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Sample records for feed efficiency parameters

  1. Feed efficiency, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of young Nellore males and females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; dos Santos, Guilherme Pinheiro; Branco, Renata Helena; Ribeiro, Enilson Geraldo; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilization between young Nellore males and females by comparing growth traits, feed intake, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of the animals. Data from 768 Nellore males and females that participated in eight performance tests for individual feed intake evaluation were used. Performance and feed efficiency measures, efficiency-related hematological, metabolic and hormonal variables, and data regarding ingestive behavior were collected. Feed efficiency measures were defined by the relationship between performance and feed intake. Data were analyzed using mixed models that included the fixed effects of sex, herd, and the covariate age within sex and the random effects of facility within year, year, and residual. Significant differences between males and females were observed for traits related to weight gain and feed intake. Although individual dynamics of feed efficiency measures differed between males and females, no significant differences in residual feed intake, feed efficiency, or relative growth rate were observed between sexes. Significant differences between sexes were found for platelets, red blood cells, hemoglobin, creatinine, glucose, urea, triglycerides, insulin, cortisol, and IGF-I. Females spent more time feeding and less time ruminating when compared to males. However, males exhibited higher feeding efficiency and lower rumination efficiency than females. Growing Nellore males and females are efficient in feed utilization, and the differences in blood variables observed are probably due to differences in body size and feed intake. Males spend less time eating, consume more food, and spend more time ruminating than females.

  2. Associations of rumen parameters with feed efficiency and sampling routine in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S; Munro, J C; Zhou, M; Guan, L L; Schenkel, F S; Steele, M A; Miller, S P; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-11-10

    Characterizing ruminal parameters in the context of sampling routine and feed efficiency is fundamental to understand the efficiency of feed utilization in the bovine. Therefore, we evaluated microbial and volatile fatty acid (VFA) profiles, rumen papillae epithelial and stratum corneum thickness and rumen pH (RpH) and temperature (RT) in feedlot cattle. In all, 48 cattle (32 steers plus 16 bulls), fed a high moisture corn and haylage-based ration, underwent a productive performance test to determine residual feed intake (RFI) using feed intake, growth, BW and composition traits. Rumen fluid was collected, then RpH and RT logger were inserted 5.5±1 days before slaughter. At slaughter, the logger was recovered and rumen fluid and rumen tissue were sampled. The relative daily time spent in specific RpH and RT ranges were determined. Polynomial regression analysis was used to characterize RpH and RT circadian patterns. Animals were divided into efficient and inefficient groups based on RFI to compare productive performance and ruminal parameters. Efficient animals consumed 1.8 kg/day less dry matter than inefficient cattle (P⩽0.05) while achieving the same productive performance (P⩾0.10). Ruminal bacteria population was higher (P⩽0.05) (7.6×1011 v. 4.3×1011 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) and methanogen population was lower (P⩽0.05) (2.3×109 v. 4.9×109 copy number of 16S rRNA gene/ml rumen fluid) in efficient compared with inefficient cattle at slaughter with no differences (P⩾0.10) between samples collected on-farm. No differences (P⩾0.10) in rumen fluid VFA were also observed between feed efficiency groups either on-farm or at slaughter. However, increased (P⩽0.05) acetate, and decreased (P⩽0.05) propionate, butyrate, valerate and caproate concentrations were observed at slaughter compared with on-farm. Efficient had increased (P⩽0.05) rumen epithelium thickness (136 v. 126 µm) compared with inefficient cattle. Efficient animals

  3. Genetic parameters of rumination time and feed efficiency traits in primiparous Holstein cows under research and commercial conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov, M V; Fogh, A; Løvendahl, P

    2017-12-01

    Feed efficiency has the potential to be improved both through feeding, management, and breeding. Including feed efficiency in a selection index is limited by the fact that dry matter intake (DMI) recording is only feasible under research facilities, resulting in small data sets and, consequently, uncertain genetic parameter estimates. As a result, the need to record DMI indicator traits on a larger scale exists. Rumination time (RT), which is already recorded in commercial dairy herds by a sensor-based system, has been suggested as a potential DMI indicator. However, RT can only be a DMI indicator if it is heritable, correlates with DMI, and if the genetic parameters of RT in commercial herd settings are similar to those in research facilities. Therefore, the objective of our study was to estimate genetic parameters for RT and the related traits of DMI in primiparous Holstein cows, and to compare genetic parameters of rumination data between a research herd and 72 commercial herds. The estimated heritability values were all moderate for DMI (0.32-0.49), residual feed intake (0.23-0.36), energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield (0.49-0.70), and RT (0.14-0.44) found in the research herd. The estimated heritability values for ECM were lower for the commercial herds (0.08-0.35) than that for the research herd. The estimated heritability values for RT were similar for the 2 herd types (0.28-0.32). For the research herd, we found negative individual level correlations between RT and DMI (-0.24 to -0.09) and between RT and RFI (-0.34 to -0.03), and we found both positive and negative correlations between RT and ECM (-0.08 to 0.09). For the commercial herds, genetic correlations between RT and ECM were both positive and negative (-0.27 to 0.10). In conclusion, RT was not found to be a suitable indicator trait for feed intake and only a weak indicator of feed efficiency. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Genetic parameters and expected responses to selection for components of feed efficiency in a Duroc pig line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Juan P; Ragab, Mohamed; Quintanilla, Raquel; Rothschild, Max F; Piles, Miriam

    2017-12-01

    Improving feed efficiency ([Formula: see text]) is a key factor for any pig breeding company. Although this can be achieved by selection on an index of multi-trait best linear unbiased prediction of breeding values with optimal economic weights, considering deviations of feed intake from actual needs ([Formula: see text]) should be of value for further research on biological aspects of [Formula: see text]. Here, we present a random regression model that extends the classical definition of [Formula: see text] by including animal-specific needs in the model. Using this model, we explore the genetic determinism of several [Formula: see text] components: use of feed for growth ([Formula: see text]), use of feed for backfat deposition ([Formula: see text]), use of feed for maintenance ([Formula: see text]), and unspecific efficiency in the use of feed ([Formula: see text]). Expected response to alternative selection indexes involving different components is also studied. Based on goodness-of-fit to the available feed intake ([Formula: see text]) data, the model that assumes individual (genetic and permanent) variation in the use of feed for maintenance, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] showed the best performance. Joint individual variation in feed allocation to maintenance, growth and backfat deposition comprised 37% of the individual variation of [Formula: see text]. The estimated heritabilities of [Formula: see text] using the model that accounts for animal-specific needs and the traditional [Formula: see text] model were 0.12 and 0.18, respectively. The estimated heritabilities for the regression coefficients were 0.44, 0.39 and 0.55 for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], respectively. Estimates of genetic correlations of [Formula: see text] were positive with amount of feed used for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] but negative for [Formula: see text]. Expected response in overall efficiency, reducing [Formula

  5. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  6. Genetic parameters for different measures of feed efficiency and related traits in boars of three pig breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Jensen, Just

    2013-01-01

    ) to 0.67 (LL) for BF, and from 0.13 (DD) to 0.19 (YY) for body conformation. Feeding behavior traits including DFI, number of visits to feeder per day (NVD), total time spent eating per day (TPD), feed intake rate (FR), feed intake per visit (FPV), and time spent eating per visit (TPV) were moderately...

  7. Effect of Weaning Age on Growth Performance, Feed Efficiency, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood-biochemical Parameters in Droughtmaster Crossbred Beef Calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hui; Guo, Feng; Diao, Qi-Yu; Tu, Yan; Si, Bing-Wen; Xing, Yu-Chuan; Huang, De-Jun

    2017-11-03

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of weaning age on intake, performance, nutrition metabolism and serum parameters of beef calves. 60 head of Droughtmaster crossbred calves were assigned to 5 groups with 12 calves in each group. The calves in control Group were remained with the dams till the 22-week age, while the calves weaned at 28d (4w), 42 d(6w), 56 d(8w) and 70 d(10w) of age were sent to Group 4W, Group6W, Group 8Wand Group 10W separately, and then they were fed on milk replacer (MR) till the 22-week age. DMI of calves in Group 4W was significantly lower than that in the rest groups from w17 to 22 (Pfeed efficiency of the calves were higher in the Group 4W and 6W than that in Group 6W and 8W from 11 to 13w (P0.05). Calves in Group 4W and 6W had lower body weight than that in the Group 8W and Group 10W and control group at 10-week age (Pcalves in Group 6W had no significant difference of body weight with that in control group, Group 8W and 10W(P0.05). Calve in Group 6W had higher final body weight and total gain than that in Group 4W, but no difference of total gain with that in Group 8W, 10W and control group. And weaning calve at age of 6-week age brought higher feed efficiency and average daily gain from w14 to 22, and higher DM and OM digestibility at w21. It is concluded that the weaning of calves at 6 weeks of age gave positive results.

  8. The relationship between different measures of feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits in Duroc pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, D; Jiao, S; Tiezzi, F; Knauer, M; Huang, Y; Gray, K A; Maltecca, C

    2017-08-01

    suggested that accounting for the social common pen effect was important for estimating genetic parameters of traits recorded by the automated feeding system. Residual BW gain and RIG appeared to be two robust measures of feed efficiency. Feeding behavior measures are worth further investigation as indicators of feed efficiency.

  9. High efficiency cell-recycle continuous sodium gluconate production by Aspergillus niger using on-line physiological parameters association analysis to regulate feed rate rationally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fei; Li, Chao; Wang, Zejian; Zhao, Wei; Chu, Ju; Zhuang, Yingping; Zhang, Siliang

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a system of cell-recycle continuous fermentation for sodium gluconate (SG) production by Aspergillus niger (A. niger) was established. Based on initial continuous fermentation result (100.0h) with constant feed rate, an automatic feedback strategy to regulate feed rate using on-line physiological parameters (OUR and DO) was proposed and applied successfully for the first time in the improved continuous fermentation (240.5h). Due to less auxiliary time, highest SG production rate (31.05±0.29gL(-1)h(-1)) and highest yield (0.984±0.067molmol(-1)), overall SG production capacity (975.8±5.8gh(-1)) in 50-L fermentor of improved continuous fermentation increased more than 300.0% compared to that of batch fermentation. Improvement of mass transfer and dispersed mycelia morphology were the two major reasons responsible for the high SG production rate. This system had been successfully applied to industrial fermentation and SG production was greatly improved. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of supplemented Curcuma in feed formulation to improve growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, M. M.; Zubaidah, M.; Arief, M.; Prayogo

    2018-04-01

    Catfish (Clarias sp.) is very potential to be developed as a food fish. The use of the feed additive in feed intended to improve the health, productivity and compliance with animal nutrition. Feed additive is to use ginger are derived from nature.The purpose of this study was to determine the potential increase in feed formulation. The Curcuma effect on growth rate and feed efficiency of catfish (Clarias sp.). The method used experimental methods and design complete random with 4 treatments and 5 replications. The parameters examined in this study aregrowth rate and efficiency feed.The research showed that the ANOVA markedly dissimilar ( Padditive on formulations feed.

  11. Immunological parameters and residual feed intake of Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleisy Ferreira Nascimento

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The residual feed intake (RFI is a parameter used in the identification of animals with respect to more efficient feed utilization. However, physiological basis are still unknown, however, the interrelationships between nutrition an immunity of the animal can contribute to the investigation of biological phenomena relevant to the RFI, since the defense system to oxidative effects caused by free radicals, is formed by acid polyunsaturated fatty acids, water soluble substances and enzymes, which derive mainly from the use of nutrients in the diet. The objective of this study was to evaluate the immunological parameters of Nellore heifers classified according to RFI. It were evaluated 176 heifers (born between 2008 and 2010, Traditional Nellore herd from Instituto de Zootecnia - Sertãozinho/SP, forming three groups of evaluation, submitted to test post weaning feed efficiency and classified into high (> mean + 0.5 SD, n= 55, medium (± 0.5 SD, n= 65 and low RFI (< mean – 0.5 SD, n= 56. The diet was formulated based on Brachiaria decumbens hay, corn, cottonseed meal and mineral mixture (45:55, forage: concentrate. The weight of the animals were performed in fasting blood samples collected by venipuncture vein, using tubes of 10 ml type vacuntainer with EDTA anticoagulant. In the clinical laboratory, we measured the values of leukocytes (LEU; Targeted (SEG and lymphocytes (LIN. The experimental design was a randomized block design using PROC GLM of SAS, considering the fixed effects of year and the age covariate in the statistical model and the averages compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. There was no significant difference (P>0,005 between variables leukocyte (LEU, SEG and LIN and class of RFI (table 1, indicating that there is no distinction between animals more efficient (low RFI and less efficient (high RFI, for inflammatory and immune responses to oxidative effects. Therefore the variables measured leukocytes not explain the differences

  12. Genomic selection for feed efficiency in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pryce, J.E.; Wales, W.J.; Haas, de Y.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Hayes, B.J.

    2014-01-01

    Feed is a major component of variable costs associated with dairy systems and is therefore an important consideration for breeding objectives. As a result, measures of feed efficiency are becoming popular traits for genetic analyses. Already, several countries account for feed efficiency in their

  13. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  14. Systems Genetics and Transcriptomics of Feed Efficiency in Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Hoglund, J.; Løvendahl, P.

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-hydroxybutyrates, Triacylglyceride and urea. Feed efficiency, namely Residual Feed Intake and Kleiber Ratio based on daily feed or dry matter intake, body weight and milk production records also will be calculated. The bovine RNAseq gene expression data will be analyzed using statistical-bioinformatics and systems biology...... partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....

  15. Genetic relationship between feed efficiency and profitability traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce the cost of feeding ... Feed costs represent approximately one-half the total cost of production for ... FCR and the energy required for growth and maintenance, assumed in the .... benefit to overall herd productivity has been questioned seriously (Archer et al., 1998).

  16. A review of feed efficiency in swine: biology and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patience, John F; Rossoni-Serão, Mariana C; Gutiérrez, Néstor A

    2015-01-01

    Feed efficiency represents the cumulative efficiency with which the pig utilizes dietary nutrients for maintenance, lean gain and lipid accretion. It is closely linked with energy metabolism, as the oxidation of carbon-containing components in the feed drive all metabolic processes. While much is known about nutrient utilization and tissue metabolism, blending these subjects into a discussion on feed efficiency has proven to be difficult. For example, while increasing dietary energy concentration will almost certainly increase feed efficiency, the correlation between dietary energy concentration and feed efficiency is surprisingly low. This is likely due to the plethora of non-dietary factors that impact feed efficiency, such as the environment and health as well as individual variation in maintenance requirements, body composition and body weight. Nonetheless, a deeper understanding of feed efficiency is critical at many levels. To individual farms, it impacts profitability. To the pork industry, it represents its competitive position against other protein sources. To food economists, it means less demand on global feed resources. There are environmental and other societal implications as well. Interestingly, feed efficiency is not always reported simply as a ratio of body weight gain to feed consumed. This review will explain why this arithmetic calculation, as simple as it initially seems, and as universally applied as it is in science and commerce, can often be misleading due to errors inherent in recording of both weight gain and feed intake. This review discusses the importance of feed efficiency, the manner in which it can be measured and reported, its basis in biology and approaches to its improvement. It concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for future efforts.

  17. A prototype national cattle evaluation for feed intake and efficiency of Angus cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent development of technologies for measuring individual feed intake has made possible the collection of data suitable for breed-wide genetic evaluation. Goals of this research were to estimate genetic parameters for components of feed efficiency and develop a prototype system for conducting a ge...

  18. Performance efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate, and survival rate of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) through the addition of phytase in the feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmawati, D.; Samidjan, I.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of adding phytase enzyme in the feed on digestibility of feed, efficiency of feed utilization, relative growth rate and survival rate of Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish samples in this research were Common carp with an average - weight of 3.34 ± 0,16 g/fish. The treatments were adding the phytase enzyme in the feed with the different level of doses. Those were A (0 U kg-1 feed), B (500 U kg-1 feed), C (1.000 U kg-1 feed g) and D (1.500 U kg-1 feed). Observation was conducted on digestibility of protein (ADCP), digestibility of phosphor (ADCF), efficiency of feed utilization (EFU), relative growth rate (RGR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed conversion ratio (FCR), survival rate (SR) and water quality parameters. The results show that the addition of phytase enzyme significantly (P0.05) affected on SR of common carp. Based on results, it was concluded that optimum doses of phytase enzyme feed in terms of digestibility of feed, efficiency utilization of Feed and growth rate of Common carp ranges from 943 to 1100 U kg-1 feed

  19. Effect of feeding silkworm on growth performance and feed efficiency of snakehead (Channa striata)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmani, U.; Lono

    2018-04-01

    The snakehead, Chana striata is a carnivorous freshwater fish and widely distributed in Asia. High demand of this fish has been triggering many aquaculturist to culture C. stiata. Feed was the important factor for fish growth. Silkworm has high protein content, low fat and can be used as natural feed for finfish. This study investigate the silkworm feed in C. striata. The treatment of this research were A (100 % pellet); B (100 % silkworm); C (combination of 75 % pellet and 25 % silkworm); D (combination of 50 % pellet and 50 % silkworm); and E (combination of 25 % pellet and 75 % silkworm). The variables measured in this study were relatif growth, specific growth rate, feed efficiency, feed conversion ratio, and survival rate. The result show that silkworm gave the high growth performance, feed efficiency and survival rate of the snakehead (Channa striata) compared with the control.

  20. Cambridge journals blog: Improving feed efficiency in dairy production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Because the cost of feeding animals is one of the greatest expenses in dairy production (40-60% of production costs), research focused on ways to identify and select for animals that are the most efficient at converting feed into milk has greatly expanded during the last decade. The animal Article o...

  1. Feed conversion efficiency in aquaculture: do we measure it correctly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Jillian P.; Mailloux, Nicholas A.; Love, David C.; Milli, Michael C.; Cao, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Globally, demand for food animal products is rising. At the same time, we face mounting, related pressures including limited natural resources, negative environmental externalities, climate disruption, and population growth. Governments and other stakeholders are seeking strategies to boost food production efficiency and food system resiliency, and aquaculture (farmed seafood) is commonly viewed as having a major role in improving global food security based on longstanding measures of animal production efficiency. The most widely used measurement is called the ‘feed conversion ratio’ (FCR), which is the weight of feed administered over the lifetime of an animal divided by weight gained. By this measure, fed aquaculture and chickens are similarly efficient at converting feed into animal biomass, and both are more efficient compared to pigs and cattle. FCR does not account for differences in feed content, edible portion of an animal, or nutritional quality of the final product. Given these limitations, we searched the literature for alternative efficiency measures and identified ‘nutrient retention’, which can be used to compare protein and calories in feed (inputs) and edible portions of animals (outputs). Protein and calorie retention have not been calculated for most aquaculture species. Focusing on commercial production, we collected data on feed composition, feed conversion ratios, edible portions (i.e. yield), and nutritional content of edible flesh for nine aquatic and three terrestrial farmed animal species. We estimate that 19% of protein and 10% of calories in feed for aquatic species are ultimately made available in the human food supply, with significant variation between species. Comparing all terrestrial and aquatic animals in the study, chickens are most efficient using these measures, followed by Atlantic salmon. Despite lower FCRs in aquaculture, protein and calorie retention for aquaculture production is comparable to livestock production

  2. Relationship between behavioural reactivity and feed efficiency in housed sheep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Charlotte Amdi; Williams, Andrew Richard; Maloney, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we test the hypothesis that selecting sheep for a low behavioural reactivity to stressful situations will improve their metabolic efficiency, and thereby feed efficiency, during a controlled trial in an animal house. Twenty-four Merino wethers were used, 12 each from lines selected...... for high (HBR) and low (LBR) behavioural reactivity to stressful stimuli (human presence and social isolation). The sheep were habituated to the experimental procedures for 10 days, followed by 45 days during which voluntary feed intake was measured so that total daily energy intake was quantified....... It is possible that LBR sheep may be more efficient than HBR sheep in more stressful situations....

  3. Genetic parameters for residual feed intake in a random population of Pekin duck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The feed intake (FI and feed efficiency are economically important traits in ducks. To obtain insight into this economically important trait, we designed an experiment based on the residual feed intake (RFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR of a random population Pekin duck. Methods Two thousand and twenty pedigreed random population Pekin ducks were established from 90 males mated to 450 females in two hatches. Traits analyzed in the study were body weight at the 42th day (BW42, 15 to 42 days average daily gain (ADG, 15 to 42 days FI, 15 to 42 days FCR, and 15 to 42 days RFI to assess their genetic inter-relationships. The genetic parameters for feed efficiency traits were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood (REML methodology applied to a sire-dam model for all traits using the ASREML software. Results Estimates heritability of BW42, ADG, FI, FCR, and RFI were 0.39, 0.38, 0.33, 0.38, and 0.41, respectively. The genetic correlation was high between RFI and FI (0.77 and moderate between RFI and FCR (0.54. The genetic correlation was high and moderate between FCR and ADG (−0.80, and between FCR and BW42 (−0.64, and between FCR and FI (0.49, respectively. Conclusion Thus, selection on RFI was expected to improve feed efficiency, and reduce FI. Selection on RFI thus improves the feed efficiency of animals without impairing their FI and increase growth rate.

  4. Palm kernel cake obtained from biodiesel production in diets for goats: feeding behavior and physiological parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, R L; de Carvalho, G G P; Oliveira, R L; Tosto, M S L; Santos, E M; Ribeiro, R D X; Silva, T M; Correia, B R; de Rufino, L M A

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the inclusion of palm kernel (Elaeis guineensis) cake in diets for goats on feeding behaviors, rectal temperature, and cardiac and respiratory frequencies. Forty crossbred Boer male, non-castrated goats (ten animals per treatment), with an average age of 90 days and an initial body weight of 15.01 ± 1.76 kg, were used. The goats were fed Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.) hay and palm kernel supplemented at the rates of 0, 7, 14, and 21% of dry matter (DM). The feeding behaviors (rumination, feeding, and idling times) were observed for three 24-h periods. DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake values were estimated as the difference between the total DM and NDF contents of the feed offered and the total DM and NDF contents of the orts. There was no effect of palm kernel cake inclusion in goat diets on DM intake (P > 0.05). However, palm kernel cake promoted a linear increase (P kernel cakes had no effects (P > 0.05) on the chewing, feeding, and rumination efficiency (DM and NDF) or on physiological variables. The use up to 21% palm kernel cake in the diet of crossbred Boer goats maintained the feeding behaviors and did not change the physiological parameters of goats; therefore, its use is recommended in the diet of these animals.

  5. A Low VSWR and High Efficiency Waveguide Feed Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Xiao-Fang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A low VSWR and high efficiency antenna array operating in the Ku band for satellite communications is presented in this paper. To achieve high radiation efficiency and broad enough bandwidth, all-metal radiation elements and full-corporate waveguide feeding network are employed. As the general milling method is used in the multilayer antenna array fabrication, the E-plane waveguide feeding network is adopted here to suppress the wave leakage caused by the imperfect connectivity between adjacent layers. A 4 × 8 elements array prototype was fabricated and tested for verification. The measured results of proposed antenna array show bandwidth of 6.9% (13.9–14.8 GHz for VSWR < 1.5. Furthermore, antenna gain and efficiency of higher than 22.2 dBi and 80% are also exhibited, respectively.

  6. Weather influences feed intake and feed efficiency in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Wall, Eileen

    2017-03-01

    A key goal for livestock science is to ensure that food production meets the needs of an increasing global population. Climate change may heighten this challenge through increases in mean temperatures and in the intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of extreme weather events, such as heat waves. Under high ambient temperatures, livestock are expected to decrease dry matter intake (DMI) to reduce their metabolic heat production. High yielding dairy cows require high DMI to support their levels of milk production, but this may increase susceptibility to heat stress. Here, we tested how feed intake and the rate of converting dry matter to milk (feed efficiency, FE) vary in response to natural fluctuations in weather conditions in a housed experimental herd of lactating Holstein Friesians in the United Kingdom. Cows belonged to 2 lines: those selected for high genetic merit for milk traits (select) and those at the UK average (control). We predicted that (1) feed intake and FE would vary with an index of temperature and humidity (THI), wind speed, and the number of hours of sunshine, and that (2) the effects of (1) would depend on the cows' genetic merit. Animals received a mixed ration, available ad libitum, from automatic feed measurement gates. Using >73,000 daily feed intake and FE records from 328 cows over 8 yr, we found that select cows produced more fat- and protein-corrected milk, and had higher DMI and FE than controls. Cows of both lines decreased DMI and fat- and protein-corrected milk but, importantly, increased FE as THI increased. This suggests that improvements in the efficiency of converting feed to milk may partially offset the costs of reduced milk yield owing to a warmer climate, at least under conditions of mild heat stress. The rate of increase in FE with THI was steeper in select cows than in controls, which raises the possibility that select cows use more effective coping tactics. This is, to our knowledge, the first longitudinal study

  7. Dorper sheep utilizing feed resources efficiently: a Mediterranean case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezen Ocak

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the study was to determine the effect varying feeding systems would have on meat quality and production. The study looked at 45 Dorper lambs which were subjected to three different feeding protocols representing three alternate production systems: extensive grazing system (Group G, an intensive feedlot system being fed concentrate + alfalfa hay (Group C, and a semi-intensive production system comprising grazing + concentrate (Group GC. The lambs were slaughtered 62 days after weaning at approximately four months of age and meat quality factors such as pH, colour, shear force, cooking and water loss, as well as carcass characteristics; back fat thickness, muscle depth, muscle width, and muscle area were measured instrumentally on the longissimus dorsi muscle. A new measuring index was used to assess feed cost against weight gain to determine performance for profitability. In calculating cost kg-1 live weight gain, the extensive grass-fed production was significantly lower, approximately 70% less than the intensive feedlot system. Very little significant effect on meat quality was seen among the three systems. Slaughter weight had a significant effect on hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, and drip loss. The lean carcass trait of the Dorper breed was a major positive attribute, but minor benefits gained in meat quality with the feedlot production system did not justify the substantial additional cost of production. Dorper sheep can be considered efficient feed converters on pasture, and thus a suitable breed for lamb meat production in countries like Turkey, where feed costs are the main contributor to farm outgoing.

  8. Linkage of microbial ecology to phenotype: correlation of rumen microbial ecology to cattle's feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Le Luo; Nkrumah, Joshua D; Basarab, John A; Moore, Stephen S

    2008-11-01

    Linkage of rumen microbial structure to host phenotypical traits may enhance the understanding of host-microbial interactions in livestock species. This study used culture-independent PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) to investigate the microbial profiles in the rumen of cattle differing in feed efficiency. The analysis of detectable bacterial PCR-DGGE profiles showed that the profiles generated from efficient steers clustered together and were clearly separated from those obtained from inefficient steers, indicating that specific bacterial groups may only inhabit in efficient steers. In addition, the bacterial profiles were more likely clustered within a certain breed, suggesting that host genetics may play an important role in rumen microbial structure. The correlations between the concentrations of volatile fatty acids and feed efficiency traits were also observed. Significantly higher concentrations of butyrate (P < 0.001) and valerate (P = 0.006) were detected in the efficient steers. Our results revealed potential associations between the detectable rumen microbiota and its fermentation parameters with the feed efficiency of cattle.

  9. Feeding of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC to growing sheep: 2. Growth rate and feed efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Lubis

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of yeast and or filamentous fungi as feed additive to ruminants has been of interest since the late 1980’s. Two fungi species have been commercially produced in the United States, (1 Yea-Sacc containing living cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and (2 Amaferm bearing Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract. It has been demonstrated and proven that the cultures can enhance rumen development and function in young ruminants. This paper concerns the use of Aspergillus oryzae fermentation culture (AOFC as feed additive for young-growing male ‘Garut’ sheep. The A. oryzae was cultured in a media made of mineral-enriched ‘onggok’ flour, a material of tapioca processing waste. The AOFC was prepared gradually by incubating the fungus at room temperature (26 – 300C for 5 days, dried at 400C and ground. The AOFC was added to a commercial concentrate (GT-03 at 0, 5 and 10% (w/w levels, as treatment C0 (control, C1, and C2, respectively. Fifteen growing ‘Garut’ sheep were used and the concentrate feed treatments were randomly allotted based on a randomized block design. Drinking water was available at all time. The amount of feed offered (chopped King grass and concentrates and their refusals were weighed daily and live-weight of sheep was measured once a week in the morning. Daily feces was collected and weighed in the last 10 days of the 14-week experimental period. All feed and fecal samples were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, total fiber (NDF, and ash. AOFC supplementation resulted in higher weight gains (P<0.05, which were 94.81; 122.08; and 140.52 g/d for C0, C1, and C2 treatments, respectively. Dry and organic matter, as well as protein intake was also significantly increased by inclusion of AOFC into concentrate diet (P<0.05. The increment in nutrient intake was from increased consumption of concentrates, and not from King grass, however, there was no effect of AOFC supplementation on feed efficiency.

  10. Replication and validation of genome-wide associations with feed efficiency of dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Improving feed efficiency in dairy production is an important endeavor as it can reduce feed costs and mitigate negative impacts of production on the environment. Feed efficiency is a multivariate phenotype characterized by a variety of phenotypic variables such as dry matter intake, body weight gai...

  11. Effect of chronic garlic feeding on some haematological parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    200mg/kg) daily for thirty days. Garlic feeding for 30 days significantly (P<0.05) increased the red cell count, haemoglobin concentration and the PCV when compared with the control. Also garlic fed rat showed a significant increase in total white ...

  12. Purine nitrogen index, potentially a new parameter for rapid feed evaluation in ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, X.B.; Oerskov, E.R.; Subba, D.B.; Jayasuriya, M.C.N.

    1999-01-01

    The concept of a new parameter 'Purine Nitrogen Index (PNI)' for feed evaluation in ruminants is discussed. PNI refers to the ratio of purine derivative (PD) nitrogen to total nitrogen in urine. It is suggested that PNI can potentially be used as an indicator of the efficiency with which degradable dietary nitrogen is converted to microbial protein in the rumen. The excretion of PD in the urine provides an estimation of the intestinal flow of microbial protein, and therefore, PNI effectively corresponds to the amount of microbial protein produced in the rumen relative to the nitrogen loss in the urine. If a diet or a dietary regime has a high conversion efficiency, proportionally more rumen degradable nitrogen is converted to microbial protein and less nitrogen is excreted in the urine, resulting in a high PNI. Conversely, if a diet has a poor conversion efficiency, proportionally less dietary nitrogen is converted to microbial protein and more is excreted in the urine, resulting in a low PNI. Preliminary data from six experiments involving 34 sheep confirmed a positive correlation between PNI and the nitrogen conversion efficiency, and suggested that a dietary regime with a PNI lower than 0.08 for sheep appeared to be a less efficient in the production of microbial protein and have a greater loss of nitrogen in the urine. PNI can theoretically be determined in spot urine samples, and has the potential to serve as a 'dipstick' method for the rapid evaluation of ruminant feeds. However, more research with a mathematical modelling approach is required to evaluate and develop the concept further. (author)

  13. Purine nitrogen index, potentially a new parameter for rapid feed evaluation in ruminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X B; Oerskov, E R [Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Subba, D B [Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, Dhankuta, Kathmandu (Nepal); Jayasuriya, M C.N. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Animal Production and Health Section, Vienna (Austria)

    1999-06-01

    The concept of a new parameter `Purine Nitrogen Index (PNI)` for feed evaluation in ruminants is discussed. PNI refers to the ratio of purine derivative (PD) nitrogen to total nitrogen in urine. It is suggested that PNI can potentially be used as an indicator of the efficiency with which degradable dietary nitrogen is converted to microbial protein in the rumen. The excretion of PD in the urine provides an estimation of the intestinal flow of microbial protein, and therefore, PNI effectively corresponds to the amount of microbial protein produced in the rumen relative to the nitrogen loss in the urine. If a diet or a dietary regime has a high conversion efficiency, proportionally more rumen degradable nitrogen is converted to microbial protein and less nitrogen is excreted in the urine, resulting in a high PNI. Conversely, if a diet has a poor conversion efficiency, proportionally less dietary nitrogen is converted to microbial protein and more is excreted in the urine, resulting in a low PNI. Preliminary data from six experiments involving 34 sheep confirmed a positive correlation between PNI and the nitrogen conversion efficiency, and suggested that a dietary regime with a PNI lower than 0.08 for sheep appeared to be a less efficient in the production of microbial protein and have a greater loss of nitrogen in the urine. PNI can theoretically be determined in spot urine samples, and has the potential to serve as a `dipstick` method for the rapid evaluation of ruminant feeds. However, more research with a mathematical modelling approach is required to evaluate and develop the concept further. (author) 15 refs, 5 figs, 4 tabs

  14. Influence of feed ingredients on water quality parameters in RAS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg; Pedersen, Lars-Flemming; Suhr, Karin Isabel

    2011-01-01

    Although feed by far is providing the major input to RAS, relatively little is published about the correlation between feed composition and the resulting water quality in such systems. In a set-up with 6 identical RAS, each consisting of a fish tank (0.5 m3), a swirl separator, a submerged...... had impact on water quality in the systems as well as on matter removed by the swirl separators. In the RAS water, phosphorous (Ptot and Pdiss) concentrations were reduced by guar gum. Organic matter content (CODdiss) in the water was also reduced. Corresponding to this, more dry matter, more COD...... to the systems for 49 consecutive days. Each week, 24h-water samples (1 sample/hour) were collected from each system. The sludge collected in the swirl separator that day was also collected. Water and sludge were subsequently analysed for nitrogen, phosphorous and organic matter content. Inclusion of guar gum...

  15. Liveweight gain and efficiency of feed utilization by Bunaji cows ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial was carried out to study the effect of feeding increasing levels of total digestible nutrients (TDN) on the live weight of Bunaji cows during early lactation. The feeding trial ran for 56 days, starting on the 6th day after parturition. The experimental cows, in a completely randomized design, were randomly allocated ...

  16. Indirect risk effects reduce feeding efficiency of ducks during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behney, Adam C; O'Shaughnessy, Ryan; Eichholz, Michael W; Stafford, Joshua D

    2018-01-01

    Indirect risk effects of predators on prey behavior can have more of an impact on prey populations than direct consumptive effects. Predation risk can elicit more vigilance behavior in prey, reducing the amount of time available for other activities, such as foraging, which could potentially reduce foraging efficiency. Understanding the conditions associated with predation risk and the specific effects predation risk have on prey behavior is important because it has direct influences on the profitability of food items found under various conditions and states of the forager. The goals of this study were to assess how ducks perceived predation risk in various habitat types and how strongly perceived risk versus energetic demand affected foraging behavior. We manipulated food abundance in different wetland types in Illinois, USA to reduce confounding between food abundance and vegetation structure. We conducted focal-animal behavioral samples on five duck species in treatment and control plots and used generalized linear mixed-effects models to compare the effects of vegetation structure versus other factors on the intensity with which ducks fed and the duration of feeding stints. Mallards fed more intensively and, along with blue-winged teal, used longer feeding stints in open habitats, consistent with the hypothesis that limited visibility was perceived to have a greater predation risk than unlimited visibility. The species temporally nearest to nesting, wood ducks, were willing to take more risks for a greater food reward, consistent with an increase in a marginal value of energy as they approached nesting. Our results indicate that some duck species value energy differently based on the surrounding vegetation structure and density. Furthermore, increases in the marginal value of energy can be more influential than perceived risk in shaping foraging behavior patterns. Based on these findings, we conclude that the value of various food items is not solely

  17. Association between protein feeding and reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow: specific emphasis on protein feeding in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    K.J. SHINGFIELD; M. JOKELA; K. KAUSTELL

    2008-01-01

    Associations between protein feeding and reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow are reviewed. Examination of published data indicated that reproductive responses assessed as days open, services per conception or conception rate following changes in protein feeding tend to be inconsistent. Discrepancies can arise due to between-study variations in experimental design, statistical analysis, sample population size, uterine health, cow age, parity, reproductive management or nutrient intake. De...

  18. Optimising window parameters for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boland, J. [South Australia Univ., Adelaide, SA (Australia); Luther, M. [Deakin Univ., Geelong, VIC (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Large north facing windows act a solar collectors, with the heat being stored in the building mass and being released later in the day. This study examines one of the elements of this paradigm, that increasing the size of equatorially facing windows necessarily improves the energy efficiency of a dwelling. This question and that of whether there is a case for using double glazing in Australia were examined for a number of locations ranging from cool temperate to warm temperate and for several types of construction from lightweight to heavyweight. Simulations were performed using the modelling tool Cheetah. It was found that the optimal window size on equatorially facing walls was smaller than expected for singly glazed windows. Double glazing was found to be effective in most situations and increased the optimum size of the window substantially. Changing the operational pattern of the house (specifically when cooling equipment may be employed) considerably affects conclusions about single and double glazing. (author). 3 tabs., 3 figs., 13 refs.

  19. Intensive liquid feeding of dairy calves with a medium crude protein milk replacer: Effects on performance, rumen, and blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, M R; Oltramari, C E; Silva, J T; Gallo, M P C; Mourão, G B; Bittar, C M M

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different liquid-feeding systems using a medium crude protein milk replacer on performance, rumen, and blood parameters. Thirty newborn Holstein calves were blocked according to birth weight and date of birth, and randomly distributed to different liquid-feeding systems: conventional (4 L/d), intensive (8 L/d), or step-up/step-down (wk 1, 4 L/d; wk 2 to 6, 8 L/d; wk 7 and 8, 4 L/d). The commercial milk replacer (12.5% solids, 20.2% crude protein, 15.6% fat) was fed twice daily (0700 and 1700 h) until calves were weaned, at 8 wk of age. Calves were individually housed in wood hutches, with free access to water and starter concentrate, and to hay only after weaning. They were followed through 10 wk of age. Milk replacer and starter intake were inversely affected by feeding system. After weaning, starter intake and hay intake were similar among feeding systems. Total dry matter intake was higher during the liquid-feeding period for calves on the intensive system compared to calves on the conventional system, but conventional feeding resulted in the highest dry matter intake after weaning. Feed efficiency was similar among feeding systems before and after weaning. Average body weight and daily gain were not affected by feeding system before or after weaning. During liquid feeding, diarrhea occurrence was lower for calves on the conventional system; however, when calves on the step-up/step-down system were fed lower volumes of liquid feed, diarrhea occurrence was similar to that of calves on the conventional system. Plasma concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate were higher for calves on the conventional system, reflecting starter intake. Rumen pH, short-chain fatty acids, and N-NH 3 were not affected by feeding system. Feeding higher volumes of milk replacer with a medium crude protein content had no beneficial effect on the performance of calves up to 10 wk of age. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science

  20. Genetic variance and covariance and breed differences for feed intake and average daily gain to improve feed efficiency in growing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K J; Bormann, J M; Weaber, R L; MacNeil, M D; Bradford, H L; Freetly, H C; Hales, K E; Moser, D W; Snelling, W M; Thallman, R M; Kuehn, L A

    2017-04-01

    Feed costs are a major economic expense in finishing and developing cattle; however, collection of feed intake data is costly. Examining relationships among measures of growth and intake, including breed differences, could facilitate selection for efficient cattle. Objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for growth and intake traits and compare indices for feed efficiency to accelerate selection response. On-test ADFI and on-test ADG (TESTADG) and postweaning ADG (PWADG) records for 5,606 finishing steers and growing heifers were collected at the U.S. Meat Animal Research Center in Clay Center, NE. On-test ADFI and ADG data were recorded over testing periods that ranged from 62 to 148 d. Individual quadratic regressions were fitted for BW on time, and TESTADG was predicted from the resulting equations. We included PWADG in the model to improve estimates of growth and intake parameters; PWADG was derived by dividing gain from weaning weight to yearling weight by the number of days between the weights. Genetic parameters were estimated using multiple-trait REML animal models with TESTADG, ADFI, and PWADG for both sexes as dependent variables. Fixed contemporary groups were cohorts of calves simultaneously tested, and covariates included age on test, age of dam, direct and maternal heterosis, and breed composition. Genetic correlations (SE) between steer TESTADG and ADFI, PWADG and ADFI, and TESTADG and PWADG were 0.33 (0.10), 0.59 (0.06), and 0.50 (0.09), respectively, and corresponding estimates for heifers were 0.66 (0.073), 0.77 (0.05), and 0.88 (0.05), respectively. Indices combining EBV for ADFI with EBV for ADG were developed and evaluated. Greater improvement in feed efficiency can be expected using an unrestricted index versus a restricted index. Heterosis significantly affected each trait contributing to greater ADFI and TESTADG. Breed additive effects were estimated for ADFI, TESTADG, and the efficiency indices.

  1. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feeding behavior with feed intake, growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L; Mao, F; Crews, D H; Vinsky, M; Li, C

    2014-03-01

    Feeding behavior traits including daily feeding duration (FD), daily feeding head down time (HD), average feeding duration per feeding event (FD_AVE), average feeding head down time per feeding event (HD_AVE), feeding frequency (FF), and meal eating rate (ER) were analyzed to estimate their phenotypic and genetic correlations with feed intake, growth performance, residual feed intake (RFI), ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais finishing steers. Heritability estimates for FD, HD, FD_AVE, HD_AVE, FF, and ER were 0.27 ± 0.09 (SE), 0.25 ± 0.09, 0.19 ± 0.06, 0.11 ± 0.05, 0.24 ± 0.08, and 0.38 ± 0.10, respectively, in the Angus population and 0.49 ± 0.12, 0.38 ± 0.11, 0.31 ± 0.09, 0.29 ± 0.10, 0.43 ± 0.11, and 0.56 ± 0.13, respectively, in the Charolais population. In both the Angus and Charolais steer populations, FD and HD had relatively stronger phenotypic (0.17 ± 0.06 to 0.32 ± 0.04) and genetic (0.29 ± 0.17 to 0.54 ± 0.18) correlations with RFI in comparison to other feeding behavior traits investigated, suggesting the potential of FD and HD as indicators in assessing variation of RFI. In general, feeding behavior traits had weak phenotypic correlations with most of the ultrasound and carcass merit traits; however, estimated genetic correlations of the feeding behavior traits with some fat deposition related traits were moderate to moderately strong but differed in magnitude or sign between the Angus and Charolais steer populations, likely reflecting their different biological types. Genetic parameter estimation studies involving feeding behavior traits in beef cattle are lacking and more research is needed to better characterize the relationships between feeding behavior and feed intake, growth, feed utilization, and carcass merit traits, in particular with respect to different biological types of cattle.

  2. Effects of correcting missing daily feed intake values on the genetic parameters and estimated breeding values for feeding traits in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tetsuya; Fukawa, Kazuo; Kamikawa, Mai; Nikaidou, Satoshi; Taniguchi, Masaaki; Arakawa, Aisaku; Tanaka, Genki; Mikawa, Satoshi; Furukawa, Tsutomu; Hirose, Kensuke

    2018-01-01

    Daily feed intake (DFI) is an important consideration for improving feed efficiency, but measurements using electronic feeder systems contain many missing and incorrect values. Therefore, we evaluated three methods for correcting missing DFI data (quadratic, orthogonal polynomial, and locally weighted (Loess) regression equations) and assessed the effects of these missing values on the genetic parameters and the estimated breeding values (EBV) for feeding traits. DFI records were obtained from 1622 Duroc pigs, comprising 902 individuals without missing DFI and 720 individuals with missing DFI. The Loess equation was the most suitable method for correcting the missing DFI values in 5-50% randomly deleted datasets among the three equations. Both variance components and heritability for the average DFI (ADFI) did not change because of the missing DFI proportion and Loess correction. In terms of rank correlation and information criteria, Loess correction improved the accuracy of EBV for ADFI compared to randomly deleted cases. These findings indicate that the Loess equation is useful for correcting missing DFI values for individual pigs and that the correction of missing DFI values could be effective for the estimation of breeding values and genetic improvement using EBV for feeding traits. © 2017 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Study on feed forward neural network convex optimization for LiFePO4 battery parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuepeng; Zhao, Dongmei

    2017-08-01

    Based on the modern facility agriculture automatic walking equipment LiFePO4 Battery, the parameter identification of LiFePO4 Battery is analyzed. An improved method for the process model of li battery is proposed, and the on-line estimation algorithm is presented. The parameters of the battery are identified using feed forward network neural convex optimization algorithm.

  4. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF ADDITIVES FOR QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SILAGE FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. LÁD

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We observed the influence of silage additives for choice qualitative parameters at clover-grass silages in working conditions. We evaluated total classification and categorization to quality classes according to fermentative process. It has been found out positive effect of the silage additives for fermentative class and for total silage quality of silages. This positive effect has been more considerable at the classification to the fermentative classes at clover-grass silages. The high content of crude fibre decreased fermentative results and total silage quality at test clovergrass silages. The greatest (deterioration influence for clasification to total quality class has crude fibre content. It is see from correlation coefficient at clover-grass silages r = 0.75 (P < 0.05. The weak dependence r = 0.37 (P < 0.05 was detected between fermentative class and acetic acid content. It was detected large dependence between fermentative class and butyric acid content r = 0.73 (P < 0.05. The silages with additives had better degree of proteolysis and higher value of lactic acid. The additive improved fermentative quality. The result of better fermentative process was reduction of crude fibre values with maintainance of energy content.

  6. System Genetics and Transcriptomic of Feed Efficiency in Nordic Dairy Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salleh, Suraya Binti Mohamad; Höglund, Johanna; Løvendahl, Peter

    Feed is the largest variable cost in milk production industries, thus improving feed efficiency will give better use of resources. This project works closely on definitions of feed efficiency in dairy cattle and uses advanced integrated genomics, bioinformatics and systems biology methods linking......-bioinformatics and systems biology approaches to identify a list of differentially expressed (DE) genes, co-expressed (CE) genes, differentially wired networks, co-expression, transcriptional regulatory networks and hub genes/biomarkers for feed efficiency. This study will provide molecular mechanisms of metabolic processes......, energy balance, nutrient partitioning and deliver predictive biomarkers for feed efficiency in cattle. This study will also contribute to systems genomic prediction or selection models including the information on potential causal genes / SNPs or their functional modules....

  7. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feeding behavior and temperament with performance, feed efficiency, ultrasound, and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Crews, D H; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Wang, Z; Li, C; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feeding behavior and temperament may be useful in genetic evaluations either as indicator traits for other economically relevant traits or because the behavior traits may have a direct economic value. We determined the variation in feeding behavior and temperament of beef cattle sired by Angus, Charolais, or Hybrid bulls and evaluated their associations with performance, efficiency, and carcass merit. The behavior traits were daily feeding duration, feeding head down (HD) time, feeding frequency (FF), and flight speed (FS, as a measure of temperament). A pedigree file of 813 animals forming 28 paternal half-sib families with about 20 progeny per sire was used. Performance, feeding behavior, and efficiency records were available on 464 animals of which 381 and 302 had records on carcass merit and flight speed, respectively. Large SE reflect the number of animals used. Direct heritability estimates were 0.28 +/- 0.12 for feeding duration, 0.33 +/- 0.12 for HD, 0.38 +/- 0.13 for FF, and 0.49 +/- 0.18 for FS. Feeding duration had a weak positive genetic (r(g)) correlation with HD (r(g) = 0.25 +/- 0.32) and FS (r(g) = 0.42 +/- 0.26) but a moderate negative genetic correlation with FF (r(g) = -0.40 +/- 0.30). Feeding duration had positive phenotypic (r(p)) and genetic correlations with DMI (r(p) = 0.27; r(g) = 0.56 +/- 0.20) and residual feed intake (RFI; r(p) = 0.49; r(g) = 0.57 +/- 0.28) but was unrelated phenotypically with feed conversion ratio [FCR; which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of growth (G:F)]. Feeding duration was negatively correlated with FCR (r(g) = -0.25 +/- 0.29). Feeding frequency had a moderate to high negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.74 +/- 0.15), FCR (r(g) = -0.52 +/- 0.21), and RFI (r(g) = -0.77 +/- 0.21). Flight speed was negatively correlated phenotypically with DMI (r(p) = -0.35) but was unrelated phenotypically with FCR or RFI. On the other hand, FS had a weak negative genetic correlation with DMI (r(g) = -0.11 +/- 0

  8. Harnessing the genetics of the modern dairy cow to continue improvements in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VandeHaar, M J; Armentano, L E; Weigel, K; Spurlock, D M; Tempelman, R J; Veerkamp, R

    2016-06-01

    Feed efficiency, as defined by the fraction of feed energy or dry matter captured in products, has more than doubled for the US dairy industry in the past 100 yr. This increased feed efficiency was the result of increased milk production per cow achieved through genetic selection, nutrition, and management with the desired goal being greater profitability. With increased milk production per cow, more feed is consumed per cow, but a greater portion of the feed is partitioned toward milk instead of maintenance and body growth. This dilution of maintenance has been the overwhelming driver of enhanced feed efficiency in the past, but its effect diminishes with each successive increment in production relative to body size and therefore will be less important in the future. Instead, we must also focus on new ways to enhance digestive and metabolic efficiency. One way to examine variation in efficiency among animals is residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of efficiency that is independent of the dilution of maintenance. Cows that convert feed gross energy to net energy more efficiently or have lower maintenance requirements than expected based on body weight use less feed than expected and thus have negative RFI. Cows with low RFI likely digest and metabolize nutrients more efficiently and should have overall greater efficiency and profitability if they are also healthy, fertile, and produce at a high multiple of maintenance. Genomic technologies will help to identify these animals for selection programs. Nutrition and management also will continue to play a major role in farm-level feed efficiency. Management practices such as grouping and total mixed ration feeding have improved rumen function and therefore efficiency, but they have also decreased our attention on individual cow needs. Nutritional grouping is key to helping each cow reach its genetic potential. Perhaps new computer-driven technologies, combined with genomics, will enable us to optimize management for

  9. Modern features of complementary feeding and their efficiency in baby-led feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.D. Duka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Baby-led feeding exists in the practice of pediatrics since 2002. But there are still no clear results on the effectiveness of its implementation and the impact on the health of young children. Particular attention is required to study the effectiveness of introducing complementary feeding. Materials and methods. We analyzed 245 questionnaires of infants with baby-led-feeding. In the questionnaires for mothers, questions were raised about the initiation of the introduction of complementary feeding, its types, the child’s reaction, with the assessment of physical development and the previous diseases. Results. Children with baby-led-feeding have a tendency to late introduction of complementary feeding (from 6 months. It turned out that until this age, the child receives only breast milk, which can’t satisfy the need for important constituent ingredients. They are necessary for the child at this age, and it leads to various metabolic disorders in the form of allergic di­seases, metabolic syndrome, anemia, osteoporosis and others. Particular concern was caused by the fact that children start receiving meat products too late, which naturally leads to the development of iron deficiency anemia. In addition, contrary to the current norms and regulations, we noticed frequent facts of self-consumption of the whole milk itself and fermented milk products made from it (kephir, yoghurt. Conclusions. Based on the study of this question, it was proved that the existing provisions on the introduction of complementary foods with baby-led-feeding require supervision and correction in accordance with the state of children’s health and the existing provisions of the World Health Organization.

  10. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth and immunological parameters of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H V L N; Smith, T K; Karrow, N A; Boermans, H J

    2004-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on growth and immunological parameters of broiler chickens. Three hundred sixty, 1-d-old male broiler chicks were fed 1 of 4 diets containing grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins for 56 d. The diets included (1) control; (2) low level of contaminated grains (5.9 mg/kg deoxynivalenol (DON), 19.1 mg/kg fusaric acid (FA), 0.4 mg/kg zearalenone, and 0.3 mg/kg 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol; (3) high level of contaminated grains (9.5 mg/kg DON, 21.4 mg/kg FA, 0.7 mg/kg zearalenone, and 0.5 mg/kg 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol); and (4) high level of contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GM polymer). Body weight gains and feed consumption of chickens fed contaminated grains decreased linearly with the inclusion of contaminated grains during the grower phase (d 21 to 42). Efficiency of feed utilization, however, was not affected by diet. Production parameters were not significantly affected by the supplementation of GM polymer to the contaminated grains. Peripheral blood monocytes decreased linearly in birds fed contaminated grains. The feeding of contaminated diets linearly reduced the B-cell count at the end of the experiment, whereas the T-cell count on d 28 responded quadratically to the contaminated diets. The feeding of contaminated diets did not significantly alter serum or bile immunoglobulin concentrations, contact hypersensitivity to dinitrochlorobenzene, or antibody response to SRBC. Supplementation with GM polymer in the contaminated diet nonspecifically increased white blood cell count and lymphocyte count, while preventing mycotoxin-induced decreases in B-cell counts. It was concluded that broiler chickens are susceptible during extended feeding of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins.

  11. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P feed efficiency.

  12. Determination of dependence of feed intake level on functional and technological parameters of prescription mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksenova O. I.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of the development of pet food formulations in the conditions of information uncertainty which is characteristic of an actual business enterprise engaged in production of feed has been considered in the paper. The analysis of the literature [1–4] has shown that the main works are devoted to the extrusion of plastics and cereal products, with the temperature conditions equal to 130–200 ºC. This temperature range is not suitable for the production of pet food, and researches on this issue are virtually absent. This study is devoted to defining the functional and technological parameters of prescription mixture depending on the level of feed intake by unproductive animals; this knowledge will allow manufacturers to simplify the development of new formulations of balanced feed. Identification of this relationship has been carried out on the basis of modeling methods of mathematical statistics in Excel and Mathcad packages, as well as on the basis of fuzzy logic set theory in MatLAB package, as the construction of a complete mathematical model is complicated by absence of an explicit numerical form of the result received on the basis of sensory analysis. The research has revealed the dependence of feed intake level on functional and technological parameters of prescription mix for non-productive animals, in particular, the highest level of animal feed intake will be achieved at the following values of the main parameters: pH – 6.5; the moisture – 9 %; the protein concentration – 85 %; the particle size – 0.55 mm; the energy value – 267 kcal/100 g feed. The adequacy of the dependence for the input variables – the moisture feed and concentration of the protein component – is confirmed by the experimental investigations. This paper can be used to generate the optimal prescription composition for functional and technological characteristics of the samples in order to create balanced extruded feeds.

  13. More feed efficient sheep produce less methane and carbon dioxide when eating high-quality pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, B; Rose, G; Macleay, C; Jones, C; Brown, D J; Kearney, G; Ferguson, M; Thompson, A N

    2017-09-01

    The Australian sheep industry aims to increase the efficiency of sheep production by decreasing the amount of feed eaten by sheep. Also, feed intake is related to methane production, and more efficient (low residual feed intake) animals eat less than expected. So we tested the hypothesis that more efficient sheep produce less methane by investigating the genetic correlations between feed intake, residual feed intake, methane, carbon dioxide, and oxygen. Feed intake, methane, oxygen, and carbon dioxide were measured on Merino ewes at postweaning (1,866 at 223 d old), hogget (1,010 sheep at 607 d old), and adult ages (444 sheep at 1,080 d old). Sheep were fed a high-energy grower pellet ad libitum for 35 d. Individual feed intake was measured using automated feeders. Methane was measured using portable accumulation chambers up to 3 times during this feed intake period. Heritabilities and phenotypic and genotypic correlations between traits were estimated using ASReml. Oxygen (range 0.10 to 0.20) and carbon dioxide (range 0.08 to 0.28) were generally more heritable than methane (range 0.11 to 0.14). Selecting to decrease feed intake or residual feed intake will decrease methane (genetic correlation [] range 0.76 to 0.90) and carbon dioxide ( range 0.65 to 0.96). Selecting to decrease intake ( range 0.64 to 0.78) and methane ( range 0.81 to 0.86) in sheep at postweaning age would also decrease intake and methane in hoggets and adults. Furthermore, selecting for lower residual feed intake ( = 0.75) and carbon dioxide ( = 0.90) in hoggets would also decrease these traits in adults. Similarly, selecting for higher oxygen ( = 0.69) in hoggets would also increase this trait in adults. Given these results, the hypothesis that making sheep more feed efficient will decrease their methane production can be accepted. In addition, carbon dioxide is a good indicator trait for feed intake because it has the highest heritability of the gas traits measured; is cheaper, faster, and

  14. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Schmid, K; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2006-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with digestion and energy partitioning of 27 steers. The steers were selected from a total of 306 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. Selected steers were ranked into high RFI (RFI > 0.5 SD above the mean, n = 11), medium RFI (RFI +/- 0.5 SD above and below the mean, n = 8), and low RFI (RFI 0.10). Residual feed intake was correlated with daily methane production and energy lost as methane (r = 0.44; P < 0.05). Methane production was 28 and 24% less in low-RFI animals compared with high- and medium-RFI animals, respectively. Residual feed intake tended to be associated (P < 0.10) with apparent digestibilities of DM (r = -0.33) and CP (r = -0.34). The RFI of steers was correlated with DE (r = -0.41; P < 0.05), ME (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), heat production (HP; r = 0.68; P < 0.001), and retained energy (RE; r = -0.67; P < 0.001; energy values are expressed in kcal/kg of BW(0.75)). Feedlot partial efficiency of growth was correlated (P < 0.01) with methane production (r = -0.55), DE (r = 0.46), ME (r = 0.49), HP (r = -0.50), and RE (r = 0.62). With the exception of HP (r = 0.37; P < 0.05), feed conversion ratio was unrelated to the traits considered in the study. Feeding duration was correlated (P < 0.01) with apparent digestibility of DM (r = -0.55), CP (r = -0.47), methane production (r = 0.51), DE (r = -0.52), ME (r = -0.55), and RE (r = -0.60). These results have practical implications for the selection of animals that eat less at a similar BW and growth rate and for the environmental sustainability of beef

  15. Sequential feeding using whole wheat and a separate protein-mineral concentrate improved feed efficiency in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar Faruk, M; Bouvarel, I; Même, N; Rideau, N; Roffidal, L; Tukur, H M; Bastianelli, D; Nys, Y; Lescoat, P

    2010-04-01

    The effect of feeding nutritionally different diets in sequential or loose-mix systems on the performance of laying hen was investigated from 16 to 46 wk of age. Equal proportions of whole wheat grain and protein-mineral concentrate (balancer diet) were fed either alternatively (sequential) or together (loose-mix) to ISA Brown hens. The control was fed a complete layer diet conventionally. Each treatment was allocated 16 cages and each cage contained 5 birds. Light was provided 16 h daily (0400 to 2000 h). Feed offered was controlled (121 g/bird per d) and distributed twice (4 and 11 h after lights-on). In the sequential treatment, only wheat was fed at first distribution, followed by balancer diet at the second distribution. In loose-mix, the 2 rations were mixed and fed together during the 2 distributions. Leftover feed was always removed before the next distribution. Sequential feeding reduced total feed intake when compared with loose-mix and control. It had lower wheat (-9 g/bird per d) but higher balancer (+1.7 g/bird per d) intakes than loose-mix. Egg production, egg mass, and egg weight were similar among treatments. This led to an improvement in efficiency of feed utilization in sequential compared with loose-mix and control (10 and 5%, respectively). Birds fed sequentially had lower calculated ME (kcal/bird per d) intake than those fed in loose-mix and control. Calculated CP (g/bird per d) intake was reduced in sequential compared with loose-mix and control. Sequentially fed hens were lighter in BW. However, they had heavier gizzard, pancreas, and liver. Similar liver lipid was observed among treatments. Liver glycogen was higher in loose-mix than the 2 other treatments. It was concluded that feeding whole wheat and balancer diet, sequentially or loosely mixed, had no negative effect on performance in laying hens. Thus, the 2 systems are alternative to conventional feeding. The increased efficiency of feed utilization in sequential feeding is an added

  16. A vapor feed methanol microfluidic fuel cell with high fuel and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yifei; Leung, Dennis Y.C.; Xuan, Jin; Wang, Huizhi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A microfluidic fuel cell with a vapor feed anode is investigated. • Its advantages include simpler design, direct usage of methanol and better performance. • The prototype achieves a peak power density of 55.4 mW cm −2 under room temperature. • The energy efficiency of 9.4% is much higher than its liquid feed counterpart. - Abstract: In this paper, a prototype of methanol microfluidic fuel cell with vapor feed anode configuration is proposed to improve the fuel and energy efficiency of the conventional liquid feed methanol microfluidic fuel cells. Peak power density of 55.4 mW cm −2 can be achieved with this prototype under room temperature, which is 30% higher than its conventional liquid feed counterpart. Moreover, an energy efficiency of 9.4% is achieved, which is 27.5 times higher than its liquid feed counterpart. This superiority on both cell performance and energy efficiency is directly benefitted from its vapor feed anode configuration, which alleviates the fuel crossover, eliminates the fuel depletion boundary layer, and avoids the bulk anolyte wastage. The tradeoff between cell performance and fuel utilization for conventional liquid feed microfluidic fuel cells is also evaded

  17. Association between protein feeding and reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow: specific emphasis on protein feeding in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.J. SHINGFIELD

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Associations between protein feeding and reproductive efficiency in the dairy cow are reviewed. Examination of published data indicated that reproductive responses assessed as days open, services per conception or conception rate following changes in protein feeding tend to be inconsistent. Discrepancies can arise due to between-study variations in experimental design, statistical analysis, sample population size, uterine health, cow age, parity, reproductive management or nutrient intake. Detri-mental effects on reproductive efficiency following periods of excessive protein feeding are often attributed to increases in tissue urea and ammonia oncentrations leading to impaired reproductive hysiology, modified endocrine function or exacerbated postpartum negative energy balance. Examination of data collected from Finnish dairy herds (n = 16 051 participating in the national milk recording scheme during 1993 indicated that milk production was maximised in herds fed diets containing 180 g crude protein/kg dry matter. In contrast, no consistent relationships were identified between increases in on-farm protein feeding necessary to secure higher milk production and herd reproductive efficiency assessed as calving interval, first service interval and number of inseminations per calving. Further examination of data derived from 5 437 herds within the National recording scheme indicated that on-farm reproductive efficiency was independent of large variations in the mean annual urea concentration of bulk tank milk. It is concluded that increases in the crude protein content of Finnish dairy cow rations from 150 to between 170 and 180 g/kg dry matter would allow improvements in milk production to be realised without leading to significant reductions in reproductive efficiency.;

  18. Associations of acute stress and overnight heart rate with feed efficiency in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, J C; Schenkel, F S; Physick-Sheard, P W; Fontoura, A B P; Miller, S P; Tennessen, T; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-03-01

    Proxies have the potential to accelerate feed efficiency (residual feed intake (RFI); kg dry matter/day) improvement, assisting with the reduction of beef cattle feed costs and environmental impact. Heart rate (HR) (beats per minute (BPM)) is associated with feed efficiency and influenced by autonomic activity and peripheral metabolism, suggesting HR could be used as a proxy for feed efficiency. Objectives were to assess associations between overnight HR, lying patterns and RFI, and between acute stress HR and RFI. Heifer calves (n=107; 408±28 days of age, 341±42.2 kg) and yearling heifers (n=36; 604±92 days of age, 539±52.2 kg) were exposed to a performance test to determine productive performance. Overnight HR (electrode based) and lying patterns (accelerometer based) were monitored on a subgroup of heifer calves (n=40; 20 lowest RFI; 20 highest RFI). In the 10-min acute stress assessment, all heifers were individually exposed to the opening and closing of an umbrella and HR before (HRBEF), in response to (HRMAX), after (HRAFT) and change (HRCHG; HRAFT-HRBEF) as a result of exposure were determined. Using polynomial regression, rate of HR decrease pre-exposure (β 1) and rates of HR increase (β 2) and decrease (β 3, β 4) post-exposure were determined. Heifer calves in the overnight assessment were classified into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and HR means were treated as repeated measures and compared using multiple regression. In the acute stress assessment, heifers were classified within cattle category into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and means and polynomial regression parameters were compared using multiple regression. Low-RFI heifer calves had a lower overnight HR (69.2 v. 72.6 BPM), similar HR change from lying to standing intervals (8.9 v. 9.2 BPM) and similar time lying (61.1% v. 64.5%) compared with high-RFI heifer calves. Low-RFI heifer calves had a higher absolute HRMAX (162.9 v. 145.7 BPM) and β 2 (-0.34 v. -0.20) than high

  19. Efficiency as a parameter for assessing the Polish healthcare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Bogdan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Efficacy is defined as one of the most valid parameters of health system evaluation. It should be said that there is no consistent definition of the concept of effectiveness in health care, which would allow for the evaluation and comparison of health systems in the world. One can not point to the best or even near ideal of the health system. However, you can rank individual health systems with respect to the evaluation of individual parameters or groups of parameters. One of the possibilities is to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Aim of the study. The aim of the article is to define and analyze particular types of system effectiveness in the context of the Polish health system. Description of knowledge. The literature on the subject is divided into operational and dynamic efficiency. Dynamic efficiency is divided into adaptive and innovative. The Polish health system is characterized by high operational efficiency. Operational efficiency determines the intensity of the system. The key factor for improving the health of the Polish society, as a factor of socio-economic development of the country is to improve the dynamic efficiency of the system. Conclusions. Health care in Poland has high operational efficiency while low dynamic efficiency, both adaptive and innovative, which clearly demonstrates the existence of a paradox of the overall effectiveness of the health care system in Poland.

