WorldWideScience

Sample records for feed delivery environmental

  1. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-18

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches.

  2. Waste Feed Delivery Environmental Permits and Approvals Plan

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    2000-01-01

    This plan describes the environmental permits approvals, and other requirements that may affect establishment of a waste feed delivery system for the Hanford Site's River Protection Project. This plan identifies and screens environmental standards for potential applicability, outlines alternatives for satisfying applicable standards, and describes preferred permitting and approval approaches

  3. Waste feed delivery environmental permits and approvals plan

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    This document describes the range of environmental actions, including required permits and other agency approvals, that may affect waste feed delivery (WFD) activities in the Hanford Site's Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS). This plan expands on the summary level information in the Tank Waste Remediation System Environmental Program Plan (HNF 1773) to address requirements that are most pertinent to WFD. This plan outlines alternative approaches to satisfying applicable environmental standards, and describes selected strategies for acquiring permits and other approvals needed for WFD to proceed. Appendices at the end of this plan provide preliminary cost and schedule estimates for implementing the selected strategies. The rest of this section summarizes the scope of WFD activities, including important TWRS operating information, and describes in more detail the objectives, structure, and content of this plan

  4. Project W-521, waste feed delivery systems environmental permits and approvals plan

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document has been prepared to define the specific environmental requirements applicable to Project W-521. The document describes the permits and approvals necessary for the project to design, construct, and install planned upgrades, and provides a schedule of activities and provides cost estimates to complete the required permitting and approval activities

  5. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    O' TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-09-30

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach.

  6. Waste feed delivery test and evaluation plan

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan documents the Waste Feed Delivery Program test and evaluation planning and implementation approach. The purpose of this document is to define and communicate the Waste Feed Delivery Program Test and Evaluation scope, objectives, planning and implementation approach

  7. Waste feed delivery planning at Hanford-13232

    Certa, Paul J.; West, Elizha B.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.; Hohl, Ted M.; Larsen, Douglas C.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Kelly, James W.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades

  8. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S.

    2013-01-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  9. Waste Feed Delivery Planning at Hanford - 13232

    Certa, Paul J.; Hohl, Ted M.; Kelly, James W.; Larsen, Douglas C.; West, Elizha B.; Ritari, Jaakob S.; Rodriguez, Juissepp S. [Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC, P.O. 850, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Integrated Waste Feed Delivery Plan (IWFDP) describes how waste feed will be delivered to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to safely and efficiently accomplish the River Protection Project (RPP) mission. The IWFDP, which is integrated with the Baseline Case operating scenario, is comprised of three volumes. Volume 1 - Process Strategy provides an overview of waste feed delivery (WFD) and describes how the WFD system will be used to prepare and deliver feed to the WTP based on the equipment configuration and functional capabilities of the WFD system. Volume 2 - Campaign Plan describes the plans for the first eight campaigns for delivery to the WTP, evaluates projected feed for systematic issues, projects 242-A Evaporator campaigns, and evaluates double-shell tank (DST) space and availability of contingency feed. Volume 3 - Project Plan identifies the scope and timing of the DST and infrastructure upgrade projects necessary to feed the WTP, and coordinates over 30 projectized projects and operational activities that comprise the needed WFD upgrades. (authors)

  10. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-05-05

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms.

  11. Waste Feed Delivery Transfer System Analysis

    JULYK, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    This document provides a documented basis for the required design pressure rating and pump pressure capacity of the Hanford Site waste-transfer system in support of the waste feed delivery to the privatization contractor for vitrification. The scope of the analysis includes the 200 East Area double-shell tank waste transfer pipeline system and the associated transfer system pumps for a11 Phase 1B and Phase 2 waste transfers from AN, AP, AW, AY, and A2 Tank Farms

  12. Waste feed delivery program systems engineering implementation plan

    O'Toole, S.M.; Hendel, B.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document defines the systems engineering processes and products planned by the Waste Feed Delivery Program to develop the necessary and sufficient systems to provide waste feed to the Privatization Contractor for Phase 1. It defines roles and responsibilities for the performance of the systems engineering processes and generation of products

  13. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O and M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis

  14. Process development work plan for waste feed delivery system

    Papp, I.G.

