation between RFI and SRFI was 0.29 ± 0.23. Genetic correlations of RFI with sow traits were low to moderate, consistent with responses to selection; selection for low RFI during growth reduced SDFI and increased number of piglets and litter growth, but also increased mobilization of

  18. Effect of feed intake restriction on reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hassan Ali; Abdel-Raheem, Sherief Mohamed

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the present experiment is to study the effect of feed intake restriction on the reproductive performance and pregnancy rate in Egyptian buffalo heifers. Thirty anestrus buffalo heifers were randomly divided into two equal groups. The low feed intake (LFI, n=15, 50 % restriction) group was fed a diet that consists of 3 kg concentrate, 1 kg wheat straw, and 3 kg fresh alfalfa, while the high feed intake (HFI, n=15) group was fed double the amount given to the LFI group for 4 months. All animals were weighed, transrectally examined, and visually checked for the signs of estrus, and blood samples were collected. Heifers in heat were mated with one fertile bull. The number of heifers showing estrus activity was 93.3 % in HFI vs. 20 % in LFI (Prate, and overall mean of progesterone and estrogen concentrations were significantly higher (Pglucose, total cholesterol, and calcium were significantly higher (Pfeed intake to 50 % from NRC recommendations impair reproductive performance in terms of increasing the age at first service and reducing the pregnancy rate in buffalo heifers. In conclusion, feed intake could be effective in improvement of reproductive performance in buffalo heifers and further studies should be done on large scale of buffaloes in this point.

  19. Managing young children's snack food intake. The role of parenting style and feeding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Samantha B; Tiggemann, Marika; Corsini, Nadia; Mattiske, Julie

    2015-09-01

    One major contributor to the problem of childhood overweight and obesity is the over-consumption of foods high in fat, salt and sugar, such as snack foods. The current study aimed to examine young children's snack intake and the influence of feeding strategies used by parents in the context of general parenting style. Participants were 611 mothers of children aged 2-7 years who completed an online questionnaire containing measures of general parenting domains and two particular feeding strategies, restriction and covert control. It was found that greater unhealthy snack intake was associated with higher restriction and lower covert control, while greater healthy snack intake was associated with lower restriction and higher covert control. Further, the feeding strategies mediated the association between parental demandingness and responsiveness and child snack intake. These findings provide evidence for the differential impact of controlling and positive parental feeding strategies on young children's snack intake in the context of general parenting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of the immunocrit ratio assay for evaluation of colostrum quality in sows induced to farrow and inseminated using single dose fixed time insemination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Problem Statement: Sufficient intake of quality colostrum is essential for the success of newborn piglets. Relatively high levels of immunoglobulins (Ig) generally indicate colostrum of high quality. IgG is the predominant Ig in colostrum. The immunocrit ratio assay has been developed as a simple me...

  1. The effect of feed intake level on the pharmacokinetic disposition of closantel in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, D R; Ali, D N

    1997-09-01

    Closantel (CLS), containing a trace of [14C]CLS, was administered intraruminally to sheep whose feed intake was maintained at either 800 or 400 g day-1. The kinetic disposition of [14C]metabolites was determined in rumen and abomasal fluid and particulate digesta and of CLS per se in plasma. The slower digesta flow rate in the sheep on low, compared with high, feed intake resulted in the proportion of the dose passing through the abomasum being reduced from 60 to 45%. Increased absorption of CLS from the rumen of sheep on low feed intake resulted in both higher maximum CLS concentration and greater area under CLS plasma concentration versus time curve, although the elimination half-life was independent of feed intake. Not only are the higher plasma CLS concentrations likely to increase efficacy against Haemonchus contortus, the threshold concentrations that are considered to inhibit the establishment of ingested H. contortus larvae were extended by 10-14 days. The extended CLS presence after reduced feeding, when integrated with parasite treatment programmes, provides an opportunity to reduce the impact of H. contortus infection.

  2. Determination of Residual Feed Intake and Its Associations with Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Chickens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhen-qiang; CHEN Jie; ZHANG Yan; JI Cong-liang; ZHANG De-xiang; ZHANG Xi-quan

    2014-01-01

    Marker assisted selection (MAS) for residual feed intake (RFI) is considered to be one of the powerful means to improve feed conversion efifciency, and therefore reduce production costs. To test the inner relationship among body compositions, growth traits and RFI, four models were proposed to assess the extensively explanatory variables accounting for partial variables in feed intake besides metabolic body weight and growth rate. As a result, the original model (Koch’s model) had the lowest R2 (80.78%) and the highest Bayesian information criterion (1 323.3) value among the four models. Moreover, the effects on RFI caused by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were assessed in this study. Twelve SNPs from 7 candidate genes were genotyped in 2 Chinese native strains. rs14743490 of RPLP2 gene showed suggestively signiifcant association with initial body weight in both strains (P<0.10). rs15047274 of TAF15 was signiifcantly associated with growth weight, ifnal weight, and feed intake (P<0.05) in N301 strain, in contrast, it was only suggestively signiifcant associated with feed intake (P<0.10) in N414 strain. rs15869967 was signiifcantly associated with RFI in N414 strain but not in N301 strain. This study has identiifed potential genetic markers suitable for MAS in improving the above mentioned traits, but these associations need to be rectiifed in other larger populations in future.

  3. Effect of intrajugular administration of insulin on feed intake, plasma glucose and plasma insulin of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, L E; Wangsness, P J

    1980-10-01

    The effect of intrajugular administration of insulin on feed intake, plasma glucose and plasma insulin of 16 wether sheep was studied. A concentrate ration was fed ad libitum to eight wethers, and a forage ration fed to eight different wethers. For each ration, feed intake of four of the eight wethers was measured in one experiment and blood was sampled from the other four wethers at 15, 30, 60 and 120 minutes after injection in a second experiment. The four treatments were saline, 1 mU, 6 mU and 2,000 mU insulin/kg body weight. The highest insulin dose did not affect feed intake of either ration despite producing a marked hypoglycemia, whereas the 6 mU insulin treatment depressed feed intake 1 hour after injection with small changes in concentration of plasma glucose in sheep fed either the concentrate or forage ration. Concentration of plasma insulin was elevated 15 minutes following the 6 mU insulin treatment for the concentrate and forage ration, while 1 mU insulin did not affect plasma insulin. The results of this study suggest a possible role for insulin in the short-term control of feeding in sheep fed either a concentrate or forage ration.

  4. Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

    2014-01-01

    The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions.

  5. Evaluating equations estimating change in swine feed intake during heat and cold stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Robin R; Miller, Phillip S; Hanigan, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate heat stress feed intake models for growing swine using a data set assembled from the literature and to develop a series of new equations modeling the influence of the thermal environment and interactions between the thermal environmental and other factors on feed intake. A literature survey was conducted to identify studies assessing intake responses to temperature. The resulting data set comprised 35 studies containing 120 comparisons to thermoneutral intake. Intake as a fraction of thermoneutral intake (FFI) was the primary response variable, where a value of 1 represented no change from thermoneutral intake. The FFI predicted by NRC and a recent model from a meta-analysis (Renaudeau et al.,) were compared to observed values. New parameters for the NRC equation (NRCmod) were derived, and a series of new equations incorporating duration of exposure (TD), temperature cycling (TC), and floor type (TH) were also derived. Root-mean-square prediction error (RMSPE) and concordance correlation coefficients were used to evaluate all models. The RMSPE for the NRC model was 23.6 with mean and slope bias accounting for 12.6% and 51.1% of prediction error, respectively. The TD, TC, and TH models had reduced RMSPE compared with NRC: 12.9 for TD, 12.6 for TC, and 12.9 for TS. Substantial improvements were also made by refitting parameters (NRCmod; RMSPE 13.0%). In NRCmod, TD, TC, and TH, random error was the predominant source, accounting for over 97% of prediction error. The Renaudeau et al. model was also evaluated. Renaudeau et al. had relatively low RMSPE (22.3) for intake but higher RMSPE for FFI (22.6) than NRC, NRCmod, TD, TC, or TH. Additional parameters were derived for the Renaudeau et al. equation to account for housing system and diet characteristics. This adjustment reduced RMSPE of predicting feed intake (16.0) and FFI (16.3) and reduced systematic bias in the equation. This evaluation of equations highlights the

  6. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki

    2016-02-01

    The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h feeding period most

  7. Transcriptome profiling of the rumen epithelium of beef cattle differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Rebecca S G; Liang, Guanxiang; Chen, Yanhong; Stothard, Paul; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-08-09

    Feed efficient cattle consume less feed and produce less environmental waste than inefficient cattle. Many factors are known to contribute to differences in feed efficiency, however the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Our study aimed to understand how host gene expression in the rumen epithelium contributes to differences in residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, using a transcriptome profiling based approach. The rumen epithelial transcriptome from highly efficient (low (L-) RFI, n = 9) and inefficient (high (H-) RFI, n = 9) Hereford x Angus steers was obtained using RNA-sequencing. There were 122 genes differentially expressed between the rumen epithelial tissues of L- and H- RFI steers (p feed efficiency.

  8. Comparison of caloric intake and weight outcomes of an ad lib feeding regimen for preterm infants in two nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridham, K F; Kosorok, M R; Greer, F; Kayata, S; Bhattacharya, A; Grunwald, P

    2001-09-01

    Effects on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad libitum (ad lib) feeding regimen for preterm infants may be specific to a special care nursery. To explore across two nurseries the similarity of effect on caloric intake and weight gain of an ad lib feeding regimen compared with a prescribed regimen and the similarity of effect of caloric intake on weight gain. All infants participating in the multi-site randomized clinical trial (RCT) of the ad lib feeding regimen were lib. After accounting for caloric intake, the ad lib regimen did not affect weight gain. The time-by-regimen interaction effect on caloric intake was significant in both nurseries. Caloric intake for infants fed ad lib increased significantly over 5 days. Despite differences between nurseries in infant characteristics and in protocol implementation, the feeding regimen effect was consistent for caloric intake and weight gain. Further support was found for the development of infant self-regulatory capacity.

  9. Parental feeding style, energy intake and weight status in young Scottish children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Colette; Jackson, Diane M; Kelly, Louise A; Reilly, John J

    2006-12-01

    Parental feeding style, as measured by the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ), may be an important influence on child feeding behaviour and weight status in early to mid childhood, but more evidence on parental feeding style is required from samples outside the USA. We aimed to use the CFQ in a sample of 117 Scottish children (boys n 53, girls n 64 mean age 4.6 (SD 0.5) years) to: characterise gender differences and changes over time (in forty of the 117 children studied over 2 years); test associations between parental feeding style, free-living energy intake (measured over 3 days using the multiple pass 24-h recall), and weight status (BMI SD score). No dimensions of parental feeding style changed significantly over 2 years in the longitudinal study (P>0.05 in all cases). No aspects of parental feeding style as measured by the CFQ differed significantly between the sexes (P>0.05 in all cases). Parental perceptions of child weight status were generally significantly positively correlated with child weight status as measured by the BMI SD score. In this sample and setting, measures of parental control over child feeding were generally not associated with child energy intake or weight status.

  10. Relationship between feed intake, feeding behaviors, performance, and ultrasound carcass measurements in growing purebred Angus and Hereford bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Hill, R A

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the growth, DMI, and feeding behaviors of Angus and Hereford bulls; identify the relationships between feeding behaviors and variation in DMI and residual feed intake (RFI); and determine the value of feeding behaviors in predicting DMI. Individual DMI was measured in Angus bulls (n=189; initial BW=427±3.4 kg) and Hereford bulls (n=146; initial BW=411±4.1 kg) fed a grower ration for 71 d in 2009, 78 d in 2010, and 74 d in 2011 using a GrowSafe intake monitoring system. Feeding frequency (FF, meals/d), head down duration (HDD, s/d), head down duration per meal (HDDM, HDD/FF, s/meal), average meal size [AMS, kg/(meal·d)], and feeding rate (FR, g/s) were also measured or calculated using behavior data collected by the GrowSafe system. Ultrasound measures of 12th-rib fat thickness (UFT), longissimus muscle area (ULMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF) were determined during the midtest-weight event of every trial. The data from 3 yr were pooled to generate mean differences between the breeds. Residual feed intake was calculated using a linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest BW0.75 (MMWT). Animals were classified into 3 RFI groups based on their RFI score as Low (>0.5 SD below the mean), Average (±0.5 SD from the mean), or High RFI (>0.5 SD above the mean). Angus bulls in the Low RFI group consumed 17% (PAngus and Hereford bulls, respectively. The HDD, HDDM, and FR were significantly correlated with DMI. The feeding behavior traits, HDD, HDDM, and FR when added to the RFI base model, explained 18, 17, and 13%, respectively, of the variation in DMI not explained by ADG and MMWT in Angus bulls. Similarly, in Hereford bulls, HDD, HDDM, and FR explained 35, 26, and 24%, respectively, of the variation in DMI not explained by ADG and MMWT. These data suggest that feeding behaviors are related to DMI of growing Angus and Hereford bulls.

  11. Genetic assessment of residual feed intake as a feed efficiency trait in the Pacific white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping; Luan, Sheng; Lu, Xia; Luo, Kun; Meng, Xianhong; Cao, Baoxiang; Kong, Jie

    2017-08-04

    Residual feed intake (RFI) was investigated as a measure of feed efficiency in a breeding population of Litopenaeus vannamei. Shrimp from 34 families were housed individually and feed efficiency and growth traits were recorded during two successive growth periods. The objectives of this study were (1) to estimate the heritability of RFI and related traits, including feed efficiency ratio (FER), average daily gain (ADG) and daily feed intake (DFI), (2) to determine the relationships between RFI and other traits, and (3) to evaluate the variation of these traits across two growth periods. Shrimp displayed large inter-individual variation in RFI, FER, ADG and DFI during each growth period. Heritability estimates of all these traits during both periods reached high values (0.577 ± 0.232 to 0.707 ± 0.252). RFI showed weak and no genetic correlations with ADG during the two growth periods between days 1 to 21 (0.135 ± 0.204) and 22 to 42 (-0.018 ± 0.128), respectively, but high positive genetic correlations with DFI (>0.8). Weak and moderate negative genetic correlations were observed between RFI and FER during the two periods (-0.126 ± 0.208 and -0.387 ± 0.183). As evidenced by the high genetic correlations between the two periods for each trait (>0.6), trait performance of the shrimp tended to be consistent across periods. For the first time, accurate measurement of individual feed efficiency on a large scale was achieved in shrimp. Although the estimated heritability reported here for RFI may be overestimated, it is a heritable trait in L. vannamei that can be improved by genetic improvement. For L. vannamei, the biggest potential advantage in using RFI as a measure of feed efficiency is that it is independent of growth rate, and thus genetic selection on RFI has the potential to improve feed efficiency and reduce feed intake, without compromising growth performance.

  12. Bovine colostrum to children with short bowel syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aunsholt, Lise; Jeppesen, Palle Bekker; Lund, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    of enteral fluid intake was replaced with bovine colostrum or a mixed milk diet for 4 weeks, separated by a 4-week washout period. Intestinal absorption of energy and wet weight was used to assess intestinal function and the efficacy of colostrum. Results: Colostrum did not improve energy or wet weight......Background: Management of short bowel syndrome (SBS) aims to achieve intestinal autonomy to prevent fluid, electrolyte, and nutrient deficiencies and maintain adequate development. Remnant intestinal adaptation is required to obtain autonomy. In the newborn pig, colostrum has been shown to support...... absorption compared with the mixed milk diet (P = 1.00 and P = .93, respectively). Growth as measured by weight and knemometry did not differ between diets (P = .93 and P = .28). In these patients,...

  13. Measuring residual feed intake in dairy heifers fed an alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cube diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghorn, G C; Macdonald, K A; Williams, Y; Davis, S R; Spelman, R J

    2012-03-01

    Selection for divergence between individuals for efficiency of feed utilization (residual feed intake, RFI) has widespread application in the beef industry and is usually undertaken when animals are fed diets based on silages with grain. The objective of this research was to develop a feeding system (using Gallagher, Hamilton, New Zealand, electronics) to measure RFI for growth in Holstein-Friesian heifers (aged 5-9 mo), and identify divergent individuals to be tested for RFI during lactation. A dry forage diet (alfalfa cubes) was fed because intakes could be measured accurately, and the New Zealand dairy industry (4.4 million milking cows in lactation) relies heavily on forage feeding. The evaluation was undertaken over 3 yr with 1,052 animals fed in a facility for 7 wk, and weighed 3 times weekly. The mean age at the start of measurements was 215 d, body weight (BW) 189 kg, and mean daily dry matter intakes averaged 6.7 kg. Body weight gain (all animals) averaged 0.88 kg/d. The RFI was determined as the residuals from the regression of mean intake on mean BW(0.75) and daily BW gain of individuals. Actual and fitted intakes were strongly related (R(2) = 0.82). In terms of gross efficiency (feed intake/BW gain), RFI+year explained 43% of the variation, BW gain+year explained 66%, and RFI+BW gain+year explained 79% of the variation (all Pdry matter/d. The most and least efficient animals will be tested for RFI during lactation and genetic markers will be identified for the trait.

  14. Divergent selection for residual feed intake affects the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of pig skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, A; Louveau, I; Gondret, F; Tréfeu, C; Gilbert, H; Lefaucheur, L

    2015-06-01

    Improving feed efficiency is a relevant strategy to reduce feed cost and environmental waste in livestock production. Selection experiments on residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, previously indicated that low RFI was associated with lower feed intake, similar growth rate, and greater lean meat content compared with high RFI. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, 24 Large White females from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were examined. Pigs from a low-RFI ("efficient") and high-RFI ("inefficient") line were individually fed ad libitum from 67 d of age (27 kg BW) to slaughter at 115 kg BW (n = 8 per group). Additional pigs of the high-RFI line were feed restricted to the daily feed intake of the ad libitum low-RFI pigs (n = 8) to investigate the impact of selection independently of feed intake. Global gene and protein expression profiles were assessed in the LM collected at slaughter. The analyses involved a porcine commercial microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 1,000 probes were differentially expressed (P feed restriction. Gene functional classification indicated a greater expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and a lower expression of genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism in the low-RFI pigs compared with the high-RFI pigs. At the protein level, 11 unique identified proteins exhibited a differential abundance (P feed restriction. Mitochondrial oxidative proteins such as aconitase hydratase, ATP synthase subunit α, and creatine kinase S-type had a lower abundance in the low-RFI pigs, whereas fructose-biphosphate aldolase A and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2 proteins involved in glycolysis, had a greater abundance in those pigs compared with high-RFI pigs. Antioxidant proteins such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase 3 at the mRNA level and peroxiredoxin-6 at the protein level were also less expressed in LM of the most

  15. Global gene expression profiling reveals genes expressed differentially in cattle with high and low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Gondro, C; Quinn, K; Herd, R M; Parnell, P F; Vanselow, B

    2011-10-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in beef production. It can be measured as residual feed intake. This is the difference between actual feed intake recorded over a test period and the expected feed intake of an animal based on its size and growth rate. DNA-based marker-assisted selection would help beef breeders to accelerate genetic improvement for feed efficiency by reducing the generation interval and would obviate the high cost of measuring residual feed intake. Although numbers of quantitative trait loci and candidate genes have been identified with the advance of molecular genetics, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms and the nature of genes underlying residual feed intake is limited. The aim of the study was to use global gene expression profiling by microarray to identify genes that are differentially expressed in cattle, using lines genetically selected for low and high residual feed intake, and to uncover candidate genes for residual feed intake. A long-oligo microarray with 24 000 probes was used to profile the liver transcriptome of 44 cattle selected for high or low residual feed intake. One hundred and sixty-one unique genes were identified as being differentially expressed between animals with high and low residual feed intake. These genes were involved in seven gene networks affecting cellular growth and proliferation, cellular assembly and organization, cell signalling, drug metabolism, protein synthesis, lipid metabolism, and carbohydrate metabolism. Analysis of functional data using a transcriptional approach allows a better understanding of the underlying biological processes involved in residual feed intake and also allows the identification of candidate genes for marker-assisted selection. © 2011 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2011 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Canine and feline colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastant-Maillard, S; Aggouni, C; Albaret, A; Fournier, A; Mila, H

    2016-11-30

    Puppy and kitten survival over the first weeks is particularly dependent on colostrum, a specific secretion of the mammary gland produced during the first 2 days post-partum. Colostrum is a source of nutrients and immunoglobulins. It also contributes to the digestive tract maturation. Colostrum differentiates from milk mainly based on its concentration in immunoglobulins G: 20-30 g/L in dog colostrum, 40-50 g/L in cats' vs kittens are almost agammaglobulinemic at birth, transfer of IgG from their digestive tract into their bloodstream is crucial for their survival, IgG absorption ending at 12-16 hr after birth. Energetic supply over the two first days of life, as evidenced by growth rate over the two first days of life, also affects risk of neonatal mortality. Early and sufficient suckling of colostrum is thus the very first care to be provided to newborns for their later health and survival.

  17. Feed intake, growth and metabolism of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in relation to dissolved oxygen concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran-Duy, A.; Dam, van A.A.; Schrama, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to determine, for Nile tilapia of different body weights and fed to satiation, (1) the incipient dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at which feed intake starts to level off and (2) the effect of DO on nitrogen and energy balances. Two successive experiments

  18. Residual feed intake in young chickens : effects on energy partitioning and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: chicken, residual feed intake, resource allocation, immune response, Salmonella Enteritidis, energy partitioning.The continuous selection in farm animals for efficient production and high production levels may have led to animals that are "programmed" to put a lot of reso

  19. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg sw

  20. Effects of sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance in group-housed weanling pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterk, A.R.; Schlegel, P.; Mul, A.J.; Ubbink-Blanksma, M.; Bruininx, E.M.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effects of 2 high intensity sodium saccharine based sweeteners on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 198 26-d-old weanling pigs were given ad libitum access to 3 dietary treatments: containing no additional sweetener (Control), 150 mg

  1. Relationship between residual feed intake, performance, and carcass parameters of pasture finished cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2009 and 2010, Angus-crossbred steers (n = 39) were used to evaluate the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI), pasture-finishing performance and carcass parameters. During RFI determinations prior to pasture finishing initiation in mid-April, animals were fed an alfalfa hay cube diet....

  2. Residual feed intake in young chickens : effects on energy partitioning and immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, van E.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: chicken, residual feed intake, resource allocation, immune response, Salmonella Enteritidis, energy partitioning.The continuous selection in farm animals for efficient production and high production levels may have led to animals that are "programmed" to put a lot of

  3. Estimating feed efficiency of lactating dairy cattle using residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rising feed costs and ever increasing concerns about the negative impacts of agriculture and animal production on the environment have made the improvement of feed efficiency of all livestock species a high-priority area of agricultural research. Improving production efficiency of lactating dairy ca...

  4. Effects of dietary starch and energy levels on maximum feed intake, growth and metabolism of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Duy, A.; Smit, B.; Dam, van A.A.; Schrama, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into how Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) regulate feed and energy intake in response to diets low and high in starch and cellulose. It was hypothesized that high-starch diets would reduce feed intake due to the effect of high blood glucose level, and th

  5. Genetic parameters across lactation for feed intake, fat and protein corrected milk, and live weight in first parity Holstein cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanilla Pech, C.I.V.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.; Zom, R.L.G.; Knegsel, van A.; Pryce, J.E.; Haas, de Y.

    2014-01-01

    Breeding values for dry matter intake (DMI) are important to optimize dairy cattle breeding goals for feed efficiency. However, generally, only small data sets are available for feed intake, due to the cost and difficulty of measuring DMI, which makes understanding the genetic associations between t

  6. Genetic parameters for residual feed intake in a random population of Pekin duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunsheng; Guo, Zhan Bao; Xie, Ming; Zhang, Zhiying; Hou, Shuisheng

    2017-02-01

    The feed intake (FI) and feed efficiency are economically important traits in ducks. To obtain insight into this economically important trait, we designed an experiment based on the residual feed intake (RFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of a random population Pekin duck. Two thousand and twenty pedigreed random population Pekin ducks were established from 90 males mated to 450 females in two hatches. Traits analyzed in the study were body weight at the 42th day (BW42), 15 to 42 days average daily gain (ADG), 15 to 42 days FI, 15 to 42 days FCR, and 15 to 42 days RFI to assess their genetic inter-relationships. The genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) methodology applied to a sire-dam model for all traits using the ASREML software. Estimates heritability of BW42, ADG, FI, FCR, and RFI were 0.39, 0.38, 0.33, 0.38, and 0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation was high between RFI and FI (0.77) and moderate between RFI and FCR (0.54). The genetic correlation was high and moderate between FCR and ADG (-0.80), and between FCR and BW42 (-0.64), and between FCR and FI (0.49), respectively. Thus, selection on RFI was expected to improve feed efficiency, and reduce FI. Selection on RFI thus improves the feed efficiency of animals without impairing their FI and increase growth rate.

  7. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  8. A Comparison by Milk Feeding Method of the Nutrient Intake of a Cohort of Australian Toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Scott

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Breastfeeding is recommended beyond 12 months of age, but little is known about the contribution of breastmilk and infant formula to the nutritional intake of toddlers as they transition to a family diet in the second year of life. This study is a cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a birth cohort study in Adelaide, Australia. Dietary intake data were collected when children were approximately 1 year of age by an interviewer-administered multi-pass 24 h recall and a mother-completed 2 days food diary. Children were categorized according to their milk feeding method, i.e., breastmilk, infant formula, combination or other, and their nutrient intakes compared with recommended nutrient reference values. Complete data were available for 832 children, of which 714 had plausible energy intakes. Breastmilk and formula made a substantial contribution to the nutrient intake of those toddlers, contributing 28% and 34% of total energy, and 16% and 26% of protein intake, respectively when not drunk in combination. In general, Australian toddlers transitioning to the family diet consumed nutritionally adequate diets, although almost one quarter of all children and half of breastfed children with plausible intakes had iron intakes below the estimated average requirement, placing them at risk of iron deficiency.

  9. Season of testing and its effect on feed intake and efficiency in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujibi, F D N; Moore, S S; Nkrumah, D J; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A

    2010-12-01

    This study sought to assess whether residual feed intake (RFI) calculated by regressing feed intake (DMI) on growth rate (ADG) and metabolic mid-BW in 3 different ways led to similar estimates of genetic parameters and variance components for young growing cattle tested for feed intake in fall and winter seasons. A total of 378 beef steers in 5 cohorts were fed a typical high energy feedlot diet and had free-choice access to feed and water. Feed intake data were collected in fall or winter seasons. Climate data were obtained from the University of Alberta Kinsella meteorological station and Vikings AGCM station. Individual animal RFI was obtained by either fitting a regression model to each test group separately (RFI(C)), fitting a regression model to pooled data consisting of all cohorts but including test group as a fixed effect (RFI(O)), or fitting a regression to pooled data with test group as a fixed effect but within seasonal (fall-winter or winter-spring) groups (RFI(S)). Two animal models (M1 and M2) that differed by the inclusion of fixed effects of test group or season, respectively, were used to evaluate RFI measurements. Feed intake was correlated with air temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed (-0.26, 0.23, 0.30, -0.14 for fall-winter and 0.31, -0.04, 0.14, 0.16 for winter-spring, respectively), but the nature and magnitude of the correlations were different for the 2 seasons. Single trait direct heritability, model likelihood, direct genetic variance, and EBV accuracy estimates were greatest for RFI(C) and least for RFI(O) for both M1 and M2 models. A significant genetic correlation was also observed between RFI(O) and ADG, but not for RFI(C) and RFI(S). Including a season effect (M2) in the genetic evaluation of RFI(O) resulted in the smallest heritability, model LogL, EBV accuracy, and largest residual variance estimates. These results, though not conclusive, suggest a possible effect of seasonality on feed intake and thus

  10. Residual feed intake and its effect on carcass and meat characteristics of feedlot Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julimar do Sacramento Ribeiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual feed intake (RFI and its relation with performance, carcass and meat characteristics of Zebu animals. A total of 40 Zebu steers with initial age of 18 months and initial live weight of 350 kg were confined in feedlot for 112 days. The average daily gain (ADG and dry matter intake (DMI were obtained every 14 days. Residual feed intake was determined by the difference between observed and predicted DMI, based on the metabolic weight and the ADG. Animals were classified into the RFI groups: high (>0.5 standard deviation of the mean - least efficient, medium (±0.5 standard deviation of the mean and low (<0.5 standard deviation of the mean - most efficient. Daily cost with feeding and per kilogram of weight gain was determined. Characteristics of carcass (weight, yield, subcutaneous fat meat (pH, shear force and color were assessed. Animals with low RFI presented lower DMI. The variation in DMI between the low and the high RFI groups promoted difference in the daily cost with feeding and per kilogram of weight gain, with animals of low RFI presenting costs 5 and 9% lower, respectively. Carcass and meat characteristics differed over the RFI groups. The knowledge of the RFI of the animals enables a more efficient system, with reduction in the costs with feeding, without promoting alterations on the performance and carcass characteristics of the meat from Zebu animals.

  11. Biological mechanisms related to differences in residual feed intake in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Y M; Wu, F; Zhao, D Q; Yang, Z; Li, L; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2016-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and expected feed intake over a specific period, is an inheritable character of feed conversion efficiency in dairy cows. Research has shown that a lower RFI could improve the profitability of milk production. This study explored variation in RFI by comparing the differences in body size, milk performance, feeding behavior, and serum metabolites in 29 Holstein cows in mid lactation. The cows were selected from a total of 84 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests. Selected cows were ranked into high RFI (RFI >1 SD above the mean, n=14) and low RFI (RFIfeed ratio was higher for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (Pfeeding duration was shorter for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group (P<0.01). No significant differences were found in levels of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate, prolactin, insulin, IGF-1, growth hormone or ghrelin, but the level of neuropeptide Y was higher (P<0.01) and levels of leptin and non-esterified fatty acid (P<0.05) were lower for the low RFI group than for the high RFI group. There were substantial differences between cows with different RFI, which might affect the efficiency of milk protein metabolism and fat mobilization.

  12. Metabolic response to an inflammatory challenge in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, E; Gilbert, H; Le Floc'h, N

    2016-02-01

    Selection for residual feed intake (RFI), which is used to select animals for feed efficiency, also influences nutrient partitioning between growth and maintenance functions. This study was designed to investigate if selection for reduced RFI can alter the trade-off between growth and immunity and contributes to differences in metabolic responses to an inflammatory challenge. Piglets from 2 lines divergently selected on RFI (low: RFI, = 10, and high: RFI, = 11) were challenged at 55 d of age (on d 0) with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce a noninfectious pneumonia. Plasma haptoglobin and nutrient concentrations (in fasted state and 2 h after feeding) were determined from d -1 to d 7, and tissue protein metabolism was determined on d 8. Haptoglobin concentrations were greater from d 1 to d 7 relative to d -1 ( Feed intake was less on d 1 than on the other days ( feed intake, ADG between d -1 and d 8, and haptoglobin concentration ( 0.1). Thus, it seems that that, using different metabolic strategies, both lines coped similarly with the CFA challenge. Contrary to our hypothesis, this experiment showed, in young pigs, no advantage of RFI animals in response to an inflammatory challenge.

  13. Determination of dependence of feed intake level on functional and technological parameters of prescription mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksenova O. I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the development of pet food formulations in the conditions of information uncertainty which is characteristic of an actual business enterprise engaged in production of feed has been considered in the paper. The analysis of the literature [1–4] has shown that the main works are devoted to the extrusion of plastics and cereal products, with the temperature conditions equal to 130–200 ºC. This temperature range is not suitable for the production of pet food, and researches on this issue are virtually absent. This study is devoted to defining the functional and technological parameters of prescription mixture depending on the level of feed intake by unproductive animals; this knowledge will allow manufacturers to simplify the development of new formulations of balanced feed. Identification of this relationship has been carried out on the basis of modeling methods of mathematical statistics in Excel and Mathcad packages, as well as on the basis of fuzzy logic set theory in MatLAB package, as the construction of a complete mathematical model is complicated by absence of an explicit numerical form of the result received on the basis of sensory analysis. The research has revealed the dependence of feed intake level on functional and technological parameters of prescription mix for non-productive animals, in particular, the highest level of animal feed intake will be achieved at the following values of the main parameters: pH – 6.5; the moisture – 9 %; the protein concentration – 85 %; the particle size – 0.55 mm; the energy value – 267 kcal/100 g feed. The adequacy of the dependence for the input variables – the moisture feed and concentration of the protein component – is confirmed by the experimental investigations. This paper can be used to generate the optimal prescription composition for functional and technological characteristics of the samples in order to create balanced extruded feeds.

  14. The effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake in turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcarra, J A; Wright, H; Vizcarra, A

    2012-09-01

    Five-week-old turkeys were used to evaluate the effect of passive immunization against ghrelin on feed and water intake and animal behavior. In experiment 1, females were reared using normal feeding and lighting management recommended by the industry. At 5 wk of age (d 0 of experiment 1), birds (n = 40) were individually caged (0.65 × 0.4 × 0.4 m) with free access to feed and water. Feed and water intake were measured 3 times a day (0800, 1200, and 1700 h) by recording the weight of feed or water offered minus any unconsumed feed or water remaining. After 3 d of adaptation to the cages (d 3), birds were stratified by BW and feed consumption and randomly assigned to a 2 × 5 factorial arrangement of treatment. Starting on d 3, turkeys were given intravenous (iv) injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma obtained from pigs that were previously actively immunized against ghrelin or iv injections (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, or 8.0 mL) of pooled undiluted plasma, obtained from nonimmunized pigs (control). In experiment 2, the 2 highest doses (i.e., 4.0 and 8.0 mL; n = 4/treatment) were repeated in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement as described in experiment 1. A laptop computer with a built-in color camera and appropriate software was used to record birds for 9 consecutive hours, starting 4 h before treatments were applied. Video clips were saved and a human observer watched and annotated bird behavior associated with feeding, drinking, and standing. Passively immunized birds increased feed consumption (P = 0.04) compared with control animals. Water intake was not affected by treatments. There was a tendency for immunized birds to increase the number of pecks per hour and the amount of time devoted for feeding. Our data suggest that in turkeys, the effect of immunization against ghrelin on feed intake is the opposite of that observed in mammalian species.

  15. Protein metabolism, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore steers with high and low residual feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate protein turnover, nitrogen balance, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore (B. indicus cattle with high and low residual feed intake (RFI = actual minus expected dry matter intake. Seventy-two Nellore steers (16 to 21 months-old, 334±19 kg initial body weight were fed a feedlot diet for 70 days ad libitum. Daily dry matter intake (DMI and average daily gain (ADG were recorded individually and RFI was calculated. The 12 steers of lowest (Low-RFI, most efficient RFI and the 12 ones of highest RFI (High-RFI, least efficient were evaluated with respect to their behavior patterns and plasma cortisol concentration. Urine was collected for determination of daily 3-methylhistidine excretion (3MH and myofibrillar protein breakdown rates. Urinary, gaseous and fecal energy losses were determined as well as the N retention and excretion. High-RFI steers tended to have shorter lying and idle periods and greater feeding time and plasma cortisol levels than low-RFI cattle. No RFI effects were seen for urine 3MH excretion and for rates of protein degradation and synthesis. No effects of efficiency class were observed for N excretion or N retention. No RFI effects were observed for dry matter digestibility, digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content and DE/ME ratio. Methane energy losses were lower for low-compared with high-RFI steers. Protein turnover seems not to affect feed efficiency in Nellore steers. Improved RFI in Nellore steers is probably associated with lower degrees of activity and responsiveness to stress and lower losses of dietary energy as methane.

  16. Expression profile of hypothalamic neuropeptides in chicken lines selected for high or low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sintubin, P; Greene, E; Collin, A; Bordas, A; Zerjal, T; Tesseraud, S; Buyse, J; Dridi, S

    2014-08-01

    The R(+) and R(-) chicken lines have been divergently selected for high (R(+)) or low (R(-)) residual feed intake. For the same body weight and egg production, the R(+) chickens consume 40% more food than their counterparts R(-) lines. In the present study we sought to determine the hypothalamic expression profile of feeding-related neuropeptides in these lines maintained under fed or food-deprived conditions. In the fed condition, the suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) was 17-fold lower (Pfeeding-related genes that are differently expressed in the hypothalamus of R(+) and R(-) chickens and that might explain the difference in feed intake observed between the two lines. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Random variation in voluntary dry matter intake and effect of day length on feed intake capacity in growing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Andersen, Refsgaard; Foldager, John

    1992-01-01

    in fifteen bulls, steers and heifers, respectively, fed a complete diet ad libitum. The diet was based on chopped straw formulated to secure physical regulation of feed intake. Total random variation of recorded VDMI corresponded to a coefficient of variation (CV) of 24.6%. Two thirds of this variation......The objective of this paper is to describe the random variation in voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) and to discuss the application of the results for monitoring purposes. Furthermore, the objective is to review and quantify the influence of day length or photoperiod on VDMI. VDMI was recorded...... was due to random day to day variation in VDMI. Random variation between weeks, random variation between animals and residual random variation corresponded to a CV of 3.6, 8.0 and 10.0%, respectively, and they explained 2.5, 12.2 and 18.8% of the total random variation. In the present experiment VDMI...

  18. Effect of Three Colostrum Diets on Passive Transfer of Immunity and Preweaning Health in Calves on a California Dairy following Colostrum Management Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniece R. Williams

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Following colostrum management training, a randomized field trial was conducted on a California dairy to determine the effect of supplementing pooled colostrum with either colostrum-derived replacer (CDR or second-milking colostrum (transition milk on failure of passive transfer (FPT and preweaning morbidity risks. A total of 166 calves were randomly assigned to 4L first-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 1, 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L of CDR (treatment 2, or 2L first-milking pooled colostrum and 2L second-milking pooled colostrum (treatment 3. Mean 24-hour serum TP and IgG for treatments 2 (TP 5.2 g/dL, IgG 15.9 g/L and 3 (TP 5.4 g/dL, IgG 18.3 g/L did not statistically differ but were significantly lower than for treatment 1 (TP 5.9 g/dL, IgG 24.6 g/L. Risk of FPT did not differ for treatments 1, 2, and 3 (0.0%, 9.3%, and 1.9%, resp.. Similarly, the preweaning risk of diarrhea (81.0%, 92.5%, and 87.0%, resp. or pneumonia (6.9%, 13.2%, and 18.5%, resp. did not differ between treatments. Feeding 4L first-milking pooled colostrum resulted in adequate passive transfer. When first-milking pooled colostrum quantity is inadequate, CDR or second-milking pooled colostrum can be used to supplement the required colostrum volume and IgG mass without adversely affecting the risks of FPT or preweaning diarrhea and pneumonia.

  19. Meta-analysis of feed intake and growth responses of growing pigs after a sanitary challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastorelli, H; van Milgen, J; Lovatto, P; Montagne, L

    2012-06-01

    Sanitary challenges negatively affect feed intake and growth, leading to a negative impact on animal well-being and economic losses. The aim of this study was to carry out a meta-analysis to quantify the dynamic feed intake and growth responses of growing pigs after a sanitary challenge. A database was constructed using 122 published experiments reporting the average daily feed intake (ADFI) and the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs subjected to one of six sanitary challenges: digestive bacterial infections, poor housing conditions, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges, mycotoxicoses, parasitic infections and respiratory diseases. The responses to experimental challenges were calculated relative to that of a control group. Statistical analyses were carried out for each challenge to quantify the mean and the dynamic responses in feed intake and growth and to identify the basis of the reduction in growth (i.e. reduction in feed intake or reduction in feed efficiency related to changes in maintenance requirements). All challenges resulted in a reduction in ADFI and ADG, with the strongest responses for mycotoxicoses, respiratory diseases and digestive bacterial infections (8% to 23% reduction in ADFI and 16% to 29% reduction in ADG). The reduction in ADG was linearly related to the reduction in ADFI for digestive bacterial infections, LPS challenge, parasitic infections and respiratory diseases. For poor housing conditions and mycotoxicoses, the relationship was curvilinear. A 10% reduction in ADFI resulted in a reduction in ADG varying from 10% for mycotoxicoses to 43% for digestive bacterial infections. More than 70% of the reduction in ADG could be explained by the reduction in ADFI for mycotoxicoses, LPS challenge and respiratory diseases. For challenges associated with the gastrointestinal tract, a large part of the reduction in ADG was due to an increase in maintenance requirements, suggesting digestive and metabolic changes. A dynamic pattern in the reduction in

  20. Mothers' child-feeding practices are associated with children's sugar-sweetened beverage intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Li, Ruowei; Birch, Leann

    2015-04-01

    Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is a substantial source of energy in the diet of US children. We examined the associations between mothers' child-feeding practices and SSB intake among 6-y-old children. We analyzed data from the Year 6 Follow-up of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II in 1350 US children aged 6 y. The outcome variable was child's SSB intake. The exposure variables were 4 child-feeding practices of mothers: setting limits on sweets or junk foods, regulating their child's favorite food intake to prevent overconsumption, pressuring their child to eat enough, and pressuring their child to "clean the plate." We used multinomial logistic regression and controlled for child and maternal characteristics. Analyses were stratified on child weight status. The consumption of SSBs ≥1 time/d was observed among 17.1% of underweight/normal-weight children and in 23.2% of overweight/obese children. Adjusted ORs (aORs) of consuming SSBs ≥1 time/d (vs. no SSB consumption) were significantly lower in children whose mothers reported setting limits on sweets/junk foods (aOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.58 for underweight/normal-weight children; aOR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.79 for overweight/obese children). SSB intake was higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers reported trying to keep the child from eating too much of their favorite foods (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.29). Mothers' tendency to pressure their children to consume more food or to "clean the plate" was not associated with child's SSB intake. SSBs were commonly consumed by young children. The odds of daily SSB intake were lower among children whose mothers set limits on sweets/junk foods regardless of child's weight but were higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers restricted the child's favorite food intake. Future studies can investigate the impact of alternatives to restrictive feeding practices that could reduce children's SSB intake. © 2015 American Society

  1. Validation of Brix refractometer to estimate colostrum immunoglobulin G content and composition in the sow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, S M K; Junnikkala, S; Valros, A; Peltoniemi, O; Oliviero, C

    2016-10-01

    Colostrum is an essential source of immunoglobulin G (IgG) for neonate piglets. However, colostrum IgG content and nutritional composition can vary considerably among sows due to age, parity, feeding regime and immunological background. Currently, there is no practical way to obtain information about colostrum IgG concentration at herd level. We evaluated sows' colostrum IgG content on-farm using a Brix refractometer and its performance was compared with that of an IgG ELISA. In addition, nutritional compositions of the colostrum samples were analyzed using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. Colostrum samples (5 to 6 ml) (n=153) were obtained within 0 to 3 h of farrowing. However, to obtain a 24 h IgG profile for 11 sows, colostrum samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 16 and 24 h after farrowing. A 0.3 ml of freshly drawn colostrum sample was used for the on-farm measurement of Brix percentages using a digital refractometer shortly after collection. The remaining fractions of the samples were frozen and submitted to laboratory analysis for total IgG, using a commercially available pig IgG ELISA kit. For nutritional composition analysis, a 35 ml colostrum sample (n=34) was obtained immediately after birth of first piglet from the first three pairs of frontal teats. Colostrum concentrations of IgG averaged 52.03±30.70 mg/ml (mean±SEM) at 0 to 3 h after farrowing. Concentration of IgG decreased on average by 50% during the 1st day of lactation (P30%. Colostrum IgG concentration is highly variable among sows, Brix measurement of a sows' fresh colostrum is an inexpensive, rapid and satisfactorily accurate method of estimating IgG concentration, providing indication of differentiation between good and poor IgG content of colostrum.