  20. Feed efficiency of diets with different energy and protein concentrations supplemented with methionine in laying quails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratriyanto, A.; Indreswari, R.; Nuhriawangsa, A. M. P.; Purwanti, E.

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the feed efficiency of quail diets containing different concentrations of metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein (CP) with constant ratio and supplemented with methionine. Four hundred laying quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) were randomly assigned to four experimental diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. Each dietary treatment used 5 replicates of 20 quails. Two basal diets were formulated to contain 2,800 kcal kg-1 ME and 18.7% CP (High ME-CP) and 2,600 kcal kg-1 ME and 17.3% CP (Low ME-CP). Each basal diet was supplemented with 0 and 0.12% methionine. The High ME-CP diets generated lower feed consumption but higher egg mass and feed efficiency (Pprotein efficiency ratio (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with methionine resulted the highest feed efficiency followed by the Low ME-CP supplemented with methionine, while both High ME-CP and Low ME-CP without methionine supplementation resulted the lowest feed efficiency (PHigh ME-CP supplemented with 0.12% methionine provided benefit to improve the feed efficiency in laying quails.

  1. Production System of Peranakan Etawah Goat under Application of Feed Technology: Productivity and Economic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad Sodiq

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Feed resources are the major constraint in increasing goat production in the village. The main constraints to goat raising are related to feeds (i the high cost of transport of crop residues and grass to the homesteads, (ii the low nutritive value of feeds used, particularly in the dry period. This research was design to evaluate goat productivity and economic efficiency of goat farming under application of feed technology production system in Peranakan Etawah goat farmer group of Gumelar Banyumas Central Java. All farmers were taken as respondents using census methods. On farm research with participative focused group discussion, indepth interview, and farm observation. Descriptive analysis and independent t test methods were used to analyze the data. Results of this study showed that there was a significant improvement goat productivity on production system with the application of feed technology. Body weight at weaning, survival rate till weaning, and doe productivity were increased 7%, 2% and 5%, respectively. There was no evidence of significant different of farmers income and economic efficiency before and after the applied feed technology (P>0.05. The calculation was based on cash flow. Before application, farmers income per year and economic efficiency were Rp14.404.520,00 and 1.21, then insignificantly improve into Rp16.487.100,00 and 1.27, respectively. (Animal Production 11(3: 202-208 (2009 Key Words: Livestock production system, Peranakan Etawah goat, feed technology aplication, productivity and economic efficiency

  2. Increasing efficiency of human mesenchymal stromal cell culture by optimization of microcarrier concentration and design of medium feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Allen Kuan-Liang; Chew, Yi Kong; Tan, Hong Yu; Reuveny, Shaul; Weng Oh, Steve Kah

    2015-02-01

    Large amounts of human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are needed for clinical cellular therapy. In a previous publication, we described a microcarrier-based process for expansion of MSCs. The present study optimized this process by selecting suitable basal media, microcarrier concentration and feeding regime to achieve higher cell yields and more efficient medium utilization. MSCs were expanded in stirred cultures on Cytodex 3 microcarriers with media containing 10% fetal bovine serum. Process optimization was carried out in spinner flasks. A 2-L bioreactor with an automated feeding system was used to validate the optimized parameters explored in spinner flask cultures. Minimum essential medium-α-based medium supported faster MSC growth on microcarriers than did Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (doubling time, 31.6 ± 1.4 vs 42 ± 1.7 h) and shortened the process time. At microcarrier concentration of 8 mg/mL, a high cell concentration of 1.08 × 10(6) cells/mL with confluent cell concentration of 4.7 × 10(4)cells/cm(2) was achieved. Instead of 50% medium exchange every 2 days, we have designed a full medium feed that is based on glucose consumption rate. The optimal medium feed that consisted of 1.5 g/L glucose supported MSC growth to full confluency while achieving the low medium usage efficiency of 3.29 mL/10(6)cells. Finally, a controlled bioreactor with the optimized parameters achieved maximal confluent cell concentration with 16-fold expansion and a further improved medium usage efficiency of 1.68 mL/10(6)cells. We have optimized the microcarrier-based platform for expansion of MSCs that generated high cell yields in a more efficient and cost-effective manner. This study highlighted the critical parameters in the optimization of MSC production process. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Determinism of Fearfulness, General Activity and Feeding Behavior in Chickens and Its Relationship with Digestive Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignon-Grasteau, Sandrine; Chantry-Darmon, Céline; Boscher, Marie-Yvonne; Sellier, Nadine; Le Bihan-Duval, Elisabeth; Bertin, Aline

    2017-01-01

    The genetic relationships between behavior and digestive efficiency were studied in 860 chickens from a cross between two lines divergently selected on digestive efficiency. At 2 weeks of age each chick was video-recorded in the home pen to characterize general activity and feeding behavior. Tonic immobility and open-field tests were also carried out individually to evaluate emotional reactivity (i.e. the propensity to express fear responses). Digestive efficiency was measured at 3 weeks. Genetic parameters of behavior traits were estimated. Birds were genotyped on 3379 SNP markers to detect QTLs. Heritabilities of behavioral traits were low, apart from tonic immobility (0.17-0.18) and maximum meal length (0.14). The genetic correlations indicated that the most efficient birds fed more frequently and were less fearful. We detected 14 QTL (9 for feeding behavior, 3 for tonic immobility, 2 for frequency of lying). Nine of them co-localized with QTL for efficiency, anatomy of the digestive tract, feed intake or microbiota composition. Four genes involved in fear reactions were identified in the QTL for tonic immobility on GGA1.

  4. Feed efficiency differences and reranking in beef steers fed grower and finisher diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durunna, O N; Mujibi, F D N; Goonewardene, L; Okine, E K; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2011-01-01

    This 3-yr study used 490 steers to determine whether feedlot steers changed their feed efficiency (FE) ranking when fed a grower diet, then a finisher diet. The steers were crossbreds and were between 5 to 7 mo of age. There were 2 feeding periods each year. Within each year, approximately 90 steers had their diet switched from a grower to a finisher diet (feed-swap group), whereas another 90 steers were fed either the grower (grower-fed group) or the finisher (finisher-fed group) diet throughout the feeding trial. Each feeding test lasted for a minimum of 10 wk, and all steers were fed ad libitum. Individual animal feed intakes were collected using the GrowSafe feeding system, and BW were measured every 2 wk. Residual feed intake (RFI), G:F, and Kleiber ratio (KR) were computed at the end of each feeding period. For each measure of efficiency, animals were classified as low, medium, or high based on 0.5 SD from the mean. The majority of steers did not maintain the previous efficiency class in the second period. Approximately 58, 51, and 51% of steers in the feed-swap group, finisher-fed group, and the grower-fed group, respectively, changed their RFI measure by 0.5 SD. A low rank correlation occurred in all test groups but was less in the feed-swap group. Spearman rank correlations between the 2 feeding periods in the feed-swap group were 0.33, 0.20, and 0.31 for RFI, G:F, and KR, respectively. Classifications based on G:F and KR showed that a greater number of steers (P 0.05) between the proportions of individuals that changed or maintained their FE class. In the groups without a feed-swap, there was no difference (P > 0.05) in the proportion of steers that changed or maintained the same FE class for all FE measures. Our results suggest that diet type and feeding period affect the FE ranking in beef steers. A feedlot diet is ideal for evaluating the FE potential of steers for feedlot profitability; however, we suggest that tests involving less dense diets should

  5. Association analysis between feed efficiency studies and expression of hypothalamic neuropeptide genes in laying ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, T; Chen, L; Du, X; Lai, S J; Huang, S P; Liu, Y L; Lu, L Z

    2016-10-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is now considered a more reasonable metric to evaluate animal feed efficiency. In this study, the correlation between RFI and other feed efficiency traits was investigated and gene expression within the hypothalamus was determined in low RFI (LRFI) and high RFI (HRFI) ducks. Further, several hypothalamic neuropeptide genes were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mean feed intake value was 160 g/day, whereas the egg mass laid (EML) and body weight were approximately 62.4 g/day and 1.46 kg respectively. Estimates for heritability of RFI, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake were 0.26, 0.18 and 0.23 respectively. RFI is phenotypically positively correlated with feed intake and FCR (P ducks compared with LRFI ducks (P ducks. The results indicate that selection for LRFI could reduce feed intake without significant changes in EML, whereas selection on FCR will increase EML. © 2016 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  6. MA-burners efficiency parameters allowing for the duration of transmutation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulevich, A.; Zemskov, E.; Kalugin, A.; Ponomarev, L.; Seliverstov, V.; Seregin, M.

    2010-01-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) means their transforming into the fission products. Usually, MA-burner's transmutation efficiency is characterized by the static parameters only, such as the number of neutrons absorbed and the rate of MA feeding. However, the proper characterization of MA-burner's efficiency additionally requires the consideration of parameters allowing for the duration of the MA transmutation process. Two parameters of that kind are proposed: a) transmutation time τ - mean time period from the moment a mass of MA is loaded into the burner's fuel cycle to be transmuted to the moment this mass is completely transmuted; b) number of reprocessing cycles n rep - effective number of reprocessing cycles a mass of loaded MA has to undergo before being completely transmuted. Some of MA-burners' types have been analyzed from the point of view of these parameters. It turned out that all of them have the value of parameters too high from the practical point of view. It appears that some new approaches to MA-burner's design have to be used to significantly reduce the value of these parameters in order to make the large-scale MA transmutation process practically reasonable. Some of such approaches are proposed and their potential efficiency is discussed. (authors)

  7. MA-burners efficiency parameters allowing for the duration of transmutation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulevich, A.; Zemskov, E. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Bondarenko Square 1, Obninsk, Kaluga Region 249020 (Russian Federation); Kalugin, A.; Ponomarev, L. [Russian Research Center ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' Kurchatov Square 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Seliverstov, V. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics ul.B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117259 (Russian Federation); Seregin, M. [Russian Research Institute of Chemical Technology Kashirskoe Shosse 33, Moscow 115230 (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Transmutation of minor actinides (MA) means their transforming into the fission products. Usually, MA-burner's transmutation efficiency is characterized by the static parameters only, such as the number of neutrons absorbed and the rate of MA feeding. However, the proper characterization of MA-burner's efficiency additionally requires the consideration of parameters allowing for the duration of the MA transmutation process. Two parameters of that kind are proposed: a) transmutation time {tau} - mean time period from the moment a mass of MA is loaded into the burner's fuel cycle to be transmuted to the moment this mass is completely transmuted; b) number of reprocessing cycles n{sub rep} - effective number of reprocessing cycles a mass of loaded MA has to undergo before being completely transmuted. Some of MA-burners' types have been analyzed from the point of view of these parameters. It turned out that all of them have the value of parameters too high from the practical point of view. It appears that some new approaches to MA-burner's design have to be used to significantly reduce the value of these parameters in order to make the large-scale MA transmutation process practically reasonable. Some of such approaches are proposed and their potential efficiency is discussed. (authors)

  8. Modeling growth performances, survival, and feed efficiency of four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evolution of growth rate with age was similar in the four groups, but significant differences of growth curve parameters were found among breeds and/or sexes. Estimated hatch weight was lower in C hens and higher in FT hens. Initial specific growth rates and asymptotic body weight were higher in males for all breeds.

  9. Genome-wide association and pathway analysis of feed efficiency in pigs reveal candidate genes and pathways for residual feed intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Strathe, Anders Bjerring; Ostersen, Tage

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a complex trait that is economically important for livestock production; however, the genetic and biological mechanisms regulating RFI are largely unknown in pigs. Therefore, the study aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), candidate genes and biol...... revealed key genes and genetic variants that control feed efficiency that could potentially be useful for genetic selection of more feed efficient pigs....

  10. Correlations of visual scores, carcass traits, feed efficiency and retail product yield in Nellore cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Cancian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing use of visual scores (VS and ultrasound (US for carcass evaluation in breeding programs, calls for a knowledge of the relationships between these traits and other relevant characteristics, such as feed efficiency and production of commercial cuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate correlations between body visual scores and carcass traits identified by ultrasound (US and feed efficiency (FE, carcass weight (HCW, dressing percentage (DP and retail product yield (RPY in beef cattle. Nellore cattle (male, 42 non-castrated [NCAST] and 44 castrated [CAST] were evaluated by both VS and US, at the postweaning (15-month old and finishing phases (21-month old. Visual scores of conformation (C, precocity (P and muscling (M were assessed and the backfat thickness (UBFT, rump fat thickness (URFT and ribeye area (UREA were measured by ultrasound. Gain-to-feed (G:F ratio and residual feed intake (RFI were measured in feedlot. Hot carcass weight, DP and RPY were determined at harvest. Non-castrated cattle had greater HCW and RPY but lower UBFT and URFT than CAST. Postweaning VS and US were poorly correlated with FE in both sexual conditions. Finishing VS were negatively correlated with G:F in CAST and finishing URFT was negatively correlated with RPY in NCAST. The relationship of VS and US with feed efficiency and meat yield is affected by age at the date of evaluation and by castration. Feed efficiency is not related to the yield of meat cuts in Nellore cattle

  11. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch) fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    OpenAIRE

    Srisook, S.; Mahankich, S.; Tantikitti, C.; Onkong, S.

    2007-01-01

    Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM) replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulat...

  12. Synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium and vitamin C on growth, feeding, and physiological parameters of mahseer fish (Tor putitora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kifayat Ullah Khan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study was conducted to determine the synergistic effects of dietary nano selenium (Nano Se and vitamin C on growth, feeding, and physiological parameters of juvenile mahseer, Tor putitora. L-ascorbyl-2-polyphosphate (APP was used as a source of vitamin C. Four semi-purified experimental diets were prepared. A basal diet kept without the supplementation of any micronutrient and the other three diets were formulated such that three different levels of APP (100, 200, and 300 mg kg−1 were used in combination with a pre-determined dose of Nano Se (0.68 mg kg−1. The results showed that both the micronutrients positively synergized the effects of each other. APP at the rate of 300 mg kg−1 showed strong interaction with Nano Se. The APP300 + Nano Se0.68 mg kg−1 diet supplemented diet significantly decreased (P< 0.05 the feed conversion ratio (FCR while significantly increased (P< 0.05 the weight gain percentage (WG%, feed conversion efficiency (FCE%, specific growth rate (SGR, and serum growth hormone (GH concentration. Similarly, the physiological parameters such as red blood cells count (RBCs, hemoglobin level (Hb, hematocrit value (Hct, and serum lysozyme activity were also significantly increased in group of fish fed diet supplemented with APP100 mg kg−1 in combination with Nano Se0.68 mg kg−1 as compared to the control group. The present results clearly indicated the beneficent synergistic effects of Nano Se and APP in mahseer fish. Moreover, the current finding also supported our hypothesis that Nano Se and APP potentiate positively the effect of each other when both the micronutrients are supplemented together in the same fish feed.

  13. Effects of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Feed on Immunological Parameters of Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Bitsayah

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxin contamination is a common natural phenomenon that is difficult to avoid or control and it can occur during pre and post-harvest periods under high humidity and temperature conditions, and are potentially dangerous to fish. In the present study, a feeding trial evaluated the effects of diets contaminated with aflatoxin on certain immunological parameters of common carp. Methods: The immunotoxicity assessment of juvenile common carp was performed on 180 fish divided into five groups with triplicate: Control group received normal feed (Group I; group II was fed diets contaminated with extraction solution (methanol, acetone and diluted water as a positive control. Group III-V was respectively fed diets contaminated with 0.5, 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 feed for 3 wk. Results: Lysozyme activities, total immunoglobulin contents, complement C3 and C4 activities in plasma of common carp fed with different concentrations of aflatoxins significantly decreased when compared to that of the control fish. Although plasma ACH50 contents remained unchanged in 0.5 mg kg-1 aflatoxins, ACH50 contents decreased in 0.7 and 1.4 mg kg-1 groups after 21 d of aflatoxin treatment. No significant changes were observed in immunological parameters between the control positive and control groups throughout the experimental periods. Conclusion: Oral exposure to aflatoxin (0.5 mg kg-1≤ could adversely affect immunological parameters of common carp.

  14. The effect of different feed restriction programs on reproductive performance, efficiency, frame size, and uniformity in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, M; Coon, C N

    2007-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feed restriction programs on breeder reproductive performance. In experiment 1, every day (ED), skip-a-day (SK), 4-3, and 5-2 programs were compared. Diets did not differ, and feed intake was identical in all groups. Four hundred twenty pullets were reared on each program. At 21 wk, 80 breeders from each program were individually housed to record performance parameters. Body weight and frame size were larger in ED pullets than SK, 4-3, or 5-2 despite equal intakes. Hens fed ED reached sexual maturity at a younger age than other groups. Hens fed ED also produced more total and settable eggs than SK hens. Egg weight was heavier in 5-2 hens than in ED with 4-3 and SK intermediate. Efficiency of feed utilization was best in ED hens. In experiment 2 the same programs were tested, but pullets were reared to reach equal BW. One hundred seventy-five pullets were reared on each program, of which 60 were housed. Feed intake was greater for SK, 4-3, and 5-2 than ED pullets to reach the same BW. Frame size did not differ, indicating that BW was the cause of differences in experiment 1. In experiment 2, differences in performance were attenuated but not eliminated by feeding to reach equal BW, suggesting that metabolic factors aside from BW are altered by feeding programs. The 5-2 produced larger eggs than ED with the trend among programs being identical to that in experiment 1. These results suggest that metabolic changes such as increased lipogenesis or alterations in body composition may result in larger eggs in feeding programs that include off-feed days. Mortality, fertility, and hatchability were not affected by feeding programs in either experiment. Body composition analysis indicated the importance of total lean protein mass as a threshold for the onset of sexual maturity. Programs like SK are less efficient than ED and may result in reduced performance.

  15. Genetic relationships between feed efficiency in growing males and beef cow performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, J J; Evans, R D; Mc Hugh, N; Kenny, D A; McGee, M; Crews, D H; Berry, D P

    2011-11-01

    Most studies on feed efficiency in beef cattle have focused on performance in young animals despite the contribution of the cow herd to overall profitability of beef production systems. The objective of this study was to quantify, using a large data set, the genetic covariances between feed efficiency in growing animals measured in a performance-test station, and beef cow performance including fertility, survival, calving traits, BW, maternal weaning weight, cow price, and cull cow carcass characteristics in commercial herds. Feed efficiency data were available on 2,605 purebred bulls from 1 test station. Records on cow performance were available on up to 94,936 crossbred beef cows. Genetic covariances were estimated using animal and animal-dam linear mixed models. Results showed that selection for feed efficiency, defined as feed conversion ratio (FCR) or residual BW gain (RG), improved maternal weaning weight as evidenced by the respective genetic correlations of -0.61 and 0.57. Despite residual feed intake (RFI) being phenotypically independent of BW, a negative genetic correlation existed between RFI and cow BW (-0.23; although the SE of 0.31 was large). None of the feed efficiency traits were correlated with fertility, calving difficulty, or perinatal mortality. However, genetic correlations estimated between age at first calving and FCR (-0.55 ± 0.14), Kleiber ratio (0.33 ± 0.15), RFI (-0.29 ± 0.14), residual BW gain (0.36 ± 0.15), and relative growth rate (0.37 ± 0.15) all suggest that selection for improved efficiency may delay the age at first calving, and we speculate, using information from other studies, that this may be due to a delay in the onset of puberty. Results from this study, based on the estimated genetic correlations, suggest that selection for improved feed efficiency will have no deleterious effect on cow performance traits with the exception of delaying the age at first calving.

  16. Hot topic: Definition and implementation of a breeding value for feed efficiency in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, J E; Gonzalez-Recio, O; Nieuwhof, G; Wales, W J; Coffey, M P; Hayes, B J; Goddard, M E

    2015-10-01

    A new breeding value that combines the amount of feed saved through improved metabolic efficiency with predicted maintenance requirements is described. The breeding value includes a genomic component for residual feed intake (RFI) combined with maintenance requirements calculated from either a genomic or pedigree estimated breeding value (EBV) for body weight (BW) predicted using conformation traits. Residual feed intake is only available for genotyped Holsteins; however, BW is available for all breeds. The RFI component of the "feed saved" EBV has 2 parts: Australian calf RFI and Australian lactating cow RFI. Genomic breeding values for RFI were estimated from a reference population of 2,036 individuals in a multi-trait analysis including Australian calf RFI (n=843), Australian lactating cow RFI (n=234), and UK and Dutch lactating cow RFI (n=958). In all cases, the RFI phenotypes were deviations from a mean of 0, calculated by correcting dry matter intake for BW, growth, and milk yield (in the case of lactating cows). Single nucleotide polymorphism effects were calculated from the output of genomic BLUP and used to predict breeding values of 4,106 Holstein sires that were genotyped but did not have RFI phenotypes themselves. These bulls already had BW breeding values calculated from type traits, from which maintenance requirements in kilograms of feed per year were inferred. Finally, RFI and the feed required for maintenance (through BW) were used to calculate a feed saved breeding value and expressed as the predicted amount of feed saved per year. Animals that were 1 standard deviation above the mean were predicted to eat 66 kg dry matter less per year at the same level of milk production. In a data set of genotyped Holstein sires, the mean reliability of the feed saved breeding value was 0.37. For Holsteins that are not genotyped and for breeds other than Holsteins, feed saved is calculated using BW only. From April 2015, feed saved has been included as part of

  17. Glycerin in cattle feed: intake, digestibility, and ruminal and blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ruiz Fávaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of glycerin supplements in the diet of beef cattle by assessing intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, ruminal ammonia concentrations, and blood parameters. The study was conducted at the São Paulo State University (UNESP, Jaboticabal campus using five crossbred cattle in an experiment employing a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Cattle diet treatments included zero, 50, 100, 150, and 200 g kg-1 dry matter of glycerin. Feed, leftover feed, and faeces were collected to determine intake and digestibility. Samples of ruminal liquid were collected at –1, 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after feeding to determine pH and ruminal ammonia. Blood was collected four hours after the morning feeding from the coccygeal vein. Replacing maize with glycerin resulted in lower concentrations of ether extract and non-fibre carbohydrates in the diets, leading to a linear decrease in the intake of these nutrients (P<0.05. The digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and non-fibre carbohydrates also decreased linearly with increasing dietary glycerin concentrations (P<0.05. The results for ruminal fermentation parameters showed a linear decrease (P<0.05 in the ruminal concentration of N-NH3 with increasing dietary levels of glycerin; however, ruminal pH was not affected (P<0.05. Serum concentrations of urea, triglycerides, cholesterol, and plasma glucose concentrations were within normal ranges based on the literature. The inclusion of glycerin in the cattle diet altered rumen fermentation, reducing the concentration of N-NH 3, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and non-fiber carbohydrates.

  18. Life cycle efficiency of beef production: VIII. Relationship between residual feed intake of heifers and subsequent cow efficiency ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, M E; Lancaster, P A; Rutledge, J J; Cundiff, L V

    2016-11-01

    Data were collected from 1953 through 1980 from identical and fraternal twin beef and dairy females born in 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, and 1969, and from crossbred females born as singles in 1974, and their progeny. Numbers of dams that weaned at least 1 calf and were included in the first analysis were 37, 45, and 56 in the 1964, 1969, and 1974 data sets, respectively. Respective numbers of dams that weaned 3 calves and were included in a second analysis were 6, 8, 8, 22, 33, and 33 in the 1953, 1954, 1959, 1964, 1969, and 1974 experiments. Individual feed consumption was measured at 28-d intervals from the time females were placed on the experiment until 3 calves were weaned or the dams had reached 5 yr of age. Residual feed intake (RFI) and residual gain (RG) of the heifers that subsequently became the dams in this study were determined based on ADG and DMI from 240 d of age to first calving. Various measures of cow efficiency were calculated on either a life cycle or actual lifetime basis using ratios of progeny and dam weight outputs to progeny and dam feed inputs. Residual feed intake was phenotypically independent of ADG and metabolic midweight (MMW), whereas the correlation between RFI and DMI was positive and highly significant ( = 0.67; calving had superior efficiency ratios as cows. Residual feed intake was not significantly correlated with age at puberty, age at calving, or milk production. Results of this study do not indicate any serious antagonisms of postweaning heifer RFI with subsequent cow and progeny performance traits or with life cycle or actual lifetime cow efficiency. In addition, selection for increased RG would result in earlier ages at calving, but would also tend to result in taller and heavier cows.

  19. EFFECT OF LEVEL OF CONCENTRATE FEEDING LEVEL ON EFFICIENCY OF EATING BEHAVIOUR ON ONGOLE CROSSBRED CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dartosukarno

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Eight bulls of Ongole Crossbred (OC cattle with initial body weight (BW of 297 + 26 kg (CV =8.75% fed rice straw treated with urine (RU (ad libitum were divided into two groups (each fourheads to determine the effect of concentrate feeding level on efficiency of eating behavior. The cattlewas given concentrate feeding composed of beer cake and rice bran to make 14% crude protein at 1%and at 2% BW for RUC1 and RUC2 group, respectively. Eating behavior was measured for 3x24 hoursand was performed twice at weeks 2 and 6 of the study. Data obtained were analyzed by t-test. Theresults showed that the level of concentrate feeding affected the intake of urinated rice straw (P<0.01and daily BWGain (P<0.05, but the effect was not found (P>0.05 on DMI, length time for eating(196.5 vs. 221.5 min/d, length time for rumination (351.0 vs. 449.4 min/d, efficiency of eating time(37.21 vs. 37.67 gDM/min and efficiency rumination time (21.43 vs. 18.50 gDM/min. This researchshowed that concentrate feeding at 2% BW did not alter the efficiency of eating time and ruminationcompared to 1% BW, although able to improve BWG of OC cattle.

  20. How to measure the economic impacts of changes in growth, feed efficiency and survival in aquaculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kankainen, M.; Setala, J.; Berrill, I.K.; Ruohonen, K.; Noble, C.; Schneider, O.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we introduce a variety of bio-economic models that can be used to calculate the economic benefits associated with improved productivity in aquaculture. In the aquaculture industry, three important biological productivity factors are growth, survival and feed efficiency. The

  1. Fecal microbial composition associated with variation in feed efficiency in pigs depends on diet and sex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuren, Lisanne M.G.; Calus, Mario P.L.; Jansman, Aalfons J.M.; Bergsma, Rob; Knol, Egbert F.; Gilbert, Hélène; Zemb, Olivier

    2018-01-01

    Dietary fiber content and composition affect microbial composition and activity in the gut, which in turn influence energetic contribution of fermentation products to the metabolic energy supply in pigs. This may affect feed efficiency (FE) in pigs. The present study investigated the relationship

  2. Protein-energy supplementation for lambs: feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of dietary protein-energy supplementation on feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility in lambs. Four castrated lambs with 31.9 kg mean body weight and fistulated rumen were tested. distributed into latin square design (4x4, four treatments were tested over four periods of time: no supplementation (control or with supplementation at 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 body weight. The supplement (soybean meal, soybean hulls, ground corn and minerals was provided with roughage (Tifton Bermudagrass, Cynodon spp., hay, which was offered ad libitum once a day, at 8h00. In treatments receiving 0 (control, 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 supplementation, dry matter intake was 685.26, 742.86, 842.51 and 1013.33 g day-1, crude protein intake was 80.18, 95.98, 118.64, 150.14 g day-1 and metabolizable energy intake 1.55, 1.91, 2.31 and 2.98 g day-1, respectively. Treatments receiving the highest supplementation levels spent less time with rumination and feeding and rested for longer (P < 0.05. Protein-energy supplementation level did not affect rumen parameters. Average rumen pH was 6.3 and rumen ammonia nitrogen 165 mg dL-1; both were affected by sampling time. Supplementation levels until 24 g kg-1 BW improves feed intake and nutrient digestibility linearly and changes ingestive behavior, lowering rumination time without affecting rumen parameters.

  3. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  4. Kinetic parameters of protein metabolism in rats during protein-free feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krawielitzki, K.; Schadereit, R.; Wuensche, J.

    1987-01-01

    16 male rats of 100 g live weight were given 50 mg of a mixture containing 15 N-labelled amino acids as a single dose within a protein-free feeding period. Following this the 15 N excretion in feces and urine as well as the development of the 15 N excess in different organs and tissues were estimated over 3 days by slaughtering the animals within given 7 time intervals. Using a 3 pool model and the computer program for the interpretation of 15 N tracer experiments by Toewe et al. (1984), kinetic parameters such as the rate of protein synthesis, protein breakdown and the rate of reutilization were calculated. Despite a negative N balance (- 41.8 mg N/d) under protein-free conditions the protein metabolism of the rat shows high dynamics characterized by a high flux rate (225 mg N/d) and a high rate of body protein synthesis (181 mg/d). The reutilization was 85 %. Depending on time the 15 N excess in the tested organs and tissues showed significant differences and seems to demonstrate that under these conditions protein synthesis mainly takes place in the most important organs (e.g. intestinal tract, liver). Under protein-free feeding conditions protein synthesis and protein breakdown of the whole body seems to be slightly increased in comparison to N balanced feeding conditions. (author)

  5. Temporal feeding pattern may influence reproduction efficiency, the example of breeding mares.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifa Benhajali

    Full Text Available Discomfort in farm animals may be induced by inappropriate types or timing of food supplies. Thus, time restriction of meals and lack of roughage have been shown to be one source of emergence of oral stereotypies and abnormal behaviour in horses which have evolved to eat high-fibre diets in small amounts over long periods of time. This feeding pattern is often altered in domestic environment where horses are often fed low fibre meals that can be rapidly consumed. This study aimed at determining the effect of the temporal pattern of feeding on reproductive efficiency of breeding mares, One hundred Arab breeding mares were divided into two groups that differed only in the temporal pattern of roughage availability: only at night for the standard feeding pattern group (SFP mares, night and day for the "continuous feeding" group (CF mares. The total amount of roughage provided was the same as the CF mares received half of the hay during the day while in paddock (haynets. Mares were tested for oestrus detection by teasing with one stallion and were then examined clinically by rectal palpations and ultrasound before being mated naturally or inseminated by fresh or frozen semen. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyse data. The treatment affected significantly the reproductive efficiency of the mares with fewer oestrus abnormalities (p = 0.0002 and more fertility (p = 0.024 in CF mares (conception rate = 81% versus 55% in SFP mares. Ensuring semi-continous feeding by providing roughage may be a way of fulfilling the basic physiological needs of the horses' digestive system, reducing stress and associated inhibitors of reproduction. To our knowledge, this study provides the first evidence of an impact of temporal feeding patterns on reproductive success in a Mammal. Temporal patterns of feeding may be a major and underestimated factor in breeding.

  6. Effect of feeding frequency on the reproductive efficiency of two species of Triatoma with different epidemiological importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction In Triatominae, reproductive efficiency is an important factor influencing population dynamics, and a useful parameter in measuring a species' epidemiological significance as a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909. The reproductive efficiency of triatomines is affected by food availability; hence, we measured and compared the effects of feeding frequency on the reproductive parameters of Triatoma patagonica (Del Ponte, 1929 and Triatoma infestans (Klug, 1934, and the effects of starvation on T. patagonica. Methods Couples from both species were fed weekly, or every 3 weeks; in addition, females in couples of T. patagonica were not fed. Each couple was observed weekly and reproductive efficiency was assessed on the following parameters: fecundity (eggs/female, fertility (eggs hatched/eggs laid, initiation and end of oviposition, initiation of mating, number of matings/week, and number of reproductive weeks. Relative meal size index (RMS, blood consumption index (CI, and E values (eggs/mg blood were also calculated. Results Changes in feeding frequency affected the reproductive parameters of T. patagonica only, with a decrease in fecundity and number of reproductive weeks for those fed every 3 weeks, or not fed. The reproductive period, RMS index, and CI were lower for T. patagonica than T. infestans. However, despite the lower fecundity of T. patagonica, this species required less blood to produce eggs, with an E values of 2 compared to 2.94 for T. infestans. Conclusions Our results suggest that the differences in fecundity observed between species reflect the availability of food in their natural ecotopes.

  7. The dynamic efficiency of feed-in tariffs: The impact of different design elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, Pablo del

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic efficiency has received much less attention than the effectiveness and static efficiency criteria to assess policies to support electricity from renewable energy sources (RES-E). On the other hand, the literature on RES-E support shows that the choice of design elements within RES-E support instruments is at least as important to successfully promote RES-E as the choice of specific instruments. The aim of this paper is to build a theoretical framework for dynamic efficiency analysis and assess the dynamic efficiency properties of the different design elements of feed-in tariffs. It is shown that, in fact, several design elements can have a significant impact on the different dimensions of dynamic efficiency. Particularly relevant design elements in this context are technology-specific fixed-tariffs, floor prices, degression, reductions of support over time for existing plants, long duration of support and support falling on consumers. In addition, it is shown than some design elements would be more appropriate than others to activate specific dimensions. - Highlights: ► A theoretical framework for dynamic efficiency analysis is built. ► The dynamic efficiency properties of feed-in tariffs design elements are assessed. ► Several design elements have a significant impact on the different dimensions of dynamic efficiency.

  8. Nutritional, technological and managerial parameters for precision feeding to enhance feed nutrient utilization and productivity in different dairy cattle production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Empel, Mireille JM; Makkar, Harinder PS; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Increased future demand of animal products as well as competition between food, feed and fuel, require efficient utilization of feed resources to strengthen environmental, economic and social sustainability of livestock systems. The objective of this review is to summarize current knowledge...... on precision feeding (PF) and the relevance of PF approaches in dairy cattle production systems in developing countries. The concept of PF aims at achieving balanced nutrition (matching animal requirements with nutrient supply, preferably from locally available feed resources) to improve animal productivity...... and to reduce both the cost of production and environmental pollution. In addition to the supply of proper amounts of nutrients to the dairy cow using various methodologies and tools, approaches that enhance overall nutrient digestion and availability to the animal are also discussed as an integral part of PF...

  9. An efficient automated parameter tuning framework for spiking neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kristofor D; Nageswaran, Jayram Moorkanikara; Dutt, Nikil; Krichmar, Jeffrey L

    2014-01-01

    As the desire for biologically realistic spiking neural networks (SNNs) increases, tuning the enormous number of open parameters in these models becomes a difficult challenge. SNNs have been used to successfully model complex neural circuits that explore various neural phenomena such as neural plasticity, vision systems, auditory systems, neural oscillations, and many other important topics of neural function. Additionally, SNNs are particularly well-adapted to run on neuromorphic hardware that will support biological brain-scale architectures. Although the inclusion of realistic plasticity equations, neural dynamics, and recurrent topologies has increased the descriptive power of SNNs, it has also made the task of tuning these biologically realistic SNNs difficult. To meet this challenge, we present an automated parameter tuning framework capable of tuning SNNs quickly and efficiently using evolutionary algorithms (EA) and inexpensive, readily accessible graphics processing units (GPUs). A sample SNN with 4104 neurons was tuned to give V1 simple cell-like tuning curve responses and produce self-organizing receptive fields (SORFs) when presented with a random sequence of counterphase sinusoidal grating stimuli. A performance analysis comparing the GPU-accelerated implementation to a single-threaded central processing unit (CPU) implementation was carried out and showed a speedup of 65× of the GPU implementation over the CPU implementation, or 0.35 h per generation for GPU vs. 23.5 h per generation for CPU. Additionally, the parameter value solutions found in the tuned SNN were studied and found to be stable and repeatable. The automated parameter tuning framework presented here will be of use to both the computational neuroscience and neuromorphic engineering communities, making the process of constructing and tuning large-scale SNNs much quicker and easier.

  10. Growth, meat and feed efficiency traits of lambs born to ewes submitted to energy restriction during mid-gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piaggio, L; Quintans, G; San Julián, R; Ferreira, G; Ithurralde, J; Fierro, S; Pereira, A S C; Baldi, F; Banchero, G E

    2018-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the energy restriction of gestation of adult ewes from day 45 to day 115 on lamb live performance parameters, carcass and meat traits. In experiment I, dietary energy was restricted at 70% of the metabolizable energy (ME) requirements, after which ewes were re-fed ad libitum until lambing. In experiment II, dietary energy was restricted at 60% of the ME requirements, and ewes were re-fed to ME requirements until lambing. All ewes grazed together from the end of the restriction periods to weaning. Lambs were weaned and lot fed until slaughter. Feed intake, weight gain and feed efficiency were recorded, and body fat thickness and ribeye area (REA) were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle. After slaughter, carcass weight and yield, fat depth, carcass and leg length, and frenched rack and leg weights and yields were determined. Muscle fiber type composition, Warner-Bratzler shear force, pH and color were determined in the longissimus lumborum muscle. In experiment I, energy restriction followed by ad libitum feeding affected lamb birth weight (P0.05) were observed on later BW, REA, BF or carcass traits. Lambs born to non-restricted-fed ewes had higher (Penergy restriction followed by ME requirements feeding, affected (Pefficient (P=0.16) than lambs from unrestricted dams. Ribeye area and BF were not influenced by treatment. Treatment significantly affected slaughter weight, but had no effects on carcass yield and traits or on meat traits. The results obtained in both experiments indicate submitting ewes to energy restriction during gestation affects the performance of their progeny but the final outcome would depend on the ewe's re-feeding level during late gestation and the capacity of the offspring to compensate the in utero restriction after birth.

  11. Genetic and phenotypic relationships of feed intake and measures of efficiency with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Wang, Z; Li, C; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Crews, D H; Moore, S S

    2007-10-01

    Feed intake and efficiency of growth are economically important traits of beef cattle. This study determined the relationships of daily DMI, feed:gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F) and therefore increases as the efficiency of gain decreases and vice versa, residual feed intake (RFI), and partial efficiency of growth (efficiency of ADG, PEG) with growth and carcass merit of beef cattle. Residual feed intake was calculated from phenotypic regression (RFIp) or genetic regression (RFIg) of ADG and metabolic BW on DMI. An F1 half-sib pedigree file containing 28 sires, 321 dams, and 464 progeny produced from crosses between Alberta Hybrid cows and Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls was used. Families averaged 20 progeny per sire (range = 3 to 56). Performance, ultrasound, and DMI data was available on all progeny, of which 381 had carcass data. Phenotypic and genetic parameters were obtained using SAS and ASREML software, respectively. Differences in RFIp and RFIg, respectively, between the most and least efficient steers (i.e., steers with the lowest PEG) were 5.59 and 6.84 kg of DM/d. Heritabilities for DMI, F:G, PEG, RFIp, and RFIg were 0.54 +/- 0.15, 0.41 +/- 0.15, 0.56 +/- 0.16, 0.21 +/- 0.12, and 0.42 +/- 0.15, respectively. The genetic (r = 0.92) and phenotypic (r = 0.97) correlations between RFIp and RFIg indicated that the 2 indices are very similar. Both indices of RFI were favorably correlated phenotypically (P 0.50), but only DMI had strong genetic (r = 0.87 +/- 0.10) and phenotypic (r = 0.65) correlations with metabolic BW. Generally, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with carcass merit were not different from zero, except genetic correlations of RFI with ultrasound and carcass LM area and carcass lean yield and phenotypic correlations of RFI with backfat thickness (P < 0.01). Daily DMI had moderate to high phenotypic (P < 0.01) and genetic correlations with all the ultrasound and carcass traits

  12. Fetal and neonatal programming of postnatal growth and feed efficiency in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yun; Wu, Zhenlong; Dai, Zhaolai; Wang, Xiaolong; Li, Ju; Wang, Binggen; Wu, Guoyao

    2017-01-01

    Maternal undernutrition or overnutrition during pregnancy alters organ structure, impairs prenatal and neonatal growth and development, and reduces feed efficiency for lean tissue gains in pigs. These adverse effects may be carried over to the next generation or beyond. This phenomenon of the transgenerational impacts is known as fetal programming, which is mediated by stable and heritable alterations of gene expression through covalent modifications of DNA and histones without changes in DNA sequences (namely, epigenetics). The mechanisms responsible for the epigenetic regulation of protein expression and functions include chromatin remodeling; DNA methylation (occurring at the 5´-position of cytosine residues within CpG dinucleotides); and histone modifications (acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination). Like maternal malnutrition, undernutrition during the neonatal period also reduces growth performance and feed efficiency (weight gain:feed intake; also known as weight-gain efficiency) in postweaning pigs by 5-10%, thereby increasing the days necessary to reach the market body-weight. Supplementing functional amino acids (e.g., arginine and glutamine) and vitamins (e.g., folate) play a key role in activating the mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and regulating the provision of methyl donors for DNA and protein methylation. Therefore, these nutrients are beneficial for the dietary treatment of metabolic disorders in offspring with intrauterine growth restriction or neonatal malnutrition. The mechanism-based strategies hold great promise for the improvement of the efficiency of pork production and the sustainability of the global swine industry.

  13. An Efficient Binary Differential Evolution with Parameter Adaptation

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    Dongli Jia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Differential Evolution (DE has been applied to many scientific and engineering problems for its simplicity and efficiency. However, the standard DE cannot be used in a binary search space directly. This paper proposes an adaptive binary Differential Evolution algorithm, or ABDE, that has a similar framework as the standard DE but with an improved binary mutation strategy in which the best individual participates. To further enhance the search ability, the parameters of the ABDE are slightly disturbed in an adaptive manner. Experiments have been carried out by comparing ABDE with two binary DE variants, normDE and BDE, and the most used binary search technique, GA, on a set of 13 selected benchmark functions and the classical 0-1 knapsack problem. Results show that the ABDE performs better than, or at least comparable to, the other algorithms in terms of search ability, convergence speed, and solution accuracy.

  14. Feeding Supplementation And Radioimmunoassay (RIA) Technique For The Improvement Of artificial Insemination (AI) Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjiptosumirat, Totti; Supandi, Dadang; Firsoni

    2002-01-01

    Recent research activities have showed that RIA techniques may be use as a tool in the improvement of dairy cattle AI in . Cisurupan district, Garut. Although already indicate in the previous research, with a small number of dairy cattle tested, a more in depth study on the utilization of RIA for the improvement of AI efficiency is still required. It is indicated from the previous experiment results that administration of feeding supplementation might improved the efficiency of reproductive performance of dairy cattle. The current Study is a continuation from the previous study with a larger number of dairy cattle and wider area covered. The experiment is aimed to monitor the impact of feeding supplementation on the reproductive performance of dairy cattle using Artificial Insemination Database Application (AIDA) and RIA technique. Result from this study indicated that feeding supplementation improved conception rate between pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle; 25% vs 40%, respectively, therefore improve ratio of Service per Conception of 4.0 vs 2.3, respectively for pre-supplemented and post-supplemented dairy cattle. Result of this experiment also showed that RIA might be use as an effective tool in monitoring the early failure of AI compared to if just relying on the conventional method, the rectal palpation. However, due to an increase in milk production as a result of feeding supplementation, tanners tend to lengthen the lactation period from 10.20 ± 0.5 months to 11.8 ± 0.6 months, respectively in dairy cattle pre-supplemented and post-supplemented. It can be conclude from this study that supplementation feeding improve reproductive performance. However, even AIDA and RIA may be of effective tool in monitoring the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, as an holistic approach for an improvement dairy farm management is still required due to other factors play important role for AI efficiency

  15. Effect of feeding cottonseed meal on some hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Thirumalaisamy

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the effect of feeding cottonseed meal (CSM on performance of hematological and serum biochemical parameters in broiler birds. Materials and Methods: A 6-week biological trial was carried out with 432-day-old Cobb 400 broiler chicks distributed to nine experimental diets with six replicates, each containing eight chicks. The experimental diets were formulated based on total amino acids (BTAA or based on digestible amino acids (BDAA with or without iron supplementation with two levels of CSM (2% and 4% and control diet based on maize – soybean. The whole blood was subjected to hematological studies. The serum samples were analyzed for protein fractions and lipid profiles. Results: The packed cell volume (PCV value, red blood cell (RBC numbers, and hemoglobin (Hb were lower in iron unsupplemented CSM BTAA or BDAA diets than the control (33.86-35.54 vs. 36.41%, 2.78-2.87 vs. 2.98 × 106/μl, and 10.30-10.70 vs. 10.88%. Supplementation of iron in CSM diets improved the PCV, RBC numbers, and Hb, and the values were comparable to the control. White blood cell numbers, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH, and MCH concentration values were comparable to the control. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility (EOF was poor in birds fed diets containing up to 4% CSM BTAA or CSM BDAA without iron supplementation (32.02-32.57 vs. 28.77%. Supplementation of iron improved the EOF. The serum cholesterol level did not change with or without iron supplementation. Conclusion: This study suggested that feeding of CSM BTAA or BDAA up to 4% level voiding iron supplementation lowers the hematological parameters, whereas supplementation of iron did not alter serum protein fractions and cholesterol profile; however, it had lowered some hematological parameters, which was rectified by iron supplementation.

  16. Intake and feeding efficiency in feed-lot lambs Consumo e Eficiência Alimentar em Cordeiros Confinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joadil Gonçalves Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the intake and feed efficiency in fed-lot sheep as function of the body weight (BW variation. Data from three experiments with 50 feedlot lambs maintained in individual metabolic cages and fed diets composed of 50:50 roughage:concentrate were used. The experiment lasted 120 days; every 21 days the animals were weighed and the dry matter intake and body weight change were daily done. The intake was determined by checking daily the feed offer level and orts. The increased in animals body weight incremented the dry matter intake in 30.8g/kg of body weight/day, but promoted reduction of 0.0318% when the intake was expressed as percentage of BW. In addition, the advance of body weight affected negatively the feed conversion (FC, where animals with BW of 30 kg showed estimated FC of 4.55 of dry matter/kg of BW gain, while animals with BW of 45 kg have would food conversion of 7.03 kg of DM/kg of BW gain.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o consumo e a eficiência alimentar em ovinos confinados em função da variação no peso vivo (PV. Foram utilizados dados de três experimentos com cordeiros em confinamento, 50 animais no total, mantidos em gaiolas individuais para estudos de metabolismo, alimentados com dietas de relação volumoso: concentrado 50:50. Durante o experimento (120 dias, os animais foram monitorados quanto ao consumo diário de matéria seca e à variação de peso vivo, por meio de pesagens realizadas a cada 21 dias. O consumo foi determinado pelo monitoramento diário da oferta de alimento e das sobras. Com o do peso vivo dos animais aumentou o consumo de matéria seca em 29,38g/kg de PV/dia, mas promoveu redução de 0,0318% quando expresso em porcentagem do PV. Além disso, o avanço do PV afetou negativamente a conversão alimentar (CA, de modo que animais com 30kg de PV apresentaram CA estimada de 4,55kg de MS/kg de PV ganho, enquanto animais com peso

  17. Relationship among performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics, and their ability to predict economic value in the feedlot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retallick, K M; Faulkner, D B; Rodriguez-Zas, S L; Nkrumah, J D; Shike, D W

    2013-12-01

    A 4-yr study was conducted using 736 steers of known Angus, Simmental, or Simmental × Angus genetics to determine performance, carcass, and feed efficiency factors that explained variation in economic performance. Steers were pen fed and individual DMI was recorded using a GrowSafe automated feeding system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada). Steers consumed a similar diet and received similar management each year. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine current economic value of feed efficiency and 2) identify performance, carcass, and feed efficiency characteristics that predict: carcass value, profit, cost of gain, and feed costs. Economic data used were from 2011 values. Feed efficiency values investigated were: feed conversion ratio (FCR; feed to gain), residual feed intake (RFI), residual BW gain (RG), and residual intake and BW gain (RIG). Dependent variables were carcass value ($/steer), profit ($/steer), feed costs ($/steer • d(-1)), and cost of gain ($/kg). Independent variables were year, DMI, ADG, HCW, LM area, marbling, yield grade, dam breed, and sire breed. A 10% improvement in RG (P Profit increased with a 10% improvement in feed efficiency (P profit. Eighty-five percent of the variation in cost of gain was explained by ADG, DMI, HCW, and year. Prediction equations were developed that excluded ADG and DMI, and included feed efficiency values. Using these equations, cost of gain was explained primarily by FCR (R(2) = 0.71). Seventy-three percent of profitability was explained, with 55% being accounted for by RG and marbling. These prediction equations represent the relative importance of factors contributing to economic success in feedlot cattle based on current prices.

  18. Fault detection of feed water treatment process using PCA-WD with parameter optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shirong; Tang, Qian; Lin, Yu; Tang, Yuling

    2017-05-01

    Feed water treatment process (FWTP) is an essential part of utility boilers; and fault detection is expected for its reliability improvement. Classical principal component analysis (PCA) has been applied to FWTPs in our previous work; however, the noises of T 2 and SPE statistics result in false detections and missed detections. In this paper, Wavelet denoise (WD) is combined with PCA to form a new algorithm, (PCA-WD), where WD is intentionally employed to deal with the noises. The parameter selection of PCA-WD is further formulated as an optimization problem; and PSO is employed for optimization solution. A FWTP, sustaining two 1000MW generation units in a coal-fired power plant, is taken as a study case. Its operation data is collected for following verification study. The results show that the optimized WD is effective to restrain the noises of T 2 and SPE statistics, so as to improve the performance of PCA-WD algorithm. And, the parameter optimization enables PCA-WD to get its optimal parameters in an automatic way rather than on individual experience. The optimized PCA-WD is further compared with classical PCA and sliding window PCA (SWPCA), in terms of four cases as bias fault, drift fault, broken line fault and normal condition, respectively. The advantages of the optimized PCA-WD, against classical PCA and SWPCA, is finally convinced with the results. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Consistency of feed efficiency ranking and mechanisms associated with inter-animal variation among growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, A; Shabtay, A; Cohen-Zinder, M; Aharoni, Y; Miron, J; Agmon, R; Halachmi, I; Orlov, A; Haim, A; Tedeschi, L O; Carstens, G E; Johnson, K A; Brosh, A

    2018-04-03

    This study investigated the possible mechanisms for explaining interanimal variation in efficiency of feed utilization in intact male Holstein calves. Additionally, we examined whether the feed efficiency (FE) ranking of calves (n = 26) changed due to age and/or diet quality. Calves were evaluated during three periods (P1, P2, and P3) while fed a high-quality diet (calculated mobilizable energy [ME] of 11.8 MJ/kg DM) during P1 and P3, and a low-quality diet (calculated ME of 7.7 MJ/kg DM) during P2. The study periods were 84, 119, and 127 d, respectively. Initial ages of the calves in P1, P2, and P3 were 7, 11, and 15 mo, respectively, and initial body weight (BW) were 245, 367, and 458 kg, respectively. Individual dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), diet digestibility, and heat production (HP) were measured in all periods. The measured FE indexes were: residual feed intake (RFI), the gain-to-feed ratio (G:F), residual gain (RG), residual gain and intake (RIG), the ratio of HP-to-ME intake (HP/MEI), and residual heat production (RHP). For statistical analysis, animals' performance data in each period, were ranked by RFI, and categorized into high-, medium-, and low-RFI groups (H-RFI, M-RFI, and L-RFI). RFI was not correlated with in vivo digestibility, age, BW, BCS, or ADG in all three periods. The L-RFI group had lowest DMI, MEI, HP, retained energy (RE), and RE/ADG. Chemical analysis of the longissimus dorsi muscle shows that the L-RFI group had a higher percentage of protein and a lower percentage of fat compared to the H-RFI group. We suggested that the main mechanism separating L- from H-RFI calves is the protein-to-fat ratio in the deposited tissues. When efficiency was related to kg/day (DMI and ADG) and not to daily retained energy, the selected efficient L-RFI calves deposited more protein and less fat per daily gain than less efficient H-RFI calves. However, when the significant greater heat increment and maintenance energy requirement of

  20. Ingestive behavior of Nellore and Bonsmara cattle during the feed efficiency test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Marchi Maiorano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have reported relationship between eating behavior and performance in feedlot cattle. The evaluation of behavior traits demands high degree of work and trained manpower, therefore, in recent years has been used an automated feed intake measurement system (GrowSafe System ®, that identify and record individual feeding patterns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between feeding behavior traits and average daily gain in Nellore calves undergoing feed efficiency test. Date from 85 Nelore males was recorded during the feed efficiency test performed in 2012, at Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte, Instituto de Zootecnia, São Paulo State. Were analyzed the behavioral traits: time at feeder (TF, head down duration (HD, representing the time when the animal is actually eating, frequency of visits (FV and feed rate (FR calculated as the amount of dry matter (DM consumed by time at feeder (g.min-1. The ADG was calculated by linear regression of individual weights on days in test. ADG classes were obtained considering the average ADG and standard deviation (SD being: high ADG (>mean + 1.0 SD, medium ADG (± 1.0 SD from the mean and low ADG (feed per time (g.min-1 than the low and medium ADG animals. No diferences were observed (P>0.05 among ADG classes for FV, indicating that these traits are not related to each other. These results shows that the ADG is related to the agility in eat food and not to the time spent in the bunk or to the number of visits in a range of 24 hours.

  1. The genetic and biological basis of feed efficiency in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, L C; VandeHaar, M J; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A; Armentano, L E; Wiggans, G R; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Coffey, M P; Connor, E E; Hanigan, M D; Staples, C; Wang, Z; Dekkers, J C M; Spurlock, D M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with feed efficiency in lactating Holstein cows. In total, 4,916 cows with actual or imputed genotypes for 60,671 single nucleotide polymorphisms having individual feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and body weight records were used in this study. Cows were from research herds located in the United States, Canada, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom. Feed efficiency, defined as residual feed intake (RFI), was calculated within location as the residual of the regression of dry matter intake (DMI) on milk energy (MilkE), metabolic body weight (MBW), change in body weight, and systematic effects. For RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW, bivariate analyses were performed considering each trait as a separate trait within parity group to estimate variance components and genetic correlations between them. Animal relationships were established using a genomic relationship matrix. Genome-wide association studies were performed separately by parity group for RFI, DMI, MilkE, and MBW using the Bayes B method with a prior assumption that 1% of single nucleotide polymorphisms have a nonzero effect. One-megabase windows with greatest percentage of the total genetic variation explained by the markers (TGVM) were identified, and adjacent windows with large proportion of the TGVM were combined and reanalyzed. Heritability estimates for RFI were 0.14 (±0.03; ±SE) in primiparous cows and 0.13 (±0.03) in multiparous cows. Genetic correlations between primiparous and multiparous cows were 0.76 for RFI, 0.78 for DMI, 0.92 for MBW, and 0.61 for MilkE. No single 1-Mb window explained a significant proportion of the TGVM for RFI; however, after combining windows, significance was met on Bos taurus autosome 27 in primiparous cows, and nearly reached on Bos taurus autosome 4 in multiparous cows. Among other genes, these regions contain β-3 adrenergic receptor and the physiological candidate gene

  2. Efficiency of organic acid preparations for the elimination of naturally occurring Salmonella in feed material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axmann, Sonja; Kolar, Veronika; Adler, Andreas; Strnad, Irmengard

    2017-11-01

    Salmonella can enter animal stocks via feedstuffs, thus posing not only an infection risk for animals, but also threatening to contaminate food of animal origin and finally humans. Salmonella contamination in feedstuffs is still a recurring and serious issue in animal production (especially for the poultry sector), and is regularly detected upon self-monitoring by feed companies (self-checks) and official inspections authorities. Operators within the feed chain in certain cases need to use hygienic condition enhancers, such as organic acids, to improve the quality of feed for animal nutrition, providing additional guarantees for the protection of animal and public health. The present study investigated the efficiencies of five organic acid preparations. The acid products were added to three different feed materials contaminated with Salmonella (contamination occurred by recontamination in the course of the production process) at seven different inclusion rates (1-7%) and analysed after 1, 2, and 7 days' exposure time using culture method (tenfold analysis). A reliable standard was established for defining a successful decontamination under the prevailing test conditions: 10 Salmonella-negative results out of 10 tested samples (0/10: i.e. 0 positive samples and 10 negative samples). The results demonstrated that the tested preparations showed significant differences with regard to the reduction in Salmonella contamination. At an inclusion rate of 7% of the feed materials, two out of five acid preparations showed an insufficient, very small, decontamination effect, whereas two others had a relatively large partial effect. Reliable decontamination was demonstrated only for one acid preparation, however, subject to the use of the highest acid concentration.

  3. Post-weaning feed efficiency decreased in progeny of higher milk yielding beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; McFarlane, Z D; Cope, E R

    2018-02-01

    Current trends in the beef industry focus on selecting production traits with the purpose of maximizing calf weaning weight; however, such traits may ultimately decrease overall post-weaning productivity. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of actual milk yield in mature beef cows on their offspring's dry matter intake (DMI), BW, average daily gain, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) during a ~75-day backgrounding feeding trial. A period of 24-h milk production was measured with a modified weigh-suckle-weigh technique using a milking machine. After milking, cows were retrospectively classified as one of three milk yield groups: Lower (6.57±1.21 kg), Moderate (9.02±0.60 kg) or Higher (11.97±1.46 kg). Calves from Moderate and Higher milk yielding dams had greater (Pfeeding phase; however, day 75 BW were not different (P=0.36) between Lower and Moderate calves. Body weight gain was greater (P=0.05) for Lower and Moderate calves from the day 0 BW to day 35 BW compared with Higher calves. Overall DMI was lower (P=0.03) in offspring from Lower and Moderate cows compared with their Higher milking counterparts. With the decreased DMI, FCR was lower (P=0.03) from day 0 to day 35 in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams. In addition, overall FCR was lower (P=0.02) in calves from Lower and Moderate milk yielding dams compared with calves from Higher milk yielding dams. However, calving of Lower milk yielding dams had an increased (P=0.04) efficiency from a negative RFI value compared with calves from Moderate and Higher milking dams. Results from this study suggest that increased milk production in beef cows decreases feed efficiency during a 75-day post-weaning, backgrounding period of progeny.

  4. Feeding different dietary protein to energy ratios to Holstein heifers: effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, L F; Zhang, W B; Zhang, N F; Tu, Y; Diao, Q Y

    2017-02-01

    Eighteen Chinese Holstein heifers average age 230 ± 14 days were allocated to 1 of 3 dietary crude protein (CP) to metabolizable energy (ME) ratios to examine the effects on growth performance, blood metabolites and rumen fermentation parameters with 90-days experiment. Three different dietary CP:ME ratios were targeted based on the formulation of dietary CP contents of 10.85%, 12.78% and 14.63% on dry matter (DM) basis with similar ME contents (10.42 MJ/kg DM), which were categorized as low, medium and high dietary CP:ME ratios. The actual CP:ME ratios obtained in this study significantly increased from low to high CP:ME ratio groups with a value of 10.59, 11.83 and 13.38 g/MJ respectively. Elevated CP:ME ratios significantly increased CP intake (kg/day) and feed efficiency (FE) which was defined as dry matter intake as a proportion of average daily gain (ADG), whereas little difference was observed in body weight (kg), ADG (kg/day), DM intake (kg/day) and ME intake (MJ/day) among the three different CP:ME ratio groups. Increasing dietary CP to ME ratios significantly increased CP digestibility, whereas digestibility of DM and gross energy remained constant in the current experiment. Blood urea nitrogen and insulin-like growth factor-1 linearly increased with increasing dietary CP:ME ratios. There was significantly dietary treatment effect on rumen fermentation parameters including acetate, propionate, butyrate and total volatile fatty acids. Therefore, this study indicated that increasing dietary CP levels with similar energy content contributed to increased protein intake and its digestibility, as well as FE. Holstein heifers between 200 and 341 kg subjected to 13.38 dietary CP:ME ratio showed improved feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, some blood metabolites and rumen fermentation characteristics for 0.90 kg/day rate of gain. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Tissue mobilisation in Holstein-Friesian cattle selected for divergence in efficiency, defined as residual feed intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waghorn, G.C.; MacDonald, K.A.; Verwoerd, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of feed (energy) requirements of individuals, relative to the population mean. Two groups, of ~120 Holstein-Friesian heifer calves (aged 6–9 months), which differed in efficiency by ~20%, were reared and mated. Liveweight and body condition score (BCS) were

  6. THE INFLUENCE OF THE TOOL POINT ANGLE AND FEED RATE ON THE DYNAMIC PARAMETERS AT DRILLING COATED PARTICLEBOARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai ISPAS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pre-laminated (coated particleboards (PB are wood-based composites intensively used in the furniture industry. In order to prepare the PB for joining, drilling is the most commonly applied machining process. The surface quality and the dynamic parameters (thrust force and torque are significantly influenced by the tools characteristics and the machining parameters. The point/tip angle of the drill bit and the feed speed during drilling play a major role in gaining a good surface quality and minimizing the dynamic parameters. The objective of this study was to measure and analyze the influence of both the geometric and cinematic parameters on the dynamic parameters at drilling with twist (helical drills. The experiments were performed based on a factorial design. The results show that, a low feed rate generally minimizes both the drilling torque and the thrust force, while a small tip angle increases the drilling torque and minimizes the thrust force.