    1998-01-01

    This work plan defines the process used to develop project definition for Waste Feed Delivery (WFD). Project definition provides the direction for development of definitive design media required for the ultimate implementation of operational processing hardware and software. Outlines for the major deliverables are attached as appendices. The implementation of hardware and software will accommodate requirements for safe retrieval and delivery of waste currently stored in Hanford's underground storage tanks. Operations and maintenance ensure the availability of systems, structures, and components for current and future planned operations within the boundary of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) authorization basis

  15. In Vitro Evaluation of Eslicarbazepine Delivery via Enteral Feeding Tubes.

    Reindel, Kristin; Zhao, Fang; Hughes, Susan; Dave, Vivek S

    2017-12-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of preparing an eslicarbazepine acetate suspension using Aptiom tablets for administration via enteral feeding tubes was evaluated. Methods: Eslicarbazepine acetate suspension (40 mg/mL) was prepared using Aptiom tablets after optimizing the tablet crushing methods and the vehicle composition. A stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to monitor the eslicarbazepine stability in the prepared suspension. Three enteric feeding tubes of various composition and dimensions were evaluated for the delivery of the suspensions. The suspension was evaluated for the physical and chemical stability for 48 hours. Results: The reproducibility and consistency of particle size reduction was found to be best with standard mortar/pestle. The viscosity analysis and physical stability studies showed that ORA-Plus:water (50:50 v/v) was optimal for suspending ability and flowability of suspension through the tubes. The developed HPLC method was found to be stability indicating and suitable for the assay of eslicarbazepine acetate in the prepared suspension. The eslicarbazepine concentrations in separately prepared suspensions were within acceptable range (±3%), indicating accuracy and reproducibility of the procedure. The eslicarbazepine concentrations in suspensions before and after delivery through the enteric feeding tubes were within acceptable range (±4%), indicating absence of any physical/chemical interactions of eslicarbazepine with the tubes and a successful delivery of eslicarbazepine dosage via enteric feeding tubes. The stability study results showed that eslicarbazepine concentration in the suspension remained unchanged when stored at room temperature for 48 hours. Conclusion: The study presents a convenient procedure for the preparation of a stable suspension of eslicarbazepine acetate (40 mg/mL) using Aptiom tablets, for administration via enteral feeding tubes.

  16. Feed delivery method affects the learning of feeding and competitive behavior in dairy heifers.

    Greter, A M; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; McBride, B W; DeVries, T J

    2010-08-01

    bunk in the 2h following feed delivery (40.6 vs. 25.9 min/d). Heifers previously fed the TDR were displaced from the feed bunk more frequently than heifers previously fed the TMR (23.0 vs. 13.1 times/d), particularly during the 2-h period following feed delivery. Fecal scores were lower (more fluid in consistency) for heifers originally fed the TDR (3.2 vs. 3.7). The continued difference in feed bunk competition suggests that heifers previously fed the TDR had learned these patterns in the past, retaining them even when switched to an unfamiliar ration. Furthermore, lower fecal scores for heifers previously fed the TDR suggest altered rumen fermentation, possibly because of altered diurnal consumption patterns. These results show that feeding a TMR to replacement dairy heifers from a young age promotes a more even diurnal feeding pattern, minimizes feed bunk competition, and promotes a more solid fecal consistency. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. THE HANFORD WASTE FEED DELIVERY OPERATIONS RESEARCH MODEL

    Berry, J.; Gallaher, B.N.

    2011-01-01

    Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), the Hanford tank farm contractor, is tasked with the long term planning of the cleanup mission. Cleanup plans do not explicitly reflect the mission effects associated with tank farm operating equipment failures. EnergySolutions, a subcontractor to WRPS has developed, in conjunction with WRPS tank farms staff, an Operations Research (OR) model to assess and identify areas to improve the performance of the Waste Feed Delivery Systems. This paper provides an example of how OR modeling can be used to help identify and mitigate operational risks at the Hanford tank farms.