  2. Association of infant feeding and dietary intake on obesity prevalence in low-income toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jaimie N; Koleilat, Maria; Shearrer, Grace E; Whaley, Shannon E

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study assesses the independent and combined effects of breastfeeding (BF) and dietary intake, specifically sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), on obesity prevalence in low-income, primarily Hispanic toddlers. The following data were collected in 2011 via phone surveys with caregivers of 2295 low-income children (2-4 years) from Los Angeles County Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) programs: infant feeding, dietary intake, gestational diabetes status, birth weight, gestational age, and mother's BMI. WIC staff measured children's height and weight. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regressions assessed the independent and combined effects of BF and dietary intake on obesity prevalence. Compared to no BF, BF ≥ 12 mos was associated with a 47% reduction in obesity prevalence (AOR = 0.53, 95% CI 0.4-0.8, P = 0.004). Compared to 2 + SSB/d, no SSB/d intake was associated with a 28% reduction in obesity prevalence (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.5-1.0, P = 0.03). High intake of soda, diet soda, and fruit drinks were linked to increases in obesity prevalence. There was no effect of 100% juice, milk (plain or flavored) fruit, vegetable, fast food, or sweetened grain intake on obesity prevalence. These findings support encouragement of BF ≥ 12 mos and no SSB intake to prevent obesity in low-income, primarily Hispanic, toddlers. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  3. Towards an improved estimation of the biological components of residual feed intake in growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savietto, D; Berry, D P; Friggens, N C

    2014-02-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed and predicted feed intake. It is calculated as the residuals from a multiple regression model of DMI on the various energy expenditures (e.g., maintenance, growth, activity). Residual feed intake is often cited to be indicative of feed efficiency differences among animals. However, explaining a large proportion of the (phenotypic and genetic) interanimal variation in RFI remains difficult. Here we first describe a biological framework for RFI dwelling on similarities between RFI and energy balance. Alternative phenotypic and genetic statistical models are subsequently applied to a dataset of 1,963 growing bulls of 2 British and 3 Continental breeds. The novel aspect of this study was the use of a mixed model framework to quantify the heritable interanimal variation in the partial regression coefficients on the energy expenditure traits within the RFI equation. Heritable genetic variation in individual animal regression coefficients for metabolic live weight existed. No significant genetic variation in animal-level regression coefficients for growth or body fat level, however, existed in the study population. The presence of genetic variation in the partial regression coefficient of maintenance suggests the existence of interanimal variation in maintenance efficiency. However, it could also simply reflect interanimal genetic variation in correlated energy expenditure traits not included in the statistical model. Estimated breeding values for the random regression coefficient could be useful phenotypes in themselves for studies wishing to elucidate the underlying mechanisms governing differences among animals in RFI.

  4. The development of a model for the prediction of feed intake and energy partitioning in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.

    2014-01-01

    Balancing the supply of on-farm grown forages with the production targets of the dairy herd is a crucial aspect of the management of a dairy farm. Models which provides a rapid insight of the impact of the ration, feed quality and feeding management on feed intake and performance of dairy cows are

  5. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  6. [Progress in predicting animal feed intake of plant secondary compounds by spectral analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Su; Hong, Fu-Zeng; Wang, Kun

    2007-09-01

    Study on feed intake of phytophagic animals is a key issue in promoting animal productivity and conservation of wild life. However, how to accurately predict the feed intake of grazing animal and wild life is a long remaining problem. Under the mechanism of co-evolution, plant produces secondary compounds such as phenolics, terpenoids and nitrogen-containing compounds to avoid or reduce animal herbivorous damage as a defensive strategy, while animal attained detoxification capacity of biotransforming and mineralizing the compounds by microbial activities and reactions such as hydrolysis and reduction. The attributes of feedstuff and the amount of a particular feed consumed by the animal affect directly the urinary excretion of secondary metabolites. Plant secondary compounds and their metabolites can be efficiently extracted, separated and structure-identified by spectroscopic analytic method. Then the feed intake of the animal can be accurately measured or predicted by the inference model of concentration-ratio that is based on the regression of correlating the secondary metabolites to the precursors in plant. Aromatic compounds, an universal occurrence in vascular plants, play an important role in predicting feed intake of ruminants. Progresses have been made all-around about the new method. Intensive studies have found that different species and developing stage of plant have varying kinds and levels of secondary compounds, and the age, gender and type of animal have different capacity of metabolizing the compounds. Increasing concentrations of the compounds in the diet led to a dose-dependent decrease in food intake best described as an exponential decay. Animals that had not previously been exposed to the compounds ate significantly more when first offered food containing the compound than on subsequent days. Advanced spectroscopic analytic method has been developed and widely applied in extraction (e. g. microwave assisted extraction and ultrasonic extraction

  7. Effects of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth, feed conversion, residual feed intake, and residual maintenance metabolizable energy requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, L F; Zuidhof, M J; Renema, R A; Naeima, A; Robinson, F E

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of maternal energy efficiency on broiler chicken growth and energy efficiency from 7 to 40 d of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual maintenance ME requirement (RME) were used to measure energetic efficiency. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between observed and predicted ME intake, and RME(m) as the difference between observed and predicted maintenance ME requirements. A total of 144 Ross-708 broiler breeder pullets were placed in individual laying cages at 16 wk of age. Hens with the greatest RFI (n = 32) and lowest RFI (n = 32) values from 20 to 56 wk of age were selected (maternal RFI; RFI(mat)). Selected hens were retrospectively assigned to a high- or low-RME(m) category (maternal RME(m); RME(mmat)). At 59 wk, eggs were collected for 8 d and pedigree hatched. A total of 338 broilers grouped by dam and sex were raised in 128 cages where feed intake, BW, and temperature were recorded from 7 to 40 d to calculate broiler feed conversion ratios, RFI, and RME(m). The design was a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial with 2 levels of RFI(mat), 2 levels of RME(mmat), and 2 sexes. Neither the RFI(mat) nor RME(mmat) category affected broiler offpring BW or total conversion ratio. The high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had decreased growth to 40 d. Low-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers had a lower RME(m) (-5.93 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day) and RFI (-0.86 kcal of ME/d) than high-RFI(mat) × low-RME(mmat) broilers (RME(m) = 1.70 kcal of ME/kg(0.60) per day; RFI = 0.38 kcal of ME/d). Overall, hens with low maintenance requirements (low RME(m)) produced more efficient broilers when other efficiency related traits, represented in a lower RFI, were present. Exclusion of high-RFI × low-RME(m) hens from selection programs may improve energy efficiency at the broiler level. The RME(m) methodology is a viable alternative to evaluate energy efficiency in broilers because it avoids confounding environmental effects and allows

  8. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouilhet, L; Monteville, R; Molette, C; Lague, M; Cornuez, A; Canario, L; Ricard, E; Gilbert, H

    2016-09-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (-5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (-5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (-0.08, P = 0.03 and -0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter. © The

  9. Improved nutrient digestibility and retention partially explains feed efficiency gains in pigs selected for low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A J; Patience, J F; Lonergan, S M; J M Dekkers, C; Gabler, N K

    2012-12-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a unique measure of feed efficiency (FE) and an alternative to traditional measures. The RFI is defined as the difference between the actual feed intake of a pig and its expected feed intake based on a given amount of growth and backfat. Therefore, selecting pigs with a low RFI (LRFI) results in a more feed-efficient animal for a given rate of growth. Our objective was to determine the extent to which apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and energy use and retention may explain FE differences between pigs divergently selected for LRFI or high RFI (HRFI). After 7 generations of selection, 12 HRFI and 12 LRFI pigs (62 ± 3 kg BW) were randomly assigned to metabolism crates. Pigs had free access to a standard diet based on corn (Zea mays) and soybean (Glycine max) meal containing 0.4% TiO(2), an exogenous digestibility marker. After a 7-d acclimation, total urine and feces were collected for 72 h. Nutrient and energy digestibility, P digestibility, and N balance were then measured and calculated to determine differences between the RFI lines. As expected, ADFI was lower (2.0 vs. 2.6 kg; P < 0.01), ADG did not differ, and FE was higher in the LRFI (P < 0.001) compared to the HRFI pigs. The digestibility values for DM (87.3 vs. 85.9%), N (88.3 vs. 86.1%), and GE (86.9 vs. 85.4%) were higher (P ≤ 0.003) in the LRFI vs. HRFI pigs, respectively. The DE (16.59 vs. 16.32 MJ/kg DM) and ME (15.98 vs. 15.72 MJ/kg DM) values were also greater (P < 0.001) in LRFI pigs. When correcting for ADFI, P digestibility did not differ between the lines. However, the LRFI pigs tended to have improved N retention (P = 0.08) compared to HRFI pigs (36.9 vs. 32.1 g/d). In conclusion, the higher energy and nutrient digestibility, use, and retention may partially explain the superior FE seen in pigs selected for LRFI.

  10. Global liver gene expression differences in Nelore steers with divergent residual feed intake phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, Polyana C; Coutinho, Luiz L; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Rosa, Kamila O; Oliveira, Priscila S N; Souza, Marcela M; Mourão, Gerson B; Tullio, Rymer R; Chaves, Amália S; Lanna, Dante P D; Zerlotini-Neto, Adhemar; Mudadu, Mauricio A; Taylor, Jeremy F; Regitano, Luciana C A

    2015-03-25

    Efficiency of feed utilization is important for animal production because it can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve industry profitability. However, the genetic basis of feed utilization in livestock remains poorly understood. Recent developments in molecular genetics, such as platforms for genome-wide genotyping and sequencing, provide an opportunity to identify genes and pathways that influence production traits. It is known that transcriptional networks influence feed efficiency-related traits such as growth and energy balance. This study sought to identify differentially expressed genes in animals genetically divergent for Residual Feed Intake (RFI), using RNA sequencing methodology (RNA-seq) to obtain information from genome-wide expression profiles in the liver tissues of Nelore cattle. Differential gene expression analysis between high Residual Feed Intake (HRFI, inefficient) and low Residual Feed Intake (LRFI, efficient) groups was performed to provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie feed efficiency-related traits in beef cattle. A total of 112 annotated genes were identified as being differentially expressed between animals with divergent RFI phenotypes. These genes are involved in ion transport and metal ion binding; act as membrane or transmembrane proteins; and belong to gene clusters that are likely related to the transport and catalysis of molecules through the cell membrane and essential mechanisms of nutrient absorption. Genes with functions in cellular signaling, growth and proliferation, cell death and survival were also differentially expressed. Among the over-represented pathways were drug or xenobiotic metabolism, complement and coagulation cascades, NRF2-mediated oxidative stress, melatonin degradation and glutathione metabolism. Our data provide new insights and perspectives on the genetic basis of feed efficiency in cattle. Some previously identified mechanisms were supported and new pathways controlling feed

  11. Residual feed intake, carcass traits and meat quality in Nellore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidelis, H A; Bonilha, S F M; Tedeschi, L O; Branco, R H; Cyrillo, J N S G; Mercadante, M E Z

    2017-06-01

    A total of 127 Nellore bulls classified as low and high residual feed intake (RFI), from three selection lines, were evaluated in five experiments aiming to identify associations between RFI, carcass, and meat quality traits. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and meat quality of Longissimus muscle were evaluated. A mixed model including the fixed effects of RFI class, selection line, interaction between RFI class and selection line, and age at slaughter as a covariate, and the random effects of diet within experiment and experiment was used, with means compared by the t-test. Feed intake average difference was 0.962kg/day; low RFI animals consumed 0.479kg/day less feed and high RFI animals consumed 0.483kg/day more feed than expected. No differences between RFI classes were detected for most of studied variables, demonstrating the absence of unfavorable associations between RFI and carcass and meat quality traits. Low RFI Nellore animals use feed efficiently and produce good quality carcasses and meat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations-the Netherlands and United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C.I.V.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Tempelman, R.J.; Pelt, van M.L.; Weigel, K.A.; VandeHaar, M.; Lawlor, T.J.; Spurlock, D.M.; Armentano, L.E.; Staples, C.R.; Hanigan, M.; Haas, De Y.

    2016-01-01

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and

  13. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Knol, E.F.; Bijma, P

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common litter or permanent sow effects. The objective of this research was to identify sow history features that affect the growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of her offspring during the grow-finish st...

  14. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-01-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterized as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum...... component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilization of energy...... was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterized as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species...

  15. Feeding behavior, ruminal fermentation, and performance of pregnant beef cows differing in phenotypic residual feed intake offered grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimons, C; Kenny, D A; Fahey, A G; McGee, M

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the relationship of residual feed intake (RFI) and performance with feeding behavior and ruminal fermentation variables in pregnant beef cows offered a grass silage diet. Individual grass silage DMI (dry matter digestibility = 666 g/kg) was recorded on 47 gestating (mean gestation d 166, SD = 26 d) Simmental and Simmental × Holstein-Friesian beef cows for a period of 80 d. Cow BW, BCS, skeletal measurements, ultrasonically scanned muscle and fat depth, visual muscular score, ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites, and feeding behavior were measured. Phenotypic RFI was calculated as actual DMI minus expected DMI. Expected DMI was computed for each animal by regressing DMI on conceptus-adjusted mean BW(0.75) and ADG over an 80-d period. Within breed, cows were ranked by RFI into low (efficient), medium, or high groups. Overall mean (SD) values for DMI (kg/d), RFI, initial conceptus-adjusted BW, and conceptus-adjusted ADG were 8.41 (1.09) kg/d, 0.01 (0.13) kg/d, 646 (70) kg, and -0.07 (0.32) kg, respectively. High-RFI cows ate 25% and 8% more than low- and medium-RFI cows, respectively. Live weight and ADG were not correlated (P > 0.05), and DMI was positively correlated (r = 0.80; P 0.05) BW, ADG, BCS, visual muscular scores, skeletal measurements, blood metabolites, calf birth weight, and calving difficulty scores. All ultrasonic fat and muscle depth measurements were similar (P > 0.05) for low- and high-RFI cows except for back fat thickness change, where low-RFI cows gained less fat (P feeding events, but these were of longer (P feed event(-1)·d(-1)). Despite this, total daily duration of feeding was shorter (P feed for similar levels of productivity, spent less time engaged in feeding-behavior-related activities, and differed in ruminal fermentation parameters. Feeding events are a significant (17%) contributory factor to variation in RFI in pregnant beef cows offered grass silage.

  16. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P.; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and...

  17. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo)

    OpenAIRE

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P.; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-01-01

    Background Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal’s ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Methods Phenotypic and...

  18. Effect of restricted feed intake of dams and heat stress on mineral status of newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, S; Toharmat, T; Kobayashi, N

    1998-06-01

    To clarify the effects of restricted feed intake, heat stress, and parity on the mineral status of cows and heifers around parturition and on the mineral status of their calves during 1 wk of age, data were collected from 66 Holstein cows and heifers and their calves. In Experiment 1, 36 heifers and mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet requirements for total digestible nutrients (TDN), protein, and minerals. In Experiment 2, 15 mature cows that calved during hot or cool weather were fed to meet maintenance requirements for TDN plus requirements for TDN for the last 2 mo of gestation, and 15 heifers were fed to meet TDN requirements. Heat stress increased rectal temperatures of newborn calves. Blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of heifers around parturition were higher than those of mature cows, but blood hematocrit and hemoglobin of calves born from heifers were lower. The restricted feed intake of dams decreased blood hematocrit and hemoglobin as well as plasma Fe of calves in hot and cool weather. Plasma Ca, inorganic P, and alkaline phosphatase as well as colostral Ca, P, Mg, and Zn of heifers were higher than those of mature cows, but plasma Mg of heifers was lower. Plasma Mg of calves and their dams was lower in hot weather than in cool weather, and restricted feed intake accelerated the reduction in plasma Mg of calves and their dams during hot weather. Plasma Na of calves and their dams was higher in hot weather than in cool weather. Heat stress increased plasma K of heifers and their calves. Heat stress increased Ca concentration in meconium of calves born from cows, and the restricted feed intake increased P concentrations in meconium. These results suggest that the maintenance of optimum erythropoiesis and mineral status in heatstressed periparturient cows and heifers and their calves must be met by dietary energy and minerals that are fed at maintenance concentrations plus excess requirements necessary during the gestation

  19. Influence of intrajugular administration of insulin, glucagon and propionate on voluntary feed intake of sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deetz, L E; Wangsness, P J

    1981-08-01

    The effect of intrajugular injections of insulin, glucagon and propionate, administered singly and in combination, as possible peripheral feedbacks in the control of feed intake in wethers was studied. A complete mixed diet (25% chopped hay: 75% cracked corn) was fed ad libitum. The treatments were saline, 6 mU insulin/kg body weight (BW), 9 ng glucagon/kg BW and 1.3 mg propionate/kg BW. In Exp. 1, five wethers were given the treatments at the beginning of each spontaneous meal over a 24-hr period, and total daily feed intakes were measured. The average number of injections per sheep for a 24-hr period was eight. In Exp. 2, the effects of the treatments on plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon, propionate and glucose at 15, 30, 60 and 120 min after injection were measured in six other wethers. In Exp. 1, insulin (P less than .01), glucagon (P less than .01), insulin plus propionate (P less than .05) and glucagon plus propionate (P less than .05) decreased 24-hr feed intake by 18.5, 15.8, 11.0 and 11.8%, respectively, compared to the saline control. In Exp. 2, plasma insulin concentrations were increased (P less than .05) at 15 min after administration of insulin and insulin plus propionate, to 2.0 and 2.1 times the preinjection levels, respectively. Glucagon concentrations in plasma were increased (P less than .01) at 15 min after the injection of glucagon, to 2.0 times the pretreatment values. Insulin and glucagon concentrations in plasma were increased only slightly (P less than .10) after administration of glucagon plus propionate. No treatments affected glucose or propionate concentrations in the plasma. Increases in plasma concentrations of insulin, glucagon and propionate may interact directly or initiate other mechanisms involved in the short-term control of feed intake by sheep on a concentrate diet.

  20. Evidence of decreased muscle protein turnover in gilts selected for low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruzen, S M; Harris, A J; Hollinger, K; Punt, R M; Grubbs, J K; Selsby, J T; Dekkers, J C M; Gabler, N K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the contribution of muscle protein turnover (synthesis and degradation) to the biological basis for genetic differences in finisher pigs selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake is defined as the difference between expected feed intake (based on the achieved rate of BW gain and backfat depth of individual pigs) and the observed feed intake of the individual pig. We hypothesized that protein turnover would be reduced in pigs selected for low RFI. Twelve gilts from a line selected for 7 generations for low RFI and 12 from a contemporary line selected for 2 generations for high RFI were paired by age and BW and fed a standard corn-soybean diet for 6 wk. Pigs were euthanized, muscle and liver samples were collected, and insulin signaling, protein synthesis, and protein degradation proteins were analyzed for expression and activities. Muscle from low RFI pigs tended to have less μ- and m-calpain activities (P = 0.10 and 0.09, respectively) and had significantly greater calpastatin activity and a decreased μ-calpain:calpastatin activity ratio (P 0.05). Postmortem proteolysis was determined in the LM from the eighth generation of the low RFI pigs versus their high RFI counterparts (n = 9 per line). Autolysis of μ-calpain was decreased in the low RFI pigs and less troponin-T degradation product was observed at 3 d postmortem (P < 0.05), indicating slowed postmortem proteolysis during aging in the low RFI pigs. These data provide significant evidence that less protein degradation occurs in pigs selected for reduced RFI, and this may account for a significant portion of the increased efficiency observed in these animals.

  1. Residual feed intake in young chickens : effects on energy partitioning and immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Eerden, van der, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    Keywords: chicken, residual feed intake, resource allocation, immune response, Salmonella Enteritidis, energy partitioning.The continuous selection in farm animals for efficient production and high production levels may have led to animals that are "programmed" to put a lot of resources in production processes, at the expense of resources for maintenance processes, among which the immune system. When efficiently and non-efficiently producing animals in a population are discriminated, it is hy...

  2. Genetic parameters for residual feed intake in a random population of Pekin duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The feed intake (FI and feed efficiency are economically important traits in ducks. To obtain insight into this economically important trait, we designed an experiment based on the residual feed intake (RFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR of a random population Pekin duck. Methods Two thousand and twenty pedigreed random population Pekin ducks were established from 90 males mated to 450 females in two hatches. Traits analyzed in the study were body weight at the 42th day (BW42, 15 to 42 days average daily gain (ADG, 15 to 42 days FI, 15 to 42 days FCR, and 15 to 42 days RFI to assess their genetic inter-relationships. The genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML methodology applied to a sire-dam model for all traits using the ASREML software. Results Estimates heritability of BW42, ADG, FI, FCR, and RFI were 0.39, 0.38, 0.33, 0.38, and 0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation was high between RFI and FI (0.77 and moderate between RFI and FCR (0.54. The genetic correlation was high and moderate between FCR and ADG (−0.80, and between FCR and BW42 (−0.64, and between FCR and FI (0.49, respectively. Conclusion Thus, selection on RFI was expected to improve feed efficiency, and reduce FI. Selection on RFI thus improves the feed efficiency of animals without impairing their FI and increase growth rate.

  3. Influence of sex and immunocastration on feed intake behavior, skatole and indole concentrations in adipose tissue of pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler, U; Götz, M; Schmidt, A; Otto, M; Müller, S

    2013-02-01

    Feed intake behavior was studied between 9 weeks of age and slaughter in a total of 36 gilts, 32 immunocastrates, 33 surgically castrated barrows and 33 boars from 36 litters. Consequences for the concentration of substances contributing to off odor of pork (skatole, indole) were evaluated. Animals were kept in groups of 12 pigs of the same sex and treatment and fed ad libitum (13.4 MJ ME, 17% CP, 1.1% lysine). Individual feed intake behavior was recorded continuously by an electronic feeder. Immunocastration was carried out with two injections of Improvac with at least 4 weeks between both injections (1st: 12 to 17 weeks of age, 2nd: 19 to 21 weeks of age). Feed intake/day increased from an average of 0.91 ± 0.02 kg/day up to 3.15 ± 0.04 kg/day before slaughter. This increase was associated with a 50% reduction in the number of meals/day (from 15.8 ± 0.44 to 7.2 ± 0.29 meals/day). The larger meal sizes resulted from an increase in both, the duration of feed intake/meal and the feed intake rate (g/min). In addition, sex and treatment differences were observed: Feed intake in boars was lower than in all other groups due to a reduction in the number of meals/day and in the time spent feeding/day. In females, time spent feeding/day was quite similar to boars, but resulted from a higher number of meals of shorter duration. Barrows had a significantly higher feed intake because of a higher number of meals/day resulting in more time spent feeding/day. The feed intake rate was similar in boars, gilts and barrows and showed an increasing trend during the study, starting from about 15 g/min up to four times the amount. Immunocastration affected feed intake behavior severely, especially the meal size increased dramatically because of higher feed intake rate, which exceeded that of all other groups by 25% at the end of the study. The number of meals/day was not influenced by immunocastration and was almost identical to that of boars. Highest skatole concentrations were

  4. Colostrum protein uptake in neonatal lambs examined by descriptive and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Argüello, Anastasio; Almeida, André M; Castro, Noemí; Bendixen, Emøke

    2015-01-01

    Colostrum intake is a key factor for newborn ruminant survival because the placenta does not allow the transfer of immune components. Therefore, newborn ruminants depend entirely on passive immunity transfer from the mother to the neonate, through the suckling of colostrum. Understanding the importance of specific colostrum proteins has gained significant attention in recent years. However, proteomics studies of sheep colostrum and their uptake in neonate lambs has not yet been presented. The aim of this study was to describe the proteomes of sheep colostrum and lamb blood plasma, using sodium dodecyl sulfate-PAGE for protein separation and in-gel digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of resulting tryptic peptides for protein identification. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach was subsequently used to provide relative quantification of how neonatal plasma protein concentrations change as an effect of colostrum intake. The results of this study describe the presence of 70 proteins in the ovine colostrum proteome. Furthermore, colostrum intake resulted in an increase of 8 proteins with important immune functions in the blood plasma of lambs. Further proteomic studies will be necessary, particularly using the selected reaction monitoring approach, to describe in detail the role of specific colostrum proteins for immune transfer to the neonate.

  5. Relationship between back and rump fat thickness and residual feed intake of young Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Eimar de Oliveira Lara

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Residual feed intake (RFI is a feed efficiency trait defined as the difference between actual feed intake and the one predicted on the basis of requirements for production and maintenance of body weight. Evidence exists of a positive correlation between RFI and fat thickness in Bos taurus, suggesting that low RFI cattle (feed efficient ones are leaner. The objective of this study was to access the relationship between fat thickness and RFI by partial correlation including all animals (n=603, 300 bulls and 303 heifers, and by means comparison including only animals divergently classified by RFI (low RFI, n=192 and high RFI, n=186. The animals were born from 2004 to 2010, and were performance tested after weaning for 56 to 112 days, depending of test year and sex. The average age and body weight at the beginning of performance test were 286±42 days and 225±51kg. At the end of performance test images of backfat thickness (BF were obtained by ultrasound (Pie Medical-Aquila-3.5 MHz linear probe between the 12th and 13th ribs, transversely over the longissimus muscle. Images of rump fat thickness (RF were obtained at the junction of the gluteus medius and biceps femoris muscles between the hook and pin bones. The images were saved and subsequently analyzed using Echo Image Viewer 1.0. For partial correlations (MANOVA, SAS 9.3, the model included fixed effect of contemporary group (GC=year, sex and installation and age of the beginning of performance test and age of ultrasound fat measurement (average of 373±42 days as covariates (linear effect. For means comparison (GLM, SAS 9.3, the model included fixed effects of GC, RFI classes (only low RFI and high RFI, excluding medium RFI and age of beginning of performance test. Partial correlations between fat thickness and RFI were close to zero (-0.006 for BF and 0.010 for RF. Reinforcing these results, there were no significant differences of BF and RF from feed efficient (low RFI class and feed

  6. Relationship between residual feed intake and lymphocyte mitochondrial complex protein concentration and ratio in crossbred steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M P; Brooks, M A; Kerley, M S

    2016-04-01

    Rate of oxygen uptake by muscle mitochondria and respiratory chain protein concentrations differed between high- and low-residual feed intake (RFI) animals. The hypothesis of this research was that complex I (CI), II (CII), and III (CIII) mitochondria protein concentrations in lymphocyte (blood) mitochondria were related to the RFI phenotype of beef steers. Daily feed intake (ADFI) was individually recorded for 92 Hereford-crossbreed steers over 63 d using GrowSafe individual feed intake system. Predicted ADFI was calculated as the regression of ADFI on ADG and midtest BW. Difference between ADFI and predicted ADFI was RFI. Lymphocytes were isolated from low-RFI (-1.32 ± 0.11 kg/d; = 10) and high-RFI (1.34 ± 0.18 kg/d; = 8) steers. Immunocapture of CI, CII, and CIII proteins from the lymphocyte was done using MitoProfile CI, CII, and CIII immunocapture kits (MitoSciences Inc., Eugene, OR). Protein concentrations of CI, CII, and CIII and total protein were quantified using bicinchoninic acid colorimetric procedures. Low-RFI steers consumed 30% less ( = 0.0004) feed and had a 40% improvement ( feed efficiency compared with high-RFI steers with similar growth ( = 0.78) and weight measurements ( > 0.65). High- and low-RFI steers did not differ in CI ( = 0.22), CII ( = 0.69), and CIII ( = 0.59) protein concentrations. The protein concentration ratios for CI to CII ( = 0.03) were 20% higher and the ratios of CI to CIII ( = 0.01) were 30% higher, but the ratios of CII to CIII ( = 0.89) did not differ when comparing low-RFI steers with high-RFI steers. The similar magnitude difference in feed intake, feed efficiency measurements, and CI-to-CIII ratio between RFI phenotypes provides a plausible explanation for differences between the phenotypes. We also concluded that mitochondria isolated from lymphocytes could be used to study respiratory chain differences among differing RFI phenotypes. Further research is needed to determine if lymphocyte mitochondrial complex

  7. Effects of including scrapes of residual dehydrated cassava in sheep feeding on intake and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the inclusion of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of scrapes residual dehydrated cassava (SRDC in sheep feed on the intake and total digestibility coefficient (DC of nutrients. We used four sheep with body weight (BW of 26.0 kg, distributed in a Latin square design. The sheep were placed in metabolism cages and received two meals a day. The variables studied were subjected to analysis of variance and differences were tested using regression analysis at the 5% significance level. We determined that the inclusion of different concentrations of SRDC in sheep feeding did not modify (p > 0.05 the intake of intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, or total carbohydrates (TC expressed in g animal-1 day-1, g kg0.75-1 and %BW. On average 2.83%, 2.58%, 0.34%, 0.07%, 1.62%, 0.91%, and 2.24% of the BW were obtained for intake of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, and TC, respectively. However, the four experimental diets negatively affected the NFC intake and %BW (p 0.05 the digestibility coefficient of most of the variables measured (DM, OM CP, EE, NDF, ADF, TCH, NFC, with average values of 67.79%, 67.61%, 53.87%, 81.42%, 55.61%, 39.07%, 70.95%, and 91.48%, respectively. Thus, we conclude that the inclusion of up to 30% of SRDC in sheep diets would not affect intake or nutrient digestibility

  8. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Waaij, van der E.H.; Bijma, P.

    2013-01-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower–finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refu

  9. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  10. Level of Leucaena leucocephala silage feeding on intake, rumen fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in dairy steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Nguyen Thien Truong; Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS) feeding on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fermentation in dairy steers. Four rumen fistulated dairy steers, 167 ± 12 kg body weight (BW), were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Treatments were as follows: T1 = 100 % untreated rice straw (RS), T2 = 70 % RS + 30 % LS, T3 = 40 % RS + 60 % LS, and T4 = 100 % LS, respectively. All animals were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum with concentrate mixture supplemented at 0.2 % BW. The results found that dry matter intake and nutrient digestibility were the highest in dairy steers fed 60 % LS (P  0.05) while ruminal ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen concentration were linearly increased with increasing levels of LS feeding (P digestibility, and rumen fermentation end-product while reducing methane production in dairy steers. This study suggested that LS could be used as high-quality roughage for ruminant feeding in the tropical region.

  11. Improving food intake in nursing home residents with feeding assistance: a staffing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S F; Osterweil, D; Schnelle, J F

    2001-12-01

    Recommendations have been made to increase the number of nursing home (NH) staff available to provide feeding assistance during mealtime. There are, however, no specific data related to two critical variables necessary to estimate mealtime staffing needs: (1) How many residents are responsive to feeding assistance? (2) How much staff time is required to provide feeding assistance to these residents? The purpose of this study was to collect preliminary data relevant to these two issues. Seventy-four residents in three NHs received a 2-day, or six-meal, trial of one-on-one feeding assistance. Total percentage (0% to 100%) of food and fluid consumed during mealtime was estimated across 3 days during usual NH care and 2 days during the intervention. The amount of time that staff spent providing assistance and type of assistance (i.e., frequency of verbal and physical prompts) was measured under each condition. One half (50%) of the participants significantly increased their oral food and fluid intake during mealtime. The intervention required significantly more staff time to implement (average of 38 minutes per resident/meal vs 9 minutes rendered by NH staff). The time required to implement the feeding assistance intervention greatly exceeded the time the nursing staff spent assisting residents in usual mealtime care conditions. These data suggest that it will almost certainly be necessary to both increase staffing levels and to organize staff better to produce higher quality feeding assistance during mealtimes.

  12. Parental control over feeding and children's fruit and vegetable intake: how are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardle, Jane; Carnell, Susan; Cooke, Lucy

    2005-02-01

    To replicate the finding of a negative association between parental control and fruit and vegetable consumption in girls. To extend the investigation to boys and examine sex differences. To test the hypothesis that children's food neophobia explains this association. Cross-sectional questionnaire survey. The questionnaire included items assessing parents' and children's fruit and vegetable intake, the Parental Control Index, and the Child Food Neophobia Scale. Parents of 564 2- to 6-year-old children, recruited from 22 London nursery schools. Relationships between continuous variables were examined with Pearson product moment correlation coefficients. Sex differences were tested using independent sample t tests, and sex differences in correlations were assessed from their 95% confidence intervals. Parental control and children's food neophobia were entered into a hierarchical multiple regression to test the hypothesis that neophobia explains the association between parental control and children's fruit and vegetable intake. We replicated the finding that parental control was correlated with children's fruit and vegetable consumption and found no significant sex differences. Parental fruit and vegetable consumption and children's food neophobia were also strong predictors of children's fruit and vegetable consumption, and both were associated with parental control, suggesting that they might explain the association between control and intake. Controlling for children's food neophobia and parental intake reduced the association of parental control with children's fruit and vegetable intake to nonsignificance. These findings emphasize the importance of systematic research about associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary habits so that dietetics professionals can give parents sound advice.

  13. Influence of nutrients on feed intake and condition of captive canvasbacks in winter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, M.C.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Williams, B.K.; Serafin, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Dramatic changes in the food habits and distribution of canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) in Chesapeake Bay during the 1970's generated a need to evaluate the nutritional value of food items and the requirements of this species on its wintering grounds. Groups of captive canvasbacks were maintained ad libitum on 5 diets during the winters of 1978-79 and 1979-80 to evaluate the effects of varying protein and energy levels on feed intake and condition. Feed intake during the 1979-80 winter was 42% greater for those ducks fed the low energy (1,543 kcal/kg) diet than for those fed the high energy (3,638 kcal/kg) diet. Canvasbacks fed the high energy diet, however, consumed 317 kcal/bird day, whereas those fed the low energy diet consumed only 191 kcal/bird day. Body weight of males and females did not differ among groups fed different diets, but there were seasonal differences (P < 0.05) for both sexes aggregated across diets. Data from this study indicate that canvasbacks may be unable to adjust intake rates to compensate for low energy foods and subsequently may store less fat or modify behavior. However, decreased weight, feed intake, and activity of ducks fed ad libitum rations occurred in mid-winter irrespective of diet quality and appeared to be an endogenous component of their annual cycle that persists in captivity. These changes apparently have a selective advantage of increasing the probability of survival in ducks by decreasing energy expenditure during periods of winter stress.

  14. Profile of the spleen transcriptome in beef steers with variation in gain and feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda K Lindholm-Perry

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also influencing individual feed efficiency status through immune responses. Animals (n=16 that were divergent for gain and intake were selected for tissue sampling. The spleen transcriptomes were evaluated by microarray. A total of 1,216 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Genes were over-represented in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG pathways including biological regulation, protein folding, cell communication, immune systems process, response to stress and RNA metabolic process. Several stress response or heat shock genes including HSPH1, HSPA1A, HSPA4, DNAJB4, DNAJA4, etc., were identified as a stress response functional gene cluster in the low gain-low intake animals. These genes were up-regulated amongst the low gain-low intake animals compared to all other groups. Canonical pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes included the coagulation system, extrinsic prothrombin activation, protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response and aldosterone signaling in epithelial cells. An analysis of expressed copy number variable (CNV genes in the spleen produced some of the same genes and gene families that were differentially expressed. Our data suggests the splenic contribution to some of the underlying variation among gain and intake within this group of animals may be a result of immune function and stress response. In addition, some of the differences in immune response functions may be related to gene copy number.

  15. Whole Genome Association Studies of Residual Feed Intake and Related Traits in the Pig.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneel K Onteru

    Full Text Available Residual feed intake (RFI, a measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and the expected feed requirement predicted from growth and maintenance. Pigs with low RFI have reduced feed costs without compromising their growth. Identification of genes or genetic markers associated with RFI will be useful for marker-assisted selection at an early age of animals with improved feed efficiency.Whole genome association studies (WGAS for RFI, average daily feed intake (ADFI, average daily gain (ADG, back fat (BF and loin muscle area (LMA were performed on 1,400 pigs from the divergently selected ISU-RFI lines, using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Various statistical methods were applied to find SNPs and genomic regions associated with the traits, including a Bayesian approach using GenSel software, and frequentist approaches such as allele frequency differences between lines, single SNP and haplotype analyses using PLINK software. Single SNP and haplotype analyses showed no significant associations (except for LMA after genomic control and FDR. Bayesian analyses found at least 2 associations for each trait at a false positive probability of 0.5. At generation 8, the RFI selection lines mainly differed in allele frequencies for SNPs near (<0.05 Mb genes that regulate insulin release and leptin functions. The Bayesian approach identified associations of genomic regions containing insulin release genes (e.g., GLP1R, CDKAL, SGMS1 with RFI and ADFI, of regions with energy homeostasis (e.g., MC4R, PGM1, GPR81 and muscle growth related genes (e.g., TGFB1 with ADG, and of fat metabolism genes (e.g., ACOXL, AEBP1 with BF. Specifically, a very highly significantly associated QTL for LMA on SSC7 with skeletal myogenesis genes (e.g., KLHL31 was identified for subsequent fine mapping.Important genomic regions associated with RFI related traits were identified for future validation studies prior to their incorporation in marker

  16. Whole Genome Association Studies of Residual Feed Intake and Related Traits in the Pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onteru, Suneel K; Gorbach, Danielle M; Young, Jennifer M; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M; Rothschild, Max F

    2013-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and the expected feed requirement predicted from growth and maintenance. Pigs with low RFI have reduced feed costs without compromising their growth. Identification of genes or genetic markers associated with RFI will be useful for marker-assisted selection at an early age of animals with improved feed efficiency. Whole genome association studies (WGAS) for RFI, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), back fat (BF) and loin muscle area (LMA) were performed on 1,400 pigs from the divergently selected ISU-RFI lines, using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Various statistical methods were applied to find SNPs and genomic regions associated with the traits, including a Bayesian approach using GenSel software, and frequentist approaches such as allele frequency differences between lines, single SNP and haplotype analyses using PLINK software. Single SNP and haplotype analyses showed no significant associations (except for LMA) after genomic control and FDR. Bayesian analyses found at least 2 associations for each trait at a false positive probability of 0.5. At generation 8, the RFI selection lines mainly differed in allele frequencies for SNPs near (<0.05 Mb) genes that regulate insulin release and leptin functions. The Bayesian approach identified associations of genomic regions containing insulin release genes (e.g., GLP1R, CDKAL, SGMS1) with RFI and ADFI, of regions with energy homeostasis (e.g., MC4R, PGM1, GPR81) and muscle growth related genes (e.g., TGFB1) with ADG, and of fat metabolism genes (e.g., ACOXL, AEBP1) with BF. Specifically, a very highly significantly associated QTL for LMA on SSC7 with skeletal myogenesis genes (e.g., KLHL31) was identified for subsequent fine mapping. Important genomic regions associated with RFI related traits were identified for future validation studies prior to their incorporation in marker

  17. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans.

  18. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-07-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that RFI is reasonably repeatable for a wide range of dietary starch levels fed to mid-lactation cows, so that cows that have low RFI when fed high corn diets will likely also have low RFI when fed diets high in nonforage fiber sources. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Behavioural and neurobiological effects of colostrum ingestion in the newborn lamb associated with filial bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Val-Laillet, David; Meurisse, Maryse; Tillet, Yves; Nowak, Raymond

    2009-08-01

    In sheep, the onset of filial bonding relies on early intake of colostrum. The aim of our work was to describe in the newborn lamb housed with its mother the immediate post-ingestive effects of colostrum intake, in terms of behaviour and brain activity. In Experiment 1, lambs received five nasogastric infusions of colostrum, or saline, or sham intubations during the first 6 h after birth. Mother-young interactions were recorded before and after the first, third and fifth infusions. The activity of the dam and of the young, which diminished over time in all groups, was temporarily increased in both partners just after each intubation procedure. The number of high-pitched bleats was significantly lower in lambs that received colostrum than in the sham group, suggesting soothing or satiating properties of colostrum. In Experiment 2, newborn lambs received a single nasogastric infusion of colostrum or saline 4.5 h after birth, or were sham intubated. Neuronal activation was investigated 1.5 h later for maximum c-Fos activity. Infusion of colostrum and saline induced different patterns of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei of the hypothalamus as compared with the sham group. A specific oxytocinergic/vasopressinergic (OT/VSP) cell population in the paraventricular nucleus was activated following colostrum and saline infusion, but not sham intubation. Only colostrum induced the activation of the cortical amygdala and insular cortex, two structures involved in learning, associative processes, reward and emotion. We hypothesize that filial bonding may be triggered through colostrum-rewarded learning/calming processes and that the OT/VSP system may play a role.