  7. Feed efficiency of tropically adapted cattle when fed in winter or spring in a temperate location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Phillips, W A; Riley, D G

    2018-04-16

    Earlier work has shown that young, tropically adapted cattle do not gain as rapidly as temperately adapted cattle during the winter in Oklahoma. The objective for this study was to determine if efficiency of gains was also impacted in tropically adapted cattle and if efficiency was consistent over different seasons. Over 3 yrs, 240 straightbred and crossbred steers (F1 and three-way crosses) of Angus, Brahman or Romosinuano breeding, born in Brooksville, FL were transported to El Reno, OK in October and fed in two phases to determine performance, individual intake and efficiency. Phase 1 (WIN) began in November after a 28 d recovery from shipping stress and Phase 2 (SS) began in March, 28 d following completion of WIN each year. The diet for WIN was a grower diet (14% CP, 1.10 Mcal NEg/kg) and that for the SS was a feedlot diet (12.8% CP; 1.33 Mcal NEg/kg). After a 14 d adjustment to diet and facilities, intake trials were conducted over a period of 56 to 162 d for determination of intake and gain for efficiency. Body weights were recorded at approximately 14 d intervals, and initial BW, median BW, and ADG were determined from individual animal regressions of BW on days on feed (DOF). Individual daily DMI was then regressed by phase on median BW and ADG, and residuals of regression were recorded as residual feed intake (RFI). Similarly, daily gain was regressed by phase on median BW and DMI, and errors of regression were recorded as residual gain (RADG). Gain to feed (G:F) was also calculated. The statistical model to evaluate ADG, DMI, and efficiency included fixed effects of dam age (3 to 4, 5, 6 to10, and > 10yr), harvest group (3 per year), age on test, and a nested term DT(ST x XB) where DT = proportion tropical breeding of dam (0, 0.5, or 1), ST= proportion tropical breeding of sire (1, or 0), and XB whether the calf was straightbred or crossbred. Year of record, sire(ST x XB) and pen were random effects. Pre-weaning ADG and BW increased (P efficiency

  8. Effects of feeding level and feeding frequency on growth, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in seabass (Lates calcarifer Bloch fed diets with defatted soybean meal partially replacing fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisook, S.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Satun Coastal Fisheries Research and Development Center, Muang, Satun 3Feeding management is crucial for feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, growth of cultured aquatic species and the amount of organic waste produced. This study aimed at investigating effects of two levels offeeding at two feeding frequencies on growth performance, feed efficiency and nitrogen and phosphorus loss in Asian seabass when fed diets with defatted soybean meal (SBM replacing fish meal. Three diets were formulated to contain defatted SBM to replace fish meal at 0, 10 and 20% of fish meal protein. Each diet wasgiven to the fish at either 4% of body weight (BW or to satiation. At each feeding level, the fish were fed at two feeding frequencies, once and twice daily. Fish with an average initial weight of 2.04±0.06 g/fish werereared for twelve weeks in the flow through system. Growth of fish reduced with an increasing amount of defatted SBM incorporated in diets as observed in other carnivorous species. Within groups of fish fed thesame diet, different growth performance and feed efficiency differed due to both feeding level and frequency. Weight gain of fish that were fed diet with defatted SBM replacing 10% of fish meal protein (diet 2until satiation was not significantly different from fish fed fish meal based diet at 4% BW. Furthermore, feeding fish the former diet twice daily resulted in an improvement of FCR, PER and PPV of fish to those ofthe fish fed fish meal based diet at satiation twice daily. Nitrogen and phosphorus loss was affected by diet, feeding level and frequency. Fish fed diet 2 until satiation twice daily lost nitrogen and phosphorus in theamount similar to that of fish fed fish meal based diet until satiation.

  9. Highly efficient micellar extraction of toxic picric acid into novel ionic liquid: Effect of parameters, solubilization isotherm, evaluation of thermodynamics and design parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Darshak R.; Maheria, Kalpana C. [Applied Chemistry Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat 395007, Gujarat (India); Parikh, Jigisha K., E-mail: jk_parikh@yahoo.co.in [Chemical Engineering Department, Sardar Vallabhbhai National Institute of Technology, Surat 395007, Gujarat (India)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • Picric acid is a toxic compound. • DIL significantly improves CPE efficiency of PA. • Higher extraction efficiency obtained in both nearly neutral and acidic condition. • The extraction process – spontaneous and endothermic in nature. - Abstract: A simple and new approach in cloud point extraction (CPE) method was developed for removal of picric acid (PA) by the addition of N,N,N,N’,N’,N’-hexaethyl-ethane-1,2-diammonium dibromide ionic liquid (IL) in non-ionic surfactant Triton X-114 (TX-114). A significant increase in extraction efficiency was found upon the addition of dicationic ionic liquid (DIL) at both nearly neutral and high acidic pH. The effects of different operating parameters such as pH, temperature, time, concentration of surfactant, PA and DIL on extraction of PA were investigated and optimum conditions were established. The extraction mechanism was also proposed. A developed Langmuir isotherm was used to compute the feed surfactant concentration required for the removal of PA up to an extraction efficiency of 90%. The effects of temperature and concentration of surfactant on various thermodynamic parameters were examined. It was found that the values of ΔG° increased with temperature and decreased with surfactant concentration. The values of ΔH° and ΔS° increased with surfactant concentration. The developed approach for DIL mediated CPE has proved to be an efficient and green route for extraction of PA from water sample.

  10. Ingestive behavior of Nellore and Bonsmara cattle during the feed efficiency test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Marchi Maiorano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to describe the ingestive behavior in Nellore and Bonsmara cattle during the feed efficiency test. The test was performed at the Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte – Instituto de Zootecnia, Sertãozinho, São Paulo State. Twenty-three Nellore and 19 Bonsmara calves, aging 276 ± 19.2 and 278 ± 29.2 days and weighing 246 ± 26.7 and 273 ± 30.7 kg, on average, at the beginning of the test, respectively, were used. Animals were randomly located in individual pens, during four periods of 28 days, being the first period a pre-test adjustment period. Calves were fed twice a day, with the same diet. Daily the amount of food offered was adjusted in order to maintain 5 to 10% of refusals. Dry matter intake (DMI was calculated by the difference between food offered and refusals. Animals were weighed each seven days. Average daily gain (ADG was obtained by linear regression of weights in days in test. Feed conversion was obtained by the DMI:ADG ratio. Ingestive behavior was measured three times, every 28 days, excluding de pre-test period. Observations lasted 24 hours, with records at intervals of five minutes. The behavioral traits analyzed were: bunk attendance duration (BAD, rumination time (RT and idle time (IT expressed in minutes per day. Data were analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure (SAS 9.3. The model included the fixed effects of period, breed and weight nested in breed. The weight nested in breed effect was significant for all traits analyzed (P<0.05. The breed effect was significant for BAD, RT, IT, e ADG (P<0.05. Nellore calves had higher means for ADG, BAD and RT and lower mean for IT (P<0.05 than Bonsmara calves. There were significant differences among periods for traits ADG, BAD and IT (P<0.05, showing that the animals had greater weight gain at the beginning of the feed efficiency test because they had spent more time feeding and consequently less time in idle. Thus, it is evident that there are differences in

  11. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system. PMID:24344273

  12. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-12-24

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system.

  13. Efficient biosynthesis of d-ribose using a novel co-feeding strategy in Bacillus subtilis without acid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J; Zhuang, W; Li, N N; Tang, C L; Ying, H J

    2017-01-01

    Normally, low d-ribose production was identified as responsible for plenty of acid formation by Bacillus subtilis due to its carbon overflow. An approach of co-feeding glucose and sodium citrate is developed here and had been proved to be useful in d-ribose production. This strategy is critical because it affects the cell concentration, the productivity of d-ribose and, especially, the formation of by-products such as acetoin, lactate and acetate. d-ribose production was increased by 59·6% from 71·06 to 113·41 g l -1 without acid formation by co-feeding 2·22 g l -1  h -1 glucose and 0·036 g l -1  h -1 sodium citrate to a 60 g l -1 glucose reaction system. Actually, the cell density was also enhanced from 11·51 to 13·84 g l -1 . These parameters revealed the importance of optimization and modelling of the d-ribose production process. Not only could zero acid formation was achieved over a wide range of co-feeding rate by reducing glycolytic flux drastically but also the cell density and d-ribose yield were elevated by increasing the hexose monophosphate pathway flux. Bacillus subtilis usually produce d-ribose accompanied by plenty of organic acids when glucose is used as a carbon source, which is considered to be a consequence of mismatched glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle capacities. This is the first study to provide high-efficiency biosynthesis of d-ribose without organic acid formation in B. subtilis, which would be lower than the cost of separation and purification. The strain transketolase-deficient B. subtilis CGMCC 3720 can be potentially applied to the production of d-ribose in industry. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Comparative Study of Milk Production and Feed Efficiency Based on Farmers Best Practices and National Research Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Lestari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare local dairy farmer ration formula with national research council in producing higher feed efficiency and milk production. This study had two stages. The first stage was in vitro study of dairy farmer rations which have different raw materials (R3, R4, and R5 with NRC based ration (R2 and Demo Farm ration (R1. The variables measured in this stage were proximate composition, volatile fatty acid, ammonia, dry matter and organic matter digestibility. The first stage used a randomized block design with five treatments, three groups of ruminal fluid, and three replications. The second stage used nine lactating cows with three periods of lactation (one, three, and other and used a randomized block design with three treatments, three groups, and one replication. Parameters measured were dry matter intake, manure score, milk production, body weight gain, body condition score, and technical and economical efficiencies. The first stage result showed that R1, R2, and R3 were three best rations in nutrient composition and fermentability (ammonia and volatile fatty acid concentrations were optimum for microbial growth and high digestibility, so in conclusion those three rations were the best rations and should be compared by in vivo method. The result of the second stage showed that all tested rations were not significantly different in milk production, performance and efficiency, so in conclusion those three rations have the same quality.

  15. Growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal as substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buragohain, Rajat

    2016-05-01

    The study was for assessment of growth performance, nutrient utilization, and feed efficiency in broilers fed rations with varying levels of Tithonia diversifolia leaf meal (TDLM) as a substitute of conventional feed ingredients in Mizoram. A total of 180, 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into six homogeneous groups and fed rations incorporated with TDLM (TDLM at 0% [TDLM-0], 2% [TDLM-2], 4% [TDLM-4], 6% [TDLM-6], 8% [TDLM-8], and 10% [TDLM-10] level as substitute of conventional feed ingredients) for 6 weeks. The chicks were reared in battery brooders for the first 2 weeks, and thereafter, in well-ventilated deep litter house following standard management protocols. Feed and drinking water were provided ad libitum to all the groups throughout the experiment. The daily feed intake and weekly body weight gain were recorded, and a metabolic trial for 3 days was conducted at the end of the 6(th) week. Feed consumption decreased for inclusion of TDLM but without any significant differences, except during the 3(rd) week where it reduced significantly (pbroilers reared under deep litter system of management in Mizoram.

  16. Influence of arc parameters on plasma cutting efficiency of rails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautov, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    The work shows the impact analysis of different arc areas upon metal cutting. The influence of over-nozzle and intra-metal areas extension of elastic arc on efficiency of real cutting is determined. (author)

  17. Efficient classification of complete parameter regions based on semidefinite programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parrilo Pablo A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current approaches to parameter estimation are often inappropriate or inconvenient for the modelling of complex biological systems. For systems described by nonlinear equations, the conventional approach is to first numerically integrate the model, and then, in a second a posteriori step, check for consistency with experimental constraints. Hence, only single parameter sets can be considered at a time. Consequently, it is impossible to conclude that the "best" solution was identified or that no good solution exists, because parameter spaces typically cannot be explored in a reasonable amount of time. Results We introduce a novel approach based on semidefinite programming to directly identify consistent steady state concentrations for systems consisting of mass action kinetics, i.e., polynomial equations and inequality constraints. The duality properties of semidefinite programming allow to rigorously certify infeasibility for whole regions of parameter space, thus enabling the simultaneous multi-dimensional analysis of entire parameter sets. Conclusion Our algorithm reduces the computational effort of parameter estimation by several orders of magnitude, as illustrated through conceptual sample problems. Of particular relevance for systems biology, the approach can discriminate between structurally different candidate models by proving inconsistency with the available data.

  18. Only 7% of the variation in feed efficiency in veal calves can be predicted from variation in feeding motivation, digestion, metabolism, immunology, and behavioral traits in early life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; van Reenen, C G; Gerrits, W J J

    2017-10-01

    High interindividual variation in growth performance is commonly observed in veal calf production and appears to depend on milk replacer (MR) composition. Our first objective was to examine whether variation in growth performance in healthy veal calves can be predicted from early life characterization of these calves. Our second objective was to determine whether these predictions differ between calves that are fed a high- or low-lactose MR in later life. A total of 180 male Holstein-Friesian calves arrived at the facilities at 17 ± 3.4 d of age, and blood samples were collected before the first feeding. Subsequently, calves were characterized in the following 9 wk (period 1) using targeted challenges related to traits within each of 5 categories: feeding motivation, digestion, postabsorptive metabolism, behavior and stress, and immunology. In period 2 (wk 10-26), 130 calves were equally divided over 2 MR treatments: a control MR that contained lactose as the only carbohydrate source and a low-lactose MR in which 51% of the lactose was isocalorically replaced by glucose, fructose, and glycerol (2:1:2 ratio). Relations between early life characteristics and growth performance in later life were assessed in 117 clinically healthy calves. Average daily gain (ADG) in period 2 tended to be greater for control calves (1,292 ± 111 g/d) than for calves receiving the low-lactose MR (1,267 ± 103 g/d). Observations in period 1 were clustered per category using principal component analysis, and the resulting principal components were used to predict performance in period 2 using multiple regression procedures. Variation in observations in period 1 predicted 17% of variation in ADG in period 2. However, this was mainly related to variation in solid feed refusals. When ADG was adjusted to equal solid feed intake, only 7% of the variation in standardized ADG in period 2, in fact reflecting feed efficiency, could be explained by early life measurements. This indicates that >90

  19. Genetic parameters between feed-intake-related traits and conformation in 2 separate dairy populations—the Netherlands and United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    To include feed-intake-related traits in the breeding goal, accurate estimates of genetic parameters of feed intake, and its correlations with other related traits (i.e., production, conformation) are required to compare different options. However, the correlations between feed intake and conformati...

  20. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  1. Intermittent fasting induces hypothalamic modifications resulting in low feeding efficiency, low body mass and overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chausse, Bruno; Solon, Carina; Caldeira da Silva, Camille C; Masselli Dos Reis, Ivan G; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia B; Gobatto, Claudio A; Velloso, Licio A; Kowaltowski, Alicia J

    2014-07-01

    Intermittent fasting (IF) is an often-used intervention to decrease body mass. In male Sprague-Dawley rats, 24 hour cycles of IF result in light caloric restriction, reduced body mass gain, and significant decreases in the efficiency of energy conversion. Here, we study the metabolic effects of IF in order to uncover mechanisms involved in this lower energy conversion efficiency. After 3 weeks, IF animals displayed overeating during fed periods and lower body mass, accompanied by alterations in energy-related tissue mass. The lower efficiency of energy use was not due to uncoupling of muscle mitochondria. Enhanced lipid oxidation was observed during fasting days, whereas fed days were accompanied by higher metabolic rates. Furthermore, an increased expression of orexigenic neurotransmitters AGRP and NPY in the hypothalamus of IF animals was found, even on feeding days, which could explain the overeating pattern. Together, these effects provide a mechanistic explanation for the lower efficiency of energy conversion observed. Overall, we find that IF promotes changes in hypothalamic function that explain differences in body mass and caloric intake.

  2. The effect of selected feed additives on the shell qualitative parameters of table eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrieta Arpášová

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Herbs, spices and their extracts (botanicals have a wide range of activities. May have a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal microflora of animals, performance and quality of animal products. In this experiment the effects of supplementation of the diet for laying hens with different doses of thyme or oregano essential oil addition on egg shell quality parameters were studied. Hens of laying hybrid Hy-Line Brown (n=50 were randomly divided into 5 groups (n=10 and fed for 20 weeks with diets with thyme or oregano essential oil. supplemented. In the control group hens received feed mixture with no additions. The diets in the first and  second experimental groups were supplemented with 0.5 ml/kg or 1.0 ml/kg thyme essential oil. The diets in the third and fourth experimental groups were supplemented with 0.5 ml/kg or 1.0 ml/kg oregano essential oil.  The egg shell weight (g, specific egg shell weight (g/cm3, percentage of egg shell (%, egg shell strength (N/cm2 and egg shell thickness (mm were evaluated. The egg shell weight for the whole period was in the order of the groups 5.70±0.52; 5.65±0.44; 5.54±0.42; 5.62±0.38 and 5.49±0.48 g±S.D (P>0.05. Egg shell strength during the reporting period was in order of the groups: 27.81±6.00; 27.63±6.43; 27.17±6.36; 27.76±6.27 and 28.41±6.36 (N/cm2±S.D. Similarly, in the egg shell specific weight (g/cm3, egg shell percentage ratio (% and egg shell thickness (mm were observed statistically non-significant differences compared to the control group (P>0.05. The results suggest that the qualitative parameters of egg shell were not significantly influenced with thyme or oregano oil addition (P>0.05.

  3. SCoPE: an efficient method of Cosmological Parameter Estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Santanu; Souradeep, Tarun

    2014-01-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampler is widely used for cosmological parameter estimation from CMB and other data. However, due to the intrinsic serial nature of the MCMC sampler, convergence is often very slow. Here we present a fast and independently written Monte Carlo method for cosmological parameter estimation named as Slick Cosmological Parameter Estimator (SCoPE), that employs delayed rejection to increase the acceptance rate of a chain, and pre-fetching that helps an individual chain to run on parallel CPUs. An inter-chain covariance update is also incorporated to prevent clustering of the chains allowing faster and better mixing of the chains. We use an adaptive method for covariance calculation to calculate and update the covariance automatically as the chains progress. Our analysis shows that the acceptance probability of each step in SCoPE is more than 95% and the convergence of the chains are faster. Using SCoPE, we carry out some cosmological parameter estimations with different cosmological models using WMAP-9 and Planck results. One of the current research interests in cosmology is quantifying the nature of dark energy. We analyze the cosmological parameters from two illustrative commonly used parameterisations of dark energy models. We also asses primordial helium fraction in the universe can be constrained by the present CMB data from WMAP-9 and Planck. The results from our MCMC analysis on the one hand helps us to understand the workability of the SCoPE better, on the other hand it provides a completely independent estimation of cosmological parameters from WMAP-9 and Planck data

  4. Air conditioning with methane: Efficiency and economics optimization parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrullo, R.; Sasso, M.; Sibilio, S.; Vanoli, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an efficiency and economics evaluation method for methane fired cooling systems. Focus is on direct flame two staged absorption systems and alternative engine driven compressor sets. Comparisons are made with conventional vapour compression plants powered by electricity supplied by the national grid. A first and second law based thermodynamics analysis is made in which fuel use coefficients and exergy yields are determined. The economics analysis establishes annual energy savings, unit cooling energy production costs, payback periods and economics/efficiency optimization curves useful for preliminary feasibility studies

  5. Effect of concentrate level on feeding behavior and rumen and blood parameters in dairy goats: relationships between behavioral and physiological parameters and effect of between-animal variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giger-Reverdin, S; Rigalma, K; Desnoyers, M; Sauvant, D; Duvaux-Ponter, C

    2014-07-01

    This work aimed first to compare 2 diets differing in their percentage of concentrate [low (LO): 30% concentrate vs. High (HI): 60% concentrate] by measuring simultaneously feeding behavior, rumen parameters, blood and plasma parameters, and milk yield and composition in 8 mid-lactation goats. The second aim was to study the interrelationships between these variables and to analyze the between-animal variability to better understand the between-animal differences in acidosis susceptibility. All of the animals received the 2 diets ad libitum as total mixed ration according to a crossover design of two 4-wk periods. Mean daily DMI was similar between the 2 diets but the variability was higher for the HI than for the LO diet. Goats produced more milk when fed the HI diet compared with the LO diet but with a lower fat:protein ratio (0.81 vs. 0.99). They ate more rapidly the HI than the LO diet but stopped eating sooner after the afternoon feed allowance, and spent less time chewing. The increase in concentrate percentage modified rumen parameters: the pH and acetate:propionate ratio decreased and total VFA, ammonia, and soluble carbohydrate concentrations increased. Hematocrit, plasma NEFA, and blood K and Ca concentrations decreased but glycemia and uremia increased. Other parameters were not modified: milk fat content, blood pH, and bicarbonate and Na concentrations. A large between-animal variability was detected for all the measured parameters, especially for feeding behavior, with important consequences on rumen and blood parameters. This work confirmed the effects of a high percentage of concentrate on feeding behavior, rumen and blood parameters, and milk production, and some known relationships such as the positive link between rumen pH and chewing index. It also pointed out other relationships between parameters seldom measured at the same time, such as rumen redox potential or blood pH and chewing index, or the negative link between blood and rumen pH. When

  6. Photovoltaics: Reviewing the European Feed-in-Tariffs and Changing PV Efficiencies and Costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. L. Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed-in-Tariff (FiT mechanisms have been important in boosting renewable energy, by providing a long-term guaranteed subsidy of the kWh-price, thus mitigating investment risks and enhancing the contribution of sustainable electricity. By ongoing PV development, the contribution of solar power increases exponentially. Within this significant potential, it is important for investors, operators, and scientists alike to provide answers to different questions related to subsidies, PV efficiencies and costs. The present paper therefore (i briefly reviews the mechanisms, advantages, and evolution of FiT; (ii describes the developments of PV, (iii applies a comprehensive literature-based model for the solar irradiation to predict the PV solar energy potential in some target European countries, whilst comparing output predictions with the monthly measured electricity generation of a 57 m² photovoltaic system (Belgium; and finally (iv predicts the levelized cost of energy (LCOE in terms of investment and efficiency, providing LCOE values between 0.149 and 0.313 €/kWh, as function of the overall process efficiency and cost. The findings clearly demonstrate the potential of PV energy in Europe, where FiT can be considerably reduced or even be eliminated in the near future.

  7. Biofuels done right: land efficient animal feeds enable large environmental and energy benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Bruce E; Bals, Bryan D; Kim, Seungdo; Eranki, Pragnya

    2010-11-15

    There is an intense ongoing debate regarding the potential scale of biofuel production without creating adverse effects on food supply. We explore the possibility of three land-efficient technologies for producing food (actually animal feed), including leaf protein concentrates, pretreated forages, and double crops to increase the total amount of plant biomass available for biofuels. Using less than 30% of total U.S. cropland, pasture, and range, 400 billion liters of ethanol can be produced annually without decreasing domestic food production or agricultural exports. This approach also reduces U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by 670 Tg CO₂-equivalent per year, or over 10% of total U.S. annual emissions, while increasing soil fertility and promoting biodiversity. Thus we can replace a large fraction of U.S. petroleum consumption without indirect land use change.

  8. Energy and protein feed-to-food conversion efficiencies in the US and potential food security gains from dietary changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepon, A.; Eshel, G.; Noor, E.; Milo, R.

    2016-10-01

    Feeding a growing population while minimizing environmental degradation is a global challenge requiring thoroughly rethinking food production and consumption. Dietary choices control food availability and natural resource demands. In particular, reducing or avoiding consumption of low production efficiency animal-based products can spare resources that can then yield more food. In quantifying the potential food gains of specific dietary shifts, most earlier research focused on calories, with less attention to other important nutrients, notably protein. Moreover, despite the well-known environmental burdens of livestock, only a handful of national level feed-to-food conversion efficiency estimates of dairy, beef, poultry, pork, and eggs exist. Yet such high level estimates are essential for reducing diet related environmental impacts and identifying optimal food gain paths. Here we quantify caloric and protein conversion efficiencies for US livestock categories. We then use these efficiencies to calculate the food availability gains expected from replacing beef in the US diet with poultry, a more efficient meat, and a plant-based alternative. Averaged over all categories, caloric and protein efficiencies are 7%-8%. At 3% in both metrics, beef is by far the least efficient. We find that reallocating the agricultural land used for beef feed to poultry feed production can meet the caloric and protein demands of ≈120 and ≈140 million additional people consuming the mean American diet, respectively, roughly 40% of current US population.

  9. Utilization of macrominerals and trace elements in pregnant heifers with distinct feed efficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R S; Montanholi, Y R; Lopez, S; Smith, B; Miller, S P; France, J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate utilization of dietary minerals and trace elements in pregnant heifers with distinct residual feed intakes (RFI). Feed intake, body weight (BW), and body composition traits were recorded in 36 crossbred heifers over a period of 37 wk, starting shortly after weaning at 8.3 (0.10; standard deviation) mo of age with an average BW of 276 (7.8) kg. Both BW and body composition were monitored regularly throughout the study, whereas individual feed intake was assessed during the last 84 d of the trial. Data recorded were used to calculate RFI for each heifer. Heifers were ranked based on RFI and assigned to high (n=14) or low (n=10) RFI groups. After the RFI study, 24 selected heifers [age 18.2 (0.14) mo; 87.5 (4.74) d in gestation; 497 (8.5) kg of BW] were used in an indirect digestibility trial (lignin as internal marker). Heifers were fed a ration containing corn silage, haylage, and a mineral premix in which Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, Zn, and Co were provided in the diet according to National Research Council requirements of pregnant replacement heifers. The digestibility trial lasted 1 wk, during which samples of feces were gathered twice daily, and blood and liver biopsy samples were collected on the last day. We noted no significant differences between low- and high-RFI heifers in dry matter digestibility. Apparent absorption of Cu, Zn, and Mn was increased in heifers with low RFI, and apparent absorption of Co tended to be greater for these animals. Concentrations of macrominerals and trace elements in serum of pregnant heifers were similar for both groups except for Se, which was increased in the serum of low-RFI heifers. Liver concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se, and Zn did not differ between low- and high-RFI heifers. In conclusion, whereas improved absorption of some trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co) and increased Se serum concentration appear to be associated with superior feed efficiency in pregnant

  10. Effects of probiotic supplement ( and on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population of weaning rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Lam Phuoc

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to investigate the effects of single or/and double strains of probiotic supplement on feed efficiency, growth performance, and microbial population in distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT of weaning rabbits. Methods Sixty-four weaning (28 days old New Zealand White rabbits were randomly distributed into four groups with treatments including: basal diet without probiotic supplement (control or supplemented as follows: 1×106 cfu/g B. subtilis (BS group, 1×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (LA group, or 0.5×106 cfu/g B. subtilis plus 0.5×107 cfu/g L. acidophilus (BL group. During the research, the male and female rabbits were fed separately. Body weight of the rabbits was recorded at 28, 42, and 70 d of age. Results There was an increase (p<0.05 in body weight gain for the LA group at 42 d. Rabbits fed BL responsed with a greater growth (p<0.05 and better feed conversion ratio (p<0.05 than those fed with no probiotic. Digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and gross energy were higher (p<0.05 in LA and BL groups than those in the control group. Male rabbits had higher (p<0.05 Bacilli spp. and Coliformis spp. in the ileum than female rabbits. Rabbits supplemented with BS had greater (p<0.05 numbers of bacilli in all intestinal segments than those receiving no probiotic, whereas intestinal Lactobacilli populations were greater (p<0.001 in the LA and BL diets compared to control. Average intestinal coliform populations were lowest (p<0.05 in the rabbits supplemented with LA as compared to those fed the control and BS. Conclusion Supplementation of L. acidophilus alone or in combination with B. subtilis at a half of dose could enhance number of gut beneficial bacteria populations, nutrient digestibility, cecal fermentation, feed efficiency, and growth performance, but rabbits receiving only B. subtilis alone were not different from the controls without probiotic.

  11. Energy efficiency and choice of parameters for linear colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, J.

    1986-01-01

    Three possible ways of converting beam power into luminosity are investigated: two short bunches colliding with each other, two long ones doing so, and two pulses of bunch trains which interact. Some of the implications of linacs for very high frequencies are considered, emphasizing the factors that influence the efficiency of converting rf power into luminosity and assuming that suitable power sources are or will be available. Some characteristics of structures that seem feasible for very high frequency accelerators are described. 6 refs., 6 figs

  12. Influence of laser parameters on laser ultrasonic efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available , TEA CO2 lasers, laser chemistry, short pulses 1. INTRODUCTION Polymer-matrix composites are increasingly used in the aerospace industry, particularly in the manufacture of modern fighter planes1-3. The number and complexity of such composites... efficiency can be improved by utilising short pulses in the 3–4 µm and 10 µm spectral regions1. Short pulse 10 µm radiation can be produced by transversely excited, atmospheric CO2 (TEA CO2) lasers. Due to the technological maturity of these lasers...

  13. Efficient Parameter Searches for Colloidal Materials Design with Digital Alchemy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Paul, M.; Geng, Yina; van Anders, Greg; Glotzer, Sharon C.

    Optimal colloidal materials design is challenging, even for high-throughput or genomic approaches, because the design space provided by modern colloid synthesis techniques can easily have dozens of dimensions. In this talk we present the methodology of an inverse approach we term ''digital alchemy'' to perform rapid searches of design-paramenter spaces with up to 188 dimensions that yield thermodynamically optimal colloid parameters for target crystal structures with up to 20 particles in a unit cell. The method relies only on fundamental principles of statistical mechanics and Metropolis Monte Carlo techniques, and yields particle attribute tolerances via analogues of familiar stress-strain relationships.

  14. Genetic parameters and predicted selection results for maternal traits related to lactation efficiency in sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergsma, R.; Kanis, E.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2008-01-01

    The increased productivity of sows increases the risk of a more pronounced negative energy balance during lactation. One possibility to prevent this is to increase the lactation efficiency (LE) genetically and thereby increase milk output for a given feed intake and mobilization of body tissue. The

  15. Genetic variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and disease resistance exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henryon, Mark; Jokumsen, Alfred; Berg, Peer

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test that additive genetic (co)variation for survival, growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and resistance to viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (VHS) exists within a farmed population of rainbow trout. Thirty sires and 30 dams were mated by a partly factorial...... the predicted breeding values for VHS resistance and the predicted breeding values for the body weights, body length, and feed conversion efficiencies. These results demonstrate that additive genetic (co)variation for growth rate, feed conversion efficiency, and VHS resistance does exist within the farmed...... mating design. Each sire was mated to two dams, and each dam was mated to two sires, producing 50 viable full-sib families (29 sires, 25 dams). The fish from these families were reared for a 215-day growout period, and were assessed for survival between days 52 and 215, growth rate (i.e., body weight...

  16. PUMPKIN CAKE AND PUMPKIN SLUDGE USE EFFICIENCY IN CHICKEN-ROILERS FEEDING

    OpenAIRE

    Shkrygunov K. I.; Lipova E. A.; Dikusarov V. G.; Soshkin Y. V.

    2013-01-01

    The article presents the results of the research devoted to the poultry feeding with pumpkin cake and pumpkin sludge technology development and implementation – feeding stuff by-products at pumpkin seeds processing

  17. Phenotypic and Genetic Correlations of Feed Efficiency Traits with Growth and Carcass Traits in Nellore Cattle Selected for Postweaning Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacero, Thais Matos; Mercadante, Maria Eugênia Zerlotti; Cyrillo, Joslaine Noely dos Santos Gonçalves; Canesin, Roberta Carrilho; Bonilha, Sarah Figueiredo Martins; de Albuquerque, Lucia Galvão

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated phenotypic (rph) and genetic correlations (rg) between 8 feed efficiency traits and other traits of economic interest including weight at selection (WS), loin-eye area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and rump fat thickness (RF) in Nellore cattle. Feed efficiency traits were gain:feed, residual feed intake (RFI), residual feed intake adjusted for backfat thickness (RFIb) and for backfat and rump fat thickness (RFIsf), residual body weight gain (RG), residual intake and body weight gain (RIG), and residual intake and body weight gain using RFIb (RIGb) and RFIsf (RIGsf). The variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using a two-trait animal model. The heritability estimates (h2) were 0.14, 0.24, 0.20, 0.22, 0.19, 0.15, 0.11 and 0.11 for gain:feed, RFI, RFIb, RFIsf, RG, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf, respectively. All rph values between traits were close to zero, except for the correlation of feed efficiency traits with dry matter intake and average daily gain. High rg values were observed for the correlation of dry matter intake, average daily gain and metabolic weight with WS and hip height (>0.61) and low to medium values (0.15 to 0.48) with the carcass traits (LEA, BF, RF). Among the feed efficiency traits, RG showed the highest rg with WS and hip height (0.34 and 0.25) and the lowest rg with subcutaneous fat thickness (-0.17 to 0.18). The rg values of RFI, RFIb and RFIsf with WS (0.17, 0.23 and 0.22), BF (0.37, 0.33 and 0.33) and RF (0.30, 0.31 and 0.32) were unfavorable. The rg values of gain:feed, RIG, RIGb and RIGsf with WS were low and favorable (0.07 to 0.22), while medium and unfavorable (-0.22 to -0.45) correlations were observed with fat thickness. The inclusion of subcutaneous fat thickness in the models used to calculate RFI did not reduce the rg between these traits. Selecting animals for higher feed efficiency will result in little or no genetic change in growth and will decrease subcutaneous fat thickness

  18. A study on the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Y. S.; Suh, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    The main reason to analyze the boiler operation parameter in fossil power plant is to increase boiler high efficiency and energy saving movement in the government. This study intends to have trend and analyze the boiler efficiency influenced by the boiler parameter in sub-critical and super-critical type boiler

  19. Research dedusting efficiency of the inertial hub with adjustable parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharapov Rashid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of construction materials every year production increases, thus increasing emissions pollutants into the atmosphere subjected to cleaning. At the enterprises of building materials production equipment becoming outdated both morally and physically exhausted their useful life. Technological design standards in the operation of purification equipment has undergone a number of changes. There are a large number of works devoted to the theory of cyclone separation. They examined calculation method and to determine the minimum size of particles is separated completely from the air stream in a cyclone. In theory, the high efficiency cyclones are relatively small separation of particles from the air stream. The experiments show that certain fractions of full capture occurs from the cyclones and out relatively large particles. Designed dust device hubs. They capture dust particles with low specific density and smaller than 5–10 microns. Rational use of hubs is achieved in the aspiration systems high performance. They are placed in front of or between the filter and the cyclone filter. Hub much reduces the amount of dust-laden air directed onto a thin cleaning. This reduces energy consumption for manufacturing as a whole, as well as, due to a possible decrease in performance fine filters, reducing their initial cost, metal consumption, maintenance costs and reduce the area occupied by them.

  20. Effect of Two Different Levels of Fiber on Feed Intake, Average Daily Gain, Feed Efficiency and Ruminal Metabolites of Holstein Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Salary Neya

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding alfalfa hay and starter fiber level on feed intake and performance of Holstein dairy calves, using thirty two male calves in a completely randomized design assigned to four diets in a 2×2 factorial arrangement. The experimental treatments were as follow: T1: starter with low fiber and without alfalfa hay, T2: starter with low fiber along with alfalfa hay, T3: starter with high fiber and without alfalfa hay and T4: starter with high fiber along with alfalfa hay. Results showed feed intake was not significantly different in pre-weaning and throughout the study but after weaning there was significant difference among treatments. Average daily gain of calves was not significantly different during pre-weaning period but during post-weaning and throughout the study there was significant difference among treatments for this trait. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among treatments in pre-weaning and post-weaning periods but it was significantly different during throughout the study. The results of this experiment showed adding fiber to dairy calves ration through both starter concentrate and alfalfa hay may reduce their performance.

  1. Feed Forward Artificial Neural Network Model to Estimate the TPH Removal Efficiency in Soil Washing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Jafari Mansoorian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: A feed forward artificial neural network (FFANN was developed to predict the efficiency of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal from a contaminated soil, using soil washing process with Tween 80. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of developed FFANN model for the estimation of   TPH removal. Materials and Methods: Several independent repressors including pH, shaking speed, surfactant concentration and contact time were used to describe the removal of TPH as a dependent variable in a FFANN model. 85% of data set observations were used for training the model and remaining 15% were used for model testing, approximately. The performance of the model was compared with linear regression and assessed, using Root of Mean Square Error (RMSE as goodness-of-fit measure Results: For the prediction of TPH removal efficiency, a FANN model with a three-hidden-layer structure of 4-3-1 and a learning rate of 0.01 showed the best predictive results. The RMSE and R2 for the training and testing steps of the model were obtained to be 2.596, 0.966, 10.70 and 0.78, respectively. Conclusion: For about 80% of the TPH removal efficiency can be described by the assessed regressors the developed model. Thus, focusing on the optimization of soil washing process regarding to shaking speed, contact time, surfactant concentration and pH can improve the TPH removal performance from polluted soils. The results of this study could be the basis for the application of FANN for the assessment of soil washing process and the control of petroleum hydrocarbon emission into the environments.

  2. Measurement of S Parameters ofan Accelerating Structure with Double-Feed Couplers

    CERN Document Server

    Fandos, R; Wuensch, W

    2006-01-01

    A method for measuring the transmission and reflection coefficients of an accelerating structure with double-feed input and output couplers using a 2 port network analyzer is presented. This method avoids the use of magic Ts and hybrids, whose symmetry is not obvious. The procedure is extended to devices with n symmetrical input and m symmetrical output ports. The method to make bead pull measurements for such devices is described.

  3. Effects of brown fish meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth performance, feed efficiency and enzyme activities of Chinese soft-shelled turtle, Pelodiscus sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yurong; Ai, Qinghui; Mai, Kangsen; Zhang, Wenbing; Zhang, Yanjiao; Xu, Wei

    2012-06-01

    A 120-day feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of partial replacement of brown fish meal (BFM) by fermented soybean meal (FSBM) in diets of Chinese soft-shelled turtle ( Pelodiscus sinensis). The turtles (initial mean body weight, (115.52 ± 1.05) g) were fed with three experimental diets, in which 0%, 4.72% and 9.44% BFM protein was replaced by 0%, 3% and 6% FSBM, respectively. Results showed that the feeding rate (FR), specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency ratio (FER) of turtles fed with the diet containing 3% FSBM were not significantly different from the control group (0% FSBM) ( P > 0.05). However, FR, SGR and FER of turtles fed with the diet containing 6% FSBM were significantly lower than those of the control group ( P 0.05). However, the uric acid concentration in turtles fed with the diet containing 3% or 6% FSBM was significantly lower than that in the control group ( P 0.05). The results suggested that FSBM could replace 4.72% BFM protein in turtle diets without exerting adverse effects on turtle growth, feed utilization and measured immune parameters.

  4. Target Cultivation and Financing Parameters for Sustainable Production of Fuel and Feed from Microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Léda N; Tester, Jefferson W; Beal, Colin M; Huntley, Mark E; Sills, Deborah L

    2016-04-05

    Production of economically competitive and environmentally sustainable algal biofuel faces technical challenges that are subject to high uncertainties. Here we identify target values for algal productivity and financing conditions required to achieve a biocrude selling price of $5 per gallon and beneficial environmental impacts. A modeling framework--combining process design, techno-economic analysis, life cycle assessment, and uncertainty analysis--was applied to two conversion pathways: (1) "fuel only (HTL)", using hydrothermal liquefaction to produce biocrude, heat and power, and (2) "fuel and feed", using wet extraction to produce biocrude and lipid-extracted algae, which can substitute components of animal and aqua feeds. Our results suggest that with supporting policy incentives, the "fuel and feed" scenario will likely achieve a biocrude selling price of less than $5 per gallon at a productivity of 39 g/m(2)/day, versus 47 g/m(2)/day for the "fuel only (HTL)" scenario. Furthermore, if lipid-extracted algae are used to substitute fishmeal, the process has a 50% probability of reaching $5 per gallon with a base case productivity of 23 g/m(2)/day. Scenarios with improved economics were associated with beneficial environmental impacts for climate change, ecosystem quality, and resource depletion, but not for human health.

  5. Estimates of variance components for postweaning feed intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feed efficiency is of major economic importance in beef production. The objective of this work was to evaluate alternative measures of feed efficiency for use in genetic evaluation. To meet this objective, genetic parameters were estimated for the components of efficiency. These parameters were then used in multiple-trait ...

  6. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  7. Design of an economically efficient feed-in tariff structure for renewable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, Jonathan A.; Su Xuejuan

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests, albeit tentatively, that feed-in tariffs (FITs) are more effective than alternative support schemes in promoting renewable energy technologies (RETs). FITs provide long-term financial stability for investors in RETs, which, at the prevailing market price of electricity, are not currently cost-efficient enough to compete with traditional fossil fuel technologies. On the other hand, if not properly designed, FITs can be economically inefficient, as is widely regarded to have been the case under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA). Under PURPA, too high a guaranteed price led to the creation of so-called 'PURPA machines'-poorly performing generating units that could survive financially only because of heavy subsidies that came at the expense of retail customers. Similarly, because of their adverse impacts on retail electricity rates, German FITs have been subject to increasing political pressure from utilities and customers. In this paper, we propose an innovative two-part FIT, consisting of both a capacity payment and a market-based energy payment, which can be used to meet the renewables policy goals of regulators. Our two-part tariff design draws on the strengths of traditional FITs, relies on market mechanisms, is easy to implement, and avoids the problems caused by distorting wholesale energy markets through above-market energy payments. The approach is modeled on forward capacity market designs that have been recently implemented by several regional transmission organizations in the USA to address needs for new generating capacity to ensure system reliability

  8. Significance of combined nutritional and morphological precaecal parameters for feed evaluations in non-ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen, van P.

    2002-01-01

    In this thesis the hypothesis is tested that the nutritional evaluation of dietary formulations in non-ruminants requires both functional-nutritional and functional-morphological parameters. The functional-nutritional parameters provide data on the outcome of the

  9. New benchmarks for costs and cost-efficiency of school-based feeding programs in food-insecure areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Cavallero, Andrea; Minervini, Licia; Mirabile, Mariana; Molinas, Luca; de la Mothe, Marc Regnault

    2011-12-01

    School feeding is a popular intervention that has been used to support the education, health and nutrition of school children. Although the benefits of school feeding are well documented, the evidence on the costs of such programs is remarkably thin. Address the need for systematic estimates of the cost of different school feeding modalities, and of the determinants of the considerable cost variation among countries. WFP project data, including expenditures and number of schoolchildren covered, were collected for 78 projects in 62 countries through project reports and validated through WFP Country Office records. Yearly project costs per schoolchild were standardized over a set number of feeding days and the amount of energy provided by the average ration. Output metrics, such as tonnage, calories, and micronutrient content, were used to assess the cost-efficiency of the different delivery mechanisms. The standardized yearly average school feeding cost per child, not including school-level costs, was US$48. The yearly costs per child were lowest at US$23 for biscuit programs reaching school-going children and highest at US$75 for take-home rations programs reaching families of schoolgoing children. The average cost of programs combining on-site meals with extra take-home rations for children from vulnerable households was US$61. Commodity costs were on average 58% of total costs and were highest for biscuit and take-home rations programs (71% and 68%, respectively). Fortified biscuits provided the most cost-efficient option in terms of micronutrient delivery, whereas take-home rations were more cost-efficient in terms of food quantities delivered. Both costs and effects should be considered carefully when designing school feeding interventions. The average costs of school feeding estimated here are higher than those found in earlier studies but fall within the range of costs previously reported. Because this analysis does not include school-level costs, these

  10. Effect of chamomile supplements to feeding doses on antimicrobial parameters in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Jakubcova

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to a ban of use of antibiotic growth promoters in the poultry industry it is necessary to look for alternative solutions. The use of some herbs showing antimicrobial effects can be one of such alternatives. In this experiment, effects of three different concentrations of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla extract, (0.3%; 0.6% and 1.2% in feeding doses on the microbial population in the gastrointestinal tract of growing broiler chickens were studied. The main attention was paid to the population of Clostridium perfringens and to numbers of coliform microbes. Clostridia were cultivated under anaerobic conditions at 46 °C on the Tryptone Sulfite Neomycin (TSN agar for a period of 24 hours. Coliform microbes were grown on the violet red bile lactose (VRBL agar at 37 °C for a period of 24 hours. The experiment lasted 39 days and involved 80 chicks that were slaughtered in the course of their growth period at the age of 18, 25, 32 and 39 days; there were 5 chicks in each group. The obtained results indicated that increasing doses of chamomile in the feeding ration decreased numbers of coliform microbes in the digestive tract of chicks and also reduced the population of C. perfingens.

  11. A genome-wide association scan in pig identifies novel regions associated with feed efficiency trait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahana, Goutam; Kadlecová, Veronika; Hornshøj, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is an economically important trait in pigs and feed accounts for a significant proportion of the costs involved in pig production. In this study we used a high density SNP chip panel, Porcine SNP60 BeadChip, to identify association between FCR and SNP markers and to st...

  12. Milk yield, feed efficiency and metabolic profiles in Jersey and Holstein cows assigned to different fat supplementation strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Nielsen, M.O.; Lund, Peter

    2015-01-01

    , compared to their lowest recorded weight after calving. Subsequently, the cows were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments until the end of lactation. There was no effect of feeding strategy on DM intake during week 9–40 of lactation. Fat supplemented rations (WCR; RPF) increased yield of milk...... energy efficiency in Jersey cows but increased energy efficiency in Holstein cows. Because fat supplementation reduced dietary protein concentration and increased milk production, protein intake was lower and N efficiency was higher on WCR and RPF than on CON. Metabolite concentrations in jugular vein...

  13. Benefits of Group Living Include Increased Feeding Efficiency and Lower Mass Loss during Desiccation in the Social and Inbreeding Spider Stegodyphus dumicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanthournout, Bram; Greve, Michelle; Bruun, Anne; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Overgaard, Johannes; Bilde, Trine

    2016-01-01

    Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment, and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments. PMID:26869936

  14. Benefits of group living include increased feeding efficiency and lower mass loss during desiccation in the social and inbreeding spider Stegodyphus dumicola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bram eVanthournout

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Group living carries a price: it inherently entails increased competition for resources and reproduction, and may also be associated with mating among relatives, which carries costs of inbreeding. Nonetheless, group living and sociality is found in many animals, and understanding the direct and indirect benefits of cooperation that override the inherent costs remains a challenge in evolutionary ecology. Individuals in groups may benefit from more efficient management of energy or water reserves, for example in the form of reduced water or heat loss from groups of animals huddling, or through reduced energy demands afforded by shared participation in tasks. We investigated the putative benefits of group living in the permanently social spider Stegodyphus dumicola by comparing the effect of group size on standard metabolic rate, lipid/protein content as a body condition measure, feeding efficiency, per capita web investment and weight/water loss and survival during desiccation. Because energetic expenditure is temperature sensitive, some assays were performed under varying temperature conditions. We found that feeding efficiency increased with group size, and the rate of weight loss was higher in solitary individuals than in animals in groups of various sizes during desiccation. Interestingly, this was not translated into differences in survival or in standard metabolic rate. We did not detect any group size effects for other parameters, and group size effects did not co-vary with experimental temperature in a predictive manner. Both feeding efficiency and mass loss during desiccation are relevant ecological factors as the former results in lowered predator exposure time, and the latter benefits social spiders which occupy arid, hot environments.

  15. Finishing pigs that are divergent in feed efficiency show small differences in intestinal functionality and structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli

    Full Text Available Controversial information is available regarding the feed efficiency-related variation in intestinal size, structure and functionality in pigs. The present objective was therefore to investigate the differences in visceral organ size, intestinal morphology, mucosal enzyme activity, intestinal integrity and related gene expression in low and high RFI pigs which were reared at three different geographical locations (Austria, AT; Northern Ireland, NI; Republic of Ireland, ROI using similar protocols. Pigs (n = 369 were ranked for their RFI between days 42 and 91 postweaning and low and high RFI pigs (n = 16 from AT, n = 24 from NI, and n = 60 from ROI were selected. Pigs were sacrificed and sampled on ~day 110 of life. In general, RFI-related variation in intestinal size, structure and function was small. Some energy saving mechanisms and enhanced digestive and absorptive capacity were indicated in low versus high RFI pigs by shorter crypts, higher duodenal lactase and maltase activity and greater mucosal permeability (P < 0.05, but differences were mainly seen in pigs from AT and to a lesser degree in pigs from ROI. Additionally, low RFI pigs from AT had more goblet cells in duodenum but fewer in jejunum compared to high RFI pigs (P < 0.05. Together with the lower expression of TLR4 and TNFA in low versus high RFI pigs from AT and ROI (P < 0.05, these results might indicate differences in the innate immune response between low and high RFI pigs. Results demonstrated that the variation in the size of visceral organs and intestinal structure and functionality was greater between geographic location (local environmental factors than between RFI ranks of pigs. In conclusion, present results support previous findings that the intestinal size, structure and functionality do not significantly contribute to variation in RFI of pigs.

  16. Integrated GWAS and Pathway profiling for feed efficiency traits in pigs leads to novel genes and their molecular pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2013-01-01

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) are being extensively used in revealing genetic architecture of complex traits. However, GWAS offer limited understanding of the biological role of significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting complex traits. Pathway analysis using GWAS results...... is an important step where we firstly detect genes located near GWAS-detected SNPs and subsequently we detect enrichment of these genes in various biological processes and pathways. The objective of this study was to apply these steps to identify relevant pathways involved in residual feed intake (RFI) in pigs....... Residual feed intake is a feed efficiency measure and is highly economically important in animal production. In our study, a total of 596 Yorkshire boars had phenotypic and genotypic records. After quality control, 37,915 SNPs were available for GWAS which was implemented in the DMU software package...

  17. Meta-analysis of the effects of essential oils and their bioactive compounds on rumen fermentation characteristics and feed efficiency in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiaosa-ard, R; Zebeli, Q

    2013-04-01

    The present study aimed at investigating the effects of essential oils and their bioactive compounds (EOBC) on rumen fermentation in vivo as well as animal performance and feed efficiency in different ruminant species, using a meta-analysis approach. Ruminant species were classified into 3 classes consisting of beef cattle, dairy cattle, and small ruminants. Two datasets (i.e., rumen fermentation and animal performance) were constructed, according to the available dependent variables within each animal class, from 28 publications (34 experiments) comprising a total of 97 dietary treatments. In addition, changes in rumen fermentation parameters relative to controls (i.e., no EOBC supplementation) of all animal classes were computed. Data were statistically analyzed within each animal class to evaluate the EOBC dose effect, taking into account variations of other variables across experiments (e.g., diet, feeding duration). The dose effect of EOBC on relative changes in fermentation parameters were analyzed across all animal classes. The primary results were that EOBC at doses rumen as a result of decreased acetate to propionate ratio. These responses were more pronounced in beef cattle (methane, P = 0.001; acetate to propionate ratio, P = 0.005) than in small ruminants (methane, P = 0.068; acetate to propionate ratio, P = 0.056) and in dairy cattle (P > 0.05), respectively. The analysis of relative changes in rumen fermentation variables suggests that EOBC affected protozoa numbers (P 0.20 g/kg DM) of EOBC had an inhibitory effect on this variable whereas lower doses promoted the number. For performance data, because numbers of observations in beef cattle and small ruminants were small, only those of dairy cattle (DMI, milk yield and milk composition, and feed efficiency) were analyzed. The results revealed no effect of EOBC dose on most parameters, except increased milk protein percentage (Pcontent (P = 0.006). It appears that EOBC supplementation can enhance rumen

  18. Use of Vitamin D and Its Metabolites in Broiler Chicken Feed on Performance, Bone Parameters and Meat Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Quiles Marques Garcia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to assess the use of different vitamin D metabolites in the feed of broiler chickens and the effects of the metabolites on performance, bone parameters and meat quality. A total of 952 one-day-old male broiler chicks were distributed in a completely randomised design, with four treatments, seven replicates and 34 birds per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of four different sources of vitamin D included in the diet, D3, 25(OHD3, 1,25(OH2D3, and 1α(OHD3, providing 2000 and 1600 IU of vitamin D in the starter (1 to 21 d and growth phases (22 to 42 d, respectively. Mean weight, feed:gain and weight gain throughout the rearing period were less in animals fed 1α(OHD3 when compared with the other treatments (p0.05 for various bone parameters. Meat colour differed among the treatments (p>0.05. All of the metabolites used in the diets, with the exception of 1α(OHD3, can be used for broiler chickens without problems for performance and bone quality, however, some aspects of meat quality were affected.

  19. Primary genome scan to identify putative quantitative trait loci for feedlot growth rate, feed intake, and feed efficiency of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Sherman, E L; Li, C; Marques, E; Crews, D H; Bartusiak, R; Murdoch, B; Wang, Z; Basarab, J A; Moore, S S

    2007-12-01

    Feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle are economically relevant traits. The study was conducted to identify QTL for feed intake and feed efficiency of beef cattle by using genotype information from 100 microsatellite markers and 355 SNP genotyped across 400 progeny of 20 Angus, Charolais, or Alberta Hybrid bulls. Traits analyzed include feedlot ADG, daily DMI, feed-to-gain ratio [F:G, which is the reciprocal of the efficiency of gain (G:F)], and residual feed intake (RFI). A mixed model with sire as random and QTL effects as fixed was used to generate an F-statistic profile across and within families for each trait along each chromosome, followed by empirical permutation tests to determine significance thresholds for QTL detection. Putative QTL for ADG (chromosome-wise P < 0.05) were detected across families on chromosomes 5 (130 cM), 6 (42 cM), 7 (84 cM), 11 (20 cM), 14 (74 cM), 16 (22 cM), 17 (9 cM), 18 (46 cM), 19 (53 cM), and 28 (23 cM). For DMI, putative QTL that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 1 (93 cM), 3 (123 cM), 15 (31 cM), 17 (81 cM), 18 (49 cM), 20 (56 cM), and 26 (69 cM) in the across-family analyses. Putative across-family QTL influencing F:G that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 3 (62 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (27 cM), 11 (16 cM), 16 (30 cM), 17 (81 cM), 22 (72 cM), 24 (55 cM), and 28 (24 cM). Putative QTL influencing RFI that exceeded the chromosome-wise P < 0.05 threshold were detected on chromosomes 1 (90 cM), 5 (129 cM), 7 (22 cM), 8 (80 cM), 12 (89 cM), 16 (41 cM), 17 (19 cM), and 26 (48 cM) in the across-family analyses. In addition, a total of 4, 6, 1, and 8 chromosomes showed suggestive evidence (chromosome-wise, P < 0.10) for putative ADG, DMI, F:G, and RFI QTL, respectively. Most of the QTL detected across families were also detected within families, although the locations across families were not necessarily the locations within families, which is

  20. Effect of simplified feeding based only on wheat bran and brewer’s grain on rabbit performance and economic efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakia Cherifi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Simplified diets are based on maximum incorporation of fodder and/or by-products into animal feed, thus minimizing the formulation and the costs. This study aimed to evaluate the possibility of feeding fattening rabbits with a simplified diet composed of only two agro-industrial by-products inexpensive and locally available: brewer’s grain and wheat bran. At weaning (35 days, 68 rabbits were divided into two identical groups (mean weight = 833 g and housed in individual cages until slaughter (77 days. Each of the two groups (B0 and SF was fed ad libitum either a commercial pelleted feed (control, or a simplified pelleted  experimental diet "SF" containing 72% wheat bran and 27% brewer’s grain. The feed conversion was within the standards and similar in the two groups (3.55 on average. The growth rate and feed intake of B0 group were 12% higher (P <0.001 than that of the SF group (35.2g vs 31.2 and 128.3 vs 113 g/d. The cold carcass yield and the carcass weight were respectively higher (P <0.001 by 4 units and by 9% in the control group. The carcass of SF group was less fatty (perirenal fat: -23%, inguinal fat: -41% and scapular fat:-14%. The economic efficiency was 40% better for SF diet with almost 50 Algerian Dinar more benefit (/kg of meat.

  1. Growth and food conversion efficiency in the fish Etroplus suratensis in relation to different feeding levels

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    Based on chemical composition of feed and body constituents, food utilization at maintenance and different production levels was estimated. On theoretical derivations, 175, 450 and 650 kcal/kg super(0.8)/week represented the maintenance, optimum...

  2. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  3. Fitting of alpha-efficiency versus quenching parameter by exponential functions in liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosa, M.; Manjón, G.; Mantero, J.; García-Tenorio, R.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work is to propose an exponential fit for the low alpha-counting efficiency as a function of a sample quenching parameter using a Quantulus liquid scintillation counter. The sample quenching parameter in a Quantulus is the Spectral Quench Parameter of the External Standard (SQP(E)), which is defined as the number of channel under which lies the 99% of Compton spectrum generated by a gamma emitter ( 152 Eu). Although in the literature one usually finds a polynomial fitting of the alpha counting efficiency, it is shown here that an exponential function is a better description. - Highlights: • We have studied the quenching in alpha measurement by liquid scintillation counting. • We have reviewed typical fitting of alpha counting efficiency versus quenching parameter. • Exponential fitting of data is proposed as better fitting. • We consider exponential fitting has a physical basis

  4. Fitting of alpha-efficiency versus quenching parameter by exponential functions in liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, M. [Departamento de Ingeniería Física, Campus León, Universidad de Guanajuato, 37150 León, Guanajuato (Mexico); Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Manjón, G., E-mail: manjon@us.es [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Mantero, J.; García-Tenorio, R. [Universidad de Sevilla, Departamento de Física Aplicada II, E.T.S. Arquitectura, Av. Reina Mercedes, 2, 41012 Sevilla (Spain)

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this work is to propose an exponential fit for the low alpha-counting efficiency as a function of a sample quenching parameter using a Quantulus liquid scintillation counter. The sample quenching parameter in a Quantulus is the Spectral Quench Parameter of the External Standard (SQP(E)), which is defined as the number of channel under which lies the 99% of Compton spectrum generated by a gamma emitter ({sup 152}Eu). Although in the literature one usually finds a polynomial fitting of the alpha counting efficiency, it is shown here that an exponential function is a better description. - Highlights: • We have studied the quenching in alpha measurement by liquid scintillation counting. • We have reviewed typical fitting of alpha counting efficiency versus quenching parameter. • Exponential fitting of data is proposed as better fitting. • We consider exponential fitting has a physical basis.

  5. Assessment of the effects of fish meal, wheat gluten, soy protein concentrate and feed moisture on extruder system parameters and the technical quality of fish feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of feed ingredient functionality plays a vital role in modern fish feed manufacturing practice. The aim of this study was to examine the extrusion behaviour of blends containing alternative protein sources from plant origin to fish meal (FM), such as wheat gluten (WG) and soy protein

  6. The Effect of Feed Form on Diet Digestibility and Cecal Parameters in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Isabella Corsato; Aldrich, Charles Gregory; Kohles, Micah

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary In addition to hay or forage in the diet pet rabbits are commonly fed a supplementary food as a muesli (granular mix), pellets, or extruded croquettes. This study aimed to determine if form of this supplementary diet (pelleted vs. extruded) or composition (muesli) had an effect on the diets total tract digestibility and cecal fermentation patterns. Rabbits had slightly higher intake when fed extruded and pelleted diets compared to muesli. Digestibility results were inconsistent between estimation methods. The extruded diet was more digestible than pelleted according to the total collection digestibility method, but according to internal marker acid insoluble ash the pelleted diet was the most digestible. Both the extruded and pelleted diet had similar fermentation patterns, with lower cecal pH and greater proportions of butyrate. Our findings suggest that diet composition, rather than form, may have a greater impact on nutrient utilization by rabbits. Abstract Fifteen New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned to one of 3 dietary treatment groups of 5 animals each and fed pelleted, extruded, or muesli diets in a completely randomized design experiment. Rabbits were placed in individual cages with ad libitum access to water and food for 45 days acclimation followed by 30 days experimental period. Feed intake of rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets was greater (p digestibility among the treatments was inconsistent when comparing results obtained from total fecal collection and AIA (please define) as an internal marker. Rabbits fed extruded and pelleted diets had lower (p < 0.05) cecal pH (6.42 and 6.38 vs. 7.02, respectively), and higher (p < 0.05) production of SCFA (18.5 and 19.0 vs. 11.7 mM, respectively) than those fed muesli. The fermentation products from rabbits fed pelleted and extruded diets had a greater proportion of butyrate and less propionate than rabbits fed muesli. The results of this study indicate that the basal dietary composition

  7. Colostrum replacer feeding regimen, addition of sodium bicarbonate, and milk replacer: the combined effects on absorptive efficiency of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, R G; Cabral, M A; Chapman, C E; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2014-01-01

    Eighty Holstein and Holstein cross dairy calves were blocked by birth date and randomly assigned to 1 of 8 treatments within each block to examine the effect of a colostrum replacer (CR) feeding regimen, supplementation of CR with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and provision of a milk replacer (MR) feeding on IgG absorption. Calves were offered a CR containing 184.5g/L of IgG in either 1 feeding at 0h (within 30 min of birth), with or without 30g of NaHCO3, with or without a feeding of MR at 6h of age, or 2 feedings of CR (123g of IgG at 0h with or without 20g of NaHCO3 and 61.5g of IgG at 6h with or without 10g of NaHCO3), with or without a MR feeding at 12h. Therefore, treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR; (2) 2 feedings of CR; (3) 1 feeding of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (4) 2 feedings of CR + 30g of NaHCO3; (5) 1 feeding of CR + MR feeding; (6) 2 feedings of CR + MR feeding; (7) 1 feeding of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding; and (8) 2 feedings of CR + 30g NaHCO3 + MR feeding. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h after birth and were analyzed for IgG via radial immunoassay. Results indicated that CR feeding schedule, MR feeding, and the interactions CR × Na, CR × MR, and CR × Na × MR were similar for 24-h serum IgG, apparent efficiency of absorption, or area under the curve. Serum IgG at 24h, apparent efficiency of absorption, and area under the curve were decreased with addition of NaHCO3 compared with calves not supplemented with NaHCO3. These data indicate that supplementation of CR with NaHCO3 is not beneficial to IgG absorption and feeding MR within 6h of CR feeding does not affect IgG absorption. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Research on CO2 ejector component efficiencies by experiment measurement and distributed-parameter modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Lixing; Deng, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The ejector distributed-parameter model is developed to study ejector efficiencies. • Feasible component and total efficiency correlations of ejector are established. • New efficiency correlations are applied to obtain dynamic characteristics of EERC. • More suitable fixed efficiency value can be determined by the proposed correlations. - Abstract: In this study we combine the experimental measurement data and the theoretical model of ejector to determine CO 2 ejector component efficiencies including the motive nozzle, suction chamber, mixing section, diffuser as well as the total ejector efficiency. The ejector is modeled utilizing the distributed-parameter method, and the flow passage is divided into a number of elements and the governing equations are formulated based on the differential equation of mass, momentum and energy conservation. The efficiencies of ejector are investigated under different ejector geometric parameters and operational conditions, and the corresponding empirical correlations are established. Moreover, the correlations are incorporated into a transient model of transcritical CO 2 ejector expansion refrigeration cycle (EERC) and the dynamic simulations is performed based on variable component efficiencies and fixed values. The motive nozzle, suction chamber, mixing section and diffuser efficiencies vary from 0.74 to 0.89, 0.86 to 0.96, 0.73 to 0.9 and 0.75 to 0.95 under the studied conditions, respectively. The response diversities of suction flow pressure and discharge pressure are obvious between the variable efficiencies and fixed efficiencies referring to the previous studies, while when the fixed value is determined by the presented correlations, their response differences are basically the same.