  18. Evaluating Feed Delivery Performance in Scaled Double-Shell Tanks

    Lee, Kearn P.; Thien, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    The Hanford Tank Operations Contractor (TOC) and the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) contractor are both engaged in demonstrating mixing, sampling, and transfer system capability using simulated Hanford High-Level Waste (HLW) formulations. This work represents one of the remaining technical issues with the high-level waste treatment mission at Hanford. The TOCs' ability to adequately mix and sample high-level waste feed to meet the WTP WAC Data Quality Objectives must be demonstrated. The tank mixing and feed delivery must support both TOC and WTP operations. The tank mixing method must be able to remove settled solids from the tank and provide consistent feed to the WTP to facilitate waste treatment operations. Two geometrically scaled tanks were used with a broad spectrum of tank waste simulants to demonstrate that mixing using two rotating mixer jet pumps yields consistent slurry compositions as the tank is emptied in a series of sequential batch transfers. Testing showed that the concentration of slow settling solids in each transfer batch was consistent over a wide range of tank operating conditions. Although testing demonstrated that the concentration of fast settling solids decreased by up to 25% as the tank was emptied, batch-to-batch consistency improved as mixer jet nozzle velocity in the scaled tanks increased

  19. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ``minimum duration`` will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates.

  20. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ''minimum duration'' will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates

  1. Waste Feed Delivery Raw Water and Potable Water and Compressed Air Capacity Evaluation

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the Raw Water, Potable Water, and Compressed Air systems to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the system

  2. Tank waste remediation system retrieval and disposal mission waste feed delivery plan

    Potter, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a plan presenting the objectives, organization, and management and technical approaches for the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Program. This WFD Plan focuses on the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project's Waste Retrieval and Disposal Mission

  3. Association between Caesarean Delivery and Isolated Doses of Formula Feeding in Cow Milk Allergy.

    Gil, Francisco; Amezqueta, Ana; Martinez, Diana; Aznal, Elena; Etayo, Veronica; Durá, Teodoro; Sánchez-Valverde, Félix

    2017-01-01

    Cow milk allergy (CMA) is the most common food allergy in breastfed infants. The aim of this study is to verify whether certain perinatal factors may influence the development of CMA immunoglobulin E (IgE)+. A retrospective, observational study of case and control groups was carried out. Information was collected of patients with CMA IgE+ from our department during the years 1990-2013. Patients of the same age and sex were recruited for the control group. Information on the following variables was collected: sex, age, pregnancy tolerance, duration of pregnancy, type of delivery, isolated doses of formula feeding in hospital (FFH), duration of breastfeeding, and family history of allergy (defined as ≥1 first-degree family member with allergic disease). Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression techniques. A total of 211 cases were included in this study. Multivariate analysis showed an influence of duration of breastfeeding, FFH to be a risk factor (OR 4.94; 95% CI 2.68-9.08), especially in caesarean delivery (OR 11.82; 95% CI 2.64-47.50), and prematurity (OR 0.29; 95% CI 0.09-0.92) to be a protective factor. Perinatal factors play a key role in the development of CMA IgE+, with an influence of breastfeeding duration, FFH and caesarean delivery as risk factors and prematurity as a protective factor. While family history had no important role, environmental factors were more decisive. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Design and performance of feed-delivery systems for simulated radioactive waste slurries

    Perez, J.M. Jr.

    1983-02-01

    Processes for vitrifying simulated high-level radioactive waste have been developed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) over the last several years. Paralleling this effort, several feed systems used to deliver the simulated waste slurry to the melter have been tested. Because there had been little industrial experience in delivering abrasive slurries at feed rates of less than 10 L/min, early experience helped direct the design of more-dependable systems. Also, as feed delivery requirements changed, the feed system was modified to meet these new requirements. The various feed systems discussed in this document are part of this evolutionary process, so they have not been ranked against each other. The four slurry feed systems discussed are: (1) vertical-cantilevered centrifugal pump system; (2) airlift feed systems; (3) pressurized-loop systems; and (4) positive-displacement pump system. 20 figures, 11 tables