  20. Gene expression differences in Longissimus muscle of Nelore steers genetically divergent for residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, Polyana C.; Coutinho, Luiz L.; Oliveira, Priscila S. N.; Cesar, Aline S. M.; Diniz, Wellison J. S.; Lima, Andressa O.; Rocha, Marina I.; Decker, Jared E.; Schnabel, Robert D.; Mourão, Gerson B.; Tullio, Rymer R.; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Taylor, Jeremy F.; Regitano, Luciana C. A.

    2016-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency (FE), is defined as the difference between the observed and the predictable feed intake considering size and growth of the animal. It is extremely important to beef production systems due to its impact on the allocation of land areas to alternative agricultural production, animal methane emissions, food demand and cost of production. Global differential gene expression analysis between high and low RFI groups (HRFI and LRFI: less and more efficient, respectively) revealed 73 differentially expressed (DE) annotated genes in Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of Nelore steers. These genes are involved in the overrepresented pathways Metabolism of Xenobiotics by Cytochrome P450 and Butanoate and Tryptophan Metabolism. Among the DE transcripts were several proteins related to mitochondrial function and the metabolism of lipids. Our findings indicate that observed gene expression differences are primarily related to metabolic processes underlying oxidative stress. Genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and antioxidant mechanisms were primarily down-regulated, while genes responsible for lipid oxidation and ketogenesis were up-regulated in HRFI group. By using LT muscle, this study reinforces our previous findings using liver tissue and reveals new genes and likely tissue-specific regulators playing key-roles in these processes. PMID:28004777

  1. Review: divergent selection for residual feed intake in the growing pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H; Billon, Y; Brossard, L; Faure, J; Gatellier, P; Gondret, F; Labussière, E; Lebret, B; Lefaucheur, L; Le Floch, N; Louveau, I; Merlot, E; Meunier-Salaün, M-C; Montagne, L; Mormede, P; Renaudeau, D; Riquet, J; Rogel-Gaillard, C; van Milgen, J; Vincent, A; Noblet, J

    2017-09-01

    This review summarizes the results from the INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique) divergent selection experiment on residual feed intake (RFI) in growing Large White pigs during nine generations of selection. It discusses the remaining challenges and perspectives for the improvement of feed efficiency in growing pigs. The impacts on growing pigs raised under standard conditions and in alternative situations such as heat stress, inflammatory challenges or lactation have been studied. After nine generations of selection, the divergent selection for RFI led to highly significant (Pfeed intake (-270 g/day). Low responses were observed on growth rate (-12.8 g/day, Pfeed conversion ratio (-0.32 kg feed/kg gain, Pfeed. No deleterious impact of the selection on the sow reproduction performance was observed. The resource allocation theory states that low RFI may reduce the ability to cope with stressors, via the reduction of a buffer compartment dedicated to responses to stress. None of the experiments focussed on the response of pigs to stress or challenges could confirm this theory. Understanding the relationships between RFI and responses to stress and energy demanding processes, as such immunity and lactation, remains a major challenge for a better understanding of the underlying biological mechanisms of the trait and to reconcile the experimental results with the resource allocation theory.

  2. Gene expression differences in Longissimus muscle of Nelore steers genetically divergent for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizioto, Polyana C; Coutinho, Luiz L; Oliveira, Priscila S N; Cesar, Aline S M; Diniz, Wellison J S; Lima, Andressa O; Rocha, Marina I; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Mourão, Gerson B; Tullio, Rymer R; Zerlotini, Adhemar; Taylor, Jeremy F; Regitano, Luciana C A

    2016-12-22

    Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency (FE), is defined as the difference between the observed and the predictable feed intake considering size and growth of the animal. It is extremely important to beef production systems due to its impact on the allocation of land areas to alternative agricultural production, animal methane emissions, food demand and cost of production. Global differential gene expression analysis between high and low RFI groups (HRFI and LRFI: less and more efficient, respectively) revealed 73 differentially expressed (DE) annotated genes in Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle of Nelore steers. These genes are involved in the overrepresented pathways Metabolism of Xenobiotics by Cytochrome P450 and Butanoate and Tryptophan Metabolism. Among the DE transcripts were several proteins related to mitochondrial function and the metabolism of lipids. Our findings indicate that observed gene expression differences are primarily related to metabolic processes underlying oxidative stress. Genes involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and antioxidant mechanisms were primarily down-regulated, while genes responsible for lipid oxidation and ketogenesis were up-regulated in HRFI group. By using LT muscle, this study reinforces our previous findings using liver tissue and reveals new genes and likely tissue-specific regulators playing key-roles in these processes.

  3. Thermoregulatory responses during thermal acclimation in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado; Noblet, Jean; Jaguelin-Peyraud, Yolande; Gilbert, Hélène; Mormède, Pierre; de Oliveira Donzele, Rita Flavia Miranda; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Renaudeau, David

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and thermoregulatory responses during acclimation to high ambient temperature (Ta) of pigs from two lines selected for high (RFI+) or low (RFI-) residual feed intake with the hypothesis that RFI- pigs producing less heat would better tolerate high Ta. Pigs (50 kg initial body weight; 17 per line among which 10 of them were catheterized) were individually housed in a climatic-controlled room where Ta was maintained at 24.2 ± 0.4 °C during 7 days and thereafter at 30.4 ± 0.7 °C during 14 days. Irrespective of Ta, RFI- pigs had lower feed intake (ADFI) and similar average daily gain (ADG) than RFI+ pigs. Whatever the line, ADFI, ADG, and feed efficiency decreased with increased Ta. Overall, the Ta increase resulted in an increase in rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) within the first 24-48 h and, subsequently, in a decrease followed by stabilization. The RT decrease during acclimation occurred 24 h earlier in RFI- pigs than in RFI+. Thyroid hormones and cortisol decreased at high Ta and it was similar in both lines. Based on performance and RT, ST, and RR responses, it seems that selection for low RFI tends to ameliorate pigs' tolerance to high Ta. Nevertheless, this selection does not induce significant differences between lines in endocrine and metabolite responses during thermal stress.

  4. Triennial Growth Symposium: neural regulation of feed intake: modification by hormones, fasting, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartin, J L; Whitlock, B K; Daniel, J A

    2011-07-01

    Appetite is a complex process that results from the integration of multiple signals at the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus receives neural signals; hormonal signals such as leptin, cholecystokinin, and ghrelin; and nutrient signals such as glucose, FFA, AA, and VFA. This effect is processed by a specific sequence of neurotransmitters beginning with the arcuate nucleus and orexigenic cells containing neuropeptide Y or agouti-related protein and anorexigenic cells containing proopiomelanocortin (yielding the neurotransmitter α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) or cells expressing cocaine amphetamine-related transcript. These so-called first-order neurons act on second-order orexigenic neurons (containing either melanin-concentrating hormone or orexin) or act on anorexigenic neurons (e.g., expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone) to alter feed intake. In addition, satiety signals from the liver and gastrointestinal tract signal through the vagus nerve to the nucleus tractus solitarius to cause meal termination, and in combination with the hypothalamus, integrate the various signals to determine the feeding response. The activities of these neuronal pathways are also influenced by numerous factors such as nutrients, fasting, and disease to modify appetite and hence affect growth and reproduction. This review will begin with the central nervous system pathways and then discuss the ways in which hormones and metabolites may alter the process to affect feed intake with emphasis on farm animals.

  5. Genetic parameters for feed intake, litter weight, body condition and rebreeding success in primiparous Norwegian Landrace sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, H; Fikse, W F; Grandinson, K; Lundeheim, N; Canario, L; Vangen, O; Olsen, D; Rydhmer, L

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for feed intake recorded as farmers' perception of young sows' appetite for the first 3 weeks of lactation (APP) and feed intake recorded for one day in the 3rd week of lactation (FEED), litter weight (LW) at 3 weeks, sow body condition at weaning (BC) and the following five reproduction traits: weaning-to-service interval of 1 to 7 days (WSI7), weaning-to-service interval of 1 to 50 days (WSI50), delayed service or not (DELAYED), pregnant on first service or not (PREGNANT) and litter size in 2nd parity (NBT2). The analyses included data on 4606 Norwegian Landrace 1st-parity sows and their litters. The Gibbs sampling method was used. The traits DELAYED and PREGNANT were analysed as threshold traits and APP, FEED, LW, BC, WSI7, WSI50 and NBT2 were analysed as linear traits. The heritability estimates for APP and FEED were low (sow performance; selection for heavy 1st litters may lead to lower body condition at weaning, which in turn leads to lower reproductive performance and smaller litters in 2nd parity. Selection for higher sow feed intake would improve body condition, but the simple way of measuring feed intake tested in this study (APP and FEED) cannot be recommended because of the low heritability obtained for these traits.

  6. Energy Partitioning and Thyroid Hormone Levels During Salmonella enteritidis Infections in Pullets with High or Low Residual Feed Intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eerden, van E.; Brand, van den H.; Heetkamp, M.J.W.; Decuypere, M.P.; Kemp, B.

    2006-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate whether feed efficiency, as measured by residual feed intake as a phenotypic trait, affects energy partitioning in pullets that have received Salmonella inoculation as an immune challenge. In each of 8 trials, energy partitioning was measured during 5 wk

  7. Analysis of copy number variations in Holstein cows identify potential mechanisms contributing to differences in residual feed intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic structural variation is an important and abundant source of genetic and phenotypic variation. In this study, we performed an initial analysis of CNVs using BovineHD SNP genotyping data from 147 Holstein cows identified as having high or low feed efficiency as estimated by residual feed intak...

  8. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  9. Genetic variability in residual feed intake in rainbow trout clones and testing of indirect selection criteria (Open Access publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatain Béatrice

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Little is known about the genetic basis of residual feed intake (RFI variation in fish, since this trait is highly sensitive to environmental influences, and feed intake of individuals is difficult to measure accurately. The purpose of this work was (i to assess the genetic variability of RFI estimated by an X-ray technique and (ii to develop predictive criteria for RFI. Two predictive criteria were tested: loss of body weight during feed deprivation and compensatory growth during re-feeding. Ten heterozygous rainbow trout clones were used. Individual intake and body weight were measured three times at threeweek intervals. Then, individual body weight was recorded after two cycles of a three-week feed deprivation followed by a three-week re-feeding. The ratio of the genetic variance to the phenotypic variance was found high to moderate for growth, feed intake, and RFI (VG/VP = 0.63 ± 0.11, 0.29 ± 0.11, 0.29 ± 0.09, respectively. The index that integrates performances achieved during deprivation and re-feeding periods explained 59% of RFI variations. These results provide a basis for further studies on the origin of RFI differences and show that indirect criteria are good candidates for future selective breeding programs.

  10. Assessing peripheral blood cell profile of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpetile, Z; Young, J M; Gabler, N K; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K

    2015-03-01

    The cost of feed is a serious issue in the pork industry, contributing about 65 to 75% of the total production cost. To prevent economic losses and decreased productivity of the herd, it is important to select for animals that eat less for the same lean gain, or more efficient animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed intake based on estimated maintenance and production requirements. Selection for decreased RFI, or more efficient animals, is a potential solution to higher feed costs in pig production. However, animals that are highly selected for decreased RFI may have reduced energy input to the immune system and fail to withstand diseases and stressors after infection that negatively impact profitability. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in circulating blood cell profiles at a young age between 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for RFI as well as the heritability of these traits, to investigate effects of selection for RFI on immune system parameters, and to identify potential biomarkers for feed efficiency. Previous work has shown that the 2 lines had diverged for IGF-1 in serum in young pigs and, therefore, this stage was investigated for other potential physiological differences. Blood samples were drawn for a complete blood count (CBC) analysis from 517 gilts and barrows, ages 35 to 42 d, across the 2 lines. In general, the low-RFI line had lower numbers of specific types of white blood cells but higher hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell volume compared to the high-RFI line. No significant correlations were found between CBC traits and RFI across and within the lines (0.05 < < 0.1). Of the 15 CBC traits that were measured, 3 were highly heritable (0.56 < < 0.62), 9 were moderately heritable (0.12 < < 0.47), and 3 were lowly heritable ( < 0.12), suggesting a substantial genetic component for CBC traits and that selection for CBC traits could be

  11. Variability in residual feed intake and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negesse, Tegene; Datt, Chander; Kundu, S S

    2016-12-01

    A feeding trial with 18 Murrah buffalo heifers (238 ± 63 kg; 1.7 ± 0.4 years old) was conducted for 57 days, and feed intake and body weight were recorded followed by 7 days of urine and feces collection. Heifers were grouped into low (RFI-I) and high (RFI-II) feed efficiency groups by regressing DMI (g head(-1) day(-1)) on BWG (g head(-1) day(-1)) and mid-test MBW (kg). RFI-II heifers had slightly higher DMI (g head(-1) day(-1) and expressed per unit of BW, %BW, MBW, mid-test BW, and mid-test MBW) and all associated nutrient intakes, BWG, feed efficiency traits (FCR, CPCR), digestibility of nutrients, and retentions of crude protein and fat over RFI-I heifers. The corresponding intake values (kg head(-1) day(-1)) for RFI-I versus RFI-II were the following: DMI (6.73 ± 0.56 vs 6.51 ± 0.50), CPI (0.99 ± 0.008 vs 0.97 ± 0.07), DOMI (5.06 ± 0.47 vs 5.11 ± 0.42), and TDNI (4.95 ± 0.47 vs 5.00 ± 0.42). BWG (669 ± 52 vs 776 ± 47 g head(-1) day(-1)), feed efficiency traits (FCR: 10.32 ± 1.16 vs 8.77 ± 1.04 and CPCR: 1.52 ± 0.17 vs 1.30 ± 0.16), N balance (38 ± 9 vs 45 ± 8 g N head(-1) day(-1)), and protein and fat retentions (239 ± 57 vs 282 ± 51 g CP head(-1) day(-1) and 430 ± 6 vs 494 ± 59 g fat head(-1) day(-1)) of RFI-I were less than RFI-II heifers, respectively. Based on the predicted RFI values, RFI-II buffalo heifers could be selected for feed efficiency.

  12. Environmental factors affecting feed intake of steers in different housing systems in the summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koknaroglu, H.; Otles, Z.; Mader, T.; Hoffman, M. P.

    2008-07-01

    A total of 188 yearling steers of predominantly Angus and Hereford breeds, with mean body weight of 299 kg, were used in this study, which started on 8 April and finished on 3 October, to assess the effects of environmental factors on feed intake of steers in various housing systems. Housing consisted of outside lots with access to overhead shelter, outside lots with no overhead shelter and a cold confinement building. Ad libitum corn, 2.27 kg of 35% dry matter whole plant sorghum silage and 0.68 kg of a 61% protein-vitamin-mineral supplement was offered. Feed that was not consumed was measured to determine feed intake. The temperature data were recorded by hygro-thermographs. Hourly temperatures and humidity were used to develop weather variables. Regression analysis was used and weather variables were regressed on dry matter intake (DMI). When addition of a new variable did not improve R 2 more than one unit, then the number of variables in the model was truncated. Cattle in confinement had lower DMI than those in open lots and those in open lots with access to an overhead shelter ( P Effect of heat was predominantly displayed in August in the three housing systems. In terms of explaining variation in DMI, in outside lots with access to overhead shelter, average and daytime temperatures were important factors, whereas in open lots, nocturnal, peak and average temperatures were important factors. In confinement buildings, the previous day’s temperature and humidity index were the most important factors explaining variation in DMI. Results show the effect of housing and weather variables on DMI in summer and when considering these results, cattle producers wishing to improve cattle feedlot performance should consider housing conditions providing less stress or more comfort.

  13. Residual feed intake and reproductive traits of growing Purunã bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, L H; Fernandes, S R; DiLorenzo, N; Moletta, J L; Rossi, P; de Freitas, J A

    2017-02-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) and its relationship with reproductive traits was evaluated in growing bulls. Fifty-two growing Purunã bulls (11 mo initial age) were fed ad libitum in individual feedlot pens for 112 d. The animals were ranked for RFI and assigned to 3 feed efficiency groups: efficient (low RFI), intermediate (medium RFI), and inefficient (high RFI). Initial and final BW and ADG did not differ ( > 0.10) among the efficiency groups and were mean values of 254.6 (SD 44), 373.0 (SD 62), and 1.06 kg (SD 0.25), respectively. Mean values of 7.12 ± 0.28, 7.78 ± 0.28, and 8.04 ± 0.28 kg/d for DMI and -0.38 ± 0.04, -0.02 ± 0.04, and 0.51 ± 0.04 kg of DM/d for RFI were observed in the efficient, intermediate, and inefficient groups, respectively. Crude protein and ME intake were strongly correlated ( = 0.74, 0.10) but showed moderate to strong correlations with initial BW ( ranged from 0.36 to 0.51, ≤ 0.01), final BW ( ranged from 0.36 to 0.64, ≤ 0.01), and ADG ( ranged from 0.29 to 0.53, feed intake and protein and energy requirements were decreased in more efficient bulls in terms of RFI. However, both groups maintained similar BW and ADG. Regardless of their RFI classification, Purunã bulls had the same reproductive traits during the growth phase.

  14. Relationship between residual feed intake and enteric methane emission in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Zerlotti Mercadante

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Feed intake and average daily gain (ADG in Nellore cattle were determined to calculate residual feed intake in two performance tests: first during the growth phase (RFIgrowth and then during a measurement of the methane emission phase (RFImet. During the RFIgrowth test, 62 males and 56 females were classified as low-, medium-, and high-RFI. Enteric methane emission was measured in 46 animals; 23 males used for RFImet measurement plus 23 females (22 low-RFIgrowth and 24 high-RFIgrowth. Diet consisted of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu hay (445 g/kg DM and concentrate (555 g/kg DM. During the RFIgrowth and RFImet phases, DMI was lower in the animals with low RFI, with no difference in ADG. Residual feed intake was -0.359 and 0.367 kg DM/d for low- and high-RFI animals. Enteric methane emission (g/d, g/kg BW0.75 and g/kg ADG did not differ between RFIgrowth classes. Enteric methane emission (g/d was higher in high RFImet and lower in low RFImet males. Spearman correlations among traits obtained during both tests, which were high between metabolic BW (r = 0.959 and between DMI (r = 0.718, and zero between ADG (r = -0.062, resulted in moderate correlation between RFIgrowth and RFImet (r = 0.412. However, it is not possible to confirm that high-efficiency animals release less enteric methane, since different results were obtained when enteric methane was compared between the RFIgrowth and RFImet classes.

  15. Chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake of mango residues by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanon, Hadja Oumou; Kanwe, Augustin B; Millogo, Alain; Ledin, Inger

    2013-02-01

    The chemical composition, digestibility, and voluntary feed intake by sheep of mango by-products were studied in an experiment with five dietary treatments consisting of mango peels and seed kernels, offered individually or together with urea block and a control. The mango residues were offered with rice straw and the control diet was straw only. Five groups of five male sheep of Djallonké type, 12-18 months old and weighing on average 18.6 kg were allocated randomly to the diets to assess the voluntary feed intake. Apparent digestibility of the same diets was measured using four sheep per diet. The mango residues were low in crude protein, 67 and 70 g/kg dry matter for the peels and the seed kernels, respectively. The content of neutral detergent fiber varied from 306 to 388 g/kg dry matter (DM) for the kernel and the peels, respectively. The kernel had relatively high level of fat (105 g/kg DM) and tannins (29 and 40 g/kg DM of hydrolysable and total tannins, respectively). The highest intake was observed with the diet containing both residues and urea block (741 g/day). The intake of kernels was lower in all diets when offered with the peels than when offered with rice straw alone. Apparent digestibility of the diets containing mango residues was 0.60-0.65. The peels and kernels had high digestibility coefficients (0.74 and 0.70, respectively). Based on the results above, it can be concluded that it would be interesting to test the residues in a growth experiment.

  16. Genetic parameters for feed intake, litter weight, body condition and rebreeding success in primiparous Norwegian Landrace Sows

    OpenAIRE

    Lundgren, H.; Fikse, F.; Grandinson, K.; Lundeheim,; Canario, Laurianne; Vangen, O; Olsen, D.; Rydhmer, L.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for feed intake recorded as farmers' perception of young sows' appetite for the first 3 weeks of lactation (APP) and feed intake recorded for one day in the 3rd week of lactation (FEED), litter weight (LW) at 3 weeks, sow body condition at weaning (BC) and the following five reproduction traits: weaning-to-service interval of 1 to 7 days (WSI7), weaning-to-service interval of 1 to 50 days (WSI50), delayed service or not (DELAYED), pregn...

  17. Genomic prediction and genomic variance partitioning of daily and residual feed intake in pigs using Bayesian Power Lasso models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Janss, Luc L G; Strathe, Anders B

    Improvement of feed efficiency is essential in pig breeding and selection for reduced residual feed intake (RFI) is an option. The study applied Bayesian Power LASSO (BPL) models with different power parameter to investigate genetic architecture, to predict genomic breeding values, and to partition...... genomic variance for RFI and daily feed intake (DFI). A total of 1272 Duroc pigs had both genotypic and phenotypic records for these traits. Significant SNPs were detected on chromosome 1 (SSC 1) and SSC 14 for RFI and on SSC 1 for DFI. BPL had similar accuracy and bias as GBLUP but power parameters had...

  18. Genomic prediction and genomic variance partitioning of daily and residual feed intake in pigs using Bayesian Power Lasso models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Janss, L. L. G.; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    Improvement of feed efficiency is essential in pig breeding and selection for reduced residual feed intake (RFI) is an option. The study applied Bayesian Power LASSO (BPL) models with different power parameter to investigate genetic architecture, to predict genomic breeding values, and to partition...... genomic variance for RFI and daily feed intake (DFI). A total of 1272 Duroc pigs had both genotypic and phenotypic records for these traits. Significant SNPs were detected on chromosome 1 (SSC 1) and SSC 14 for RFI and on SSC 1 for DFI. BPL models had similar accuracy and bias as GBLUP method but use...

  19. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children from low-income families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Maria A; Cross, Matthew B; Power, Thomas G; Liu, Yan; Qu, Haiyan; Shewchuk, Richard M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2013-01-01

    To examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable (F & V) intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nominal group technique. Parents completed information on food parenting practices and feeding styles. Three dietary recalls were collected on each child. Parents completed measures in Head Start centers and/or over the telephone. 667 parents of preschool-aged children participated. Food parenting practices and F & V intake. Mean differences in the food parenting practices across the 4 feeding styles were established through multivariate general linear modeling using MANOVA. Moderated multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the moderating role of feeding style on food parenting practices and child F & V intake. The indulgent feeding style moderated the relationship between food parenting practices and child F & V intake. This study indicates that parents' feeding styles have a moderating effect on the relationship between the food parenting practices and children's F & V intake. This finding can facilitate the development of interventions aimed at reducing childhood overweight. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Longitudinal Analysis of Residual Feed Intake in Mink using Random Regression with Heterogeneous Residual Variance

    OpenAIRE

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik; Jensen, Just

    2014-01-01

    Heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) increased from low to high over the growing period in male and female mink. The lowest heritability for RFI (male: 0.04 ± 0.01 standard deviation (SD); female: 0.05 ± 0.01 SD) was in early and the highest heritability (male: 0.33 ± 0.02; female: 0.34 ± 0.02 SD) was achieved at the late growth stages. The genetic correlation between different growth stages for RFI showed a high association (0.91 to 0.98) between early and late growing periods. However...

  1. Water Intake and Utilization in Mithun (Bos frontalis):Effect of Environmental Temperature, Rearing System and Concentrate Feed Supplement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. T. Pal; A. Dhali; S. K. Mondal; C. Rajkhowa; K. M. Bujarbaruah

    2008-01-01

    Seasonal and sexual variations as well as the effect of dry feed supplement on total drinking water intake and its utilization were observed in mithun (Bos frontalis)-a semi-wild animal found in North Eastern Hill Region (NEHR) of India. In a completely randomized design, twelve adult mithuns (B. frontalis) as per their sex and body weight were assigned in two different rearing systems (free grazing and free grazing with dry concentrate feed supplementation), and ten growing male mithuns as per their body weight assigned in two different levels of dry concentrate feed supplementation (1.0 kg and 2.0 kg dry concentrate feeds on green forage based diet) and in two different seasons (summer and winter). It was observed that the environmental temperature had a significant effect on drinking water intake by mithuns. Drinking water consumption (per unit of body weight) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in summer than in winter. Supplementation of concentrate feed on free grazing animals resulted in increase in water consumption. Total water consumption (drinking as well as performed water) was found to be 15.18 litres per 100 kg body weight by growing mithun. Feed dry matter and digestible nutrient intakes by growing mithun were observed to be increased with the increase of supplementation of dry concentrate feed. Roughage to concentrate ratio did not affect the nutrient digestibility. Mithun calves drank an average of 4.30 litres water for each kg of dry matter intake. Metabolic water was significantly (P<0.01) increased with the increase of supplementation of concentrate feed whereas water turn over, which depends upon the body weight of the animals, did not differ significantly on offering of lower or higher level of dry feed. Faecal water loss of growing mithun was decreased with the increase in intake of concentrate feed and was estimated to be 33~46% of total water intake. Excretion of water through faeces of mithun was about 3.8% of body weight. It could

  2. Relationship between residual feed intake and daily methane emission in young Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Melo Caliman

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The cattle production is a sector of agricultural activity that has impact on global warming due to enteric fermentation from digestive process that releases methane (CH4, with energy loss of food and consequent inefficiency of system. Residual feed intake (RFI is a feed efficiency trait defined as the difference between actual feed intake and the one predicted on the basis of requirements for body weight production and maintenance. There are evidences that more efficient cattle (low RFI have lower methane daily emissions than less efficient cattle (high RFI. This study aimed to evaluate the pattern of CH4 daily emission and its relationship with RFI obtained during the CH4 collection in Nelore previously evaluated for this trait. A sample of 23 from 62 young bulls, previously classified into low RFI72 and high RFI72 in the 72-days performance test (RFI72, were evaluated. After the 72-days test, the individual feed intake was recorded for a further 45 days. Another RFI was obtained from the last 32 days (RFI32, and the animals were classified into two RFI32 classes: below zero (low RFI32 and above zero (high RFI32. CH4 daily emissions of each animal were collected during the last 7 days of this period, being preceded by 7 days for adaptation of animals to the collection apparatus. The sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique was used for estimating enteric methane emissions. CH4 and SF6 local background were also collected each day from inside of the installation using the same apparatus. The SF6 and CH4 gases were analyzed by gas chromatography. The correlation between RFI72 and RFI32 was not high (0.41 as a 32 days is a short period for accurately measuring the average daily gain. However, the additional period of 32 days is more representative of age, weight and feed intake at the time of CH4 collecting period than 72-days performance test itself. The averages of age, weight and CH4 daily emission were 351±24 days, 343±34 kg, and 155.5

  3. Analysis of biological networks and biological pathways associated with residual feed intake in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karisa, Brian; Moore, Stephen; Plastow, Graham

    2014-04-01

    In this study, biological networks were reconstructed from genes and metabolites significantly associated with residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. The networks were then used to identify biological pathways associated with RFI. RFI is a measure of feed efficiency, which is independent of body size and growth; therefore selection for RFI is expected to result in cattle that consume less feed without adverse effects on growth rate and mature size. Although several studies have identified genes associated with RFI, the mechanisms of the biological processes are not well understood. In this study, we utilised the results obtained from two association studies, one using 24 genes and one using plasma metabolites to reconstruct biological networks associated with RFI using IPA software (Igenuity Systems). The results pointed to biological processes such as lipid and steroid biosynthesis, protein and carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of gene expression through DNA transcription, protein stability and degradation. The major canonical pathways included signaling of growth hormone, Oncostatin M, insulin-like growth factor and AMP activated protein kinase, and cholesterol biosynthesis. This study provides information on potential biological mechanisms, and genes and metabolites involved in feed efficiency in beef cattle. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  4. Short communication: Fractional milking distribution of immunoglobulin G and other constituents in colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, A; Argüello, A; Baumrucker, C; Bruckmaier, R M

    2013-09-01

    The provision of quality colostrum with a high concentration of immunoglobulins is critical for newborn calf health. Because first colostrum may be low in overall concentration to effectively reduce the risk of newborn infections, we tested equivalent milking fractions of colostrum for possible IgG differences. The objective of this study was to determine if the fractional composition of colostrum changes during the course of milking with a focus on immunoglobulins. Twenty-four Holstein and Simmental cows were milked (first colostrum) within 4h after calving. The colostrum of 1 gland per animal was assembled into 4 percentage fractions over the course of milking: 0 to 25%, 25 to 50%, 50 to 75%, and 75 to 100%. The IgG concentration among the various fractions did not change in any significant pattern. Concentration of protein, casein, lactose and somatic cell count remained the same or exhibited only minor changes during the course of fractional milking colostrum. We determined that no benefit exists in feeding any particular fraction of colostrum to the newborn.

  5. Preliminary quality assessment of bovine colostrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Taranto

    2013-02-01

    ; colostrum was also subject to a fecal contamination, frequently found in samples. The majority of samples had a high SCC, probably for a stress situation during cows birth. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant correlation (P<0.001 between SPC and PAC. Faulty samples conditions must lead to a great accuracy during controls of raw colostrum by the competent authorities. The examined farms need some interventions, aimed at optimizing all aspects of management, in view of the improvement of product that is used both for calves feeding and human destination.

  6. Changes in satiety hormone concentrations and feed intake in rats in response to lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forssten, Sofia D; Korczyńska, Marta Z; Zwijsen, Renate M L; Noordman, Wouter H; Madetoja, Mari; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2013-12-01

    A negative energy balance can be accomplished by reducing the caloric intake which results in an increased feeling of hunger. This physiological state is regulated by secretion of satiety hormones. The secretion of these hormones can be influenced by ingestion of e.g. fat. Fat, dairy beverage and synbiotic mixture have been found to have satiety-inducing effects in humans and rats. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the change of satiety hormone concentration in rats in response to feeding of fermented milks containing lactic acid bacteria. Two studies were conducted with Wistar rats randomly allocated into groups receiving Lactobacillus fermented (2 L. acidophilus, L. bulgaricus, L. salivarius and L. rhamnosus) milk. A single isocaloric oral dose with the test item or control was given to the rats. Blood samples were taken after dosing with the test product and the satiety hormones were measured. For the test groups, significant changes could be detected in PYY concentrations after 60 min, although some groups had a significant lower feed intake. In conclusion, some probiotic Lactobacillus strains may modify satiety hormones production. However, more studies are needed to evaluate their potential of prolonging satiety.

  7. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju Young Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Low-level mercury (Hg exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20–0.24 µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89–0.99 µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p < 0.001 and was >1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age—Z-score of the birthweight; r = −0.156, p = 0.015, the duration (months of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p < 0.001, and the duration of fish intake more than once per week (r = 0.138, p = 0.033. In an ordinal logistic regression analysis with categorical hair Hg content (quartiles, dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086–12.597, p < 0.001 and the monthly duration of fish intake more than once per week (cumulative odds ratio: 1.203, 95% confidence interval: 1.034–1.401; p = 0.017, were significantly associated with higher hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg

  8. Genetic parameters for residual feed intake in growing pigs, with emphasis on genetic relationships with carcass and meat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, H; Bidanel, J-P; Gruand, J; Caritez, J-C; Billon, Y; Guillouet, P; Lagant, H; Noblet, J; Sellier, P

    2007-12-01

    Data were collected over the first 4 generations of a divergent selection experiment for residual feed intake of Large White pigs having ad libitum access to feed. This data set was used to obtain estimates of heritability for residual feed intake and genetic correlations (r(a)) between this trait and growth, carcass, and meat quality traits. Individual feed intake of group-housed animals was measured by single-space electronic feeders. Upward and downward selection lines were maintained contemporarily, with 6 boars and 35 to 40 sows per line and generation. Numbers of records were 793 for residual feed intake (RFI1) of boar candidates for selection issued from first-parity (P1) litters and tested over a fixed BW range (35 to 95 kg) and 657 for residual feed intake (RFI2) and growth, carcass, and meat quality traits of castrated males and females issued from second-parity (P2) litters and tested from 28 to 107 kg of BW. Variance and covariance components were estimated using REML methodology applied to a series of multitrait animal models, which always included the criterion for selection as 1 of the traits. Estimates of heritability for RFI1 and RFI2 were 0.14 +/- 0.03 and 0.24 +/- 0.03, respectively, whereas the estimate of r(a) between the 2 traits was 0.91 +/- 0.08. Estimates of r(a) indicated that selection for low residual feed intake has the potential to improve feed conversion ratio and reduce daily feed intake, with minimal correlated effect for ADG of P2 animals. Estimates of r(a) between RFI2 and body composition traits of P2 animals were positive for traits related to the amount of fat depots (r(a) = 0.44 +/- 0.16 for carcass backfat thickness) and negative for carcass lean meat content (r(a) = -0.55 +/- 0.14). There was a tendency for a negative genetic correlation between RFI2 and carcass dressing percent (r(a) = -0.36 +/- 0.21). Moreover, selection for low residual feed intake is expected, through lower ultimate pH and lighter color, to decrease pork

  9. Effects of residual feed intake and dam body weight on replacement heifer intake, efficiency, performance, and metabolic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Buttrey, B

    2015-07-01

    Thirty-eight Angus-based, crossbred, nulliparous beef heifers (BW = 280 ± 26.3 kg) sired by 2 Angus sires were used to determine if dam BW affected heifer performance, DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers. Heifers were housed in individual pens (2.2 by 9.1 m) equipped with 2.2 m of bunk space and fed a diet (90.4% DM, 13.7% CP, 67.2% NDF, and 56.2% TDN) consisting of 87.2% bermudagrass hay and 12.8% liquid protein supplement for a 14-d adaption period and a 70-d feeding period. Individual daily feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each heifer, and heifer was the experimental unit. Two-day beginning and end BW were recorded and hip height was used to calculate frame score (FS). Heifer dams were assigned to a light (LIT; 544 ± 21.3 kg) or heavy (HEV; 621 ± 34.8 kg) BW group on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of their lactation period the previous year to determine differences in heifer offspring DMI and RFI. Based on heifer RFI ranking, heifers were classified as positive (POS; 0.34) or negative (NEG; –0.31) RFI and low (LOW; –0.45), medium (MED; 0.00), or high (HI; 0.49) RFI for analysis of BW, FS, BW gain, and DMI. There were no dam BW group × sire interactions (P > 0.10) for all independent variables. Beginning and end BW was greater (P 0.10) for heifers out of HEV compared with LIT BW dams; however, a sire effect existed (P 0.10) whereas DMI was greater (P = 0.03) among heifers in the POS compared with the NEG RFI group and greater (P = 0.01) among heifers in the MED and HI compared with LOW RFI group, respectively. Plasma insulin levels were greater (P = 0.03) in the NEG compared with the POS RFI heifers, and thyroxine (T4) levels were greater (P = 0.02) in the POS compared with the NEG RFI heifers. A positive relationship existed (P ≤ 0.05) between dam BW and heifer DMI (r = 0.42), beginning and end BW (r = 0.45 and 54), and FS (r = 0.58) and between RFI and d 70 triiodothyronine (r = 0.34), d 70 T4 (r = 0.35), and d 0 and

  10. Residual feed intake studies in Angus-sired cattle reveal a potential role for hypothalamic gene expression in regulating feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying variation in residual feed intake (RFI), a heritable feed efficiency measure, are poorly understood while the relationship between RFI and meat quality is uncertain. To address these issues, 2 divergent cohorts consisting of High (HRFI) and Low (LRFI) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70 d feeding trial to identify steers with divergent RFI. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded at 14 d intervals. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI, HRFI) as the independent variable. The least-square means (lsmeans) for RFI were -1.25 and 1.51 for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P intake was higher for the HRFI individuals versus the LRFI steers (P feed efficiency in steers while the gonadotropin axis may also influence feed efficiency.

  11. Heritability of gross feed efficiency and associations with yield, intake, residual intake, body weight, and body condition score in 11 commercial Pennsylvania tie stalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallimont, J E; Dechow, C D; Daubert, J M; Dekleva, M W; Blum, J W; Barlieb, C M; Liu, W; Varga, G A; Heinrichs, A J; Baumrucker, C R

    2011-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to calculate the heritability of feed efficiency and residual feed intake, and examine the relationships between feed efficiency and other traits of productive and economic importance. Intake and body measurement data were collected monthly on 970 cows in 11 tie-stall herds for 6 consecutive mo. Measures of efficiency for this study were: dry matter intake efficiency (DMIE), defined as 305-d fat-corrected milk (FCM)/305-d DMI, net energy for lactation efficiency (NELE), defined as 305-d FCM/05-d NEL intake, and crude protein efficiency (CPE), defined as 305-d true protein yield/305-d CP intake. Residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated by regressing daily DMI on daily milk, fat, and protein yields, body weight (BW), daily body condition score (BCS) gain or loss, the interaction between BW and BCS gain or loss, and days in milk (DIM). Data were analyzed with 3- and 4-trait animal models and included 305-d FCM or protein yield, DM, NEL, or CP intake, BW, BCS, BCS change between DIM 1 and 60, milk urea nitrogen, somatic cell score, RFI, or an alternative efficiency measure. Data were analyzed with and without significant covariates for BCS and BCS change between DIM 1 and 60. The average DMIE, NELE, and CPE were 1.61, 0.98, and 0.32, respectively. Heritability of gross feed efficiency was 0.14 for DMIE, 0.18 for NELE, and 0.21 for CPE, and heritability of RFI was 0.01. Body weight and BCS had high and negative correlations with the efficiency traits (-0.64 to -0.70), indicating that larger and fatter cows were less feed efficient than smaller and thinner cows. When BCS covariates were included in the model, cows identified as being highly efficient produced 2.3 kg/d less FCM in early lactation due to less early lactation loss of BCS. Results from this study suggest that selection for higher yield and lower BW will increase feed efficiency, and that body tissue mobilization should be considered. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science

  12. Hypothalamic FTO is associated with the regulation of energy intake not feeding reward

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radomska Katarzyna J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphism in the FTO gene is strongly associated with obesity, but little is known about the molecular bases of this relationship. We investigated whether hypothalamic FTO is involved in energy-dependent overconsumption of food. We determined FTO mRNA levels in rodent models of short- and long-term intake of palatable fat or sugar, deprivation, diet-induced increase in body weight, baseline preference for fat versus sugar as well as in same-weight animals differing in the inherent propensity to eat calories especially upon availability of diverse diets, using quantitative PCR. FTO gene expression was also studied in organotypic hypothalamic cultures treated with anorexigenic amino acid, leucine. In situ hybridization (ISH was utilized to study FTO signal in reward- and hunger-related sites, colocalization with anorexigenic oxytocin, and c-Fos immunoreactivity in FTO cells at initiation and termination of a meal. Results Deprivation upregulated FTO mRNA, while leucine downregulated it. Consumption of palatable diets or macronutrient preference did not affect FTO expression. However, the propensity to ingest more energy without an effect on body weight was associated with lower FTO mRNA levels. We found that 4-fold higher number of FTO cells displayed c-Fos at meal termination as compared to initiation in the paraventricular and arcuate nuclei of re-fed mice. Moreover, ISH showed that FTO is present mainly in hunger-related sites and it shows a high degree of colocalization with anorexigenic oxytocin. Conclusion We conclude that FTO mRNA is present mainly in sites related to hunger/satiation control; changes in hypothalamic FTO expression are associated with cues related to energy intake rather than feeding reward. In line with that, neurons involved in feeding termination express FTO. Interestingly, baseline FTO expression appears linked not only with energy intake but also energy metabolism.

  13. Function of the corpus luteum in beef heifers is affected by acute submaintenance feeding but is not correlated with residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lents, C A; Randel, R D; Stelzleni, A M; Caldwell, L C; Welsh, T H

    2011-12-01

    Seventy-four Angus and Angus × Hereford heifers were used in 2 successive years (yr 1, n = 43; yr 2, n = 31) to determine if luteal function of heifers during acute submaintenance feeding is related to variation in utilization of feed as determined by residual feed intake (RFI). Residual feed intake was determined for heifers beginning at 12.3 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 1 and at 9.1 ± 0.1 mo of age in yr 2. Heifers were assigned to dry-lot pens (n = 6 to 9 heifers/pen) with electronic gates to measure individual feed intake of a total mixed ration for 70 and 72 d in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Residual feed intake was calculated as the difference between actual DMI and expected DMI from linear regression of DMI on mid-test BW(0.75) and ADG. At 14.4 ± 0.1 mo of age, all heifers were provided a restricted amount of feed to supply 40% of their maintenance energy requirements for 21 d. Estrous cycles of heifers were synchronized with PGF(2α) on d -10, 0, and 11 relative to start of restriction. Concentrations of progesterone in plasma on d 14 to 21 of restriction were used to determine if heifers ovulated. Overall ADG and ADFI were 0.83 ± 0.02 and 7.37 ± 0.67 kg/d, respectively, for yr 1; and 0.50 ± 0.02 and 5.66 ± 0.09 kg/d, respectively, for yr 2. There was no correlation between RFI and BW, ADG, ADFI, or ultrasound measure of backfat, nor was RFI related to concentrations of IGF-I in plasma. All heifers lost BW and had reduced backfat (P feeding. All heifers had reproductive cycles before dietary restriction started. During acute nutritional restriction, 4 heifers became anovulatory. Sixteen heifers had concentrations of progesterone in plasma during restricted feeding that were atypical of normal luteal function. There was no relationship between luteal function during nutrient restriction and RFI of heifers. Circulating IGF-1 was greater at weaning and after restricted feeding in heifers with a smaller RFI (>0.5 SD below the mean) than heifers with a greater RFI

  14. Multiple trait model combining random regressions for daily feed intake with single measured performance traits of growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Künzi Niklaus

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A random regression model for daily feed intake and a conventional multiple trait animal model for the four traits average daily gain on test (ADG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, carcass lean content and meat quality index were combined to analyse data from 1 449 castrated male Large White pigs performance tested in two French central testing stations in 1997. Group housed pigs fed ad libitum with electronic feed dispensers were tested from 35 to 100 kg live body weight. A quadratic polynomial in days on test was used as a regression function for weekly means of daily feed intake and to escribe its residual variance. The same fixed (batch and random (additive genetic, pen and individual permanent environmental effects were used for regression coefficients of feed intake and single measured traits. Variance components were estimated by means of a Bayesian analysis using Gibbs sampling. Four Gibbs chains were run for 550 000 rounds each, from which 50 000 rounds were discarded from the burn-in period. Estimates of posterior means of covariance matrices were calculated from the remaining two million samples. Low heritabilities of linear and quadratic regression coefficients and their unfavourable genetic correlations with other performance traits reveal that altering the shape of the feed intake curve by direct or indirect selection is difficult.