  9. Role of anaerobic fungi in wheat straw degradation and effects of plant feed additives on rumen fermentation parameters in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagar, S S; Singh, N; Goel, N; Kumar, S; Puniya, A K

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, rumen microbial groups, i.e. total rumen microbes (TRM), total anaerobic fungi (TAF), avicel enriched bacteria (AEB) and neutral detergent fibre enriched bacteria (NEB) were evaluated for wheat straw (WS) degradability and different fermentation parameters in vitro. Highest WS degradation was shown for TRM, followed by TAF, NEB and least by AEB. Similar patterns were observed with total gas production and short chain fatty acid profiles. Overall, TAF emerged as the most potent individual microbial group. In order to enhance the fibrolytic and rumen fermentation potential of TAF, we evaluated 18 plant feed additives in vitro. Among these, six plant additives namely Albizia lebbeck, Alstonia scholaris, Bacopa monnieri, Lawsonia inermis, Psidium guajava and Terminalia arjuna considerably improved WS degradation by TAF. Further evaluation showed A. lebbeck as best feed additive. The study revealed that TAF plays a significant role in WS degradation and their fibrolytic activities can be improved by inclusion of A. lebbeck in fermentation medium. Further studies are warranted to elucidate its active constituents, effect on fungal population and in vivo potential in animal system.

  10. Energy efficiency in the agricultural and food industry illustrated with the example of the feed production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gembicki Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficiency is an indicator specifying the amount of saved electric energy thanks to implementation of suitable systems and solutions aimed at reducing the energy consumption in a production plant. Effective use of electric energy or heat energy is intended to reduce the amount of energy required to manufacture products and provide services. Decreased demand for electric energy in the production plant by only a few percent’s may result in considerable savings which in turn assure increased production profitability. If we reduce the energy consumption, it will translate into reduced pollution generated and emitted to the environment. Thanks to this, the plant may limit its negative impact on the surrounding. The feed industry is known to consume much amount of energy for the purposes of production. This energy is intended for pre-processing of substrates, actual production and preparation of ready product to be taken over by the customer. Farmers use fodders to feed their animals. Quality of fodders (feeds and their ingredients determine health of farm animals, which has a direct impact on the quality of products we consume, and consequently on our health. An thorough analysis of feed production plants and reduction of their energy consumption should translate into improved effectiveness. Saved energy allows producing high-quality products and using ingredients of higher quality, which in turn may influence competitiveness of prices of ready products.

  11. Biological parameters of trichogramma chilonis ishii (trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera) feeding on sitotroga cerealella eggs at three constant temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, R.; Khan, J.; Haq, E.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted on the biological parameters of trichogramma chilonis ishii (trichogrammatidae: hymenoptera) feeding on grain moth, sitotroga cereallela eggs at three constant temperatures and five different ages of host eggs at insect pest management programme, national agricultural research centre, (narc) islamabad. The results revealed that maximum rate of parasitism was 95.70 +- 1.94 at 28 +- 1 degree c while minimum was 61.30 +-1.70 at 32 +- 1 degree c. maximum adult emergence and female ratio from parasitized eggs were 96.30% with 59.2+- 5.83 female ratio at 28 +-1 degree c while minimum was 51.10% with female ratio of 58.1 at 32+-1 degree c. The maximum developmental duration (9.6 +- 0.32 days) and adult longevity (4.3 +- 0.38 days) was at 24 +-1 degree degree c while minimum was 7.4 +-0.36 and 2.0 +- 0.56 days at 32 +- 1 degree c. The results indicate that temperature has a significant effect on the biological parameters of trichogramma and with increasing temperature developmental duration decreased. Similarly effect of host eggs age indicates that maximum parasitism and adult emergence were 97.40 +- 0.84% and 98.20 +- 0.94% on 2h old eggs while minimum parasitism was 24.6 +- 4.92% and adult emergence was 21.5 +- 1.33% from 72h old eggs. Adult longevity and female ratio was not significantly different at different ages of host eggs. Thus out of three tested temperatures, 28 +-1 degree c was more suitable for mass rearing of tricho-gramma and feeding 2-12h old eggs for maximum parasitism and adult emergence from parasitized eggs under laboratory condition of 28 +-1 degree c. (author)

  12. Effect of humic-plant feed preparations on biochemical blood parameters of laying hens in deep litter housing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubel, F; Dobrzański, Z; Gaweł, A; Pogoda-Sewerniak, K; Grela, E R

    2015-01-01

    An influence of various humic-plant feed additives based on some herbs (nettle, chamomile, yarrow, perforatum), lucerne and humic materials on biochemical indices of Lohmann Brown (LB) layers blood plasma was estimated. Hens were housed in deep litter system, 20 birds in a group. Four groups were formed: control (C - standard feeding), and experimental, supplemented with prepara- tions: E-1 herbal-humic, E-2 humic-herbal and E-3--humic-lucerne. Hens were placed in the pens on the 16th week of life, addition of preparations with standard food mixture started at the 22nd wk and lasted until 66th wk of life. Blood for analyses was collected four times in the following periods: 27, 37, 54 and 65th wk of life. The applied humic-plant preparations to a limited degree affected the values of examined biochemical parameters in serum: total protein (TP), albumins (Albs), glucose (Glu), urea, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TCh), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminot- ransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). It is difficult to determine based on these study, which preparation is one the most active biologically, however is seems that humic-lucerne prepara- tion affected the examined blood parameters to the highest degree. The reference values ranges in hens blood serum LB hens were proposed for: TP (43-65 g/l), Albs (15-22 g/l), urea (0.5-1.2 mmol/l), Glu 10-15 mmol/l), TCh (2.2-4.5 mmol/l), TAG (10-24 mmol/l), AST (4-12 U/l), ALT (150-280 mmol/l) and ALP (190-350 U/l).

  13. Studies of Some Parameters Affecting The Efficiency and Accuracy of The Neutron Activation Analysis Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Haleem, A.S.; Zaghloul, R.A.; Sroor, A.; Abdel Sabour, M.F.

    2000-01-01

    The present studies deal with the optimum physical conditions which seriously affect the neutron activation analysis technique efficiency. An experimental work for the efficiency calibration of hyper pure germanium detectors especially for environmental studies is presented. This work showed that the tested parameters, under consideration, distance, mass and measured time, reveal a significant effect on the obtained data. These results, intern, affect the accuracy of the measurements. Further work on the test of other parameters is planned in our laboratory using special treatments and applying special computer programs

  14. Efficient testing of the homogeneity, scale parameters and number of components in the Rayleigh mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehlik, M.; Ososkov, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    The statistical problem to expand the experimental distribution of transverse momenta into Rayleigh distribution is considered. A high-efficient testing procedure for testing the hypothesis of the homogeneity of the observed measurements which is optimal in the sense of Bahadur is constructed. The exact likelihood ratio (LR) test of the scale parameter of the Rayleigh distribution is proposed for cases when the hypothesis of homogeneity holds. Otherwise the efficient procedure for testing the number of components in the mixture is also proposed

  15. Transcriptomic analysis of genes in the nitrogen recycling pathway of meat-type chickens divergently selected for feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggrey, S E; Lee, J; Karnuah, A B; Rekaya, R

    2014-04-01

    The understanding of the dynamics of ammonia detoxification and excretion in uricotelic species is lagging behind ureotelic species. The relative expression of genes involved in nitrogen recycling and feed efficiency in chickens is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the transcriptomics differences in key genes in the nitrogen (N) metabolism and purine biosynthesis pathway in a chicken population divergently selected for low (LRFI) or high (HRFI) residual feed intake at days 35 and 42 using duodenum, liver, pectoralis major (P. major) and kidney. There was a significant positive correlation between RFI and fecal N. The purine salvage pathway was activated in the LRFI compared with HRFI at days 42. The birds in the LRFI population attained greater feed efficiency by having lower FI, increasing their protein retention and producing adequate glutamine to maintain growth compared with the HRFI line. To maintain growth, excess N is deaminated mostly to generate purine nucleotides. Generating purine nucleotides primarily from the purine biosynthesis pathway is energetically costly, and to preserve energy, they preferentially generate nucleotides from the purine salvage pathway. The LRFI birds need to generate sufficient nucleotides to maintain growth despite reduced FI that then results in reduced fecal N. © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  16. Fitted curve parameters for the efficiency of a coaxial HPGe Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supian Samat

    1996-01-01

    Using Ngraph software, the parameters of various functions were determined by least squares analysis of fits to experimental efficiencies , ε sub f of a coaxial HPGe detector for gamma rays in the energy range 59 keV to 1836 keV. When these parameters had been determined, their reliability was tested by the calculated goodness-of-fit parameter χ sup 2 sub cal. It is shown that the function, ln ε sub f = Σ sup n sub j=0 a sub j (ln E/E sub 0) sup j , where n=3, gives satisfactory results

  17. Toward an Efficient Prediction of Solar Flares: Which Parameters, and How?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolis K. Georgoulis

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar flare prediction has become a forefront topic in contemporary solar physics, with numerous published methods relying on numerous predictive parameters, that can even be divided into parameter classes. Attempting further insight, we focus on two popular classes of flare-predictive parameters, namely multiscale (i.e., fractal and multifractal and proxy (i.e., morphological parameters, and we complement our analysis with a study of the predictive capability of fundamental physical parameters (i.e., magnetic free energy and relative magnetic helicity. Rather than applying the studied parameters to a comprehensive statistical sample of flaring and non-flaring active regions, that was the subject of our previous studies, the novelty of this work is their application to an exceptionally long and high-cadence time series of the intensely eruptive National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA active region (AR 11158, observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Aiming for a detailed study of the temporal evolution of each parameter, we seek distinctive patterns that could be associated with the four largest flares in the AR in the course of its five-day observing interval. We find that proxy parameters only tend to show preflare impulses that are practical enough to warrant subsequent investigation with sufficient statistics. Combining these findings with previous results, we conclude that: (i carefully constructed, physically intuitive proxy parameters may be our best asset toward an efficient future flare-forecasting; and (ii the time series of promising parameters may be as important as their instantaneous values. Value-based prediction is the only approach followed so far. Our results call for novel signal and/or image processing techniques to efficiently utilize combined amplitude and temporal-profile information to optimize the inferred solar-flare probabilities.

  18. Influence analysis of sewage sludge methane fermentation parameters on process efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Катерина Борисівна Сорокіна

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency dependence of sewage sludge organic matter decomposition from organization and conditions of the process is analyzed. Support of the optimal values of several parameters ensures to provide completeness of the sludge fermentation process and obtain biogas in calculated amount. Biogas utilization reduces costs for reactor heating and provides additional obtaining of other types of energy

  19. Influence analysis of sewage sludge methane fermentation parameters on process efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Катерина Борисівна Сорокіна

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency dependence of sewage sludge organic matter decomposition from organization and conditions of the process is analyzed. Support of the optimal values of several parameters ensures to provide completeness of the sludge fermentation process and obtain biogas in calculated amount. Biogas utilization reduces costs for reactor heating and provides additional obtaining of other types of energy

  20. Spatial extrapolation of light use efficiency model parameters to predict gross primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Schulz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To capture the spatial and temporal variability of the gross primary production as a key component of the global carbon cycle, the light use efficiency modeling approach in combination with remote sensing data has shown to be well suited. Typically, the model parameters, such as the maximum light use efficiency, are either set to a universal constant or to land class dependent values stored in look-up tables. In this study, we employ the machine learning technique support vector regression to explicitly relate the model parameters of a light use efficiency model calibrated at several FLUXNET sites to site-specific characteristics obtained by meteorological measurements, ecological estimations and remote sensing data. A feature selection algorithm extracts the relevant site characteristics in a cross-validation, and leads to an individual set of characteristic attributes for each parameter. With this set of attributes, the model parameters can be estimated at sites where a parameter calibration is not possible due to the absence of eddy covariance flux measurement data. This will finally allow a spatially continuous model application. The performance of the spatial extrapolation scheme is evaluated with a cross-validation approach, which shows the methodology to be well suited to recapture the variability of gross primary production across the study sites.

  1. The Effects of Operational Parameters on a Mono-wire Cutting System: Efficiency in Marble Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazkaya, Emre; Ozcelik, Yilmaz

    2016-02-01

    Mono-wire block cutting machines that cut with a diamond wire can be used for squaring natural stone blocks and the slab-cutting process. The efficient use of these machines reduces operating costs by ensuring less diamond wire wear and longer wire life at high speeds. The high investment costs of these machines will lead to their efficient use and reduce production costs by increasing plant efficiency. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the cutting performance parameters of mono-wire cutting machines in terms of rock properties and operating parameters. This study aims to investigate the effects of the wire rotational speed (peripheral speed) and wire descending speed (cutting speed), which are the operating parameters of a mono-wire cutting machine, on unit wear and unit energy, which are the performance parameters in mono-wire cutting. By using the obtained results, cuttability charts for each natural stone were created on the basis of unit wear and unit energy values, cutting optimizations were performed, and the relationships between some physical and mechanical properties of rocks and the optimum cutting parameters obtained as a result of the optimization were investigated.

  2. The Parameters Controlling the Burning Efficiency of In-Situ Burning of Crude Oil on Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Gelderen, Laurens; Jomaas, Grunde

    2017-01-01

    Parameters that control the burning efficiency of in-situ burning of crude oil on water were identified by studying the influence of the initial slick thickness, vaporization order, oil slick diameter, weathering state of the oil, heat losses to the water layer and heat flux to the fuel surface...... on the burning efficiency for light and heavy crude oils. These parameters were studied in several small scale and intermediate scale experimental setups. The results showed that the heat losses to the water layer increase with increasing burning time because the components in a crude oil evaporate from volatile...... to non-volatile. Due to the relatively low heat feedback (reradiation and convection, in kW/m2) to the fuel surface of small scale pool fires, as compared to large scale pool fires, these heat losses were shown to limit the burning efficiency in small scale experiments. By subjecting small scale crude...

  3. An efficient method for evaluating the effect of input parameters on the integrity of safety systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Zhang-Chun; Zuo, Ming J.; Xiao, Ningcong

    2016-01-01

    Safety systems are significant to reduce or prevent risk from potentially dangerous activities in industry. Probability of failure to perform its functions on demand (PFD) for safety system usually exhibits variation due to the epistemic uncertainty associated with various input parameters. This paper uses the complementary cumulative distribution function of the PFD to define the exceedance probability (EP) that the PFD of the system is larger than the designed value. Sensitivity analysis of safety system is further investigated, which focuses on the effect of the variance of an individual input parameter on the EP resulting from epistemic uncertainty associated with the input parameters. An available numerical technique called finite difference method is first employed to evaluate the effect, which requires extensive computational cost and needs to select a step size. To address these difficulties, this paper proposes an efficient simulation method to estimate the effect. The proposed method needs only an evaluation to estimate the effects corresponding to all input parameters. Two examples are used to demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain more accurate results with less computation time compared to reported methods. - Highlights: • We define a sensitivity index to measure effect of a parameter for safety system. • We analyze the physical meaning of the sensitivity index. • We propose an efficient simulation method to assess the sensitivity index. • We derive the formulations of this index for lognormal and beta distributions. • Results identify important parameters on exceedance probability of safety system.

  4. Spot Feeding Spheroidal Graphite Iron with Exothermic and Insulating Ram-Up Sleeves in Vertically Parted Moulds: Efficiency, Microstructure, Dimensional Accuracy, Deformation, and Driving Force and Feeding Criteria Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Smith, Nikolaj Kjelgaard

    feeders (ram-up sleeves) is investigated, showing that this new feeding approach can be used successfully to feed secluded sections inductile cast iron (EN-GJS-500-7). The feeder efficiency is tested using a high Silicon (Si) ductile iron (EN-GJS-450-10). The limits for the examined feeder configurations......Improvement of feeder technologies for energy savings in cast iron foundries is not only the title of the project behind this dissertation; it is a good idea that can improve casting yield and reduce production cost, and in turn strengthening the foundries competitive advantage. The approach...... of solidification. The dissertation provides a new approach to feeding secluded sections, a new characterisation of the underlying feeding forces, and new knowledge about the thermal deformation effects caused and controlled by feeding....

  5. Effects of feed intake and dietary urea concentration on ruminal dilution rate and efficiency of bacteria growth in steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firkins, J.L.; Lewis, S.M.; Montgomery, L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Four multiple-fistulated steers (340 kg) were fed a diet containing 50% ground grass hay, 20% dry distillers grains, and 30% concentrate at two intakes (7.2 or 4.8 kg DM/d). Urea (.4 or 1.2% of the diet) was infused continuously into the steers' rumens. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Infusing urea at .4 or 1.2% of the diet resulted in ruminal NH 3 N concentration of 4.97 and 9.10 mg/dl, respectively. Feeding steers at high rather than low intake decreased ruminal and total tract digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, and ADF but did not increase ruminal escape of N. However, apparent N escape from the rumen calculated using purines, but not 15 N, as a bacterial marker was higher when 1.2 vs. .4% urea was infused. Feeding at high rather than at low intake increased the total pool of viable bacteria per gram organic matter fermented in the rumen. Although ruminal fluid outflows and particulate dilution rates were greater when steers were fed at high than low intakes, efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were unaffected by intake. The possibility of increased N recycling within the rumen with feeding at the higher intake is discussed

  6. Feed efficiency of tropically adapted cattle when fed in winter or spring in a temperate location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earlier work has shown that young, tropically adapted cattle do not gain as rapidly as temperately adapted cattle during the winter in OK. The objective for this study was to determine if efficiency of gains was also impacted in tropically adapted cattle and if efficiency is consistent in different...

  7. Robust and efficient parameter estimation in dynamic models of biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gábor, Attila; Banga, Julio R

    2015-10-29

    Dynamic modelling provides a systematic framework to understand function in biological systems. Parameter estimation in nonlinear dynamic models remains a very challenging inverse problem due to its nonconvexity and ill-conditioning. Associated issues like overfitting and local solutions are usually not properly addressed in the systems biology literature despite their importance. Here we present a method for robust and efficient parameter estimation which uses two main strategies to surmount the aforementioned difficulties: (i) efficient global optimization to deal with nonconvexity, and (ii) proper regularization methods to handle ill-conditioning. In the case of regularization, we present a detailed critical comparison of methods and guidelines for properly tuning them. Further, we show how regularized estimations ensure the best trade-offs between bias and variance, reducing overfitting, and allowing the incorporation of prior knowledge in a systematic way. We illustrate the performance of the presented method with seven case studies of different nature and increasing complexity, considering several scenarios of data availability, measurement noise and prior knowledge. We show how our method ensures improved estimations with faster and more stable convergence. We also show how the calibrated models are more generalizable. Finally, we give a set of simple guidelines to apply this strategy to a wide variety of calibration problems. Here we provide a parameter estimation strategy which combines efficient global optimization with a regularization scheme. This method is able to calibrate dynamic models in an efficient and robust way, effectively fighting overfitting and allowing the incorporation of prior information.

  8. Efficiency of use of supplementary lighting in rearing of dairy calves during milk feeding stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gledson L. P. de Almeida

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this study was to evaluate programs of supplementary lighting for calves in individual shelters with different roof materials, as a strategy to stimulate concentrate consumption and the reduction of the milk feeding period and increase financial viability. Twenty seven dairy crossed Holstein × Gir female calves were randomly distributed in individual shelters with three different roofing materials (cement fiber tile, recycled tile and thatched roofs, associated with three different light duration (12, 16 and 20 h and with three repetitions. The experimental design was completely randomized in 3 × 3 factorial arrangement. There was no interaction between the types of roofs × supplemental light; also, there was no significant effect of the covering types on the average consumption of concentrate and occurance of diarrhea in calves. On the other hand 20 h of lighting stimulated the consumption of concentrate and allowed weaning of calves at 55 days of age and 20% reduction in the cost of rearing animals during milk feeding stage.

  9. Feeding behavior, microbial efficiency, and nitrogen balance of Nellore heifers supplemented with crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Mesquita da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the inclusion of crude glycerin in diets for Nellore heifers grazing on a Brachiaria brizantha pasture, during the dry season, on urine and plasma urea concentrations, feeding behavior, and microbial protein synthesis. Sixty Nellore heifers with an average initial weight of 285.89 ± 18.74 kg, at approximately 19 ± 2 months of age, were distributed, in a completely randomized design, into the following five treatments with twelve replicates: 0.00, 4.00, 8.00, 12.00, and 16.00% inclusion of crude glycerin in the diet they were fed. Grazing time decreased linearly (P 0.05, averaging 113.73g CP per kg TDN ingested. Plasma nitrogen concentration did not show any effects (P > 0.05, averaging 13.11 mg dL?1. Supplementing heifers during the dry season, at 0.7% BW, using up to 16% crude glycerin in the diet composition, did not elicit positive responses from feeding behavior and had little influence on microbial synthesis.

  10. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  11. A polynomial chaos ensemble hydrologic prediction system for efficient parameter inference and robust uncertainty assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Huang, G. H.; Baetz, B. W.; Huang, W.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a polynomial chaos ensemble hydrologic prediction system (PCEHPS) for an efficient and robust uncertainty assessment of model parameters and predictions, in which possibilistic reasoning is infused into probabilistic parameter inference with simultaneous consideration of randomness and fuzziness. The PCEHPS is developed through a two-stage factorial polynomial chaos expansion (PCE) framework, which consists of an ensemble of PCEs to approximate the behavior of the hydrologic model, significantly speeding up the exhaustive sampling of the parameter space. Multiple hypothesis testing is then conducted to construct an ensemble of reduced-dimensionality PCEs with only the most influential terms, which is meaningful for achieving uncertainty reduction and further acceleration of parameter inference. The PCEHPS is applied to the Xiangxi River watershed in China to demonstrate its validity and applicability. A detailed comparison between the HYMOD hydrologic model, the ensemble of PCEs, and the ensemble of reduced PCEs is performed in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Results reveal temporal and spatial variations in parameter sensitivities due to the dynamic behavior of hydrologic systems, and the effects (magnitude and direction) of parametric interactions depending on different hydrological metrics. The case study demonstrates that the PCEHPS is capable not only of capturing both expert knowledge and probabilistic information in the calibration process, but also of implementing an acceleration of more than 10 times faster than the hydrologic model without compromising the predictive accuracy.

  12. Inter-domain synergism is required for efficient feeding of cellulose chain into active site of cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim

    2016-01-01

    systems. TrCel7A consists of catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites. The active site of TrCel7A is lined with four Trp residues with two...... to Ala substitution on on-rates was strongly dependent on the presence of the CBM-linker. This compensation between CBM-linker and Trp-38 indicates synergism between CBM-linker and CD in feeding the cellulose chain into the active site. The inter-domain synergism was pre-requisite for the efficient......Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme...

  13. Effects of different feeding levels on moulting, growth, food conversion efficiency and biochemical composition of the prawn, metapenaeus monoceros (Fabricius)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan; Royan, J.P.; Rao, T.S.S.

    food/g prawn/day represented the maintenance, optimum and maximum feeding levels Specific dynamic action increased twice at the observed maximum feeding level (20%) than at optimum feeding level (12%), indicating that the energy cost of converting food...

  14. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Meixia; Luo, Weiwei; Yu, Xiaomu; Zhou, Ying; Tong, Jingou

    2018-01-01

    Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE) in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs) analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus). Brain tissues of six crucian carp with extreme FCE performances were subjected to transcriptome analysis. A total of 544,612 unigenes with a mean size of 644.38 bp were obtained from Low- and High-FCE groups, and 246 DEGs that may be involved in FCE traits were identified in these two groups. qPCR confirmed that genes previously identified as up- or down-regulated by RNA-Seq were effectively up- or down-regulated under the studied conditions. Thirteen key genes, whose functions are associated with metabolism (Dgkk, Mgst3 and Guk1b), signal transduction (Vdnccsa1b, Tgfα, Nr4a1 and Tacr2) and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1, Myh14 and Igfbp7) were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology) and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) annotations. Our novel findings provide useful pathway information and candidate genes for future studies of genetic mechanisms underlying FCE in crucian carp. PMID:29538345

  15. Transcriptomic Profiles of Brain Provide Insights into Molecular Mechanism of Feed Conversion Efficiency in Crucian Carp (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixia Pang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency is an economically crucial trait for cultured animals, however, progress has been scarcely made in the genetic analyses of feed conversion efficiency (FCE in fish because of the difficulties in measurement of trait phenotypes. In the present investigation, we present the first application of RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq combined with differentially expressed genes (DEGs analysis for identification of functional determinants related to FCE at the gene level in an aquaculture fish, crucian carp (Carassius auratus. Brain tissues of six crucian carp with extreme FCE performances were subjected to transcriptome analysis. A total of 544,612 unigenes with a mean size of 644.38 bp were obtained from Low- and High-FCE groups, and 246 DEGs that may be involved in FCE traits were identified in these two groups. qPCR confirmed that genes previously identified as up- or down-regulated by RNA-Seq were effectively up- or down-regulated under the studied conditions. Thirteen key genes, whose functions are associated with metabolism (Dgkk, Mgst3 and Guk1b, signal transduction (Vdnccsa1b, Tgfα, Nr4a1 and Tacr2 and growth (Endog, Crebrtc2, Myh7, Myh1, Myh14 and Igfbp7 were identified according to GO (Gene Ontology and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations. Our novel findings provide useful pathway information and candidate genes for future studies of genetic mechanisms underlying FCE in crucian carp.

  16. Feeding efficiency of Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni in different experimental substrata

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, C.B.L.; Balasubramanian, T.; Iyer, H.K.; Kutty, M.K.

    Preying efficiency in the substrata of different concentrations of mud sand, silt and clay and also in mud from natural habitat was examined with respect to Penaeus indicus and Metapenaeus dobsoni in order to understand the factors in their natural...

  17. CRITICAL QUALITY PARAMETERS VEGETABLE FEED FOR OSTRICHES (STRUTHIO CAMELUS DOMESTICUS ON AN ARTIFICIAL PASTURE IN TcChR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Vasilenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of studying nutrition African ostriches for different ages in zoos, nurseries and small farms evaluated the nutritional value and balance of each of the components of plant feed, providing the needs for normal growth of poultry, development and productivity, to increase body weight, to increase egg production, quality hatching eggs, meat quality, output and quality of the young. Currently, in most cases, bird feed by copying the natural food, but it is the species, age and seasonal specifics, ensure that in the conditions of the zoo, nursery and farm problematic. Therefore, to solve this problem, we proposed the formulation of plant feed for feeding African ostriches in a zoo, nurseries and small farms that promote bird health, increase the rate of feeding, increase egg production, increase their survival, as well as the possibility of replacing expensive raw mat erials at cheaper developed using the optimization program "Food Optima Expert". To sustain ostriches exchange energy feed should be not less than 260 kcal / 100 g, protein content not less than 16 %. The complex research to develop formulations of plant feed for African ostriches in a zoo, nurseries and small farms and the quality of their analysis may be of interest in the full feeding African ostriches. The proposed formulation can extend its range of multi-component feed with a sufficiently high biological, energy value, the balanced composition of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals adapted for ostriches, as well as the possibility of replacing expensive raw materials at lower cost.

  18. Feeding Frequency Effects in Early Lactation on Productive Efficiency of Holstein Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Karimzadeh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted in order to determine the effects of feeding frequency (FF on dairy cow performance fed a total mixed ration (TMR based on chopped alfalfa hay. Eight multiparous early lactation Holstein cows were housed in the individual boxes (4 × 3 m and fed either once a day (1x at 0700 h or 4 times a day (4x at 0100, 0700, 1300 and 1900 h with TMR. The experiment was done as a 2 × 2 crossover design with two 20-d periods. When FF changed from 4x to 1x, dry matter intake (21.1 vs. 20.0 kg/d and NEL intake (36.4 vs. 34.3 Mcal/d increased (P

  19. Phenotypically divergent classification of preweaned heifer calves for feed efficiency indexes and their correlations with heat production and thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, J M; Coelho, S G; Machado, F S; Azevedo, R A; Lima, J A M; Carneiro, J C; Lage, C F A; Ferreira, A L; Pereira, L G R; Tomich, T R; Campos, M M

    2018-03-07

    The aims of this study were (1) to assess if there is phenotypical divergence for feed efficiency (FE) during the preweaning phase; (2) if FE is correlated with heat production (HP) measured by the face mask method or (3) by surface skin temperature via thermography, and (4) whether these methods are applicable to preweaned calves. Holstein × Gyr heifer calves (n = 36, birth body weight = 32.4 ± 6.6 kg) were enrolled and on trial between 4 and 12 wk of age and were classified into 2 residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG) groups: high efficiency (HE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 9) and low efficiency (LE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 8). Calves were fed milk (6 L/d) and solid feed (95% starter and 5% chopped Tifton 85 hay, as fed). Growth was monitored weekly and feed intake (milk and solid feed) daily, during the whole period. Gas exchanges (O 2 consumption and production of CO 2 and CH 4 ) were obtained using a face mask at 45 ± 5 d of age and HP was estimated. Maximum temperatures were measured at 7 sites with an infrared camera at 62 ± 7 d of age. There was divergence in RFI and RG. Respectively, HE and LE calves had RFI of -0.14 and 0.13 kg/d, and RG of 0.05 and -0.07 kg/d. Dry matter intake was 15% lower in HE-RFI compared with LE-RFI, but no differences were observed in average daily weight gain. Within the RG test, no differences were observed in dry matter intake or average daily gain. The HE-RFI calves consumed less O 2 (L/d) and produced less CO 2 (L/d). Heart rate and HP were lower for HE-RFI calves compared with LE-RFI. Residual feed intake was correlated with HP (r = 0.48), O 2 consumption (r = 0.48), CO 2 production (r = 0.48), and heart rate (r = 0.40). No differences were observed in HP and gas exchanges between RG groups. Methane production was null in both groups. Eye temperature measured by thermography was 0.5°C greater in HE-RG than LE-RG calves. Differences in skin temperature between HE and LE calves were not observed at

  20. An Efficient State–Parameter Filtering Scheme Combining Ensemble Kalman and Particle Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa

    2017-12-11

    This work addresses the state-parameter filtering problem for dynamical systems with relatively large-dimensional state and low-dimensional parameters\\' vector. A Bayesian filtering algorithm combining the strengths of the particle filter (PF) and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is proposed. At each assimilation cycle of the proposed EnKF-PF, the PF is first used to sample the parameters\\' ensemble followed by the EnKF to compute the state ensemble conditional on the resulting parameters\\' ensemble. The proposed scheme is expected to be more efficient than the traditional state augmentation techniques, which suffer from the curse of dimensionality and inconsistency that is particularly pronounced when the state is a strongly nonlinear function of the parameters. In the new scheme, the EnKF and PF interact via their ensembles\\' members, in contrast with the recently introduced two-stage EnKF-PF (TS-EnKF-PF), which exchanges point estimates between EnKF and PF while requiring almost double the computational load. Numerical experiments are conducted with the Lorenz-96 model to assess the behavior of the proposed filter and to evaluate its performances against the joint PF, joint EnKF, and TS-EnKF-PF. Numerical results suggest that the EnKF-PF performs best in all tested scenarios. It was further found to be more robust, successfully estimating both state and parameters in different sensitivity experiments.

  1. An Efficient State–Parameter Filtering Scheme Combining Ensemble Kalman and Particle Filters

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-El-Fquih, Boujemaa; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2017-01-01

    This work addresses the state-parameter filtering problem for dynamical systems with relatively large-dimensional state and low-dimensional parameters' vector. A Bayesian filtering algorithm combining the strengths of the particle filter (PF) and the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) is proposed. At each assimilation cycle of the proposed EnKF-PF, the PF is first used to sample the parameters' ensemble followed by the EnKF to compute the state ensemble conditional on the resulting parameters' ensemble. The proposed scheme is expected to be more efficient than the traditional state augmentation techniques, which suffer from the curse of dimensionality and inconsistency that is particularly pronounced when the state is a strongly nonlinear function of the parameters. In the new scheme, the EnKF and PF interact via their ensembles' members, in contrast with the recently introduced two-stage EnKF-PF (TS-EnKF-PF), which exchanges point estimates between EnKF and PF while requiring almost double the computational load. Numerical experiments are conducted with the Lorenz-96 model to assess the behavior of the proposed filter and to evaluate its performances against the joint PF, joint EnKF, and TS-EnKF-PF. Numerical results suggest that the EnKF-PF performs best in all tested scenarios. It was further found to be more robust, successfully estimating both state and parameters in different sensitivity experiments.

  2. COMPARATIVE EFFICIENCY OF SUNFLOWER MEAL AND COTTONSEED CAKES IN THE FEED OF CROSSBRED CALVES FOR MEAT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. JABBAR, M. I. ANJUM1, S. REHMAN2 AND W. SHAHZAD2

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty crossbred (Sahiwal x Friesian male calves of 9-10 months age and weighing 70 to 90 kg, were used in completely randomized design to investigate the possibility of replacing cottonseed cakes (CSC with sunflower meal (SFM, partially or completely, in rations for fattening of crossbred calves for meat production. Three concentrate rations viz. A, B and C were formulated. Ration A containing CSC was fed to the calves of group A, ration B containing SFM was fed to calves of group B and ration C containing both CSC + SFM was fed to calves of group C. The feed intake of calves belonging to group C was the highest (5.7 ± 2.3 kg followed by group B (5.5 ± 1.3 kg and group A (5.2 ± 2.0 kg. Average daily body weight gain was 0.73 ± 0.1, 0.72 ± 0.2 and 0.71 ± 0.1 kg for groups A, B and C, respectively. Calves fed SFM gained numerically less than the calves fed CSC but higher than SFM+ CSC. Feed conversion ratio was 7.1 ± 0.4, 7.7 ± 0.7 and 8.0 ± 0.6, for calves of groups A, B and C, respectively. Dressing percentage averaged 51.5 ± 1.3, 52.1 ± 1.2 and 52.3 ± 0.8 for the respective rations. However, the differences in feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion ratio and dressing percentages among calves of three groups were non significant. Considering the cost of feed and average growth, the cost of per kg body weight gain was 38, 30 and 37 rupees for the groups A, B and C, respectively. The lowest cost was observed in SFM based ration (B that was about 19% less than ration containing CSC. Results indicated that for fattening of crossbred calves the use of SFM is as efficient as CSC but more economical and can successfully replace CSC in fattening rations.

  3. Phenotypic and genetic relationships of feed efficiency with growth performance, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in Angus and Charolais steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, F; Chen, L; Vinsky, M; Okine, E; Wang, Z; Basarab, J; Crews, D H; Li, C

    2013-05-01

    Feed efficiency is of particular importance to the beef industry, as feed costs represent the single largest variable cost in beef production systems. Selection for more efficient cattle will lead to reduction of feed related costs, but should not have adverse impacts on quality of the carcass. In this study, we evaluated phenotypic and genetic correlations of residual feed intake (RFI), RFI adjusted for end-of-test ultrasound backfat thickness (RFIf), and RFI adjusted for ultrasound backfat thickness and LM area (RFIfr) with growth, ultrasound, and carcass merit traits in an Angus population of 551 steers and in a Charolais population of 417 steers. In the Angus steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlation of RFI with carcass merit traits including HCW, carcass backfat, carcass LM area, lean meat yield, and carcass marbling were not significant or weak with correlations coefficients ranging from -0.0007 ± 0.05 to 0.18 ± 0.21. In the Charolais steer population, the phenotypic and genetic correlations of RFI with the carcass merit traits were also weak, with correlation coefficients ranging from -0.07 ± 0.06 to 0.19 ± 0.18, except for the genetic correlation with carcass average backfat, which was moderate with a magnitude of 0.42 ± 0.29. Inclusion of ultrasound backfat thickness in the model to predict the expected daily DMI for maintenance explained on average an additional 0.5% variation of DMI in the Angus steers and 2.3% variation of DMI in the Charolais steer population. Inclusion of both the ultrasound backfat and LM area in the model explained only 0.7% additional variance in DMI in the Angus steer population and only 0.6% in the Charolais steer population on top of the RFIf model. We concluded that RFIf adjusted for ultrasound backfat at the end of the test will lead to decreases of both the phenotypic and genetic correlations with carcass backfat and marbling score to a greater extent for late-maturing beef breeds such as Charolais than

  4. Efficiency Optimization Control of IPM Synchronous Motor Drives with Online Parameter Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Vaez-Zadeh

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an efficiency optimization control method for high performance interior permanent magnet synchronous motor drives with online estimation of motor parameters. The control system is based on an input-output feedback linearization method which provides high performance control and simultaneously ensures the minimization of the motor losses. The controllable electrical loss can be minimized by the optimal control of the armature current vector. It is shown that parameter variations except at near the nominal conditions have undesirable effect on the controller performance. Therefore, a parameter estimation method based on the second method of Lyapunov is presented which guarantees the stability and convergence of the estimation. The extensive simulation results show the feasibility of the proposed controller and observer and their desirable performances.

  5. Strategies for improving water use efficiency in livestock feed production in rain-fed systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kebebe, E.G.; Oosting, S.J.; Haileslassie, A.; Duncan, A.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Livestock production is a major consumer of fresh water, and the influence of livestock production on global fresh water resources is increasing because of the growing demand for livestock products. Increasing water use efficiency of livestock production, therefore, can contribute to the overall

  6. Dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and the hierarchy of energy metabolic pathways in growing pigs differing in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondret, F; Louveau, I; Mourot, J; Duclos, M J; Lagarrigue, S; Gilbert, H; van Milgen, J

    2014-11-01

    The use and partition of feed energy are key elements in productive efficiency of pigs. This study aimed to determine whether dietary energy sources affect the partition of body lipids and tissue biochemical pathways of energy use between pigs differing in feed efficiency. Forty-eight barrows (pure Large White) from two divergent lines selected for residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, were compared. From 74 d to 132 ± 0.5 d of age, pigs (n = 12 by line and by diet) were offered diets with equal protein and ME contents. A low fat, low fiber diet (LF) based on cereals and a high fat, high fiber diet (HF) where vegetal oils and wheat straw were used to partially substitute cereals, were compared. Irrespective of diet, gain to feed was 10% better (P energy sources modified the partition of energy between liver, adipose tissue, and muscle in a way that was partly dependent of the genetics for feed efficiency, and changed the activity levels of biochemical pathways involved in lipid and glucose storage in tissues.

  7. The efficiency of Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, Ronan; O'Malley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Ireland's Renewable Energy Feed-In Tariff (REFIT) for wind generation has some unusual features making it different from other REFIT schemes around the world. By utilising an annual floor price element the scheme presents an option value to the contract holder, which to date has gone unnoticed or unvalued in the market. By employing an option pricing framework, this paper has quantified for the first time in the public domain the expected costs and value of the Irish REFIT support scheme for wind generation. While the cost of the REFIT scheme to the electricity consumer appears to be lower than the cost of schemes in other countries, significant inefficiencies exist as a result of the structure of the scheme. The Irish REFIT scheme is contrasted with a single Fixed Price support scheme and the analysis suggests that the Fixed Price scheme can provide a similar or greater incentive to the wind sector at half the cost to the end electricity consumer, and may also prove more compatible with consumers desire to reduce inter-year electricity portfolio cost volatility. - Highlights: → We review and summarise Ireland's support scheme for renewable energy. → We present information about the operation of the scheme in industry to date. → The scheme is really a series of put options. → Our option pricing model shows that the scheme is much more expensive/valuable than the industry has recognised to date. → The existing scheme is inefficient and simple variations represent much better policy instruments.

  8. Impact of reduced marker set estimation of genomic relationship matrices on genomic selection for feed efficiency in Angus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Northcutt Sally L

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular estimates of breeding value are expected to increase selection response due to improvements in the accuracy of selection and a reduction in generation interval, particularly for traits that are difficult or expensive to record or are measured late in life. Several statistical methods for incorporating molecular data into breeding value estimation have been proposed, however, most studies have utilized simulated data in which the generated linkage disequilibrium may not represent the targeted livestock population. A genomic relationship matrix was developed for 698 Angus steers and 1,707 Angus sires using 41,028 single nucleotide polymorphisms and breeding values were estimated using feed efficiency phenotypes (average daily feed intake, residual feed intake, and average daily gain recorded on the steers. The number of SNPs needed to accurately estimate a genomic relationship matrix was evaluated in this population. Results Results were compared to estimates produced from pedigree-based mixed model analysis of 862 Angus steers with 34,864 identified paternal relatives but no female ancestors. Estimates of additive genetic variance and breeding value accuracies were similar for AFI and RFI using the numerator and genomic relationship matrices despite fewer animals in the genomic analysis. Bootstrap analyses indicated that 2,500-10,000 markers are required for robust estimation of genomic relationship matrices in cattle. Conclusions This research shows that breeding values and their accuracies may be estimated for commercially important sires for traits recorded in experimental populations without the need for pedigree data to establish identity by descent between members of the commercial and experimental populations when at least 2,500 SNPs are available for the generation of a genomic relationship matrix.

  9. Yeast culture increased plasma niacin concentration, evaporative heat loss, and feed efficiency of dairy cows in a hot environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Julia D L; Silva, Rayana B; Fernandes, Tatiane; Barbosa, Eugenio F; Graças, Larissa E C; Araujo, Rafael C; Pereira, Renata A N; Pereira, Marcos N

    2018-04-04

    The supplementation of dairy cows with yeast culture may increase diet digestibility, plasma niacin concentration, heat dissipation, and lactation performance. Our objective was to evaluate the response of Holstein cows in late lactation (234 ± 131 d in milk) to dead yeast culture (YC, 15 g/d, Factor SC, GRASP, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) during Brazilian summer (temperature-humidity index >68 for 92.2% of the time). Thirty-two cows were individually fed a standard total mixed ration for 14 d and control (CTL) or YC treatments for 35 d, in a covariate adjusted complete randomized block design. Response was evaluated in wk 5 or as repeated measures over time. Cows were milked 3 times per day and treatments (YC or placebo) were orally dosed to each cow before each milking. Plasma niacin was 1.50 for CTL and 1.66 µg/mL for YC. The YC reduced rectal temperature, respiration rate, and skin temperature, whereas it tended to increase sweating rate. The proportion of cows with rectal temperature ≥39.2°C on CTL and YC was, respectively, 8 and 0% at 0730 h, 52 and 25% at 1500 h, and 35 and 26% at 2200 h. Plasma glucose was increased by YC. The total-tract apparent digestibility of nutrients, plasma urea N concentration, molar proportion of ruminal VFA, and urinary allantoin excretion were not affected by YC. Cows fed YC were less selective against feed particles >19 mm in the morning, in the afternoon were more selective against long feed particles and in favor of particles loss, and feed efficiency of late lactation dairy cows by reducing intake at similar milk yield. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An Efficient Data Partitioning to Improve Classification Performance While Keeping Parameters Interpretable.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristjan Korjus

    Full Text Available Supervised machine learning methods typically require splitting data into multiple chunks for training, validating, and finally testing classifiers. For finding the best parameters of a classifier, training and validation are usually carried out with cross-validation. This is followed by application of the classifier with optimized parameters to a separate test set for estimating the classifier's generalization performance. With limited data, this separation of test data creates a difficult trade-off between having more statistical power in estimating generalization performance versus choosing better parameters and fitting a better model. We propose a novel approach that we term "Cross-validation and cross-testing" improving this trade-off by re-using test data without biasing classifier performance. The novel approach is validated using simulated data and electrophysiological recordings in humans and rodents. The results demonstrate that the approach has a higher probability of discovering significant results than the standard approach of cross-validation and testing, while maintaining the nominal alpha level. In contrast to nested cross-validation, which is maximally efficient in re-using data, the proposed approach additionally maintains the interpretability of individual parameters. Taken together, we suggest an addition to currently used machine learning approaches which may be particularly useful in cases where model weights do not require interpretation, but parameters do.

  11. The influence of distillers dried grains with solubles in broiler’s feed mixtures on their growth parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Hošková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS in broiler feed mixtures on the performance was studied in an experiment with 1000 male broiler chickens Ross 308 from 12 to 35 days of age. DDGS were produced from wheat (90 % and triticale (10 %. Cockerels were divided into 5 groups and were housed on deep litter. Experimental feed mixtures were formulated to contain: 0, 10, 15, 20 and 25 % DDGS and were calculated as iso-nitrogenous. Weighing of chickens was realized at the 12th, 26th and 35th day of age. Control group of cockerels (0 % DDGS had the highest final live weight and its average daily weight gain was significantly higher (P < 0.01 than in birds from groups with 10, 15 and 25 % DDGS. Broilers from control group (0 % DDGS had the highest consumption of dry matter of feed mixture per bird. There were no significantly differences in feed consumption per bird and in feed conversion between groups. The results show that incorporation from 10 to 25 % DDGS decreased final weights and weight gains however there were no significantly differences in feed consumption and feed conversion.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ARMATURE PARAMETERS OF A LINEAR PULSE ELECTROMECHANICAL CONVERTER ON ITS EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Bolyukh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The evaluation of the effect of armature parameters on the efficiency of a linear pulsed electromechanical converter, taking into account the power, speed, constructive and environmental parameters. Methodology. First, the height of the electrically conductive, coil and ferromagnetic armature of a linear pulse electromechanical converter is determined, at which the highest velocity develops. An integral efficiency index is introduced, which takes into account, in a relative way, the power, speed, energy, electrical and field characteristics of the converter. Variants of the efficiency evaluation strategy are used that take into account the priority of each indicator of a linear pulse electromechanical converter using the appropriate weighting factor in the integral efficiency index. Results. A mathematical model of a linear pulsed electromechanical converter is developed. It is established that as the height of the electroconductive, coil and ferromagnetic armature increases, the force pulse increases. The greatest speed develops with the use of a coil armature, and the smallest with an electroconductive armature. In the converter with coil and ferromagnetic armature, practically the same values of the electrodynamic and electromagnetic force pulse are realized, while in the converter the electrodynamic force is 1.52 times smaller in the converter by the electrically conductive armature. It is established that with all efficiency evaluation strategies, the converter with a coil armature is the most effective, even in spite of its constructive complexity, and the converter with a ferromagnetic armature is the least effective, although it is constructively the simplest. Originality. For the first time, using the integral efficiency index, which takes into account the power, speed, energy, electrical and field indices in a relative way, it is established that with all efficiency evaluation strategies, the converter with a coil armature is

  13. Optimization of the n-type HPGe detector parameters to theoretical determination of efficiency curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, A.; Correa-Alfonso, C.M.; Lopez-Pino, N.; Padilla-Cabal, F.; D'Alessandro, K.; Corrales, Y.; Garcia-Alvarez, J. A.; Perez-Mellor, A.; Baly-Gil, L.; Machado, A.

    2011-01-01

    A highly detailed characterization of a 130 cm 3 n-type HPGe detector, employed in low - background gamma spectrometry measurements, was done. Precise measured data and several Monte Carlo (MC) calculations have been combined to optimize the detector parameters. HPGe crystal location inside the Aluminum end-cap as well as its dimensions, including the borehole radius and height, were determined from frontal and lateral scans. Additionally, X-ray radiography and Computed Axial Tomography (CT) studies were carried out to complement the information about detector features. Using seven calibrated point sources ( 241 Am, 133 Ba, 57,60 Co, 137 Cs, 22 Na and 152 Eu), photo-peak efficiency curves at three different source - detector distances (SDD) were obtained. Taking into account the experimental values, an optimization procedure by means of MC simulations (MCNPX 2.6 code) were performed. MC efficiency curves were calculated specifying the optimized detector parameters in the MCNPX input files. Efficiency calculation results agree with empirical data, showing relative deviations lesser 10%. (Author)

  14. The Effect of Hull Biofouling on Parameters Characterising Ship Propulsion System Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarełko Wiesła

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of most important issues concerning technical objects is the increase of their operating performance. For a ship this performance mainly depends on the efficiency of its main pro-pulsion system and the resistance generated during its motion on water. The overall ship re-sistance, in turn, mainly depends on the hull friction resistance, closely related with the pres-ence of different types of roughness on the hull surface, including underwater part biofouling. The article analyses the effect of hull biofouling on selected parameters characterising the efficiency of the ship propulsion system with adjustable propeller. For this purpose a two-year research experiment was performed on a sailing vessel during its motor navigation phases. Based on the obtained results, three groups of characteristics were worked out for different combinations of engine rotational speed and adjustable propeller pitch settings. The obtained results have revealed that the phenomenon of underwater hull biofouling affects remarkably the parameters characterising propulsion system efficiency. In particular, the development of the biofouling layer leads to significant reduction of the speed of navigation.

  15. Efficient Bayesian parameter estimation with implicit sampling and surrogate modeling for a vadose zone hydrological problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Pau, G. S. H.; Finsterle, S.

    2015-12-01

    Parameter inversion involves inferring the model parameter values based on sparse observations of some observables. To infer the posterior probability distributions of the parameters, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods are typically used. However, the large number of forward simulations needed and limited computational resources limit the complexity of the hydrological model we can use in these methods. In view of this, we studied the implicit sampling (IS) method, an efficient importance sampling technique that generates samples in the high-probability region of the posterior distribution and thus reduces the number of forward simulations that we need to run. For a pilot-point inversion of a heterogeneous permeability field based on a synthetic ponded infiltration experiment simu­lated with TOUGH2 (a subsurface modeling code), we showed that IS with linear map provides an accurate Bayesian description of the parameterized permeability field at the pilot points with just approximately 500 forward simulations. We further studied the use of surrogate models to improve the computational efficiency of parameter inversion. We implemented two reduced-order models (ROMs) for the TOUGH2 forward model. One is based on polynomial chaos expansion (PCE), of which the coefficients are obtained using the sparse Bayesian learning technique to mitigate the "curse of dimensionality" of the PCE terms. The other model is Gaussian process regression (GPR) for which different covariance, likelihood and inference models are considered. Preliminary results indicate that ROMs constructed based on the prior parameter space perform poorly. It is thus impractical to replace this hydrological model by a ROM directly in a MCMC method. However, the IS method can work with a ROM constructed for parameters in the close vicinity of the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) estimate. We will discuss the accuracy and computational efficiency of using ROMs in the implicit sampling procedure

  16. Do breath gas measurements hold the key to unlocking the genetics of feed efficiency in dairy cows?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Difford, Gareth; de Haas, Yvette; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    Recording dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows is the precursor to determining feed efficiency, a highly profitable and desirable selection trait. However records on large numbers of animals are expensive and prohibitive under commercial conditions. Usually small research herds are recorded...... for DMI and then used to predict breeding values for DMI along using other highly correlated traits like milk yield, body weight and chest width. Recent interest in greenhouse gases, such as methane (CH4), has seen the development of tools for measuring gas concentrations in the breath of the cow during...... milking in automated milking stations. This makes it possible to obtain records on large numbers of animals under commercial conditions. Since CH4 production is a conditional by-product of DMI, it is not surprising that DMI is the single best predictor of CH4 production. Traditionally, this relationship...

  17. An Efficient Expert System Generator for Qualitative Feed-Back Loop Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jain

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Quite often the variables used in system analysis are qualitative in nature. They cannot be defined precisely, whereas software development for system analysis needs a mathematical framework with precise computations. It is not trivial to capture the uncertainty in the system.
    Fuzzy sets provide us the facility to capture the uncertainty in the system. In normal crisp set where the membership of an element is always certain in a sense that it would be member or not of the given set. In contrast to this a membership functions or possibility (ranging from 0 to 1, including both values is assigned with each member. System analysis is done through system dynamics which is not very efficient. We present an efficient technique to generate expert system using fuzzy set. In our proposed approach five linguistic qualifiers are used for each variable, namely, Very Low (VL, Low (L, Medium (M, High (H, and Very High
    (VH. We capture the influence or feedback in the system with the help of if then else rules and matrices are generated for them which are used for analysis. Complete methodology and its applicability are presented here.

  18. Ensuring Technical Product Quality in the Energy Efficient Hot Air Drying of Extruded Fish Feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubjerg, Anders Fjeldbo

    øges, når de tørres i en mobil ’gummiagtig’ fase. Dette fremmer således også krympning og reducerer trækspændinger på pillens overflade. Det blev i denne kontekst også fundet, at høj temperatur, høj fugtighed og høj lufthastighed hver især øger den mekaniske holdbarhed. Disse interagerer dog således......, at én parameter med høj parameter kan gøre effekten af at have høje værdier for de to øvrige parametre overflødig. Ydermere skal høj temperatur ved indtræf af glasovergangen undgås, for at undgå øget hårdhed og plasticitet af pillerne. Den udviklede matematiske model af tørreprocessen muliggør...... forudsigelse samt optimering af den opnåede energieffektivitet; øvrig output fra modellen er tidslig og rumlig vandindhold og temperatur for en pille placeret et givent sted i tørrelaget. Disse detaljer kan benyttes til en endelig vurdering af foderets mekaniske holdbarhed. Et kvalitetsestimat er udviklet på...

  19. On detection of black hole quasinormal ringdowns: Detection efficiency and waveform parameter determination in matched filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsunesada, Yoshiki; Tatsumi, Daisuke; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Ando, Masaki; Sasaki, Misao; Tagoshi, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Hirotaka

    2005-01-01

    Gravitational radiation from a slightly distorted black hole with ringdown waveform is well understood in general relativity. It provides a probe for direct observation of black holes and determination of their physical parameters, masses and angular momenta (Kerr parameters). For ringdown searches using data of gravitational wave detectors, matched filtering technique is useful. In this paper, we describe studies on problems in matched filtering analysis in realistic gravitational wave searches using observational data. Above all, we focus on template constructions, matches or signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), detection probabilities for Galactic events, and accuracies in evaluation of waveform parameters or black hole hairs. In template design for matched filtering, search parameter ranges and template separations are determined by requirements from acceptable maximum loss of SNRs, detection efficiencies, and computational costs. In realistic searches using observational data, however, effects of nonstationary noises cause decreases of SNRs, and increases of errors in waveform parameter determinations. These problems will potentially arise in any matched filtering searches for any kind of waveforms. To investigate them, we have performed matched filtering analysis for artificial ringdown signals which are generated with Monte-Carlo technique and injected into the TAMA300 observational data. We employed an efficient method to construct a bank of ringdown filters recently proposed by Nakano et al., and use a template bank generated from a criterion such that losses of SNRs of any signals do not exceed 2%. We found that this criterion is fulfilled in ringdown searches using TAMA300 data, by examining distribution of SNRs of simulated signals. It is also shown that with TAMA300 sensitivity, the detection probability for Galactic ringdown events is about 50% for black holes of masses greater than 20M · with SNR>10. The accuracies in waveform parameter estimations are

  20. Cooling cows efficiently with water spray: Behavioral, physiological, and production responses to sprinklers at the feed bunk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jennifer M; Schütz, Karin E; Tucker, Cassandra B

    2016-06-01

    Dairies commonly mount nozzles above the feed bunk that intermittently spray cows to dissipate heat. These sprinklers use potable water-an increasingly scarce resource-but there is little experimental evidence for how much is needed to cool cows in loose housing. Sprinkler flow rate may affect the efficacy of heat abatement, cattle avoidance of spray (particularly on the head), and water waste. Our objectives were to determine how sprinkler flow rate affects cattle behavioral, physiological, and production responses when cows are given 24-h access to spray in freestall housing, and to evaluate heat abatement in relation to water use. We compared 3 treatments: sprinklers that delivered 1.3 or 4.9L/min (both 3min on and 9min off, 24h/d) and an unsprayed control. Nine pairs of high-producing lactating Holstein cows received each treatment at a shaded feed bunk for 2d in a replicated 3×3 Latin square design [air temperature (T): 24-h maximum=33±3°C, mean ± SD]. Cows spent 5.8±0.9h/24h (mean ± SD) at the feed bunk overall, regardless of treatment. With few exceptions, cows responded similarly to the 1.3 and 4.9L/min flow rates. Sprinklers resulted in visits to the feed bunk that were on average 23 to 27% longer and 13 to 16% less frequent compared with the control, perhaps because cows avoided walking through spray. Indeed, when the sprinklers were on, cows left the feed bunk half as often as expected by chance, and when cows chose to walk through spray, they lowered their heads on average 1.7- to 3-fold more often than in the control. Despite possible reluctance to expose their heads to spray, cows did not avoid sprinklers overall. In warmer weather, cows spent more time at the feed bunk when it had sprinklers (on average 19 to 21min/24h for each 1°C increase in T), likely for heat abatement benefits. Compared with the control, sprinklers resulted in 0.3 to 0.7°C lower body temperature from 1300 to 1500h and 1700 to 2000h overall and attenuated the rise in this

  1. Data Mining for Efficient and Accurate Large Scale Retrieval of Geophysical Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradovic, Z.; Vucetic, S.; Peng, K.; Han, B.

    2004-12-01

    Our effort is devoted to developing data mining technology for improving efficiency and accuracy of the geophysical parameter retrievals by learning a mapping from observation attributes to the corresponding parameters within the framework of classification and regression. We will describe a method for efficient learning of neural network-based classification and regression models from high-volume data streams. The proposed procedure automatically learns a series of neural networks of different complexities on smaller data stream chunks and then properly combines them into an ensemble predictor through averaging. Based on the idea of progressive sampling the proposed approach starts with a very simple network trained on a very small chunk and then gradually increases the model complexity and the chunk size until the learning performance no longer improves. Our empirical study on aerosol retrievals from data obtained with the MISR instrument mounted at Terra satellite suggests that the proposed method is successful in learning complex concepts from large data streams with near-optimal computational effort. We will also report on a method that complements deterministic retrievals by constructing accurate predictive algorithms and applying them on appropriately selected subsets of observed data. The method is based on developing more accurate predictors aimed to catch global and local properties synthesized in a region. The procedure starts by learning the global properties of data sampled over the entire space, and continues by constructing specialized models on selected localized regions. The global and local models are integrated through an automated procedure that determines the optimal trade-off between the two components with the objective of minimizing the overall mean square errors over a specific region. Our experimental results on MISR data showed that the combined model can increase the retrieval accuracy significantly. The preliminary results on various

  2. Combination of Compensations and Multi-Parameter Coil for Efficiency Optimization of Inductive Power Transfer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozhen Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A loosely coupled inductive power transfer (IPT system for industrial track applications has been researched in this paper. The IPT converter using primary Inductor-Capacitor-Inductor (LCL network and secondary parallel-compensations is analyzed combined coil design for optimal operating efficiency. Accurate mathematical analytical model and expressions of self-inductance and mutual inductance are proposed to achieve coil parameters. Furthermore, the optimization process is performed combined with the proposed resonant compensations and coil parameters. The results are evaluated and discussed using finite element analysis (FEA. Finally, an experimental prototype is constructed to verify the proposed approach and the experimental results show that the optimization can be better applied to industrial track distributed IPT system.

  3. Effects of upper body parameters on biped walking efficiency studied by dynamic optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang An

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Walking efficiency is one of the considerations for designing biped robots. This article uses the dynamic optimization method to study the effects of upper body parameters, including upper body length and mass, on walking efficiency. Two minimal actuations, hip joint torque and push-off impulse, are used in the walking model, and minimal constraints are set in a free search using the dynamic optimization. Results show that there is an optimal solution of upper body length for the efficient walking within a range of walking speed and step length. For short step length, walking with a lighter upper body mass is found to be more efficient and vice versa. It is also found that for higher speed locomotion, the increase of the upper body length and mass can make the walking gait optimal rather than other kind of gaits. In addition, the typical strategy of an optimal walking gait is that just actuating the swing leg at the beginning of the step.

  4. STUDY OF THE PARAMETERS OF EFFICIENCY IN CENTRES FOR REPAIR OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Stoyanova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper makes a thorough study of the parameters of efficiency in the centers for the repair of agricultural machinery, considering production and technological structure, the basic principles for design of the process of service, the quantitative indicators for servicing. It presents a theoretical model for the management of services in the service business, taking into account the basic system requirements for maintenance of agricultural machinery, the main elements of the standards of customer service, choice of forms for maintenance of agricultural machinery. Opportunities are proposed for the optimization of repair activities in the centers for repair of agricultural machinery.