  5. The association between cesarean delivery on maternal request and method of newborn feeding in China.

    Xinxue Liu

    Full Text Available Cesarean delivery has increased significantly during the last decades. This study aimed to investigate the association between planned mode of delivery and method of feeding.A cohort was created retrospectively using data from a population-based maternal and child health surveillance system, which covers 27 study sites in China from 1993 to 2006. The cohort consisted of 431,704 women for analysis, including 22,462 women with planned cesarean delivery on maternal request (CDMR and 409,242 women with planned vaginal delivery (VD. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between mode of delivery and method of feeding adjusting for selected covariates. In this cohort, 398,176 (92.2% women exclusively breastfed their baby, 28,798 (6.7% women chose mixed feeding, and 4,730 (1.1% women chose formula feeding before hospital discharge. Women who planned CDMR were less likely to exclusively breastfeed and more likely to formula feed their babies than those who planned VD. After adjusting for covariates, the odds ratios were 0.85 (95% CI: 0.81-0.89 for exclusive breastfeeding and 1.61 (95% CI: 1.45-1.79 for formula feeding. Associations between planned mode of delivery and method of feeding in the south, north, rural and urban areas yielded similar results.This study demonstrated that planned CDMR was associated with a lower rate of exclusive breastfeeding and a higher rate of formula feeding in a low-risk Chinese population.

  6. Environmental impacts of precision feeding programs applied in pig production.

    Andretta, I; Hauschild, L; Kipper, M; Pires, P G S; Pomar, C

    2017-12-04

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect that switching from conventional to precision feeding systems during the growing-finishing phase would have on the potential environmental impact of Brazilian pig production. Standard life-cycle assessment procedures were used, with a cradle-to-farm gate boundary. The inputs and outputs of each interface of the life cycle (production of feed ingredients, processing in the feed industry, transportation and animal rearing) were organized in a model. Grain production was independently characterized in the Central-West and South regions of Brazil, whereas the pigs were raised in the South region. Three feeding programs were applied for growing-finishing pigs: conventional phase feeding by group (CON); precision daily feeding by group (PFG) (whole herd fed the same daily adjusted diet); and precision daily feeding by individual (PFI) (diets adjusted daily to match individual nutrient requirements). Raising pigs (1 t pig BW at farm gate) in South Brazil under the CON feeding program using grain cultivated in the same region led to emissions of 1840 kg of CO2-eq, 13.1 kg of PO4-eq and 32.2 kg of SO2-eq. Simulations using grain from the Central-West region showed a greater climate change impact. Compared with the previous scenario, a 17% increase in climate change impact was found when simulating with soybeans produced in Central-West Brazil, whereas a 28% increase was observed when simulating with corn and soybeans from Central-West Brazil. Compared with the CON feeding program, the PFG and PFI programs reduced the potential environmental impact. Applying the PFG program mitigated the potential climate change impact and eutrophication by up to 4%, and acidification impact by up to 3% compared with the CON program. Making a further adjustment by feeding pigs according to their individual nutrient requirements mitigated the potential climate change impact by up to 6% and the potential eutrophication and acidification impact

  7. From environmental nuisance to environmental opportunity: housefly larvae convert waste to livestock feed

    Zanten, van H.H.E.; Mollenhorst, H.; Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Bikker, P.; Meerburg, B.G.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The livestock sector is in urgent need for more sustainable feed sources, because of the increased demand for animal-source food and the already high environmental costs associated with it. Recent developments indicate environmental benefits of rearing insects for livestock feed, suggesting that

  8. Review Guidance for the TWRS FSAR amendment for Waste Retrieval and waste feed delivery

    GRIFFITH, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    This review guidance (Guide) was developed for Office of River Protection (ORP) reviewers to use in reviewing the amendment to the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) covering waste retrieval and waste feed delivery. Waste retrieval and waste feed delivery are necessary to supply nuclear waste from TWRS storage tanks to the TWRS Privatization (TWRS-P) Contractor's vitrification facility and to receive intermediate waste from the vitrification facility back into the TWRS tank farms for interim storage. An amendment to the approved TWRS FSAR (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067,Rev. 0) is necessary to change the authorization basis to accommodate waste retrieval and waste feed delivery. The ORP'S safety responsibility in reviewing the FSAR amendment is to determine that reasonable assurance exists that waste retrieval and waste feed delivery operations can be accomplished with adequate safety for the workers, the public, and the environment. To carry out this responsibility, the ORP will evaluate the Contractor's amendment to the TWRS FSAR for waste retrieval and waste feed delivery to determine whether the submittal provides adequate safety and complies with applicable regulatory requirements