  15. Continuous versus bolus tube feeds: Does the modality affect glycemic variability, tube feeding volume, caloric intake, or insulin utilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David C; Forbes, Rachel; Jones, Christian; Cotterman, Robert; Njoku, Chinedu; Thongrong, Cattleya; Tulman, David; Bergese, Sergio D; Thomas, Sheela; Papadimos, Thomas J; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Enteral nutrition (EN) is very important to optimizing outcomes in critical illness. Debate exists regarding the best strategy for enteral tube feeding (TF), with concerns that bolus TF (BTF) may increase glycemic variability (GV) but result in fewer nutritional interruptions than continuous TF (CTF). This study examines if there is a difference in GV, insulin usage, TF volume, and caloric delivery among intensive care patients receiving BTF versus CTF. We hypothesize that there are no significant differences between CTF and BTF when comparing the above parameters. Materials and Methods: Prospective, randomized pilot study of critically ill adult patients undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement for EN was performed between March 1, 2012 and May 15, 2014. Patients were randomized to BTF or CTF. Glucose values, insulin use, TF volume, and calories administered were recorded. Data were organized into 12-h epochs for statistical analyses and GV determination. In addition, time to ≥80% nutritional delivery goal, demographics, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, and TF interruptions were examined. When performing BTF versus CTF assessments, continuous parameters were compared using Mann–Whitney U-test or repeated measures t-test, as appropriate. Categorical data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results: No significant demographic or physiologic differences between the CTF (n = 24) and BTF (n = 26) groups were seen. The immediate post-PEG 12-h epoch showed significantly lower GV and median TF volume for patients in the CTF group. All subsequent epochs (up to 18 days post-PEG) showed no differences in GV, insulin use, TF volume, or caloric intake. Insulin use for both groups increased when comparing the first 24 h post-PEG values to measurements from day 8. There were no differences in TF interruptions, time to ≥80% nutritional delivery goal, or hypoglycemic episodes. Conclusions: This study

  16. Mercury Exposure in Healthy Korean Weaning-Age Infants: Association with Growth, Feeding and Fish Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ju Young; Park, Jeong Su; Shin, Sue; Yang, Hye Ran; Moon, Jin Soo; Ko, Jae Sung

    2015-11-17

    Low-level mercury (Hg) exposure in infancy might be harmful to the physical growth as well as neurodevelopment of children. The aim of this study was to investigate postnatal Hg exposure and its relationship with anthropometry and dietary factors in late infancy. We recruited 252 healthy Korean infants between six and 24 months of age from an outpatient clinic during the 2009/2010 and 2013/2014 seasons. We measured the weight and height of the infants and collected dietary information using questionnaires. The Hg content of the hair and blood was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. The geometric mean Hg concentration in the hair and blood was 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.20-0.24) µg/g and 0.94 (n = 109, 95% confidence interval: 0.89-0.99) µg/L, respectively. The hair Hg concentration showed a good correlation with the blood Hg concentration (median hair-to-blood Hg ratio: 202.7, r = 0.462, p 1 µg/g in five infants. The hair Hg concentration showed significant correlations with weight gain after birth (Z-score of the weight for age-Z-score of the birthweight; r = -0.156, p = 0.015), the duration (months) of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding (r = 0.274, p hair Hg content (quartiles), dietary factors, including breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding in late infancy (cumulative odds ratio: 6.235, 95% confidence interval: 3.086-12.597, p hair Hg content. Weight gain after birth was not, however, significantly associated with hair Hg content after adjustment for the duration of breastfeeding as the dominant method of feeding. Low-level Hg exposure through breastfeeding and fish intake as a complementary food did not directly affect anthropometry in this population. If prolonged breastfeeding is expected, however, the Hg exposure through fish intake may need to be monitored for both mothers and infants.

  17. Digestion and metabolism of low and high residual feed intake Nellore bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Branco, Renata Helena; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Dos Santos Gonçalves Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely; Monteiro, Fábio Morato; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the reasons why animals of similar performances have different feed requirements is important to increase profits for cattle producers and to decrease the environmental footprint of beef cattle production. This study was carried out aiming to identify the associations between residual feed intake (RFI) and animal performance, nutrient digestibility, and blood metabolites related to energy balance of young Nellore bulls during the finishing period. Animals previously classified as low (n = 13) and high RFI (n = 12), with average initial body weight of 398 kg and age of 503 days were used. Cattle were fed a high energy diet and were slaughtered when rib fat thickness measured by ultrasound between the 12th and 13th ribs reached the minimum of 4 mm. A completely randomized design was adopted, being data analyzed with a mixed model that included the random effect of slaughter group, the fixed effect of RFI class, and linear effect of the covariate feedlot time. No differences were found (p > 0.10) between RFI classes for performance, dry matter, and nutrients intake. However, dry (p = 0.0911) and organic matter (p = 0.0876) digestibility tended to be lower, and digestibility of neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (p = 0.0017), and total digestible nutrients (p = 0.0657) were lower for high RFI animals, indicating lesser capacity of food utilization. Difference between low and high RFI animals was also found for blood cortisol at the end of the trial (p = 0.0044), having low RFI animals lower cortisol concentrations. Differences in the ability to digest food can affect the efficiency of transforming feed into meat by Nellore cattle.

  18. Permissive parental feeding behavior is associated with an increase in intake of low-nutrient-dense foods among American children living in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2012-01-01

    Parents play an important role in shaping children's eating habits. Few studies have evaluated the influence of both parenting style and parenting practices on child outcomes such as dietary intake. During spring 2007, 99 parent-child dyads from four rural US areas participated in this cross-sectional study. Child food intake was reported during two interviewer-administered, parent-assisted 24-hour recalls. Diet quality was defined as the average number of low-nutrient-dense (LND) foods consumed. Validated questionnaires were used to assess parental feeding practices and feeding style. Pearson correlations identified relationships among child food intake, parental feeding style typologies, and covariates. Regression analyses were used to predict child diet quality. Sixty percent of children and 76% of parents were overweight or obese. A permissive feeding style, which is highly responsive to a child's requests and sets few demands on him or her, was the most common (n=37) parental feeding style. This feeding style was associated with child intake of LND foods (r=0.3; Pparental feeding practices and child intake of LND foods. In the presence of a permissive feeding style, higher levels of monitoring were associated with child intake of LND foods (β=.69; PParental feeding style may alter the effectiveness of parental feeding practices on children's food intake. More research is needed to understand the parent-child feeding relationship in the context of parental feeding styles and practices.

  19. Interruption of scheduled, automatic feeding and reduction of excess energy intake in toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciampolini M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mario Ciampolini,1 J Thomas Brenna,2 Valerio Giannellini,3 Stefania Bini11Preventive Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Paediatrics, Università di Firenze, Florence, Italy; 2Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, USA; 3Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Università di Firenze, Florence, ItalyBackground: Childhood obesity due to the consumption of excess calories is a severe problem in developed countries. In a previous investigation on toddlers, hospital laboratory measurements showed an association of food-demand behavior with constant lower blood glucose before meals than for scheduled meals. We hypothesize that maternal scheduling of meals for toddlers results in excess energy intake compared to feeding only on demand (previously “on request”.Objective: We tested the cross-sectional null hypothesis of no difference in energy intake between scheduled (automatic and demanded meals (administered after evaluation in 24 mother–toddler (21 months old at entry pairs with chronic, nonspecific diarrhea presenting at a clinic. We tested the same hypothesis in a subset of 14 toddlers by measuring the resting (sleeping metabolic rate 4 hours after lunch, as well as the total daily energy expenditure (TEE in 10 toddlers.Methods: We trained mothers to recognize meal demands (as in the previous investigation and to provide food in response, but required no blood glucose measurements before meals. Energy intake was assessed by a 10-day food diary, resting metabolic rate (RMR by respiratory analyses (indirect calorimetry in 14 toddlers, and TEE by doubly labeled water in 10 toddlers. Their blood parameters, anthropometry, and number of days with diarrhea were assessed before training and 50 days after training.Results: RMR decreased from 58.6 ± 7.8 to 49.0 ± 9.1 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001 and TEE decreased from 80.1 ± 6.9 to 67.8 ± 10.0 kcal/kg/d (P < 0.001. Energy intake decreased from 85.7 ± 15.3 to 70.3 ± 15.8 kcal

  20. Selection for residual feed intake in growing pigs: effects on sow performance in a tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Gourdine, J L; Fleury, J; Ferchaud, S; Billon, Y; Noblet, J; Gilbert, H

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the consequences of a divergent selection for residual feed intake (RFI) during growth in a temperate environment (TEMP) on sow performance in a tropical environment (TROP). Sows came from a selection experiment conducted at INRA in which 2 lines were selected for larger (RFI(+)) or smaller (RFI(─)) feed intake than predicted from performance. In the first analysis, a subsample of data obtained in TROP conditions (49 lactations) was compared to those obtained in TEMP on their sibs mated with the same boars (54 lactations). In the second analysis, data obtained in the TROP environment (82 lactations) were analyzed for testing the effect of season (warm vs. hot) and line on sow performance. Except for the lactation length, the interaction between line and climatic environment was not significant for the others traits (P > 0.05). The ADFI expressed per kilogram of litter BW gain tended to be higher in the RFI(+) line bred in the TROP environment (P = 0.080), together with piglet BW at weaning, which tended to be lower (P = 0.080). The ADFI was lower in TROP than in TEMP (4.56 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.003), with negative consequence on litter BW gain and maternal BW loss. The RFI(-) sows tended to eat less feed than RFI(+) sows during lactation (4.55 vs. 5.86 kg/d; P = 0.099). Litter BW at weaning was higher in the RFI(─) line. The RFI(─) sows ate significantly less feed to produce 1 kg of litter than the RFI(+) sows and tended to lose a larger amount of BW during lactation than the RFI(+) sows (2.40 vs. 3.02 kg/kg and -0.66 vs. -0.39 kg/d, respectively, P feed required to produce 1 kg of litter was not influenced by the line in the warm season (2.53 kg/kg on average; P = 0.99), but it tended to be lower in the RFI(─) line when compared to the RFI(+) line in the hot season (2.06 vs. 3.45 kg/kg; P = 0.050). This higher apparent efficiency in RFI(─) sows was mainly related to greater maternal body reserve mobilization (i.e., BW

  1. Longitudinal Analysis of Residual Feed Intake in Mink using Random Regression with Heterogeneous Residual Variance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    Heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) increased from low to high over the growing period in male and female mink. The lowest heritability for RFI (male: 0.04 ± 0.01 standard deviation (SD); female: 0.05 ± 0.01 SD) was in early and the highest heritability (male: 0.33 ± 0.02; female: 0.34 ± 0...... at the end compared to the early growing period suggesting that heterogeneous residual variance should be considered for analyzing feed efficiency data in mink. This study suggests random regression methods are suitable for analyzing feed efficiency and that genetic selection for RFI in mink is promising........02 SD) was achieved at the late growth stages. The genetic correlation between different growth stages for RFI showed a high association (0.91 to 0.98) between early and late growing periods. However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.29 to 0.50. The residual variances were substantially higher...

  2. FABP4 is a leading candidate gene associated with residual feed intake in growing Holstein calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zinder, Miri; Asher, Aviv; Lipkin, Ehud; Feingersch, Roi; Agmon, Rotem; Karasik, David; Brosh, Arieh; Shabtay, Ariel

    2016-05-01

    Ecological and economic concerns drive the need to improve feed utilization by domestic animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is one of the most acceptable measures for feed efficiency (FE). However, phenotyping RFI-related traits is complex and expensive and requires special equipment. Advances in marker technology allow the development of various DNA-based selection tools. To assimilate these technologies for the benefit of RFI-based selection, reliable phenotypic measures are prerequisite. In the current study, we identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with RFI phenotypic consistency across different ages and diets (named RFI 1-3), using DNA samples of high or low RFI ranked Holstein calves. Using targeted sequencing of chromosomal regions associated with FE- and RFI-related traits, we identified 48 top SNPs significantly associated with at least one of three defined RFIs. Eleven of these SNPs were harbored by the fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4). While 10 significant SNPs found in FABP4 were common for RFI 1 and RFI 3, one SNP (FABP4_5; A

  3. Assessment of residual body weight gain and residual intake and body weight gain as feed efficiency traits in the turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, Owen W; Miller, Stephen P; Wood, Benjamin J

    2013-07-16

    Since feed represents 70% of the total cost in poultry production systems, an animal's ability to convert feed is an important trait. In this study, residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG), and their linear combination into residual feed intake and body weight gain (RIG) were studied to estimate their genetic parameters and analyze the potential differences in feed intake between the top ranked birds based on the criteria for each trait. Phenotypic and genetic analyses were completed on 8340 growing tom turkeys that were measured for feed intake and body weight gain over a four-week period from 16 to 20 weeks of age. The heritabilities of RG and RIG were 0.19 ± 0.03 and 0.23 ± 0.03, respectively. Residual body weight gain had moderate genetic correlations with feed intake (-0.41) and body weight gain (0.43). All three linear combinations to form the RIG traits had genetic correlations ranging from -0.62 to -0.52 with feed intake, and slightly weaker, 0.22 to 0.34, with body weight gain. Sorted into three equal groups (low, medium, high) based on RG, the most efficient group (high) gained 0.62 and 1.70 kg more (P feed intake for the high group was less (P feed intake (18.86 vs. 19.57 and 20.41 kg) and the highest (P feed intake between the top ranked birds based on different residual feed efficiency traits may be small when looking at the average individual, however, when extrapolated to the production level, the lower feed intake values could lead to significant savings in feed costs over time.

  4. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  5. Feed intake and activity level of two broiler genotypes foraging different types of vegetation in the finishing period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Gustavo Fonseca; Hinrichsen, Lena Karina; Horsted, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    were included in a 2 × 2 factorial design with groups of 25 birds replicated 3 times. The use of outdoor areas, performance, and forage intake were investigated. To identify possible differences in foraging activity, the use of the range was monitored one day per week at 4 different times of the day......A study was performed with 2 broiler genotypes (slow and medium growth) restricted in supplementary feed and foraging 2 different mixed vegetations (grass/clover or chicory) to identify possible benefits of herbage on nutrition during the finishing period (80 to 113 d of age). Three hundred birds....... Feed intake from foraging was estimated by killing 4 birds per plot (2 males and 2 females) in the morning and in the evening on 3 d during the experiment and measuring crop content. Vegetation type did not influence broiler use of the free-range area, feed intake, or performance. Differences...

  6. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance and feeding behavior of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa ...

  7. Economic values of production and functional traits, including residual feed intake, in Finnish milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hietala, P; Wolfová, M; Wolf, J; Kantanen, J; Juga, J

    2014-02-01

    Improving the feed efficiency of dairy cattle has a substantial effect on the economic efficiency and on the reduction of harmful environmental effects of dairy production through lower feeding costs and emissions from dairy farming. To assess the economic importance of feed efficiency in the breeding goal for dairy cattle, the economic values for the current breeding goal traits and the additional feed efficiency traits for Finnish Ayrshire cattle under production circumstances in 2011 were determined. The derivation of economic values was based on a bioeconomic model in which the profit of the production system was calculated, using the generated steady state herd structure. Considering beef production from dairy farms, 2 marketing strategies for surplus calves were investigated: (A) surplus calves were sold at a young age and (B) surplus calves were fattened on dairy farms. Both marketing strategies were unprofitable when subsidies were not included in the revenues. When subsidies were taken into account, a positive profitability was observed in both marketing strategies. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake (RFI) of breeding heifers and cows were -25.5 and -55.8 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic value for RFI of animals in fattening was -29.5 €/kg of dry matter per day per cow and year. To compare the economic importance among traits, the standardized economic weight of each trait was calculated as the product of the marginal economic value and the genetic standard deviation; the standardized economic weight expressed as a percentage of the sum of all standardized economic weights was called relative economic weight. When not accounting for subsidies, the highest relative economic weight was found for 305-d milk yield (34% in strategy A and 29% in strategy B), which was followed by protein percentage (13% in strategy A and 11% in strategy B). The third most important traits were calving

  8. Cattle selected for lower residual feed intake have reduced daily methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegarty, R S; Goopy, J P; Herd, R M; McCorkell, B

    2007-06-01

    Seventy-six Angus steers chosen from breeding lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) were studied to quantify the relationship between RFI and the daily rate of methane production (MPR). A 70-d feeding test using a barley-based ration was conducted in which the voluntary DMI, feeding characteristics, and BW of steers were monitored. The estimated breeding value (EBV) for RFI (RFI(EBV)) for each steer had been calculated from 70-d RFI tests conducted on its parents. Methane production rate (g/d) was measured on each steer using SF(6) as a tracer gas in a series of 10-d measurement periods. Daily DMI of steers was lower during the methane measurement period than when methane was not being measured (11.18 vs. 11.88 kg; P = 0.001). A significant relationship existed between MPR and RFI when RFI (RFI(15d)) was estimated over the 15 d when steers were harnessed for methane collection (MPR = 13.3 x RFI(15d) + 179; r(2) = 0.12; P = 0.01). Animals expressing lower RFI had lower daily MPR. The relationship established between MPR and RFI(15d) was used to calculate a reduction in daily methane emission of 13.38 g accompanied a 1 kg/d reduction in RFI(EBV) in cattle consuming ad libitum a diet of 12.1 MJ of ME/kg. The magnitude of this emission reduction was between that predicted on the basis of intake reduction alone (18 g x d(-1) x kg of DMI(-1)) and that predicted by a model incorporating steer midtest BW and level of intake relative to maintenance (5 g x d(-1) x kg of DMI(-1)). Comparison of data from steers exhibiting the greatest (n = 10) and lowest (n = 10) RFI(15d) showed the low RFI(15d) group to not only have lower MPR (P = 0.017) but also reduced methane cost of growth (by 41.2 g of CH(4)/kg of ADG; P = 0.09). Although the opportunity to abate livestock MPR by selection against RFI seems great, RFI explained only a small proportion of the observed variation in MPR. A genotype x nutrition interaction can be anticipated, and the MPR

  9. Sows with high milk production had both a high feed intake and high body mobilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathe, A V; Bruun, T S; Hansen, C F

    2017-02-15

    Selection for increased litter size have generated hyper-prolific sows that nurses large litters, however limited knowledge is available regarding the connection between milk production, feed intake and body mobilization of these modern sows. The aim of the current study was to determine what characterized sows with high milk production and nursing large litters, differences between sows of different parities and effects of lactational performance on next reproductive cycle. In total 565 sows (parity 1 to 4) were studied from 7 days before farrowing until weaning. On day 2 postpartum litters were standardized to 14 piglets. Weight and back fat thickness of sows were measured at day 7 prepartum, day 2 postpartum and at weaning. Litters were weighed at day 2 and at weaning. Pearson correlation coefficients between variables were calculated and regression models were developed. The average daily feed intake (ADFI) of the sows was 6.1±1.1 kg/day, average daily gain (ADG) of the litter was 2.92±0.53 kg/day and sows weaned 13.0±1.1 piglets. First parity sows generally had a lower ADFI and milk production and a decrease in total born piglets in next litter compared with parity 2 to 4 sows, which could be explained by a relatively higher proportion of their body reserves being mobilized compared with multiparous sows. The ADG of the litter was positively related by ADFI of the sows, litter size and BW loss and increasing the ADFI with 1 kg/day throughout lactation likely increased the ADG of the litter with 220 to 440 g/day in parity 1 to 4, respectively. Increasing the ADFI by 1 kg/day reduced the BW loss with 6.6 to 13.9 kg of parity 1 to 4 sows, respectively, during lactation, whereas increasing the average milk yield with 1 kg/day raised the BW loss with 4.3 to 21.0 kg of the four parities during lactation. The number of total born piglets in the next litter was positively related to the number of piglets born in the previous litter. In conclusion, both a high feed

  10. Relationships between postweaning residual feed intake in heifers and forage use, body composition, feeding behavior, physical activity, and heart rate of pregnant beef females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafla, A N; Carstens, G E; Forbes, T D A; Tedeschi, L O; Bailey, J C; Walter, J T; Johnson, J R

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if residual feed intake (RFI) classification of beef heifers affected efficiency of forage utilization, body composition, feeding behavior, heart rate, and physical activity of pregnant females. Residual feed intake was measured in growing Bonsmara heifers for 2 yr (n=62 and 53/yr), and heifers with the lowest (n=12/yr) and highest (n=12/yr) RFI were retained for breeding. Of the 48 heifers identified as having divergent RFI, 19 second-parity and 23 first-parity females were used in the subsequent pregnant-female trial. Pregnant females were fed a chopped hay diet (ME=2.11 Mcal kg(-1) DM) in separate pens equipped with GrowSafe bunks to measure individual intake and feeding behavior. Body weights were measured at 7-d intervals and BCS and ultrasound measurements of 12th-rib fat depth, rump fat depth, and LM area obtained on d 0 and 77. Heart rate and physical activity were measured for 7 consecutive d. First-parity females had lower (PResidual feed intake classification did not affect bunk visit frequency, but low-RFI females spent 26% less time (Presidual gain were positively correlated with forage intake (r=0.38) and RFI (r=0.42) of pregnant females. Results indicate that heifers identified as having low postweaning RFI have greater efficiency of forage utilization as pregnant females, with minimal impacts on growth, body composition, calving date, and calf birth BW, compared to their high-RFI counterparts.

  11. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  12. Chenopodium ambrosioides associated with whole body vibration exercises alters the feed intake in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, André Luiz Bandeira Dionizio; Frederico, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Almeida, Lívia Pinto; Neves, Rosane de Figueiredo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia Cunha; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Dionello, Carla de Fontoura; Morel, Danielle Soares; Paineiras-Domingos, Laisa Liane; Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Asad, Nasser Ribeiro; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-08-31

    The consequences of treatment involving the use of a natural product and whole body vibration (WBV) exercise have been investigated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of the joint treatment with an aqueous extract of Chenopodium ambrosioides and WBV on physiological parameters in rats. Wistar rats (n=20) were divided equally into four groups: control group (CG), treated with C. ambrosioides (CHE) group, exposed to 50 Hz of mechanial vibration (VBR), and treated with C. ambrosioides and exposed to 50 Hz of mechanical vibration (VBR + CHE) daily for 6 weeks. The body mass of the animals was determined weekly, the feed intake and the stool consistency were measured daily. One day after the 6 weeks of treatment, samples of blood were collected and used for biochemical analysis. Along 6 weeks, there was an increase (Pambrosioides caused alteration in the enzymatic activity of AST. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Residual feed intake and hematological and metabolic blood profiles of lle de France lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ferraz Evaristo de Paula

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to estimate the phenotypic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI and gross feed efficiency (GFE with hematological and metabolic blood profiles of lambs and to determine the differences for these traits in animals of different RFI classes. Twenty Ile de France male lambs, 115±8 days of age and 31.3±4.1 kg of body weight (means ± SD, were individually housed and their dry matter intake was measured over 65 days. They were weighed every 13 days to determine the average daily weight gain and two blood samples were collected at the last two weighings (at 07h30 for analysis of blood variables. The animals were divided into two classes: negative RFI (most efficient: 0.5 SD above the mean; n=8. There were associations among RFI and the serum metabolic variables for albumin (rRFI = 0.74 and creatinine (rRFI = -0.45 and between GFE and serum albumin (rGFE = -0.70. Less efficient animals as measured by RFI had higher serum albumin and lower creatinine levels and showed a tendency to have a greater concentration of total plasma protein. Other serum biochemical parameters were not correlated with GFE and RFI, and no differences between RFI classes were found. There was a correlation between the percentage of eosinophils and RFI (rRFI = -0.65, and such more efficient animals had a higher proportion of these cells and a trend to have a lower percentage of monocytes. This study provided evidence indicating associations between RFI and protein metabolism, as reflected by the serum albumin and creatinine. The hematological findings suggest that RFI is related to susceptibility of lambs to stressand should provide a basis for further research in this regard.

  14. Effect of treating sugarcane bagasse with urea and calcium hydroxide on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunun, Nirawan; Wanapat, Metha; Gunun, Pongsatorn; Cherdthong, Anusorn; Khejornsart, Pichad; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four beef cattle with initial body weight of 283 ± 14 kg were randomly allocated according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study on the effect of feeding sugarcane bagasse (SB) treated with urea and/or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) on feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. The treatments were as follows: rice straw (RS), untreated SB (SB), 4 % urea-treated SB (SBU), and 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2-treated SB (SBUC), respectively. The results revealed that cattle fed with SBU and SBUC had higher feed intake and apparent digestibility. Ammonia nitrogen and blood urea nitrogen were increased in cattle fed with SB as roughage source (P urea and/or Ca(OH)2 treatment, and feeding treated SB could increase feed intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation. This study suggested that SB treated with 2 % urea + 2 % Ca(OH)2 could be used as an alternative roughage source for ruminant feeding.

  15. Association of residual feed intake with growth and slaughtering performance, blood metabolism, and body composition in growing lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxue; Wang, Weimin; Mo, Futao; La, Yongfu; Li, Chong; Li, Fadi

    2017-10-04

    The aim of this study was to determine the association of residual feed intake (RFI) with growth performance, blood metabolic parameters, and body composition factors in growing lambs. Individual body weight (BW) and dry matter intake (DMI) were determined in 137 male Hu lambs that were given a pellet feed four times a day for 50 d. RFI did not show a correlation with metabolic BW (MBW) or average daily gain (ADG), but it showed a positive correlation with DMI and feed conversation ratio (FCR). Organ weight and intestine length had a large influence on RFI in lambs. The low-RFI lambs have smaller rumen and longer duodenum indicating the less feed intake and more sufficient absorption rate of low-RFI lambs. The smaller organs like liver, lung and kidney in low-RFI lambs may be related to lower energy consumption and slower metabolic rate. The observed bigger testis was in low-RFI lambs was another cause of the improved feed efficiency. Finally, the plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were lower in the ELow-RFI group than in the EHigh-RFI group. This study provides new insight into the biological processes underlying variations in feed efficiency in growing lambs.

  16. Heat treatment of colostrum on commercial dairy farms decreases colostrum microbial counts while maintaining colostrum immunoglobulin G concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted on six commercial dairy farms in Minnesota and Wisconsin to describe the effect of heat-treatment of colostrum, at 60o58 C for 60 minutes, on colostrum bacteria counts and immunoglobulin G concentrations. First milking colostrum was collected each day, pooled, divided into t...

  17. Increased expressions of genes and proteins involved in mitochondrial oxidation and antioxidant pathway in adipose tissue of pigs selected for a low residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, I; Vincent, A; Tacher, S; Gilbert, H; Gondret, F

    2016-12-01

    Adipose tissue is a primary sensor for nutrient availability and regulates many functions including feed intake and energy homeostasis. This study was undertaken to determine the molecular responses of adipose tissue to differences in feed intake and feed efficiency. Subcutaneous adipose tissue was collected from two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency defined as the difference between actual and expected feed intake, and from a subset of high-RFI pigs that were feed-restricted at the level of the voluntary feed intake of low-RFI pigs during the growing-finishing period. Transcriptomics analyses indicated that the number of genes that were differentially expressed ( feed-restricted high-RFI ( = 8) pigs. They included in silico pathway analyses of the differentially expressed (DE) genes ( feed restriction. This indicates that the responses of adipose tissue to RFI difference shared only some common mechanisms with feed intake modulation, notably the regulation of cell cycle (including ) and transferase activity pathway. Two carboxylesterase genes (, ) involved in lipolysis, were among the most overexpressed genes in the low-RFI pigs; they were also affected by feed restriction within the high-RFI line. About 60% of the molecular changes between low- and high-RFI pigs were specific to genetic divergence in feed efficiency, independently of feed intake. Different genes and proteins known to be associated with mitochondrial oxidative metabolism were overexpressed in adipose tissue of low-RFI pigs compared with high-RFI pigs; other proteins participating in the generation of energy were also affected by feed restriction within the high-RFI line. Finally, mitochondrial antioxidant genes were upregulated in low-RFI pigs vs. high-RFI pigs. Altogether, increased oxidative and antioxidant processes in adipose tissue might be associated with improved feed efficiency.

  18. Relationship among residual feed intake, digestibility and ingestive behavior in Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Magnani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate digestibility and feeding behavior of Nellore heifers belonging to different classes of residual feed intake (RFI. Thirty-two heifers ranked high in RFI (0.491± 0.51 kg/d; n=15 and RFI low (- 0.447 ± 0.51 kg/d; n=17 with a mean age of 502 ± 23.61 days and average weight 364 ± 27.96 kg were kept in confinement for 48 days, with formulated diet based on Tifton 85 hay, corn, cottonseed meal and urea, and ratio of forage: concentrate ratio of 45:55%. The parameters analyzed were digestibility, ingestive behavior and their correlation. Animals low RFI showed higher digestibility of dry matter (DMD, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and cellulose that high RFI animals (49.14% versus 45.38%, 56.65% versus 49.88%, 49.96% versus 45.08%, 61.61% versus 56.40% for DMD, NDFD, ADFD, CELD, respectively. These results indicate that more efficient animals have better food utilization. No differences were found in the variables of ingestive behavior among classes of RFI. Changes in the RFI can be partly explained by the digestibility of nutrients, which is related to ingestive behavior of animals.

  19. Rationale and design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) study for self-regulation of energy intake in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Perez, Susana A; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics includes two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers' excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness.

  20. Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkoiret, I.T.; Akouedegni, G.C.; Toukourou, Y.; Bosma, R.H.; Mensah, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were co

  1. Wheat straw as ruminant feed. Effect of supplementation and ammonia treatment on voluntary intake and nutrient availability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of experiments with goats, sheep and cattle fed untreated or ammonia-treated wheat straw. Aim of the experiments was to identify factors limiting voluntary intake and digestion of these low-quality feeds. Supplementation of urea to untreated wheat straw increased in

  2. Effects of oxygen concentration and body weight on maximum feed intake, growth and hematological parameters of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Duy, A.; Schrama, J.W.; Dam, van A.A.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2008-01-01

    Feed intake and satiation in fish are regulated by a number of factors, of which dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) is important. Since fish take up oxygen through the limited gill surface area, all processes that need energy, including food processing, depend on their maximum oxygen uptake capacit

  3. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children fromlow-income families

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nomina...

  4. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  5. Composition of bacteria harvested from the liquid and solid fractions of the rumen of sheep as influenced by feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, C A; González, J; Alvir, M R; Repetto, J L; Centeno, C; Lamrani, F

    2000-09-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of the feed intake on the chemical composition of bacteria associated with the solid (solid-associated bacteria; SAB) and liquid (liquid-associated bacteria; LAB) fractions of rumen digesta, the digestive passage kinetics and their relationships. Whole rumen contents were sampled after a period of continuous infusion of 15NH3 from four ruminally-cannulated wethers provided successively with a hay-concentrate diet (2 : 1 w/w on a DM basis) at two rates of feed intake: 40 and 80 g DM/kg body weight 0.75. SAB had a higher content of organic matter and total lipids (P bacteria and a decrease (P = 0.033) in their amino acid concentrations. Significant increases of rumen outflow rates of liquid and particles were also observed with increased feed intake. Rates of rumen outflow showed positive and negative linear relationships (P bacteria respectively. SAB contained significantly higher proportions of leucine, isoleucine, lysine and phenylalanine and lower proportions of alanine, methionine and valine than LAB. The increase in feed intake also induced significant changes in the amino acid profile of bacteria, increasing arginine and methionine and decreasing alanine and glycine proportions. Results show that the outflow rate of rumen contents is a major factor in determining the proportion of nucleic acids and protein in rumen bacteria and explains some of the differences observed between LAB and SAB.

  6. Feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of sheep fed Napier grass mixed with different levels of Sesbania sesban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibebu, M.; Tollera, A.; Tessema, Z.K.

    2009-01-01

    A randomized complete block design was employed to assess the feed intake, nutrient digestibility and live weight gains of hair type local sheep (~ 18.0 kg initial live weight) fed Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) mixed with different levels of Sesbania (Sesbania sesban). The treatments were sole

  7. Grazing behavior and production characteristics among cows differing in residual feed intake while grazing late season Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to determine if cows classified as either low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI) differed in BW, BCS, and winter grazing activity over time. Thirty Hereford x Angus (LRFI = 16; HRFI = 14) 2-year-old cows grazed sagebrush-steppe for 78 d beginning 29 September 2016. Body...

  8. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 578 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman...

  9. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  10. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) muscle reveals the molecular basis of residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ping; Luan, Sheng; Lu, Xia; Luo, Kun; Kong, Jie

    2017-09-05

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in genetic improvement programs of L. vannamei. Residual feed intake (RFI), an ideal measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed requirement predicted from maintenance and production. Exploring the molecular basis of RFI is essential to facilitate the genetic breeding of feed efficiency in L. vannamei. However, few studies have been reported in this aspect. In this study, we sequenced muscle transcriptomes of a high-efficiency group, a low-efficiency group and a control group originating from two families, and compared the gene expression patterns between each extreme group and the control group. A total of 383 differentially expressed genes were identified, most of which were involved in cell proliferation, growth and signaling, glucose homeostasis, energy and nutrients metabolism. Functional enrichment analysis of these genes revealed 13 significantly enriched biological pathways, including signaling pathways such as PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, AMPK signaling pathway and mTOR signaling pathway, as well as some important pathways such as ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, cell cycle, pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis/gluconeogenesis. These genes and pathways provide initial insight into the molecular mechanisms driving the feed efficiency in L. vannamei.

  11. Enteric methane emissions from low- and high-residual feed intake beef heifers measured using GreenFeed and respiration chamber techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemu, A W; Vyas, D; Manafiazar, G; Basarab, J A; Beauchemin, K A

    2017-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI; g/d) and enteric methane (CH) production (g/kg DM) and to compare CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions measured using respiration chambers (RC) and the GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). A total of 98 crossbred replacement heifers were group housed in 2 pens and fed barley silage ad libitum and their individual feed intakes were recorded by 16 automated feeding bunks (GrowSafe, Airdrie, AB, Canada) for a period of 72 d to determine their phenotypic RFI. Heifers were ranked on the basis of phenotypic RFI, and 16 heifers (8 with low RFI and 8 with high RFI) were randomly selected for enteric CH and CO emissions measurement. Enteric CH and CO emissions of individual animals were measured over two 25-d periods using RC (2 d/period) and GEM systems (all days when not in chambers). During gas measurements metabolic BW tended to be greater ( ≤ 0.09) for high-RFI heifers but ADG tended ( = 0.09) to be greater for low-RFI heifers. As expected, high-RFI heifers consumed 6.9% more feed ( = 0.03) compared to their more efficient counterparts (7.1 vs. 6.6 kg DM/d). Average CH emissions were 202 and 222 g/d ( = 0.02) with the GEM system and 156 and 164 g/d ( = 0.40) with RC for the low- and high-RFI heifers, respectively. When adjusted for feed intake, CH yield (g/kg DMI) was similar for high- and low-RFI heifers (GEM: 27.7 and 28.5, = 0.25; RC: 26.5 and 26.5, = 0.99). However, CH yield differed between the 2 measurement techniques only for the high-RFI group ( = 0.01). Estimates of CO yield (g/kg DMI) also differed between the 2 techniques ( ≤ 0.03). Our study found that high- and low-efficiency cattle produce similar CH yield but different daily CH emissions. The 2 measurement techniques differ in estimating CH and CO emissions, partially because of differences in conditions (lower feed intakes of cattle while in chambers, fewer days

  12. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Mark, Thomas; Jensen, Just; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2014-02-17

    Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individual daily feed intake (DFI) on initial test weight and average daily gain. Residual feed intake 2 (RFI2) was as RFI1 except it was also regressed with respect to backfat (BF). It has been shown to be a sensitive and accurate measure for feed efficiency in livestock but knowledge of the genomic regions and mechanisms affecting RFI in pigs is lacking. The study aimed to identify genetic markers and candidate genes for RFI and its component traits as well as pathways associated with RFI in Danish Duroc boars by genome-wide associations and systems genetic analyses. Phenotypic and genotypic records (using the Illumina Porcine SNP60 BeadChip) were available on 1,272 boars. Fifteen and 12 loci were significantly associated (p < 1.52 × 10-6) with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Among them, 10 SNPs were significantly associated with both RFI1 and RFI2 implying the existence of common mechanisms controlling the two RFI measures. Significant QTL regions for component traits of RFI (DFI and BF) were detected on pig chromosome (SSC) 1 (for DFI) and 2 for (BF). The SNPs within MAP3K5 and PEX7 on SSC 1, ENSSSCG00000022338 on SSC 9, and DSCAM on SSC 13 might be interesting markers for both RFI measures. Functional annotation of genes in 0.5 Mb size flanking significant SNPs indicated regulation of protein and lipid metabolic process, gap junction, inositol phosphate metabolism and insulin signaling pathway are significant biological processes and pathways for RFI, respectively. The study detected novel genetic variants and QTLs on SSC 1, 8, 9, 13 and 18 for RFI and indicated significant biological processes and metabolic pathways involved in RFI. The study also detected novel QTLs for

  13. Prediction of residual feed intake for first-lactation dairy cows using orthogonal polynomial random regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manafiazar, G; McFadden, T; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E; Basarab, J; Li, P; Wang, Z

    2013-01-01

    Residual Feed Intake (RFI) is a measure of energy efficiency. Developing an appropriate model to predict expected energy intake while accounting for multifunctional energy requirements of metabolic body weight (MBW), empty body weight (EBW), milk production energy requirements (MPER), and their nonlinear lactation profiles, is the key to successful prediction of RFI in dairy cattle. Individual daily actual energy intake and monthly body weight of 281 first-lactation dairy cows from 1 to 305 d in milk were recorded at the Dairy Research and Technology Centre of the University of Alberta (Edmonton, AB, Canada); individual monthly milk yield and compositions were obtained from the Dairy Herd Improvement Program. Combinations of different orders (1-5) of fixed (F) and random (R) factors were fitted using Legendre polynomial regression to model the nonlinear lactation profiles of MBW, EBW, and MPER over 301 d. The F5R3, F5R3, and F5R2 (subscripts indicate the order fitted) models were selected, based on the combination of the log-likelihood ratio test and the Bayesian information criterion, as the best prediction equations for MBW, EBW, and MPER, respectively. The selected models were used to predict daily individual values for these traits. To consider the body reserve changes, the differences of predicted EBW between 2 consecutive days were considered as the EBW change between these days. The smoothed total 301-d actual energy intake was then linearly regressed on the total 301-d predicted traits of MBW, EBW change, and MPER to obtain the first-lactation RFI (coefficient of determination=0.68). The mean of predicted daily average lactation RFI was 0 and ranged from -6.58 to 8.64 Mcal of NE(L)/d. Fifty-one percent of the animals had an RFI value below the mean (efficient) and 49% of them had an RFI value above the mean (inefficient). These results indicate that the first-lactation RFI can be predicted from its component traits with a reasonable coefficient of

  14. Effect of a lucerne feeding strategy in the first week postpartum on feed intake and ketone body profiles in blood plasma, urine, and milk in Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effects of a lucerne feeding strategy to postpartum transition dairy cows on feed intake and ketone body profiles in plasma, urine, and milk. At calving, 13 Holstein cows were assigned to one of two treatments: a control lactation diet or a lucerne haylage....... The concentrations of ketone bodies in plasma, urine, and milk tended to be greater at 4 days in milk for lucerne as compared with control. Plasma concentrations of ketone bodies correlated stronger to urinary concentrations than to milk concentrations...