  5. On justification of efficient Energy-Force parameters of Hydraulic-excavator main mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komissarov, Anatoliy; Lagunova, Yuliya; Shestakov, Viktor; Lukashuk, Olga

    2018-03-01

    The article formulates requirements for energy-efficient designs of the operational equipment of a hydraulic excavator (its boom, stick and bucket) and defines, for a mechanism of that equipment, a new term “performance characteristic”. The drives of main rotation mechanisms of the equipment are realized by hydraulic actuators (hydraulic cylinders) and transmission (leverage) mechanisms, with the actuators (the cylinders themselves, their pistons and piston rods) also acting as links of the leverage. Those drives are characterized by the complexity of translating mechanical-energy parameters of the actuators into energy parameters of the driven links (a boom, a stick and a bucket). Relations between those parameters depend as much on the types of mechanical characteristics of the hydraulic actuators as on the types of structural schematics of the transmission mechanisms. To assess how energy-force parameters of the driven links change when a typical operation is performed, it was proposed to calculate performance characteristics of the main mechanisms as represented by a set of values of transfer functions, i.e. by functional dependences between driven links and driving links (actuators). Another term “ideal performance characteristic” of a mechanism was introduced. Based on operation-emulating models for the main mechanisms of hydraulic excavators, analytical expressions were derived to calculate kinematic and force transfer functions of the main mechanisms.

  6. Biological parameters and feeding behaviour of invasive whelk Rapana venosa Valenciennes, 1846 in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Saglam

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine length-weight relationships, growth type and feeding behavior of the benthic predator Rapa whelk at the coast of Camburnu, south-eastern Black Sea. Methods: Rapa whelk was monthly collected by dredge sampling on the south-eastern Black Sea at 20 m depth. The relationships between morphometric parameters of Rapa whelk were described by linear and exponential models. The allometric growth of each variable relative to shell length (SL was calculated from the function Y=aSLb or logY=loga+blogSL. The functional regression b values were tested by t-test at the 0.05 significance level if it was significantly different from isometric growth. The total time spent on feeding either on mussel tissue or live mussels was recorded for each individual under controlled conditions in laboratory. Results: The length-weight relationships showed positive allometric growth and no inter-sex variability. Body size in the male population was significantly higher than in the individuals of the female. All characters in males and females showed a trend towards allometry rather than isometry. While the total time spent feeding increased with increasing prey size the total time that Rapana venosa spent feeding decreased with increasing Rapa whelk size. The total average feeding time needed by Rapa whelks was 160 min. But they took 310 min on live mussels in 27-28 °C in the laboratory conditions. Conclusions: Length and weight relationships, growth type, total time spent feeding of this species were explained in details for this region. It would be useful to sustainable management in the south-eastern Black Sea of Turkey. The results about the feeding behaviour of this species will contribute to the understanding of the role of this species within the ecosystem.

  7. On-farm estimation of pig growth parameters from longitudinal data of live weight and feed consumption and the use of a mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Schiavon

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data of feed consumption and composition, recorded over 5 consecutive short periods of growth from 30 crossbred male pigs divided 2 two groups and fed two restricted feeding regimes from 25 to 160 kg LW, were used to run a model in which a set of theoretical values, to describe the potential chemical growth of the pig, was preliminarily assumed. Simulated values of average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR were the outputs. Estimates of protein mass at maturity (Pm, kg and relative growth rate (B, d-1 for each feeding regimes where successively obtained through an optimization procedure which has minimized the coefficients of variation of the differences between the estimates and the measurements of ADG and FCR. The very similar values of Pm (33.7 and 33.2 kg, and B (0.0104 and 0.0105 d-1, obtained for the two feed treatments suggested that these values can be used as operational data to describe the growth parameters of the experimental pigs used.

  8. Efficiency versus cost of alternative fuels from renewable resources: outlining decision parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Sanjay; Edinger, Raphael

    2004-01-01

    In the discussion of traditional versus renewable energies and alternatives to conventional crude oil-based fuels in the transportation sector, efficiency calculations are but one decision making parameter. Comparing the assets and liabilities of fossil-based and renewable fuels in the transportation sector, further aspects such as centralized versus decentralized technologies, cost evaluations, taxation, and ecological/social benefits have to be taken into account. This paper outlines the driving parameters for shifting toward alternative fuels based on fossil or renewable resources and their use in innovative vehicle technologies such as advanced internal combustion and fuel cell electric drive systems. For the decision in favor or against an alternative fuel to be introduced to the mass market, automotive technologies and the energy supply system have to be examined in an integrated way. From an economic and technological perspective, some fuels may be even incompatible with the trend toward using renewable resources that have advantages in decentralized systems. Beyond efficiency calculations, political and industrial interests arise and may be influential to reshaping our currently crude oil-based mobility sector

  9. Distributed Bees Algorithm Parameters Optimization for a Cost Efficient Target Allocation in Swarms of Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Gutiérrez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Swarms of robots can use their sensing abilities to explore unknown environments and deploy on sites of interest. In this task, a large number of robots is more effective than a single unit because of their ability to quickly cover the area. However, the coordination of large teams of robots is not an easy problem, especially when the resources for the deployment are limited. In this paper, the Distributed Bees Algorithm (DBA, previously proposed by the authors, is optimized and applied to distributed target allocation in swarms of robots. Improved target allocation in terms of deployment cost efficiency is achieved through optimization of the DBA’s control parameters by means of a Genetic Algorithm. Experimental results show that with the optimized set of parameters, the deployment cost measured as the average distance traveled by the robots is reduced. The cost-efficient deployment is in some cases achieved at the expense of increased robots’ distribution error. Nevertheless, the proposed approach allows the swarm to adapt to the operating conditions when available resources are scarce.

  10. COMMUNICATING THE PARAMETER UNCERTAINTY IN THE IQWIG EFFICIENCY FRONTIER TO DECISION-MAKERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, Björn; Lhachimi, Stefan K; Briggs, Andrew; Fenwick, Elisabeth; Caro, Jaime J; Siebert, Uwe; Danner, Marion; Gerber-Grote, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG) developed—in a consultation process with an international expert panel—the efficiency frontier (EF) approach to satisfy a range of legal requirements for economic evaluation in Germany's statutory health insurance system. The EF approach is distinctly different from other health economic approaches. Here, we evaluate established tools for assessing and communicating parameter uncertainty in terms of their applicability to the EF approach. Among these are tools that perform the following: (i) graphically display overall uncertainty within the IQWiG EF (scatter plots, confidence bands, and contour plots) and (ii) communicate the uncertainty around the reimbursable price. We found that, within the EF approach, most established plots were not always easy to interpret. Hence, we propose the use of price reimbursement acceptability curves—a modification of the well-known cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Furthermore, it emerges that the net monetary benefit allows an intuitive interpretation of parameter uncertainty within the EF approach. This research closes a gap for handling uncertainty in the economic evaluation approach of the IQWiG methods when using the EF. However, the precise consequences of uncertainty when determining prices are yet to be defined. © 2014 The Authors. Health Economics published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:24590819

  11. Studying Effect of Water Quality Parameters on Coagulation Efficiency by Moringa Oleifera Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Parvini

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and efficiency of Moringa seeds from different sources on turbidity. A protein analysis test was done for each source; then two different methods of extraction were compared to examine the coagulation activity for the Moringa's active ingredient. The results of sodium chloride (NaCI extraction in comparison to distilled water extraction of the Moringa olifera seeds showed that the salt solution extraction technique was more efficient than the distilled water for extracting the active coagulant ingredient.  The above mentioned findings were used to examine the effects of other parameters such as pH, calcium and magnesium hardness, bicarbonate-alkalinity, and salinity independently on turbidity removal with an optimum dosage of 1% NaCI extract of dry shelled Moringa seeds. The obtained results showed that the water quality parameters had no significant effect on the coagulation potential of the NaCI extract of the shelled Moringa seeds and was almost amenable to a wide range of water environment condition.

  12. Proteomic analysis indicates that mitochondrial energy metabolism in skeletal muscle tissue is negatively correlated with feed efficiency in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Liangliang; Xu, Yueyuan; Hou, Ye; Qi, Xiaolong; Zhou, Lian; Liu, Huiying; Luan, Yu; Jing, Lu; Miao, Yuanxin; Zhao, Shuhong; Liu, Huazhen; Li, Xinyun

    2017-03-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a highly important economic trait in pig production. Investigating the molecular mechanisms of FE is essential for trait improvement. In this study, the skeletal muscle proteome of high-FE and low-FE pigs were investigated by the iTRAQ approach. A total of 1780 proteins were identified, among which 124 proteins were differentially expressed between the high- and low-FE pigs, with 74 up-regulated and 50 down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Ten randomly selected differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were validated by Western blotting and quantitative PCR (qPCR). Gene ontology (GO) analysis showed that all the 25 DEPs located in mitochondria were down-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Furthermore, the glucose-pyruvate-tricarboxylic acid (TCA)-oxidative phosphorylation energy metabolism signaling pathway was found to differ between high- and low-FE pigs. The key enzymes involved in the conversion of glucose to pyruvate were up-regulated in the high-FE pigs. Thus, our results suggested mitochondrial energy metabolism in the skeletal muscle tissue was negatively correlated with FE in pigs, and glucose utilization to generate ATP was more efficient in the skeletal muscle tissue of high-FE pigs. This study offered new targets and pathways for improvement of FE in pigs.

  13. Cereal starch, protein, and fatty acid pre-caecal disappearance is affected by both feed technological treatment and efficiency of the chewing action in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Dickow, Mia Schødt; Brøkner, Christine

    2012-01-01

    determined by feedtechnologicaltreatment. Efficient chewing of the feed is essential for herbivores ability to meet their relatively high energy demands from high fibre containing diets and the efficiency of the chewingaction can also influence the physical structure of kernels and influence their digestion....... To study the impact of chewing on the pre-caecaldisappearance of dietary constituents, feed samples were subjected to either milling through a 1 mm screen or blending for 2 s. on a sample mill, to model the chewingaction of grain fed horses with healthy teeth or neglected teeth, respectively. Correlations...

  14. Effect of source and dose of probiotics and exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on intake, feed efficiency, and growth of male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Raman; Bandla, Srinivas

    2010-08-01

    Probiotics of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Aspergillus niger and three commercial exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) were tested in vitro to select best source and optimum dose followed by in vivo studies on male buffalo calves. Bacterial (P calves with concentrate supplement (CS). Calves were randomly divided into three groups either without probiotics and EFE (CG) or with probiotics (EG(1)) or probiotics combined with EFE (EG(2)) on wheat straw diet. Organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber digestibility was improved significantly. Average daily weight gain (ADG) and feed efficiency were significantly higher (P feed efficiency was 2.6% or 1.6% more (P calves.

  15. The effect of level of feeding, genetic merit, body condition score and age on biological parameters of a mammary gland model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, J R; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Holmes, C W; Pryce, J E; Pitman, G D; Davis, S R

    2007-03-01

    An evolutionary algorithm was applied to a mechanistic model of the mammary gland to find the parameter values that minimised the difference between predicted and actual lactation curves of milk yields in New Zealand Jersey cattle managed at different feeding levels. The effect of feeding level, genetic merit, body condition score at parturition and age on total lactation yields of milk, fat and protein, days in milk, live weight and evolutionary algorithm derived mammary gland parameters was then determined using a multiple regression model. The mechanistic model of the mammary gland was able to fit lactation curves that corresponded to actual lactation curves with a high degree of accuracy. The senescence rate of quiescent (inactive) alveoli was highest at the very low feeding level. The active alveoli population at peak lactation was highest at very low feeding levels, but lower nutritional status at this feeding level prevented high milk yields from being achieved. Genetic merit had a significant linear effect on the active alveoli population at peak and mid to late lactation, with higher values in animals, which had higher breeding values for milk yields. A type of genetic merit × feeding level scaling effect was observed for total yields of milk and fat, and total number of alveoli produced from conception until the end of lactation with the benefits of increases in genetic merit being greater at high feeding levels. A genetic merit × age scaling effect was observed for total lactation protein yields. Initial rates of differentiation of progenitor cells declined with age. Production levels of alveoli from conception to the end of lactation were lowest in 5- to 8-year-old animals; however, in these older animals, quiescent alveoli were reactivated more frequently. The active alveoli population at peak lactation and rates of active alveoli proceeding to quiescence were highest in animals of intermediate body condition scores of 4.0 to 5.0. The results

  16. Combination of magnetic parameters: an efficient way to discriminate soil-contamination sources (south France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecoanet, H.; Leveque, F.; Ambrosi, J.-P.

    2003-01-01

    Biplots combining magnetic parameters allow identification of different pollutant emission sources. - Biplots combining magnetic parameters allow to identification and differentiation different pollutant emission sources. A major problem in soil pollution is the characterization of the relative contributions of different anthropogenic particles sources. This paper demonstrates the efficiency of magnetic techniques to provide identification and differentiation of contaminating emission sources. About 100 soil samples were collected across a mixed agricultural and industrial area (Crau plain/Berre-Fos basin) in southern France. Nine soil profiles were realized. They are aligned along a transect, from the Mediterranean cost to the north. Measurements of initial magnetic susceptibility (χ) and remanent magnetization (ARM, IRM) have been carried out at room temperature. Several ratios of magnetic parameters were calculated and tested. Bivariate analyses allow to characterize different pollution sources and graphic results suggest three dominant contributions originated from road traffic, airport and steel industry. Moreover, magnetic grain-size discrimination between surface-soil samples and bottom-soil samples is obtained. An increase of hard magnetic components from topsoil towards the bottom of the profiles is evidenced

  17. Efficient cascaded parameter scan approach for studying top-off safety in storage rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjun Li

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new algorithm, which we call the cascaded parameter scan method, to efficiently carry out the scan over magnet parameters in the safety analysis for top-off injection in synchrotron radiation storage rings. In top-off safety analysis, one must track particles populating phase space through a beam line containing magnets and apertures and clearly demonstrate that, for all possible magnet settings and errors, all particles are lost on scrapers within the properly shielded region. In the usual approach, if one considers m magnets and scans each magnet through n setpoints, then one must carry out n^{m} tracking runs. In the cascaded parameter scan method, the number of tracking runs is reduced to n×m. This reduction of exponential to linear dependence on the number of setpoints n greatly reduces the required computation time and allows one to more densely populate phase space and to increase the number n of setpoints scanned for each magnet.

  18. Effects of Supplementation of Eucalyptus ( Leaf Meal on Feed Intake and Rumen Fermentation Efficiency in Swamp Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. T. Thao

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Four rumen fistulated swamp buffaloes were randomly assigned according to a 4×4 Latin square design to investigate the effects of Eucalyptus (E. Camaldulensis leaf meal (ELM supplementation as a rumen enhancer on feed intake and rumen fermentation characteristics. The dietary treatments were as follows: T1 = 0 g ELM/hd/d; T2 = 40 g ELM/hd/d; T3 = 80 g ELM/hd/d; T4 = 120 g ELM/hd/d, respectively. Experimental animals were kept in individual pens and concentrate was offered at 0.3% BW while rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that voluntary feed intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients were similar among treatments. Ruminal pH, temperature and blood urea nitrogen concentrations were not affected by ELM supplementation; however, ELM supplementation resulted in lower concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen. Total volatile fatty acids, propionate concentration increased with the increasing level of EML (p<0.05 while the proportion of acetate was decreased (p<0.05. Methane production was linearly decreased (p<0.05 with the increasing level of ELM supplementation. Protozoa count and proteolytic bacteria population were reduced (p<0.05 while fungal zoospores and total viable bacteria, amylolytic, cellulolytic bacteria were unchanged. In addition, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis tended to increase by the dietary treatments. Based on the present findings, it is suggested that ELM could modify the rumen fermentation and is potentially used as a rumen enhancer in methane mitigation and rumen fermentation efficiency.

  19. Inclusion of anti-phospholipase A2 antibody to backgrounding diets on performance, feed efficiency, in vitro fermentation, and the acute-phase response of growing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, V R G; Waters, K M; Marquezini, G H L; Henry, D D; Ciriaco, F M; Arthington, J D; DiLorenzo, N; Lamb, G C

    2015-01-01

    In Exp. 1, individual performance and daily DMI was measured on 70 crossbred weaned calves during a 70-d period using a GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, AB, Canada) at the University of Florida North Florida Research and Education Center Feed Efficiency Facility (FEF). Calves were fed a low-concentrate (LC) growing diet, blocked by weight and sex, and then randomly assigned to pens to receive either no additional supplement (CON; n = 35) or receive a supplement of anti-phospholipase A2 antibody (aPLA2) at an inclusion rate of 0.6% of the diet DM (n = 35). After the 70-d feed efficiency (FE) trial (Phase 1), calves were loaded into a commercial livestock trailer and were driven for approximately 1,600 km during 24 h. Upon return to the FEF (Phase 2), calves were relocated to the same pens and groups and received the same diets and treatments for 28 d. Blood samples from each calf were collected on d 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, 21, and 28 relative to initiation of transportation and were analyzed for determination of concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin and haptoglobin. In Phase 1, initial BW (242.0 ± 3.7 kg; P = 0.92), BW at d 70 (313.0 ± 4.1 kg; P = 0.79), and ADG (1.01 ± 0.02 kg; P = 0.95) were similar between treatments. However, daily DMI was greater (P = 0.01) for CON (9.18 ± 0.15 kg) than aPLA2 (8.53 ± 0.15 kg). In addition, residual feed intake was greater (P = 0.002) for CON (0.389 ± 0.110 kg/d) than aPLA2 calves (-0.272 ± 0.110 kg/d). In Phase 2, after transportation, there were no differences between treatments on BW loss due to transportation shrink (26.0 ± 0.6 kg; P = 0.86), BW at d 28 (339.0 ± 4.1 kg; P = 0.72), ADG (1.28 ± 0.03 kg/d; P = 0.72), G:F (0.164 ± 0.004; P = 0.83), and concentrations of plasma haptoglobin (0.08 ± 0.02 mg/mL; P = 0.41). However, concentrations of plasma ceruloplasmin were greater (P calves (14.3 ± 0.3 mg/dL) compared to aPLA2 calves (13.0 ± 0.3 mg/dL). In Exp. 2, the effects of aPLA2 inclusion on LC and

  20. Static vs. mobile sink: The influence of basic parameters on energy efficiency in wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Majid I; Gansterer, Wilfried N; Haring, Guenter

    2013-05-15

    Over the last decade a large number of routing protocols has been designed for achieving energy efficiency in data collecting wireless sensor networks. The drawbacks of using a static sink are well known. It has been argued in the literature that a mobile sink may improve the energy dissipation compared to a static one. Some authors focus on minimizing Emax , the maximum energy dissipation of any single node in the network, while others aim at minimizing Ebar , the average energy dissipation over all nodes. In our paper we take a more holistic view, considering both Emax and Ebar . The main contribution of this paper is to provide a simulation-based analysis of the energy efficiency of WSNs with static and mobile sinks. The focus is on two important configuration parameters: mobility path of the sink and duty cycling value of the nodes. On the one hand, it is well known that in the case of a mobile sink with fixed trajectory the choice of the mobility path influences energy efficiency. On the other hand, in some types of applications sensor nodes spend a rather large fraction of their total lifetime in idle mode, and therefore higher energy efficiency can be achieved by using the concept of reduced duty cycles. In particular, we quantitatively analyze the influence of duty cycling and the mobility radius of the sink as well as their interrelationship in terms of energy consumption for a well-defined model scenario. The analysis starts from general load considerations and is refined into a geometrical model. This model is validated by simulations which are more realistic in terms of duty cycling than previous work. It is illustrated that over all possible configuration scenarios in terms of duty cycle and mobility radius of the sink the energy dissipation in the WSN can vary up to a factor of nine in terms of Emax and up to a factor of 17 in terms of Ebar. It turns out that in general the choice of the duty cycle value is more important for achieving energy

  1. EFFECTS OF FEED SUPPLEMENT ON THE ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION EFFICIENCY OF BEEF COWS UNDER SMALL FARMS CONDITION AT A TROPICAL AREA OF INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Toleng, Abdul Latief

    2016-01-01

    Low artificial insemination (AI) efficiency in beef cattle has been reported in some tropical regions, such in Indonesia. Factors related to this problem are not yet well known. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify factors that might affect the AI efficiency and to evaluate the effects of feed supplement on the AI efficiency in beef cows at a tropical area of Indonesia. Two steps of study were conducted. Study 1 was to identify factors that might affect the efficiency of AI. T...

  2. Laser contrast and other key parameters enhancing the laser conversion efficiency in ion acceleration regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Measurements of ion acceleration in plasma produced by fs lasers at intensity of the order of 1018 W/cm2 have been performed in different European laboratories. The forward emission in target-normal-sheath-acceleration (TNSA) regime indicated that the maximum energy is a function of the laser parameters, of the irradiation conditions and of the target properties.In particular the laser intensity and contrast play an important role to maximize the ion acceleration enhancing the conversion efficiency. Also the use of suitable prepulses, focal distances and polarized laser light has important roles. Finally the target composition, surface, geometry and multilayered structure, permit to enhance the electric field driving the forward ion acceleration.Experimental measurements will be reported and discussed.

  3. Determining an Efficient Solvent Extraction Parameters for Re-Refining of Waste Lubricating Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Ali Durrani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Re-refining of vehicle waste lubricating oil by solvent extraction is one of the efficient and cheapest methods. Three extracting solvents MEK (Methyl-Ethyl-Ketone, 1-butanol, 2-propanol were determined experimentally for their performance based on the parameters i.e. solvent type, solvent oil ratio and extraction temperature. From the experimental results it was observed the MEK performance was highest based on the lowest oil percent losses and highest sludge removal. Further, when temperature of extraction increased the oil losses percent also decreased. This is due to the solvent ability that dissolves the base oil in waste lubricating oil and determines the best SOR (Solvent Oil Ratio and extraction temperatures.

  4. Efficiency of the estimators of multivariate distribution parameters from the one-dimensional observed frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, N.I.; Kurbatov, V.S.; Ososkov, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Parameter estimation for multivariate probability distributions is studied in experiments where data are presented as one-dimensional hystograms. For this model a statistics defined as a quadratic form of the observed frequencies which has a limitig x 2 -distribution is proposed. The efficiency of the estimator minimizing the value of that statistics is proved whithin the class of all unibased estimates obtained via minimization of quadratic forms of observed frequencies. The elaborated method was applied to the physical problem of analysis of the secondary pion energy distribution in the isobar model of pion-nucleon interactions with the production of an additional pion. The numerical experiments showed that the accuracy of estimation is twice as much if comparing the conventional methods

  5. Efficient compliance with prescribed bounds on operational parameters by means of hypothesis testing using reactor data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sermer, P.; Olive, C.; Hoppe, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    - A common problem in any reactor operations is to comply with a requirement that certain operational parameters are constrained to lie within some prescribed bounds. The fundamental issue which is to be addressed in any compliance description can be stated as follows: The compliance definition, compliance procedures and allowances for uncertainties in data and accompanying methodologies, should be well defined and justifiable. To this end, a mathematical framework for compliance, in which the computed or measured estimates of process parameters are considered random variables, is described in this paper. This allows a statistical formulation of the definition of compliance with licence or otherwise imposed limits. An important aspect of the proposed methodology is that the derived statistical tests are obtained by a Monte Carlo procedure using actual reactor operational data. The implementation of the methodology requires a routine surveillance of the reactor core in order to perform the underlying statistical tests. The additional work required for surveillance is balanced by the fact that the resulting actions on the reactor operations, implemented in station procedures, make the reactor 'safer' by increasing the operating margins. Furthermore, increased margins are also achieved by efficient solution techniques which may allow an increase in reactor power. A rigorous analysis of a compliance problem using statistical hypothesis testing based on extreme value probability distributions and actual reactor operational data leads to effective solutions in the areas of licensing, nuclear safety, reliability and competitiveness of operating nuclear reactors. (author)

  6. Inter-domain Synergism Is Required for Efficient Feeding of Cellulose Chain into Active Site of Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter; Väljamäe, Priit

    2016-12-09

    Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and contains 10 glucose unit binding sites. The active site of TrCel7A is lined with four Trp residues with two of them, Trp-40 and Trp-38, in the substrate binding sites near the tunnel entrance. Although addressed in numerous studies the elucidation of the role of CBM and active site aromatics has been obscured by a complex multistep mechanism of processive GHs. Here we studied the role of the CBM-linker and Trp-38 of TrCel7A with respect to binding affinity, on- and off-rates, processivity, and synergism with endoglucanase. The CBM-linker increased the on-rate and substrate affinity of the enzyme. The Trp-38 to Ala substitution resulted in increased off-rates and decreased processivity. The effect of the Trp-38 to Ala substitution on on-rates was strongly dependent on the presence of the CBM-linker. This compensation between CBM-linker and Trp-38 indicates synergism between CBM-linker and CD in feeding the cellulose chain into the active site. The inter-domain synergism was pre-requisite for the efficient degradation of cellulose in the presence of endoglucanase. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling Anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Bento Pereira Lima

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. To evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. Malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. Thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently evaluate the parameters involved in malaria transmission dynamics. Consequently, human landing catches would be the most appropriate method if not for their inherent risk. The choice of alternative anopheline collection methods, such as traps, must consider their effectiveness in reproducing the efficiency of human attraction. Collection methods lure mosquitoes by using a mixture of olfactory, visual and thermal cues. Here, we reviewed, classified and compared the efficiency of anopheline collection methods, with an emphasis on Neotropical anthropophilic species, especially Anopheles darlingi, in distinct malaria epidemiological conditions in Brazil.

  8. Personalization of models with many model parameters: an efficient sensitivity analysis approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donders, W P; Huberts, W; van de Vosse, F N; Delhaas, T

    2015-10-01

    Uncertainty quantification and global sensitivity analysis are indispensable for patient-specific applications of models that enhance diagnosis or aid decision-making. Variance-based sensitivity analysis methods, which apportion each fraction of the output uncertainty (variance) to the effects of individual input parameters or their interactions, are considered the gold standard. The variance portions are called the Sobol sensitivity indices and can be estimated by a Monte Carlo (MC) approach (e.g., Saltelli's method [1]) or by employing a metamodel (e.g., the (generalized) polynomial chaos expansion (gPCE) [2, 3]). All these methods require a large number of model evaluations when estimating the Sobol sensitivity indices for models with many parameters [4]. To reduce the computational cost, we introduce a two-step approach. In the first step, a subset of important parameters is identified for each output of interest using the screening method of Morris [5]. In the second step, a quantitative variance-based sensitivity analysis is performed using gPCE. Efficient sampling strategies are introduced to minimize the number of model runs required to obtain the sensitivity indices for models considering multiple outputs. The approach is tested using a model that was developed for predicting post-operative flows after creation of a vascular access for renal failure patients. We compare the sensitivity indices obtained with the novel two-step approach with those obtained from a reference analysis that applies Saltelli's MC method. The two-step approach was found to yield accurate estimates of the sensitivity indices at two orders of magnitude lower computational cost. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. X-parameter Based GaN Device Modeling and its Application to a High-efficiency PA Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yelin; Nielsen, Troels Studsgaard; Jensen, Ole Kiel

    2014-01-01

    X-parameters are supersets of S-parameters and applicable to both linear and nonlinear system modeling. In this paper, a packaged 6 W Gallium Nitride (GaN) RF power transistor is modeled using load-dependent X-parameters by simulations. During the device characterization the load impedance is tuned...... to decrease the complexity of a harmonic load-pull measurement setup. A high-efficiency 2 GHz power amplifier is also designed for further validation of the concept....

  10. Propolis extract in the diet of crossbred (½ Angus vs. ½ Nellore bulls finished in feedlot: animal performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maribel Velandia Valero

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Current research studied the replacement of monensin by propolis on performance, feed efficiency and carcass characteristic of bulls finished in feedlot. The bulls, kept in feedlot for 70 days, were allocated in three diets: Control (CON, Monensin (MON and Propolis (PRO. They were fed on corn silage, cracked corn, soybean meal, urea, limestone and mineral salt. Further, 250 mg monensin and 35 g propolis/bulls/day were included respectively in the MON and PRO diets. Animal performance and carcass characteristics were similar (P>0.05 among diets. Feed intake was higher (P0.05 urinary excretion, microbial synthesis and carcass characteristics.

  11. Feed efficiency and body weight growth throughout growing-furring period in mink using random regression method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke; Møller, Steen Henrik

    2014-01-01

    days of age for 2139 male mink and the same number of females. Cumulative feed intake was calculated six times with three weeks interval based on daily feed consumption between weighing’s from 105 to 210 days of age. Heritability estimates for RFI increased by age from 0.18 (0.03, standard deviation...

  12. Effects of dietary energy content on the voluntary feed intake and blood parameters of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Lanari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy and protein requirements of sea bass for maximum growth and fasting energy requirements were determined byusing three diets containing increasing DE levels and two fish weights.Five hundred and sixteen sea bass were divided in two body weight (BW classes (A: 67.7 ± 0.85g and B: 128.6 ± 0.88g,mean ± SD live weight and randomly distributed among 24 tanks. They were fed for 12 weeks on three isoproteic dietscharacterized by different levels of digestible energy (DE: low energy (LE, 18.6; medium energy (ME, 19.7; and highenergy (HE, 22.6 MJ kg-1 dry matter (DM. The entire trial lasted 113 d and was divided into two periods: a feeding trialof 83 d and a fasting trial of 30 d. Specific growth rates decreased in fish fed on the HE diet (P weighing 68 g. Voluntary feed intakes and feed conversion ratios were inversely related to dietary energy contents in bothweight classes. During the starvation trial, body depletion increased (Pfeeding experiment. The gross energy requirements (per day for maximum growth were 320 and 221 kJ kg-1 BW for fishweighing 68 g and 128 g, respectively. Fasting metabolisms were 60.6 and 54.1 kJ kg–0.83 BW per day for fish weighing 68gand 128g, respectively.It is concluded that growth performance of sea bass appear to be dependent on digestible dietary energy. Gross energyintake, net energy (production and maintenance requirements of fish were not influenced by dietary treatments.

  13. Effect of fiber-based creep feed on intake, digestion, ruminal fermentation, and microbial efficiency in nursing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Navarro, S A; Knight, M H; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Caton, J S

    2004-12-01

    Six Angus crossbred cow-calf pairs (653 +/- 35 kg and 157 +/- 10 kg initial BW for cows and calves, respectively) were used to evaluate the influence of a fiber-based creep feed on intake, ruminal fermentation, digestion characteristics, and microbial efficiency in nursing beef calves. Cow-calf pairs were stratified by calf age and assigned randomly to one of two treatments: control (no supplement) or supplemented. Supplemented calves received 0.9 kg of a 49% soy hulls, 44% wheat middlings, 6% molasses, and 1% limestone supplement (DM basis) daily. All calves were cannulated in the rumen and duodenum and given ad libitum access to chopped brome hay (Bromus inermus L; 7.43% CP, 40.96% ADF, and 63.99% NDF; DM basis). Supplementation was initiated on May 1 (88 +/- 10.3 d calf age). Three sampling periods were conducted throughout the study (June 14 to 25, July 5 to 16, and August 9 to 20). Supplement and forage were offered at 0800 daily. Total, hay, and milk OM intakes of nursing calves were not affected by supplementation (2,014 vs. 2,328 +/- 288.8, 1,486 vs. 1,029 +/- 3,06.9, and 528 vs. 575 +/- 87.0 g/d, respectively). Milk OM intake was less (P 0.40) total-tract OM digestibility during June and August; however, during July, total-tract OM digestibility was lower (P = 0.03) for the control calves. Ruminal ammonia concentration, total VFA, and butyrate molar proportion increased (P effects on OM intake, total-tract OM digestibility, and ruminal fermentation characteristics in nursing beef calves.

  14. RNA-Seq Analysis of Abdominal Fat Reveals Differences between Modern Commercial Broiler Chickens with High and Low Feed Efficiencies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Zhuo

    Full Text Available For economic and environmental reasons, chickens with superior feed efficiency (FE are preferred in the broiler chicken industry. High FE (HFE chickens typically have reduced abdominal fat, the major adipose tissue in chickens. In addition to its function of energy storage, adipose tissue is a metabolically active organ that also possesses endocrine and immune regulatory functions. It plays a central role in maintaining energy homeostasis. Comprehensive understanding of the gene expression in the adipose tissue and the biological basis of FE are of significance to optimize selection and breeding strategies. Through gene expression profiling of abdominal fat from high and low FE (LFE commercial broiler chickens, the present study aimed to characterize the differences of gene expression between HFE and LFE chickens. mRNA-seq analysis was carried out on the total RNA of abdominal fat from 10 HFE and 12 LFE commercial broiler chickens, and 1.48 billion of 75-base sequence reads were generated in total. On average, 11,565 genes were expressed (>5 reads/gene/sample in the abdominal fat tissue, of which 286 genes were differentially expressed (DE at q (False Discover Rate 1.3 between HFE and LFE chickens. Expression levels from RNA-seq were confirmed with the NanoString nCounter analysis system. Functional analysis showed that the DE genes were significantly (p < 0.01 enriched in lipid metabolism, coagulation, and immune regulation pathways. Specifically, the LFE chickens had higher expression of lipid synthesis genes and lower expression of triglyceride hydrolysis and cholesterol transport genes. In conclusion, our study reveals the overall differences of gene expression in the abdominal fat from HFE and LFE chickens, and the results suggest that the divergent expression of lipid metabolism genes represents the major differences.

  15. Efficiency of Calatonia on clinical parameters in the immediate post-surgery period: a clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Ferreira Lasaponari

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to assess the efficiency of the Calatonia technique about clinical parameters and pain in the immediate post-surgical phase. METHOD: a randomised study was carried out with 116 patients subjected to a cholecystectomy, by laparoscopy, divided into an experimental group (58 patients and a placebo group (58 patients. The experimental group received the Calatonia technique, while the placebo was only subjected to non-intentional touches. RESULTS: The placebo group and the experimental group were considered homogeneous in terms of the variables: sex, age, physical status classification, duration of surgical procedures and also the time spent recovering in the Post-Anaesthetic Recovery Room. The only variable to show a statistically significant difference was the axillary temperature of the body. In relation to pain, the experimental group showed significant results, and hence it is possible to deduce that the relaxation caused by the Calatonia technique brought some relief of the general situation of pain. CONCLUSION: The application of Calatonia can take up the function of a resource complementary to assistance in the period immediately after surgery. Brazilian Register of Clinical Trials, UTN U1111-1129-9629.

  16. Characterization of catalytic efficiency parameters of brain cholinesterases in tropical fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Linhares, Amanda Guedes; Oliveira, Vagne Melo; França, Renata Cristina Penha; Santos, Juliana Ferreira; Marcuschi, Marina; Carvalho, Elba Verônica Matoso Maciel; Bezerra, Ranilson Souza; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra

    2014-12-01

    Brain cholinesterases from four fish (Arapaima gigas, Colossoma macropomum, Rachycentron canadum and Oreochromis niloticus) were characterized using specific substrates and selective inhibitors. Parameters of catalytic efficiency such as activation energy (AE), k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) as well as rate enhancements produced by these enzymes were estimated by a method using crude extracts described here. Despite the BChE-like activity, specific substrate kinetic analysis pointed to the existence of only acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in brain of the species studied. Selective inhibition suggests that C. macropomum brain AChE presents atypical activity regarding its behavior in the presence of selective inhibitors. AE data showed that the enzymes increased the rate of reactions up to 10(12) in relation to the uncatalyzed reactions. Zymograms showed the presence of AChE isoforms with molecular weights ranging from 202 to 299 kDa. Values of k(cat) and k(cat)/k(m) were similar to those found in the literature.

  17. Efficient Power-Transfer Capability Analysis of the TET System Using the Equivalent Small Parameter Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanzhen Wu; Hu, A P; Budgett, D; Malpas, S C; Dissanayake, T

    2011-06-01

    Transcutaneous energy transfer (TET) enables the transfer of power across the skin without direct electrical connection. It is a mechanism for powering implantable devices for the lifetime of a patient. For maximum power transfer, it is essential that TET systems be resonant on both the primary and secondary sides, which requires considerable design effort. Consequently, a strong need exists for an efficient method to aid the design process. This paper presents an analytical technique appropriate to analyze complex TET systems. The system's steady-state solution in closed form with sufficient accuracy is obtained by employing the proposed equivalent small parameter method. It is shown that power-transfer capability can be correctly predicted without tedious iterative simulations or practical measurements. Furthermore, for TET systems utilizing a current-fed push-pull soft switching resonant converter, it is found that the maximum energy transfer does not occur when the primary and secondary resonant tanks are "tuned" to the nominal resonant frequency. An optimal turning point exists, corresponding to the system's maximum power-transfer capability when optimal tuning capacitors are applied.

  18. Effect of supplementation of Simada sheep with graded levels of concentrate meal on feed intake, digestibility and body-weight parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dessie, Jemberu; Melaku, Solomon; Tegegne, Firew; Peters, Kurt J

    2010-06-01

    The experiment consisting of 7 days of digestibility and 90 days of feeding trial was conducted at Wogda (Ethiopia) to determine the effect of supplementation of graded levels of concentrate mix (CM) on feed intake, digestibility, and body weight (BW) change in hay-based feeding of Simada sheep. Twenty-yearling Simada sheep with a mean initial BW of 17.9 +/- 0.81 kg (mean +/- SD) were used in randomized complete block design arranged into five blocks of four animals. The four dietary treatments that consisted of hay alone (T1), hay +150 g dry matter (DM; T2, low), hay +250 g DM (T3, medium), and hay +350 g DM (T4, high) CM were randomly assigned to each sheep within a block. The CM consisted of wheat bran (WB), noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) meal and safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed meal at the ratio of (2:1:1), respectively. Supplementation with T2 and T3 increased (P profitability compared to the control, whereas sheep on the high than the low and medium level of supplementation performed better in these parameters among the supplemented treatments. From the results of this study, T4 is recommended as the best level of supplementation since it resulted in better nutrient utilization, animal performance, and profitability.

  19. Sensitivity analysis of efficiency thermal energy storage on selected rock mass and grout parameters using design of experiment method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wołoszyn, Jerzy; Gołaś, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Paper propose a new methodology to sensitivity study of underground thermal storage. • Using MDF model and DOE technique significantly shorter of calculations time. • Calculation of one time step was equal to approximately 57 s. • Sensitivity study cover five thermo-physical parameters. • Conductivity of rock mass and grout material have a significant impact on efficiency. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of selected parameters on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage. In this paper, besides thermal conductivity, the effect of such parameters as specific heat, density of the rock mass, thermal conductivity and specific heat of grout material was investigated. Implementation of this objective requires the use of an efficient computational method. The aim of the research was achieved by using a new numerical model, Multi Degree of Freedom (MDF), as developed by the authors and Design of Experiment (DoE) techniques with a response surface. The presented methodology can significantly reduce the time that is needed for research and to determine the effect of various parameters on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage. Preliminary results of the research confirmed that thermal conductivity of the rock mass has the greatest impact on the efficiency of underground thermal energy storage, and that other parameters also play quite significant role

  20. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besson, M; de Boer, I J M; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M; Quillet, E; Komen, H; Aubin, J

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed). ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish)) and per farm per year (ENV(farm)). Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish) and ENV(farm) were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish) of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm) of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  1. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Besson

    Full Text Available In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA to calculate the economic (EV and environmental (ENV values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC and feed conversion ratio (FCR of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod, annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed, standing stock (Qstock, and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed. ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish and per farm per year (ENV(farm. Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish and ENV(farm were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  2. Correlation among extinction efficiency and other parameters in an aggregate dust model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Tanuj Kumar; Sekhar Das, Himadri

    2017-10-01

    We study the extinction properties of highly porous Ballistic Cluster-Cluster Aggregate dust aggregates in a wide range of complex refractive indices (1.4≤ n≤ 2.0, 0.001≤ k≤ 1.0) and wavelengths (0.11 {{μ }}{{m}}≤ {{λ }}≤ 3.4 {{μ }} m). An attempt has been made for the first time to investigate the correlation among extinction efficiency ({Q}{ext}), composition of dust aggregates (n,k), wavelength of radiation (λ) and size parameter of the monomers (x). If k is fixed at any value between 0.001 and 1.0, {Q}{ext} increases with increase of n from 1.4 to 2.0. {Q}{ext} and n are correlated via linear regression when the cluster size is small, whereas the correlation is quadratic at moderate and higher sizes of the cluster. This feature is observed at all wavelengths (ultraviolet to optical to infrared). We also find that the variation of {Q}{ext} with n is very small when λ is high. When n is fixed at any value between 1.4 and 2.0, it is observed that {Q}{ext} and k are correlated via a polynomial regression equation (of degree 1, 2, 3 or 4), where the degree of the equation depends on the cluster size, n and λ. The correlation is linear for small size and quadratic/cubic/quartic for moderate and higher sizes. We have also found that {Q}{ext} and x are correlated via a polynomial regression (of degree 3, 4 or 5) for all values of n. The degree of regression is found to be n and k-dependent. The set of relations obtained from our work can be used to model interstellar extinction for dust aggregates in a wide range of wavelengths and complex refractive indices.

  3. Small intestinal growth measures are correlated with feed efficiency in market weight cattle, despite minimal effects of maternal nutrition during early to midgestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, A M; Hess, B W; Paisley, S I; Du, M; Caton, J S

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesized that gestational nutrition would affect calf feed efficiency and small intestinal biology, which would be correlated with feed efficiency. Multiparous beef cows (n = 36) were individually fed 1 of 3 diets from d 45 to 185 of gestation: native grass hay and supplement to meet NRC recommendations (control [CON]), 70% of CON NEm (nutrient restricted [NR]), or a NR diet with a RUP supplement (NR+RUP) to provide similar essential AA as CON. After d 185 of gestation, cows were managed as a single group, and calf individual feed intake was measured with the GrowSafe System during finishing. At slaughter, the small intestine was dissected and sampled. Data were analyzed with calf sex as a block. There was no effect (P ≥ 0.33) of maternal treatment on residual feed intake, G:F, DMI, ADG, or final BW. Small intestinal mass did not differ (P ≥ 0.38) among treatments, although calf small intestinal length tended (P = 0.07) to be greater for NR than NR+RUP. There were no differences (P ≥ 0.20) in calf small intestinal density or jejunal cellularity, proliferation, or vascularity among treatments. Jejunal soluble guanylate cyclase mRNA was greater (P RUP than CON and NR. Residual feed intake was positively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with small intestinal mass and relative mass and jejunal RNA content but was negatively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with jejunal mucosal density and DNA concentration. Gain:feed was positively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with jejunal mucosal density, DNA, protein, and total cells and was negatively correlated (P ≤ 0.05) with small intestinal relative mass, jejunal RNA, and RNA:DNA. Dry matter intake was positively correlated (P ≤ 0.09) with small intestinal mass, relative mass, length, and density as well as jejunal DNA and protein content, total cells, total vascularity, and kinase insert domain receptor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase 3 mRNA and was negatively correlated (P = 0.02) with relative small intestinal length. In this

  4. Definition of key parameters for constructing an online reference micrographs collection of processed animal particles in feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinchon Crespo, C.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union Reference Laboratory for the detection of animal proteins in feedingstuffs (EURL-AP has developed an online micrographs collection supporting its network activities within the European Union for the detection of prohibited animal by-products in feed. So far, the only official method for detecting these by-products is light microscopy, which is highly dependent on the skills of a microscopist because it relies on particle recognition. In order to help the microscopist network to achieve high proficiency levels, it was necessary to create an online reference tool based on micrographs and accessible via an Intranet platform. Members of the National Reference Laboratories for animal proteins in feedingstuffs (NRL-AP and the International Association for Feedingstuff Analysis – Section Feedingstuff Microscopy (IAG have access to this micrographs collection. This paper describes how the online collection was created and what conditions had to be taken into account in creating such a tool. It also describes how information are periodically updated and managed within the context of the large amount of information included in each micrograph. The need for a robust back-office system as the foundation for all the research activities in this project is also covered, and the evaluation of the use of the online collection is discussed.

  5. Effects of Feeding Levels of Starter on Weaning Age, Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Health Parameters in Holstein Dairy Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ghassemi Nejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of feeding four different levels of starter in male Holstein dairy calves, a completely randomized study was conducted, using 28 calves with initial body weight of 40.5±2.4 kg. The animals were fed iso-nitrogenous starter and were weaned when they consumed 350, 500, 650 and 800 g/d of starter for 3 d consecutively. Starter and water were available ad-libitum throughout the experiment. Body weight at pre-weaning (less than 5 wk and post-weaning (8 wk was lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter than in the other treatments (p0.05. Dry matter, organic matter and crude protein digestibilities were lower in calves that received 350 g/d of starter compared with other treatments (p0.05.Treatments had no significant effect on time of starting rumination, respiratory score, and days of drug administration for pneumonia. There were no meaningful differences in feces, fecal odor scores, body temperature, and days of drug administration for diarrhea among all treatments (p>0.05. Total dry matter intake at the end of experiment showed no significant difference among calves fed 600 and 800 g/d of starter, but calves fed 350 and 500 g/d of starter showed more dry matter (DM intake than calves in the 600 and 800 g/d groups (p<0.05.

  6. A Comparison of the One-and Three-Parameter Logistic Models on Measures of Test Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Jeri

    Two methods of item selection were used to select sets of 40 items from a 50-item verbal analogies test, and the resulting item sets were compared for relative efficiency. The BICAL program was used to select the 40 items having the best mean square fit to the one parameter logistic (Rasch) model. The LOGIST program was used to select the 40 items…

  7. Effects of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins with or without yeast cell wall adsorbent on organ weight, serum biochemistry, and immunological parameters of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z; Yang, Z B; Yang, W R; Wang, S J; Jiang, S Z; Wu, Y B

    2012-10-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the toxicity of feed-borne Fusarium mycotoxins on organ weight, serum biochemistry, and immunological parameters of broiler chickens and to evaluate the efficacy of yeast cell wall adsorbent in preventing mycotoxin-induced adverse effects. In total, 300 one-day-old vaccinated (Marek's disease and infectious bronchitis) Arbor Acres broiler chickens (mixed sex) were randomly divided into 3 treatments (5 repetitions per treatment) and fed basal diet and naturally contaminated diets with or without yeast cell wall adsorbent. Treatments were control, naturally contaminated diet (NCD; aflatoxin, 102.08 mg/kg; zearalenone, 281.92 mg/kg; fumonisin, 5,874.38 mg/kg; deoxynivalenol, 2,038.96 mg/kg), and NCD + 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall adsorbent (NCDD). The test included 2 phases: d 0-21 and d 22-42. At 42 d, broilers fed contaminated diets without yeast cell wall adsorbent had higher (P effect on the relative weight of the liver and spleen at 21 d, relative weight of the bursa of Fabricius and thymus at 42 d, antibody titers of Newcastle disease at both 28 d and 42 d, and splenic mRNA expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ at 42 d. It is suggested that feeding a naturally contaminated diet for 42 d might result in a deleterious effect in broiler chickens, and addition of 2 g/kg of yeast cell wall enterosorbent can partly neutralize the detrimental effects of the naturally contaminated feed.

  8. Feed handling of lactating crossbred cows maintained in a semi-arid region during the hot season: physiological parameters, ingestive behavior and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Xavier de Andrade, Rafael; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; de Azevedo, Marcílio; da Silva, Emmanuelle Cordeiro; Urbano, Stela Antas; da Conceição, Maria Gabriela; de Lima Silva, Janaina

    2017-01-01

    The effects of time of feed delivery (14.00 hours; 14.00 and 20.00 hours; 16.00 and 18.00 hours) on the physiological parameters, ingestive behavior, nutrient intake and production of lactating cows maintained in a semi-arid region during the hot season were evaluated. Regardless of treatment, all animals received the first feeding supply at 06.00 hours. Eight cows with an average body weight of 600 kg, average milk yield of 20 kg/day and 80 days in milk were utilized. The rectal temperature, respiratory rate and sweating rate were not affected (P > 0.05), with average values of 38.5°C, 53.8 movements/min and 104 g/m 2 /h respectively. There was no effect (P > 0.05) on the eating time (314 min/day), ruminating time (564 min/day), drinking time (61 min/day) and idle time (502 min/day). Similarly, the intake of nutrients and performance of lactating cows were not affected (P > 0.05), with average dry matter intake of 19.8 kg/day, 4% fat-corrected milk of 20.6 kg/day and milk fat concentration of 4.03 g/100 g. Since the behavior and performance have not altered, any times of feed delivery evaluated could be used to crossbred Holstein × Zebu cows maintained on a feedlot in semi-arid regions during the hot season. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Improving Growth Rate and Feed Efficiency in Fish Farming Depend on Nitrogen and Density Limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Vandeputte, M.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of fish breeding is to increase profit by producing faster growing fish with lower feed intake. However, little is known about the economic and environmental impacts of selective breeding programs for fish. We modelled a fish farm producing African catfish in a Recirculating Aquaculture

  10. Efficient co-conversion process of chicken manure into protein feed and organic fertilizer by Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xiao, Xiaopeng; Mazza, Lorenzo; Yu, Yongqiang; Cai, Minmin; Zheng, Longyu; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.; Yu, Jeffrey; Huis, van Arnold; Yu, Ziniu; Fasulo, Salvatore; Zhang, Jibin

    2018-01-01

    A chicken manure management process was carried out through co-conversion of Hermetia illucens L. larvae (BSFL) with functional bacteria for producing larvae as feed stuff and organic fertilizer. Thirteen days co-conversion of 1000 kg of chicken manure inoculated with one million 6-day-old BSFL and

  11. The effect of dry corn gluten feed on chewing activities and rumen parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ismet Turkmen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of dry corn gluten feed (DCGF on dry matter intake (DMI, chewing activity, and rumen fermentation when used to replace a portion of corn silage in diets for lactating Holstein cows. Eight lactating Holstein primiparous cows averaging 98±20 d in milk and weighing 515±20 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design with 4 week periods. Dietary treatments were 1 a control diets (C of 50% forage (corn silage and wheat straw, 35%, 15% DM basis, respectively, 2 a low DCGF diet (L-DCGF in which 10% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, 3 a medium DCGF diet (M-DCGF in which 18% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF, and 4 a high DCGF diet (H-DCGF in which 25% of the same corn silage was replaced by DCGF. The proportion of particles retained on the 19.0 mm screen and physical effectiveness factor of the HDCGF was lower (P<0.05 than in the other groups. Increasing the level of DCGF did not change DMI. Cows fed the C diet spent significantly more time ruminating and chewing per day compared with the MDCGF and H-DCGF diets (483.88, 435.63, 431.25 min/d, P<0.05; and 818.38, 753.00, 745.75 min/d respectively, P<0.05. Cows fed the C diet had ruminal pH values higher than the cows fed the M-DCGF and H-DCGF diets (6.02, 5.95, and 5.91, P<0.05. The total volatile fatty acid and propionate levels of H-DCGF fed cows were higher than the control (P<0.05. The changes in acetate (A and propionate (P concentrations resulted in a decrease in A/P ratio, when corn silage was replaced by DCGF, which led to a reduction in the particle size of the diets (P<0.05. It was concluded that when ratio 18 and 25% DCGF were substituted for corn silage, rumination time, chewing activities and ruminal pH are negatively affected. The optimum level for the addition of DCGF was found to be below 18% of the diet for a healthy rumen and a chewing behaviour in dairy cows.

  12. Risk-based assessment of the cost-efficiency and the effectivity of renewable energy support schemes: Certificate markets versus feed-in tariffs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagiani, Riccardo; Barquín, Julián; Hakvoort, Rudi

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of renewable energy sources in the electricity generation mix has the potential to reduce power sector's emissions and countries' dependence on imported oil. Climate change concerns and highly volatile oil prices have attracted governments' interest and support to sustain investments in renewable energy capacity, and different support policies have been implemented in many countries around the world. This paper analyzes the effects of investors' risk aversion on the performance of support schemes. The analysis compares two policy options, a feed-in tariff mechanism with a certificate market system. Results show that while a tariff mechanism could obtain better results than a certificate market, its performance is strictly dependent on regulator choices. A certificate market instead, permits to obtain the desired level of renewable energy market share with good cost-efficiency as long as investors' risk aversion is moderate. Moreover, discounting future cash flows with higher social discount rates further benefits a certificate system making it preferable to feed-in tariffs. - Highlights: ► Paper analyzes the performance of feed-in tariffs and certificate markets. ► Model simulates the evolution of a power system considering investors' risk aversion. ► Tariffs could obtain better efficiency but also low effectiveness or over-investment. ► Barriers to entrance could result in higher certificates prices. ► Certificate performances benefit from higher social discount rates

  13. Lactobacillus Pentosus Ita23 and L. Acidipiscis Ita44 Enhance Feed Conversion Efficiency and Beneficial Gut Microbiota in Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YW Altaher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of probiotics especially Lactobacillus and Bifidobacteria species on growth and feed utilization in poultry production has been extensively studied, the results were inconsistent presumably because the mode of action of probiotic is multi-factorial and each probiotic strain may affect the host in a specific manner. This study investigated the probiotic effect of two strains of Lactobacillus(Lactobacillus pentosus ITA23 and Lactobacillus acidophilus ITA44; 109 cells/kg feed isolated from mulberry (Morus Alba silage on the growth performance, cecal microbial population, and blood cholesterol of broiler chickens. One hundred twenty male broiler chicks (Cobb500 were randomLy allocated to two groups (control and treatment of six replicates (cages with 10 chicks per cage. Chicks in the control group received a standard diet and those in the treatment group received the same diet supplemented with 109 cells of the above Lactobacillus per kg feed. Supplementation of Lactobacillus did not affect body weight gain (averaged 1604 g at 35 days old but feed conversion ratio improved (p<0.01 by 6.4% due to reduction in feed intake (p<0.01 by birds in the treatment group. Supplementation also increased the population of Lactobacillusspp. and reduced pathogens E. coli in the cecal samples. Although Lactobacillus supplementation tends to reduce serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL and triglyceride concentrations, these values were not significantly different from those of the control group. Results of this study showed that L. pentosus ITA23 and L. acidophilus ITA44 are potential probiotics to be used in poultry diets.

  14. In vivo assessment of an industrial waste product as a feed additive in dairy cows: Effects of larch (Larix decidua L.) sawdust on blood parameters and milk composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, D; Garavaglia, L; Spagnuolo, M S; Pferschy-Wenzig, E M; Bauer, R; Franz, C

    2015-12-01

    When larch (Larix spp.) is processed in the wood industry, the sawdust is currently disposed of as waste or used as combustible material, even though it is rich in biologically active compounds. In this study the effect of larch sawdust supplementation on blood parameters as well as milk composition was examined in healthy mid-lactating dairy cows. Twenty-four multiparous Italian Friesian dairy cows were assigned to groups receiving either 300 g/day/cow of larch sawdust or a control diet, and treatments were continued for a 20 day period. Milk parameters were unaffected by treatment. A lower plasma total protein concentration was observed and can be attributed to a decrease in globulin concentration. A lower plasma urea concentration was also detected in the larch group. Moreover, biomarkers of liver function were influenced by the treatment. Total bilirubin was lower in larch-treated animals, and cholesterol tended to be lower. In addition, an interaction between day and treatment was observed for very low density lipoprotein. The concentration of other parameters, including reactive oxygen metabolites, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and nitrotyrosine, did not differ between treatments. The observed benefits, together with the good palatability, make larch sawdust a promising candidate for the development of beneficial feed supplements for livestock. Further studies will be useful, particularly to evaluate its efficacy in different health conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effect of structural design parameters on FPGA-based feed-forward space-time trellis coding-orthogonal frequency division multiplexing channel encoders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passas, Georgios; Freear, Steven; Fawcett, Darren

    2010-08-01

    Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)-based feed-forward space-time trellis code (FFSTTC) encoders can be synthesised as very high speed integrated circuit hardware description language (VHDL) designs. Evaluation of their FPGA implementation can lead to conclusions that help a designer to decide the optimum implementation, given the encoder structural parameters. VLSI architectures based on 1-bit multipliers and look-up tables (LUTs) are compared in terms of FPGA slices and block RAMs (area), as well as in terms of minimum clock period (speed). Area and speed graphs versus encoder memory order are provided for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) and 8 phase shift keying (8-PSK) modulation and two transmit antennas, revealing best implementation under these conditions. The effect of number of modulation bits and transmit antennas on the encoder implementation complexity is also investigated.

  16. Propylene glycol energy supplementation during peripartal period in dairy cows and reproduction efficiency parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vakanjac Slobodanka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the impact of two energy supplements based on propylene glycol in dairy cows diet on ovarian and follicular morphology, conception, insemination index and length of service period. A total number of 60 Holstein Friesian dairy cows, parity between 2-8, with an average milk production of 7000 kg/305 days of lactation were divided into three experimental groups (20 dairy cows per group. The first group of dairy cows was supplemented daily with "Energy-plus" (O1 group; 200 mL propylene-glycol supplement and the second group was supplemented with "Ketal" (O2 group; 160 mL propylene-glycol supplement, two weeks before partus until 30 days post partum. The third experimental group were non supplemented dairy cows (O3, control group. Ultrasound examination of the reproductive system using real time echo camera Falco VET 100 (ESAOTE PieMedical, Holland, B-shaped scan with linear-array endorectal 5-8 MHz probe was conducted on every animal starting from day 40 postpartum. The diameters of the ovaries (left and right and of the dominant follicle(s were recorded. Ultrasound testing was repeated on day 50 and 60 postpartum only in cows which in the meantime were not inseminated. Reproduction efficiency parameters (conception rate, number of inseminations and length of service period were recorded individually. The statistical significance of the differences between groups was tested using ANOVA with LSD test at the level of significance p<0.05, chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (the length of service period. There was no significant impact of the propylene glycol supplementation on the ovarian and follicular morphology at the first ultrasound examination. At the second ultrasound examination there was a significant difference between left ovarian dominant follicle diameter in the control and supplemented dairy cows (1.67±0.53 vs 1.12±0.29 and 1.11±0.35 cm, p<0.05, O3 vs O1 and O2, respectively. The

  17. The need for control of magnetic parameters for energy efficient performance of magnetic tunnel junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhat, I. A. H.; Gale, E.; Alpha, C.; Isakovic, A. F.

    2017-07-01

    Optimizing energy performance of Magnetic Tunnel Junctions (MTJs) is the key for embedding Spin Transfer Torque-Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) in low power circuits. Due to the complex interdependencies of the parameters and variables of the device operating energy, it is important to analyse parameters with most effective control of MTJ power. The impact of threshold current density, Jco , on the energy and the impact of HK on Jco are studied analytically, following the expressions that stem from Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski (LLGS-STT) model. In addition, the impact of other magnetic material parameters, such as Ms , and geometric parameters such as tfree and λ is discussed. Device modelling study was conducted to analyse the impact at the circuit level. Nano-magnetism simulation based on NMAGTM package was conducted to analyse the impact of controlling HK on the switching dynamics of the film.

  18. Efficient Ensemble State-Parameters Estimation Techniques in Ocean Ecosystem Models: Application to the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gharamti, M.; Bethke, I.; Tjiputra, J.; Bertino, L.