  9. Perspectives regarding antenatal care, delivery and breast feeding practices of women from Baluchistan, Pakistan

    Khoso, A.; Khan, A.Z.; Sayed, S.A.; Rafique, G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Antenatal Care is one of the fundamental rights for women to safeguard their health. Neonatal mortality rates have remained relatively static, compared to the decline in infant and under 5 mortality rates, adverse practices regarding breast feeding and pre-lacteal feeds being the important factors responsible. This study aimed to explore the Antenatal Care, delivery and breast feeding practices in three districts of Blotchiness. Methods: It was a qualitative phenomenological design using Constrictive approach. The study was conducted in three districts of Baluchistan province, Gwadar, Quetta, Qila Saifullah. There were a total of 14 Focus Group Discussions with women regarding Antenatal Care, delivery and Breast feeding practices, followed by audio taping, transcription as verbatim and analysis through Nvivo version 2. A process was deployed for identification and reporting of the components in order to ensure quality and validity of the qualitative findings. Results: Across the sites, women attended ANC at least once. However, their descriptions of ANC often varied. The women preferred Dais instead of doctors, due to the affordability, customs and availability. A lack of trained doctors and long distances to get a check-up lead to home deliveries in the study setting. Colostrum was discarded by majority of the mothers, while prelacteal feed was a common practice. Conclusion: This paper has explored factors affecting ANC attendance, delivery and breast feeding practices across three settings. Both the demand and supply side factors have an important influence on practices. (author)

  10. Monitoring total mixed rations and feed delivery systems.

    Oelberg, Thomas J; Stone, William

    2014-11-01

    This article is intended to give practitioners a method to evaluate total mixed ration (TMR) consistency and to give them practical solutions to improve TMR consistency that will improve cattle performance and health. Practitioners will learn how to manage the variation in moisture and nutrients that exists in haylage and corn silage piles and in bales of hay, and methods to reduce variation in the TMR mixing and delivery process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of the Electrical Power Requirements for Continued Safe Storage and Waste Feed Delivery Phase One

    MAY, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the electrical distribution system to support safe storage as well as the first phase of the Waste Feed Delivery. Several recommendations are made to improve the electrical system. The ability to assure adequate Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) to the Privatization Contractor's vitrification facility is a key element in the overall Hanford cleanup schedule. An important aspect of this WFD is the availability of sufficient and appropriate electrical power in the single- and double-shell tank farms. The methodology for performing this review and the results are described

  12. Environmental health impacts of feeding crops to farmed fish.

    Fry, Jillian P; Love, David C; MacDonald, Graham K; West, Paul C; Engstrom, Peder M; Nachman, Keeve E; Lawrence, Robert S

    2016-05-01

    Half of the seafood consumed globally now comes from aquaculture, or farmed seafood. Aquaculture therefore plays an increasingly important role in the global food system, the environment, and human health. Traditionally, aquaculture feed has contained high levels of wild fish, which is unsustainable for ocean ecosystems as demand grows. The aquaculture industry is shifting to crop-based feed ingredients, such as soy, to replace wild fish as a feed source and allow for continued industry growth. This shift fundamentally links seafood production to terrestrial agriculture, and multidisciplinary research is needed to understand the ecological and environmental health implications. We provide basic estimates of the agricultural resource use associated with producing the top five crops used in commercial aquaculture feed. Aquaculture's environmental footprint may now include nutrient and pesticide runoff from industrial crop production, and depending on where and how feed crops are produced, could be indirectly linked to associated negative health outcomes. We summarize key environmental health research on health effects associated with exposure to air, water, and soil contaminated by industrial crop production. Our review also finds that changes in the nutritional content of farmed seafood products due to altered feed composition could impact human nutrition. Based on our literature reviews and estimates of resource use, we present a conceptual framework describing the potential links between increasing use of crop-based ingredients in aquaculture and human health. Additional data and geographic sourcing information for crop-based ingredients are needed to fully assess the environmental health implications of this trend. This is especially critical in the context of a food system that is using both aquatic and terrestrial resources at unsustainable rates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary RAM Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    DYKES, A.A.