  15. Study protocol of a parent-focused child feeding and dietary intake intervention: the feeding healthy food to kids randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncanson Kerith

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poor childhood nutrition is a more pervasive and insidious risk factor for lifestyle-related chronic disease than childhood obesity. Parents find it difficult to address the reported barriers to optimal child feeding, and to improve child dietary patterns. To impact at the population level, nutrition interventions need to be easy to disseminate, have a broad reach and appeal to parents while overcoming the barriers parents face when trying to improve child feeding behaviours. The Feeding Healthy Food to Kids (FHFK Randomised Control Trial (RCT examines the impact of providing low cost, self-directed nutrition and parenting resources to rural parents, on child dietary intake and parent–child feeding practices. Methods/Design Up to 150 parents of two-to-five year old children will be recruited in five rural Australian towns. Eligible, consenting parents will be randomly allocated to intervention or 12-month wait-list control groups. Intervention group parents will receive an interactive nutrition CD and parenting DVD, and be provided with instructions for optimal resource utilisation. Intervention and control group participants will also receive a generic nutrition and physical activity brochure and a physical activity resource to blind participants to group allocation. Primary outcome measures are dietary intake of vegetables (serves/day, fruit and energy dense nutrient poor foods (serves/day and %Energy. Secondary outcome measures are total energy (kCal, other food groups (serves/day and %Energy, key nutrients (mg/day, child feeding domains and parenting style domains. Analysis of dietary outcome measures, child feeding and parenting domains will be conducted on an intention-to-treat basis and compared at baseline, three and 12 months using the random effects model, using STATA software. Details of the methodological aspects of recruitment, inclusion criteria, randomisation and statistical analysis are described

  16. Effect of breed composition on phenotypic residual feed intake and growth in Angus, Brahman, and Angus x Brahman crossbred cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzo, M A; Riley, D G; Hansen, G R; Johnson, D D; Myer, R O; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Wasdin, J G; Driver, J D

    2009-12-01

    The influence of additive and nonadditive genetic effects and temperament on 4 postweaning feed intake and growth traits was evaluated in a group of 581 bull, heifer, and steer calves born in 3 Florida herds in 2006 and 2007. Calves had breed compositions ranging from 100% Angus (A) to 100% Brahman (B). They were randomly allocated to 24 pens each year by herd (Brooksville, Gainesville, Marianna, FL), sire group (A, 3/4 A 1/4 B, Brangus, 1/2 A 1/2 B, 1/4 A 3/4 B, and B), and sex (bull, heifer, and steer) in a GrowSafe automated feeding facility at Marianna. Calves were fed a concentrate diet during the 21-d adjustment and the 70-d trial periods. Individual feed intakes were recorded daily, and BW, chute scores, and exit velocities were recorded every 2 wk. Traits were phenotypic daily residual feed intake (RFI), mean daily feed intake (DFI), mean daily feed conversion ratio (FCR), and postweaning BW gain. Phenotypic RFI was computed as the difference between actual and expected feed intakes. Calves were assigned to 3 RFI groups: high (RFI greater than 0.9 kg of DM/d), low (RFI less than -0.9 kg of DM/d), and medium (RFI between mean +/- 0.9 kg of DM/d; SD = 1.8 kg of DM/d). The mixed model included the fixed effects of contemporary group (herd-year-pen), RFI group (except when trait was RFI), age of dam, sex of calf, age of calf, B fraction of calf, heterozygosity of calf, mean chute score, and mean exit velocity. Brahman fraction and heterozygosity of calf were nested within sex of calf for RFI and within RFI group for DFI, FCR, and postweaning BW gain. Random effects were sire and residual. Feed efficiency tended to improve (decreased RFI) as the B fraction increased. However, calves required larger amounts of feed per kilogram of BW gain (larger FCR) as the B fraction increased. Postweaning BW gain tended to decrease as the B fraction increased. Temperament traits were unimportant for all traits except exit velocity for DFI, suggesting perhaps a lack of

  17. Metabolic changes and tissue responses to selection on residual feed intake in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Naou, T; Le Floc'h, N; Louveau, I; Gilbert, H; Gondret, F

    2012-12-01

    Previous selection experiments using residual feed intake (RFI) to select pigs with a high feed efficiency have reported that a low RFI was associated with a reduced body fat content and a greater muscle glycogen content. In the current study, growing Large White female piglets from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were used to determine the changes in energy and protein metabolisms in key tissues and their cross talks in response to selection. Pigs of low RFI (RFI(-); n = 26) or high RFI (RFI(+); n = 36) selection lines were offered free access to feed during postweaning and growing periods. Pigs of each line were then slaughtered at 19 kg (n = 8 per line) or 115 kg BW (n = 14 to 18 per line). A third group of pigs of the RFI(+) line was offered feed at the same level per metabolic BW (BW0.60) as RFI- pigs (group RFI+R, n = 14). Regardless of the growth period considered, G:F was less in RFI(+) pigs than in RFI(-) pigs. At 19 kg BW, RFI(+) and RFI(-) pigs had a similar body composition and tissue lipid content. The fractional rate of protein synthesis and proteasome activity were decreased (P 0.10) between RFI(+) pigs and RFI(-) pigs. Both lactate dehydrogenase activity participating in glucose metabolism and hydroxylacylCoA dehydrogenase activity involved in fatty acid oxidation were greater (P < 0.05) in the liver and LM of RFI(+) pigs compared with RFI(-) pigs. In the liver, contrary to the LM, those differences in enzyme activities were directly associated with selection on RFI regardless of ADFI. Increased backfat depth and content and greater lipid content and adipocyte hypertrophy (P < 0.05) in subcutaneous adipose tissue were reported in RFI(+) pigs compared with RFI(-) pigs at 115 kg BW without marked changes in key lipogenic enzyme activities; these changes were directly associated with ADFI. In conclusion, the present study shows an increase of catabolic pathway activities in the liver and muscle of RFI(+) pigs at market weight that is likely to

  18. Maternal feeding self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intakes in infants. Results from the SAIDI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Gloria A; Scott, Jane A; Woodman, Richard J; Kim, Susan W; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea M

    2014-10-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) is a characteristic of a healthy diet but remains a challenge in nutrition interventions. This cross-sectional study explored the multi-directional relationships between maternal feeding self-efficacy, parenting confidence, child feeding behaviour, exposure to new food and FV intake in a cohort of 277 infants. Mothers with healthy infants weighing ≥2500 g and ≥37 weeks gestation were recruited post-natally from 11 South Australian hospitals. Socio-demographic data were collected at recruitment. At 6 months postnatal, infants were weighed and measured, and mothers completed a questionnaire exploring their perceptions of child feeding behaviour and child exposure to new foods. The questionnaire also included the Short Temperament Scale for Infants, Kessler 10 to measure maternal psychological distress and 5 items measuring maternal feeding self-efficacy. The number of occasions and variety of FV (number of subgroups within food groups) consumed by infants were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall and 2 days food record. Structural equation modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.11. Median (IQR) variety scores were 2 (1-3) for fruit and 3 (2-5) for vegetable intake. The most popular FV consumed were apple (n = 108, 45.0%) and pumpkin (n = 143, 56.3%). None of the variables studied predicted the variety of child fruit intake. Parenting confidence, exposure to new foods and child feeding behaviour were indirectly related to child vegetable intake through maternal feeding self-efficacy while total number of children negatively predicted child vegetable variety (p self-efficacy and the family eating environment as key strategies towards development of healthy eating in children.

  19. Rumen acid production from dairy feeds. 1. Effects on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows offered grass or corn silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, R J; Wadhwa, D; Borgida, L P; Fisher, W J

    2001-12-01

    Earlier studies developed a new approach to feed evaluation, measuring the net acid load that develops during rumen fermentation. Two concentrates were formulated to be isoenergetic and isonitrogenous, with extremes of rumen acid load. A third treatment comprised a 50:50 mixture of these concentrates. These concentrates were evaluated along with ryegrass silage and corn silage. The feeds were evaluated in a continuous culture system adapted to deliver and record the quantities of acid or alkali needed to maintain a constant pH (6.2 to 6.3). This study confirmed the anticipated ranking of concentrates for rumen acid load, as well as the highly acidogenic nature of corn silage. The concentrates were formulated to balance corn silage and were offered to early-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows at 50% of dry matter intake, with either ryegrass silage or corn silage. Feed intake was lower for animals offered corn silage-based diets (17.4 vs. 22.2 kg of dry matter/d). Increasing concentrate acid load led to a large decline in dry matter intake for corn silage, although not for grass silage. Feed intake effects were reflected in significant effects on yield of milk (31.0, 29.9, and 26.9 kg/d for low-, medium-, and high-acid load concentrates, respectively) and milk solids. Milk protein concentration was unaffected by concentrate type with corn silage diets but tended to be higher when high acid load concentrates were fed with grass silage. This may reflect the effect of the high starch concentrate rectifying a shortage of glucogenic precursors or microbial protein with the grass silage-based diet.

  20. Genetic variance and covariance and breed differences for feed intake and average daily gain to improve feed efficiency in growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K J; Bormann, J M; Weaber, R L; MacNeil, M D; Bradford, H L; Freetly, H C; Hales, K E; Moser, D W; Snelling, W M; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A

    2017-04-01

    Feed costs are a major economic expense in finishing and developing cattle; however, collection of feed intake data is costly. Examining relationships among measures of growth and intake, including breed differences, could facilitate selection for efficient cattle. Objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth and intake traits and compare indices for feed efficiency to accelerate selection response. On-test ADFI and on-test ADG (TESTADG) and postweaning ADG (PWADG) records for 5,606 finishing steers and growing heifers were collected at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center in Clay Center, NE. On-test ADFI and ADG data were recorded over testing periods that ranged from 62 to 148 d. Individual quadratic regressions were fitted for BW on time, and TESTADG was predicted from the resulting equations. We included PWADG in the model to improve estimates of growth and intake parameters; PWADG was derived by dividing gain from weaning weight to yearling weight by the number of days between the weights. Genetic parameters were estimated using multiple-trait REML animal models with TESTADG, ADFI, and PWADG for both sexes as dependent variables. Fixed contemporary groups were cohorts of calves simultaneously tested, and covariates included age on test, age of dam, direct and maternal heterosis, and breed composition. Genetic correlations (SE) between steer TESTADG and ADFI, PWADG and ADFI, and TESTADG and PWADG were 0.33 (0.10), 0.59 (0.06), and 0.50 (0.09), respectively, and corresponding estimates for heifers were 0.66 (0.073), 0.77 (0.05), and 0.88 (0.05), respectively. Indices combining EBV for ADFI with EBV for ADG were developed and evaluated. Greater improvement in feed efficiency can be expected using an unrestricted index versus a restricted index. Heterosis significantly affected each trait contributing to greater ADFI and TESTADG. Breed additive effects were estimated for ADFI, TESTADG, and the efficiency indices.

  1. Mothers’ Child-Feeding Practices Are Associated with Children’s Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sohyun; Li, Ruowei; Birch, Leann

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake is a substantial source of energy in the diet of US children. Objective: We examined the associations between mothers’ child-feeding practices and SSB intake among 6-y-old children. Methods: We analyzed data from the Year 6 Follow-up of the Infant Feeding Practices Study II in 1350 US children aged 6 y. The outcome variable was child’s SSB intake. The exposure variables were 4 child-feeding practices of mothers: setting limits on sweets or junk foods, regulating their child’s favorite food intake to prevent overconsumption, pressuring their child to eat enough, and pressuring their child to “clean the plate.” We used multinomial logistic regression and controlled for child and maternal characteristics. Analyses were stratified on child weight status. Results: The consumption of SSBs ≥1 time/d was observed among 17.1% of underweight/normal-weight children and in 23.2% of overweight/obese children. Adjusted ORs (aORs) of consuming SSBs ≥1 time/d (vs. no SSB consumption) were significantly lower in children whose mothers reported setting limits on sweets/junk foods (aOR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.58 for underweight/normal-weight children; aOR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.79 for overweight/obese children). SSB intake was higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers reported trying to keep the child from eating too much of their favorite foods (aOR: 2.03; 95% CI: 1.25, 3.29). Mothers’ tendency to pressure their children to consume more food or to “clean the plate” was not associated with child’s SSB intake. Conclusions: SSBs were commonly consumed by young children. The odds of daily SSB intake were lower among children whose mothers set limits on sweets/junk foods regardless of child’s weight but were higher among underweight/normal-weight children whose mothers restricted the child’s favorite food intake. Future studies can investigate the impact of alternatives to restrictive feeding

  2. Additional feeding assistance improves the energy and protein intakes of hospitalised elderly patients. A health services evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Fiona; Harris, Kerri; Duncan, Rhys; Walton, Karen; Bracks, Julie; Larby, Lyndal; Vari, Linda; Jukkola, Katja; Bell, Janet; Chan, Maria; Batterham, Marijka

    2012-10-01

    Malnutrition is a serious issue that is prevalent in elderly hospitalised patients. Traditionally the role of feeding was designated to the nurse; however competing tasks mean that additional support for feeding assistance is needed. A program that utilises volunteers during weekday lunchtimes to assist, feed and socialise with patients at a Sydney hospital began during 2005. Twenty-three patients (mean age: 83.2±8.9years) participated in this study. Observations and weighed plate waste were recorded for each patient for all meals on two weekdays (when volunteers present) and two weekend days (when volunteers not present). Grip strength, Mini-Nutritional Assessments and interviews were conducted with patients, and surveys with volunteers and staff. Lunchtime energy and protein intakes increased significantly (396 kJ and 4.3g respectively) when volunteers were present. Volunteers spent an average of 12.3 min with each patient at lunchtime, compared to 4.7 min for nurses. Nurses indicated time barriers to feeding patients but were positive about the value of the program. Volunteers were commonly observed feeding, setting up meals and providing encouragement to patients. Additional feeding assistance is one effective strategy to increase the energy and protein intakes and combat malnutrition in elderly inpatients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. How well do specialist feeders regulate nutrient intake? Evidence from a gregarious tree-feeding caterpillar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despland, Emma; Noseworthy, Meghan

    2006-04-01

    Nutritional regulation is a powerful mechanism used by generalist feeders to obtain the balance of nutrients they require from nutritionally diverse, perhaps unbalanced, foods. We examined nutritional regulation in a species with a narrow individual diet breadth: the forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria. Fourth instar caterpillars were provided with artificial foods consisting of different ratios of protein to digestible carbohydrate in no-choice, choice and compensatory feeding experiments. In the no-choice test, caterpillars were confined to a single food source of varying protein/carbohydrate ratio for the duration of the fourth larval stadium. Caterpillars performed best on equal-ratio and slightly protein-biased diets. Significant reductions in performance were only observed on extremely protein- or carbohydrate-biased diets. Daily consumption of the three acceptable intermediate diets was consistent with volumetric regulation, but the timing of the moult to the next instar appeared linked instead to protein intake. In the choice test, caterpillars were provided with two complementary foods, one biased toward protein and the other toward carbohydrate, for the duration of the stadium. The caterpillars fed randomly from the two food sources presented to them, except for the extremely protein-biased diet (P:C ratio of 35:7), which they avoided. The compensatory feeding experiment tested whether forest tent caterpillars deprived of either protein or digestible carbohydrate would select a food containing the deficient nutrient. Insects were conditioned on either protein-only, carbohydrate-only, protein-and-carbohydrate or no-nutrient foods, then offered a choice between protein-only and carbohydrate-only foods. Unlike previously studied generalist feeders, our caterpillars did not compensate for protein deficiency and showed only very weak evidence of compensation for carbohydrate deficiency. Forest tent caterpillars are colonial trail-laying forest

  4. Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Berglund, B; Fikse, W F; Lassen, J; Lidauer, M H; Mäntysaari, P; Løvendahl, P

    2017-09-06

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 primiparous Holstein cows, each with recordings on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, milk composition, and body weight (BW) over 44 lactation weeks. For each individual cow, energy-corrected milk (ECM), metabolic BW (MBW), and change in BW (ΔBW) were calculated in each week of lactation and were taken as energy sinks when defining RFI. Two RFI models were considered in the analyses; RFI model [1] was a 1-step RFI model with constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks (ECM, MBW, and ΔBW) over lactation. In RFI model [2], data from 44 lactation weeks were divided into 11 consecutive lactation periods of 4 wk in length. The RFI model [2] was identical to model [1] except that period-specific partial regressions of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW in each lactation period were allowed across lactation. We estimated genetic parameters for RFI across lactation by both models using a random regression method. Using RFI model [2], we estimated the period-specific effects of ECM, MBW, and ΔBW on DMI in all lactation periods. Based on results from RFI model [2], the partial regression coefficients of DMI on ECM, MBW, and ΔBW differed across lactation in RFI. Constant partial regression coefficients of DMI on energy sinks over lactation was not always sufficient to account for the effects across lactation and tended to give roughly average information from all period-specific effects. Heritability for RFI over 44 lactation weeks ranged from 0.10 to 0.29 in model [1] and from 0.10 to 0.23 in model [2]. Genetic variance and heritability estimates for RFI from model [2] tended to be slightly lower and more stable across lactation than those from model [1]. In both

  5. Influence of reactivity in residual feed intake classification in beef catlle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Aldrighi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactivity is an important behavioral trait that is directly linked to the economic characteristics of beef. Less reactive animals have better performance and efficiency, thus, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of reactivity in the animals´ classification for residual feed intake (RFI. The study was conducted at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte – Instituto de Zootecnia -Sertãozinho/SP. Sixty males belonging to the Traditional Nelore herd were classified into high (> mean + 0.5 SD, n = 21, medium (±0.5 SD from mean, n = 20 and low RFI (intake by a multiple regression equation, which considers the average daily gain and metabolic body weight. To measure the temperament, blood samples were collected from the animals´ jugular vein and analyzed to quantify serum levels of cortisol. The composite score (CS was done by a trained observer, giving scores from 1 to 5 for the general movement of animals during weighing, being the lowest score used for less reactive animals. The experimental design was completely randomized and means were compared by Tukey-Kramer test, using a probability level of 5%. The animals most efficient (low RFI consumed, on average, 1.02 kg less feed than animals less efficient (high RFI (Table 1 to obtain the same performance. For cortisol levels and CS no differences were detected between RFI classes. In this study a homogeneous group of animals was used, which received the same management throughout the experimental period, and this fact

  6. Post-weaning blood transcriptomic differences between Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haibo; Nguyen, Yet T; Nettleton, Dan; Dekkers, Jack C M; Tuggle, Christopher K

    2016-01-22

    Improving feed efficiency (FE) of pigs by genetic selection is of economic and environmental significance. An increasingly accepted measure of feed efficiency is residual feed intake (RFI). Currently, the molecular mechanisms underlying RFI are largely unknown. Additionally, to incorporate RFI into animal breeding programs, feed intake must be recorded on individual pigs, which is costly and time-consuming. Thus, convenient and predictive biomarkers for RFI that can be measured at an early age are greatly desired. In this study, we aimed to explore whether differences exist in the global gene expression profiles of peripheral blood of 35 to 42 day-old pigs with extremely low (more efficient) and high RFI (less efficient) values from two lines that were divergently selected for RFI during the grow-finish phase, to use such information to explore the potential molecular basis of RFI differences, and to initiate development of predictive biomarkers for RFI. We identified 1972 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) (q ≤ 0.15) between the low (n = 15) and high (n = 16) RFI groups of animals by using RNA sequencing technology. We validated 24 of 37 selected DEGs by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in a joint analysis of 24 (12 per line) of the 31 samples already used for RNA-seq plus 24 (12 per line) novel samples from the same contemporary group of pigs. Using an analysis of the 24 novel samples alone, only nine of the 37 selected DEGs were validated. Genes involved in small molecule biosynthetic process, antigen processing and presentation of peptide antigen via major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I, and steroid biosynthetic process were overrepresented among DEGs that had higher expression in the low versus high RFI animals. Genes known to function in the proteasome complex or mitochondrion were also significantly enriched among genes with higher expression in the low versus high RFI animals. Alternatively, genes involved in signal

  7. Effect of colostrum heat treatment and bacterial population on immunoglobulin G absorption and health of neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsinger, S L; Jones, C M; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-07-01

    Improved IgG absorption in calves fed heat-treated colostrum has been attributed to the reduced bacteria content in colostrum after heat treatment. However, at least one study reported that colostrum bacteria content did not affect IgG absorption. The main objective of the current study was a more conclusive test of the combined effects of colostrum bacteria content and heat treatment on IgG absorption. Comparison of conclusions from plasma IgG as measured by radial immunodiffusion and ELISA and comparison of health scores in the first week of life were secondary and tertiary objectives. Colostrum from individual cows was pooled, divided, either heat treated or unheated, and allowed to incubate for bacterial growth or not. The 4 treatments were unheated, low bacteria; unheated, high bacteria; heat-treated, low bacteria; and heat-treated, high bacteria. Plasma samples were collected from bull calves (n=25-27 per treatment) before and 48h after colostrum feeding for IgG and total protein analysis. Fecal, respiratory, and general health scores were assigned daily for the first 7 d. Plasma IgG, total protein, apparent efficiency of IgG absorption, and frequency of illness were analyzed using the MIXED and FREQ procedures in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Plasma IgG values from ELISA were lower than radial immunodiffusion; however, conclusions were similar. Greater colostrum bacteria content reduced total protein, plasma IgG, and efficiency of IgG absorption. Heat treatment tended to improve 48-h plasma IgG as measured by ELISA. Respiratory scores were not affected by colostrum treatment, but calves fed heat-treated, low-bacteria colostrum tended to experience fewer scour days. These results provide conclusive evidence for the benefits of minimizing bacterial contamination in colostrum for feeding calves.

  8. Sow and litter factors influencing colostrum yield and nutritional composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Declerck, I; Dewulf, J; Piepers, S; Decaluwé, R; Maes, D

    2015-03-01

    One of the main characteristics of colostrum intake (CI), colostrum yield (CY), and colostrum composition (CC) in pigs is its variability. The present observational study aimed to investigate factors influencing CY and CC in 10 commercial herds. In total, 100 sows of 5 different breeds and their 1,455 live-born piglets were included. Sows' CY was estimated by the CI of their suckling piglets. Colostrum composition was analyzed by LactoScope Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Colostrum yield averaged 3,500 ± 110 g and the percentage of colostral fat (CF), protein, and lactose in colostrum averaged 5.39 ± 0.12, 16.49 ± 0.14, and 2.02 ± 0.05 %, respectively. The effect of sow, litter, and parturition factors on CY and CC were evaluated with a linear mixed regression model with herd included as a random factor. Sows with a gestation length (GL) of 113 d had a higher CY (4,178 ± 506 g) than sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d (3,342 ± 107 g; = 0.04). An interaction was found between the litter birth weight of suckling piglets (LW) and GL ( = 0.03). In sows with a GL of 114 to 115 d, CY increased with higher LW ( = 0.009). A shorter interval between birth and first suckling of the litter was related to a higher CY ( colostrums was higher in Hypor sows (6.35 ± 0.51) than in PIC (4.98 ± 0.27; = 0.001), Topigs 20 (5.05 ± 0.14; < 0.001), and Danbred (5.34 ± 0.22; < 0.001) sows. The percentage of CF was negatively associated with parity ( = 0.02) and positively associated with the number of live-born piglets ( = 0.03). The percentages of colostral protein and lactose were not significantly associated with any factor in the multivariable model. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that CY and CF are affected by different sow and litter factors. Pig producers may implement these observations in their management to maximize production or reproduction potential by optimizing CI, CY, and CC.

  9. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A

    2015-10-25

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  10. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehwah, Abdullah H A; Missimer, Thomas M

    2016-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  11. A gene expression programme induced by bovine colostrum whey promotes growth and wound-healing processes in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blais, M; Pouliot, Y; Gauthier, S; Boutin, Y; Lessard, M

    2014-01-01

    Bovine colostrum is well known for its beneficial properties on health and development. It contains a wide variety of bioactive ingredients that are known to promote a number of cellular processes. Therefore the use of colostrum whey as a feed additive to promote intestinal health has been proposed, yet little is known about mechanisms implicated in its beneficial properties on intestinal epithelial cells. In the present paper, casein were removed from bovine colostrum and the remaining liquid, rich in bioactive compounds, was evaluated for its capacity to modulate cellular processes in porcine intestinal epithelial cell line IPEC-J2 and human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2/15. First, we verified the effect of colostrum whey and cheese whey on processes involved in intestinal wound healing, including cell proliferation, attachment, morphology and migration. Our results showed that colostrum whey promoted proliferation and migration, and decreased specifically the attachment of Caco-2/15 cells on the culture dish. On the other hand, cheese whey induced proliferation and morphological changes in IPEC-J2 cells, but failed to induce migration. The gene expression profile of IPEC-J2 cells following colostrum whey treatment was evaluated by microarray analysis. Results revealed that the expression of a significant number of genes involved in cell migration, adhesion and proliferation was indeed affected in colostrum whey-treated cells. In conclusion, colostrum specific bioactive content could be beneficial for intestinal epithelial cell homoeostasis by controlling biological processes implicated in wound healing through a precise gene expression programme.

  12. Effects of early experience with low-quality roughage on feed intake, digestibility and metabolism in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W; Taki, Y; Iwasawa, A; Yayota, M

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the feed intake, digestibility and metabolism in lambs fed low-quality roughage with those of lambs fed normal roughage from an early stage of their life. The study consisted of two treatments [low-quality roughage group (LR) and control group (C)] over three time periods (P1, P2 and P3; 2 months each). Four lambs (4 months old) were allocated to each treatment. In P1 and P2, LR was fed sudangrass hay (CP: 5.1% DM; NDF: 70.4% DM), whereas C was fed timothy hay (CP: 8.4% DM; NDF: 60.3% DM). In P3, all lambs were fed sudangrass hay. Although the feed intake was significantly greater (p glucose (GLU), urea nitrogen (SUN) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) did not differ between the groups in P1 and P2. The average nitrogen retention, triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were significantly higher in C (p feed intake was greater in C (p feed digestibility and nitrogen metabolism in lambs after 4 months of rearing. Furthermore, the experienced lambs became more efficient at utilizing the low-quality roughage. The lower thyroid hormone concentrations observed in LR suggest an adaptive change occurred in experienced lambs that to a lower basal metabolic rate. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. 21 CFR 866.5230 - Colostrum immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Colostrum immunological test system. 866.5230... Colostrum immunological test system. (a) Identification. A colostrum immunological test system is a device... colostrum. Colostrum is a substance excreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and until production...

  14. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.

  15. Effect of divergence in residual feed intake on feeding behavior, blood metabolic variables, and body composition traits in growing beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A K; McGee, M; Crews, D H; Fahey, A G; Wylie, A R; Kenny, D A

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship of feed efficiency and performance with feeding behavior, blood metabolic variables, and various body composition measurements in growing beef heifers. Individual DMI and growth were measured in yearling Limousin x Holstein-Friesian heifers [n = 86; initial BW = 191.8 (SD = 37) kg] fed a TMR diet comprising 70:30 concentrate:corn silage on a DM basis (ME of 2.65 Mcal/kg of DM; DM of 580 g/kg) for 82 d. Meal duration (min/d) and meal frequency (events/d) were calculated for each animal on a daily basis using an Insentec computerized feeding system. Physical measurements as well as ultrasonic fat and muscle depths were recorded on 3 equally spaced occasions during the experimental period. Blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture on 4 equally spaced occasions and analyzed for plasma concentrations of IGF-I, insulin, leptin, and various metabolites. Phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) was calculated for all animals as the residuals from a multiple regression model regressing DMI on ADG and midtest BW(0.75). Overall, ADG, DMI, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and RFI were 1.51 (SD = 0.13), 6.74 (SD = 0.99), 4.48 (SD = 0.65), and 0.00 (SD = 0.48) kg/d, respectively. Residual feed intake was positively correlated with DMI (r = 0.47) and FCR (r = 0.46), but not with ADG or midtest BW. Positive correlations (ranging from r = 0.27 to r = 0.63) were estimated between ultrasonic measures of final lumbar fat and lumbar fat accretion over the test period and DMI, FCR, and RFI. The inclusion of gain in lumbar fat to the base RFI model increased R(2) (0.77 vs. 0.80) value for the degree of variation in DMI not explained by midtest BW and ADG alone. The Pearson rank correlation between RFI and carcass-adjusted RFI (RFI(c)) was high (r = 0.93). From the plasma analytes measured, NEFA (r = -0.21; P glucose:insulin (r = -0.23), NEFA (r = -0.32), and beta-hydroxybutyrate (r = 0.25) were associated with FCR. However, systemic IGF-I and

  16. Allocation of feed based on individual dairy cow live weight changes: I: Feed intake and live weight changes during lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Dorte; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Munksgaard, Lene

    2009-01-01

    Based on individual cow live weight changes, feeding strategies were designed for individual feeding of dairy cows in loose-housing systems and examined in a four-year production trial including 115 Danish Red (DR), 91 Danish Holstein (DH) and 93 Danish Jersey (DJ). Cows were kept in a dairy system...

  17. Effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Yanjiao; Chen, Wei; Xu, Wei; Ai, Qinghui; Zhang, Wenbing

    2012-12-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake, growth performance, and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder ( Paralichthys olivaceus). Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJ kg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones, namely, 0, 1, 4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet. Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight: 2.58 g ± 0.01 g), and each tank was stocked with 35 fish. No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0, 1 and 4 g kg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio (FER), proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy ( P>0.05). However, high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 g kg-1) significantly depressed weight gain, FER, whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients ( PJapanese flounder. However, as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 g kg-1, the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  18. Restricted feed intake in lactating primiparous sows. I. Effects on sow metabolic state and subsequent reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, J L; Smit, M N; Novak, S; Wellen, A P; Foxcroft, G R

    2011-01-01

    The effects of feed restriction (60% of anticipated feed intake; Restrict; n=60) during the last week of a 21-day lactation in primiparous sows compared with feeding at 90% of anticipated feed intake (Control; n=60) on sow metabolic state, litter growth and sow reproductive performance after weaning were compared. Metabolisable energy (ME) derived from feed was lower, ME derived from body tissues was higher and litter growth rate was reduced (all Psows during the last week of lactation. Treatment did not affect weaning-to-oestrus interval, pregnancy rate, ovulation rate, embryonic survival or the number of live embryos (P>0.05) at Day 30 of gestation: However, embryo weight was greater (Psows (1.55±0.04vs 1.44±0.04g, respectively). These data suggest the biology of the commercial sow has changed and reproductive performance of contemporary primiparous sows is increasingly resistant to the negative effects of lactational catabolism. Overall, catabolism negatively affected litter weaning weight and embryonic development of the next litter, but the extent to which individual sows used tissue mobilisation to support these litter outcomes was highly variable.

  19. Effects of Dietary Soy Isoflavones on Feed Intake, Growth Performance and Digestibility in Juvenile Japanese Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAI Kangsen; ZHANG Yanjiao; CHEN Wei; XU Wei; AI Qinghui; ZHANG Wenbing

    2012-01-01

    An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy isoflavones on feeding intake,growth performance,and digestion of juvenile Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).Four isonitrogenous (49% crude protein) and isoenergetic (20.1 MJkg-1) diets were formulated to contain four graded levels of soy isoflavones,namely,0,1,4 and 8 g soy isoflavones in 1 kg of diet.Each diet was randomly fed to triplicate tanks of fish (Initial average weight:2.58g±0.01 g),and each tank was stocked with 35 fish.No significant difference was observed among diets with levels of 0,1 and 4gkg-1 soy isoflavones in feed intake,weight gain,feed efficiency ratio (FER),proximate composition of fish whole body and apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC) of nutrients and energy (P>0.05).However,high dietary soy isoflavones level (8 gkg-1) significantly depressed weight gain,FER,whole-body crude lipid content of fish and ADC of nutrients (P<0.05).These results indicate that high level of dietary soy isoflavones (above 4 g kg-1) significantly depresses growth responses and FER of Japanese flounder.However,as the content of soy isoflavones in soybean meal is around 1 to 3 gkg-1,the adverse effects might be neglected when soybean products are used as a fish feed ingredient.

  20. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, ye...

  1. Heat-treated (in single aliquot or batch) colostrum outperforms non-heat-treated colostrum in terms of quality and transfer of immunoglobulin G in neonatal Jersey calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryzer, A A; Godden, S M; Schell, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this randomized clinical trial was to describe the effect on colostrum characteristics and passive transfer of IgG in neonatal calves when using the Perfect Udder colostrum management system (single-aliquot treatment; Dairy Tech Inc., Greeley, CO) compared with a negative control (fresh refrigerated or fresh frozen colostrum) and a positive control (batch heat-treated colostrum). First-milking Jersey colostrum was pooled to achieve 31 unique batches with a minimum of 22.8 L per batch. The batch was then divided into 4 with 3.8 L allocated to each treatment group: (1) heat-treated in Perfect Udder bag at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C (PU); (2) heat-treated in a batch pasteurizer (Dairy Tech Inc.) at 60°C for 60 min and then stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (DTB; positive control); (3) fresh frozen colostrum stored at -20°C in Perfect Udder bag (FF; negative control); and (4) fresh refrigerated colostrum stored at 4°C in Perfect Udder bag (FR; negative control). Colostrum from all treatments was sampled for analysis of IgG concentration and bacterial culture immediately after batch assembly, after processing, and before feeding. Newborn Jersey calves were randomly assigned to be fed 3.8 L of colostrum from 1 of the 4 treatment groups. A prefeeding, 0-h blood sample was collected, calves were fed by esophageal tube within 2 h of birth, and then a 24-h postfeeding blood sample was collected. Paired serum samples from 0- and 24-h blood samples were analyzed for IgG concentration (mg/mL) using radial immunodiffusion analysis. The overall mean IgG concentration in colostrum was 77.9 g/L and was not affected by treatment. Prefeeding total plate counts (log10 cfu/mL) were significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for heat-treated colostrum (PU=4.23, DTB=3.63) compared with fresh colostrum (FF=5.68, FR=6.53). Total coliform counts (log10 cfu/mL) were also significantly different for all 4 treatments and were lower for

  2. Effect of selection for growth on normal and reduced protein diets on weight gain, feed intake, feed efficiency and body composition in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, V H; Korsgaard, I R

    2006-12-01

    Mice selected for weight gain from 3 to 9 weeks of age on a normal (N) protein diet containing 19.3% protein and a reduced (R) protein diet with 5.1% protein were reared on both diets in generations 7 and 9. The lines NH, NC, NL, RH, RC and RL (H, high; C, control; L, low) were tested for weight gain on diet N and R and for feed intake and feed efficiency on diet N in generation 7. In generation 9, the lines were tested for body composition traits (fat, protein and water percentage) at 3, 6, 9 and 12 weeks of age on both diets. A significant (p < 0.0001) genotype x environment interaction for growth rate was observed in generation 7. Weight gain at both the protein levels was best improved by selection at the protein level itself. Furthermore, the ranking of the lines on diet N was similar for weight gain, feed intake and feed efficiency. In generation 9 at 9 weeks of age, the ranking of the lines for fat percentage was equal to the ranking for weight gain in generation 7 on both test-diets. The association between weight gain and protein or water percentage was less pronounced, particularly on diet R. These results suggest that the largest genetic improvement in growth rate is obtained when the protein content of the feed is the same in selection and production. However, when selection is carried out in one environment while the animals have to perform under conditions with varying nutrient protein contents, selection in an inferior environment may be advantageous.

  3. Evaluation of colostrum protection of calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonić Branko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of these investigations was to examine the concentration of total proteins and total immunoglobulins in blood serum of calves and on the bases of the obtained results to evaluate the risk of their contracting a disease in the first month of life. Examinations were carried out on 23 calves maintained in farm conditions, whose medical condition was monitored in the first month of life. Blood samples were taken by puncture from the v. jugularis immediately at birth, and at 24 and 48 hours after that, and blood serum was obtained by spontaneous coaggulation. The concentration of total proteins in blood serum was determined using biuretic probe, and the immunoglobulin level using the refractometric method with the zinc-sulphate test (ZST. The average value of total proteins in calves immediately at birth was low and stood at 42±0.3 g/l. The increased concentration of total proteins in calves after the intake of colostrum is a result of the absorption of colostrum immunoglobulins. A high positive correlation was established between the concentration of total proteins and total immunoglobulins at 24 and 48 hours after birth (rxy = 0.92 and rxy = 0.75. Based on the results of monitoring the health condition and the values for total protein concentrations during the examined period (24 and 48 hours after birth it is possible to make the following risk evaluation regarding diseases in newborn calves: 1 proteinaemia lower than 50 g/l presents a high risk; 2 proteinaemia between 50-54 g/l presents a medium risk: and, 3 proteinaemia between 55-69 g/l presents a low risk for diseases occurring in newborn calves. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31085

  4. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, E; Knol, E F; Bijma, P

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common litter or permanent sow effects. The objective of this research was to identify sow history features that affect the growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of her offspring during the grow-finish stage. Data from 17,743 grow-finish pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were recorded between May 2001 and February 2010 at the experimental farm of the Institute for Pig Genetics (Beilen, the Netherlands). The grow-finish stage was divided into 2 phases (phase 1: 26 to 75 kg; phase 2: 75 to 115 kg). The sow history features were birth litter size, birth year and season, birth farm, weaning age, age of transfer to the experimental farm, and age at first insemination. The sow features were added to the basic model one at a time to study their effect on the grow-finish traits of the pigs. Subsequently, significant sow features (P finish pigs by 0.1 g/d. The heritability estimates for GR and FI (only in phase 2 of the grow-finish stage) decreased after adding the sow features to the model. No differences were found in estimates of the common litter effects between the basic model and the model with all significant sow features. The estimates of the permanent sow effect changed for FI from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.00 (model with sow features), and for FI in phase 1, the permanent sow effect decreased from 0.03 (basic model) to 0.01 (model with sow features). In conclusion, selected sow features do affect the grow-finish traits of the pigs, but their estimates are small and explain only a small proportion of the differences in the GR and FI of grow-finish pigs. The sow features partially explained the permanent sow effect of FI-related traits and did not explain the

  5. Estimation of genomic breeding values for residual feed intake in a multibreed cattle population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansefid, M; Pryce, J E; Bolormaa, S; Miller, S P; Wang, Z; Li, C; Goddard, M E

    2014-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of the efficiency of animals in feed utilization. The accuracies of GEBV for RFI could be improved by increasing the size of the reference population. Combining RFI records of different breeds is a way to do that. The aims of this study were to 1) develop a method for calculating GEBV in a multibreed population and 2) improve the accuracies of GEBV by using SNP associated with RFI. An alternative method for calculating accuracies of GEBV using genomic BLUP (GBLUP) equations is also described and compared to cross-validation tests. The dataset included RFI records and 606,096 SNP genotypes for 5,614 Bos taurus animals including 842 Holstein heifers and 2,009 Australian and 2,763 Canadian beef cattle. A range of models were tested for combining genotype and phenotype information from different breeds and the best model included an overall effect of each SNP, an effect of each SNP specific to a breed, and a small residual polygenic effect defined by the pedigree. In this model, the Holsteins and some Angus cattle were combined into 1 "breed class" because they were the only cattle measured for RFI at an early age (6-9 mo of age) and were fed a similar diet. The average empirical accuracy (0.31), estimated by calculating the correlation between GEBV and actual phenotypes divided by the square root of estimated heritability in 5-fold cross-validation tests, was near to that expected using the GBLUP equations (0.34). The average empirical and expected accuracies were 0.30 and 0.31, respectively, when the GEBV were estimated for each breed separately. Therefore, the across-breed reference population increased the accuracy of GEBV slightly, although the gain was greater for breeds with smaller number of individuals in the reference population (0.08 in Murray Grey and 0.11 in Hereford for empirical accuracy). In a second approach, SNP that were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with RFI in the beef cattle genomewide association

  6. An increased feed intake during early pregnancy improves sow body weight recovery and increases litter size in young sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, L L; Soede, N M; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Graat, E A M; Feitsma, H; Kemp, B

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of feeding level and protein content in feed in first- and second-parity sows during the first month of gestation on sow BW recovery, farrowing rate, and litter size during the first month of gestation. From d 3 to 32 after the first insemination, sows were fed either 2.5 kg/d of a standard gestation diet (control, n = 49), 3.25 kg/d (+30%) of a standard gestation diet (plus feed, n = 47), or 2.5 kg/d of a gestation diet with 30% greater ileal digestible AA (plus protein, n = 49). Feed intake during the experimental period was 29% greater for sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (93 vs. 72 kg, P Sows in the plus feed group gained 10 kg more BW during the experimental period compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (24.2 ± 1.2 vs. 15.5 ± 1.2 and 16.9 ± 1.2 kg, respectively, P sows in the plus feed group compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (76.6% vs. 89.8 and 89.8%, respectively, P = 0.16). Litter size, however, was larger for sows in the plus feed group (15.2 ± 0.5 total born) compared with those in the control and plus protein groups (13.2 ± 0.4 and 13.6 ± 0.4 total born, respectively, P = 0.006). Piglet birth weight was not different among treatments (P = 0.65). For both first- and second-parity sows, the plus feed treatment showed similar effects on BW gain, farrowing rate, and litter size. In conclusion, an increased feed intake (+30%) during the first month of gestation improved sow BW recovery and increased litter size, but did not significantly affect farrowing rate in the subsequent parity. Feeding a 30% greater level of ileal digestible AA during the same period did not improve sow recovery or reproductive performance in the subsequent parity.

  7. Effect of thermal heat stress on energy utilization in two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaudeau, D; Frances, G; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Noblet, J

    2013-03-01

    Castrated males from 2 lines of purebred French Large White obtained from a divergent selection experiment for their residual feed intake (RFI) over 7 generations were measured for their energy utilization during thermal acclimation to increased ambient temperature. The RFI(+) line consumed more feed than predicted from its performance, whereas the RFI- line consumed less feed. Each pig was exposed to 24°C for 7 d (P0) and thereafter to a constant temperature of 32°C for 3 consecutive periods of 7 d (P1, P2, P3). Feed intake, feeding behavior parameters, digestibility, components of heat production (HP; measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers), and energy, nitrogen, fat, and water balance were measured in pigs offered feed and water ad libitum and individually housed in respiratory chambers. Two identical respiratory chambers were simultaneously used, and 5 pigs of each line were measured successively. Whatever the trait, the interaction between line and period was not significant (P > 0.10). On average, ADFI was greater in the RFI+ than in the RFI- line (1,945 vs. 1,639 g/d; P = 0.051) in relation to an increase of the mean size of each feeding bout (128 vs. 82 g/visit; P intake and HP declined by about 38% and 20%, respectively, from P0 to P1 (P intake, HP gradually decreased (P < 0.05) from P1 to P3 in connection with a reduction of the activity related HP. The evaporative heat loss represented 30% on the total heat loss on P0, and this proportion significantly increased on P1 (61%; P < 0.001) and remained constant thereafter. In conclusion, our results suggest that thermal heat acclimation in pigs is mainly related to a biphasic reduction of HP rather than a change in the ability of losing heat, and it did not significantly differ between RFI+ and RFI- lines despite a decreased HP in the latter ones.