    2016-02-01

    Given the recent strong international focus on developing new data assimilation systems for biological models, we present in this comparative study the application of newly developed state-parameters estimation tools to an ocean ecosystem model. It is quite known that the available physical models are still too simple compared to the complexity of the ocean biology. Furthermore, various biological parameters remain poorly unknown and hence wrong specifications of such parameters can lead to large model errors. Standard joint state-parameters augmentation technique using the ensemble Kalman filter (Stochastic EnKF) has been extensively tested in many geophysical applications. Some of these assimilation studies reported that jointly updating the state and the parameters might introduce significant inconsistency especially for strongly nonlinear models. This is usually the case for ecosystem models particularly during the period of the spring bloom. A better handling of the estimation problem is often carried out by separating the update of the state and the parameters using the so-called Dual EnKF. The dual filter is computationally more expensive than the Joint EnKF but is expected to perform more accurately. Using a similar separation strategy, we propose a new EnKF estimation algorithm in which we apply a one-step-ahead smoothing to the state. The new state-parameters estimation scheme is derived in a consistent Bayesian filtering framework and results in separate update steps for the state and the parameters. Unlike the classical filtering path, the new scheme starts with an update step and later a model propagation step is performed. We test the performance of the new smoothing-based schemes against the standard EnKF in a one-dimensional configuration of the Norwegian Earth System Model (NorESM) in the North Atlantic. We use nutrients profile (up to 2000 m deep) data and surface partial CO2 measurements from Mike weather station (66o N, 2o E) to estimate

  19. Associations among methane emission traits measured in the feedlot and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in feed efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herd, R M; Velazco, J I; Arthur, P F; Hegarty, R F

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate associations among animal performance and methane emission traits under feedlot conditions and in respiration chambers in Angus cattle bred to vary in residual feed intake (RFI), which is a measure of feed efficiency. Fifty-nine cattle were tested for feedlot RFI, of which 41 had methane production recorded on an ad libitum grain-based ration in the feedlot, 59 on a restricted grain-based ration in respiration chambers, and 57 on a restricted roughage ration in respiration chambers. The cattle became older and heavier as they went through the different phases of the experiment, but their feed intake (expressed as DMI) and daily emission of enteric methane (methane production rate; MPR) did not increase proportionally, as feed offered was restricted in the respiration chamber tests. Methane emissions by individual animals relative to their DMI were calculated as methane yield (MY; MPR/DMI) and as 2 measures of residual methane production (RMP and RMP), which were calculated as the difference between measured MPR and that predicted from feed intake by 2 different equations. Within each test regime, MPR was positively correlated ( = 0.28 to 0.61) with DMI. Phenotypic correlations for MY, RMP, and RMP between the feedlot test and the restricted grain test ( = 0.40 to 0.43) and between the restricted grain test and the restricted roughage test were moderate ( = 0.36 to 0.41) and moderate to strong between the feedlot test and the restricted roughage test ( = 0.54 to 0.58). These results indicate that the rankings of animals for methane production relative to feed consumed are relatively stable over the 3 test phases. Feedlot feed conversion ratio and RFI were not correlated with MPR in the feedlot test and grain-based chamber test but were negatively correlated with MPR in the chamber roughage test ( = -0.31 and -0.37). Both were negatively correlated with MY and RMP in the feedlot test ( = -0.42 to -0.54) and subsequent

  20. Effects of rumen-degradable protein:rumen-undegradable protein ratio and corn processing on production performance, nitrogen efficiency, and feeding behavior of Holstein dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savari, M; Khorvash, M; Amanlou, H; Ghorbani, G R; Ghasemi, E; Mirzaei, M

    2018-02-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of the ratio of rumen-degradable protein (RDP) to rumen-undegradable protein (RUP) and corn processing method on production performance, nitrogen (N) efficiency, and feeding behavior of high-producing Holstein dairy cows. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows (second parity; milk yield = 48 ± 3 kg/d) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factor 1 was corn processing method [ground corn (GC) or steam flaked corn (SFC) with a flake density of about 390 g/L], and factor 2 was RDP:RUP ratio [low ratio (LR) = 60:40; high ratio (HR) = 65:35] based on crude protein (%). The crude protein concentrations were kept constant across the treatments (16.7% of DM). No significant interactions of main treatment effects occurred for lactation performance data. Cows fed 2 different RDP:RUP ratios exhibited similar dry matter intake (DMI), but those fed SFC showed decreased feed intake compared with those receiving GC (25.1 ± 0.48 vs. 26.2 ± 0.47 kg/d, respectively). Cows fed HR diets produced more milk than did those fed LR diets (44.4 ± 1.05 vs. 43.2 ± 1.05 kg/d, respectively). Milk fat content decreased but milk protein content increased in cows fed SFC compared with those fed GC. Feed efficiency (i.e., milk yield/DMI) was enhanced with increasing ratio of RDP:RUP (1.68 ± 0.04 vs. 1.74 ± 0.04 for LR and HR, respectively). Apparent N efficiency was higher in cows fed HR than in those fed LR (30.4 ± 0.61 vs. 29.2 ± 0.62, respectively). Compared with cows fed the GC-based diet, those receiving SFC exhibited lower values of N intake, N-NH 3 concentration, and fecal N excretion. Cows receiving SFC-based diets spent more time ruminating (min/kg of DMI) than did those fed GC. Although these results showed no interaction effects of RDP:RUP ratio and corn processing method on performance, higher RDP:RUP ratios and ground corn can be effective feeding strategies for

  1. A specialized ODE integrator for the efficient computation of parameter sensitivities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonnet Pedro

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dynamic mathematical models in the form of systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs play an important role in systems biology. For any sufficiently complex model, the speed and accuracy of solving the ODEs by numerical integration is critical. This applies especially to systems identification problems where the parameter sensitivities must be integrated alongside the system variables. Although several very good general purpose ODE solvers exist, few of them compute the parameter sensitivities automatically. Results We present a novel integration algorithm that is based on second derivatives and contains other unique features such as improved error estimates. These features allow the integrator to take larger time steps than other methods. In practical applications, i.e. systems biology models of different sizes and behaviors, the method competes well with established integrators in solving the system equations, and it outperforms them significantly when local parameter sensitivities are evaluated. For ease-of-use, the solver is embedded in a framework that automatically generates the integrator input from an SBML description of the system of interest. Conclusions For future applications, comparatively ‘cheap’ parameter sensitivities will enable advances in solving large, otherwise computationally expensive parameter estimation and optimization problems. More generally, we argue that substantially better computational performance can be achieved by exploiting characteristics specific to the problem domain; elements of our methods such as the error estimation could find broader use in other, more general numerical algorithms.

  2. Prediction of geomagnetic storm using neural networks: Comparison of the efficiency of the Satellite and ground-based input parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanova, Marina; Antonova, Elizavieta; Munos-Uribe, F A; Gordo, S L Gomez; Torres-Sanchez, M V

    2008-01-01

    Different kinds of neural networks have established themselves as an effective tool in the prediction of different geomagnetic indices, including the Dst being the most important constituent for determination of the impact of Space Weather on the human life. Feed-forward networks with one hidden layer are used to forecast the Dst variation, using separately the solar wind paramenters, polar cap index, and auroral electrojet index as input parameters. It was found that in all three cases the storm-time intervals were predicted much more precisely as quite time intervals. The majority of cross-correlation coefficients between predicted and observed Dst of strong geomagnetic storms are situated between 0.8 and 0.9. Changes in the neural network architecture, including the number of nodes in the input and hidden layers and the transfer functions between them lead to an improvement of a network performance up to 10%.

  3. Influence of the feed pipe position of an industrial scale two-phase decanter on extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Brunetti, Lucio; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito M; Catalano, Pasquale; Bianchi, Biagio

    2018-02-10

    Nowadays, olive oil extraction is basically achieved by means of two-phase decanters, which allow a reduction of water consumption and the leaching of phenolic compounds. Despite this, most of the working settings derive from studies carried out on three-phase decanters. Hence, the aim of the present study was to assess the influence of two-phase decanter feed pipe position (FP) on the extraction efficiency and chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. Three different positions were considered: at 825 mm (FP1), 610 mm (FP2) and 520 mm (FP3) from the outlet of the oily phase. Position FP3 allowed the highest oil recovery (up to 10%), the lowest percentage of oil in the olive pomace and, in general, a regular trend in terms of oil extraction efficiency. However, the oily must that came out of the decanter was not completely clean in terms of residual content of solid sediment and water. The feeding position partially affected the profile of antioxidant compounds. In two-phase decanters, loading the olive paste close to the outlet of the oily phase is recommended to increase the extraction efficiency without jeopardizing the chemical-sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Bovine Host Genetic Variation Influences Rumen Microbial Methane Production with Best Selection Criterion for Low Methane Emitting and Efficiently Feed Converting Hosts Based on Metagenomic Gene Abundance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Roehe

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Methane produced by methanogenic archaea in ruminants contributes significantly to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The host genetic link controlling microbial methane production is unknown and appropriate genetic selection strategies are not developed. We used sire progeny group differences to estimate the host genetic influence on rumen microbial methane production in a factorial experiment consisting of crossbred breed types and diets. Rumen metagenomic profiling was undertaken to investigate links between microbial genes and methane emissions or feed conversion efficiency. Sire progeny groups differed significantly in their methane emissions measured in respiration chambers. Ranking of the sire progeny groups based on methane emissions or relative archaeal abundance was consistent overall and within diet, suggesting that archaeal abundance in ruminal digesta is under host genetic control and can be used to genetically select animals without measuring methane directly. In the metagenomic analysis of rumen contents, we identified 3970 microbial genes of which 20 and 49 genes were significantly associated with methane emissions and feed conversion efficiency respectively. These explained 81% and 86% of the respective variation and were clustered in distinct functional gene networks. Methanogenesis genes (e.g. mcrA and fmdB were associated with methane emissions, whilst host-microbiome cross talk genes (e.g. TSTA3 and FucI were associated with feed conversion efficiency. These results strengthen the idea that the host animal controls its own microbiota to a significant extent and open up the implementation of effective breeding strategies using rumen microbial gene abundance as a predictor for difficult-to-measure traits on a large number of hosts. Generally, the results provide a proof of principle to use the relative abundance of microbial genes in the gastrointestinal tract of different species to predict their influence on traits e

  5. Essential oils improved weight gain, growth and feed efficiency of young dairy calves fed 18 or 20% crude protein starter diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi-Bonchenari, M; Falahati, R; Poorhamdollah, M; Heidari, S R; Pezeshki, A

    2018-01-17

    The objective was to evaluate interactions between starter protein (180 vs. 200 g/kg, DM basis) and a mixture of essential oils (EOs; containing thymol, eugenol, vanillin, limonene and guaiacol) on growth, metabolic and ruminal functions of Holstein dairy calves. In a completely randomized 2 × 2 factorial design, 48 calves, 3 days old (averaging BW 42.7 ± 1.9 kg), were allocated into groups fed the following diets: (i) 180 g/kg CP with no EO (180P-NEO); (ii) 180 g/kg CP with EO (180P-EO); (iii) 200 g/kg CP with no EO (200P-NEO); and (iv) 200 g/kg CP with EO (200P-EO). The EO was supplemented as 1 g/kg of starter DM. Calves were fed ad libitum starter diet and were weaned at day 59 of age, but diets continued until day 80. There were no interactive effects of CP and EO on intake and growth. Pre-weaning feed efficiency tended to be increased for 200P-EO (p = .09). Average daily gain and feed efficiency during pre-weaning period as well as weaning weight were increased (p calves-fed EO (p = .05) and was lower in those fed 180P vs. 200P (p feed efficiency of dairy calves, irrespective of dietary protein content. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Parameters of electrostatic spraying and its influence on the application efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Shigueaki Sasaki

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available When the electrostatic spraying is used correctly, it provides advantages over conventional systems, however many factors can affect the system efficiency. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the charge/mass ratio (Q/M at different spraying distances (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, and the liquid deposition efficiency on the target. Evaluating the Q/M ratio the Faraday cage method was used and to evaluate the liquid deposition efficiency the artificial targets were positioned longitudinally and transversely to the spray jet. It was found that the spraying distance affects the Q/M ratio, consequently, the liquid deposition efficiency. For the closest distance to the target the Q/M ratio was 4.11 mC kg-1, and at distances of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 m, the ratio decreased to 1.38, 0.64, 0.31, 0.17 and 0.005 mC kg-1, respectively. For the liquid deposition, the electrostatic system was affected by the target orientation and spraying distance. The target transversely to the jet of liquid did not improve the liquid deposition, but longitudinally increased the deposition up to 3 meters of distance.

  7. Effect of control and design parameters of injector nozzle on diesel efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, N.V.; Burdykin, V.D.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the rod mass and spring rigidity on the efficiency of the SMD-14N diesel engine is investigated. It is found that by reducing the mass of the movable parts and selection of the rigidity of the spring it is possible to reduce the specific consumption of fuel by 2-5%.

  8. Ventilation efficiency in a low-energy dwelling setting – a parameter study for larger rooms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, D.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Cremers, B.E. (Bart)

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical balanced ventilation systems typically is applied in new and renovated dwellings in The Netherlands. The application assumes an adequate ventilation efficiency but this has not been confirmed for larger rooms (e.g. living rooms with kitchen attached). This study investigates ventilation

  9. Different measures of energetic efficiency and their phenotypic relationships with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit in hybrid cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Ammoura, A; Guercio, S; Hansen, C; Li, C; Benkel, B; Murdoch, B; Moore, S S

    2004-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been proposed as an index for determining beef cattle energetic efficiency. Although the relationship of RFI with feed conversion ratio (FCR) is well established, little is known about how RFI compares to other measures of efficiency. This study examined the phenotypic relationships among different measures of energetic efficiency with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit of hybrid cattle (n = 150). Dry matter intake, ME intake (MEI), ADG, metabolic weight (MWT), and FCR during the test averaged 10.29 kg/d (SD = 1.62), 1,185.45 kJ/(kg0.75 x d) (SD = 114.69), 1.42 kg/d (SD = 0.25), 86.67 kg0.75 (SD = 10.21), and 7.27 kg of DM/kg of gain (SD = 1.00), respectively. Residual feed intake averaged 0.00 kg/d and ranged from -2.25 kg/d (most efficient) to 2.61 kg/d (least efficient). Dry matter intake (r = 0.75), MEI (r = 0.83), and FCR (r = 0.62) were correlated with RFI (P 0.5 SD) RFI vs. those with medium (+/-0.5 SD) or low (<0.5 SD) RFI (P < 0.001). Partial efficiency of growth (PEG; energetic efficiency for ADG) was correlated with RFI (r = -0.89, P < 0.001) and was lower (P < 0.001) for high- vs. medium- or low-RFI animals. However, RFI was not related to ADG (r = -0.03), MWT (r = -0.02), relative growth rate (RGR; growth relative to instantaneous body size; r = -0.04), or Kleiber ratio (KR; ADG per unit of MWT; r = -0.004). Also, DMI was correlated (P < 0.01) with ADG (r = 0.66), MWT (r = 0.49), FCR (r = 0.49), PEG (r = -0.52), RGR (r = 0.18), and KR (r = 0.36). Additionally, FCR was correlated (P < 0.001) with ADG (r = -0.63), PEG (r = -0.83), RGR (r = -0.75), and KR (r = -0.73), but not with MWT (r = 0.07). Correlations of measures of efficiency with ultrasound or carcass traits generally were not different from zero except for correlations of RFI, FCR, and PEG, respectively, with backfat gain (r = 0.30, 0.20, and -0.30), ultrasound backfat (r = 0.19, 0.21, and -0.25), grade fat (r = 0.25, 0.19, and -0.27), lean meat

  10. Bioprocess for efficient production of recombinant Pichia anomala phytase and its applicability in dephytinizing chick feed and whole wheat flat Indian breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Swati; Satyanarayana, T

    2015-10-01

    The phytase of the yeast Pichia anomala (PPHY) is a suitable biocatalyst as a food and feed additive because of its adequate thermostability, acid stability, protease insensitivity and broad substrate spectrum. The cell-bound nature and low phytase titres are the main bottlenecks for its utility in food and feed industries. In this investigation, we have overcome the problems by constitutive secretory expression of PPHY under glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) promoter. A ~44-fold increase in rPPHY titre has been achieved after optimization of cultural variables by one-variable-at-a-time approach and two factorial statistical design. The use of GAP promoter makes the cultivation of the recombinant P. pastoris straight forward and eliminates the requirement of methanol for induction and hazards associated with its storage. Among metal-phytate complexes, Ca(2+) phytate is hydrolyzed more efficiently by rPPHY than Co(2+), Mn(2+), Mg(2+), Fe(3+) and Zn(2+) phytates. The enzyme is effective in dephytinizing whole wheat unleavened flat Indian breads (naan and tandoori) and different broiler feeds, thus mitigating anti-nutritional effects of phytates.

  11. Effect of roughage on rumen microbiota composition in the efficient feed converter and sturdy Indian Jaffrabadi buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Mootapally, Chandra Shekar; Reddy, Bhaskar; Shah, Shailesh V; Lunagaria, Pravin M; Kothari, Ramesh K; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2015-12-29

    The rumen microbiota functions as an effective system for conversion of dietary feed to microbial proteins and volatile fatty acids. In the present study, metagenomic approach was applied to elucidate the buffalo rumen microbiome of Jaffrabadi buffalo adapted to varied dietary treatments with the hypothesis that the microbial diversity and subsequent in the functional capacity will alter with diet change and enhance our knowledge of effect of microbe on host physiology. Eight adult animals were gradually adapted to an increasing roughage diet (4 animals each with green and dry roughage) containing 50:50 (J1), 75:25 (J2) and 100:0 (J3) roughage to concentrate proportion for 6 weeks. Metagenomic sequences of solid (fiber adherent microbiota) and liquid (fiber free microbiota) fractions obtained using Ion Torrent PGM platform were analyzed using MG-RAST server and CAZymes approach. Taxonomic analysis revealed that Bacteroidetes was the most abundant phylum followed by Firmicutes, Fibrobacter and Proteobacteria. Functional analysis revealed protein (25-30 %) and carbohydrate (15-20 %) metabolism as the dominant categories. Principal component analysis demonstrated that roughage proportion, fraction of rumen and type of forage affected rumen microbiome at taxonomic as well as functional level. Rumen metabolite study revealed that rumen fluid nitrogen content reduced in high roughage diet fed animals and pathway analysis showed reduction in the genes coding enzymes involved in methanogenesis pathway. CAZyme annotation revealed the abundance of genes encoding glycoside hydrolases (GH), with the GH3 family most abundant followed by GH2 and GH13 in all samples. Results reveals that high roughage diet feed improved microbial protein synthesis and reduces methane emission. CAZyme analysis indicated the importance of microbiome in feed component digestion for fulfilling energy requirements of the host. The findings help determine the role of rumen microbes in plant

  12. Efficiently enclosing the compact binary parameter space by singular-value decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, Kipp; Hanna, Chad; Keppel, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational-wave searches for the merger of compact binaries use matched filtering as the method of detecting signals and estimating parameters. Such searches construct a fine mesh of filters covering a signal parameter space at high density. Previously it has been shown that singular-value decomposition can reduce the effective number of filters required to search the data. Here we study how the basis provided by the singular-value decomposition changes dimension as a function of template-bank density. We will demonstrate that it is sufficient to use the basis provided by the singular-value decomposition of a low-density bank to accurately reconstruct arbitrary points within the boundaries of the template bank. Since this technique is purely numerical, it may have applications to interpolating the space of numerical relativity waveforms.

  13. Effects of shrimp head meal in the diets on growth, feed efficiency and pigmentation of sex-reversed red tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimolrat, P.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp head meal (SHM was used to replace fish meal as a protein source in practical diets for sexreversed red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus x O. mossambicus at 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of fish meal protein or 0, 6.92, 13.84, 20.76 and 27.68% by weight of diet respectively. Catfish feed that contained protein content 37.22±0.10% was included as a reference diet. The experimental diets were fed to the fish with mean initial weight of 3.13±0.05 g for 8 weeks in 70 l aquaria. The results showed that weight gain and specific growth rate of fish fed 50% of fishmeal protein replacement or diet 3 was not significant by different from those of fish on control diet (p>0.05. The data of feed intake, feed conversion ratio and productive protein value of fish fed diet 3 were equal to those fed control diet (p>0.05. The lowest growth rate and feed efficiency showed on fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement. The production cost of fish fed diet 3 was equal to those fed the control diet and the reference diet (p>0.05. Total carotenoid content in fish skin was significantly highest (p<0.05 in fish fed 100% of fishmeal protein replacement diet. The result indicates that the use of SHM at the level of 50% replacement or 13.84% by weight of diet is a potential protein source in sex-reversed red tilapia diet.

  14. Investing in innovation: trade-offs in the costs and cost-efficiency of school feeding using community-based kitchens in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelli, Aulo; Suwa, Yuko

    2014-09-01

    School feeding programs have been a key response to the recent food and economic crises and function to some degree in nearly every country in the world. However, school feeding programs are complex and exhibit different, context-specific models or configurations. To examine the trade-offs, including the costs and cost-efficiency, of an innovative cluster kitchen implementation model in Bangladesh using a standardized framework. A supply chain framework based on international standards was used to provide benchmarks for meaningful comparisons across models. Implementation processes specific to the program in Bangladesh were mapped against this reference to provide a basis for standardized performance measures. Qualitative and quantitative data on key metrics were collected retrospectively using semistructured questionnaires following an ingredients approach, including both financial and economic costs. Costs were standardized to a 200-feeding-day year and 700 kcal daily. The cluster kitchen model had similarities with the semidecentralized model and outsourced models in the literature, the main differences involving implementation scale, scale of purchasing volumes, and frequency of purchasing. Two important features stand out in terms of implementation: the nutritional quality of meals and the level of community involvement. The standardized full cost per child per year was US$110. Despite the nutritious content of the meals, the overall cost-efficiency in cost per nutrient output was lower than the benchmark for centralized programs, due mainly to support and start-up costs. Cluster kitchens provide an example of an innovative implementation model, combining an emphasis on quality meal delivery with strong community engagement. However, the standardized costs-per child were above the average benchmarks for both low-and middle-income countries. In contrast to the existing benchmark data from mature, centralized models, the main cost drivers of the program were

  15. Asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone using a strictly (R)-stereoselective carbonyl reductase through efficient NADPH regeneration and the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Man; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Li; Bai, Yanbin; Chen, Liang; Yu, Meilan; Cheng, Feng; Sun, Jie; Wang, Zhao; Ying, Xiangxian

    2017-11-01

    To characterize a recombinant carbonyl reductase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SceCPR1) and explore its use in asymmetric synthesis of (R)-pantolactone [(R)-PL]. The NADPH-dependent SceCPR1 exhibited strict (R)-enantioselectivity and high activity in the asymmetric reduction of ketopantolactone (KPL) to (R)-PL. Escherichia coli, coexpressing SceCPR1 and glucose dehydrogenase from Exiguobacterium sibiricum (EsGDH), was constructed to fulfill efficient NADPH regeneration. During the whole-cell catalyzed asymmetric reduction of KPL, the spontaneous hydrolysis of KPL significantly affected the yield of (R)-PL, which was effectively alleviated by the employment of the substrate constant-feeding strategy. The established whole-cell bioreduction for 6 h afforded 458 mM (R)-PL with the enantiomeric excess value of >99.9% and the yield of 91.6%. Escherichia coli coexpressing SceCPR1 and EsGDH efficiently catalyzed the asymmetric synthesis of (R)-PL through the substrate constant-feeding strategy.

  16. Numerical Investigation of Effect of Parameters on Hovering Efficiency of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yun Jiang; Bo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The effects of various parameters on the hovering performance of an annular lift fan aircraft are investigated by using numerical scheme. The pitch angle, thickness, aspect ratio (chord length), number of blades, and radius of duct inlet lip are explored to optimize the figure of merit. The annular lift fan is also compared with a conventional circular lift fan of the same features with the same disc loading and similar geometry. The simulation results show that the pitch angle of 27°, the th...

  17. Assessment of energy and exergy efficiencies of a grate clinker cooling system through the optimization of its operational parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamed, J.U.; Madlool, N.A.; Saidur, R.; Shahinuddin, M.I.; Kamyar, A.; Masjuki, H.H.

    2012-01-01

    Grate coolers are widely used in cement industries to recover heat from hot clinker, coming out from the rotary kiln. This study focuses on improving the energy, exergy and recovery efficiencies of a grate cooling system through the optimization of its operational parameters such as masses of cooling air and clinker, cooling air temperature, and grate speed. It has been found that the energy and recovery energy efficiencies of a cooling system can be increased by 1.1% and 1.9%, respectively, with every 5% mass increases of cooling air. Similarly, it has been estimated that energy and recovery energy efficiencies can be increased by 2.0% and 0.4% with every 5% increase of cooling temperature. The exergy and its recovery efficiencies found to be increased by 3.6% and 2.2%, respectively, for the same condition. Energy efficiency and energy recovery efficiencies are increased by 3.5% and 1.4% with every 9.1% increase of grate speed. Using heat recovery from the exhaust air, energy and exergy recovery efficiencies of the cooling system found to be increased by 21.5% and 9.4%, respectively. It has been found that about 38.10% and 30.86% energy cost can be saved by changing mass flow rate of clinker and mass flow rate of cooling air, respectively. -- Highlights: ► The energy and exergy efficiencies of the base case clinker cooler are 81.2% and 53.7%, respectively. ► To increase 5% mass flow of cooling air, the energy and exergy efficiency increase 1.1% and 0.9%, respectively. ► Increase of grate speed and cooling air temperature cause to increase of all efficiencies. ► Heat recovery from the exhaust air experiences 21.5% and 9.4% in energy and exergy recovery efficiency, respectively. ► Reduction of clinker mass flow reduces the emission of NO x , CO, PM and CO 2 .

  18. Electrothermal Impedance Spectroscopy as a Cost Efficient Method for Determining Thermal Parameters of Lithium Ion Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (HEV, PHEV, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging and discharging power capability rates...... of lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery’s temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus, thermal modelling of lithium-ion...... battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits’ models have proven to be relatively accurate with low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment for parametrization. Recent research initiated...

  19. Electrothermal impedance spectroscopy as a cost efficient method for determining thermal parameters of lithium ion batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2017-01-01

    Current lithium-ion battery research aims in not only increasing their energy density but also power density. Emerging applications of lithium-ion batteries (hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, grid support) are becoming more and more power demanding. The increasing charging...... and discharging power capability rates of lithium-ion batteries raises safety concerns and requires thermal management of the entire battery system. Moreover, lithium-ion battery's temperature influences both battery short term (capacity, efficiency, self-discharge) and long-term (lifetime) behaviour. Thus......, thermal modelling of lithium-ion battery cells and battery packs is gaining importance. Equivalent thermal circuits' models have proven to be relatively accurate with a low computational burden for the price of low spatial resolution; nevertheless, they usually require expensive equipment...

  20. Numerical Investigation of Effect of Parameters on Hovering Efficiency of an Annular Lift Fan Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of various parameters on the hovering performance of an annular lift fan aircraft are investigated by using numerical scheme. The pitch angle, thickness, aspect ratio (chord length, number of blades, and radius of duct inlet lip are explored to optimize the figure of merit. The annular lift fan is also compared with a conventional circular lift fan of the same features with the same disc loading and similar geometry. The simulation results show that the pitch angle of 27°, the thickness of 4% chord length, the aspect ratio of 3.5~4.0, 32 blades, and the radius of inlet lip of 4.7% generate the maximum figure of merit of 0.733. The optimized configuration can be used for further studies of the annular lift fan aircraft.

  1. Electron efficiency of nZVI does not change with variation of environmental parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schöftner, Philipp; Waldner, Georg; Lottermoser, Werner; Stöger-Pollach, Michael; Freitag, Peter; Reichenauer, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) are already applied for in-situ dechlorination of halogenated organic contaminants in the field. We performed batch experiments whereby trichloroethene (TCE) was dehalogenated by nZVI under different environmental conditions that are relevant in practice. The tested conditions include different ionic strengths, addition of polyelectrolytes (carboxymethylcellulose and ligninsulphonate), lowered temperature, dissolved oxygen and different particle contents. Particle properties were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM, AAS and laser obscuration time measurements. TCE dehalogenation and H 2 evolution were decelerated by reduced ionic strength, addition of polyelectrolytes, temperature reduction, the presence of dissolved oxygen and reduced particle content. The partitioning of released electrons between reactions with the contaminant vs. with water (selectivity) was low, independent of the tested conditions. Basically out of hundred electrons that were released via nZVI oxidation only 3.1 ± 1.4 were used for TCE dehalogenation. Even lower selectivities were observed at TCE concentrations below 3.5 mg l −1 , hence particle modifications and/or combination of nZVI with other remediation technologies seem to be necessary to reach target concentrations for remediation. Our results suggest that selectivity is particle intrinsic and not as much condition dependent, hence particle synthesis and potential particle modifications of nZVI particles may be more important for optimization of the pollutant degradation rate, than tested environmental conditions. - Highlights: • We investigated the degradation kinetics of trichloroethene by zerovalent nanoiron particles. • Electron efficiency of the tested particles was very low (about 3%). • The tested environmental conditions had no significant influence on the degradation kinetics and electron efficiency. • We conclude that particle type is more important for

  2. Electron efficiency of nZVI does not change with variation of environmental parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schöftner, Philipp, E-mail: philipp.schoeftner@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria); Waldner, Georg [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria); Lottermoser, Werner, E-mail: werner.lottermoser@sbg.ac.at [Salzburg University, FB Materialforschung und Physik, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg (Austria); Stöger-Pollach, Michael, E-mail: stoeger@ustem.tuwien.ac.at [Technical University of Vienna, Universitäre Service-Einrichtung für Transmissionselektronenmikroskopie — USTEM (Austria); Freitag, Peter, E-mail: p.freitag@kellergrundbau.at [Keller Grundbau Ges. mbH, Mariahilfer Straße 127a, 1150 Vienna (Austria); Reichenauer, Thomas G., E-mail: thomas.reichenauer@ait.ac.at [AIT Austrian Institute of Technology GmbH, Konrad-Lorenz-Straße 24, 3430 Tulln a.d. Donau (Austria)

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles (nZVI) are already applied for in-situ dechlorination of halogenated organic contaminants in the field. We performed batch experiments whereby trichloroethene (TCE) was dehalogenated by nZVI under different environmental conditions that are relevant in practice. The tested conditions include different ionic strengths, addition of polyelectrolytes (carboxymethylcellulose and ligninsulphonate), lowered temperature, dissolved oxygen and different particle contents. Particle properties were determined by Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, SEM, AAS and laser obscuration time measurements. TCE dehalogenation and H{sub 2} evolution were decelerated by reduced ionic strength, addition of polyelectrolytes, temperature reduction, the presence of dissolved oxygen and reduced particle content. The partitioning of released electrons between reactions with the contaminant vs. with water (selectivity) was low, independent of the tested conditions. Basically out of hundred electrons that were released via nZVI oxidation only 3.1 ± 1.4 were used for TCE dehalogenation. Even lower selectivities were observed at TCE concentrations below 3.5 mg l{sup −1}, hence particle modifications and/or combination of nZVI with other remediation technologies seem to be necessary to reach target concentrations for remediation. Our results suggest that selectivity is particle intrinsic and not as much condition dependent, hence particle synthesis and potential particle modifications of nZVI particles may be more important for optimization of the pollutant degradation rate, than tested environmental conditions. - Highlights: • We investigated the degradation kinetics of trichloroethene by zerovalent nanoiron particles. • Electron efficiency of the tested particles was very low (about 3%). • The tested environmental conditions had no significant influence on the degradation kinetics and electron efficiency. • We conclude that particle type is more

  3. Efficient fuzzy Bayesian inference algorithms for incorporating expert knowledge in parameter estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabi, Mohammad Mahdi; Ataie-Ashtiani, Behzad

    2016-05-01

    Bayesian inference has traditionally been conceived as the proper framework for the formal incorporation of expert knowledge in parameter estimation of groundwater models. However, conventional Bayesian inference is incapable of taking into account the imprecision essentially embedded in expert provided information. In order to solve this problem, a number of extensions to conventional Bayesian inference have been introduced in recent years. One of these extensions is 'fuzzy Bayesian inference' which is the result of integrating fuzzy techniques into Bayesian statistics. Fuzzy Bayesian inference has a number of desirable features which makes it an attractive approach for incorporating expert knowledge in the parameter estimation process of groundwater models: (1) it is well adapted to the nature of expert provided information, (2) it allows to distinguishably model both uncertainty and imprecision, and (3) it presents a framework for fusing expert provided information regarding the various inputs of the Bayesian inference algorithm. However an important obstacle in employing fuzzy Bayesian inference in groundwater numerical modeling applications is the computational burden, as the required number of numerical model simulations often becomes extremely exhaustive and often computationally infeasible. In this paper, a novel approach of accelerating the fuzzy Bayesian inference algorithm is proposed which is based on using approximate posterior distributions derived from surrogate modeling, as a screening tool in the computations. The proposed approach is first applied to a synthetic test case of seawater intrusion (SWI) in a coastal aquifer. It is shown that for this synthetic test case, the proposed approach decreases the number of required numerical simulations by an order of magnitude. Then the proposed approach is applied to a real-world test case involving three-dimensional numerical modeling of SWI in Kish Island, located in the Persian Gulf. An expert

  4. Efficient three-dimensional reconstruction of aquatic vegetation geometry: Estimating morphological parameters influencing hydrodynamic drag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Jean; Lynn, Kendra; Strigul, Nikolay; Norris, Benjamin K.; Gatziolis, Demetrios; Mullarney, Julia C.; Bryan, Karin, R.; Henderson, Stephen M.

    2016-09-01

    Aquatic vegetation can shelter coastlines from energetic waves and tidal currents, sometimes enabling accretion of fine sediments. Simulation of flow and sediment transport within submerged canopies requires quantification of vegetation geometry. However, field surveys used to determine vegetation geometry can be limited by the time required to obtain conventional caliper and ruler measurements. Building on recent progress in photogrammetry and computer vision, we present a method for reconstructing three-dimensional canopy geometry. The method was used to survey a dense canopy of aerial mangrove roots, called pneumatophores, in Vietnam's Mekong River Delta. Photogrammetric estimation of geometry required 1) taking numerous photographs at low tide from multiple viewpoints around 1 m2 quadrats, 2) computing relative camera locations and orientations by triangulation of key features present in multiple images and reconstructing a dense 3D point cloud, and 3) extracting pneumatophore locations and diameters from the point cloud data. Step 3) was accomplished by a new 'sector-slice' algorithm, yielding geometric parameters every 5 mm along a vertical profile. Photogrammetric analysis was compared with manual caliper measurements. In all 5 quadrats considered, agreement was found between manual and photogrammetric estimates of stem number, and of number × mean diameter, which is a key parameter appearing in hydrodynamic models. In two quadrats, pneumatophores were encrusted with numerous barnacles, generating a complex geometry not resolved by hand measurements. In remaining cases, moderate agreement between manual and photogrammetric estimates of stem diameter and solid volume fraction was found. By substantially reducing measurement time in the field while capturing in greater detail the 3D structure, photogrammetry has potential to improve input to hydrodynamic models, particularly for simulations of flow through large-scale, heterogenous canopies.

  5. Effect of feeding Neem (Azadirachta indica) and Acacia (Acacia senegal) tree foliage on nutritional and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Samson; Urge, Mengistu; Menkir, Sissay

    2016-02-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effects of dried foliage of Acacia senegal and Neem (Azadirachta indica) tree supplementations on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth, and carcass parameters in short-eared Somali goats. Twenty male intact short-eared Somali goat yearlings with an average live weight of 16.2 ± 1.08 (Mean ± SD) were assigned to four treatment groups, which comprised a basal diet of hay alone (T1) and supplementation with the tree foliages. Supplements consisted Neem tree (T2), A. senegal (T3) and the mixture of the two (1:1 ratio; T4) dried foliages. The crude protein (CP) content of Neem tree foliage, A. senegal, and their mixture were 16.92, 17.5 and 17.01 % of dry matter (DM), respectively. Total DM intake and digestibility of DM and organic matter were significantly (P senegal (67 %). The final body weights were higher (P Senegal. An average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher (P senegal (8.3 kg) among the supplemented groups, all of which are higher than the control (4.9 kg). It is concluded that the supplementation with tree foliage, especially with A. senegal tree foliage, on grass hay encouraged a better utilization of nutrients and animal performance as compared to goats fed on a basal diet of grass hay only.

  6. The effect of feed supplementation with zinc chelate and zinc sulphate on selected humoral and cell-mediated immune parameters and cytokine concentration in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Łukasz; Marek, Agnieszka; Grądzki, Zbigniew; Kwiecień, Małgorzata; Kalinowski, Marcin

    2017-06-01

    The ability of poultry to withstand infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses or protozoa depends upon the integrity of the immune system. Zinc is important for proper functioning of heterophils, mononuclear phagocytes and T lymphocytes. Numerous data indicate that the demand for zinc in poultry is not met in Poland due to its low content in feeds of vegetable origin. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of supplementation of inorganic (ZnSO 4 and ZnSO 4 + phytase enzyme), and organic forms of zinc (Zn with glycine and Zn with glycine and phytase enzyme) on selected parameters of the cellular and humoral immune response in broiler chickens by evaluating the percentage of CD3 + CD4 + , CD3 + CD8 + , CD25 + , MHC Class II, and BU-1 + lymphocytes, the phagocytic activity of monocytes and heterophils, and the concentration of IL-2, IL-10 and TNF-α in the peripheral blood. Flow cytometry was used to determine selected cell-mediated immune response parameters. Phagocytic activity in whole blood was performed using the commercial Phagotest kit (ORPEGEN-Pharma, Immuniq, Poland). The results showed that supplementation with zinc chelates causes activation of the cellular and humoral immune response in poultry, helping to maintain the balance between the Th1 and Th2 response and enhancing resistance to infections. In contrast with chelates, the use of zinc in the form of sulphates has no immunomodulatory effect and may contribute to the development of local inflammatory processes in the digestive tract, increasing susceptibility to infection. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Fermentation of food and feed: A technology for efficient utilization of macro and trace elements in monogastrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humer, Elke; Schedle, Karl

    2016-09-01

    Mineral deficiencies, especially of iron, zinc, and calcium, respectively, negatively affect human health and may lead to conditions such as iron deficiency anemia, rickets, osteoporosis, and diseases of the immune system. Cereal grains and legumes are of global importance in nutrition of monogastrics (humans and the respective domestic animals) and provide high amounts of several minerals, e.g., iron, zinc, and calcium. Nevertheless, their bioavailability is low. Plants contain phytates, the salts of phytic acid, chemically known as inositol-hexakisphosphate, which interact with several minerals and proteins. However, phytate may be hydrolysed by phytase. This enzyme is naturally present in plants and also widely distributed in microorganisms. Several food processing methods have been reported to enhance phytate hydrolysis, due to the activation of endogenous phytase activity or via the enzyme produced by microbes. In recent years, fermentation for food and feed improvement and preservation, respectively, has gained increasing interest as a promising method to degrade phytate and enhance mineral utilization in monogastrics. Indeed, several in vitro as well as in vivo studies confirm a positive effect on the utilization of minerals, such as P, Ca, Fe and Zn, using sourdough fermentation for baking or fermentation of legumes, mainly soybeans. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the potential of fermentation to enhance macro and trace element bioavailability in monogastric species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Physicochemical Parameters Affecting the Electrospray Ionization Efficiency of Amino Acids after Acylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) is widely used in liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC–MS) for the analysis of biomolecules. However, the ESI process is still not completely understood, and it is often a matter of trial and error to enhance ESI efficiency and, hence, the response of a given set of compounds. In this work we performed a systematic study of the ESI response of 14 amino acids that were acylated with organic acid anhydrides of increasing chain length and with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) changing certain physicochemical properties in a predictable manner. By comparing the ESI response of 70 derivatives, we found that there was a strong correlation between the calculated molecular volume and the ESI response, while correlation with hydrophobicity (log P values), pKa, and the inverse calculated surface tension was significantly lower although still present, especially for individual derivatized amino acids with increasing acyl chain lengths. Acylation with PEG containing five ethylene glycol units led to the largest gain in ESI response. This response was maximal independent of the calculated physicochemical properties or the type of amino acid. Since no actual physicochemical data is available for most derivatized compounds, the responses were also used as input for a quantitative structure–property relationship (QSPR) model to find the best physicochemical descriptors relating to the ESI response from molecular structures using the amino acids and their derivatives as a reference set. A topological descriptor related to molecular size (SPAN) was isolated next to a descriptor related to the atomic composition and structural groups (BIC0). The validity of the model was checked with a test set of 43 additional compounds that were unrelated to amino acids. While prediction was generally good (R2 > 0.9), compounds containing halogen atoms or nitro groups gave a lower predicted ESI response. PMID:28737384

  9. Experimental researches and comparison on aerodynamic parameters and cleaning efficiency of multi-level multi-channel cyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandras Chlebnikovas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-level multi-channel cyclone – the lately designed air cleaning device that can remove ultra-fine 20 μm particulatematter (PM from dusted air and reach over 95% of the overall cleaning efficiency. Multi-channel cyclone technology is based on centrifugal forces and has the resulting additional filtering process operation. Multi-level structure of cyclone allows to achieve higher air flow cleaning capacity at the same dimensions of the device, thus saving installation space required for the job, production and operating costs. Studies have examined the air flow parameters change in one–, two– and three–levels multichannel cyclone. These constructions differ according to the productivity of cleaned air under the constant peripheral and transitional (50/50 case air flow relations. Accordance with the results of air flow dynamics – velocity distribution of multi-channel cyclone, aerodynamic resistance and efficiency can be judged on the flow turbulence, the flow channel cross-section and select the most appropriate application. Cleaning efficiency studies were carried out using fine granite and wood ashes PM. The maximum cleaning efficiency was 93.3%, at an average of 4.5 g/m3, the aerodynamic resistance was equal to 1525 Pa.

  10. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    received supplemented or non-supplemented diet, respectively. These results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply may be useful to improve negative energy balance and reproductive efficiency in young cows which calve with high requirement of energy. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Supplementing a commercial diet for atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) with arginine, glutamate or tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA). impact on production efficiency, slaughter parameters and flesh quality

    OpenAIRE

    Rahnama, Behzad

    2010-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing a commercial diets with 1.5% L-arginine, 1.5% L-glutamate or 0.25% tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) on feed intake, feed utilization and growth parameters of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) during the critical periods after sea transfer with regard to seawater adaptation and onwards, from April to September. In the case of TTA, fish were fed until they reached a weight gain of 0.2% of the initial body weight, thereafte...

  12. Evidence for increasing digestive and metabolic efficiency of energy utilization with age of dairy cattle as determined in two feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Zeitz, J O; Clauss, M; Furger, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2018-03-01

    The changes taking place with age in energy turnover of dairy cattle are largely unknown. It is unclear whether the efficiency of energy utilization in digestion (characterized by faecal and methane energy losses) and in metabolism (characterized by urine and heat energy losses) is altered with age. In the present study, energy balance data were obtained from 30 lactating Brown Swiss dairy cows aged between 2 and 10 years, and 12 heifers from 0.5 to 2 years of age. In order to evaluate a possible dependence of age effects on diet type, half of the cattle each originated from two herds kept at the same farm, which were fed either on a forage-only diet or on the same forage diet but complemented with 5 kg/day of concentrate since their first calving. During 2 days, the gaseous exchange of the animals was quantified in open-circuit respiration chambers, followed by an 8-day period of feed, faeces, urine and milk collection. Daily amounts and energy contents were used to calculate complete energy balances. Age and feeding regime effects were analysed by parametric regression analysis where BW, milk yield and hay proportion in forage as consumed were considered as covariates. Relative to intake of gross energy, the availability of metabolizable energy (ME) increased with age. This was not the result of an increasing energy digestibility, but of proportionately lower energy losses with methane (following a curvilinear relationship with the greatest losses in middle-aged cows) and urine (continuously declining). The efficiency of utilization of ME for milk production (k l) increased with age. Potential reasons include an increase in the propionate-to-acetate ratio in the rumen because of a shift away from fibre degradation and methane formation as well as lower urine energy losses. The greater k l allowed older cows to accrete more energy reserves in the body. As expected, offering concentrate enhanced digestibility, metabolizability and metabolic utilization of energy

  13. Importance of intestinal absorption of amino acids in regard to the efficiency of feed proteins in poultry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larbier, M.; Blum, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The absorption of 14 C(U) L-lysine was studied in vivo (perfusion of isolated intestinal folds) and in vitro (incubation of fragments of intestine) in the chicken and duck during growth. Factors that increase the nutritional efficiency of proteins, e.g. amino-acid deficiency, accelerate intestinal absorption. On the other hand, factors that reduce protein efficiency, be they nutritional (excess amino acids), physiological (age; sex: female compared with male; species: duck compared with chicken) or pathological (experimental coccidiosis), slow down the absorption of lysine. The results are discussed bearing in mind that the absorption rate has a double significance. It plays a part in digestive utilization; it may also reflect metabolic utilization to the extent that transfer through the intestinal mucosa is comparable to incorporation in the cells of the organism. (author)

  14. Inter-domain Synergism Is Required for Efficient Feeding of Cellulose Chain into Active Site of Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A*

    OpenAIRE

    Kont, Riin; Kari, Jeppe; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter; Väljamäe, Priit

    2016-01-01

    Structural polysaccharides like cellulose and chitin are abundant and their enzymatic degradation to soluble sugars is an important route in green chemistry. Processive glycoside hydrolases (GHs), like cellobiohydrolase Cel7A of Trichoderma reesei (TrCel7A) are key components of efficient enzyme systems. TrCel7A consists of a catalytic domain (CD) and a smaller carbohydrate-binding module (CBM) connected through the glycosylated linker peptide. A tunnel-shaped active site rests in the CD and ...

  15. Growth and feed efficiency of juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei fed formulated diets containing different levels of poultry by-product meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shuyan; Tan, Beiping; Mai, Kangsen; Zheng, Shixuan

    2009-12-01

    This feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the potential of poultry by-product meal (PBM) as a protein source in the culture of Litopenaeus vannamei. Seven isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets were formulated to near to commercial diet with about 40% protein and 7.5% lipid. Fish meal was replaced by 0, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70% and 100% of PBM (diets 1-7). The diet with 100% fish meal was used as a control (diet 1). Post-larvae were reared in an indoor semi-closed re-circulating system. Each dietary treatment was tested in 4 replicate tanks (260 L) of 40 shrimp, arranged in a completely randomized design. The shrimps were hand-fed for three times a day to near-satiation (0700, 1200 and 1800) for 60 d. Percentage weight gain, survival, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body composition of shrimps were measured. There were no significant differences ( P>0.05) in growth performance among shrimps fed diets 1-5 (0-60% fish meal replacement). However, shrimps fed diet 7 (100% fish meal replacement) had significantly lower ( P0.05) among different experimental diets. No differences in body composition were found among shrimps fed different diets. These results showed that up to 70% of fish meal protein can be replaced by PBM without adversely affecting the growth, survival, FCR, PER and body composition of Litop enaeus vannamei.

  16. Neglect of lactation stage leads to naive assessment of residual feed intake in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingjie; Berglund, B.; Fikse, W.F.

    2017-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a candidate trait for feed efficiency in dairy cattle. We investigated the influence of lactation stage on the effect of energy sinks in defining RFI and the genetic parameters for RFI across lactation stages for primiparous dairy cattle. Our analysis included 747 pr...

  17. Growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of three edible mealworm species (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on diets composed of organic by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Broekhoven, Sarah; Oonincx, Dennis G A B; van Huis, Arnold; van Loon, Joop J A

    2015-02-01

    Insects receive increasing attention as an alternative protein-rich food source for humans. Producing edible insects on diets composed of organic by-products could increase sustainability. In addition, insect growth rate and body composition, and hence nutritional quality, can be altered by diet. Three edible mealworm species Tenebrio molitor L., Zophobas atratus Fab. and Alphitobius diaperinus Panzer were grown on diets composed of organic by-products originating from beer brewing, bread/cookie baking, potato processing and bioethanol production. Experimental diets differed with respect to protein and starch content. Larval growth and survival was monitored. Moreover, effects of dietary composition on feed conversion efficiency and mealworm crude protein and fatty acid profile were assessed. Diet affected mealworm development and feed conversion efficiency such that diets high in yeast-derived protein appear favourable, compared to diets used by commercial breeders, with respect to shortening larval development time, reducing mortality and increasing weight gain. Diet also affected the chemical composition of mealworms. Larval protein content was stable on diets that differed 2-3-fold in protein content, whereas dietary fat did have an effect on larval fat content and fatty acid profile. However, larval fatty acid profile did not necessarily follow the same trend as dietary fatty acid composition. Diets that allowed for fast larval growth and low mortality in this study led to a comparable or less favourable n6/n3 fatty acid ratio compared to control diets used by commercial breeders. In conclusion, the mealworm species used in this study can be grown successfully on diets composed of organic by-products. Diet composition did not influence larval protein content, but did alter larval fat composition to a certain extent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Simulation assessment of continuous simulating moving bed chromatography process with partial feed and new strategy with partial feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial Feed simulating moving bed (SMB has proved to be more efficient in binary separation performance (purity, recovery, productivity because of its two additional degrees of freedom, namely feed length and feed time, as compared to classical SMB process. The binary separation of dextran T6 and fructose with linear isotherm is modeled with Aspen Chromatography simulator in a four zone SMB with one column per zone for both normal-feed and Partial Feed. Increase in number of feed length and feed time in the cycle plays a very important role in the separation performance with Partial Feed. In addition, the effect of mode of operation (early or late introduction of increase in number of feed length in the cycle on product purity and recovery is also investigated. Furthermore, the binary separation system is designed with the safety margin method and the optimum operating parameters for simulation are calculated with triangle theory. Finally, a new strategy with Partial Feed is developed, showing improved separation performance relative to the basic four-zone SMB with regard to extract stream purity and recovery. The results of the proposed study can served as a useful summary of Partial Feed operation.

  19. The Influence of Hydrologic Parameters on the Hydraulic Efficiency of an Extensive Green Roof in Mediterranean Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Garofalo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an urban environment, green roofs represent a sustainable solution for mitigating stormwater volumes and hydrograph peaks. So far, many literature studies have investigated the hydraulic efficiency and the subsurface runoff coefficient of green roofs, showing their strong variability according to several factors, including the characteristics of storm events. Furthermore, only few studies have focused on the hydraulic efficiency of green roofs under Mediterranean climate conditions and defined the influencing hydrological parameters on the subsurface runoff coefficient. Nevertheless, for designing purposes, it is crucial to properly assess the subsurface runoff coefficient of a given green roof under specific climate conditions and its influencing factors. This study intends to, firstly, evaluate the subsurface runoff coefficient at daily and event-time scales for a given green roof, through a conceptual model implemented in SWMM. The model was loaded with both daily and 1-min rainfall data from two Mediterranean climate sites, one in Thessaloniki, Greece and one in Cosenza, Italy, respectively. Then, the most influencing hydrological parameters were examined through a statistical regression analysis. The findings show that the daily subsurface runoff coefficient is 0.70 for both sites, while the event-based one is 0.79 with a standard deviation of 0.23 for the site in Cosenza, Italy. The multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the influencing parameters are the rainfall intensity and antecedent dry weather period with a confidence level of 95%. This study demonstrated that, due to the high variability of the subsurface runoff coefficient, the use of a unique value for design purposes is inappropriate and that a preliminary estimation could be obtained as a function of the total rainfall depth and the antecedent dry weather period by using the validated multi-regression relationship which is site specific.

  20. Parameters Influencing the Growth of ZnO Nanowires as Efficient Low Temperature Flexible Perovskite-Based Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Dymshits

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite has proved to be a superior material for photovoltaic solar cells. In this work we investigate the parameters influencing the growth of ZnO nanowires (NWs for use as an efficient low temperature photoanode in perovskite-based solar cells. The structure of the solar cell is FTO (SnO2:F-glass (or PET-ITO (In2O3·(SnO2 (ITO on, polyethylene terephthalate (PET/ZnAc seed layer/ZnO NWs/CH3NH3PbI3/Spiro-OMeTAD/Au. The influence of the growth rate and the diameter of the ZnO NWs on the photovoltaic performance were carefully studied. The ZnO NWs perovskite-based solar cell demonstrates impressive power conversion efficiency of 9.06% on a rigid substrate with current density over 21 mA/cm2. In addition, we successfully fabricated flexible perovskite solar cells while maintaining all fabrication processes at low temperature, achieving power conversion efficiency of 6.4% with excellent stability for over 75 bending cycles.

  1. Numerical study of geometric parameters effecting temperature and thermal efficiency in a premix multi-hole flat flame burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberi Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein; Saei Moghaddam, Mojtaba; Khorramdel, Mohammad

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the geometric parameters related to thermal efficiency and pollution emission of a multi-hole flat flame burner. Recent experimental studies indicate that such burners are significantly influenced by both the use of distribution mesh and the size of the diameter of the main and retention holes. The present study numerically simulated methane-air premixed combustion using a two-step mechanism and constant mass diffusivity for all species. The results indicate that the addition of distribution mesh leads to uniform flow and maximum temperature that will reduce NOx emissions. An increase in the diameter of the main holes increased the mass flow which increased the temperature, thermal efficiency and NOx emissions. The size of the retention holes should be considered to decrease the total flow velocity and bring the flame closer to the burner surface, although a diameter change did not considerably improve temperature and thermal efficiency. Ultimately, under temperature and pollutant emission constraints, the optimum diameters of the main and retention holes were determined to be 5 and 1.25 mm, respectively. - Highlights: • Using distribution mesh led to uniform flow and reduced Nox pollutant by 53%. • 93% of total heat transfer occurred by radiation method in multi-hole burner. • Employing retention hole caused the flame become closer to the burner surface.

  2. [The merit of using untreated, HCl-treated amd partly-hydrolyzed straw meal in the feeding regime for piglets after early weaning. 3. Parameters of protein, fat, carbohydrates and mineral metabolism in the blood serum of the piglet].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münchow, H

    1989-10-01

    In parallel studies with piglets of the country race the applicability of variously treated straw materials was tested in comparison with the conventional feeding of concentrate (I) after an early weaning date (30th-35th day of life) over a feeding period of 8 weeks (1st-8th week of keeping). In the rations containing 10% straw (concentrate-straw mixtures), untreated (II), HCl treated (III:HCl treatment without steaming) and partly hydrolyzed straw meal (IV:HCl treatment with subsequent steaming) were tested. In the 2nd and 8th weeks of keeping blood samples were taken from 4 animals of each group and selected parameters of the protein, fat, carbohydrate and mineral metabolism were subsequently ascertained from the blood serum. About half of the total of the 13 selected parameters showed reactions of the intermediary metabolism of the test groups caused by the feeding. With the parameters on the whole varying in the normal physiologic range, a decrease in the blood urea and creatinine concentration and an increase in the blood glucose level were detected after the use of the concentrate-straw mixtures (III and IV) in comparison with the sole feeding of concentrate (I) and partly also in comparison with untreated straw meal (II), their intensity varying in dependence on feeding and test duration. Particularly towards the end of the experiment, an increase of the activity of alkaline phosphatase was also characteristic, which was in negative correlation with the P content of the serum and in positive correlation with growth performance. The physiologic parameters are discussed in connection with the higher growth performance at reduced concentrate expenditure achieved in III and IV in comparison to I and II.

  3. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  4. Bayesian estimation of direct and correlated responses to selection on linear or ratio expressions of feed efficiency in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shirali, Mahmoud; Varley, Patrick Francis; Jensen, Just

    2018-01-01

    meat percentage (LMP) along with the derived traits of RFI and FCR; and (3) deriving Bayesian estimates of direct and correlated responses to selection on RFI, FCR, ADG, ADFI, and LMP. Response to selection was defined as the difference in additive genetic mean of the selected top individuals, expected......, respectively. Selection against RFIG showed a direct response of − 0.16 kg/d and correlated responses of − 0.16 kg/kg for FCR and − 0.15 kg/d for ADFI, with no effect on other production traits. Selection against FCR resulted in a direct response of − 0.17 kg/kg and correlated responses of − 0.14 kg/d for RFIG......, − 0.18 kg/d for ADFI, and 0.98% for LMP. Conclusions: The Bayesian methodology developed here enables prediction of breeding values for FCR and RFI from a single multi-variate model. In addition, we derived posterior distributions of direct and correlated responses to selection. Genetic parameter...

  5. A numerical study of the effects of design parameters on the acoustics noise of a high efficiency propeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Huang, Jun; Yi, Mingxu; Zhang, Chaopu; Xiao, Qian

    2017-11-01

    A numerical study of a high efficiency propeller in the aerodynamic noise generation is carried out. Based on RANS, three-dimensional numerical simulation is performed to obtain the aerodynamic performance of the propeller. The result of the aerodynamic analysis is given as input of the acoustic calculation. The sound is calculated using the Farassat 1A, which is derived from Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equation, and compared with the data of wind tunnel. The propeller is modified for noise reduction by changing its geometrical parameters such as diameter, chord width and pitch angle. The trend of variation between aerodynamic analysis data and acoustic calculation result are compared and discussed for different modification tasks. Meaningful conclusions are drawn on the noise reduction of propeller.

  6. Using mixed solvent and changing spin-coating parameters to increase the efficiency and lifetime of organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yu Sheng; Chu, Wei-Ping; Tang, Rong-Ming; Juang, Fuh-Shyang; Chang, Ming-Hua; Liu, Mark O; Hsieh, Tsung-Eong

    2008-10-01

    The derivative of C60, i.e., PCBM, and P3HT (3-hexylthiophene) were dissolved in chloroform:dichlorobenzene mixed solvent, then spin-coated as the active layer for organic solar cells (OSC). The experimental parameters were studied carefully to obtain the optimum power conversion efficiency (PCE), including the solvent mixing ratio, spin-coating speed, annealing conditions for the active layer, etc. The OSC devices were packaged with glass and a newly developed UV-glue to improve the lifetime and PCE. Dichlorobenzene solvent has great effect upon the PCE. Changing the spin-coating speed and increasing the number of steps increased the PCE apparently to 1.4%.

  7. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  8. Plant Friendly Input Design for Parameter Estimation in an Inertial System with Respect to D-Efficiency Constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiktor Jakowluk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available System identification, in practice, is carried out by perturbing processes or plants under operation. That is why in many industrial applications a plant-friendly input signal would be preferred for system identification. The goal of the study is to design the optimal input signal which is then employed in the identification experiment and to examine the relationships between the index of friendliness of this input signal and the accuracy of parameter estimation when the measured output signal is significantly affected by noise. In this case, the objective function was formulated through maximisation of the Fisher information matrix determinant (D-optimality expressed in conventional Bolza form. As setting such conditions of the identification experiment we can only talk about the D-suboptimality, we quantify the plant trajectories using the D-efficiency measure. An additional constraint, imposed on D-efficiency of the solution, should allow one to attain the most adequate information content  from the plant which operating point is perturbed in the least invasive (most friendly way. A simple numerical example, which clearly demonstrates the idea presented in the paper, is included and discussed.

  9. Investigating Electrostatic Precipitator Design Parameters for Efficient Control of Particulate Matter in Thermal Power Plant: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Gautam, N.; Chandra, H.

    2018-02-01

    This work deals with the analysis and modification of operational parameters for meeting the emission standards, set by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) from time to time of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The analysis is carried out by using standard chemical analysis supplemented by the relevant data collected from Korba East Phase (Ph)-III thermal power plant, under Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) operating at Korba, Chhattisgarh. Chemical analysis is used to predict the emission level for different parameters of ESP. The results reveal that for a constant outlet PM concentration and fly ash percentage, the total collection area decreases with the increase in migration velocity. For constant migration velocity and outlet PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the increase in the fly ash percent. For constant migration velocity and outlet e PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the ash content in the coal. i.e. from minimum ash to maximum ash. As far as the efficiency is concerned, it increases with the fly ash percent, ash content and the inlet dust concentration but decreases with the outlet PM concentration at constant migration velocity, fly ash and ash content.

  10. Efficient Statistical Extraction of the Per-Unit-Length Capacitance and Inductance Matrices of Cables with Random Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Manfredi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cable bundles often exhibit random parameter variations due to uncertain or uncontrollable physical properties and wire positioning. Efficient tools, based on the so-called polynomial chaos, exist to rapidly assess the impact of such variations on the per-unit-length capacitance and inductance matrices, and on the pertinent cable response. Nevertheless, the state-of-the-art method for the statistical extraction of the per-unit-length capacitance and inductance matrices of cables suffers from several inefficiencies that hinder its applicability to large problems, in terms of number of random parameters and/or conductors. This paper presents an improved methodology that overcomes the aforementioned limitations by exploiting a recently-published, alternative approach to generate the pertinent polynomial chaos system of equations. A sparse and decoupled system is obtained that provides remarkable benefits in terms of speed, memory consumption and problem size that can be dealt with. The technique is thoroughly validated through the statistical analysis of two canonical structures, i.e. a ribbon cable and a shielded cable with random geometry and position.

  11. Investigating Electrostatic Precipitator Design Parameters for Efficient Control of Particulate Matter in Thermal Power Plant: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, P.; Gautam, N.; Chandra, H.

    2018-06-01

    This work deals with the analysis and modification of operational parameters for meeting the emission standards, set by Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/State Pollution Control Board (SPCB) from time to time of electrostatic precipitator (ESP). The analysis is carried out by using standard chemical analysis supplemented by the relevant data collected from Korba East Phase (Ph)-III thermal power plant, under Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) operating at Korba, Chhattisgarh. Chemical analysis is used to predict the emission level for different parameters of ESP. The results reveal that for a constant outlet PM concentration and fly ash percentage, the total collection area decreases with the increase in migration velocity. For constant migration velocity and outlet PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the increase in the fly ash percent. For constant migration velocity and outlet e PM concentration, the total collection area increases with the ash content in the coal. i.e. from minimum ash to maximum ash. As far as the efficiency is concerned, it increases with the fly ash percent, ash content and the inlet dust concentration but decreases with the outlet PM concentration at constant migration velocity, fly ash and ash content.

  12. Application of calculated NMR parameters, aromaticity indices and wavefunction properties for evaluation of corrosion inhibition efficiency of pyrazine inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behzadi, Hadi; Manzetti, Sergio; Dargahi, Maryam; Roonasi, Payman; Khalilnia, Zahra

    2018-01-01

    In light of the importance of developing novel corrosion inhibitors, a series of quantum chemical calculations were carried out to evaluate 15N chemical shielding CS tensors as well as aromaticity indexes including NICS, HOMA, FLU, and PDI of three pyrazine derivatives, 2-methylpyrazine (MP), 2-aminopyrazine (AP) and 2-amino-5-bromopyrazine (ABP). The NICS parameters have been shown in previous studies to be paramount to the prediction of anti-corrosion properties, and have been combined here with HOMA, FLU and PDI and detailed wavefunction analysis to determine the effects from bromination and methylation on pyrazine. The results show that the electron density around the nitrogens, represented by CS tensors, can be good indicators of anti-corrosion efficiency. Additionally, the NICS, FLU and PDI, as aromaticity indicators of molecule, are well correlated with experimental corrosion inhibition efficiencies of the studied inhibitors. Bader sampling and detailed wavefunction analysis shows that the major effects from bromination on the pyrazine derivatives affect the Laplacian of the electron density of the ring, delocalizing the aromatic electrons of the carbon atoms into lone pairs and increasing polarization of the Laplacian values. This feature is well agreement with empirical studies, which show that ABP is the most efficient anti-corrosion compound followed by AP and MP, a property which can be attributed and predicted by derivation of the Laplacian of the electron density of the ring nuclei. This study shows the importance of devising DFT methods for development of new corrosion inhibitors, and the strength of electronic and nuclear analysis, and depicts most importantly how corrosion inhibitors composed of aromatic moieties may be modified to increase anti-corrosive properties.

  13. Triple Junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge Solar Cell Optimization: The Design Parameters for a 36.2% Efficient Space Cell Using Silvaco ATLAS Modeling & Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsutagawa, Michael H.; Michael, Sherif

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design parameters for a triple junction InGaP/GaAs/Ge space solar cell with a simulated maximum efficiency of 36.28% using Silvaco ATLAS Virtual Wafer Fabrication tool. Design parameters include the layer material, doping concentration, and thicknesses.