    2000-10-11

    This report presents the updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, and maintainability (RAM) analysis of selected waste feed delivery (WFD) operations to be performed by the Tank Farm Contractor (TFC) during Phase I activities in support of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). For planning purposes, waste feed tanks are being divided into five classes in accordance with the type of waste in each tank and the activities required to retrieve, qualify, and transfer waste feed. This report reflects the baseline design and operating concept, as of the beginning of Fiscal Year 2000, for the delivery of feed from three of these classes, represented by source tanks 241-AN-102, 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105. The preliminary RAM analysis quantifies the potential schedule delay associated with operations and maintenance (OBM) field activities needed to accomplish these operations. The RAM analysis is preliminary because the system design, process definition, and activity planning are in a state of evolution. The results are being used to support the continuing development of an O&M Concept tailored to the unique requirements of the WFD Program, which is being documented in various volumes of the Waste Feed Delivery Technical Basis (Carlson. 1999, Rasmussen 1999, and Orme 2000). The waste feed provided to the WTP must: (1) meet limits for chemical and radioactive constituents based on pre-established compositional envelopes (i.e., feed quality); (2) be in acceptable quantities within a prescribed sequence to meet feed quantities; and (3) meet schedule requirements (i.e., feed timing). In the absence of new criteria related to acceptable schedule performance due to the termination of the TWRS Privatization Contract, the original criteria from the Tank Waste Remediation System (77443s) Privatization Contract (DOE 1998) will continue to be used for this analysis.

  14. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-09-15

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  15. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System

    WILLIAMS, J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR)

  16. Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery Project Management Quality Affecting Procedures Management Plan

    LUND, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the Double Shell Tanks (DST) and Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Management Assessment Plan is to define how management assessments within DST h WFD will be conducted. The plan as written currently includes only WFD Project assessment topics. Other DST and WFD group assessment topics will be added in future revisions

  17. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Feed Materials Production Center, Fernald, Ohio

    1987-03-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the environmental survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC), conducted June 16 through 27, 1986. The survey is being conducted by an interdisciplinary team of environmental specialists, led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team components are being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the FMPC. The survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at FMPC, and interviews with site personnel. The survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain of the environmental problems identified during its onsite activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan will be executed by a DOE national laboratory or a support contractor. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the FMPC Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the FMPC survey. 41 refs., 20 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Estimated dose to in-tank equipment: Phase 1 waste feed delivery

    Claghorn, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis estimates the radiation dose to the equipment that will be submerged in double-shell tank waste. The results of this analysis are intended to be the basis for specifications for in-tank equipment. The scope of this analysis is limited to the new equipment required for the delivery of waste feed to Phase 1 private contractors. Phase 1 refers to the first of a two-phase plan to privatize the remediation of Hanford's tank waste. The focus of this analysis is on waste feed delivery because of the extraordinarily high cost of any failure that would lead to the interruption of a steady flow of feed to the private contractors

  19. Electricity Delivery and its Environmental Impacts

    Explains electricity delivery in the U.S. and its impacts on the environment. After a centralized power plant generates electricity, the electricity must be delivered to the end-user. Follow the path of electricity through transmission, substation, and dis

  20. Effects of Bifidobacterium Breve Feeding Strategy and Delivery Modes on Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Mice.