  8. Addition of crude glycerin to pig diets: sow and litter performance, and metabolic and feed intake regulating hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, F; Orengo, J; Villodre, C; Martínez, S; López, M J; Madrid, J

    2016-06-01

    The continued growth in biofuel production has led to a search for alternative value-added applications of its main by-product, crude glycerin. The surplus glycerin production and a higher cost of feedstuffs have increased the emphasis on evaluating its nutritive value for animal feeding. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the dietary addition of crude glycerin on sow and litter performance, and to determine the serum concentrations of hormones related to energy metabolism and feed intake in sows during gestation and lactation. A total of 63 sows were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatments, containing 0, 3 or 6% crude glycerin (G0, G3 and G6, respectively) added to a barley-soybean meal-based diet. During gestation, none of the dietary treatments had an effect on performance, while during lactation, glycerin-fed sows consumed less feed than those fed the control diet (3.8 v. 4.2kg DM/day; P=0.007). Although lactating sows fed the G3 diet had a higher BW loss than those fed the control diet (���20.6 v. ���8.7 kg; P=0.002), this difference was not reflected in litter performance. In gestation, the inclusion of glycerin did not affect blood concentrations of insulin or cortisol. However, pregnant sows fed diets supplemented with glycerin showed lower concentrations of acyl-ghrelin and higher concentrations of leptin (���55 and +68%, respectively; Pglycerin did not affect the performance of sows during the gestation period; however it had a negative effect on the feed intake and weight loss of lactating sows. Moreover, further research is needed to elucidate the potential relationship between glycerin inclusion levels in the diet and the serum concentrations of hormones related to feed intake and energy balance control.

  9. Stress and immunological response of heifers divergently ranked for residual feed intake following an adrenocorticotropic hormone challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, A K; Lawrence, P; Earley, B; Kenny, D A; McGee, M

    2017-01-01

    When an animal is exposed to a stressor, metabolic rate, energy consumption and utilisation increase primarily through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Changes to partitioning of energy by an animal are likely to influence the efficiency with which it is utilised. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the physiological stress response to an exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) challenge in beef heifers divergently ranked on phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI). Data were collected on 34 Simmental weaning beef heifers the progeny of a well characterized and divergently bred RFI suckler beef herd. Residual feed intake was determined on each animal during the post-weaning stage over a 91-day feed intake measurement period during which they were individually offered adlibitum grass silage and 2 kg of concentrate per head once daily. The 12 highest [0.34 kg DM/d] and 12 lowest [-0.48 kg DM/d] ranking animals on RFI were selected for use in this study. For the physiological stress challenge heifers (mean age 605 ± 13 d; mean BW 518 ± 31.4 kg) were fitted aseptically with indwelling jugular catheters to facilitate intensive blood collection. The response of the adrenal cortex to a standardised dose of ACTH (1.98 IU/kg metabolic BW(0.75)) was examined. Serial blood samples were analysed for plasma cortisol, ACTH and haematology variables. Heifers differing in RFI did not differ (P = 0.59) in ACTH concentrations. Concentration of ACTH peaked (P feed efficiency is associated with HPA axis function and susceptibility to stress, and responsiveness of the HPA axis is likely to contribute to appreciable variation in the efficiency feed utilisation of cattle.

  10. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; Residual gain was highly correlated with ADG ( = 0.75; Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  11. Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study: meal and snack intakes of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Paula; Hanson, Charlotte; Ponza, Michael; Novak, Timothy; Hendricks, Kristy

    2006-01-01

    To describe meal and snack patterns of Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers. A cross-sectional telephone survey in which mothers or other primary caregivers reported their infants' and toddlers' food and beverage intake for a 24-hour period. Subjects were a subset of the national random sample of children aged 4-24 months who participated in the 2002 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study. The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study includes a stratified random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers aged 4-24 months. Three hundred seventy-one Hispanic and 2,637 non-Hispanic children who had 24-hour dietary recalls are included in the subset. Means+/-standard errors of daily intakes of energy, nutrients, and nutrient densities were calculated, as were percentages of children consuming foods at each eating occasion. Hispanic and non-Hispanic infants and toddlers, on average, were fed seven times per day. Overall, the percentages of children who ate snacks increased with age, and more than 80% of toddlers aged 12-24 months consumed afternoon snacks, with more than 90% of Hispanic children consuming an afternoon snack. In each age group, there were significant differences between ethnic groups in nutrient intakes by eating occasion. No significant difference was seen for energy across all meal occasions. At age 6-11 months, Hispanic children had a significantly lower intake of carbohydrate at dinner and lower intake of saturated fat at afternoon snacks compared with non-Hispanic children (Pfiber intake contributed 2 g/meal for both ethnic groups. Snacks contributed, on average, less than 1 g fiber, except Hispanic toddlers had significantly higher fiber intake at afternoon snacks (1.5 g) than non-Hispanic toddlers. Foods frequently consumed at meals and snacks were lacking in whole grains, vegetables, and fruits. Most nutrients were not significantly different between Hispanics and non-Hispanics for meals and snacks. Considering the sizeable contribution that snacks

  12. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Ann Cathrine Findal; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Thymann, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    , abundance and location of bacteria, and inflammation markers were investigated. Results NEC severity and interleukins (IL)-1β and -8 protein concentrations were lower, while villus height, galactose absorption, and brush-border enzyme activities were increased in the distal small intestine in COLOS......Background & aims Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial...... exposure to formula feeding after some days of total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Methods After receiving TPN for 2 days, preterm pigs were fed formula (FORM, n = 14), bovine colostrum (COLOS, n = 6), or formula (6 h) followed by bovine colostrum (FCOLOS, n = 14). Intestinal lesions, function, and structure...

  13. A Review of Mycotoxins in Food and Feed Products in Portugal and Estimation of Probable Daily Intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrunhosa, Luís; Morales, Héctor; Soares, Célia; Calado, Thalita; Vila-Chã, Ana Sofia; Pereira, Martinha; Venâncio, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that occur naturally in agricultural commodities worldwide. Aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, patulin, fumonisins, zearalenone, trichothecenes, and ergot alkaloids are presently the most important for food and feed safety. These compounds are produced by several species that belong to the Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and Claviceps genera and can be carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, cytotoxic, neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, estrogenic, and immunosuppressant. Human and animal exposure to mycotoxins is generally assessed by taking into account data on the occurrence of mycotoxins in food and feed as well as data on the consumption patterns of the concerned population. This evaluation is crucial to support measures to reduce consumer exposure to mycotoxins. This work reviews the occurrence and levels of mycotoxins in Portuguese food and feed to provide a global overview of this issue in Portugal. With the information collected, the exposure of the Portuguese population to those mycotoxins is assessed, and the estimated dietary intakes are presented.

  14. The study of association between mother weight efficacy life-style with feeding practices, food groups intake and body mass index in children aged 3-6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Gholamalizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child′s intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI.

  15. Effects of "Bioactive" amino acids leucine, glutamate, arginine and tryptophan on feed intake and mRNA expression of relative neuropeptides in broiler chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Songbo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Feed intake control is vital to ensuring optimal nutrition and achieving full potential for growth and development in poultry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of L-leucine, L-glutamate, L-tryptophan and L-arginine on feed intake and the mRNA expression levels of hypothalamic Neuropeptide involved in feed intake regulation in broiler chicks. Leucine, glutamate, tryptophan or arginine was intra-cerebroventricularly (ICV administrated to 4d-old broiler chicks respectively and the feed intake were recorded at various time points. Quantitative PCR was performed to determine the hypothalamic mRNA expression levels of Neuropeptide Y (NPY, agouti related protein (AgRP, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC, melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R and corticotrophin releasing factor (CRF. Our results showed that ICV administration of L-leucine (0.15 or 1.5  μmol significantly (P P 

  16. Energy Sufficiency of Feed Containing Fermented Mulberry Leaves (Morus alba) Determined by measurement of Glucose, Abdominal Fat and Feed Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Has, Hamdan; V. D.Yunianto; Sukamto, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of using rumen liquid fermented mulberry leaves in boiler???s diet on feed consumption, blood glucose, and abdominal fat. This research used 100 of day old CP 707 broiler chicks, as well as concentrate, fermented mulberry leaves and other feed stuffs. The experiment was carried out according to completely randomized design consisted of five treatments, i.e. T0 (control), T1 (10% mulberry leaf), T2 (10% fermented mulberry leaf), T3 (20% mulberry...

  17. Comparison of immune responses in calves fed heat-treated or unheated colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelsinger, S L; Heinrichs, A J

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that underlie neonatal immune function is important for appropriately treating and preventing disease. Cytokines provided in colostrum may affect immune development and function, but data describing cytokine absorption in calves and the effects of colostrum heat treatment on absorption are limited. The objectives of this experiment were to characterize immune responses in calves that received heat-treated (HT) or unheated (UH) colostrum (in terms of growth, rectal temperature, and blood cytokine and IgG concentrations) and to determine calves' ability to absorb IFNγ and IL1β from HT and UH colostrum. A single large batch of colostrum was divided to create treatments. The HT colostrum was heated to 60°C for 60 min. Both treatments were frozen until needed and warmed immediately before feeding. Bull calves (n = 26) were randomly assigned to receive 8% of their birth weight in colostrum from 1 treatment at birth. Blood was collected at 0 and 24 to 48 h after birth for IL1β, IFNγ, and IgG analyses. Subcutaneous injections of ovalbumin (5.0 mg/mL) were given at 14 and 35 ± 3 d of age. Rectal temperature and growth were monitored for 10 d following each injection. Plasma samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, and 12 h post-injection and daily for the subsequent 10 d to measure IL1β, IFNγ, and IgG concentrations. Colostrum heat treatment failed to increase blood IgG concentrations or the apparent efficiency of IgG absorption. Serum IL1β concentrations were higher in UH calves 24 to 48 h after birth and remained higher than those in HT calves through 15 d of age. Both IFNγ and IgG increased in response to ovalbumin injection; we observed no differences between treatments. Rectal temperature increased and peaked 12 h after injection at 14 and 35 d. Growth rate was reduced by exposure to the foreign antigen. Interactions of calf age and colostrum treatment with time post-injection indicate that calves tended to show greater loss in average

  18. Clinical applications of bovine colostrum therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathe, Mathias; Müller, Klaus; Sangild, Per Torp

    2014-01-01

    to populations, outcomes, and methodological quality, as judged by the Jadad assessment tool. Many studies used surrogate markers to study the effects of bovine colostrum. Studies suggesting clinical benefits of colostrum supplementation were generally of poor methodological quality, and results could...... not be confirmed by other investigators. Bovine colostrum may provide gastrointestinal and immunological benefits, but further studies are required before recommendations can be made for clinical application. Animal models may help researchers to better understand the mechanisms of bovine colostrum supplementation......, the dosage regimens required to obtain clinical benefits, and the optimal methods for testing these effects in humans....

  19. Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duy Ngoc Do

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Residual feed intake (RFI is a complex trait that is economically important for livestock production; however, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown in pigs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, candidate genes and biological pathways involved in regulating RFI using Genome-wide association (GWA and pathway analyses. A total of 596 Yorkshire boars with phenotypes for two different measures of RFI (RFI1 and 2 and 60k genotypic data was used. Genome-wide association analysis was performed using a univariate mixed model and 12 and 7 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Several genes such as XIRP2, TTC29, SOGA1, MAS1, GRK5, PROX1, GPR155 and ZFYVE26 were identified as putative candidates for RFI based on their genomic location in the vicinity of these SNPs. Genes located within 50 kilo base pairs of SNPs significantly associated with RFI and RFI2 (q-value ≤ 0.2 were subsequently used for pathway analyses. These analyses were performed by assigning genes to biological pathways and then testing the association of individual pathways with RFI using a Fisher’s exact test. Metabolic pathway was significantly associated with both RFIs. Other biological pathways regulating phagosome, tight junctions, olfactory transduction, and insulin secretion were significantly associated with both RFI traits when relaxed threshold for cut-off p-value was used (p ≤ 0.05. These results implied porcine RFI is regulated by multiple biological mechanisms, although the metabolic processes might be the most important. Olfactory transduction pathway controlling the perception of feed via smell, insulin pathway controlling food intake might be important pathways for RFI. Furthermore, our study revealed key genes and genetic variants that control feed efficiency that could potentially be useful for genetic selection of more feed efficient pigs.

  20. Short communication: genetic parameters for feed intake, production, and extent of negative energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, P; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to study the genetic parameters for feed intake, milk production, and energy balance in Nordic Red dairy cattle from an experimental data set. The data were collected at the MTT Agrifood Research Finland Rehtijärvi experimental farm in 4 feeding trials between 1998 and 2008, and included lactation wk 2 to 30 for 291 Nordic Red nucleus heifers descending from 72 different sires. The studied traits included weekly averages for energy-corrected milk yield (ECM, kg/d), dry matter intake (kg/d), body weight (BW, kg), body condition score (BCS, score 1 to 5), and energy balance (EB, MJ of metabolizable energy/d). The data were analyzed with both fixed and random regression models. The heritabilities of ECM and BCS were moderate to high and remained fairly constant over the entire lactation period, whereas the heritabilities of BW and EB were the highest in early lactation (0.47 and 0.37, respectively) and declined later on. The heritabilities of DMI were highest (0.33) around lactation wk 5 and again at lactation wk 30, and were somewhat lower at the beginning of the lactation and in the middle period. The genetic correlations between the traits differed considerably between early and later lactation periods, especially for the trait pairs ECM-dry matter intake, ECM-EB, BW-EB, and BCS-EB, being negative or close to zero in lactation wk 2 to 5 but turning moderate to strong and positive by lactation wk 10. The results suggest that the lactating cows express their genetic potential for feed intake and energy utilization most clearly between lactation wk 2 to 10. The best candidate trait for selection might be EB in lactation wk 2 to 5 because it has a moderate heritability and is not genetically correlated with BW or BCS in that period.

  1. Effect of pre-partum prilled fat supplementation on feed intake, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shikha Sharma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the effect of pre-partum prilled fat feeding on dry matter intake (DMI, energy balance and milk production in Murrah buffaloes. Materials and Methods: Advance pregnant Murrah buffaloes were either received a dietary supplement of prilled fat at 100 g/day for 35 days pre-partum and at 150 g/day for 95 days post-partum (supplemented group [SG] or did not receive fat supplement (control group [CG]. DMI and the yields of milk and milk component were measured. A body condition score (BCS was recorded. Energy balance and gross feed efficiency (GFE were calculated. DMI and BCS were recorded and milk yield (MY, fat, protein, lactose, solid not fat, energy balance were measured. The fat corrected milk yield was calculated. Results: The DMI was non-significant between groups and periods of study. BCS of buffaloes improved in the SG than CG (p<0.01. The energy intake in terms of total digestible nutrients (TDN%, TDN intake, digestible energy (DE, metabolizable energy/kg of milk, DE of milk, net energy, and GFE were higher (p<0.01 in SG during post-partum period. Crude protein intake was statistically similar in both the groups. MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG than in CG during 95 days of early lactation. Milk fat, fat corrected MY was higher (p<0.01 in SG however protein, lactose and solid not fat content did not varied between the groups. The feed efficiency of the SG was higher (p<0.01 than the CG during the post-partum period. Conclusion: It was inferred that prilled fat supplementation augments energy balance and milk production in transition Murrah buffaloes.

  2. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe;

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The die......The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals) on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus......) was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion....

  3. Use of genotype × environment interaction model to accommodate genetic heterogeneity for residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yao, C.; Campos, de los G.; VandeHaar, M.J.; Spurlock, D.M.; Armentano, L.E.; Coffey, M.; Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Staples, C.R.; Connor, E.E.; Wang, Z.; Hanigan, M.D.; Tempelman, R.J.; Weigel, K.A.

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency in dairy cattle has gained much attention recently. Due to the cost-prohibitive measurement of individual feed intakes, combining data from multiple countries is often necessary to ensure an adequate reference population. It may then be essential to model genetic heterogeneity

  4. Use of genotype x environment interaction model to accommodate genetic heterogeneity for residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight in dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feed efficiency in dairy cattle has gained much attention recently. Due to the cost-prohibitive measurement of individual feed intakes, combining data from multiple countries is often necessary to ensure an adequate reference population. It may then be essential to model genetic heterogeneity when m...

  5. Relationships between residual feed intake and hepatic mitochondrial function in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, P A; Carstens, G E; Michal, J J; Brennan, K M; Johnson, K A; Davis, M E

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between hepatic mitochondrial function and residual feed intake (RFI) in growing beef cattle. In Trial 1, RFI was measured in 29 Angus heifers (initial BW = 258.0 ± 24.9 kg) from divergent IGF-I selection lines created at the Eastern Agricultural Research Station (The Ohio State University) fed a grain-based diet (calculated ME = 2.85 Mcal/kg DM). In Trial 2, RFI was measured in 119 Santa Gertrudis steers (initial BW = 308.4 ± 28.1 kg) fed a roughage-based diet (calculated ME = 2.21 Mcal/kg DM). At the end of the RFI measurement period, cattle in Trial 1 (n = 7 low RFI and n = 7 high RFI) and in Trial 2 (n = 6 low RFI and n = 8 high RFI) with measures of RFI exceeding 0.5 (Trial 1) or 1.0 (Trial 2) SD from the mean RFI were selected to measure mitochondrial function. Overall ADG, DMI, and RFI were 1.19 ± 0.15, 9.31 ± 1.12, and 0.00 ± 0.63 kg/d and 0.83 ± 0.16, 9.48 ± 1.00, and 0.00 ± 0.86 kg/d in Trial 1 and 2, respectively. Cattle with low RFI consumed 13 and 24% less (P 0.10). In Trial 1, cattle with low RFI tended (P = 0.06) to have greater state 3 respiration rates than cattle with high RFI, but state 3 respiration rates were similar (P > 0.10) between cattle with low and high RFI in Trial 2. In both trials, cattle with low RFI had greater (P 0.10) was observed in Trial 2. Proton-leak kinetics were similar (P > 0.05) between cattle with low and high RFI in both trials. These data suggest that ADP has greater control of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondrial of cattle with low RFI compared to their high RFI counterparts.

  6. Supplementing fresh bovine colostrum with gut-active carbohydrates reduces passive transfer of immunoglobulin G in Holstein dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, M P; Godden, S M; Haines, D M

    2015-09-01

    High concentrations of coliform bacteria in maternal colostrum (MC) have been associated with reduced IgG absorption in calves. Mannan-oligosaccharide, a gut-active carbohydrate (GAC) derived from yeast cell wall, has been shown to adsorb pathogens expressing type-1-fimbriae, reducing their ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract. The objective of this study was to investigate if addition of a GAC to colostrum would result in increased IgG absorption in newborn calves. Newborn Holstein heifer and bull calves were enrolled in summer 2012 at a commercial transition cow facility in western Wisconsin. Each day, 7.6-L pools of fresh, first milking MC were created, split into 3.8-L aliquots, and refrigerated until feeding. Eligible newborn calves were removed from the dam 30 to 60min after birth, weighed, and randomly assigned to be fed either 3.8 L of the MC pool (control) or 3.8 L of the MC pool with 30 g of GAC mixed in immediately before feeding. Duplicate 10-mL samples of colostrum were collected and frozen at -20°C before feeding (and before addition of GAC) for bacterial culture and IgG determination. A 10-mL venous blood sample was collected from calves before feeding colostrum and 24 h after colostrum feeding, for laboratory determination of serum IgG using radial immunodiffusion analysis. Colostrum and calf characteristics, including colostrum IgG concentration (g/L), colostrum bacteria counts (log10, cfu/mL), calf dystocia scores (1 to 4), birth weights (kg), and age at first feeding (min) were not different between the group fed GAC (n=47) and the control group (n=48). Mixed linear regression analysis showed that calves fed colostrum supplemented with 30 g of GAC had lower mean (standard error) apparent efficiency of absorption of IgG and lower serum IgG concentrations at 24 h [23.9% (1.0); IgG=24.0 (1.1) g/L] than did control calves [30.4% (1.0); IgG=30.8 (1.0) g/L]. Given the negative effect observed in this study, it is not recommended that fresh

  7. Effect of dental correction on voluntary hay intake, apparent digestibility of feed and faecal particle size in horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwirglmaier, S; Remler, H-P; Senckenberg, E; Fritz, J; Stelzer, P; Kienzle, E

    2013-02-01

    In nine adult Warmblood horses with mild to moderate dental findings (no signs of discomfort during chewing), voluntary hay intake before and after dental correction was examined. In a second experiment, digestibility of feed and faecal particle size were determined (3 days of total faecal collection) before and after dental correction. During both digestion trials including a 3-day adaptation period, the amount of hay and concentrate (mixture of oats, barley and maize) was kept constant in each individual horse before and after dental correction. Voluntary hay intake in individual horses ranged from 11 to 22 g DM/kg BW/day and did not differ before and after dental treatment. Apparent digestibility of DM, energy, crude fibre and Nfe increased significantly after dental correction (energy digestibility before dental correction 46.8 ± 7.4%, after dental correction 51.5 ± 8.5%). Apparent digestibility of feed was higher in horses eating more concentrates than in those eating less concentrates. Improvement of digestibility was more marked in horses eating larger amounts of grain. There was no relationship between severity or type of dental alterations and improvement of apparent feed digestibility. Dental correction had no effect on faecal particle size.

  8. Genetic analysis of residual feed intake adjusted for fat and carcass and performance traits in a Nellore herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Faria de Moraes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The study of the genetic evaluation of residual feed intake adjusted for fat (RFIFat is important for the appropriate use of feed efficiency in selection programs. The objective was to analyze the influence of selection for RFIF at on carcass and performance traits by estimating various genetic parameters. Data were analyzed from five tests of feed efficiency, which were conducted with 677 Nellore males. Genetic evaluation was performed by Bayesian inference using an animal model via single- and two-trait analyses. Variables analyzed were dry matter intake, average daily gain, RFIFat, rib eye area, back fat thickness, rump fat thickness, marbling score, and subcutaneous fat thickness. The posterior mean distributions estimated at each analysis were used to estimate heritability of the traits and to perform various correlations. The studied traits showed high heritability estimates, and they should respond well to selection. The RFIFat presented a phenotypic correlation with carcass traits (which was next to zero, and there was also a negative genetic correlation. Additive genetic variability for RFIFat showed that selection for this trait can promote genetic gains in future generations, resulting in animals that are efficient in terms of nutrient use, and according to the genetic and phenotypic correlations, with no significant negative changes to carcass traits.

  9. Estimating daily methane production in individual cattle with irregular feed intake patterns from short-term methane emission measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottle, D J; Velazco, J; Hegarty, R S; Mayer, D G

    2015-12-01

    Spot measurements of methane emission rate (n = 18 700) by 24 Angus steers fed mixed rations from GrowSafe feeders were made over 3- to 6-min periods by a GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) unit. The data were analysed to estimate daily methane production (DMP; g/day) and derived methane yield (MY; g/kg dry matter intake (DMI)). A one-compartment dose model of spot emission rate v. time since the preceding meal was compared with the models of Wood (1967) and Dijkstra et al. (1997) and the average of spot measures. Fitted values for DMP were calculated from the area under the curves. Two methods of relating methane and feed intakes were then studied: the classical calculation of MY as DMP/DMI (kg/day); and a novel method of estimating DMP from time and size of preceding meals using either the data for only the two meals preceding a spot measurement, or all meals for 3 days prior. Two approaches were also used to estimate DMP from spot measurements: fitting of splines on a 'per-animal per-day' basis and an alternate approach of modelling DMP after each feed event by least squares (using Solver), summing (for each animal) the contributions from each feed event by best-fitting a one-compartment model. Time since the preceding meal was of limited value in estimating DMP. Even when the meal sizes and time intervals between a spot measurement and all feeding events in the previous 72 h were assessed, only 16.9% of the variance in spot emission rate measured by GEM was explained by this feeding information. While using the preceding meal alone gave a biased (underestimate) of DMP, allowing for a longer feed history removed this bias. A power analysis taking into account the sources of variation in DMP indicated that to obtain an estimate of DMP with a 95% confidence interval within 5% of the observed 64 days mean of spot measures would require 40 animals measured over 45 days (two spot measurements per day) or 30 animals measured over 55 days. These numbers suggest that

  10. Bovine colostrum improves intestinal function following formula-induced gut inflammation in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only few hours of formula feeding may induce proinflammatory responses and predispose to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that bovine colostrum, rich in bioactive factors, would improve intestinal function in preterm pigs following an initial exposure to formula feedi...

  11. Performance and individual feed intake characteristics of group-housed sows fed a nonstarch polysaccharides diet ad libitum during gestation over three parities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peet-Schwering, van der C.M.C.; Kemp, B.; Plagge, J.G.; Vereijken, P.F.G.; Hartog, den L.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of feeding group-housed gestating sows a diet with a high level of fermentable nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP; approximately 45% sugar beet pulp as fed) ad libitum on the development in individual feed intake characteristics and reproductive

  12. Effects of Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat and feed intake level on the biotransformation and carry-over of deoxynivalenol in dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seeling, K; Dänicke, S; Valenta, H; Egmond, H P van; Schothorst, R C; Jekel, A A; Lebzien, P; Schollenberger, M; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Flachowsky, G

    2006-01-01

    An experiment was carried out to examine the effects of feeding Fusarium toxin-contaminated wheat (8.21 mg deoxynivalenol (DON) and 0.09 mg zearalenone (ZON) per kg dry matter) at different feed intake levels on the biotransformation and carry-over of DON in dairy cows. For this purpose, 14 ruminal

  13. Increasing weaning age of piglets from 4 to 7 weeks reduces stress, increases post-weaning feed intake but does not improve intestinal functionality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, van der J.; Koopmans, S.J.; Dekker, R.A.; Hoogendoorn, A.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that late weaning and the availability of creep feed during the suckling period compared with early weaning, improves feed intake, decreases stress and improves the integrity of the intestinal tract. In this study with 160 piglets of 16 litters, late weaning at 7 wee

  14. Effect of inflammation stimulation on energy and nutrient utilization in piglets selected for low and high residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labussière, E; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Thibault, J N; Le Floc'h, N; Noblet, J; van Milgen, J

    2015-10-01

    Selection of animals for improved feed efficiency can affect sustainability of animal production because the most efficient animals may face difficulties coping with challenges. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an inflammatory challenge (using an intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant - CFA) in piglets from two lines of pigs divergently selected during the fattening period for a low (RFI-) or a high (RFI+) residual feed intake (RFI; difference between actual feed intake and theoretical feed requirements). Nitrogen and energy balances (including heat production - HP - and its components: activity-related HP - AHP, thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP) were measured individually in thirteen 20-kg BW castrated male piglets (six and seven from RFI+ and RFI- line, respectively) fed at the same level (1.72 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day) from 3 days before to 3 days after CFA injection. Dynamics of dietary U-13C-glucose oxidation were estimated from measurements of 13CO2 production on the day before and 3 days after the CFA injection. Oxidation of dietary nutrients and lipogenesis were calculated based on HP and O2 consumption and CO2 production. The data were analyzed as repeated measurements within piglets in a mixed model. Before CFA injection, RFI- piglets had a lower resting energy expenditure than RFI+ piglets, which tended to increase energy retention because of a higher energy retention as fat. The CFA injection did not affect feed intake from the day following CFA injection onwards but it increased energy retention (P=0.04). Time to recover 50% of 13C from dietary glucose as expired 13CO2 was higher in RFI+ piglets before inducing inflammation but decreased after to the level of RFI- piglets (P<0.01). Oxidation of U-13C-glucose tended to slightly increased in RFI- piglets and to decreased in RFI+ piglets (P=0.10) because of CFA. Additionally, RFI- piglets had a lower respiratory quotient during the 1st day following the CFA

  15. EFFECT OF LOW DOSES OF THE MYCOTOXIN FUMONISIN B1 ON THE BODY MASS GAIN, FEED INTAKE AND FEED CONVERSION RATE OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akos Toth

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The fumonisin group of mycotoxins produced by Fusariun moniliforme is a rather newly discovered contaminant of some agricultural products, especially maize based food and animal feed. Fumonisin was discovered in 1988 of mouldy maize inspected since 1993 has shown FB1 contamination, the degree of this contamination increasing from year to year. Problems of mycotoxins cause significant economic losses due to the reduced feed intake, body weight gain and feed efficiency. We have very few informations about the effect of FB1 on these in South Africa, where high evidence was found between the occurrence of human oesophageal cancer and the rate of FB1 contamination. The discovery of this toxin lead to the explanation of equine leucoencephalomalacia (ELEM, porcine pulmonary oedema (PPC and possibly liver cancer in rats. In Hungary almost 70 % parameters – especially in farm animals. Three experiments were carried out with weaned piglets, in order to study the dose and time dependent effect of FB1. Fungal culture of Fusariun moniliforme was added to the diet so that the FB1 exposure was: 0, 10, 20 and 40 ppm for 4 weeks, 0, 1, 5 and 10 ppm for 8 weeks and 0, 1, 5 and 10 ppm for 5 months. In none of the experiments and the periods examined had FB1 any significant effect on feed consumption, body weight gain and feed conversion of weaned pigs. In spite of these findings mild or severe pulmonary oedema caused by the toxin was found in the animals by dissection carried out at the end of the experiment. Our results draw the attention to human health concerns of FB1. The toxin consumed by the animals without any clinical signs can cumulate in the animals and then enter the human organism by means of products of animal origin (meat, milk, etc..

  16. Effects of forage type, animal characteristics and feed intake on faecal particle size in goat, sheep, llama and cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, A.R.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nadeau, E.;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of forage maturity stage at harvest, animal characteristics and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) intake on mean particle size and particle size distribution in faeces from sheep and cattle fed grass silages was studied (Study I). Models for prediction of faeces characteristics from sheep...... and cattle and feed characteristics established from Study I were tested on faeces samples from goat, sheep, llama and cattle fed other types of forages (Study II). Study I included 112 faeces samples from 5 trials, and Study II included 90 faeces samples from 3 trials. Animals were fed ad libitum...... and this effect was amplified in larger animals. The prediction model established from Study I, on the effect of BW, ADL/NDF in forage, C:F and forage NDF intake on particle size in faeces of grass silage-fed animals in Study I appeared to be valid to predict the geometric mean particle size in faeces from goat...

  17. Effects of vegetable fats versus lard in milk replacers on feed intake, digestibility, and growth in Finnish Ayrshire bull calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Khalili, H; Kiljala, J; Joki-Tokola, E; Nousiainen, J

    2005-10-01

    The aim was to study whether vegetable fat mixtures could be used instead of lard [15.2% in dry matter (DM)] in milk replacers without impairing the performance of Finnish Ayrshire bull calves (n = 58). The growth performance of the calves was measured before and after weaning from 14 d to 6 mo of age. The following 3 fat sources in a milk replacer were studied: 1) a mixture of palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil, 2) palm and coconut oil, and 3) lard. The calves were bucket-fed 2 L of milk replacer 3 times per day. The milk replacer contained 116 g of DM/L, resulting in an average DM intake of 4.8 g of DM/kg of body weight0.75 (BW0.75) during the 8-wk trial, after which the calves were weaned. All the calves had free access to water, commercial starter, and grass silage before weaning. The weaned calves had free access to water and grass silage and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. The concentrate was replaced by barley when the bulls were 4.5 mo old. There were no significant differences between the diets in feed intake and apparent diet digestibility. The health and BW of the calves were similar during the study. The feed conversion rate (kg of DM intake/kg of gain) before weaning was significantly greater for the lard diet compared with the 2 vegetable fat mixtures. After weaning, the feed conversion rate was slightly lower for the diet that included the palm, coconut, and rapeseed oil mixture than for the diet that included palm and coconut oil mixture. The study showed that the 2 mixtures consisting solely of vegetable oils were effective dietary components, thus providing 2 alternative fat mixtures of milk replacers, for use instead of lard in formulating commercial calf milk replacers.

  18. Effects of konjac flour inclusion in gestation diets on the nutrient digestibility, lactation feed intake and reproductive performance of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H Q; Zhou, Y F; Tan, C Q; Zheng, L F; Peng, J; Jiang, S W

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of konjac flour (KF) inclusion in gestation diets of sows on nutrients digestibility, lactation feed intake, reproductive performance of sows and preweaning performance of piglets. Two isoenergetic and isonitrogenous gestation diets were formulated: a control diet and a 2.1% KF-supplemented diet (KF diet). Both diets had the same NDF and insoluble fiber (ISF) levels, but the KF diet had higher soluble fiber (SF) level. The day after breeding, 96 multiparous sows were assigned to the two dietary treatments. Restrict-fed during gestation, in contrast, all sows were offered the same lactation diet ad libitum. Response criteria included sow BW, backfat depth, lactation feed intake, weaning-to-estrus interval, litter size and piglet's weight at parturition and day 21 of lactation. On day 60 of gestation, 20 sows were used to measure nutrient digestibility. Results showed that the digestibility of dry matter, gross energy, crude fiber and ADF were not affected by the dietary treatments. The inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased NDF digestibility (Pdiet group. In addition, dietary treatment during gestation did not affect litter size, BW and backfat gain during gestation, lactation weight, backfat loss or weaning-to-estrus interval of sows. However, sows fed the KF diet consumed more (Pdiet per day than sows in the control group. Accordingly, sows fed the KF diet showed greater average piglet weights on day 21 of lactation (P=0.09), and the litter weight of sows fed the KF diet on day 21 of lactation increased by 3.95 kg compared with sows fed the control diet (not significant). In conclusion, the inclusion of KF in gestation diets increased lactation feed intake of sows and tended to improve litter performance.

  19. patterns of intake and digestibility by cattle and sheep of feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    tions that the rumen is in a satisfactorv functional condition. The postulate ... dietary energy (concentrates) could reduce intake due to factors such ... pattern of fermentation in the rumen (Byers, Johnson & ..... Yet,on inspection of the distribution.

  20. A self-limiting complete feed changes forage intake and animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Society for Animal Science ... 1 Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Stephenville, TX 76401, USA. '2Tar1eton State ... in growing goats, but can result in decreased forage consumption due to substitution of forage intake with.

  1. Effect of feed intake on heat production and protein and fat deposition in milk-fed veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labussiere, E; Maxin, G; Dubois, S; van Milgen, J; Bertrand, G; Noblet, J

    2009-04-01

    Energy requirements for veal calves have not been updated recently despite the increased age at slaughter and the predominance of the Prim'Holstein breed in Europe. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of four feeding levels (FLs) on protein and fat deposition and heat production in milk-fed calves at three stages of fattening and to determine energy requirements of calves. At each stage, 16 Prim'Holstein male calves (mean body weight (BW): 73.4, 151.6 and 237.4 kg) were fed a milk replacer at 79%, 87%, 95% or 103% of a reference FL. Measurements for one stage were conducted over 4 successive weeks in two open-circuit respiration chambers and consisted of a 6-day nitrogen and energy balance followed by a fasting day for estimating fasting heat production (FHP) of the calves. Heat production (HP) measurements were analyzed using a modeling approach to partition it between HP due to physical activity (AHP), feed intake (thermic effect of feeding (TEF)) and FHP. There was no effect of FL and stage on apparent digestibility coefficients, except for a tendency for increased digestibility coefficient of fat as animals got older. The metabolizable energy (ME)/digestible energy (DE) ratio did not depend on FL but decreased (P AHP and TEF components of HP were not affected by stage or FL and averaged 8.4% and 7.8% of ME intake, respectively. The FHP, expressed per kg BW0.85, increased with increasing FL, suggesting that also ME requirement for maintenance (MEm) may depend on FL. For an average intake of 625 kJ ME/kg BW0.85 per day (95% of the reference FL), FHP was 298 kJ/kg BW0.85 per day. Energy retention as protein and fat increased with increasing FL resulted in higher BW gain. But the rate of increase depended on stage of growth. The slope relating protein deposition to FL was lower in the finishing phase than in the growing phase, while the slope for lipid deposition was greater. Protein and fat contents of BW gain were not affected by FL but

  2. The control of short-term feed intake by metabolic oxidation in late-pregnant and early lactating dairy cows exposed to high ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Lamp, Ole; Derno, Michael; Kuhla, Björn

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to integrate the dynamics of feed intake and metabolic oxidation in late pregnant and early lactating Holstein cows under heat stress conditions. On day 21 before parturition and again on day 20 after parturition, seven Holstein cows were kept for 7days at thermoneutral (TN) conditions (15°C; temperature-humidity-index (THI)=60) followed by a 7day heat stress (HS) period at 28°C (THI=76). On the last day of each temperature condition, gas exchange, feed intake and water intake were recorded every 6min in a respiration chamber. Pre- and post-partum cows responded to HS by decreasing feed intake. The reduction in feed intake in pre-partum cows was achieved through decreased meal size, meal duration, eating rate and daily eating time with no change in meal frequency, while post-partum cows kept under HS conditions showed variable responses in feeding behavior. In both pre- and post-partum cows exposed to heat stress, daily and resting metabolic heat production decreased while the periprandial respiratory quotient (RQ) increased. The prolonged time between meal and the postprandial minimum in fat oxidation and the postprandial RQ maximum, respectively, revealed that HS as compared to TN early-lactating cows have slower postprandial fat oxidation, longer feed digestion, and thereby showing a shift from fat to glucose utilization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A meta-analysis of the feed intake and growth performance of broiler chickens challenged by bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remus, A; Hauschild, L; Andretta, I; Kipper, M; Lehnen, C R; Sakomura, N K

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of a bacterial immune challenge (Clostridium spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella spp.) on the ADFI, ADG, and nutrient partitioning (maintenance requirements and feed efficiency) of broiler chickens. The database used for the meta-analysis included 65 articles that were published between 1997 and 2012 concerning a total of 86,300 broilers and containing information on the feed intake, protein intake, methionine intake, and weight gain of broilers that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. and were fed or not fed feed additives. The results of the ADFI and the ADG of the challenged broilers were transformed into values relative to those obtained in control broilers (ADG and ADFI). The meta-analysis involved 3 sequential analyses: graphical, correlation, and variance-covariance analysis. The results obtained for the birds that were challenged with Clostridium spp., E. coli, or Salmonella spp. indicated that the ADFI was reduced by 16, 7, and 9%, respectively, and the ADG was reduced by 40, 10, and 29%, respectively. When the results for the challenged birds that were treated or nontreated were compared, ADFI reductions of 26.0 and 26.5% and ADG reductions of 2.9 and 21.6% were observed, respectively. Regression analyses of the ADG as a function of the protein or methionine intake of the challenged birds suggested that nutrients were diverted to the immune system. The relationship between the ADG and the ADFI was quadratic in the challenged and nontreated or treated broilers, as well as for each disease. The intercept of the regression-based curves for the data from all of the challenges were different from zero and negative (-2.20, -0.70, and -3.37, respectively), indicating that all of the challenges increased the maintenance requirements. In general, this meta-analysis allowed for the quantification of the effects of bacteriological challenges on the maintenance and feed

  4. Random Forests approach for identifying additive and epistatic single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Page, C D; VandeHaar, M J; Bickhart, D M; Weigel, K A

    2013-10-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically important trait in the beef and dairy cattle industries. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of partial efficiency that is independent of production level per unit of body weight. The objective of this study was to identify significant associations between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and RFI in dairy cattle using the Random Forests (RF) algorithm. Genomic data included 42,275 SNP genotypes for 395 Holstein cows, whereas phenotypic measurements were daily RFI from 50 to 150 d postpartum. Residual feed intake was defined as the difference between an animal's feed intake and the average intake of its cohort, after adjustment for year and season of calving, year and season of measurement, age at calving nested within parity, days in milk, milk yield, body weight, and body weight change. Random Forests is a widely used machine-learning algorithm that has been applied to classification and regression problems. By analyzing the tree structures produced within RF, the 25 most frequent pairwise SNP interactions were reported as possible epistatic interactions. The importance scores that are generated by RF take into account both main effects of variables and interactions between variables, and the most negative value of all importance scores can be used as the cutoff level for declaring SNP effects as significant. Ranking by importance scores, 188 SNP surpassed the threshold, among which 38 SNP were mapped to RFI quantitative trait loci (QTL) regions reported in a previous study in beef cattle, and 2 SNP were also detected by a genome-wide association study in beef cattle. The ratio of number of SNP located in RFI QTL to the total number of SNP in the top 188 SNP chosen by RF was significantly higher than in all 42,275 whole-genome markers. Pathway analysis indicated that many of the top 188 SNP are in genomic regions that contain annotated genes with biological functions that may influence RFI. Frequently occurring

  5. Iron intakes of Australian infants and toddlers: findings from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Linda A; McNaughton, Sarah A; Campbell, Karen J; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A

    2016-01-28

    Fe deficiency remains the most common nutritional deficiency worldwide and young children are at particular risk. Preventative food-based strategies require knowledge of current intakes, sources of Fe, and factors associated with low Fe intakes; yet few data are available for Australian children under 2 years. This study's objectives were to determine intakes and food sources of Fe for Australian infants and toddlers and identify non-dietary factors associated with Fe intake. Dietary, anthropometric and socio-demographic data from the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial Program were analysed for 485 infants (mean age: 9·1 (sd 1·2) months) and 423 toddlers (mean age: 19·6 (sd 2·6) months) and their mothers. Dietary intakes were assessed via 24-h recalls over 3 non-consecutive days. Prevalence of inadequate Fe intake was estimated using the full probability approach. Associations between potential non-dietary predictors (sex, breast-feeding status, age when introduced to solid foods, maternal age, maternal education, maternal employment status and mother's country of birth) and Fe intakes were assessed using linear regression. Mean Fe intakes were 9·1 (sd 4·3) mg/d for infants and 6·6 (sd 2·4) mg/d for toddlers. Our results showed that 32·6 % of infants and 18·6 % of toddlers had inadequate Fe intake. Main food sources of Fe were Fe-fortified infant formula and cereals for infants and toddlers, respectively. Female sex and current breast-feeding were negatively associated with infant Fe intakes. Introduction to solid foods at or later than 6 months was negatively associated with Fe intake in toddlers. These data may facilitate food-based interventions to improve Australian children's Fe intake levels.