  14. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  15. An adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme for efficient state-parameter estimation of reactive contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad; Valstar, Johan R.; Hoteit, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Reactive contaminant transport models are used by hydrologists to simulate and study the migration and fate of industrial waste in subsurface aquifers. Accurate transport modeling of such waste requires clear understanding of the system's parameters, such as sorption and biodegradation. In this study, we present an efficient sequential data assimilation scheme that computes accurate estimates of aquifer contamination and spatially variable sorption coefficients. This assimilation scheme is based on a hybrid formulation of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and optimal interpolation (OI) in which solute concentration measurements are assimilated via a recursive dual estimation of sorption coefficients and contaminant state variables. This hybrid EnKF-OI scheme is used to mitigate background covariance limitations due to ensemble under-sampling and neglected model errors. Numerical experiments are conducted with a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which cobalt-60, a radioactive contaminant, is leached in a saturated heterogeneous clayey sandstone zone. Assimilation experiments are investigated under different settings and sources of model and observational errors. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid EnKF-OI scheme successfully recovers both the contaminant and the sorption rate and reduces their uncertainties. Sensitivity analyses also suggest that the adaptive hybrid scheme remains effective with small ensembles, allowing to reduce the ensemble size by up to 80% with respect to the standard EnKF scheme. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. An adaptive hybrid EnKF-OI scheme for efficient state-parameter estimation of reactive contaminant transport models

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2014-09-01

    Reactive contaminant transport models are used by hydrologists to simulate and study the migration and fate of industrial waste in subsurface aquifers. Accurate transport modeling of such waste requires clear understanding of the system\\'s parameters, such as sorption and biodegradation. In this study, we present an efficient sequential data assimilation scheme that computes accurate estimates of aquifer contamination and spatially variable sorption coefficients. This assimilation scheme is based on a hybrid formulation of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and optimal interpolation (OI) in which solute concentration measurements are assimilated via a recursive dual estimation of sorption coefficients and contaminant state variables. This hybrid EnKF-OI scheme is used to mitigate background covariance limitations due to ensemble under-sampling and neglected model errors. Numerical experiments are conducted with a two-dimensional synthetic aquifer in which cobalt-60, a radioactive contaminant, is leached in a saturated heterogeneous clayey sandstone zone. Assimilation experiments are investigated under different settings and sources of model and observational errors. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed hybrid EnKF-OI scheme successfully recovers both the contaminant and the sorption rate and reduces their uncertainties. Sensitivity analyses also suggest that the adaptive hybrid scheme remains effective with small ensembles, allowing to reduce the ensemble size by up to 80% with respect to the standard EnKF scheme. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  17. The effect of dietary cation-anion difference concentration and cation source on milk production and feed efficiency in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniuk, M E; Weidman, A E; Erdman, R A

    2015-03-01

    Feed costs currently account for 55% or more of the total cost of milk production in US dairy herds, and dairy producers are looking for strategies to improve feed efficiency [FE; 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) per dry matter (DM) intake]. Increasing dietary cation-anion difference [DCAD; Na+K-Cl (mEq/kg of DM)] has been shown to increase milk production, FCM, and FE. However, the optimal DCAD concentration for maximal FE has yet to be determined. The objectives of this research were to test the effects of DCAD concentration and cation source on dairy FE. Sixty Holstein dairy cows (20 cows per experiment) were used in three 4×4 Latin square design experiments with 3-wk experimental periods. In experiments 1 and 2, we tested the effect of DCAD concentration: cows were fed a basal diet containing ~250 mEq/kg of DM DCAD that was supplemented with potassium carbonate at 0, 50, 100, and 150 mEq/kg of DM or 0, 125, 250, and 375 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. In experiment 3, we tested the effect of cation source: sodium sesquicarbonate replaced 0, 33, 67, and 100% of the supplemental potassium carbonate (150 mEq/kg of DM DCAD). The DCAD concentration had no effect on milk production, milk protein concentration, or milk protein yield in experiments 1 and 2. Dry matter intake was not affected by DCAD concentration in experiment 1 or by cation source in experiment 3. However, DMI increased linearly with increasing DCAD in experiment 2. We detected a linear increase in milk fat concentration and yield with increasing DCAD in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting sodium sesquicarbonate for potassium carbonate in experiment 3. Increased milk fat concentration with increasing DCAD led to increases in 3.5% FCM in experiments 1 and 2. Maximal dairy FE was achieved at a DCAD concentration of 426 mEq/kg of DM in experiments 1 and 2 and by substituting Na for K in experiment 3. The results of these experiments suggest that both DCAD concentration and the cation

  18. Parameter effect of a phase change thermal energy storage unit with one shell and one finned tube on its energy efficiency ratio and heat storage rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Liang-Bi; He, Ya-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit using fins is reported. • The configurations of PCTES unit using fins in optimum performance are suggested. • Two parameters to indicate the effects of PCM and tube material properties are found. • The working conditions of PCTES unit using fins in optimum performance are analyzed. - Abstract: The performance of a phase change thermal energy storage (PCTES) unit using circular finned tube is affected by many parameters. Thorough studies of the parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit are strongly required in its optimum design process. Based on a reported energy efficiency ratio and a newly defined parameter named the heat storage rate, the parameter effect on the performance of PCTES unit using circular finned tube is numerically investigated. When the fin pitch is greater than 4 times of the inner radius of the tube, the fin height and the fin thickness have little effect on the energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate. When the fin pitch is small, the performance of PCTES unit becomes better using large fin height and width. The energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate are more sensitive to the outer tube diameter. The performance of PCTES unit using circular finned tube is best when water is used as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). When the fluid flow of HTF is in a laminar state, the energy efficiency ratio and the heat storage rate are larger than that in a turbulent state.

  19. Effects of precalving body condition score and prepartum feeding level on production, reproduction, and health parameters in pasture-based transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Meier, S; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Walker, C G; Crookenden, M A; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Kay, J K

    2015-10-01

    Precalving feeding level alters postcalving energy balance, dry matter intake, the liver and adipose tissue transcriptome, hepatic lipidosis, and the risk of metabolic diseases in both high-production cows consuming total mixed rations and moderate-production cows grazing pasture. We hypothesized that the reported benefits of a controlled restriction before calving are dependent on precalving body condition score (BCS): low BCS animals would not benefit from reduced feeding levels precalving, but high BCS cows would have metabolic and immunomodulatory profiles indicative of an improved health status. One hundred sixty-one days before calving, 150 cows were allocated randomly to 1 of 6 treatment groups (n = 25) in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement: 2 precalving BCS categories (4.0 and 5.0; based on a 10-point scale: BCS4 and BCS5, respectively) and 3 levels of energy intake during the 3 wk preceding calving (75, 100, and 125% of estimated requirements). Cows in the BCS4 and BCS5 groups were managed through late lactation to ensure that target calving BCS was achieved at dry off. Cows were then fed to maintain this BCS target until 3 wk before expected calving date, at which point they were managed within their allotted precalving energy intake treatments by offering different allowances of fresh pasture/cow per day. Milk production, body weight, and BCS were measured weekly; blood was sampled weekly before and after calving and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving. Aspirated plasma was assayed for nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, cholesterol, haptoglobin, IL-1β, IL-6, total antioxidant capacity, and reactive oxygen species. Liver was sampled wk 1, 2, and 4 postcalving for triacylglycerol analysis. Results confirm that precalving BCS and precalving feeding level have both independent and interdependent effects on production and health characteristics of transition dairy cows. Irrespective of precalving BCS, a controlled

  20. Effect Of Potassium Chloride, Vitamin E And Some Amino Acids Supplementation In Feed On Some Physiological Parameters Of Broiler Under Heat Stress Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELSAYED, M.A.; WAKWAK, M.M.; ABU-TALEB, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Hubbard broilers (240 of two weeks old) from the breeding flock in the Poultry Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, were used in this study. The effect of potassium chloride (KCl), vitamin E (VE) and some amino acids (proline + glycine) supplementations in feed on broiler performance under thermo neutral (TN) or heat stress conditions during May 2007 was investigated. All broilers chicks were exposed to 24 hrs light per day. The birds were fed starter diet for two weeks and followed by grower diet for two weeks ad libitum. Birds were divided into equal four groups (60 birds each). The first group (control) was fed the basal diet, while the second group was fed the same diet with adding 1 % proline + 1 % glycine. The third group was fed the diet with adding 250 mg VE/kg and the fourth group was fed the diet with adding 0.6 g KCl/kg. All groups were fed the previous diets for two weeks then subdivided to equal four sub-groups (30 birds each). The primary four groups were exposed to normal ambient temperature (TN conditions 22±1 0 C) while the other fourth groups were exposed to high environmental temperature (38±1 0 C) for 4 hours daily for 4 days (HS conditions) and then returned to normal temperature for one week then exposed to high environmental temperature (38±1 0 C) for 4 hours daily for 4 days. The individual body weight, feed intake at morning and before diet supplementation, body temperature and mortality percentage were recorded. Serum total protein, albumin, globulin, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, creatinine and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were determined. It was found that after two weeks of additive supplementation and during thermo neutral condition period (TN), the control group showed the lowest value of feed consumption while under heat stress condition, the KCl group showed the highest value of feed consumption. At 1 st and 2 nd heat stress exposure periods, KCl group had the highest level of the

  1. The effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood parameters of growing calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholipour, A; Foroozandeh Shahraki, A D; Tabeidian, S A; Nasrollahi, S M; Yang, W Z

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of increasing garlic powder and monensin supplementation on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth performance and blood metabolites of growing calves. Forty Holstein calves (BW = 100 ± 11 kg) were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments (n = 10) in a complete randomized design. Experimental treatments consisted of the following: (i) basal diet (control), (ii) basal diet supplemented with 0.0003% of dietary dry matter (DM) sodium monensin, (iii) low level of garlic powder (Low-GAR; 0.5% of dietary DM) and (iv) high level of garlic powder (High-GAR; 1% of dietary DM). DM intake (DMI) and DM digestibility were (p calves supplemented with Low-GAR had a similar DMI to the control calves and similar DM digestibility to the control and monensin groups. The digestibility of other nutrients were not affected by the treatments. Although supplementing monensin relative to Low-GAR increased the DMI (p calves, which were higher than the control and High-GAR groups (p feed conversion ratio was improved in the Low-GAR group versus other treatment groups (p calves fed the Low-GAR showed an improved FCR and blood metabolites without changing the DMI and nutrient digestibility. It suggests that garlic powder could be used as an alternative to monensin for growing calves under the current feeding conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Oral feeding with L-Glutamine and Nucleotides: impact on some GALT (gut associated lymphoid tissue parameters and cell proliferation/death rates in weaning piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bontempo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary supplementation with glutamine and nucleotides may be useful during piglets weaning, when a rough passage from milk suckling to a solid feed may cause a strong reduction of the length of intestinal villi height and the depth of the crypts, and consequently of the intestinal digestive and absorptive capacities (Van Beers-Schreurs et al., 1998. Glutamine stimulates cell proliferation and activates protein kinases, suggesting that it could control the regularly alternating cellular apoptosis/proliferation sequence (Rhoads et al., 2000...

  3. Comparison of triple to double coincidence ratio and Quench Parameter External methods for the determination of 3H efficiency by liquid scintillation counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisti, M.B.; Saueia, C.H.R.; Mazzilli, B.P.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the tritium efficiency by liquid scintillation counting using two methodologies, Quench Parameter External (QPE) and Triple to Double Coincidence Ratio (TDCR), and to compare the results. The equipment used was the HIDEX model 300-SL Liquid Scintillation Counter, composed of three photomultipliers coupled with coincidence pulses, discrimination level and Mikro Win 2000 software. The efficiency varied from 0.028 to 0.706 cps dps -1 for QPE and from 0.061 to 0.703 cps dps -1 for TDCR. Different efficiencies were obtained using both methods, in the range from 459 to 572 quenching, above this range the efficiencies were similar. The verification of the efficiencies was performed by participating in the Intercomparison National Program (PNI). (author)

  4. Straight-run vs. sex separate rearing for 2 broiler genetic lines Part 1: Live production parameters, carcass yield, and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, M J; Zaragoza-Santacruz, S; Frost, T J; Halley, J; Pesti, G M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of raising broilers under sex separate and straight-run conditions for 2 broiler strains. Day-old Ross 308 and Ross 708 chicks (n = 1,344) were separated by sex and placed in 48 pens according to the rearing type: sex separate (28 males or 28 females) or straight-run (14 males + 14 females). There were 3 dietary phases: starter (zero to 17 d), grower (17 to 32 d), and finisher (32 to 48 d). Birds' individual BW and feed intakes were measured at 12, 17, 25, 32, 42, and 48 d to evaluate performance. At 33, 43, and 49 d, 4 birds per pen were sampled for carcass yield evaluation. Additionally, from 06:00 to 06:30, 13:00 to 13:30, and 22:00 to 22:30, video records were taken to assess behavior at 45 days. Data were analyzed as CRD with a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments over time. Throughout the experiment Ross 308 were heavier than the 708, and after 17 d, male pens had the heavier birds, followed by straight-run and then females. Straight-run pens had higher BW CV in comparison with sex separate pens. Sex separate male BW was negatively impacted from 17 to 32 days. On the other hand, females raised sex separate were heavier than females raised straight-run with lower CV from 25 to 41 days. Post 25 d, FCR was the lowest in male pens whereas feed intake was the highest for these pens after 17 days. Overall, males had total carcass cut-up weights higher than straight-run and females at the 3 processing times. The Ross 708 had higher white meat yields, whereas 308 had higher yields for dark meat. Feeding behavior results were not consistent over time. However, from 13:00 to 13:30, birds in female pens spent more time eating, followed by straight-run and then males. In conclusion, raising females in a straight-run system negatively impacted performance and CV, whereas males benefited from straight-run rearing, with the differences being possibly related to feeder space competition. © 2017

  5. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winands, G.J.J.; Liu, Zhen; Pemen, A.J.M.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Yan, K.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of

  6. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  7. Development of a correlation for parameter controlling using exergy efficiency optimization of an Al_2O_3/water nanofluid based flat-plate solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shojaeizadeh, Ehsan; Veysi, Farzad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy efficiency optimization of a flat-plate collector with Al_2O_3 nanofluid is studied. • Solar radiation and ambient temperature are assumed to be uncontrollable. • Solar collector inlet temperature is influenced by the presence of reservoir tank. • A suitable exponential correlation is proposed for the optimized exergy efficiency. • This exponential correlation also is used for controlling independent parameters. - Abstract: The current study deals with the exergy efficiency optimization of an Al_2O_3/water nanofluid-based flat-plate solar collector according to a mathematical optimization (Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) method). This study takes into account exergy efficiency optimization when solar radiation and ambient temperature parameters are assumed to be uncontrollable and presented to a wide range of transient data of climatic conditions where these might take place during spring and summer seasons of Kermanshah (Iran), and perform two main cases as follows: (1) the fluid temperature at the inlet of solar collector, T_i, is independent of storage tank (open loop); (2) the fluid temperature at the inlet of solar collector, T_i, is influenced by the presence of storage tank (closed loop). In any conditions of each case studies (working fluid with and without nanoparticles), a suitable decreasing exponential correlation as function of T_a/G_t values (i.e. ambient temperature to solar radiation ratio) is developed for the optimized exergy efficiency and also well controlling independent parameters values (mass flow rate of fluid, nanoparticle volume concentration and collector inlet temperature). Also, it is concluded that each of optimized parameters and the optimum exergy efficiency is of a linear relation with each other.

  8. Assessing sample attenuation parameters for use in low-energy efficiency transfer in gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, M.; Verheyen, L.; Vidmar, T.; Liu, B.

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical fitting method for transmission data that outputs an equivalent sample composition. This output is used as input to a generalised efficiency transfer model based on the EFFTRAN software integrated in a LIMS. The procedural concept allows choosing between efficiency transfer with a predefined sample composition or with an experimentally determined composition based on a transmission measurement. The method can be used for simultaneous quantification of low-energy gamma emitters like "2"1"0Pb, "2"4"1Am, "2"3"4Th in typical environmental samples. - Highlights: • New fitting method for experimentally determined attenuation coefficients. • Generalised efficiency transfer with EFFTRAN based on transmission measurements. • Method of generalized efficiency transfer integrated in LIMS. • Method applicable to gamma-ray spectrometry of environmental samples.

  9. Unstructured meshing and parameter estimation for urban dam-break flood modeling: building treatments and implications for accuracy and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, J. E.; Sanders, B. F.

    2011-12-01

    Urban landscapes are at the forefront of current research efforts in the field of flood inundation modeling for two major reasons. First, urban areas hold relatively large economic and social importance and as such it is imperative to avoid or minimize future damages. Secondly, urban flooding is becoming more frequent as a consequence of continued development of impervious surfaces, population growth in cities, climate change magnifying rainfall intensity, sea level rise threatening coastal communities, and decaying flood defense infrastructure. In reality urban landscapes are particularly challenging to model because they include a multitude of geometrically complex features. Advances in remote sensing technologies and geographical information systems (GIS) have promulgated fine resolution data layers that offer a site characterization suitable for urban inundation modeling including a description of preferential flow paths, drainage networks and surface dependent resistances to overland flow. Recent research has focused on two-dimensional modeling of overland flow including within-curb flows and over-curb flows across developed parcels. Studies have focused on mesh design and parameterization, and sub-grid models that promise improved performance relative to accuracy and/or computational efficiency. This presentation addresses how fine-resolution data, available in Los Angeles County, are used to parameterize, initialize and execute flood inundation models for the 1963 Baldwin Hills dam break. Several commonly used model parameterization strategies including building-resistance, building-block and building hole are compared with a novel sub-grid strategy based on building-porosity. Performance of the models is assessed based on the accuracy of depth and velocity predictions, execution time, and the time and expertise required for model set-up. The objective of this study is to assess field-scale applicability, and to obtain a better understanding of advantages

  10. Prediction efficiency of the hydrographical parameters as related to distribution patterns of the Pleuromamma species in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Saraswathy, M.

    . Multiple regression model of P. indica abundance on the parameters: temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and phosphate-phosphorus could explain more than 85% of the variation in the predicted abundance, while those of 8 species obtained from...

  11. Feeding at a high pitch: Source parameters of narrow band,high-frequency clicks from echolocating off-shore hourglassdolphins and coastal Hector's dolphins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhn, Line Anker; Tougaard, Jakob; Jensen, Frants Havmand

    2009-01-01

    Toothed whales depend on echolocation for orientation and prey localization, and source parameters of echolocation clicks from free-ranging animals therefore convey valuable information about the acoustic physiology and behavioral ecology of the recorded species. Recordings of wild hourglass (Lag...

  12. Effects of Ochratoxin A Feeding in White Leghorn Cockerels on Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters and its Amelioration with Silymarin and Vitamin E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Fakhar-ud-Din Ahmad, Muhammad Kashif Saleemi*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Faqir Muhammad1, Zahoor-ul-Hassan2, Aisha Khatoon, Sheraz Ahmed Bhatti, Rao Zahid Abbas3, Farzana Rizvi and Ishtiaq Ahmed4

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the hematobiochemical effects tempted by ochratoxin A (OTA in White Leghorn (WL cockerels and to evaluate the effect of silymarin (SL, vitamin E (VE and their combination against OTA persuaded pathological alterations in cockerels. A total of 240 day-old WL cockerels were divided into 12 groups A-L having 20 birds in each group and group A was control. Two doses of OTA 1000 and 2000 µg/kg of feed were given to cockerels up to 7 weeks. Silymarin was administered at a dose rate of 10000 mg/kg and Vitamin E at a dose rate of 200 mg/kg alone and in combinations with two doses of OTA. In OTA treated groups total erythrocytes counts, leukocytes count, PCV and Hb were decreased as compared to control, SL and VE groups. Albumen and serum total proteins in OTA treated groups were significantly lower as compared to control, SL and VE groups. Serum alanine transferase was significantly increased in OTA fed groups in comparison with control, SL and VE groups. Creatinine and urea were increased in OTA treated groups but were almost normal in SL and VE groups. Results showed that OTA had severe effect on liver and kidney but SL and VE treated groups had normal liver and kidneys showing its hepatoprotective effects. However, at higher dose of OTA this ameliorative effect was partially observed. These agents may be recommended as a remedy for ochratoxicosis.

  13. An efficient method to generate a perturbed parameter ensemble of a fully coupled AOGCM without flux-adjustment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Irvine

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple method to generate a perturbed parameter ensemble (PPE of a fully-coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation model (AOGCM, HadCM3, without requiring flux-adjustment. The aim was to produce an ensemble that samples parametric uncertainty in some key variables and gives a plausible representation of the climate. Six atmospheric parameters, a sea-ice parameter and an ocean parameter were jointly perturbed within a reasonable range to generate an initial group of 200 members. To screen out implausible ensemble members, 20 yr pre-industrial control simulations were run and members whose temperature responses to the parameter perturbations were projected to be outside the range of 13.6 ± 2 °C, i.e. near to the observed pre-industrial global mean, were discarded. Twenty-one members, including the standard unperturbed model, were accepted, covering almost the entire span of the eight parameters, challenging the argument that without flux-adjustment parameter ranges would be unduly restricted. This ensemble was used in 2 experiments; an 800 yr pre-industrial and a 150 yr quadrupled CO2 simulation. The behaviour of the PPE for the pre-industrial control compared well to ERA-40 reanalysis data and the CMIP3 ensemble for a number of surface and atmospheric column variables with the exception of a few members in the Tropics. However, we find that members of the PPE with low values of the entrainment rate coefficient show very large increases in upper tropospheric and stratospheric water vapour concentrations in response to elevated CO2 and one member showed an implausible nonlinear climate response, and as such will be excluded from future experiments with this ensemble. The outcome of this study is a PPE of a fully-coupled AOGCM which samples parametric uncertainty and a simple methodology which would be applicable to other GCMs.

  14. The influence of dietary energy concentration and feed intake level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feed intake levels on digestibility, feed intake, growth, feed efficiency and .... phosphorus and crude protein (N X 6.25) according to the methods of the .... supported by a parallel relationship between the ME content of .... dilution by saliva.

  15. Effects of Fatty Acid and Geraniol Repellent-Oil Mixtures Applied to Cattle on Blood Feeding and Reproductive Parameters in Field Populations of Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, Bradley A; Soto, Diane; Gerry, Alec C; Fowler, Fallon E; Diniz, Alesha N

    2018-02-28

    California pastured cattle were treated with 250 ml of a 15% mixture of fatty acids (C8-C9-C10) or 125 ml of 2% geraniol in a mineral oil carrier to assess impacts on horn flies, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) over two summers. Horn flies were netted from cattle every 3-4 d for 2 wk before treatment, 2 wk during treatment (four treatments, with flies collected before each treatment), and 2 wk after treatments ceased. Blood meal weights were estimated by hemoglobin assay of excised abdomens. Other females were dissected to determine the number of active ovarioles and the stage of primary follicle development. Depending on year and herd, pretreatment males contained an average of 0.6-1.0 mg of blood, while females contained 1.7-2.7 mg. Pretreatment egg development (least developed oocytes were stage 1 and fully developed eggs were stage 5) averaged 3.7-4.3, and number of active ovarioles averaged 18.1 to 19.6/female. During treatment periods, significant reductions in blood weight were noted for females, but usually not for males, and females also often exhibited reduced mean oocyte stage and number of active ovarioles. Peaks in proportions of young nulliparous females (oocyte stages 1 or 2) were seen during some repellent application periods. This suggested older females had been killed or driven off from the local population by the treatments, and flies on cattle included more young flies that likely were recent arrivals. The repellent-oil mixture thus impacted blood feeding, reproductive fitness, and probably age structure in the field.

  16. A novel device for hazardous substances degradation based on double-cavitating-jets impingement: Parameters optimization and efficiency assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yuequn; Cai, Jun; Huai, Xiulan; Liu, Bin

    2017-08-05

    Hydrodynamic cavitation is an effective advanced oxidation process. But sometimes it cannot obtain satisfactory treatment efficiency by using hydrodynamic cavitation individually, so it is necessary to introduce intensive methods. Based on double-cavitating-jets impingement, this paper presents a novel device that has advantages of strong heat and mass transfer and efficient chemical reactions. Based on the device, a series of experimental investigations on degradation of a basic dye, i.e. Rhodamine B were carried out. Significant Rhodamine B removal from aqueous solution was observed during 2h treatment and the degradation reaction conformed to pseudo-first-order kinetics. The synergetic effects between double-cavitating-jets impingement and Fenton chemistry on simultaneous degradation of Rhodamine B were confirmed. Both single-variable experiments and orthogonal experiments were carried out to study the effects of initial hydrogen peroxide, ferrous sulfate and Rhodamine B concentrations and the optimum conditions were found out. Effects of jet inlet pressure in the range of 6-12MPa and solution pH value in the range of 2-8 were also investigated. The cavitation yield was evaluated to assess the energy efficiency. The present treatment scheme showed advantages in terms of reducing the demand of hydrogen peroxide concentration and enhancing the treatment efficiency in large scale operation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of process parameters and injector position on the efficiency of NOx reduction by selective non catalytic reduction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, A.; Mehmood, M.A.; Irfan, N.; Javed, M.T.; Waheed, K.

    2009-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been performed to study the effect of atomizer pressure dilution of the reducing reagent and the injector position on the efficiency or the NOx reduction by a selective non-catalytic reduction technique using urea as a reducing agent. Experiments were performed with a flow reactor in which flue gas was generated by the combustion of methane in air at stoichiometric amount of oxygen and the desired levels of initial NOx (400-450 ppm) were achieved by doping the flame with ammonia. The work was directed to investigate the effect of atomizer pressure, dilution of urea reagent and the injector position. The atomizer pressure was varied from 1 to 3bar and 20-25% increase in efficiency was observed by decreasing the pressure. Effect of dilution of urea solution was investigated by varying the strength of the solution from the 8 to 32% and 40-45% increase in the efficiency was observed. Effects of injector position was investigated by injecting the urea solution both in co current and counter current direction of the flue gases and 20-25% increase in the efficiency was observed in counter current direction. (author)

  18. Effect of Different HTM Layers and Electrical Parameters on ZnO Nanorod-Based Lead-Free Perovskite Solar Cell for High-Efficiency Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Anwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation has been done using SCAPS-1D to examine the efficiency of CH3NH3SnI3-based solar cells including various HTM layers such as spiro-OMeTAD, Cu2O, and CuSCN. ZnO nanorod array has been considered as an ETM layer. Device parameters such as thickness of the CH3NH3SnI3 layer, defect density of interfaces, density of states, and metal work function were studied. For optimum parameters of all three structures, efficiency of 20.21%, 20.23%, and 18.34% has been achieved for spiro-OMeTAD, Cu2O, and CuSCN, respectively. From the simulations, an alternative lead-free perovskite solar cell is introduced with the CH3NH3SnI3 absorber layer, ZnO nanorod ETM layer, and Cu2O HTM layer.

  19. Methodical Approach to Estimation of Energy Efficiency Parameters of the Economy Under the Structural Changes in the Fuel And Energy Balance (on the Example of Baikal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Grigorievich Saneev

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors consider a methodical approach which allows estimating energy efficiency parameters of the region’s economy using a fuel and energy balance (FEB. This approach was tested on the specific case of Baikal region. During the testing process the authors have developed ex ante and ex post FEBs and estimated energy efficiency parameters such as energy-, electro- and heat capacity of GRP, coefficients of useful utilization of fuel and energy resources and a monetary version of FEB. Forecast estimations are based on assumptions and limitations of technologically-intensive development scenario of the region. Authors show that the main factor of structural changes in the fuel and energy balance will be the large-scale development of hydrocarbon resources in Baikal region. It will cause structural changes in the composition of both the debit and credit of FEB (namely the structure of export and final consumption of fuel and energy resources. Authors assume that the forecast structural changes of the region’s FEB will significantly improve energy efficiency parameters of the economy: energy capacity of GRP will decrease by 1,5 times in 2010– 2030, electro and heat capacity – 1,9 times; coefficients of useful utilization of fuel and energy resources will increase by 3–5 p.p. This will save about 20 million tons of fuel equivalent (about 210 billion rubles in 2011 the prices until 2030

  20. Feed in or certificates, competition or complementarity? Combining a static efficiency and a dynamic innovation perspective on the greening of the energy industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midttun, Atle; Gautesen, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    European policy on the greening of the energy industry has been characterised by a debate between proponents of two apparent polar opposites, feed in tariffs and certificate markets. Different European countries have chosen both mechanisms and, as a consequence, the European Union has maintained a fairly pluralist position, abstaining from stricter harmonisation. Taking a dynamic innovation perspective on European energy industry, we argue that feed in tariffs and certificate markets should not be seen as competing alternatives, but rather as complementary regulatory instruments targeting subsequent steps in the product cycle, on the way from early technology-conceptualisation and development towards competitive positioning in mature energy markets. We see both policy instruments as necessary to achieve the extensive transformation towards sustainable development that is judged as important tools in the context of the global climate challenge

  1. Small Sample Properties of Asymptotically Efficient Estimators of the Parameters of a Bivariate Gaussian–Weibull Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steve P. Verrill; James W. Evans; David E. Kretschmann; Cherilyn A. Hatfield

    2012-01-01

    Two important wood properties are stiffness (modulus of elasticity or MOE) and bending strength (modulus of rupture or MOR). In the past, MOE has often been modeled as a Gaussian and MOR as a lognormal or a two or three parameter Weibull. It is well known that MOE and MOR are positively correlated. To model the simultaneous behavior of MOE and MOR for the purposes of...

  2. Energy Cost and Gait Efficiency of Below-Knee Amputee and Normal Subject with Similar Physical Parameters & Quality of Life: A Comparative Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durbadal Biswas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The study focused on the comparative analysis of energy cost and gait efficiency between a below knee (BK amputee and a reference subject (without amputation. It also attempted to indicate the specific feature responsible for a controlled gait with optimum energy cost for BK amputees. Selection criteria of the subjects were similar physical parameters and quality of life studied with WHOQOL-100 quality of life assessment. A Cosmed® k4 b2 Respiratory Analyzer system was used for the measurement of Oxygen Uptake (VO2, Energy Expenditure per minute (EE and Heart Rate (HR. Gait efficiency (p < 0.0002 was found higher for BK amputee than normal subject. The therapeutic activities and mainly walking rhythm contributed to improve the mobility & balance. This ensures the optimum time & co-ordination of movements and hence improves the gait efficiency for the BK amputee. Comparison with control group was performed to validate the data.

  3. The efficiency of parameter estimation of latent path analysis using summated rating scale (SRS) and method of successive interval (MSI) for transformation of score to scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solimun, Fernandes, Adji Achmad Rinaldo; Arisoesilaningsih, Endang

    2017-12-01

    Research in various fields generally investigates systems and involves latent variables. One method to analyze the model representing the system is path analysis. The data of latent variables measured using questionnaires by applying attitude scale model yields data in the form of score, before analyzed should be transformation so that it becomes data of scale. Path coefficient, is parameter estimator, calculated from scale data using method of successive interval (MSI) and summated rating scale (SRS). In this research will be identifying which data transformation method is better. Path coefficients have smaller varieties are said to be more efficient. The transformation method that produces scaled data and used in path analysis capable of producing path coefficients (parameter estimators) with smaller varieties is said to be better. The result of analysis using real data shows that on the influence of Attitude variable to Intention Entrepreneurship, has relative efficiency (ER) = 1, where it shows that the result of analysis using data transformation of MSI and SRS as efficient. On the other hand, for simulation data, at high correlation between items (0.7-0.9), MSI method is more efficient 1.3 times better than SRS method.

  4. FEEDING FREQUENCY OF NILE TILAPIA FED RATIONS SUPPLEMENTED WITH AMINO ACIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EDUARDO ARRUDA TEIXEIRA LANNA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the feeding frequency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus fed low-protein diets (29% crude protein supplemented with commercial amino acids (L-lysine-HCl, DL-methionine, and L-threonine. Sex-reversed Nile tilapia (240 of Thai origin, with initial body weight of 0.93 ± 0.03 g each, were allocated in a completely randomized design, to five groups with various feeding frequencies (2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 times a day. Six replications were conducted on separate experimental units comprising eight fishes each. The fish were maintained in 30 130-L aquariums, each equipped with individual water supply and controlled temperature and aeration. Fish were fed identical quantities among all treatments over a period of 30 days. Performance parameters, feed conversion efficiency, body composition, daily protein and fat deposition rates, and nitrogen retention efficiency were evaluated. Increased feeding frequency affected neither performance parameters nor body composition. Values for protein and fat deposition rates and nitrogen retention efficiency were significantly lower in fish fed twice daily than in those fed five times daily. Fish subjected to other feeding frequencies yielded intermediate values without any significant differences. The minimum feeding frequency of Nile tilapia fingerlings fed a low-protein ration supplemented with commercial amino acids is three times a day, owing to increased protein deposition rates and nitrogen retention efficiency.

  5. Feeding behavior of Nellore cattle fed high concentrations of crude glycerin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Haydt Castello Branco Van Cleef

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of up to 30% crude glycerin in Nellore cattle diets and its effects on feeding behavior parameters. It were used 30 animals with 277.7kg BW and 18 months old, which were kept in feedlot in individual pens during 103 days (21 adaptation and 82 data collection. The animals were assigned (initial weight in blocks and submitted to the following treatments: G0; G7.5; G15; G22.5; and G30, corresponding to control group, 7.5, 15, 22.5, and 30% crude glycerin in the diet dry matter, respectively. The feeding behavior (feeding, idle, ruminating, number of chews, feeding efficiency and ruminating efficiency were evaluated for three days. Data were analyzed as a completely randomized block design, analyzing contrasts and observing the significance of linear, quadratic and control treatment × glycerin treatments effects. The inclusion up to 30% crude glycerin in diets of Nellore cattle altered the feeding efficiency, expressed in g NDF h-1, the ruminating efficiency relative to NDF, the time and number of chews per ruminal bolus, facilitating the feed ingestion and directly influencing the time spent on feeding.

  6. Test post-weaning duration for performance, feed intake and feed efficiency in Nellore cattle Duração do período de avaliação pós-desmame para medidas de desempenho, consumo e eficiência alimentar em bovinos da raça Nelore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Michel de Castilhos

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine optimum test duration for measuring performance, feed intake and feed efficiency. Sixty young Nellore bulls were submitted to feeding performance test and fed in individual pens to determine feed intake and performance over 112 days. Body weight was determined every 28 days, after fasting of water and feed for 16 hours. Changes in variance, relative variance and Pearson and Spearman correlations among data from shortened test periods (28, 56 and 84 days and full test period (112 days were used to determine optimum test duration. Test duration for average daily gain, dry matter intake, feed:gain ratio and residual feed intake could be shortened to 84, 28, 84 and 84 days, respectively, without reducing significantly the reliability of measurements for animals fed in individual pens.O objetivo neste estudo foi determinar o melhor período de avaliação para medidas de desempenho, consumo e eficiência alimentar. Durante 112 dias, 60 machos da raça Nelore, recém-desmamados, submetidos à prova de ganho de peso, foram alimentados em baias individuais para determinação do consumo alimentar e do desempenho. O peso corporal dos animais foi determinado a cada 28 dias, depois de jejum de 16 horas de líquidos e sólidos. As alterações na variância, variância relativa e correlações de Pearson e Spearman entre os dados dos períodos de avaliação reduzidos (28, 56 e 84 dias e período total (112 dias foram usados para determinar a melhor duração do período de avaliação. A duração do período de avaliação para ganho médio diário, consumo de matéria seca, conversão alimentar e consumo alimentar residual pode ser reduzida para 84, 28, 84 e 84 dias, respectivamente, pois tal redução não diminui significativamente a confiabilidade das avaliações em animais alimentados em baias individuais.

  7. Candidate Gene Identification of Feed Efficiency and Coat Color Traits in a C57BL/6J × Kunming F2 Mice Population Using Genome-Wide Association Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yuanxin; Soudy, Fathia; Xu, Zhong; Liao, Mingxing; Zhao, Shuhong; Li, Xinyun

    2017-01-01

    Feed efficiency (FE) is a very important trait in livestock industry. Identification of the candidate genes could be of benefit for the improvement of FE trait. Mouse is used as the model for many studies in mammals. In this study, the candidate genes related to FE and coat color were identified using C57BL/6J (C57) × Kunming (KM) F2 mouse population. GWAS results showed that 61 and 2 SNPs were genome-wise suggestive significantly associated with feed conversion ratio (FCR) and feed intake (FI) traits, respectively. Moreover, the Erbin, Msrb2, Ptf1a, and Fgf10 were considered as the candidate genes of FE. The Lpl was considered as the candidate gene of FI. Further, the coat color trait was studied. KM mice are white and C57 ones are black. The GWAS results showed that the most significant SNP was located at chromosome 7, and the closely linked gene was Tyr. Therefore, our study offered useful target genes related to FE in mice; these genes may play similar roles in FE of livestock. Also, we identified the major gene of coat color in mice, which would be useful for better understanding of natural mutation of the coat color in mice.

  8. Candidate Gene Identification of Feed Efficiency and Coat Color Traits in a C57BL/6J × Kunming F2 Mice Population Using Genome-Wide Association Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxin Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed efficiency (FE is a very important trait in livestock industry. Identification of the candidate genes could be of benefit for the improvement of FE trait. Mouse is used as the model for many studies in mammals. In this study, the candidate genes related to FE and coat color were identified using C57BL/6J (C57 × Kunming (KM F2 mouse population. GWAS results showed that 61 and 2 SNPs were genome-wise suggestive significantly associated with feed conversion ratio (FCR and feed intake (FI traits, respectively. Moreover, the Erbin, Msrb2, Ptf1a, and Fgf10 were considered as the candidate genes of FE. The Lpl was considered as the candidate gene of FI. Further, the coat color trait was studied. KM mice are white and C57 ones are black. The GWAS results showed that the most significant SNP was located at chromosome 7, and the closely linked gene was Tyr. Therefore, our study offered useful target genes related to FE in mice; these genes may play similar roles in FE of livestock. Also, we identified the major gene of coat color in mice, which would be useful for better understanding of natural mutation of the coat color in mice.

  9. Efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production from water over Pt-Eosin Y catalyst: A systemic study of reaction parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Yong; Sun, Ruimin; Han, Bing

    2016-07-01

    A high efficient homogeneous system for hydrogen production from water consisting of Eosin Y as a photosensitizer, methyl viologen (MV2+) as an electron transfer mediator, triethanolamine (TEOA) as a sacrificial electron donor and colloid Pt as a catalyst, has been systemicly studied. The initial system pH and the concentration of Eosin Y have remarkable effects on the rate of hydrogen evolution. The optimal pH and concentration of Eosin Y are 9 and 7.2×10-5 M. Triethanolamine (TEOA) as an electron donor, can reductively quench the oxidized Eosin Y and the quenching is well modeled by the Stern-Volmer equation. The optimal concentration of TEOA and the concentration of MV2+ are 0.3 M and 3.1×10-4 M, respectively. In addition, the role of colloid Pt has been investigated.

  10. Parameters determining efficiency and degradation of TiO2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirimanne, P.M.; Tributsch, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The influence of the micro-morphological structure of the TiO 2 film, the distribution of CuI in TiO 2 pores and the concentration of added surfactant in the CuI coating solution on the photocurrent of solid-state TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI solar cells was examined by space resolved photocurrent imaging technique. Iodine is found to be competing with the oxidized dye molecules in accepting electrons from CuI and decreases the efficiency of the cell. TiO 2 vertical bar dye vertical bar CuI cell degrade two hundred times faster than wet sensitization cells. This instability is considered to be due to the decomposition of the electron transfer-bridge between the sensitizer and CuI

  11. A method to obtain the thermal parameters and the photothermal transduction efficiency in an optical hyperthermia device based on laser irradiation of gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez López de Pablo, Cristina; Olmedo, José Javier Serrano; Rosales, Alejandra Mina; Ramírez Hernández, Norma; Del Pozo Guerrero, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Optical hyperthermia systems based on the laser irradiation of gold nanorods seem to be a promising tool in the development of therapies against cancer. After a proof of concept in which the authors demonstrated the efficiency of this kind of systems, a modeling process based on an equivalent thermal-electric circuit has been carried out to determine the thermal parameters of the system and an energy balance obtained from the time-dependent heating and cooling temperature curves of the irradiated samples in order to obtain the photothermal transduction efficiency. By knowing this parameter, it is possible to increase the effectiveness of the treatments, thanks to the possibility of predicting the response of the device depending on the working configuration. As an example, the thermal behavior of two different kinds of nanoparticles is compared. The results show that, under identical conditions, the use of PEGylated gold nanorods allows for a more efficient heating compared with bare nanorods, and therefore, it results in a more effective therapy.

  12. Evaluation of nitrogen sources (15 N) on three wheat varieties in an andisol and an ultisol in the IX Region. II: Isotopic parameters and fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, Ines; Buneder B, Mirta; Peyrelongue C, Amelia

    1996-01-01

    A field study was carried out in order to evaluate different N fertilizers sources in three wheat varieties considering an Andisol and an Ultisol soils, in the IX Region of the country. The dilution isotopic techniques was used, with AS, 10% at rates of 20 kg ha -1 of N. The isotopic parameters such as N in the plant derived from the nitrogen sources, the N in the plant derived from the soil, the fertilizer use efficiencies and the agronomic evaluation between them were determined. The Nddfu (%) was associated to the varieties and to the soils. In the Ultisol, Dalcahue variety had a better behaviour with SS and, in the Andisol, Laurel variety showed an special affinity with U. In three varieties, the higher % of N derived from the sources it was in the grain, showing Dalcahue variety a better translocation.The fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and the physiological efficiency, determined according the isotopic parameters, were higher than the values determined according the conventional methodology. (author)

  13. Evaluation of nitrogen sources (15 N) on three wheat varieties in an andisol and an ultisol, in the IX region. 2. Isotopic parameters and fertilizer use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino N, Ines; Peyrelongue C, A.; Buneder B, Mirta

    1997-01-01

    Full text: A field study was carried out in order to evaluate different N fertilizers sources un three wheat varieties, considering an Andisol and Ultisol soils, in the IX Region of the country. The dilution isotopic techniques was used, with As, 10% at rates of 20 kg ha -1 of N. The isotopic parameters such as N in the plant derived from the nitrogen sources, the N in the plant derived from the soil, the fertilizer use efficiencies and the agronomic evaluation between them were determined. The Nddfu (%) was associated to the varieties and to the soils. In the Ultisol, Dalcahue variety had a better behaviour with SS and, in the Andisol, Laurel variety showed an special affinity with U. In the three varieties, the higher % of N derived from the sources it was in the grain, showing Dalcahue variety a better translocation. The fertilizer use efficiency (FUE) and the physiological efficiency, determined according the isotopic parameters, were higher than the values determined according the conventional methodology

  14. Effects of feeding blends of grains naturally contaminated with Fusarium mycotoxins on performance and metabolism of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, S R; Smith, T K

    2004-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding laying hens grains naturally contaminated with a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins. Parameters measured included performance, organ weights, and plasma chemistry. One hundred and forty-four, 45-wk-old laying hens were fed diets including: (1) control, (2) contaminated grains, and (3) contaminated grains + 0.2% polymeric glucomannan mycotoxin adsorbent (GMA) for a 12-wk period. The feeding of contaminated grains decreased feed consumption compared with controls in the first 4 wk. Feed consumption increased, however, from 4 to 8 wk and from 8 to 12 wk. The efficiency of feed utilization (feed consumption/egg mass) decreased compared with controls in the periods from 4 to 8 and from 8 to 12 wk when birds were fed contaminated grains. Supplementation with GMA decreased feed consumption and increased the efficiency of feed utilization in the period from 8 to 12 wk. Egg production and egg mass decreased in wk 4 and 8 compared with controls when contaminated grains were fed, whereas egg and eggshell weights decreased in the fourth wk. Plasma uric acid concentrations increased throughout the experiment and relative kidney weights increased at the end of the experiment compared with controls when birds were fed contaminated grains. The feeding of GMA prevented the elevation in uric acid concentrations and relative kidney weights. It was concluded that layer performance and metabolism were adversely affected by chronic feeding of a combination of Fusarium mycotoxins, and that GMA prevented many of these effects.

  15. Fuel cycle parameters for strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archinoff, G.H.

    1979-05-01

    This report summarizes seven fuel cycle parameters (efficiency, specific power, burnup, equilibrium net fissile feed, equilibrium net fissile surplus, first charge fissile content, and whether or not fuel reprocessing is required) to be used in long-term strategy analyses of fuel cycles based on natural UO 2 , low enriched uranium, mixed oxides, plutonium topped thorium, uranium topped thorium, and the fast breeder oxide cycle. (LL)

  16. Optimizing the Parameters in Heat Treatment for Achieving High Hardness and Efficient Bending of Thin BS 2014 Aluminium Alloy Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami Priyadarshini B.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work targets in setting a standard heat treatment procedure for obtaining high hardness values of the order of 80 HRB in BS 2014 aluminium alloy sheets of 2mm thick commonly used in aerospace industries. A hardness range of 60HRB to 72HRB is possible in low thickness sheets as stated in the standard BS EN 485-2:2013. Experiments were performed to achieve higher hardness values by controlling the heat treatment temperatures thereby understanding the ageing mechanism of the Al-Cu alloy to a wider extent. The validated process sequence in turn resulted in complications where bending of the sheets resulted in cracking. Further investigation was performed and it was found that the BS 2014 alloy has to be bent within two hours of solution annealing in order to have an efficient bending. The results showed that the natural ageing is so rapid in this alloy, which strengthens the material so quickly by the formation of CuAl2 precipitates, thereby, demanding the bending procedure to be performed before the growth of precipitates becomes dominant.

  17. A 16.3 pJ/pulse low-complexity and energy-efficient transmitter with adjustable pulse parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jun; Zhao Yi; Shao Ke; Chen Hu; Xia Lingli; Hong Zhiliang

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel, fully integrated transmitter for 3-5 GHz pulsed UWB. The BPSK modulation transmitter has been implemented in SMIC CMOS 0.13 μm technology with a 1.2-V supply voltage and a die size of 0.8 x 0.95 mm 2 . This transmitter is based on the impulse response filter method, which uses a tunable R paralleled with a LC frequency selection network to realize continuously adjustable pulse parameters, including bandwidth, width and amplitude. Due to the extremely low duty of the pulsed UWB, a proposed output buffer is employed to save power consumption significantly. Finally, measurement results show that the transmitter consumes only 16.3 pJ/pulse to achieve a pulse repetition rate of 100 Mb/s. Generated pulses strictly comply with the FCC spectral mask. The continuously variable pulse width is from 900 to 1.5 ns and the amplitude with the minimum 178 mVpp and the maximum 432 mVpp can be achieved. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  18. Lower limits of spin detection efficiency for two-parameter two-qubit (TPTQ) states with non-ideal ferromagnetic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd, Nayereh; Ghasemi, Zahra

    2016-10-01

    We have investigated a TPTQ state as an input state of a non-ideal ferromagnetic detectors. Minimal spin polarization required to demonstrate spin entanglement according to entanglement witness and CHSH inequality with respect to (w.r.t.) their two free parameters have been found, and we have numerically shown that the entanglement witness is less stringent than the direct tests of Bell's inequality in the form of CHSH in the entangled limits of its free parameters. In addition, the lower limits of spin detection efficiency fulfilling secure cryptographic key against eavesdropping have been derived. Finally, we have considered TPTQ state as an output of spin decoherence channel and the region of ballistic transmission time w.r.t. spin relaxation time and spin dephasing time has been found.

  19. The impact of preparation parameters on typical attributes of chitosan-heparin nanohydrogels: particle size, loading efficiency, and drug release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Hamidi, Mehrdad

    2013-11-01

    Today, developing an optimized nanoparticle (NP) preparation procedure is of paramount importance in all nanoparticulate drug delivery researches, leading to expanding more operative and clinically validated nanomedicines. In this study, a one-at-a-time experimental approach was used for evaluating the effect of various preparation factors on size, loading, and drug release of hydrogel NPs prepared with ionotropic gelation between heparin and chitosan. The size, loading efficiency (LE) and drug release profile of the NPs were evaluated when the chitosan molecular weight, chitosan concentration, heparin addition time to chitosan solution, heparin concentration, pH value of chitosan solution, temperature, and mixing rate were changed separately while other factors were in optimum condition. The results displayed that size and LE are highly influenced by chitosan concentration, getting an optimum of 63 ± 0.57 and 75.19 ± 2.65, respectively, when chitosan concentration was 0.75 mg/ml. Besides, heparin addition time of 3 min leaded to 74.1 ± 0.79 % LE with no sensible effect on size and release profile. In addition, pH 5.5 showed a minimum size of 63 ± 1.87, maximum LE of 73.81 ± 3.13 and the slowest drug release with 63.71 ± 3.84 % during one week. Although LE was not affected by temperature, size and release reduced to 63 ± 0 and 74.21 ± 1.99% when temperature increased from 25°C to 55°C. Also, continuous increase of mixer rate from 500 to 3500 rpm resulted in constant enhancement of LE from 58.3 ± 3.6 to 74.4 ± 2.59 as well as remarkable decrease in size from 148 ± 4.88 to 63 ± 2.64.

  20. Theoretical and experimental influence of aerosol assisted CVD parameters on the microstructural properties of magnetite nanoparticles and their response on the removal efficiency of arsenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández-Salcedo, P.G.; Amézaga-Madrid, P., E-mail: patricia.amezaga@cimav.edu.mx; Monárrez-Cordero, B.E.; Antúnez-Flores, W.; Pizá-Ruiz, P.; Leyva-Porras, C.; Ornelas-Gutiérrez, C.; Miki-Yoshida, M.

    2015-09-15

    The development and optimization of methodologies to generate magnetite nanoparticles is currently an innovation topic. For a desired application such as arsenic removal from waste water, the generation of these nanostructures with specific microstructural properties is determinant. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the phenomenon during the nanoparticles formation process. Thus, in this work it is reported the influence of synthesis parameters of AACVD technique on the formation of magnetite nanoparticles. Parameters were according to: (1) synthesis temperature, (2) tubular reactor diameter, (3) concentration of the precursor solution and type of solvent, (4) carrier gas flow and (5) solvent type in the collection process. The effect of these synthesis parameters on the morphology, size and microstructure are discussed in detail and related with the mechanism of formation of the particles. Theoretical simulations were performed on two of these parameters (1 and 4). The microstructure and surface morphology of the different nanostructures obtained were characterized by field emission scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy. Subsequently two materials, were selected for further microstructural analysis. Finally, to determine the removal efficiency in the two materials the arsenic adsorption was evaluated. A major contribution of this work was the calculation of the number of spherical particles formed from a single drop of precursor solution. This calculation matched with the value found experimentally.

  1. Effect of creep feeding on average daily gain and weaning weight of calves and on reproductive efficiency of primiparous Nelore cows under grazing

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, E.; Morais, M.G.; Andrade, V.J.; Rocha, E.D.S.; Silva, A.S.; Brito, A.T.

    2006-01-01

    Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de bezerros em sistema de creep feeding, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha, durante o período de amamentação, sobre o ganho médio diário (GMD), peso à desmama (PD) e taxa de gestação, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, utilizando 102 vacas Nelore (primíparas de baixa condição corporal ao início da estação de monta) e seus bezerros, divididos em dois grupos: T1 (n=52), não tratado e T2 (n=50), tratado com suplemento à base de 20% de PB e 75% de NDT. ...

  2. Kinematics of ram filter feeding and beat-glide swimming in the northern anchovy Engraulis mordax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Nicholas; Goldbogen, Jeremy A

    2017-08-01

    In the dense aquatic environment, the most adept swimmers are streamlined to reduce drag and increase the efficiency of locomotion. However, because they open their mouth to wide gape angles to deploy their filtering apparatus, ram filter feeders apparently switch between diametrically opposite swimming modes: highly efficient, streamlined 'beat-glide' swimming, and ram filter feeding, which has been hypothesized to be a high-cost feeding mode because of presumed increased drag. Ram filter-feeding forage fish are thought to play an important role in the flux of nutrients and energy in upwelling ecosystems; however, the biomechanics and energetics of this feeding mechanism remain poorly understood. We quantified the kinematics of an iconic forage fish, the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax , during ram filter feeding and non-feeding, mouth-closed beat-glide swimming. Although many kinematic parameters between the two swimming modes were similar, we found that swimming speeds and tailbeat frequencies were significantly lower during ram feeding. Rather than maintain speed with the school, a speed which closely matches theoretical optimum filter-feeding speeds was consistently observed. Beat-glide swimming was characterized by high variability in all kinematic parameters, but variance in kinematic parameters was much lower during ram filter feeding. Under this mode, body kinematics are substantially modified, and E. mordax swims more slowly and with decreased lateral movement along the entire body, but most noticeably in the anterior. Our results suggest that hydrodynamic effects that come with deployment of the filtering anatomy may limit behavioral options during foraging and result in slower swimming speeds during ram filtration. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. [Influence of the amount of concentrate feeding on concentrate intake and development of body weight and growth parameters of suckling foals from birth until the 6th month of life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, J K; Remler, H P; Senckenberg, E; Kienzle, E

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of a different energy supply on the development of Warmblood foals with a focus on examining the recommended allowances of the German Society for Nutrition Physiology. Two groups of foals received different amounts of concentrates from the 1st until the 6th month of life. With regards to the total energy content, the rations were composed to either comply with the recommendations (6) (group "Norm", n=15) or to exceed those by approximately 20% (group "Zulage", n=16). The supply with concentrates of the group "Norm" aimed for a total energy intake of 73 MJ DE/animal/day, the intake of the group "Zulage" of 87 MJ DE/animal/day. Both groups were provided with the same amount of foal starter feed, but different amounts of oats. Both groups were supplied with 1.0, 1.2, 2.0, 2.0 and 2.35 kg foal starter feed per animal and day from the 2nd until the 6th month of life. Additionally, 0.6, 0.7, 0.5, 0.8 and 0.45 kg oats per animal and day (group "Norm") and 1.8, 2.0, 1.75, 2.0 and 1.75 kg (group "Zulage") were offered during months 2 to 6. The animals were fed twice daily. The roughage consisted of a late first cut of haylage. The animals were out to pasture for several hours/day. Individual concentrate intake, body mass and body condition score (BCS) as well as several other growth parameters were recorded. The total amount of haylage consumed by all animals was documented. The daily average intake of concentrates lay between 0.4 ("Norm") and 0.5 kg ("Zulage") in the 2nd month and between 2.8 ("Norm") and 3.7 kg ("Zulage") in the 6th month. The groups did not differ in any recorded parameter. The amount of concentrates offered was entirely eaten for the first time at an age of approximately 180 days. The results suggest that the energy requirements of foals are approximately 10-20% lower than the recommendations.

  4. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...

  5. The influence of different dietary energy content and feeding regimes on growth and feed utilization of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pier Paolo Gatta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing importance of European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax in aquaculture underlines the need to optimize the feeding strategy for this fish species. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary energy content and feeding regime on growth performance, feed uti- lization and feeding costs for European sea bass. Seven hundreds and forthyfourfish(averageinitial forthyfourfish(averageinitial four fish ( average initial body weight 68g were randomly allocated into twelve tanks 800 l in a closed recirculation system (water temperature: 22°C; dissolved oxygen ≥90% of saturation. Three isoproteic (47% crude protein extruded diets were formulated with different lipid levels i.e. 16% (diet D16, 24% (diet D24 and 32% (diet D32 and each diet was fed at two different feeding regimes (satiation and 80% satiation accord- ing to a bifactorial experimental design. Feed intake (FI was recorded daily. After 77 days, fish were bulk weighed and growth, SGR and FCR were calculated. Feedingregimesaffectedall theanalysed Feeding regimes affected all the analysed parameters (P<0.05, whereas diet influenced only FCR, FI, protein and lipid intake and the economic efficiency ratio (EER. Fish fed the lowest energy content diet (D16 to satiation resulted in the highest feed intake, a FCR similar to that of fish fed diets D24 and D32 and in the lowest EER.

  6. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vancoillie, C.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal

  7. Research of impact of kind resuperheat and structure of system regenerative feed water to thermodynamic efficiency of cycle with steam-coolant reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykova Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The first key problems of modern nuclear reactors are inability of closed nuclear cycle, problems with spent nuclear fuel, poor effectiveness of nuclear fuel and heat-exchange equipment usage. Dealing with problems consists in usage of fast-neutron reactors with steam coolant. Scientific men analyzed neutron-physical processes in steam-cooled fast reactor and consulted that creation of the reactor is viable. In consequence of low steam activation a single-loop steam cycle may be create. The cycle is easy and fool-proof. Core thermomechanical equipment has mastered and has relatively low metal content. Results of calculation are showing that nuclear unit with steam-coolant fast neutron reactor is more efficient than widely used unit with reactor VVER. Usage of simple scheme with four regenerative feedwater heaters the absolute efficiency ratio is more than 43%.

  8. Effect of different commercial feeds on growth and survival of African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Clarias gariepinus fingerlings with mean weight 10.63±0.25 g were fed five different commercial diets for eight weeks to determine the most suitable and efficient feed for growth and survival under controlled environmental conditions. The diets used were Multi feed, Ajanla feed, Vital feed, Coppens feed and ARAC feed.

  9. Effects of season and inclusion of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and performance of nursing calves grazing native range in southeastern North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Gibson, M; Caton, J S

    2006-08-01

    Nine ruminally and duodenally cannulated (145 +/- 21 kg of initial BW; Exp. 1) and sixteen intact (181 +/- 36 kg of initial BW; Exp. 2), commercial, Angus, nursing, steer calves were used to evaluate the effects of advancing season and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, digestion, microbial efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and performance while grazing native rangeland. Calves were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a supplement containing 41% soybean meal, 26.25% wheat middlings, 26.25% soybean hulls, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (control) or a supplement containing 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles, 14.25% wheat middlings, 14.25% soybean hulls, 14% soybean meal, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (CDDGS). Calves were offered supplement individually (0.45% of BW) once daily. Three 15-d collection periods occurred in June, July, and August. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in OM intake, or OM, N, NDF, or ADF digestion between control calves and those fed CDDGS. Forage and total OM intake increased (P Calves consuming CDDGS had decreased (P intake (% of BW) was less for CDDGS compared with control calves, but there were no differences in performance or subsequent carcass composition between treatments. Inclusion of 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles in a creep supplement for nursing calves produced similar results compared with a control creep feed based on soybean meal, soybean hulls, and wheat middlings.

  10. Effect of chicken genotype on growth performance and feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This experiment was conducted to assess the effect of chicken genotype on the growth performance, feed intake and feed efficiency of the progenies resulting from pure, straight and reciprocal cross of Giriraja (Gr) and Alpha chickens. Data obtained on body weight, body length, breast girth, keel length, feed intake and feed ...

  11. Novel feeding strategies for Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS2155 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dual behavior of Saccharomyces cerevisiae on glucose feed as function of the dilution rate near the critical specific growth rate (ì=0.25) is a bottleneck in industrial production, hence the need for more efficient feeding strategies. In this work novel feeding strategies have been generated and evaluated. For each feeding ...

  12. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 600 MW oxy-type coal unit with a pulverized bed boiler and a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator and carbon capture installation was analyzed. A membrane-cryogenic oxygen separation installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. In this system oxygen is produced with the purity equal to 95%. Installation of carbon capture was based on the physical separation method and allows to reduce the CO2 emission by 90%. In this work the influence of the main parameter of the membrane process – the selectivity coefficient, on the efficiency of the coal unit was presented. The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  13. XMM-NEWTON/SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY: STAR FORMATION EFFICIENCY IN GALAXY CLUSTERS AND CONSTRAINTS ON THE MATTER-DENSITY PARAMETER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagana, Tatiana F. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas, Departamento de Astronomia, Cidade Universitaria, CEP:05508-090, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zhang Yuying; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Schneider, Peter [Argelander-Institut fuer Astronomie, Universitaet Bonn, 53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2011-12-10

    It is believed that the global baryon content of clusters of galaxies is representative of the matter distribution of the universe, and can, therefore, be used to reliably determine the matter-density parameter {Omega}{sub m}. This assumption is challenged by the growing evidence from optical and X-ray observations that the total baryon mass fraction increases toward rich clusters. In this context, we investigate the dependence of stellar and total baryon mass fractions as a function of mass. To do so, we used a subsample of 19 clusters extracted from the X-ray flux-limited sample HIFLUGCS that have available Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 data. From the optical analysis we derived the stellar masses. Using XMM-Newton we derived the gas masses. Then, adopting a scaling relation we estimate the total masses. Adding the gas and the stellar mass fractions we obtain the total baryonic content that we find to increase with cluster mass, reaching seven-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) prediction for clusters with M{sub 500} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} M{sub Sun }. We observe a decrease of the stellar mass fraction (from 4.5% to {approx}1.0%) with increasing total mass where our findings for the stellar mass fraction agree with previous studies. This result suggests a difference in the number of stars formed per unit of halo mass, though with a large scatter for low-mass systems. That is, the efficiency of star formation varies on a cluster scale that lower mass systems are likely to have higher star formation efficiencies. It follows immediately that the dependence of the stellar mass fraction on total mass results in an increase of the mass-to-light ratio from lower to higher mass systems. We also discuss the consequences of these results in the context of determining the cosmic matter-density parameter {Omega}{sub m}.

  14. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winands, G. J. J.; Liu, Z.; Pemen, A. J. M.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Yan, K.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.

    2006-07-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh)-1. For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh)-1, still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second.

  15. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winands, G J J [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Liu, Z [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Pemen, A J M [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Heesch, E J M van [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Yan, K [EPS Group, Department of Electrical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Veldhuizen, E M van [EPG Group, Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-07-21

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh){sup -1}. For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh){sup -1}, still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second.