    Jian-jun Ren

    Full Text Available Different delivery modes may affect the susceptibility to allergic diseases. It is still unknown whether early intervention with probiotics would counteract this effect.The effect of different delivery modes on immune status and nasal symptoms was investigated on established allergic rhinitis (AR mouse model. In addition, the immunoregulatory effects and mechanisms of different feeding manners with Bifidobacterium breve(B. breve were examined.Live lyophilized B. breve was orally administered to BALB/c mice born via vaginal delivery(VD or cesarean delivery (CD for 8 consecutive weeks, after which they were sensitized by ovalbumin(OVA to establish experimental AR. Nasal symptoms, serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, splenic percentages of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+ regulatory T(Treg cells and nasal eosinophil infiltration were evaluated.Compared with VD mice, mice delivered via CD demonstrated more serious nasal symptoms, higher concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig E, more nasal eosinophils and lower percentages of splenic CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+Treg cells after establishing experimental AR. These parameters were reversed by administering B. breves hortly after birth. However, the effect of B. breve did not differ between different delivery modes.CD aggravates the nasal symptoms of AR mice compared to VD. This is the first report that oral administration of B. breve shortly after birth can significantly alleviate the symptoms of AR mice born via both deliveries, probably via activation of the regulatory capacity of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3(+Treg cells.

  1. Effects of Bifidobacterium Breve Feeding Strategy and Delivery Modes on Experimental Allergic Rhinitis Mice.

    Ren, Jian-jun; Yu, Zhao; Yang, Feng-Ling; Lv, Dan; Hung, Shi; Zhang, Jie; Lin, Ping; Liu, Shi-Xi; Zhang, Nan; Bachert, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Different delivery modes may affect the susceptibility to allergic diseases. It is still unknown whether early intervention with probiotics would counteract this effect. The effect of different delivery modes on immune status and nasal symptoms was investigated on established allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse model. In addition, the immunoregulatory effects and mechanisms of different feeding manners with Bifidobacterium breve(B. breve) were examined. Live lyophilized B. breve was orally administered to BALB/c mice born via vaginal delivery(VD) or cesarean delivery (CD) for 8 consecutive weeks, after which they were sensitized by ovalbumin(OVA) to establish experimental AR. Nasal symptoms, serum immunoglobulins, cytokines, splenic percentages of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T(Treg) cells and nasal eosinophil infiltration were evaluated. Compared with VD mice, mice delivered via CD demonstrated more serious nasal symptoms, higher concentrations of OVA-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E, more nasal eosinophils and lower percentages of splenic CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells after establishing experimental AR. These parameters were reversed by administering B. breves hortly after birth. However, the effect of B. breve did not differ between different delivery modes. CD aggravates the nasal symptoms of AR mice compared to VD. This is the first report that oral administration of B. breve shortly after birth can significantly alleviate the symptoms of AR mice born via both deliveries, probably via activation of the regulatory capacity of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+)Treg cells.

  2. Feeding livestock food residue and the consequences for the environmental impact of meat

    Elferink, E.V.; Nonhebel, S.; Moll, H.C.

    2008-01-01

    The environmental impact of meat is high mainly due to the feed required by livestock in combination with the impacts of cultivating, transporting and processing of feed crops such as tapioca and grains. Like regular feed crops, livestock also feed on residue from the food industry, such as pulp,

  3. Environmental responsibilities of livestock feeding using trace mineral supplements

    Daniel Brugger

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are essential dietary components for livestock species. However, they also exhibit a strong toxic potential. Therefore, their fluxes through the animal organism are tightly regulated by a complex molecular machinery that controls the rate of absorption from the gut lumen as well as the amount of excretion via faeces, urine and products (e.g., milk in order to maintain an internal equilibrium. When supplemented in doses above the gross requirement trace elements accumulate in urine and faeces and, hence, manure. Thereby, trace element emissions represent a potential threat to the environment. This fact is of particular importance in regard to the widely distributed feeding practice of pharmacological zinc and copper doses for the purpose of performance enhancement. Adverse environmental effects have been described, like impairment of plant production, accumulation in edible animal products and the water supply chain as well as the correlation between increased trace element loads and antimicrobial resistance. In the light of discussions about reducing the allowed upper limits for trace element loads in feed and manure from livestock production in the European Union excessive dosing needs to be critically reconsidered. Moreover, the precision in trace element feeding has to be increased in order to avoid unnecessary supplementation and, thereby, heavy metal emissions from livestock production. Keywords: Trace element, Livestock, Homeostasis, Pharmacological supplementation, Accumulation, Environment