  6. Ingestion of colostrum from specific cows induces Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP in some calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlin Annette

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 2006, cases of haemorrhagic diathesis in young calves have been observed with a much higher incidence than previously known. The syndrome, now uniformly called Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP, is characterized by multiple (external and internal haemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, and bone marrow depletion. Although various infectious and toxicological causes of bleeding disorders in calves have been ruled out, the aetiology of BNP remains unknown. However, field observations have led to the hypothesis that the aetiological principle may be transmitted to calves via colostrum. The objective of the present study was to verify whether ingestion of colostrum from dams of known BNP calves can elicit signs of BNP and typical haematological findings in conveniently selected neonatal calves. Six such calves received one feeding of colostrum (or a mixture of colostrum batches from dams of known BNP calves. As controls, another six conveniently selected calves from herds which had never had a BNP case received one feeding of colostrum from their own dams. Haematological and clinical parameters were monitored. Results One of the six experimental calves never showed any haematological, clinical or pathological evidence of BNP. In the other five calves, thrombocyte and leukocyte counts dropped within a few hours following ingestion of colostrum. Of those, three calves developed clinical signs of BNP, their post-mortem examination revealed bone marrow depletion. Of the remaining two calves, a pair of mixed twins, marked thrombocytopenia and recurrent leukocytopenia was evident in one, in which only slight changes in the bone marrow were detected, while in the other thrombocyte counts dropped, but rebounded later, and no bone marrow changes were noted. Thrombocyte counts of the experimental calves were statistically significantly lower than those of the control calves at 2 hours post ingestion of colostrum and at every

  7. Effect of Phenotypic Residual Feed Intake and Dietary Forage Content on the Rumen Microbial Community of Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Ciara A.; Kenny, David A.; Han, Sukkyan; McCabe, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Feed-efficient animals have lower production costs and reduced environmental impact. Given that rumen microbial fermentation plays a pivotal role in host nutrition, the premise that rumen microbiota may contribute to host feed efficiency is gaining momentum. Since diet is a major factor in determining rumen community structure and fermentation patterns, we investigated the effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal community structure of beef cattle across two contrasting diets. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were performed to profile the rumen bacterial population and to quantify the ruminal populations of Entodinium spp., protozoa, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus, Prevotella brevis, the genus Prevotella, and fungi in 14 low (efficient)- and 14 high (inefficient)-RFI animals offered a low-energy, high-forage diet, followed by a high-energy, low-forage diet. Canonical correspondence and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate associations between physiological variables and rumen microbial structure and specific microbial populations, respectively. The effect of RFI on bacterial profiles was influenced by diet, with the association between RFI group and PCR-DGGE profiles stronger for the higher forage diet. qPCR showed that Prevotella abundance was higher (P feed efficiency, although this effect may also be modulated by the diet offered. PMID:22562991

  8. [Serum gamma globulin concentration in goat kids after colostrum administration: effect of time of administration, volume and type of colostrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsel, K; van Amerongen, J J; Zadoks, R N; van Doorn, D C; Wensing, T

    2000-12-01

    In this study, which was performed on a Dutch dairy goat farm, several aspects of the administration of colostrum to new-born goat kids were examined. Time of colostrum administration and amount and type of colostrum administered were compared. Effectiveness was measured as total serum protein content and gamma globulin fraction. No significant differences in serum gamma globulin titre were observed between kids that received colostrum at 30 or 60-90 minutes post partum, respectively. Titres were significantly lower in kids that received 100 ml of colostrum instead of 150-200 ml. The effect of sheep colostrum replacer or cow colostrum was also examined. Gamma globulin titres were significantly high with goat colostrum than with cow colostrum or sheep colostrum replacer, and titres were higher with cow colostrum than with sheep colostrum replacer. Based on the results of this experiment, the following protocol is suggested for colostrum administration to goat kids: single administration of 150-200 ml of goat colostrum within 90 minutes of birth. Use of cow colostrum is not advised because it may lead to transmission of paratuberculosis. Use of sheep colostrum replacer as a source of passive immunity is not recommended.

  9. Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Duy N; Strathe, Anders B; Ostersen, Tage; Pant, Sameer D; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a complex trait that is economically important for livestock production; however, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown in pigs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), candidate genes and biological pathways involved in regulating RFI using Genome-wide association (GWA) and pathway analyses. A total of 596 Yorkshire boars with phenotypes for two different measures of RFI (RFI1 and 2) and 60k genotypic data was used. GWA analysis was performed using a univariate mixed model and 12 and 7 SNPs were found to be significantly associated with RFI1 and RFI2, respectively. Several genes such as xin actin-binding repeat-containing protein 2 (XIRP2),tetratricopeptide repeat domain 29 (TTC29),suppressor of glucose, autophagy associated 1 (SOGA1),MAS1,G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 5 (GRK5),prospero-homeobox protein 1 (PROX1),GPCR 155 (GPR155), and FYVE domain containing the 26 (ZFYVE26) were identified as putative candidates for RFI based on their genomic location in the vicinity of these SNPs. Genes located within 50 kbp of SNPs significantly associated with RFI and RFI2 (q-value ≤ 0.2) were subsequently used for pathway analyses. These analyses were performed by assigning genes to biological pathways and then testing the association of individual pathways with RFI using a Fisher's exact test. Metabolic pathway was significantly associated with both RFIs. Other biological pathways regulating phagosome, tight junctions, olfactory transduction, and insulin secretion were significantly associated with both RFI traits when relaxed threshold for cut-off p-value was used (p ≤ 0.05). These results implied porcine RFI is regulated by multiple biological mechanisms, although the metabolic processes might be the most important. Olfactory transduction pathway controlling the perception of feed via smell, insulin pathway controlling food intake might be important

  10. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L Weber

    Full Text Available Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI. Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg until slaughter at 14-16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg. Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT, including differentially expressed (DE genes, tissue specific (TS genes, transcription factors (TF, and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS. Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05, -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01, +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04, +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01, -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02 with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01, and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air-weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03. RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  11. Identification of Gene Networks for Residual Feed Intake in Angus Cattle Using Genomic Prediction and RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Kristina L; Welly, Bryan T; Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Young, Amy E; Porto-Neto, Laercio R; Reverter, Antonio; Rincon, Gonzalo

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in feed conversion efficiency can improve the sustainability of beef cattle production, but genomic selection for feed efficiency affects many underlying molecular networks and physiological traits. This study describes the differences between steer progeny of two influential Angus bulls with divergent genomic predictions for residual feed intake (RFI). Eight steer progeny of each sire were phenotyped for growth and feed intake from 8 mo. of age (average BW 254 kg, with a mean difference between sire groups of 4.8 kg) until slaughter at 14-16 mo. of age (average BW 534 kg, sire group difference of 28.8 kg). Terminal samples from pituitary gland, skeletal muscle, liver, adipose, and duodenum were collected from each steer for transcriptome sequencing. Gene expression networks were derived using partial correlation and information theory (PCIT), including differentially expressed (DE) genes, tissue specific (TS) genes, transcription factors (TF), and genes associated with RFI from a genome-wide association study (GWAS). Relative to progeny of the high RFI sire, progeny of the low RFI sire had -0.56 kg/d finishing period RFI (P = 0.05), -1.08 finishing period feed conversion ratio (P = 0.01), +3.3 kg^0.75 finishing period metabolic mid-weight (MMW; P = 0.04), +28.8 kg final body weight (P = 0.01), -12.9 feed bunk visits per day (P = 0.02) with +0.60 min/visit duration (P = 0.01), and +0.0045 carcass specific gravity (weight in air/weight in air-weight in water, a predictor of carcass fat content; P = 0.03). RNA-seq identified 633 DE genes between sire groups among 17,016 expressed genes. PCIT analysis identified >115,000 significant co-expression correlations between genes and 25 TF hubs, i.e. controllers of clusters of DE, TS, and GWAS SNP genes. Pathway analysis suggests low RFI bull progeny possess heightened gut inflammation and reduced fat deposition. This multi-omics analysis shows how differences in RFI genomic breeding values can impact other

  12. Influência do fornecimento prolongado de colostro sobre a flutuação de proteínas séricas em bezerros com diferentes níveis de imunidade passiva sérica Influence of extended colostrum feeding on protein fluctuation of new born calves with different acquired passive immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.S. Baracat

    1995-12-01

    , with and without extended colostrum feeding. The treatments were: T1 - high/milk; T2 - low/milk; T3 -high/colostrum; T4 - low/colostrum. Total protein (TP, albumin and imunoglobulin G (IgG present in the serum of the calves were evaluated. Calves of Tl and T3 showed higher concentration of TP and IgG as compared to T2 and T4. TP and albumin concentration were higher (P = 0,0001 e p = 0,059 in T3 and T4 in relation to animals in T1 and T2. The lowest concentration of PT and IgG were higher (p = 0,082 e p = 0,0001 in Tl and T3 as compared to T2 and T4. The date when the lowest concentrations of TP ocurred in Tl and T3, 40 days, was superior (p = 0,0012 to 20 days found in T2 and T4. The same ocurred to IgG (p = 0,060 with dates of 50 and 40 days for high (T1 and T3 and low (T2 and T4 groups respectively. Animals that received colostrum (T3 and T4 showed, only for TP, higher (p = 0,0002 concentrations in relation to the minimum concentration, which was registred at the age of 30 days. The date when the lowest concentration of IgG occurred was not different between animals that received colostrum and milk (40 days. According to the results it is suggested that colostrum in the diet has a positive effect in the serum protein synthesis, which in addition to immunoglobulins play an important role in the serum protein fluctuation of the newborn calves.

  13. The effect of compensatory growth on feed intake, growth rate and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    after a time of feed restriction, restricted animals exhibit a growth rate ... change in composition of growth, which indicate that more protein but ..... fasting metabolism reached a maximum at about midsummer ..... The effects of weight loss and.

  14. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradley, J. A.; Niilo, L.

    1985-01-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not r...

  15. Residual feed intake of lactating Holstein-Friesian cows predicted from high-density genotypes and phenotyping of growing heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, S R; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C; Spelman, R J

    2014-03-01

    A genomic prediction for residual feed intake (RFI) developed in growing dairy heifers (RFIgro) was used to predict and test breeding values for RFI in lactating cows (RFIlac) from an independent, industry population. A selection of 3,359 cows, in their third or fourth lactation during the study, of above average genetic merit for milk production, and identified as at least 15/16ths Holstein-Friesian breed, were selected for genotyping from commercial dairy herds. Genotyping was carried out using the bovine SNP50 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) on DNA extracted from ear-punch tissue. After quality control criteria were applied, genotypes were imputed to the 624,930 single nucleotide polymorphisms used in the growth study. Using these data, genomically estimated breeding values (GEBV) for RFIgro were calculated in the selected cow population based on a genomic prediction for RFIgro estimated in an independent group of growing heifers. Cows were ranked by GEBV and the top and bottom 310 identified for possible purchase. Purchased cows (n=214) were relocated to research facilities and intake and body weight (BW) measurements were undertaken in 99 "high" and 98 "low" RFIgro animals in 4 consecutive groups [beginning at d 61 ± 1.0 standard error (SE), 91 ± 0.5 SE, 145 ± 1.3 SE, and 191 ± 1.5 SE d in milk, respectively] to measure RFI during lactation (RFIlac). Each group of ~50 cows (~25 high and ~25 low RFIgro) was in a feed intake facility for 35 d, fed pasture-alfalfa cubes ad libitum, milked twice daily, and weighed every 2 to 3 d. Milk composition was determined 3 times weekly. Body weight change and BW at trial mid-point were estimated by regression of pre- and posttrial BW measurements. Residual feed intake in lactating cows was estimated from a linear model including BW, BW change, and milk component yield (as MJ/d); RFIlac differed consistently between the high and low selection classes, with the overall means for RFIlac being +0.32 and -0.31 kg of

  16. Effects of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foiklang, Suban; Wanapat, Metha; Toburan, Wetchasit

    2011-12-01

    This study was designed to determine effect of various plant protein sources in high-quality feed block (HQFB) on feed intake, rumen fermentation, and microbial population in swamp buffalo. Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four kinds of plant protein sources (coarse rice bran (CRB), cassava hay (CH), Phaseolus calcaratus hay, and mulberry hay (MH)) were mixed in the HQFB. HQFBs were allowed to be licked at free choice, and urea-lime-treated rice straw (ULRS) were fed ad libitum. It was found that bacterial population and fungal zoospores in CH-fed group tended to be higher than those in other groups. Moreover, protozoal population in CH, P. calcaratus hay, and MH were lower than those in CRB supplemented group (P < 0.05). Cellulolytic bacterial population was highest in CH-fed group while proteolytic bacteria population was highest in P. calcaratus hay-fed group (P < 0.05). CH-fed group had higher ULRS intake than those in other groups (P < 0.05). Nutrient digestibility of CP, NDF, and ADF in CH-fed group was significantly higher than those in other groups (P < 0.05). Total VFA was highest in CH-fed group (P < 0.05). N absorption was highest in CH-fed group (P < 0.05). Based on this study, it could be concluded that cassava hay, P. calcaratus hay, and mulberry hay are potential to be used as protein sources in the HQFBs especially cassava hay.

  17. Use of simple body measurements and allometry to predict the chemical growth and feed intake in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a practical procedure to estimate the chemical composition of pigs, their compositional growth and the expected feed intake from measurements of body weight (BW and backfat thickness (P2 serially performed in vivo. A farm data set provided information on 920 individuals including BW, measured at 71 ± 4 (t1, 126 ± 5 (t2 and 184 ± 5 (t3 days of age, of P2 at t2 and t3, and of voluntary daily feed intake (FI, recorded over the period from t2 to t3 by automated IVOG feeders. Body lipid mass was estimated as L= (9.17 + 0.70*P2 *BW/100 and the other chemical constituents were predicted from fat free empty body mass using Gompertz growth functions and allometry. Using individual changes of body composition from age t2 to t3, energy requirements for maintenance and growth and the corresponding predicted feed intakes (PFI were estimated. Measured FI were analysed for the effects of month, batch (within month, BWt2, P2t2, average metabolic weight, average daily gain and variation of P2 from t2 to t3. The same model was run again replacing the direct simple body measurements (BW and P2 with the estimated values of PFI as source of variation. Results. The Gompertz estimates of mature protein mass (Pm, relative growth rate parameter (B and lipid to protein ratio at maturity were 43.5 ± 5.8 kg, 0.0116 ± 0.0011 d-1 and 1.81 ± 0.30, respectively. The current protein mass averaged 18.5 + 1.6 kg and the daily retentions of protein and lipid were 177 ± 21 and 239 ± 62 g/d, respectively. FI and PFI averaged 2.824 ± 0.448 and 2.814 ± 0.393 kg/d, respectively. In the ANOVA of the FI data, the replacement of direct body measurements by PFI did not change the proportion of variance explained (83% and the RSD (0.199 g/d. The two sets of residual feed intake values obtained from the two ANOVA were highly correlated (RSD = 0.043 kg/d; R2= 0.961. Agreement between predicted and determined feed intakes provided a reasonable guarantee to the

  18. Effect of the dietary net energy concentration on feed intake and performance of growing-finishing pigs housed individually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiniou, N; Noblet, J

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dietary NE content on feed intake and performance of pigs was investigated using crossbred barrows with initial and final BW of approximately 35 and 110 kg, respectively. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed. Pigs were randomly allotted to 6 wheat and soybean meal-based diets (8.1, 8.7, 9.3, 9.9, 10.5, and 11.1 MJ NE/kg) with 16 pigs/diet. Ratios between standardized ileal digestible AA and NE were similar in all diets. Over the entire experiment, increase in dietary NE concentration was associated with a decreased ADFI (3.216, 3.216, 3.122, 2.910, 2.732, and 2.684 kg/d, respectively, for diets containing 8.1 to 11.1 MJ NE/kg; linear, P dietary NE increased from 8.1 to 11.1 MJ NE/kg (26.04, 27.98, 29.03, 28.81, 28.68, and 29.77 MJ/d, respectively; linear, P dietary NE concentration increased (1.046, 1.126, 1.135, 1.177, 1.156, and 1.152 kg/d, respectively, for diets containing 8.1 to 11.1 MJ NE/kg; linear and quadratic, P dietary NE concentration was associated with an increase in dressing percentage (76.5, 77.0, 77.4, 78.0, 78.2, and 78.4% of BW; linear, P dietary NE concentration increased from 8.1 to 11.1 MJ/kg, the G:F increased (0.326, 0.352, 0.364, 0.405, 0.425, and 0.428 kg/kg, respectively; linear, P dietary energy concentration. These results confirm the ability of individually housed pigs to adjust their spontaneous feed intake over a very wide range of NE concentrations (8.7 to 10.5 MJ/kg). Under commercial conditions, pigs may experience less variation in ADFI than the results obtained in this experiment because of differences in dietary energy concentrations. However, it seems that only a severe reduction in dietary energy concentration will be effective in restricting energy intake of pigs that are allowed ad libitum access to feed.

  19. Can prescription of sip-feed supplements increase energy intake in hospitalised older people with medical problems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Margaret; Potter, Jan; McColl, John; Reilly, John

    2003-08-01

    A blinded randomised controlled trial of prescribed oral sip-feed supplements compared with routine hospital practice was undertaken in acute admissions to a geriatric medicine department. Patients were eligible for inclusion if they were admitted from home, were not obese (BMI>75th percentile), had no swallowing difficulties and were not deemed to be in the terminal stage of illness. On admission they were stratified by nutritional status (BMI5th to 25th to supplement prescribed three times per d in the medicine prescription chart (22.5 g protein, 2260 kJ (540 kcal) energy/d) distributed at medication rounds for the duration of hospital stay. The control group received routine hospital care. Outcomes were patient compliance with supplement, total energy intake and nursing staff views of the method. Patients were randomised to receive supplements (n 186 of total n 381). Half had full compliance and three-quarters at least moderate compliance. Total energy intake was significantly increased, on average, in the intervention group (P=0.001). The proportion of patients meeting estimated minimum energy requirements was significantly increased (P=0.023), but was still energy intake. However, the amount prescribed did not ensure minimum energy requirements were met in all cases.

  20. Relationship between residual feed intake and digestibility for lactating Holstein cows fed high and low starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J

    2017-01-01

    We determined if differences in digestibility among cows explained variation in residual feed intake (RFI) in 4 crossover design experiments. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 120±30d in milk; mean ± SD) were fed diets high (HS) or low (LS) in starch. The HS diets were 30% (±1.8%) starch and 27% (±1.2%) neutral detergent fiber (NDF); LS diets were 14% (±2.2%) starch and 40% (±5.3%) NDF. Each experiment consisted of two 28-d treatment periods, with apparent total-tract digestibility measured using indigestible NDF as an internal marker during the last 5d of each period. Individual cow dry matter (DM) intake and milk yield were recorded daily, body weight was measured 3 to 5 times per week, and milk components were analyzed 2 d/wk. Individual DM intake was regressed on milk energy output, metabolic body weight, body energy gain, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort (a group of cows that received treatments in the same sequence) nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment, with the residual being RFI. High RFI cows ate more than expected and were deemed less efficient. Residual feed intake correlated negatively with digestibility of starch for both HS (r=-0.31) and LS (r=-0.23) diets, and with digestibilities of DM (r=-0.30) and NDF (r=-0.23) for LS diets but was not correlated with DM or NDF digestibility for HS diets. For each cohort within an experiment, cows were classified as high RFI (HRFI; >0.5 SD), medium RFI (MRFI; ±0.5 SD), and low RFI (LRFI; intake is associated with increased passage rate and digestibility depression. Based on these data, we conclude that a cow's digestive ability explains none of the variation in RFI for cows eating high starch diets but 9 to 31% of the variation in RFI when cows are fed low starch diets. Perhaps differences in other metabolic processes, such as tissue turnover, heat production, or others related to maintenance, can account for more variation in RFI than digestibility. Copyright

  1. Aspects of digestive anatomy, feed intake and digestion in the Chinese pangolin (Manis pentadactyla) at Taipei zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Mei Fong; Chang, Chi-Yen; Yang, Ci Wen; Dierenfeld, Ellen S

    2015-01-01

    Pangolins are considered difficult to maintain in zoos, often attributed to problems in feeding management. Taipei Zoo's designation as a wildlife rescue center for Chinese pangolins (Manis pentadactyla) has resulted in long term feeding experience with development of diets that support recovery, maintenance, and reproduction, as well as experimental opportunities to further understand digestive physiology to optimize nutrition. Opportunistic dissection of 10 animals revealed details of the tongue, salivary glands, stomach and gastrointestinal tract (GIT), including confirmation of anatomical differences between Asian and African pangolin species. Length of the total GIT relative to body length (∼ 9:1) was greater than found in domestic carnivores, more similar to omnivorous species. Intake and digestion trials conducted with 4 animals demonstrated that pangolins maintained body weights (BW; 6-9 kg) consuming diets containing 32-40% crude protein, 20-25% crude fat, and 13-28% crude fiber (DM basis). Daily DM intakes ranged from ∼40 to 70 g per animal, with digestible energy intake 51.5-87.5 kcal /kg BW(0.75) /day; pangolins consumed 9.4-15.2 g DM/kg BW(0.75) /day. Dietary energy data support observations of low metabolism and maintenance requirements for this species, similar to values reported for other myrmecophageous species. Addition of 5% ground chitin to diets improved fecal consistency, and decreased digestibility of DM, protein, and energy; addition of chitosan (chitin treated with NaOH) resulted in diet rejection. This information may assist in enhancement of captive diets, as well as in controlling obesity in pangolins.

  2. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (psilage increased (psilage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N), volatile fatty acid (VFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  3. Divergence for residual feed intake of Holstein-Friesian cattle during growth did not affect production and reproduction during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Thomson, B P; Waghorn, G C

    2016-11-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between actual and predicted dry matter intake (DMI) of individual animals. Recent studies with Holstein-Friesian calves have identified an ~20% difference in RFI during growth (calf RFI) and these groups remained divergent in RFI during lactation. The objective of the experiment described here was to determine if cows selected for divergent RFI as calves differed in milk production, reproduction or in the profiles of BW and body condition score (BCS) change during lactation, when grazing pasture. The cows used in the experiment (n=126) had an RFI of -0.88 and +0.75 kg DM intake/day for growth as calves (efficient and inefficient calf RFI groups, respectively) and were intensively grazed at four stocking rates (SR) of 2.2, 2.6, 3.1 and 3.6 cows/ha on self-contained farmlets, over 3 years. Each SR treatment had equal number of cows identified as low and high calf RFI, with 24, 28, 34 and 40/11 ha farmlet. The cows divergent for calf RFI were randomly allocated to each SR. Although SR affected production, calf RFI group (low or high) did not affect milk production, reproduction, BW, BCS or changes in these parameters throughout lactation. The most efficient animals (low calf RFI) lost similar BW and BCS as the least efficient (high calf RFI) immediately post-calving, and regained similar BW and BCS before their next calving. These results indicate that selection for RFI as calves to increase efficiency of feed utilisation did not negatively affect farm productivity variables (milk production, BCS, BW and reproduction) as adults when managed under an intensive pastoral grazing system.

  4. Mallards Feed Longer to Maintain Intake Rate under Competition on a Natural Food Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.G.B.; Duijns, S.; Gyimesi, A.; Boer, de W.F.; Nolet, B.A.

    2012-01-01

    Animals foraging in groups may benefit from a faster detection of food and predators, but competition by conspecifics may reduce intake rate. Competition may also alter the foraging behaviour of individuals, which can be influenced by dominance status and the way food is distributed over the environ

  5. Impact of hygiene of housing conditions on performance and health of two pig genetic lines divergent for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelet, A; Gondret, F; Merlot, E; Gilbert, H; Friggens, N C; Le Floc'h, N

    2017-06-27

    Pigs selected for high performance may be more at risk of developing diseases. This study aimed to assess the health and performance of two pig lines divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) (low RFI (LRFI) v. high RFI (HRFI)) and housed in two contrasted hygiene conditions (poor v. good) using a 2×2 factorial design (n=40/group). The challenge period (Period 1), started on week zero (W0) when 12-week-old pigs were transferred to good or poor housing conditions. At week 6 (W6), half of the pigs in each group were slaughtered. During a recovery period (Period 2) from W6 to W13 to W14, the remaining pigs (n=20/group) were transferred in good hygiene conditions before being slaughtered. Blood was collected every three (Period 1) or 2 weeks (Period 2) to assess blood indicators of immune and inflammatory responses. Pulmonary lesions at slaughter and performance traits were evaluated. At W6, pneumonia prevalence was greater for pigs housed in poor than in good conditions (51% v. 8%, respectively, Pfeed ratio were less affected by poor hygiene in LRFI pigs than in HRFI pigs (hygiene×line, P=0.001 and P=0.02, respectively). Low residual feed intake pigs in poor conditions ate more than the other groups (hygiene×line, P=0.002). Irrespective of the line, fasting plasma glucose concentrations were higher in poor conditions, whereas fasting free fatty acids concentrations were lower than in good conditions. At the end of Period 2, pneumonia prevalence was similar for both housing conditions (39% v. 38%, respectively). During Period 2, plasma protein concentrations were greater for pigs previously housed in poor than in good conditions during Period 1. Immune traits, gain-to-feed ratio, BW gain and feed consumption did not differ during Period 2. Nevertheless, at W12, BW of HRFI previously housed in poor conditions was 13.4 kg lower than BW of HRFI pigs (Pfeed efficient LRFI pigs was less impaired by poor hygiene conditions. This line was able to preserve its

  6. Effect of gestating sow body condition, feed refusals, and group housing on growth and feed intake in grower-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sell-Kubiak, E; van der Waaij, E H; Bijma, P

    2013-08-01

    The main focus of this study was to identify sow gestation features that affect growth rate (GR) and feed intake (FI) of their offspring during grower-finishing stage. Because the sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation, certain features (e.g., BW of the sow), feed refusals or gestation group, may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. Data on 17,743 grower-finishing pigs, coming from 604 sires and 681 crossbred sows, were obtained from the Institute for Pigs Genetics. Sow gestation features were collected during multiple gestations and divided into 3 clusters describing i) sow body condition (i.e., BW, backfat, and gestation length), ii) sow feed refusals (FR), the difference between offered and eaten feed during 3 periods of gestation: 1 to 28, 25 to 50, 45 to 80 d, and iii) sow group features (i.e., number of sows, and average parity). Sow gestation features were added to the base model 1 at a time to study their effect on GR and FI. Significant gestation features (P Gestation length had effect on GR [1.4 (g/d)/d; P = 0.04] and FI [6.8 (g/d)/d; P = 0.007]. Body weights of the sow at insemination [0.07 (g/d)/kg; P = 0.08], at farrowing [0.14 (g/d)/kg; P gestation and average FR during 45 to 80 d of gestation had negative effect on GR and when substantially increased had also a positive effect on FI. Sow FR from 1 to 28 d of gestation were not significant. Number of sows in gestation group had effect on FI [-9 (g/d)/group member; P = 0.04] and day sow entered group had an effect on GR [-0.9 (g/d)/day; P = 0.04]. Sow gestation features explained 1 to 3% of the total variance in grower-finishing pigs. Gestation features did explain phenotypic variance due to permanent sow and part of phenotypic variance due to common litter effects for FI but not for GR.

  7. Relation between reproduction performance and indicators of feed intake, fear and social stress in commercial herds with group-housed non-lactating sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Anne Grete

    2006-01-01

    Group-housing of non-lactating sows is becomming increasingly widespread in commercial sow herds in European countries as a result of changed legislation. Group-housing may lead to individual variation in feed intake, stress and fear, which may impair the reproduction ferformance. However, whether...... the individual variation in feed intake and the level of stress and fear under commercial conditions is severe enough to impair the reproduction performance is not known. In a detailed farm study including 14 herds with different layouts the relations between various indicators of feed intake, stress and fear...... and reproduction performance were studied based on 553 focal sows. Twelve percent of all mated sows were re-mated and average litter size was 14.8 born piglets per litter. Chance of pregnancy and sitter size correlated positive with back fat fain from weaning to 3 weeks after mating. Sows eating in less than 20...

  8. Improving residual feed intake of mule progeny of Muscovy ducks: genetic parameters and responses to selection with emphasis on carcass composition and fatty liver quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouilhet, L; Basso, B; Bernadet, M-D; Cornuez, A; Bodin, L; David, I; Gilbert, H; Marie-Etancelin, C

    2014-10-01

    In France, about 95% of the fatty liver production comes from mule ducks, an infertile hybrid cross between female common ducks (Anas platyrhynchos) and Muscovy drakes (Cairina moschata). As a hybrid, genetic improvement of the performance of mule ducks is achieved by selection of the parental populations. Feed represents two-thirds of the total costs of duck production; thus, the breeders' main concern is to improve the birds' feed efficiency without impairing their capacity to be overfed after the growing period. To obtain insight into this economically important trait, we designed a divergent selection experiment for Muscovy sires on the basis of the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny. Residual feed intake represents the fraction of feed intake that cannot be explained by maintenance and production requirements. Data comprised records from generations 0 to 2 with 227 Muscovy sires of 2,016 mule ducks. Growth and fat deposition were measured individually for all mule ducks. Half-sib mule ducks were placed together in 1 small pen, and the feed consumption was recorded for each pen; all half-sibs therefore had the same feed intake estimates. Heritability of RFI was high (0.83 ± 0.42), and after 2 generations of selection, the differences between lines in terms of RFI (contrast of 9.13 g/d, representing 0.76 phenotypic standard deviation; P feed conversion ratio (contrast of 0.08, representing 0.28 phenotypic standard deviation; P = 0.0003) were marked. In regard to carcass traits, the low-RFI line (high-efficiency animals) had heavier legs (476 vs. 463 g; P 0.46). Selection on RFI thus improves the feed efficiency of animals without impairing their capacity to produce fatty liver.

  9. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Knol, E.F.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common

  10. Genetic markers in bovine chromosome 14 are significant for residual feed intake in steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic selection for animals that require less feed while still achieving acceptable levels of production could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers with predictive merit for differences among cattle for traits associated wit...

  11. Effect of sow history features on growth and feed intake in grow-finish pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sell-Kubiak, E.B.; Knol, E.F.; Bijma, P.

    2012-01-01

    The sow provides a specific environment to her offspring during gestation and lactation. Certain features in the early life of the sow (sow history features) may affect her ability to deliver and feed a healthy litter. In genetic analyses of grow-finish traits, these effects are estimated as common

  12. Combination analysis of genome-wide association and transcriptome sequencing of residual feed intake in quality chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenqiang; Ji, Congliang; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Zhe; Nie, Qinghua; Xu, Jiguo; Zhang, Dexiang; Zhang, Xiquan

    2016-08-09

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a powerful indicator for energy utilization efficiency and responds to selection. Low RFI selection enables a reduction in feed intake without affecting growth performance. However, the effective variants or major genes dedicated to phenotypic differences in RFI in quality chickens are unclear. Therefore, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) and RNA sequencing were performed on RFI to identify genetic variants and potential candidate genes associated with energy improvement. A lower average daily feed intake was found in low-RFI birds compared to high-RFI birds. The heritability of RFI measured from 44 to 83 d of age was 0.35. GWAS showed that 32 of the significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with the RFI (P < 10(-4)) accounted for 53.01 % of the additive genetic variance. More than half of the effective SNPs were located in a 1 Mb region (16.3-17.3 Mb) of chicken (Gallus gallus) chromosome (GGA) 12. Thus, focusing on this region should enable a deeper understanding of energy utilization. RNA sequencing was performed to profile the liver transcriptomes of four male chickens selected from the high and low tails of the RFI. One hundred and sixteen unique genes were identified as differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Some of these genes were relevant to appetite, cell activities, and fat metabolism, such as CCKAR, HSP90B1, and PCK1. Some potential genes within the 500 Kb flanking region of the significant RFI-related SNPs detected in GWAS (i.e., MGP, HIST1H110, HIST1H2A4L3, OC3, NR0B2, PER2, ST6GALNAC2, and G0S2) were also identified as DEGs in chickens with divergent RFIs. The GWAS findings showed that the 1 Mb narrow region of GGA12 should be important because it contained genes involved in energy-consuming processes, such as lipogenesis, social behavior, and immunity. Similar results were obtained in the transcriptome sequencing experiments. In general, low-RFI birds seemed to optimize energy employment

  13. Regulation of feeding behavior and food intake by appetite-regulating peptides in wild-type and growth hormone-transgenic coho salmon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Samantha L; Volkoff, Helene; Devlin, Robert H

    2016-08-01

    Survival, competition, growth and reproductive success in fishes are highly dependent on food intake, food availability and feeding behavior and are all influenced by a complex set of metabolic and neuroendocrine mechanisms. Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic fish can result in greatly enhanced growth rates, feed conversion, feeding motivation and food intake. The objectives of this study were to compare seasonal feeding behavior of non-transgenic wild-type (NT) and GH-transgenic (T) coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), and to examine the effects of intraperitoneal injections of the appetite-regulating peptides cholecystokinin (CCK-8), bombesin (BBS), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) on feeding behavior. T salmon fed consistently across all seasons, whereas NT dramatically reduced their food intake in winter, indicating the seasonal regulation of appetite can be altered by overexpression of GH in T fish. Intraperitoneal injections of CCK-8 and BBS caused a significant and rapid decrease in food intake for both genotypes. Treatment with either GLP-1 or α-MSH resulted in a significant suppression of food intake for NT but had no effect in T coho salmon. The differential response of T and NT fish to α-MSH is consistent with the melanocortin-4 receptor system being a significant pathway by which GH acts to stimulate appetite. Taken together, these results suggest that chronically increased levels of GH alter feeding regulatory pathways to different extents for individual peptides, and that altered feeding behavior in transgenic coho salmon may arise, in part, from changes in sensitivity to peripheral appetite-regulating signals.

  14. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution.

  15. Effect of Dietary Types on Feed Intakes, Growth Performance and Economic Benefit in Tibetan sheep and Yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during Cold Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shixiao; Hu, Linyong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Li; Liu, Hongjin; Zhao, Xinquan

    2017-01-01

    Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment. Daily dry matter intake was determined; all animals were weighed at the beginning and every 15 days of the 135-day experiment. Then, the total live-weight gain, average daily live-weight gain, gain rate, feed efficiency and net economic benefit were calculated. Results indicated that feed and nutrient intakes (DMI, DMI/kg LW, DMI/kg LW0.75 and CPI) of TMR, OH and OS were higher than TG (P 0.05). Results indicated that TMR was a reasonable diet in promoting feed intakes, animal performance, feed efficiency and economic returns in domestic livestock, which should be considered by local herdsmen to increase their breeding profit during cold season. PMID:28056054

  16. Longitudinal analysis of residual feed intake and BW in mink using random regression with heterogeneous residual variance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirali, M; Nielsen, V H; Møller, S H; Jensen, J

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the genetic background of longitudinal residual feed intake (RFI) and BW gain in farmed mink using random regression methods considering heterogeneous residual variances. The individual BW was measured every 3 weeks from 63 to 210 days of age for 2139 male+female pairs of juvenile mink during the growing-furring period. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with 3-week intervals based on daily feed consumption between weighing's from 105 to 210 days of age. Genetic parameters for RFI and BW gain in males and females were obtained using univariate random regression with Legendre polynomials containing an animal genetic effect and permanent environmental effect of litter along with heterogeneous residual variances. Heritability estimates for RFI increased with age from 0.18 (0.03, posterior standard deviation (PSD)) at 105 days of age to 0.49 (0.03, PSD) and 0.46 (0.03, PSD) at 210 days of age in male and female mink, respectively. The heritability estimates for BW gain increased with age and had moderate to high range for males (0.33 (0.02, PSD) to 0.84 (0.02, PSD)) and females (0.35 (0.03, PSD) to 0.85 (0.02, PSD)). RFI estimates during the growing period (105 to 126 days of age) showed high positive genetic correlations with the pelting RFI (210 days of age) in male (0.86 to 0.97) and female (0.92 to 0.98). However, phenotypic correlations were lower from 0.47 to 0.76 in males and 0.61 to 0.75 in females. Furthermore, BW records in the growing period (63 to 126 days of age) had moderate (male: 0.39, female: 0.53) to high (male: 0.87, female: 0.94) genetic correlations with pelting BW (210 days of age). The result of current study showed that RFI and BW in mink are highly heritable, especially at the late furring period, suggesting potential for large genetic gains for these traits. The genetic correlations suggested that substantial genetic gain can be obtained by only considering the RFI estimate and BW at pelting

  17. Heterogeneity in genetic and nongenetic variation and energy sink relationships for residual feed intake across research stations and countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempelman, R J; Spurlock, D M; Coffey, M; Veerkamp, R F; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K A; de Haas, Y; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Lu, Y; VandeHaar, M J

    2015-03-01

    Our long-term objective is to develop breeding strategies for improving feed efficiency in dairy cattle. In this study, phenotypic data were pooled across multiple research stations to facilitate investigation of the genetic and nongenetic components of feed efficiency in Holstein cattle. Specifically, the heritability of residual feed intake (RFI) was estimated and heterogeneous relationships between RFI and traits relating to energy utilization were characterized across research stations. Milk, fat, protein, and lactose production converted to megacalories (milk energy; MilkE), dry matter intakes (DMI), and body weights (BW) were collected on 6,824 lactations from 4,893 Holstein cows from research stations in Scotland, the Netherlands, and the United States. Weekly DMI, recorded between 50 to 200 d in milk, was fitted as a linear function of MilkE, BW0.75, and change in BW (ΔBW), along with parity, a fifth-order polynomial on days in milk (DIM), and the interaction between this polynomial and parity in a first-stage model. The residuals from this analysis were considered to be a phenotypic measure of RFI. Estimated partial regression coefficients of DMI on MilkE and on BW0.75 ranged from 0.29 to 0.47 kg/Mcal for MilkE across research stations, whereas estimated partial regression coefficients on BW0.75 ranged from 0.06 to 0.16 kg/kg0.75. Estimated partial regression coefficients on ΔBW ranged from 0.06 to 0.39 across stations. Heritabilities for country-specific RFI were based on fitting second-stage random regression models and ranged from 0.06 to 0.24 depending on DIM. The overall heritability estimate across all research stations and all DIM was 0.15±0.02, whereas an alternative analysis based on combining the first- and second-stage model as 1 model led to an overall heritability estimate of 0.18±0.02. Hence future genomic selection programs on feed efficiency appear to be promising; nevertheless, care should be taken to allow for potentially

  18. Hábitos e consumo alimentares de atletas nadadores Feeding habits and intakes of swimmer athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ileana Mourão Kazapi

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se 27 atletas nadadores (14 mulheres e 13 homens com idade entre 13 e 21 anos, com o objetivo de conhecer seus hábitos alimentares e consumo alimentar, aplicando-se questionários de registro e freqüência alimentar. O percentual de adequação foi determinado comparando-se as necessidades de cada indivíduo (calculadas teoricamente com as quantidades consumidas. Os resultados indicaram que o consumo energético foi maior para os homens (média de 3 125Kcal contra 1 865Kcal das mulheres. O consumo dos demais nutrientes também apresentou-se superior para o sexo masculino, exceto para a vitamina C. A contribuição percentual de macronutrientes apresentou-se desequilibrada tanto para os homens quanto para as mulheres. Os homens apresentaram uma adequação baixa (70-80% para os carboidratos e vitamina A, uma adequação excedente (> 110% para proteínas, gordura, vitamina C e ferro, e uma adequação normal para os demais nutrientes. As mulheres apresentaram uma adequação marginal (Twenty-seven swimmer athletes (14 women and 13 men, aged 13 to 21 years old, were studied to determine their dietary habits and food intakes. The subjects recorded their food intake and frequency. The percentage of their nutritional adequacy was determined comparing the nutritional requirements of each person (theoretically calculated with the consumed quantities. The results indicated that the caloric intake was higher for men (3124,7 Kcal against 1865 Kcal for women. The intake of all the other nutrients was observed to be higher for men, except for vitamin C. The diet was unbalanced (macronutrients for both sexes. Men presented a low adequacy (70-80% of carbohydrates and vitamin A, excess of protein, fat, vitamin C and iron (> 110%, and a normal adequacy of the other nutrients.Women presented a marginal adequacy of carbohydrates, energy and calcium (< 70%, excess of vitamin C, and a normal adequacy of the other nutrients.

  19. Genetic associations of residual feed intake with serum insulin-like growth factor-I and leptin concentrations, meat quality, and carcass cross sectional fat area ratios in Duroc pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, M A; Katoh, K; Suzuki, K

    2009-10-01

    Genetic relationships of measures of residual feed intake and daily feed intake with serum IGF-I concentrations at 8 wk of age and at 105 kg of BW, serum leptin concentration at 105 kg of BW, meat quality, and different fat accumulation traits on 834 Duroc pigs in 7 generations were estimated. Two measures of residual feed intake were estimated from the differences between actual and predicted feed intake: phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI(phe)) and nutritional residual feed intake (RFI(nut)). Meat quality traits included drip loss, cooking loss, pork color score, pork lightness (L*), and pH, whereas fat accumulation traits were subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, and total fat percent at 5-6th thoracic vertebra; subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat, abdominal fat, and total fat percent at one-half body length and at last thoracic vertebra, and seam fat score. The IGF-I concentrations at 8 wk of age and 105 kg of BW had weak genetic correlations with measures of residual feed intake and daily feed intake (absolute values ranging from 0.14 to 0.24). The genetic correlations between measures of residual feed intake and serum leptin concentration were strong and positive (r(g) with RFI(phe) and RFI(nut) were 0.74 and 0.80, respectively). Residual feed intake was moderately but negatively correlated with cooking loss (r(g) with RFI(phe) and RFI(nut) were -0.42 and -0.49, respectively), whereas daily feed intake was moderately and positively correlated with drip loss and pH (0.33 and 0.36, respectively). Daily feed intake was also moderately correlated with subcutaneous fat accumulations at the 5-6th thoracic vertebra (0.31) and one-half body length (0.31) regions and was strongly correlated with accumulations at the last thoracic vertebra region (0.57). The genetic correlations between daily feed intake and intermuscular fat accumulations at all of the carcass sites were strong (0.60, 0.76, and 0.56 for intermuscular fat at 5-6th thoracic vertebra, one-half body

  20. A proteomics study of colostrum and milk from the two major small ruminant dairy breeds from the Canary Islands: a bovine milk comparison perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Almeida, André M; Renaut, Jenny; Argüello, Anastasio; Castro, Noemí

    2016-08-01

    Colostrum and milk feeding are key factors for the newborn ruminant survival, affecting the future performance of the animal. Nowadays, there is an increasing interest in the potential of feeding newborn ruminants (mainly goat kids and lambs) with colostrum and milk from other more productive ruminant species (mainly cows). Although some studies regarding differences between colostrum and milk from these three species have been performed, herein we conduct for the first time a comparison using a proteomics 2-Dimensional Electrophoresis gel-based approach between these three ruminant species. In this study colostrum and milk samples from six Holstein cows, six Canarian sheep and six Majorera goats were used to determine the chemical composition, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) concentrations and proteomics profiles. Results showed that in general sheep colostrum and milk contained higher fat, protein and lactose percentages compared to bovine and goat samples. Additionally, no differences in the IgG or IgM concentrations were found among any of the three studied species, with the exception of sheep colostrum that showed the highest IgM concentration. With reference to the proteomics-based approach, some high abundant proteins such as serum albumin precursor, beta-caseins or different immunoglobulins components were found in colostrum, milk or even both. Nevertheless, differences in other proteins with immune function such as serotransferrin or lactoperoxidase were detected. This study shows that despite the similar immunoglobulin concentrations in colostrum and milk from the three studied species, differences in several immune components can be detected when these samples are studied using a proteomics approach. Finally, this study also provides a base for future investigation in colostrum and milk proteomics and metabolomics.