  16. Temporal development and chemical efficiency of positive streamers in a large scale wire-plate reactor as a function of voltage waveform parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winands, G J J; Liu, Z; Pemen, A J M; Heesch, E J M van; Yan, K; Veldhuizen, E M van

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a large-scale pulsed corona system is described in which pulse parameters such as pulse rise-time, peak voltage, pulse width and energy per pulse can be varied. The chemical efficiency of the system is determined by measuring ozone production. The temporal and spatial development of the discharge streamers is recorded using an ICCD camera with a shortest exposure time of 5 ns. The camera can be triggered at any moment starting from the time the voltage pulse arrives on the reactor, with an accuracy of less than 1 ns. Measurements were performed on an industrial size wire-plate reactor. The influence of pulse parameters like pulse voltage, DC bias voltage, rise-time and pulse repetition rate on plasma generation was monitored. It was observed that for higher peak voltages, an increase could be seen in the primary streamer velocity, the growth of the primary streamer diameter, the light intensity and the number of streamers per unit length of corona wire. No significant separate influence of DC bias voltage level was observed as long as the total reactor voltage (pulse + DC bias) remained constant and the DC bias voltage remained below the DC corona onset. For those situations in which the plasma appearance changed (e.g. different streamer velocity, diameter, intensity), a change in ozone production was also observed. The best chemical yields were obtained for low voltage (55 kV), low energetic pulses (0.4 J/pulse): 60 g (kWh) -1 . For high voltage (86 kV), high energetic pulses (2.3 J/pulse) the yield decreased to approximately 45 g (kWh) -1 , still a high value for ozone production in ambient air (RH 42%). The pulse repetition rate has no influence on plasma generation and on chemical efficiency up to 400 pulses per second

  17. Influence of the Formulation Parameters on the Particle Size and Encapsulation Efficiency of Resveratrol in PLA and PLA-PEG Blend Nanoparticles: A Factorial Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Gabriela da Rocha; Dalmolin, Luciana Facco; Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2015-12-01

    Polymeric nanoparticles are colloidal systems that promote protection and modification of physicochemical characteristics of a drug and that also ensure controlled and extended drug release. This paper reports a 2(3) factorial design study to optimize poly(lactide) (PLA) and poly(lactide)-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) blend nanoparticles containing resveratrol (RVT) for prolonged release. The independent variables analyzed were solvent composition, surfactant concentration and ratio of aqueous to organic phase (two levels each factor). Mean particle size and RVT encapsulation efficiency were set as the dependent variables. The selected optimized parameters were set as organic phase comprised of a mixture of dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, 1% of surfactant polyvinyl alcohol and a 3:1 ratio of aqueous to organic phase, for both PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles. This formulation originated nanoparticles with size of 228 ± 10 nm and 185 ± 70 nm and RVT encapsulation efficiency of 82 ± 10% and 76 ± 7% for PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles, respectively. The in vitro release study showed a biphasic pattern with prolonged RVT release and PEG did not influence the RVT release. The in vitro release data were in favor of Higuchi-diffusion kinetics for both nanoformulations and the Kossmeyer-Peppas coefficient indicated that anomalous transport was the main release mechanism of RVT. PLA and PLA-PEG blend nanoparticles produced with single emulsion-solvent evaporation technology were found to be a promising approach for the incorporation of RVT and promoted its controlled release. The factorial design is a tool of great value in choosing formulations with optimized parameters.

  18. Acid-base buffering in organ preservation solutions as a function of temperature: new parameters for comparing buffer capacity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicu, Simona C; Taylor, Michael J

    2002-08-01

    Control of acidity and preventing intracellular acidosis are recognized as critical properties of an effective organ preservation solution. Buffer capacity and efficiency are therefore important for comparing the relative merits of preservation fluids for optimum hypothermic storage, but these parameters are not available for the variety of organ preservation solutions of interest in transplantation today. Moreover, buffer capacity is dependent upon both concentration and pH such that buffer capacity is not easily predicted for a complex solution containing multiple buffer species. Using standard electrometric methods to measure acid dissociation constants, this study was undertaken to determine the maximum and relative buffer capacities of a variety of new and commonly used hypothermic preservation solutions as a function of temperature. The reference data provided by these measurements show that comparative buffer capacity and efficiency vary widely between the commonly used solutions. Moreover, the fluids containing zwitterionic sulfonic acid buffers such as Hepes possess superior buffering for alpha-stat pH regulation in the region of physiological importance.

  19. A study of performance parameters on drag and heat flux reduction efficiency of combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept in hypersonic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xi-wan; Guo, Zhen-yun; Huang, Wei; Li, Shi-bin; Yan, Li

    2017-02-01

    The drag reduction and thermal protection system applied to hypersonic re-entry vehicles have attracted an increasing attention, and several novel concepts have been proposed by researchers. In the current study, the influences of performance parameters on drag and heat reduction efficiency of combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept has been investigated numerically. The Reynolds-average Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations coupled with the SST k-ω turbulence model have been employed to calculate its surrounding flowfields, and the first-order spatially accurate upwind scheme appears to be more suitable for three-dimensional flowfields after grid independent analysis. Different cases of performance parameters, namely jet operating conditions, freestream angle of attack and physical dimensions, are simulated based on the verification of numerical method, and the effects on shock stand-off distance, drag force coefficient, surface pressure and heat flux distributions have been analyzed. This is the basic study for drag reduction and thermal protection by multi-objective optimization of the combinational novel cavity and opposing jet concept in hypersonic flows in the future.

  20. Medium's conductivity and stage of growth as crucial parameters for efficient hydrocarbon extraction by electric field from colonial micro-algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guionet, Alexis; Hosseini, Bahareh; Akiyama, Hidenori; Hosano, Hamid

    2018-04-25

    The green algae Botryococcus braunii produces a high amount of extracellular hydrocarbon, making it a promising algae in the field of bio-fuels production. As it mainly produces squalene like hydrocarbons, cosmetic industries are also interested in its milking. Pulsed electric fields (PEF) are an innovative method allowing oil extraction from micro-algae. In common algae accumulating hydrocarbon inside cytoplasm (Chlorella vulgaris, Nannochloropsis sp., etc), electric fields can destroy cell membranes, allowing the release of hydrocarbon. However, for B.braunii, hydrocarbons adhere to the cell wall outside of cells as a matrix. In a previous article we reported that electric fields can unstick cells from a matrix, allowing hydrocarbon harvesting. In this work, we deeper investigated this phenomenon of cell hatching by following 2 parameters: the conductivity of the medium and the cultivation duration of the culture. Cell hatching is accurately evaluated by both microscopic and macroscopic observations. For high conductivity and a short time of cultivation, almost no effect is observed even after up to 1000 PEF pulses are submitted to the cells. While lower conductivity and a longer cultivation period allow strong cell hatching after 200 PEF pulses are applied to the cells. We identify 2 new crucial parameters, able to turn the method from inefficient to very efficient. It might help companies to save energy and money in case of mass production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Evaluation of vocal acoustic and efficiency analysis parameters in medical students and academic teachers with use of iris and diagnoscope specialist software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielińska-Bliźniewska, Hanna; Sułkowski, Wiesław J; Pietkiewicz, Piotr; Miłoński, Jarosław; Mazurek, Agnieszka; Olszewski, Jurek

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the parameters of vocal acoustic and vocal efficiency analyses in medical students and academic teachers with use of the IRIS and DiagnoScope Specialist software and to evaluate their usefulness in prevention and certification of occupational disease. The study group comprised 40 women, including students and employees of the Military Medical Faculty, Medical University of Łodź. After informed consent had been obtained from the participant women, the primary medical history was taken, videolaryngoscopic and stroboscopic examinations were performed and diagnostic vocal acoustic analysis was carried out with the use of the IRIS and Diagno-Scope Specialist software. Based on the results of the performed measurements, the statistical analysis evidenced the compatibility between two software programs, IRIS and DiagnoScope Specialist, with the only exception of the F4 formant. The mean values of vocal acoustic parameters in medical students and academic teachers, obtained by means of the IRIS software, can be used as standards for the female population not yet developed by the producer. When using the DiagnoScope Specialist software, some mean values were higher and some lower than the standards specified by the producer. The study evidenced the compatibility between two measurement software programs, IRIS and DiagnoScope Specialist, except for the F4 formant. It should be noted that the later has advantage over the former since the standard values of vocal acoustic parameters have been worked out by the producer. Moreover, they only slightly departed from the values obtained in our study and may be useful in diagnostics of occupational voice disorders.

  2. Relationships between residual feed intake, average daily gain, and feeding behavior in growing dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, T C; Jago, J G; Macdonald, K A; Waghorn, G C

    2013-05-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a measure of an individual's efficiency in utilizing feed for maintenance and production during growth or lactation, and is defined as the difference between the actual and predicted feed intake of that individual. The objective of this study was to relate RFI to feeding behavior and to identify behavioral differences between animals with divergent RFI. The intakes and body weight (BW) of 1,049 growing dairy heifers (aged 5-9 mo; 195 ± 25.8 kg of BW) in 5 cohorts were measured for 42 to 49 d to ascertain individual RFI. Animals were housed in an outdoor feeding facility comprising 28 pens, each with 8 animals and 1 feeder per pen, and were fed a dried, cubed alfalfa diet. This forage diet was chosen because most dairy cows in New Zealand are grazed on ryegrass-dominant pastures, without grain or concentrates. An electronic feed monitoring system measured the intake and feeding behavior of individuals. Feeding behavior was summarized as daily intake, daily feeding duration, meal frequency, feeding rate, meal size, meal duration, and temporal feeding patterns. The RFI was moderately to strongly correlated with intake in all cohorts (r=0.54-0.74), indicating that efficient animals ate less than inefficient animals, but relationships with feeding behavior traits (meal frequency, feeding duration, and feeding rate) were weak (r=0.14-0.26), indicating that feeding behavior cannot reliably predict RFI in growing dairy heifers. Comparison of the extremes of RFI (10% most and 10% least efficient) demonstrated similar BW and average daily gain for both groups, but efficient animals ate less; had fewer, longer meals; shorter daily feeding duration; and ate more slowly than the least-efficient animals. These groups also differed in their feeding patterns over 24h, with the most efficient animals eating less and having fewer meals during daylight (0600 to 2100 h), especially during the afternoon (1200 to 1800 h), but ate for a longer time during

  3. Feeding habits and comparative feeding rates of three southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food utilization by three arboreal squirrels was studied with regard to feeding habits and efficiency, food preferences and chemical analyses of the food. Food selected in the field by the two forest subspecies the Ngoye red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus ornatus and the Tonga red squirrel, P. p. tongensis are listed.

  4. Effect on feed intake, milk production and milk composition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-22

    Sep 22, 2014 ... feed intake and milk yield parameters was determined for dairy cows. Three feeding ... therefore fat yield, was lower in the treatment containing only wheat as an energy source. .... paddocks for heat detection and grooming.

  5. Evaluation Effects of Different Planting Systems on Water Use Efficiency, Relative Water Content and some Plant Growth Parameters in Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa IZADKHAH

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different sowing methods on water use efficiency, relative water content and some vegetative growth parameters of onion a study was carried out in the Agriculturalr research Center of East Azarbayjan in 2007-2008 cropping season. The experiment was a factorial by using the randomized complete block design with 4 treaments and 4 replications. The first factor was consistting of two sowing methods, dirct sowing (DS and the transplanting method (TM, the second factor was including two onion cultivars �Azarshahr� (red hull and later maturing and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan� (bright-red, early maturing. Analysis of variance for the measured traits indicated that except for the relative water content (RWC, other traits were significant influenced by the sowing methods. TM had higher values of water use efficiency (WUE, bulbing ratio (BR, aerial leaves length (ALL, leaf area (LA, leaf area index (LAI, leaves dry weight (LDW, leaves fresh weight (LFW and leaves saturation weight (LSW than the DS methods. Maximum WUE (6.07 kg m3 and minimum WU (9381 m3 ha-1 were obtained in TM. However, the lowest WUE (4.19 kg m3 and the highest WU (115921 m3 ha-1 was obtained with DS. In other words, in TM water economizing was 1.5 tim, amount of yield was increased up 15% (in comparison with DS. Also among the cultivars except for the RWC, WUE and BR other traits were significantly. The sowing method x cultivar interaction were not significant. For the studied traits, TM and red �Azarshahr� cv. were better than the DS and �Gooli-Ghesseh Zanjan�, thus thy were identified the best treatments for experiment therefore it is recommended for the places with the same environmental conditions of this experiment.

  6. A Bootstrap-Based Probabilistic Optimization Method to Explore and Efficiently Converge in Solution Spaces of Earthquake Source Parameter Estimation Problems: Application to Volcanic and Tectonic Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, T.; Heimann, S.; Isken, M.; Vasyura-Bathke, H.; Kühn, D.; Sudhaus, H.; Kriegerowski, M.; Daout, S.; Steinberg, A.; Cesca, S.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic source and moment tensor waveform inversion is often ill-posed or non-unique if station coverage is poor or signals are weak. Therefore, the interpretation of moment tensors can become difficult, if not the full model space is explored, including all its trade-offs and uncertainties. This is especially true for non-double couple components of weak or shallow earthquakes, as for instance found in volcanic, geothermal or mining environments.We developed a bootstrap-based probabilistic optimization scheme (Grond), which is based on pre-calculated Greens function full waveform databases (e.g. fomosto tool, doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.2.1.2017.001). Grond is able to efficiently explore the full model space, the trade-offs and the uncertainties of source parameters. The program is highly flexible with respect to the adaption to specific problems, the design of objective functions, and the diversity of empirical datasets.It uses an integrated, robust waveform data processing based on a newly developed Python toolbox for seismology (Pyrocko, see Heimann et al., 2017, http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.2.1.2017.001), and allows for visual inspection of many aspects of the optimization problem. Grond has been applied to the CMT moment tensor inversion using W-phases, to nuclear explosions in Korea, to meteorite atmospheric explosions, to volcano-tectonic events during caldera collapse and to intra-plate volcanic and tectonic crustal events.Grond can be used to optimize simultaneously seismological waveforms, amplitude spectra and static displacements of geodetic data as InSAR and GPS (e.g. KITE, Isken et al., 2017, http://doi.org/10.5880/GFZ.2.1.2017.002). We present examples of Grond optimizations to demonstrate the advantage of a full exploration of source parameter uncertainties for interpretation.

  7. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

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    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  9. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  10. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  11. Animal Feeding Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  12. Combination of microfluidic high-throughput production and parameter screening for efficient shaping of gold nanocubes using Dean-flow mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Matthias; Knauer, Andrea; Malsch, Daniéll; Csáki, Andrea; Henkel, Thomas; Köhler, J Michael; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2017-04-11

    Metal nanoparticles and their special optical properties, the so-called localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), facilitate many applications in various fields. Due to the strong dependency of the LSPR on particle geometry, their synthesis is a challenging and time-consuming procedure especially for non-spherical shapes. In contrast, micromixers offer new experimental approaches and therefore enable the simplification of several processes. By using a zigzag micromixer (Dean-Flow-Mixer, DFM) that induces Dean-flow secondary flow patterns, we theoretically and experimentally show the mixing efficiency. Thus, we highlight the advantages of using it in the multistep synthesis of Au nanoparticles. Based on a narrow size distribution of Au nanocubes and an increased yield in combination with higher reproducibility, we depict the need for and advantage of the DFM to control the incubation times during the growth process. We further show that, by using the DFM, easy and very fast Au nanocube edge length tuning (53 nm, 58 nm, 70 nm and 75 nm) is possible by simultaneously reducing the consumption of the materials by up to 95%. We finally demonstrate the versatile abilities by using the DFM for parameter screening on examples of different halides and accessible bromide in the growth solutions. Therefore, we highlight the optimal concentration for the different growth regimes and the influences on the Au nanoparticle morphology (spheres, cubes and rods) and their defined shaping.

  13. Response of the oxygen uptake efficiency slope to orthotopic heart transplantation: lack of correlation with changes in central hemodynamic parameters and resting lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laethem, Christophe; Goethals, Marc; Verstreken, Sofie; Walravens, Maarten; Wellens, Francis; De Proft, Margot; Bartunek, Jozef; Vanderheyden, Marc

    2007-09-01

    Recently, a new linear measure of ventilatory response to exercise, the oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES), was proposed in the evaluation of heart failure patients. No data are available on the response of the OUES after orthotopic heart transplantation (HTx). Thirty patients who underwent HTx between 1999 and 2003 were included in the study. Data from maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test, resting pulmonary function and hemodynamic assessment were collected before the transplant at time of screening and 1 year after HTx. During the first year after HTx, OUES and normalized OUES for body weight (OUES/kg) increased significantly from 15.6 +/- 4.9 to 19.7 +/- 4.8 (p volumes or capacities and measures of central hemodynamic function after HTx. OUES improved significantly after HTx, but, similar to other exercise parameters, remained considerably impaired. The changes in OUES were highly correlated with the improvements in other exercise variables, but did not correlate with marked improvements in central hemodynamics or resting lung function.

  14. INFLUENCE OF FEEDING TIME ON FEED UTILIZATION BY SIAMESE CATFISH, Pangasius hypophthalmus JUVENILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Meilisza

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Siamese catfish (Pangasius hypophthalmus at juvenile stage is used as ornamental fish by fish hobbies because of their beautiful shape and movement. Feeding time is a part of feeding management to get the best and effective strategy on feed input. This study aimed to determine the growth of Siamese catfish juvenile by looking at the influence of feeding time on feed utilization. The average individual weight of juveniles used was ± 3.2 g stocked 15 fish per aquarium equipped with recirculation system. Two level factors in the factorial design consisted of 4 feeding times (at 8:00, at 12:00, at 16:00, and as control (8:00, 12:00, 16:00 and feeding level (45 g feed kg-1 fish, 90 g feed kg-1 fish. Interaction between feeding time and feeding level resulting eight types of treatments research, namely A (8/45, B (12/45, C (16/45, D (8:12:16/45, E (8:12:16/90, F (8/90, G (12/90, and H (16/90. The results showed that feeding time had significant effect on the specific growth rate, feed conversion, and protein efficiency ratio and were significantly different among the treatments (P<0.05. Besides feeding time control (treatments D and E, treatment C also showed the highest of specific growth rate (2.03%, protein efficiency ratio (1.46, and the lowest feed conversion ratio (1.85.

  15. ON THE EFFICIENCY OF THE TIDAL STIRRING MECHANISM FOR THE ORIGIN OF DWARF SPHEROIDALS: DEPENDENCE ON THE ORBITAL AND STRUCTURAL PARAMETERS OF THE PROGENITOR DISKY DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazantzidis, Stelios; Lokas, Ewa L.; Callegari, Simone; Mayer, Lucio; Moustakas, Leonidas A.

    2011-01-01

    The tidal stirring model posits the formation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies (dSphs) via the tidal interactions between late-type, rotationally supported dwarfs and Milky-Way-sized host galaxies. Using a comprehensive set of collisionless N-body simulations, we investigate the efficiency of the tidal stirring mechanism for the origin of dSphs. In particular, we examine the degree to which the tidal field of the primary galaxy affects the sizes, masses, shapes, and kinematics of the disky dwarfs for a range of dwarf orbital and structural parameters. Our study is the first to employ self-consistent, equilibrium models for the progenitor dwarf galaxies constructed from a composite distribution function and consisting of exponential stellar disks embedded in massive, cosmologically motivated dark matter halos. Exploring a wide variety of dwarf orbital configurations and initial structures, we demonstrate that in the majority of cases the disky dwarfs experience significant mass loss and their stellar distributions undergo a dramatic morphological, as well as dynamical, transformation. Specifically, the stellar components evolve from disks to bars and finally to pressure-supported, spheroidal systems with kinematic and structural properties akin to those of the classic dSphs in the Local Group (LG) and similar environments. The self-consistency of the adopted dwarf models is crucial for confirming this complex transformation process via tidally induced dynamical instabilities and impulsive tidal heating of the stellar distribution. Our results suggest that such tidal transformations should be common occurrences within the currently favored cosmological paradigm and highlight the key factor responsible for an effective metamorphosis to be the strength of the tidal shocks at the pericenters of the orbit. We also demonstrate that the combination of short orbital times and small pericentric distances, characteristic of dwarfs being accreted by their hosts at high redshift

  16. Blood clinical-chemical parameters and feeding history in growing Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) chicks exposed to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and Dechlorane Plus in ovo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Mona Lykke; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Ciesielski, Tomasz M.

    2017-01-01

    . The 8 days consuming the new feed played a significant role on 12 of 18 BCCPs measured. Consequently, it is recommended that dietary habits need to be considered when investigating the physiological impact of contaminants using BCCPs as biomarkers in growing nestlings both in controlled in vivo...

  17. Use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assays for predicting and improving the safety and efficiency of feeding ruminants on tanniniferous tree foliage: Achievements, result implications, and future research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makkar, H.P.S. [Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: h.makkar@iaea.org

    2005-08-19

    The utilization of unconventional feed resources holds great relevance to developing countries, where the main constraint to livestock development is the scarcity and fluctuation of the quality and quantity of the year-around animal feed supply. There is a serious shortage in concentrated animal feeds such as soybean, cottonseed and groundnut meals, etc. In addition, the human population is increasingly rapidly and arable land is decreasing, due to solid degradation, urbanization and industrialization. Production of grain in developing countries is mostly for human consumption. Novel approaches through the utilization of tree leaves, agro-industrial by-products, aquatic sources are required to bridge the gap between supply and demand of feeds. As the demand for food rises, including that of animal origin, unconventional feed resources including tanninferous plants must play an increasingly important part in the diet of animals, in particular for ruminants in smallholder farming systems in developing countries.

  18. Use of nuclear and related techniques to develop simple tannin assays for predicting and improving the safety and efficiency of feeding ruminants on tanniniferous tree foliage: Achievements, result implications, and future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makkar, H.P.S.

    2005-01-01

    The utilization of unconventional feed resources holds great relevance to developing countries, where the main constraint to livestock development is the scarcity and fluctuation of the quality and quantity of the year-around animal feed supply. There is a serious shortage in concentrated animal feeds such as soybean, cottonseed and groundnut meals, etc. In addition, the human population is increasingly rapidly and arable land is decreasing, due to solid degradation, urbanization and industrialization. Production of grain in developing countries is mostly for human consumption. Novel approaches through the utilization of tree leaves, agro-industrial by-products, aquatic sources are required to bridge the gap between supply and demand of feeds. As the demand for food rises, including that of animal origin, unconventional feed resources including tanninferous plants must play an increasingly important part in the diet of animals, in particular for ruminants in smallholder farming systems in developing countries

  19. Effect Of Feed Restriction On Growth Performance And Economy Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dietary treatments consisted of providing feed ad libitum (ull fed) and two feed restriction treatments restrictingeedng 80 % of ad libitum ... A cost – benefit analysis was utilized for the economy of production. ... Feed efficiency was improved by restriction followed with re-alimentation. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  20. Daily Feed Intake, Energy Intake, Growth Rate and Measures of Dietary Energy Efficiency of Pigs from Four Sire Lines Fed Diets with High or Low Metabolizable and Net Energy Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Schinckel

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to: i evaluate the BW growth, energy intakes and energetic efficiency of pigs fed high and low density diets from 27 to 141 kg BW, ii evaluate sire line and sex differences when fed both diets, and iii to compare ME to NE as predictor of pig performance. The experiment had a replicated factorial arrangement of treatments including four sire lines, two sexes (2,192 barrows and 2,280 gilts, two dietary energy densities and a light or heavy target BW, 118 and 131.5 kg in replicates 1 to 6 and 127 and 140.6 kg in replicates 7 to 10. Pigs were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.27 Mcal ME/kg corn-soybean meal based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.53 to 3.55 Mcal ME/kg with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Pigs were weighed and pen feed intake (11 or 12 pigs/pen recorded at 28-d intervals. The barrow and gilt daily feed (DFI, ME (MEI and NE (NEI intake data were fitted to a Bridges function of BW. The BW data of each sex were fitted to a generalized Michaelis-Menten function of days of age. ME and NE required for maintenance (Mcal/d were predicted using functions of BW (0.255 and 0.179 BW^0.60 respectively. Pigs fed LE diets had decreased ADG (915 vs. 945 g/d, p<0.001 than pigs fed HE diets. Overall, DFI was greater (p<0.001 for pigs fed the LE diets (2.62 vs. 2.45 kg/d. However, no diet differences were observed for MEI (8.76 vs. 8.78 Mcal/d, p = 0.49 or NEI (6.39 vs. 6.44 Mcal/d, p = 0.13, thereby indicating that the pigs compensated for the decreased energy content of the diet. Overall ADG:DFI (0.362 vs. 0.377 and ADG:Mcal MEI (0.109 vs. 0.113 was less (p<0.001 for pigs fed LE compared to HE diets. Pigs fed HE diets had 3.6% greater ADG:Mcal MEI above maintenance and only 1.3% greater ADG:Mcal NEI (0.152 versus 0.150, therefore NEI is a more accurate predictor of

  1. 体外产气法研究沙柳混合发酵饲料对绵羊瘤胃内环境参数的影响%Effects of Salix Mixed Fermented Feed on Ruminal Environmental Parameters by in Vitro Gas Production Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李满双; 薛树媛; 王超; 王莉梅; 郭天龙; 金海

    2015-01-01

    The current experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of Salix mixed fermented feed on ruminal environmental parameters by in vitro gas production method. According to the different proportion of Salix (36.44% and 67.08%), two groups of mixed fermentation feed were made, represented by FF1 and FF2 groups respectively. Each group was added the same number of compound bacteria preparation ( live number≥5×107 CFU/g). Gas production and gas production kinetic parameters in 96 h, and ruminal fermentation char-acteristic indexes in 24 h at different fermentation periods of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 22, 30, 45 and 60 days were determined, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) with the extension of fermentation time, ac-cumulative gas production in 96 h, digestible organic matter content and metabolizable energy were firstly de-creased and then increased. 2) The concentrations of volatile fatty acids and microbial protein were significantly increased ( P<0.05) , while pH, the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and butyric acid, and acetic acid/pro-pionic acid were significantly decreased by Salix mixed fermentation feed ( P<0.05) . In conclusion, under in vitro culture condition, the two kinds of Salix mixed fermented feed with the supplemental proportion of Salix of 36.44% and 67.08% can effectively promote rumen microbial fermentation, raise energy utilization efficien-cy and increase the microbial protein synthesis in rumen, and the optimal supplemental proportion of Salix is 36.44% compared with 67.08%.%本试验旨在采用体外产气法研究沙柳混合发酵饲料对绵羊瘤胃内环境参数的影响。按沙柳不同添加量(36.44%和67.08%)调制成2组混合发酵饲料,分别用FF1组和FF2组表示,在各组中添加等量的复合菌剂(活菌数≥5×107 CFU/g),考察发酵饲料在发酵1、3、5、7、10、12、15、22、30、45和60 d时,体外培养96 h的产气量、产气动力学参数和24 h瘤胃发酵

  2. Characteristics of lipids and their feeding value in swine diets

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Brian J.; Kellner, Trey A.; Shurson, Gerald C.

    2015-01-01

    In livestock diets, energy is one of the most expensive nutritional components of feed formulation. Because lipids are a concentrated energy source, inclusion of lipids are known to affect growth rate and feed efficiency, but are also known to affect diet palatability, feed dustiness, and pellet quality. In reviewing the literature, the majority of research studies conducted on the subject of lipids have focused mainly on the effects of feeding presumably high quality lipids on growth perform...

  3. Genome-wide association and systems genetic analyses of residual feed intake, daily feed consumption, backfat and weight gain in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Duy Ngoc; Ostersen, Tage; Strathe, Anders Bjerring

    2014-01-01

    Feed efficiency is one of the major components determining costs of animal production. Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the observed and the expected feed intake given a certain production. Residual feed intake 1 (RFI1) was calculated based on regression of individu...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  8. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  9. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  12. Effects of repeated transport on Holstein calf post-transport behavior and feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams-Progar, A L; Friend, T H; Holub, G A; Krenek, A J; Garey, S M; Terrill, C L

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have determined that stress causes decreases in feed intake and efficiency in livestock, but the effect of repeated transport on these parameters has not been well studied. This study determined how repeated transport affected calf post-transport behavior, feed intake, ADG, and feed conversion. Thirty-six 4-mo-old Holstein steer calves were housed in groups of 6 with each group randomly assigned to either transport or control treatments. Each calf was assigned to an individual Calan gate feeder and feed intake was recorded daily. Transport calves were transported for 6 h in their groups in a 7.3 by 2.4 m gooseneck trailer divided into 3 compartments, at an average density of 0.87 m/calf, every 7 d for 5 consecutive weeks. After return to their home pens, behavior was recorded for transported calves at 5-min intervals for 1 h. Calf ADG and feed conversion were analyzed in a mixed model ANOVA, whereas feed intake was analyzed as a repeated measure in a mixed model ANOVA. Post-transport, calves followed a pattern of drinking, eating, and then lying down. The highest (82 ± 5% calves) and lowest (0 ± 5% calves) incidences of eating behavior occurred 10 and 60 min post-transport, respectively. Control calves had a higher feed intake than transported calves overall (7.29 ± 0.22 kg for control and 6.91 ± 0.21 kg for transport; = 0.01), for the feeding posttreatment (6.78 ± 0.27 kg for control and 6.01 ± 0.28 kg for transport; = 0.007), and the day after treatment (7.83 ± 0.23 kg for control and 7.08 ± 0.15 kg for transport; = 0.02). Feed intake for the feeding post-transport for transport calves significantly decreased after the second transport but increased with each successive transport ( < 0.0001). Overall, control calves had higher ADG than transported calves (1.34 ± 0.13 kg/d for control and 1.15 ± 0.12 kg/d for transport; = 0.006). No significant difference ( = 0.12) between treatments was detected for feed conversion. These results

  13. The Efficiency of Supplementing Mondia Whytei, Maize Germ, Lucerne and Dairy Meal on Feed Intake, milk Production and body Weight Changes in Dual Purpose goats fed on Basal Diet of Rhodes Grass Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wekesa, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to exploit the productive potential of milk producing animal, supplementation is a prerequisite. However due to low purchasing power of most small scale dairy farmers some farmers use what is locally available as supplements of Mondia whytei, maize germ, lucerne and dairy meal were fed to dual purpose lactating goats in a completely randomised design. The basal diet was Rhodes grass hay. Chemical composition of feeds was done. Crude protein, CP in Mondia leaves was 187 g kg -1 DM while calcium was 69.1 g kg -1 DM. Mondia whytei is a plant which mainly grows in forests and has many valuable uses including its use as a livestock feed. It has been claimed that when farmers in western Kenya feed Mondia roots to their lactating cows there is an increase in milk production. It is against this background that this work was undertaken to compare the potential of Mondia whytei roots and leaves with other conventional feed supplements. Response to Mondia roots was quite low. There was no significant difference in rumen pH levels over time between treatments. It is recommended that more work be done on Mondia whytei to determine its potential as a feed supplement and to continue monitoring its use on-farm including its feeding methods used by farmers in western Kenya

  14. Evaluating by-products of the Atlantic shellfish industry as alternative feed ingredients for laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, M A; Anderson, D M; MacIsaac, J L

    2012-09-01

    A full-cycle laying hen study was conducted to evaluate crab meal (CM) and lobster meal (LM) as feed ingredients for laying hens by assigning four hundred thirty-two 35-wk-old White Leghorns to 1 of 6 diets [control, 2.5% CM, 2.5% LM, 5% CM, 5% LM, and 2.5% CM + 2.5% LM (blend)]. Productive performance and egg parameters were evaluated every 28-d period. Eggs were collected at 67 wk of age from the 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend treatments for analysis of yolk fatty acid composition. At 55 and 67 wk of age, ulnas were collected to determine breaking strength, percent ash, and calcium. Body weights, feed consumption, hen-day production, feed efficiency, and egg quality were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. The L* scores of eggs from 5% CM, 5% LM, and blend were lower (P 0.05) any of the bone parameters measured at 55 and 67 wk of age. CM and LM supported similar egg production, feed efficiency, egg yolk color, adequate bone strength, and the incorporation of DHA into egg yolks.

  15. The effect of control parameters to the quality of small-scale wood pellet combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruusunen, M. (Oulu Univ. (Finland). Contol Engineering Lab.), Email: mika.ruusunen@oulu.fi; Korpela, T.; Bjoerkqvist, T. (Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Automation Science and Engineering), Email: timo.korpela@tut.fi, Email: tomas.bjorqvist@tut.fi

    2009-07-01

    The target is to clear out control variables and requirements for clean small-scale wood pellet combustion (<100 kW{sub th}). Experimental runs were carried out in the form of design of experiments (DOE) with two commercial 15 kW pellet burners, namely a horizontal gas-burner and a conventional horizontal burner in a 20 kW commercial pellet boiler. Analysed variables were fuel power, draught, air flows, and fuel feed period, and research variables were CO, O{sub 2} and efficiency. The target was to identify and characterise separately the magnitude and direction of the effect of each factor. After process identification and variable optimisation, the results show strong influence of the studied control parameters on the efficiency and the emissions. The effects and interactions between different process variables were rather similar with both burners. The major effects for CO levels were fuel feed and additionally draught affected in case of wood gas combustion. Additionally, the effects on combustion efficiency is described by draught, air feed and fuel feed period. Furthermore, the fuel feed period affected the excess air level in case of direct combustion principle. It was noticed, however, that the combustion properties and optimal parameter values vary significantly between the two cases. (orig.)

  16. Effects of Black Pepper (, Turmeric Powder ( and Coriander Seeds ( and Their Combinations as Feed Additives on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits, Some Blood Parameters and Humoral Immune Response of Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abou-Elkhair

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum, turmeric powder (Curcuma longa, coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1, 0.5% turmeric powder (T2, 2% coriander seeds (T3, a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4, a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5, and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6. Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001 were observed in broilers on T1, T3, T5, and T6 compared to control. Dietary supplements with T1, T2, T3, and T6 improved the cumulative G:F of broilers during the whole period of 5 weeks (p<0.001 compared with control. The dressing percentage and edible giblets were not influenced by dietary supplements, while higher values of relative weight of the liver (p<0.05 were obtained in T5 and T6 compared to control. The addition of feed supplements in T5 and T6 significantly increased serum total protein and decreased serum glucose, triglycerides and alkaline phosphatase concentrations compared with the control group (p<0.05. Broilers on T6 showed significant decrease in the serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase concentration (p<0.05 compared to control. The broilers having T5 and T6 supplemented feed had relatively greater antibody titre (p<0.001 at 35 d of age than control. It is concluded that dietary supplements with black pepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  17. Effects of black pepper (piper nigrum), turmeric powder (curcuma longa) and coriander seeds (coriandrum sativum) and their combinations as feed additives on growth performance, carcass traits, some blood parameters and humoral immune response of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elkhair, R; Ahmed, H A; Selim, S

    2014-06-01

    Different herbs and spices have been used as feed additives for various purposes in poultry production. This study was conducted to assess the effect of feed supplemented with black pepper (Piper nigrum), turmeric powder (Curcuma longa), coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum) and their combinations on the performance of broilers. A total of 210 (Cobb) one-d-old chicks were divided into seven groups of 30 birds each. The treatments were: a control group received no supplement, 0.5% black pepper (T1), 0.5% turmeric powder (T2), 2% coriander seeds (T3), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 0.5% turmeric powder (T4), a mixture of 0.5% black pepper and 2% coriander seed (T5), and a mixture of 0.5% black pepper, 0.5% turmeric powder and 2% coriander seeds (T6). Higher significant values of body weight gain during the whole period of 5 weeks (ppepper or coriander seeds or their combinations enhanced the performance and health status of broiler chickens.

  18. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  19. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  20. Effects of nicotine on the digestive performance of nectar-feeding birds reflect their relative tolerance to this alkaloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch-Henning, S; Nicolson, S W

    2015-12-01

    The paradox of secondary metabolites, toxic defence compounds produced by plants, in nectar and fruits is well known. Deterrence of feeding by nectarivorous and frugivorous birds is better understood than the effect of these chemicals on the digestive performance of birds. Digestive parameters such as transit time and sugar assimilation are important in assessing nutrient utilization and deterrence may be related to post-ingestive effects involving these parameters. Nectar and many fruits contain mainly sugars and water, and avian consumers compensate for low sugar content in their diet by increasing food intake: this may also increase their intake of secondary metabolites. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences compensatory feeding and digestive performance of nectar-feeding birds. High nicotine concentration negatively affected compensatory feeding and apparent assimilation efficiency of white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens; but nicotine slowed gut transit time only in the latter species. In contrast, food intake and digestive performance of dark-capped bulbuls Pycnonotus tricolor was unaffected by nicotine up to a concentration of 50μM. Bulbuls are primarily frugivorous; hence, they are more exposed to secondary metabolites than sunbirds and possibly white-eyes. Because their diet is richer in toxins, frugivorous birds may have evolved more efficient detoxification strategies than those of specialist nectar-feeding birds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  2. The development of a new breast feeding assessment tool and the relationship with breast feeding self-efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jenny; Johnson, Debbie; Copeland, Marion; Churchill, Cathy; Taylor, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    to develop a breast feeding assessment tool to facilitate improved targeting of optimum positioning and attachment advice and to describe the changes seen following the release of a tongue-tie. development and validation of the Bristol Breastfeeding Assessment Tool (BBAT) and correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy. maternity hospital in South West England. 218 breast feeds (160 mother-infant dyads); seven midwife assessors. the tool has more explanation than other tools to remind those supporting breast-feeding women about the components of an efficient breast feed. There was good internal reliability for the final 4-item BBAT (Cronbach's alpha=0.668) and the midwives who used it showed a high correlation in the consistency of its use (ICC=0.782). Midwives were able to score a breast feed consistently using the BBAT and felt that it helped them with advice to mothers about improving positioning and attachment to make breast feeding less painful, particularly with a tongue-tied infant. The tool showed strong correlation with breast feeding self-efficacy, indicating that more efficient breast feeding technique is associated with increased confidence in breast feeding an infant. the BBAT is a concise breast feeding assessment tool facilitating accurate, rapid breast feeding appraisal, and targeting breast feeding advice to mothers acquiring early breast feeding skills or for those experiencing problems with an older infant. Accurate assessment is essential to ensure enhanced breast feeding efficiency and increased maternal self-confidence. the BBAT could be used both clinically and in research to target advice to improve breast feeding efficacy. Further research is needed to establish its wider usefulness. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Membrane reactor for water detritiation: a parametric study on operating parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascarade, J.; Liger, K.; Troulay, M.; Perrais, C. [CEA, DEN, DTN/STPA/LIPC, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Joulia, X.; Meyer, X.M. [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France); CNRS, Laboratoire de Genie Chimique, Toulouse (France)

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a parametric study done on a single stage finger-type packed-bed membrane reactor (PBMR) used for heavy water vapor de-deuteration. Parametric studies have been done on 3 operating parameters which are: the membrane temperature, the total feed flow rate and the feed composition through D{sub 2}O content variations. Thanks to mass spectrometer analysis of streams leaving the PBMR, speciation of deuterated species was achieved. Measurement of the amounts of each molecular component allowed the calculation of reaction quotient at the packed-bed outlet. While temperature variation mainly influences permeation efficiency, feed flow rate perturbation reveals dependence of conversion and permeation properties to contact time between catalyst and reacting mixture. The study shows that isotopic exchange reactions occurring on the catalyst particles surface are not thermodynamically balanced. Moreover, the variation of the heavy water content in the feed exhibits competition between permeation and conversion kinetics.

  4. DSMC simulation of feed jet flow in gas centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Dongjun; Zeng Shi

    2011-01-01

    Feed jet flow acts an important role for the counter-current in gas centrifuge. Direct simulation Monte-Carlo (DSMC) method was adopted to simulate the structure of the radial feed jet model. By setting the proper boundary conditions and the collision model of molecules, the flow distributions of the 2D radial feed jet were acquired under different feed conditions, including the wave structure of feed jet and the profile of the flow parameters. The analyses of the calculation results note the following flow phenomena: Near the radial outflow boundary, the obvious peaks of the flow parameters exist; higher speed of feed gas brings stronger influence on the flow field of the centrifuge; including the density, pressure and velocity of the gas, the distribution of the temperature is affected by the feed jet, at the outflow boundary, temperature to double times of the average value. (authors)

  5. Salmonella Radicidation of Dry Mixed Feeds and Feed Ingredients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mossel, D. A.A. [Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research TNO, Zeist (Netherlands); San Marcos University, Lima (Peru)

    1967-11-15

    Feed components contaminated with salmonellae act as vehicles in the transmission of these bacteria to slaughter animals and hence to meat and poultry. Terminal decontamination of ingredients or mixed feed seems required because sanitary improvements in processing, bagging and storage do not always appear effective in considerably reducing salmonella contamination rates. Experiments were carried out to assay the decontamination effect of pelletization of mixed feed. Enumeration of enterobacteriaceae was used as the analytical criterion. It appeared that a temperature over 80 Degree-Sign C generally led to five decimal reductions in enterobacteriaceae counts; however, also currently used lower temperatures may bring about two decimal reductions only. Following earlier experiments with fish meal, range finding tests on the decontamination of mixed feed with {sup 60}Co gamma rays were also performed. To achieve five decimal reductions in the counts of the most resistant enterobacteriaceae which were encountered about 0.5 Mrad was required; survival curves were generally not linear, so that overall effective dose had to be used as a parameter. Feeding experiments with rats, using 35% fish meal irradiated at 0.8 Mrad in the diet for two years, demonstrated that neither losses of nutritive value nor the occurrence of orally toxic factors is effected by such an irradiation treatment. It is recommended that pilot plant tests be carried out. In these tests an attempt should be made to combine improved sanitation and pelletizing with a terminal radiation treatment of the bagged material with the lowest dose required. Such tests should preferably be carried out in suitable areas of countries like Peru or Chile. A brief outline is given of the development work and training of scientific and technical staff that should be carried out during the installation of such a pilot plant. (author)

  6. The effect of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, nitrogen and phosphorus on relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers, growth parameters and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19 in Sari

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Saber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the efficiency of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR plus nitrogen and phosphorous chemical fertilizers on relative agronomic efficiency of P and N fertilizers and some agronomic parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar N-80-19, an experiment was conducted at Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University during growing season of 2008-2009. Experiment was arranged in split-split plot based on randomized complete block design with three levels (0, 25 and 50 kg.ha-1 and sub-plots were considered PGPR at four levels (control, inoculation with nitrogen fixing bacteria (PFB, phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB and dual inoculation with PFB and PSB with three replications. Results showed that the application of biofertilizers significantly increased relative agronomic efficiency of N and P fertilizers, spike number, plant height, flag leaf area, grain yield and grain weight of wheat. Application of biofertilizers increased wheat grain yield as much as 46.6% as compared to control. Double inoculation of biofertilizers improved relative agronomic efficiency of fertilizers by 58.4 and 76.5% as compared to control, respectively. Integrated treatments showed higher performance compared to separate treatments. Generally, biofertilizers with low levels of P and N fertilizers significantly improved yield components of wheat without any reduction in yield related parameters.

  7. Alimentação de bezerros ruminantes com dieta líquida, via goteira esofageana: parâmetros ruminais Ruminant calves feeding with liquid diet, through esophageal groove: ruminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos de Sousa Lucci

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Efeitos de fornecer proteína texturizada de soja (PTS na forma líquida, via goteira esofágica, ou na forma sólida, via concentrados, foram estudados em um delineamento quadrado latino 4 x 4, empregando quatro novilhos Holandeses providos de cânulas ruminais, pesando cerca de 100 kg cada, no início do experimento. Os tratamentos consistiram de níveis crescentes de PTS na forma líquida (0, 33, 66 e 100%, oferecidos em mamadeiras, e níveis decrescentes de misturas concentradas, mantendo-se a mesma quantidade de nitrogênio em todas as dietas. Os subperíodos experimentais foram de 21 dias, sendo os primeiros 16 de adaptação às rações (feno de Cynodon dactilon, mistura concentrada e alimento líquido. Ensaio de digestibilidade in situ foi executado do dia 17 ao 20, sendo os tempos de incubação de 0, 1,5, 3, 6, 12, 24 e 48 horas, para o farelo de soja e PTS, e 0, 6, 12, 24, 48h, 72 e 96 horas para o feno. Foram tomadas amostras de conteúdo ruminal para análise de volume e taxa de passagem de líquidos, e pH, no dia 21 às 0, 1, 3, 6, 12 e 24 horas. No dia 20, conteúdos ruminais foram coletados para análise de ácidos graxos voláteis (AGV e N amoniacal às 0, 2, 4, 5 e 6h após a primeira alimentação do dia. Foi observado aumento na taxa de passagem e turnover líquido com a diminuição do suplemento protéico na forma líquida. Não ocorreram efeitos da forma de alimentação nas concentrações dos totais de AGV ou nas suas porcentagens molares individuais, do mesmo modo que o pH não foi afetado. Não houve efeitos da forma de alimentação sobre a degradabilidade in situ da proteína e da matéria seca do farelo de soja e PTS, tampouco efeitos sobre a degradabilidade da matéria seca e fibra em detergente neutro do feno.Effects of feeding textured soy protein (TSP, in liquid form throught esophageal groove, or solid form throught concentrate meal, were studied in a 4 x 4 Latin-square change-over design, using four Holstein

  8. Biogas feed analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  9. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  10. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  11. Efficiency of water removal from water/ethanol mixtures using supercritical carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rodrigues

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques involving supercritical carbon dioxide have been successfully used for the formation of drug particles with controlled size distributions. However, these processes show some limitations, particularly in processing aqueous solutions. A diagram walking algorithm based on available experimental data was developed to evaluate the effect of ethanol on the efficiency of water removal processes under different process conditions. Ethanol feeding was the key parameter resulting in a tenfold increase in the efficiency of water extraction.

  12. Infectious waste feed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  13. Feed efficiency in Mangalarga Marchador foals fed diet supplemented with probiotics or phytase Eficiência alimentar de potros da raça Mangalarga Marchador alimentados com dieta suplementada com probióticos ou fitase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Silva de Moura

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effect of probiotic or phytase supplementation on dry matter intake (DMI, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion (FC in 24 Mangalarga Marchador foals (16 males, 8 females, with 241.6 ± 23.2 days of age, and 216.7 ± 27.8 kg of body weight (BW. The study lasted 28 days, the first 23 days for diet and handling adaptation, and the last five days for feces collection. The basal diet consisted of Cynodon pasture and pelleted concentrate (1.2 kg/100 kg BW, as well as water and mineral salt ad libitum. Treatments groups were assigned as follows: basal diet (control; basal diet + 5 g/day of live yeast culture (10(9 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae; basal diet + 2 g/day of live bacteria (10(8 CFU/g of B. bifidum, E. faecium, L. acidophilus, L. plantarum and yeast culture (10(5 CFU/g of S. cerevisiae; and basal diet + 1250 FTU/day of phytase. Pasture DMI was estimated with an external marker (LIPE™ associated with cecal in situ digestibility of dry matter. All foals were randomized, by replicated, using a 4 × 2 factorial, and results were compared using Student t-test, taking into consideration the effect of initial BW as covariate for the percentage DMI per BW. Among foals, DMI varied from 2.4 to 2.8% BW, with foals supplemented with live bacteria and yeast having lower DMI (total diet and forage. All animals had an ADG of 0.33 kg/day, and foals supplemented with live bacteria and yeast had FC 32.42 to 43.83% lower than foals supplemented with phytase or fed only basal diet. The phytase dose of 205 FTU/kg DM in the basal diet had no effects. Probiotic composed of live bacteria and yeast culture improved feed efficiency of forage and can be used as a nutritional strategy to maintain body condition in foals during the dry season.O trabalho foi realizado visando avaliar a influência da suplementação de probióticos ou fitase sobre o consumo diário de matéria seca (CMS, o ganho de peso diário (GPD e a conversão alimentar

  14. The Efficiency of OLS Estimators of Structural Parameters in a Simple Linear Regression Model in the Calibration of the Averages Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowal Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A simple linear regression model is one of the pillars of classic econometrics. Multiple areas of research function within its scope. One of the many fundamental questions in the model concerns proving the efficiency of the most commonly used OLS estimators and examining their properties. In the literature of the subject one can find taking back to this scope and certain solutions in that regard. Methodically, they are borrowed from the multiple regression model or also from a boundary partial model. Not everything, however, is here complete and consistent. In the paper a completely new scheme is proposed, based on the implementation of the Cauchy-Schwarz inequality in the arrangement of the constraint aggregated from calibrated appropriately secondary constraints of unbiasedness which in a result of choice the appropriate calibrator for each variable directly leads to showing this property. A separate range-is a matter of choice of such a calibrator. These deliberations, on account of the volume and kinds of the calibration, were divided into a few parts. In the one the efficiency of OLS estimators is proven in a mixed scheme of the calibration by averages, that is preliminary, and in the most basic frames of the proposed methodology. In these frames the future outlines and general premises constituting the base of more distant generalizations are being created.

  15. Feeding of Total Mixed Ration on the Productivity of Friesian Holstein Cross-Grade Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunarso; Christiyanto, M.; Nuswantara, L. K.

    2018-02-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate feeding of total mixed ration (TMR) on the productivity of Friesian Holstein (FH) male cross-grade cattle at Semarang Municipality. TMR was a ration formulated with agricultural and agro-industrial by-product (no grass and/or green forage were used) to fulfilled the nutrient requirement of beef cattle. Total mixed ration were formulated on iso-energy of 66% of total digestible nutrients (TDN) and different level of crude protein (CP) content of 11%, 12%, 13%, and 14%. Twenty (20) heads of FH male cross-grade cattle with initial body weight of 292.40+33.06 kg were used in this experiment, and were arranged into 5 treatments T0, T1, T2, T3, and T4), and 4 replications. Data collected were analysed statistically using analyses of variance (Anova) based on the completely randomized design (CRD), then followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT) for different among treatments. Results of the experiment showed significantly different effect (P0.05) on feed conversion ratio (FCR), and feed efficiency. Others parameter showed that there were no significantly different (P>0.05) effect on the dry matter and organic matter digestibility in vitro, rumen ammonia concentration, and volatile fatty acid’s rumen concentration. It was concluded that feeding TMR was potentially prospected for fattening of beef cattle, particularly as feeding strategy when there was no grass and/or green forage anymore.

  16. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford-13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades

  17. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  18. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  19. Effect of Digestate and Biochar Amendments on Photosynthesis Rate, Growth Parameters, Water Use Efficiency and Yield of Chinese Melon (Cucumis melo L. under Saline Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. A. Elbashier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the recent interest in biochar and digestate as soil amendments for improving soil quality and increasing crop production, there is inadequate knowledge of the effect of the combination of biochar and digestate, particularly under saline irrigation conditions. A pot experiment with Chinese melon was conducted in a greenhouse, biochar (5% and digestate (500 mL/pot were used with and without the recommended mineral NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium fertilizer dose (120-150-150 Kg ha−1. The plants were irrigated with tap water (SL0 and 2 dS/m (SL1 NaCl solution. The growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency (WUE and yield of Chinese melon were affected positively when biochar was combined with digestate amendment, particularly under saline irrigation water with and without mineral NPK fertilizer. The maximum yield under normal water was obtained by digestate (SL0: 218.87 t ha−1 and biochar amendment combined with digestate (SL1: 118.8 t ha−1 under saline water. The maximum WUE values were noticed with the biochar and digestate combination under all water treatments (SL0: 32.2 t ha−1 mm−1 and SL1: 19.6 t ha−1 mm−1. It was concluded that digestate alone was more effective than the use of biochar, particularly with normal water. The combination of biochar with digestate had a significant effect on the Chinese melon growth, photosynthesis rate, water use efficiency and yield under saline irrigation, and it can be used as an alternative fertilizer for mineral NPK fertilizer.

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  3. Decapsulated brine shrimp cysts - an ideal feed for shrimps in aquaculture

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Royan, J.P.

    Feeding experiments have been carried out with Metapenaeus monoceros using different stages of Artemia salina as feed. The importance of using decapsulated cysts to obtain greater food conversion efficiency has been indicated...

  4. Seasonal Variability of Mesozooplankton Feeding Rates on Phytoplankton in Subtropical Coastal and Estuarine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mianrun Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand how mesozooplankton assemblages influenced phytoplankton in coastal and estuarine waters, we carried out a monthly investigation on mesozooplankton composition at two contrasting stations of Hong Kong coastal and estuarine waters and simultaneously conducted bottle incubation feeding experiments. The assemblage of mesozooplankton was omnivorous at both stations with varying carnivory degree (the degree of feeding preference of protozoa and animal food to phytoplankton and the variations of carnivory degree were significantly associated with microzooplankton biomass (ciliates for the coastal station, both ciliates and dinoflagellates for the estuarine stations and physical environmental parameters (primarily salinity. High carnivory was primarily due to high composition of noctilucales, Corycaeus spp., Oithona spp. and Acartia spp. Results of feeding experiments showed that grazing impacts on phytoplankton ranged from −5.9 to 17.7%, while the mean impacts were just <4% at both stations. The impacts were size-dependent, by which mesozooplankton consumed around 9% of large-sized phytoplankton while indirectly caused an increase of 4% of small-sized phytoplankton. Mesozooplankton clearance rate on phytoplankton, calculated from the log response of chlorophyll a concentrations by the introduction of bulk grazers after 1-day incubation, was significantly reduced by increasing carnivory degree of the mesozooplankton assemblage. The mechanism for the reduction of mesozooplankton clearance rate with increasing carnivory degree was primarily due to less efficient of filtering feeding and stronger trophic cascades due to suppression of microzooplankton. The feeding rates of mesozooplankton on microzooplankton were not obtained in this study, but the trophic cascades indirectly induced by mesozooplankton carnivorous feeding can be observed by the negative clearance rate on small-sized phytoplankton. Overall, the main significance of

  5. Effects of sodium chloride on sheep. 2. Voluntary feed intake and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein (CP) had alleviated these detrimental effects to some extent. This was a ... feed intake and changes in certain rumen parameters of young Merino ..... in saliva, with a commensurate increase in the K ... its relation to feeding in cattle. 1.

  6. [Absolute numbers of peripheral blood CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells prior to a leukapheresis procedure as a parameter predicting the efficiency of stem cell collection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtseva, I V; Davydova, Yu O; Gaponova, T V; Kapranov, N M; Kuzmina, L A; Troitskaya, V V; Gribanova, E O; Kravchenko, S K; Mangasarova, Ya K; Zvonkov, E E; Parovichnikova, E N; Mendeleeva, L P; Savchenko, V G

    To identify a parameter predicting a collection of at least 2·106 CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSC)/kg body weight per leukapheresis (LA) procedure. The investigation included 189 patients with hematological malignancies and 3 HSC donors, who underwent mobilization of stem cells with their subsequent collection by LA. Absolute numbers of peripheral blood leukocytes and CD34+ cells before a LA procedure, as well as a number of CD34+ cells/kg body weight (BW) in the LA product stored on the same day were determined in each patient (donor). There was no correlation between the number of leukocytes and that of stored CD34+ cells/kg BW. There was a close correlation between the count of peripheral blood CD34+ cells prior to LA and that of collected CD34+ cells calculated with reference to kg BW. The optimal absolute blood CD34+ cell count was estimated to 20 per µl, at which a LA procedure makes it possible to collect 2·106 or more CD34+ cells/kg BW.

  7. The effect of feeding frequency on growth performance and body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to investigate the effects of different feeding frequencies on the growth, feed efficiency and specific growth rate (%) of juvenile of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, weight 16.44±0.22 g) rearing in cold sea water conditions (5.8 to 9.3°C; 17 to 18 ppt). Fish were fed on a commercial feed to the apparent ...

  8. Dietary Aloe vera supplementation on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Ndakalimwe Naftal; Qiang, Jun; He, Jie; Ma, Xin Yu; Kpundeh, Mathew D; Xu, Pao

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated effects of dietary Aloe vera on growth performance, some haemato-biochemical parameters and disease resistance against Streptococcus iniae in tilapia (GIFT). Five groups were designed including a basal diet (control) and 100% A. vera powder incorporated in fish feed at 0.5% 1%, 2%, and 4%/kg feed, which were administered for 8 weeks. Fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera supplemented diet significantly improved (p vera diet at 1% and 2%/kg feed. Feed efficiency ratio, feed conversion ratio, and hepatosomatic index were significantly enhanced in 4% A. vera supplemented fish over unsupplemented ones (p vera supplemented fish showed a significant increase (p vera supplemented fish showed a decrease (p vera diet at 2% and 4% A. vera/kg feed than those fed unsupplemented diet. Unchallenged fish fed 0.5%, 1%, and 2% A. vera showed significantly higher values (p vera supplemented diet. There was a significant increase (p vera unsupplemented fish and those supplemented with A. vera diet at 1%/kg feed increased significantly (p vera supplemented diet maintained higher values at all experimental stages among groups. There was a significant correlation (p Aloe had no significant effect (p > 0.05) on the survival of the fish when compared to the control; no mortality was recorded in challenge trial. Overall, our results indicated that dietary aloe supplementation could improve growth, feed utilization, and haemato-biochemical parameters of cultured tilapia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Resource competition and an analytical model of zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, O L; Shugart, H H; O' Neill, R V; Booth, R S; McNaught, D C

    1975-01-01

    A new consumer-resource The model was developed with specific reference to zooplankton feeding on phytoplankton. In principle, the model can be extended to any terrestrial or aquatic community in which the consumers graze nearly randomly. It is assumed that the food as relatively little escape capabity. An attempt was made to derive the consumer-resource interaction term from first principles.A general form with clearly defined parameters that represent fundamental system processes such as consumer filtering rate. model parameters describes two known forms of feeding:(1): saturation feeding in which the rate remains constant above a given food density while the filtering rate decreases, and(2) inhibited feeding in which a decline appears at high food density. From an examination of the model's equilibrium equations for strongly similar zooplankton species feeding on similar phytoplankton species, the following conclusions were drawn. The competitive exclusion principle has only limited validity. For a community in which the consumers exhibit no intraspecific competition and have identical assimilation efficiency to death-rate ratios, e/d, any number of consumer species may, in fact, coexist and compete for the same food. The equations for a complex community composed of many consumer and food species can be reduced to a single equation with form identical to that of a single-consumer, single-food system. The standard competition coefficient, ..cap alpha.., of the Volterra equation is a poor measure of competition in nonlinear systems. It exhibits incongruous variations with changes in system parameters. In a community with no intraspecific competition, allcompetition coefficients are unity. In a community with intraspecific competition, the competition coefficients C/sub in/ tend to equalize as the number of food species increases, resulting in equal competitive strength of all consumer species in systems of the type studied.

  10. Rumen fermentation dynamics of concentrate containing the new feed supplement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyono; Shintia NW Hardani; Teguh Wahyono

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of "3"2P for measuring of microbial protein synthesis in rumen liquid has potential role for obtaining a new formula of feed supplement (SPB). New Feed Supplements (SPB) was a new generation of ruminant feed supplement produced by the National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN). This supplement was applied to complete commercial concentrate function as feed for ruminants. In vitro testing used semi continuous in vitro such as Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC). The purpose of this study was to evaluate SPB as feed supplement and palm oil industry by product, and also to determine the dynamics of rumen fermentation from concentrate containing SPB. Two in vitro's analyzes that have been studied were "3"2P incubation and RUSITEC's methods. "3"2P in vitro's study used five treatments: palm oil leaf (P), palm oil bunches (TKS), Palm oil shell kernel (KC), P+TKS+KC and SPB. Parameter's measurement was microbial protein synthesis (mg/h/l). RUSITEC treatments were: control (K) (commercial concentrate); KS 30 (70 % commercial concentrate + 30 % SPB) and KS 40 (60 % commercial concentrate + 40 % SPB). Observed variables were fermented rumen product (24 hours incubation) such as pH, ammonia concentration (NH_3) (mg/100 ml), total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) (mM), total gas production (ml/d) and methane production (CH_4) (ml/d). Rumen fermentation dynamics represented descriptively on six days incubation. The average variable was analyzed using completely randomized design with 12 replicates (six days incubation x two replications) followed by Duncan test. Highest microbial protein synthesis was on SPB compared with P, TKS, KC and P+TKS+KC (67.6 vs 11.9; 0,67; 1,87 and 42.55 mg/h/l respectively). The RUSITEC results were pH value of three treatments in normal range between 6.40 to 7.15. The dynamics of NH_3 concentration and TVFA production of commercial concentrates always lower than the KS 30 and KS 40. The KS 40 treatment resulted in TVFA production 56

  11. Effect of some operational parameters on the hydrogen generation efficiency of Ni-ZnO/PANI composite under visible-light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsib, Mohamed Faouzi, E-mail: Mohamed.faouzi.ncib@gmail.com [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); National School of Engineers (ENIG), University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Naffati, Naima [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Rayes, Ali; Moussa, Noomen [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); National School of Engineers (ENIG), University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Houas, Ammar [URCMEP (UR11ES85), Faculty of Sciences, University of Gabès, 6029 Gabès (Tunisia); Al Imam Mohammad Ibn Saud Islamic University (IMSIU), College of Sciences, Department of Chemistry, Riyadh 11623 (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: UV–vis spectra of PANI, ZnO, Ni{sub 0.01}Zn{sub 0.99}O, Ni{sub 0.01}Zn{sub 0.99}O/PANI3 and Ni{sub 0.1}Zn{sub 0.9}O/PANI{sub 10} nanocomposites. - Highlights: • Ni{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O/PANI{sub y} photocatalysts are synthesized by the impregnation method. • Ni{sup 2+} amount control the morphology of ZnO and enhances its photoactivity. • Both Ni{sup 2+} and PANI extend the light absorption of ZnO toward the visible region. • Both Ni{sup 2+} and PANI enhance the electron–hole separation. - Abstract: Ni{sub x}Zn{sub 1−x}O/Polyaniline hybrid photocatalysts are synthesized and used for the experiments of hydrogen production from water-splitting under visible irradiation. XRD, UV–vis DRS and SEM are used to characterize the prepared materials. It is shown that the Ni{sup 2+} amount doped into ZnO controls its morphology and enhances its photoactivity for H{sub 2} generation. Polyaniline (PANI) is shown to sensitize ZnO and to extend its light absorption toward the visible region. The hybrid photocatalyst with 10 mol% Ni{sup 2+} and 10 wt.% PANI shows the maximum photocatalytic H{sub 2} production for one hour of visible irradiation: ∼558 μmol while only ∼178 μmol in the presence of pure ZnO. Additives like sacrificial electron donors and carbonate salts are found to play a key role in the improvement of H{sub 2} evolution. Thus, the hydrogen photoproduction efficiency increases in the order: thiosulfate > sulfide > propanol and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} > CO{sub 3}{sup 2−}.

  12. The Performance and Incidence of Ascites in Broiler Chickens in Response to Feed Restriction and Meal Feeding Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrouz Dastar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of feed restriction (FR and meal feeding (MF on performance, carcass characteristics and related parameters to ascites in Ross 308 male broiler chickens. Five dietary treatments were 1 the control (ad libo. feeding, 2 feed restriction from 7 to 14 days (FR14, 3 feed restriction from 7 to 21 days (FR21, 4 meal feeding from 7 to 14 days (MF14 and 5 meal feeding from 7 to 21days (MF21. All birds were fed adlibitum for the first week post hatch and after 21 days of age. Four replicate of 12 birds were allocated to each treatment. The results indicated FR and MF21 groups had significantly (p

  13. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.