  1. SWRO feed water quality improvement using subsurface intakes in Oman, Spain, Turks and Caicos Islands, and Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Rachman, Rinaldi

    2014-10-01

    Water quality sampling and analysis conducted at four global locations, along the shorelines of the Arabian Sea, the Red Sea, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Caribbean Sea, demonstrated that subsurface intakes (wells) provide a robust degree of feed water treatment close to that provided by energy-intensive, conventional pretreatment systems. SDI values were reduced in virtually all cases to below 3. In vertical wells, from 70 to 100% of the TEP and 50% of the TOC and DOC found in natural seawater were removed in the aquifer. Reduction in the concentration of the organic fractions was selective based on molecular weight with the biopolymers nearly fully removed. Humic substances, building blocks, and light organic substances were removed at lesser percentages. Site geology was not the predominant factor affecting the removal efficiency, but the length of the flow path from the sea to the wells and the hydraulic retention time appear to be most significant. A comparison between vertical wells, a tunnel intake system, and a horizontal drain system at Alicante, Spain, demonstrated that the vertical wells performed best followed by the tunnel system, and the horizontal drain system which showed a breakthrough of algae and a very high organic carbon concentration. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P absorption and retention were similar among treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO which N absorption was lower (P < 0.05) than among treatments while the difference between the diets 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO were not significant. Based on this study, CGWVO levels up to 4 % in total mixed ration could be efficiently utilized for goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  3. Effect of colostrum redox balance on the oxidative status of calves during the first 3 months of life and the relationship with passive immune acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, Angel; Pérez-Santos, María; Hernández, Joaquín; Castillo, Cristina

    2014-02-01

    New-born calves depend upon colostrum intake for the acquisition of immunoglobulins (Ig) and other beneficial substances. However, colostrum is also a source of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Intrinsic production of ROS also increases after birth, so the combination of colostral and intrinsic ROS could overwhelm the antioxidant capacity of the calf leading to oxidative stress (OS), a condition that has been shown to play a key role in the initiation and development of several pathological conditions. The aim of this observational study was to assess the effects of the redox balance of colostrum on the oxidative status of calves and on passive immune transfer. Serum samples were taken from 20 calves on their day of birth, every week during their first month of life and at 2 and 3 months of age, and the concentrations of ROS and serum antioxidant capacity (SAC) assayed. The oxidative/anti-oxidative profile and IgG content of the colostrum were also assessed. The redox balance of the colostrum had a significant effect on both calf oxidative status and on passive immune transfer (as measured by calf serum IgG concentration), which indicates that the oxidative/antioxidative profile of colostrum should be measured when colostrum quality is assessed. The highest risk of OS during the study period was found to be when the calves were fed artificial milk replacer; this suggests that calves should be supplemented with antioxidants during this period in order to minimize any harmful consequences of high ROS generation.

  4. Effect of carbohydrate and fat intake on nitrogen excretion during total intravenous feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, J M; Wilmore, D W; Mason, A D; Pruitt, B A

    1977-04-01

    Recent availability of intravenous soy bean oil emulsion for clinical trials in the United States prompted infusion of intravenous diets containing a constant nitrogen level (11.7 grams/m2/day) and 13 different combinations of carbohydrate (110-2300 kcal/m2/day) and fat (0-1100 kcal/m2/day) during 34 three-day studies in 5 patients who were clinically stable after injury or operation. Urea nitrogen excretion was inversely related to carbohydrate intake (P less than 0.01) and directly related to resting metabolic rate (P less than 0.01). Fat infusion did not affect nitrogen excretion at any level of carbohydrate intake. This study suggests that, when a primary clinical goal is nitrogen conservation, carbohydrate calories should be given in amounts approximating the resting metabolic rate. Additional calories and essential fatty acids now can be safely given as intravenous fat emulsion, but fat did not affect nitrogen conservation under the conditions of this study.

  5. Effects of level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation of Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. 1. Feed intake and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, R J; Moorby, J M; Dhanoa, M S; Fishert, W J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to examine the residual effects of the level of concentrate feeding during the second gestation on performance in the second lactation. Forty-three Holstein-Friesian heifers that calved for the first time at 2 or 3 yr of age were offered diets based on ad libitum consumption of ryegrass silage and either 2 or 7 kg/d of concentrates over the second half of the first lactation. All cows received a low quality diet, based on grass silage and barley straw (60:40 DM basis) for a short (6-wk) dry period. Feeding in the second lactation was based on ad libitum access to grass silage and a flat rate of concentrates (8 kg/ d for 120 d; 5 kg/d thereafter). Three-year-old heifers produced more milk than 2-yr old heifers in the first lactation, equivalent to 93 kg of fat-corrected milk for each additional month of rearing. Cows given the low level of concentrates produced less milk and gained less weight and body condition, though there was a partial compensation when silage quality improved in late lactation. Forage intake declined as cows approached calving, and cows gained little weight or body condition over the dry period. There was no effect on calf weights. Cows that had received the low level of concentrates in the previous lactation consumed more forage dry matter during the second lactation. Parallel curve analysis showed that 2-yr-old heifers that had received a low level of concentrates produced significantly less milk in the second lactation. The numerically much greater gains of weight and body condition for this group were not statistically significant, owing to large between-cow variation.

  6. Effects of isoenergetic quantities of a low-starch muesli feed high in fat and fibre vs. oat grains on the glycemic and insulinemic responses and feed intake patterns in sport ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochnia, M; Schürer, C; Gottschalk, J; Einspanier, A; Hillegeist, D; Wensch-Dorendorf, M; Greef, J M; Glatter, M; Zeyner, A

    2017-06-01

    Aim of this study was to compare glycemic and insulinemic responses and feed intake patterns in sport ponies after feeding isoenergetic quantities of low-starch muesli feed high in fat and fibre (FF) or oat grains (OG). Six sport ponies were randomly assigned to one of these two treatment groups for 2 × 3 weeks according to a crossover-design. Ponies received two equal meals/day of either semi-crushed OG (1 g starch/kg bwt*meal(-1) ) or an isoenergetic quantity of FF. Hay was also given in two equal meals/day and provided the remaining metabolisable energy up to 1.3-fold maintenance level. On day 21, blood was sampled 1 h after each pony received 0.5 kg hay (0 min). Then, the concentrate was provided and blood sampled 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 240 and 300 min thereafter. Plasma glucose and serum insulin were analysed, and the areas under the curve (AUC) was calculated 120 and 300 min postprandial (PP). Feed intake patterns were measured in 4 ponies/group via a modified halter. OG was ingested faster than FF (feed intake time; FITDM in min/kg DM: 8.8 ± 1.6 vs. 15.9 ± 1.62, p glucose tended to decline following the intake of FF, which might be beneficial for equines with reduced glucose tolerance. This, however, requires further investigation. In this study, the ponies consumed OG unexpectedly rapidly. The rate of feed intake was similar to the results previously reported in the literature for warmblood horses. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Time-restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A J; Ellisman, Mark H; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-06-06

    While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed a high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night, disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time-restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 hr per day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, and inflammation and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR, and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome and improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a nonpharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases.

  8. Time restricted feeding without reducing caloric intake prevents metabolic diseases in mice fed a high fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatori, Megumi; Vollmers, Christopher; Zarrinpar, Amir; DiTacchio, Luciano; Bushong, Eric A.; Gill, Shubhroz; Leblanc, Mathias; Chaix, Amandine; Joens, Matthew; Fitzpatrick, James A. J.; Ellisman, Mark H.; Panda, Satchidananda

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY While diet-induced obesity has been exclusively attributed to increased caloric intake from fat, animals fed high fat diet (HFD) ad libitum (ad lib) eat frequently throughout day and night disrupting the normal feeding cycle. To test whether obesity and metabolic diseases result from HFD or disruption of metabolic cycles, we subjected mice to either ad lib or time restricted feeding (tRF) of a HFD for 8 h/day. Mice under tRF consume equivalent calories from HFD as those with ad lib access, yet are protected against obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and have improved motor coordination. The tRF regimen improved CREB, mTOR and AMPK pathway function and oscillations of the circadian clock and their target genes' expression. These changes in catabolic and anabolic pathways altered liver metabolome, improved nutrient utilization and energy expenditure. We demonstrate in mice that tRF regimen is a non-pharmacological strategy against obesity and associated diseases. PMID:22608008

  9. Effect of feeding cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake and haematological parameters of broiler chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akapo, Abiola Olajetemi; Oso, Abimbola Oladele; Bamgbose, Adeyemi Mustapha; Sanwo, Kehinde A; Jegede, Adebayo Vincent; Sobayo, Richard Abayomi; Idowu, Olusegun Mark; Fan, Juexin; Li, Lili; Olorunsola, Rotimi A

    2014-10-01

    The effect of feeding cassava root meal on growth performance, hydrocyanide intake, haematological indices and serum thiocyanate concentration of broiler chicks was investigated using 300-day-old male broilers. There were five dietary treatments arranged in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement of two processing methods of cassava root (peeled and unpeeled) included at two levels (100 and 200 g/kg) plus a control diet (maize-based diet, containing no cassava root). Each treatment was replicated six times with ten birds per replicate. The feeding trial lasted for 28 days. Control-fed birds had the highest overall (P cassava root meal (PCRM) had the least (P cassava root meal had higher (P cassava root meal. Dietary inclusion of peeled cassava root meal (PCRM) for broiler chicks resulted in increased final liveweight (P cassava root meal (UCRM). The least (P cassava root resulted in significant increase (P cassava root poses a threat on growth and health status of broiler chicks.

  10. Quantitative analysis of ruminal methanogenic microbial populations in beef cattle divergent in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) offered contrasting diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Ciara A; Kenny, David A; Kelly, Alan K; Waters, Sinéad M

    2014-01-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions in cattle are an undesirable end product of rumen methanogenic fermentative activity as they are associated not only with negative environmental impacts but also with reduced host feed efficiency. The aim of this study was to quantify total and specific rumen microbial methanogenic populations in beef cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) while offered (i) a low energy high forage (HF) diet followed by (ii) a high energy low forage (LF) diet. Ruminal fluid was collected from 14 high (H) and 14 low (L) RFI animals across both dietary periods. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis was conducted to quantify the abundance of total and specific rumen methanogenic microbes. Spearman correlation analysis was used to investigate the association between the relative abundance of methanogens and animal performance, rumen fermentation variables and diet digestibility. Abundance of methanogens, did not differ between RFI phenotypes. However, relative abundance of total and specific methanogen species was affected (P < 0.05) by diet type, with greater abundance observed while animals were offered the LF compared to the HF diet. These findings suggest that differences in abundance of specific rumen methanogen species may not contribute to variation in CH4 emissions between efficient and inefficient animals, however dietary manipulation can influence the abundance of total and specific methanogen species.

  11. Feeding patterns and dietary intake in a random sample of a Swedish population of insured-dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallander, Marie; Hedhammar, Ake; Rundgren, Margareta; Lindberg, Jan E

    2010-07-01

    We used a validated mail and telephone questionnaire to investigate baseline data on feeding patterns and dietary intake in a random sample of 460 Swedish dogs. In 1999, purebred individuals 1-3 years old in the largest insurance database of Sweden completed the study. Most dogs were fed restricted amounts twice a day, and the feeding patterns seldom were changed after the age of 6 months. Typically, the main constituent of the meals was dry food [representing 69% of dry matter (DM)]. Four out of five dogs also got foods that (in descending order of the amount of energy provided) consisted of vegetable oil, meat, sour milk, bread, potatoes, pasta, lard/tallow, sausage, cheese, rice and fish. The heavier the dog (kg), the more dry dog food was consumed (g DM/d). The dry-food intakes (g DM/d) increased linearly with body weight (BW, in kg): intake=-15.3+8.33 BW (P=0.0001; r=0.998), a clear relationship that was not observed for other commercial foods. The non-commercial part of the diet had higher fat (13 and 8 g/megajoule, MJ, respectively; P=0.00001) and lower protein (12 and 16 g/MJ, respectively; P=0.00001) compared to the commercial part of the diet. Six out of ten dogs were given treats, and one-fourth was given vitamin/mineral supplements (most commonly daily). Most dogs consumed diets that were nutritionally balanced. No dogs in the study consumed diets that supplied lower amounts of protein than recommended by the NRC (2006). Only two individuals (<1%) were given total diets that were lower than the nutrient profiles in fat. Few dogs consumed total diets that were lower than recommended by the NRC (2006) in calcium, phosphorus, and vitamins A, D and E (2, 1, 3, 5, and 3% of the individuals, respectively). A few individuals consumed higher levels of vitamins A and D (<1 and 4%, respectively) than recommended. Diets that deviated from recommended levels were those consisting of only table foods with no supplements (too-low in vitamins and minerals) or

  12. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P; Heringstad, B

    2012-01-01

    The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (silages were restrictedly fermented. Silage digestible organic matter in dry matter (DM) values were 747, 708, and 647 g/kg of DM for H1, H2, and H3, respectively. Dietary treatments were fed in a 3×3 factorial arrangement of the 3 silages supplemented with 3 concentrate levels (4, 8, and 12 kg/d) and, additionally, H1 was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4 kg of concentrates were strongly constrained by high dietary fiber concentration. They consumed 16.5 g of neutral detergent fiber/kg of body weight and spent more time eating silage than cows offered other diets. The highest

  13. Milk cow feed intake and milk production and distribution estimates for Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, D.M.; Darwin, R.F.; Erickson, A.R.; Eckert, R.L.

    1992-04-01

    This report provides initial information on milk production and distribution in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Phase I study area. The Phase I study area consists of eight countries in central Washington and two countries in northern Oregon. The primary objective of the HEDR Project is to develop estimates of the radiation doses populations could have received from Hanford operations. The objective of Phase I of the project was to determine the feasibility of reconstructing data, models, and development of preliminary dose estimates received by people living in the ten countries surrounding Hanford from 1944 to 1947. One of the most important contributors to radiation doses from Hanford during the period of interest was radioactive iodine. Consumption of milk from cows that ate vegetation contaminated with iodine is likely the dominant pathway of human exposure. To estimate the doses people could have received from this pathway, it is necessary to estimate the amount of milk that the people living in the Phase I area consumed, the source of the milk, and the type of feed that the milk cows ate. The objective of the milk model subtask is to identify the sources of milk supplied to residents of each community in the study area as well as the sources of feeds that were fed to the milk cows. In this report, we focus on Grade A cow's milk (fresh milk used for human consumption).

  14. Effects of syndyphalin-33 on feed intake and circulating measures of growth hormone, cortisol, and immune cell populations in the recently-weaned pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    The synthetic met-enkephalin syndyphalin-33 (SD-33) increases feed intake in sheep and transiently increases circulating growth hormone (GH) concentrations in sheep, rats, and pigs. Two experiments were performed to evaluate the effects of SD-33 on recently-weaned pigs. In a preliminary experiment, ...

  15. Effect of Different Levels of Organic Acids Supplementation on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Milk composition of Dairy Cows during Thermal Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, S.; Ali, A.; Mobashar, M.; Inam, M.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, Mubarak; Khan, H.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries in the tropics, thermal stress results in lower feed intake, changes in energy metabolism, alterations in endocrine profiles of dairy cows which lead to animal health problems and production losses. Supplementation of organic acids can reduce the toxic metabolites and en

  16. Effect of Different Levels of Organic Acids Supplementation on Feed Intake, Milk Yield and Milk composition of Dairy Cows during Thermal Stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, S.; Ali, A.; Mobashar, M.; Inam, M.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, Mubarak; Khan, H.

    2013-01-01

    In many developing countries in the tropics, thermal stress results in lower feed intake, changes in energy metabolism, alterations in endocrine profiles of dairy cows which lead to animal health problems and production losses. Supplementation of organic acids can reduce the toxic metabolites and

  17. Effects of feeding perennial ryegrass with an elevated concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates on intake, rumen function and performance of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taweel, H.Z.; Tas, B.M.; Smit, H.J.; Elgersma, A.; Dijkstra, J.; Tamminga, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated effects of feeding perennial ryegrass with an elevated concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) on dry matter intake (DMI), rumen function, milk production and composition of dairy cows. Twelve Holstein-Friesian dairy cows in mid lactation were stall-fed with fresh

  18. Association between breed composition, phenotypic residual feed intake, temperament, ELISA scores for paratuberculosis, and ultrasound carcass traits in an Angus-Brahman multibreed herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultrasound carcass measurements are an important tool for preliminary assessment of carcass worth in beef cattle. Breed composition, phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI), temperament, and subclinical paratuberculosis in dams may affect calf ultrasound traits. The objective was to evaluate the assoc...

  19. Relationships among performance, residual feed intake, and temperament assessed in growing beef heifers and subsequently as 3-year-old, lactating beef cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seventy-four beef heifers were used to evaluate the relationships among performance, residual feed intake (RFI), and temperament measured as growing heifers (Phase 1) and subsequently as 3-year-old lactating beef cows (Phase 2) in the same cohort. In both phases, females were housed in a covered fac...

  20. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A

    2015-12-01

    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept. Dietary buffers, such as NaHCO3 and K2CO3, increase DCAD and have been used in lactating dairy cow diets for several decades. However, most published studies on buffer feeding were conducted before the development of the DCAD concept. Our objective was to determine the intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to DCAD using previous studies with dietary buffer addition and more recent studies that focused on DCAD as dietary treatments. The database consisted of 43 articles that were published between 1965 and 2011. The studies included 196 dietary treatments and 89 treatment comparisons with a range in DCAD from -68 to 811mEq/kg of diet DM, with the vast majority between 0 and 500mEq/kg of diet DM. For studies that lacked analyses of one or more of the dietary strong ions (Na, K, Cl, or S), ion percentages were estimated from ingredient composition using the 2001 dairy National Research Council software. Two basic models were used to evaluate DCAD responses using the NLMIXED procedure in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC): (1) a simple linear model, Y=A + B × (DCAD), where A=intercept and B=the increment (slope) in performance per unit DCAD (mEq/kg of diet DM); and (2) a nonlinear model, Y=A + M[1 - e((K × DCAD))], where M=maximal increment in performance from DCAD and K=the rate constant. In both models, study was designated as the random effect. The DCAD effects best described by the linear model included milk fat percent, fat yield, ruminal pH, NDF digestibility, and feed efficiency [3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM; kg)/dry matter intake (DMI; kg)] where a 100mEq/kg increase in DCAD resulted in respective increases of 0.10%, 36g/d, 0.032 pH units, 1.5% NDF digestibility, and 0.013 FCM/DMI units. The DMI, milk yield, and 3.5% FCM were best

  1. Prediction and validation of residual feed intake and dry matter intake in Danish lactating dairy cows using mid-infrared spectroscopy of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, N; Løvendahl, P; Lund, M S; Buitenhuis, A J

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the effectiveness of Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-IR) spectral profiles as a predictor for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI). The partial least squares regression method was used to develop the prediction models. The models were validated using different external test sets, one randomly leaving out 20% of the records (validation A), the second randomly leaving out 20% of cows (validation B), and a third (for DMI prediction models) randomly leaving out one cow (validation C). The data included 1,044 records from 140 cows; 97 were Danish Holstein and 43 Danish Jersey. Results showed better accuracies for validation A compared with other validation methods. Milk yield (MY) contributed largely to DMI prediction; MY explained 59% of the variation and the validated model error root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.24kg. The model was improved by adding live weight (LW) as an additional predictor trait, where the accuracy R(2) increased from 0.59 to 0.72 and error RMSEP decreased from 2.24 to 1.83kg. When only the milk FT-IR spectral profile was used in DMI prediction, a lower prediction ability was obtained, with R(2)=0.30 and RMSEP=2.91kg. However, once the spectral information was added, along with MY and LW as predictors, model accuracy improved and R(2) increased to 0.81 and RMSEP decreased to 1.49kg. Prediction accuracies of RFI changed throughout lactation. The RFI prediction model for the early-lactation stage was better compared with across lactation or mid- and late-lactation stages, with R(2)=0.46 and RMSEP=1.70. The most important spectral wavenumbers that contributed to DMI and RFI prediction models included fat, protein, and lactose peaks. Comparable prediction results were obtained when using infrared-predicted fat, protein, and lactose instead of full spectra, indicating that FT-IR spectral data do not add significant new information to improve DMI and RFI prediction models. Therefore, in

  2. Colostrum protein uptake in neonatal lambs examined by descriptive and quantitative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez-Castellano, Lorenzo E; Argueello, Anastasio; Almeida, Andre M

    2015-01-01

    Colostrum intake is a key factor for newborn ruminant survival because the placenta does not allow the transfer of immune components. Therefore, newborn ruminants depend entirely on passive immunity transfer from the mother to the neonate, through the suckling of colostrum. Understanding...... dodecyl sulfate-PAGE for protein separation and in-gel digestion, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of resulting tryptic peptides for protein identification. An isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomics approach was subsequently used to provide...

  3. Cluster-randomized trial on complementary and responsive feeding education to caregivers found improved dietary intake, growth and development among rural Indian toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazir, Shahnaz; Engle, Patrice; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Griffiths, Paula L; Johnson, Susan L; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Fernandez Rao, Sylvia; Shroff, Monal R; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate feeding and care may contribute to high rates of stunting and underweight among children in rural families in India. This cluster-randomized trial tested the hypothesis that teaching caregivers appropriate complementary feeding and strategies for how to feed and play responsively through home-visits would increase children's dietary intake, growth and development compared with home-visit-complementary feeding education alone or routine care. Sixty villages in Andhra Pradesh were randomized into three groups of 20 villages with 200 mother-infant dyads in each group. The control group (CG) received routine Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS); the complementary feeding group (CFG) received the ICDS plus the World Health Organization recommendations on breastfeeding and complementary foods; and the responsive complementary feeding and play group (RCF&PG) received the same intervention as the CFG plus skills for responsive feeding and psychosocial stimulation. Both intervention groups received bi-weekly visits by trained village women. The groups did not differ at 3 months on socioeconomic status, maternal and child nutritional indices, and maternal depression. After controlling for potential confounding factors using the mixed models approach, the 12-month intervention to the CFG and RCF&PG significantly (P Development scores (mean = 3.1, CI: 0.8-5.3) in the RCF&PG (but not CFG) compared with CG. Community-based educational interventions can improve dietary intake, length (CFG) and mental development (RCF&PG) for children under 2 years in food-secure rural Indian families.

  4. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of residual feed intake measures and their component traits with fatty acid composition in subcutaneous adipose of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, F; Ekine-Dzivenu, C; Vinsky, M; Basarab, J A; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; Li, C

    2017-07-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular interest to the beef industry because feed is the largest variable cost in production and fatty acid composition is emerging as an important trait, both economically and socially, due to the potential implications of dietary fatty acids on human health. Quantifying correlations between feed efficiency and fatty acid composition will contribute to construction of optimal multiple-trait selection indexes to maximize beef production profitability. In the present study, we estimated phenotypic and genetic correlations of feed efficiency measures including residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for final ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf); their component traits ADG, DMI, and metabolic BW; and final ultrasound backfat thickness measured at the end of feedlot test with 25 major fatty acids in the subcutaneous adipose tissues of 1,366 finishing steers and heifers using bivariate animal models. The phenotypic correlations of RFI and RFIf with the 25 individual and grouped fatty acid traits were generally low (feed efficiency, feed intake, and growth are important in the breeding objective.

  5. Effect of fiber digestibility and conservation method on feed intake and the ruminal ecosystem of growing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, D O; Mesquita, B S; Diniz-Magalhães, J; Bueno, I C S; Mesquita, L G; Silva, L F P

    2014-12-01

    of R. albus was also greater (P=0.04) for diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD. Feeding diets containing the sugarcane genotype with high NDFD increased Fibrobacter succinogenes population but only when sugarcane was fed as freshly cut (P=0.02). Using sugarcane genotypes with high NDFD can increase intake and benefit fiber-degrading bacteria in the rumen.

  6. Feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and body weight change of sheep consuming wheat straw supplemented with local agricultural and agro-industrial by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2010-06-01

    Effects of supplementing sheep consuming wheat straw with local agro-industrial by-products on feed intake, growth, digestibility and nitrogen utilization were determined. Thirty 1-year-old local wethers, with a mean (+/-SD) live weight of 19.8 (+/-1.06) kg, were assigned to five treatments: wheat straw + atella (T1), wheat straw + atella + poultry litter (T2), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp (T3), wheat straw + atella + coffee pulp + poultry litter (T4), hay + concentrate (T5). A 7-day digestibility experiment and a 112-day growth trial were conducted. Total dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) intake as well as body weight gain was similar for all treatments. The highest (P coffee pulp are available, smallholder farmers could feed the mixtures as a supplement to straw with a good performance without using concentrate feeds.

  7. Improved gut barrier function via increased threonine utilization may explain enhanced resistance to necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm pigs fed colostrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Threonine is an essential amino acid necessary for synthesis of gut mucins that form the protective intestinal mucous layer. In premature infants, this function might be compromised leading to necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). We hypothesized that enteral feeding with colostrum, relative to infant fo...

  8. Immunoglobulin transfer and weight gains in suckled beef calves force-fed stored colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J A; Niilo, L

    1985-04-01

    Concentrations of immunoglobulins and total proteins in second-day post-partum serum samples of 62 beef calves from multiparous dams were measured by zinc sulphate turbidity, electrophoresis, radial immunodiffusion and refractometry. These results, together with health records and weight gains, were used to evaluate the practice of routinely force-feeding 1 L of stored colostrum to suckled beef calves immediately after birth. There was no apparent benefit from such force-feeding. It did not result in greater 48-hour serum immunoglobulin levels, nor did it improve weight gains at 42 days. None of the calves required treatment for neonatal disease, but one force-fed calf died from inhalation of regurgitated colostrum.

  9. Effect of DL-malic acid supplementation on feed intake, methane emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, P A; Kenny, D A; Callan, J J; Boland, T M; O'Mara, F P

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary concentration of dl-malic acid (MA) on DMI, CH(4) emission, and rumen fermentation in beef cattle. Two Latin square experiments were conducted. In Exp. 1, six beef heifers (19 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned in a duplicated Latin square to 1 of 3 dietary concentrations of MA on a DMI basis (0%, MA-0; 3.75%, MA-3.75; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) over 3 periods. In Exp. 2, four rumen-fistulated steers (48 +/- 1 mo old) were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary concentrations of MA (0%, MA-0; 2.5%, MA-2.5; 5.0%, MA-5.0; or 7.5%, MA-7.5) on a DMI basis, over 4 periods. Both experimental diets consisted of grass silage and pelleted concentrate (containing MA). Silage was fed ad libitum once daily (a.m.), whereas concentrate was fed twice daily (a.m. and p.m.) with the aim of achieving a total DMI of 40:60 silage:concentrate. In both Exp. 1 and 2, experimental periods consisted of 28 d, incorporating a 13-d acclimatization, a 5-d measurement period, and a 10-d washout period. In Exp. 1, enteric CH(4), feed apparent digestibility, and feed intake were measured over the 5-d measurement period. In Exp. 2, rumen fluid was collected on d 16 to 18, immediately before (a.m.) feeding and 2, 4, 6, and 8 h thereafter. Rumen pH was determined and samples were taken for protozoa count, VFA, and ammonia analysis. Enteric CH(4) emissions were estimated by using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer technique and feed apparent digestibility was estimated by using chromic oxide as an external marker for fecal output. In Exp. 1, increasing dietary MA led to a linear decrease in total DMI (P emissions (P emissions by 16%, which corresponded to a 9% reduction per unit of DMI. Similarly, in Exp. 2, inclusion of MA reduced DMI in a linear (P = 0.002) and quadratic (P emissions, but DMI was also decreased, which could have potentially negative effects on animal performance.

  10. Characterization and Profiling of Liver microRNAs by RNA-sequencing in Cattle Divergently Selected for Residual Feed Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Husseini, Wijdan; Chen, Yizhou; Gondro, Cedric; Herd, Robert M; Gibson, John P; Arthur, Paul F

    2016-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of mRNAs in many biological pathways. Liver plays an important role in the feed efficiency of animals and high and low efficient cattle demonstrated different gene expression profiles by microarray. Here we report comprehensive miRNAs profiles by next-gen deep sequencing in Angus cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) and identify miRNAs related to feed efficiency in beef cattle. Two microRNA libraries were constructed from pooled RNA extracted from livers of low and high RFI cattle, and sequenced by Illumina genome analyser. In total, 23,628,103 high quality short sequence reads were obtained and more than half of these reads were matched to the bovine genome (UMD 3.1). We identified 305 known bovine miRNAs. Bta-miR-143, bta-miR-30, bta-miR-122, bta-miR-378, and bta-let-7 were the top five most abundant miRNAs families expressed in liver, representing more than 63% of expressed miRNAs. We also identified 52 homologous miRNAs and 10 novel putative bovine-specific miRNAs, based on precursor sequence and the secondary structure and utilizing the miRBase (v. 21). We compared the miRNAs profile between high and low RFI animals and ranked the most differentially expressed bovine known miRNAs. Bovine miR-143 was the most abundant miRNA in the bovine liver and comprised 20% of total expressed mapped miRNAs. The most highly expressed miRNA in liver of mice and humans, miR-122, was the third most abundant in our cattle liver samples. We also identified 10 putative novel bovine-specific miRNA candidates. Differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI cattle were identified with 18 miRNAs being up-regulated and 7 other miRNAs down-regulated in low RFI cattle. Our study has identified comprehensive miRNAs expressed in bovine liver. Some of the expressed miRNAs are novel in cattle. The differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI give some

  11. Characterization and Profiling of Liver microRNAs by RNA-sequencing in Cattle Divergently Selected for Residual Feed Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wijdan Al-Husseini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of mRNAs in many biological pathways. Liver plays an important role in the feed efficiency of animals and high and low efficient cattle demonstrated different gene expression profiles by microarray. Here we report comprehensive miRNAs profiles by next-gen deep sequencing in Angus cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI and identify miRNAs related to feed efficiency in beef cattle. Two microRNA libraries were constructed from pooled RNA extracted from livers of low and high RFI cattle, and sequenced by Illumina genome analyser. In total, 23,628,103 high quality short sequence reads were obtained and more than half of these reads were matched to the bovine genome (UMD 3.1. We identified 305 known bovine miRNAs. Bta-miR-143, bta-miR-30, bta-miR-122, bta-miR-378, and bta-let-7 were the top five most abundant miRNAs families expressed in liver, representing more than 63% of expressed miRNAs. We also identified 52 homologous miRNAs and 10 novel putative bovine-specific miRNAs, based on precursor sequence and the secondary structure and utilizing the miRBase (v. 21. We compared the miRNAs profile between high and low RFI animals and ranked the most differentially expressed bovine known miRNAs. Bovine miR-143 was the most abundant miRNA in the bovine liver and comprised 20% of total expressed mapped miRNAs. The most highly expressed miRNA in liver of mice and humans, miR-122, was the third most abundant in our cattle liver samples. We also identified 10 putative novel bovine-specific miRNA candidates. Differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI cattle were identified with 18 miRNAs being up-regulated and 7 other miRNAs down-regulated in low RFI cattle. Our study has identified comprehensive miRNAs expressed in bovine liver. Some of the expressed miRNAs are novel in cattle. The differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI

  12. Effect of Dietary Types on Feed Intakes, Growth Performance and Economic Benefit in Tibetan sheep and Yaks on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau during Cold Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianwei; Xu, Shixiao; Hu, Linyong; Zhao, Na; Liu, Zhe; Ma, Li; Liu, Hongjin; Zhao, Xinquan

    2017-01-01

    Pastoralists on the Tibetan alpine rangeland suffered great economic loss in cold season, due to serious live-weight loss of domestic livestock under traditional grazing management. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary types (crude protein levels) on feed intakes, growth performance and economic returns of local Tibetan sheep and yaks during cold season. Twenty-four yearling Tibetan sheep (25.29±3.95 kg LW) and twenty two-year-old yaks (100.62±4.55 kg LW) with familiar body conditions were randomly assigned to four groups, fed oats hay (OH), oats silage (OS), total mixed ration (TMR) and traditionally grazed on the local cool-season pasture (TG), respectively, over a 135-day experiment. Daily dry matter intake was determined; all animals were weighed at the beginning and every 15 days of the 135-day experiment. Then, the total live-weight gain, average daily live-weight gain, gain rate, feed efficiency and net economic benefit were calculated. Results indicated that feed and nutrient intakes (DMI, DMI/kg LW, DMI/kg LW0.75 and CPI) of TMR, OH and OS were higher than TG (P performance and feed efficiency, obtained the highest breeding profit in both Tibetan sheep and yaks among four treatments (P economic benefit, TMR shared the highest net economic benefit in Tibetan sheep, OH shared the highest net economic benefit in yaks, but, no significant difference of net economic benefit in yaks fed TMR and OH diets was determined (P > 0.05). Results indicated that TMR was a reasonable diet in promoting feed intakes, animal performance, feed efficiency and economic returns in domestic livestock, which should be considered by local herdsmen to increase their breeding profit during cold season.

  13. 猪乳香味剂对断奶仔猪采食行为和采食量的影响%Influence of Sow Milk Flavor on Feeding Behavior and Feed Intake of Weaner Piglets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕继蓉; 曾凡坤; 张克英

    2011-01-01

    Four weaner piglets were used in a 4-day experiment to investigate the effects of dietary milk flavor on feeding behavior and feed consumption of weaner piglets by free-choice method. The four pigs were fed in the same pen with four feeders, two feeders for test diet with flavor at 400 mg/kg while two feeders for control diet with no flavor. Each day the places of the feeders were exchanged. Each piglet was considered as a replicate.Feed intake was recorded each day and feeding behavior was recorded for 96 h continuously by monitoring camera. Results showed that sow milk flavor significantly increased the average daily intake frequency by 19. 5%(Py0.01), intake time by 9.6% (P <0.05) and average feed intake per second by 9.5% (P <0. 05), respectively, compared with the control diet. The feed intake and intake time per visit were lower than those of the control group (P > 0.05). Compared with the control diet, the average daily feed intake of the test diet was increased by 18. 1% ( P > 0.05 ). The results indicate that the sow milk flavor could increase feed intake by increasing the average daily intake frequency, intake time and intake speed. [ Chinese Journal of Animal Nutrition, 2011, 23(5) :848-853]%为考察具有与猪母乳风味相同的乳味香味剂对断奶仔猪采食量和采食行为的影响,本研究采用自由选择法试验,让断奶仔猪自由选择对照饲粮和试验饲粮.对照饲粮为基础饲粮,试验饲粮在对照饲粮基础上添加400 mg/kg猪乳香味荆,选择4头35日龄断奶的仔猪饲养于同一圈,分别在4个料盆中放置基础饲粮和试验饲粮,每天调整料盆位置,结算饲料消耗.试验期为4 d,采用96 h全程监控摄像记录仔猪的采食行为,计算采食次数、采食时间,并记录每天对照饲粮、试验饲粮的消耗量.结果显示,添加猪乳香味剂具有显著提高仔猪采食次数、采食时间和采食速度的作用,断奶仔猪平均每天的采食次数、

  14. Novel insight into the genomic architecture of feed and nitrogen efficiency measured by residual energy intake and nitrogen excretion in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Doeschl-Wilson, Andrea; Knap, Pieter W; Kanis, Egbert; van Arendonk, Johan A M; Roehe, Rainer

    2013-12-20

    Improvement of feed efficiency in pigs is of great economical and environmental interest and contributes to use limited resources efficiently to feed the world population. Genome scans for feed efficiency traits are of importance to reveal the underlying biological causes and increase the rate of genetic gain. The aim of this study was to determine the genomic architecture of feed efficiency measured by residual energy intake (REI), in association with production, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and nitrogen excretion traits through the identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) at different stages of growth using a three generation full-sib design population which originated from a cross between Pietrain and a commercial dam line. Six novel QTL for REI were detected explaining 2.7-6.1% of the phenotypic variance in REI. At growth from 60-90 kg body weight (BW), a QTL with a significant dominance effect was identified for REI on SSC14, at a similar location to the QTL for feed intake and nitrogen excretion traits. At growth from 90-120 kg BW, three QTL for REI were detected on SSC2, SSC4 and SSC7 with significant additive, imprinting and additive effects, respectively. These QTL (except for the imprinted QTL) were positionally overlapping with QTL for FCR and nitrogen excretion traits. During final growth (120-140 kg BW), a further QTL for REI was identified on SSC8 with significant additive effect, which overlapped with QTL for nitrogen excretion. During entire analysed growth (60-140 kg BW), a novel additive QTL for REI on SSC4 was observed, with no overlapping with QTL for any other traits considered. The occurrence of only one overlapping QTL of REI with feed intake suggests that only a small proportion of the variance in REI was explained by change in feed intake, whereas four overlapping QTL of REI with those of nitrogen excretion traits suggests that mostly underlying factors of feed utilisation such as metabolism and protein turnover were the reason for

  15. Poultry performance in different grazing densities: forage characteristics, losses due to grazing and feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Cristiano França

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of three forage species grazed by rustic poultry in stocking were evaluated. Coast-cross fodder, kikuyu grass, and stylosanthes were planted in 33-m2 paddocks with two densities (m2/animal: D1 = 3m2/animal and D2 = 1m2/animal. The design was a randomized complete block with a 3 x 2 factorial (three grasses and two densities and three replications. Grass canopy height, grass mass, morphological composition (leaf, stem, and dead material, losses due to grazing, poultry weight gain and consumption, and concentrate feed conversion ratio and efficiency were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, forage and leaves masses were considered low to stylosanthes in D2 (0.28 to 0.03 kg/m2 and to kikuyu grass in D1 (0.13 to 0.05 kg/m2 and in D2 (0.11 and 0.03 kg/m2, respectively. In addition, the grass canopy height was considered low for stylosanthes (6.50 cm that could jeopardize the entry of new poultry lot. The three grass species had similar weight gain and revealed better results for 3m²/ chicken (3.20 kg/animal. Coast-cross fodder, kikuyu grass, and stylosanthes, with some exceptions, can be considered suitable for grazing fattening poultry at 3m2/animal at the evaluated time of the year (autumn.

  16. Effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) in the lactation diet on the feed intake and fertility of sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Andreas

    2010-08-01

    A diet contaminated with 2.8 mg deoxynivalenol (DON)/kg was fed at 6 kg per day to 32 mycotoxin-exposed pluriparous sows (M) during lactation. The 31 control sows (C) received 6 kg of an uncontaminated diet. Although more contaminated diet was refused (P = 0.05), DON exposure had no effect (P > 0.1) on body weight loss of the sows during lactation (M: 27.9 ± 12.3 kg; C: 29.7 ± 10.2 kg), the number of weaned piglets (M: 9.8 ± 1.4; C: 9.7 ± 1.6) and their daily weight gain (M: 266 ± 70 g; C: 272 ± 64 g). Several sows were culled after weaning for reasons unrelated to the experiment. Compared with the remaining 21 C sows, the remaining 26 M sows had an identical interval between weaning and the next farrowing (M: 120 ± 1 days; C: 120 ± 1 days) and a similar litter size (M: 14.5 ± 2.7; C: 14.9 ± 3.0; P > 0.10). The daily intake of 17 mg DON during lactation thus did not affect the reproductive performance of the sows.

  17. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on feed intake, energy balance, milk production, and composition in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Yepes, F A Leal; Overton, T R; Wakshlag, J J; Lock, A L; Ryan, C M; Nydam, D V

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the degree of ketonemia postpartum. Epidemiologic studies provide evidence of an association between elevated β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations in postpartum dairy cows and a decreased risk for reproductive success as well as increased risk for several diseases in early lactation, such as displacement of the abomasum and metritis. The plane of energy fed to cows in the prepartum period has been shown to influence ketogenesis and the degree of negative energy balance postpartum. Our hypothesis was that a high-fiber, controlled-energy diet (C) fed during the dry period would lead to a lower degree of hyperketonemia in the first weeks postpartum compared with either a high-energy diet (H), or a diet where an intermediate level of energy would only be fed in the close-up period (starting at 28d before expected parturition), following the same controlled-energy diet in the far-off period. Hyperketonemia in this study was defined as a blood BHBA concentration of ≥1.2mmol/L. Holstein cows (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were enrolled using a randomized block design and housed in individual tiestalls. All treatment diets were fed for ad libitum intake and contained monensin. Cows received the same fresh cow ration after calving. Blood samples were obtained 3 times weekly before and after calving and analyzed for BHBA and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA). Milk components, production, and dry matter intake were recorded and energy balance was calculated. Repeated measures ANOVA was conducted for the outcomes dry matter intake, energy balance, BHBA and NEFA concentrations, milk and energy-corrected milk yield, as well as milk composition. Pr