  4. A feeding protocol for delivery of agents to assess development in Varroa mites.

    Ana R Cabrera

    Full Text Available A novel feeding protocol for delivery of bio-active agents to Varroa mites was developed by providing mites with honey bee larva hemolymph supplemented with cultured insect cells and selected materials delivered on a fibrous cotton substrate. Mites were starved, fed on treated hemolymph to deliver selected agents and then returned to bee larvae. Transcript levels of two reference genes, actin and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, as well as for nine selected genes involved in reproductive processes showed that the starvation and feeding protocol periods did not pose a high level of stress to the mites as transcript levels remained comparable between phoretic mites and those completing the protocol. The feeding protocol was used to deliver molecules such as hormone analogs or plasmids. Mites fed with Tebufenozide, an ecdysone analog, had higher transcript levels of shade than untreated or solvent treated mites. In order to extend this feeding protocol, cultured insect cells were incorporated to a final ratio of 1 part cells and 2 parts hemolymph. Although supplementation with Bombyx mori Bm5 cells increased the amount of hemolymph consumed per mite, there was a significant decrease in the percentage of mites that fed and survived. On the other hand, Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells reduced significantly the percentage of mites that fed and survived as well as the amount of hemolymph consumed. The feeding protocol provides a dynamic platform with which to challenge the Varroa mite to establish efficacy of control agents for this devastating honey bee pest.

  5. High Level Waste Feed Delivery AZ-101 Batch Transfer to the Private Contractor Transfer and Mixing Process Improvements

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this business case is to provide Operations and Maintenance with a detailed transfer process review for the first High Level Waste (HLW) feed delivery to the Privatization Contractor (PC), AZ-101 batch transfer to PC. The Team was chartered to identify improvements that could be implemented in the field. A significant penalty can be invoked for not providing the quality, quantity, or timely delivery of HLW feed to the PC

  6. Load requirements for maintaining structural integrity of Hanford single-shell tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities

    JULYK, L.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides structural load requirements and their basis for maintaining the structural integrity of the Hanford Single-Shell Tanks during waste feed delivery and retrieval activities. The requirements are based on a review of previous requirements and their basis documents as well as load histories with particular emphasis on the proposed lead transfer feed tanks for the privatized vitrification plant

  7. Feed Materials Production Center annual environmental report for calendar 1989

    Dugan, T.A.; Gels, G.L.; Oberjohn, J.S.; Rogers, L.K.

    1990-10-01

    The mission of the Department of Energy's (DOE) Feed Materials Production Center (FMPC) has been to process uranium for United States' defense programs. On July 10, 1989, the FMPC suspended production operations, but remains on standby for certain segments of production. The FMPC also manages the storage of some radioactive and hazardous materials. As part of its operations, the FMPC continuously monitors the environment to determine that it is operating within federal and state standards and guidelines regarding emission of radioactive and nonradioactive materials. Data collected from the FMPC monitoring program are used to calculate estimates of radiation dose for residents due to FMPC operations. For 1989, the estimate of dose through the air pathway, excluding radon, indicated that people in the area were exposed to less than 6% of the DOE guideline established to protect the public from radiation exposure. When radon emissions are included, the dose from FMPC operations during 1989 was less than 22% of the annual background radiation dose in the Greater Cincinnati area. This report is a summary of FMPC's environmental activities and monitoring program for 1989. An Environmental Compliance Self-Assessment presents the FMPC's efforts to comply with environmental regulations through June 1990. 44 refs., 48 figs.

  8. Comparison of Waste Feed Delivery Small Scale Mixing Demonstration Simulant to Hanford Waste

    Wells, Beric E.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Rector, David R.

    2012-07-10

    The Hanford double-shell tank (DST) system provides the staging location for waste that will be transferred to the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Specific WTP acceptance criteria for waste feed delivery describe the physical and chemical characteristics of the waste that must be met before the waste is transferred from the DSTs to the WTP. One of the more challenging requirements relates to the sampling and characterization of the undissolved solids (UDS) in a waste feed DST because the waste contains solid particles that settle and their concentration and relative proportion can change during the transfer of the waste in individual batches. A key uncertainty in the waste feed delivery system is the potential variation in UDS transferred in individual batches in comparison to an initial sample used for evaluating the acceptance criteria. To address this uncertainty, a number of small-scale mixing tests have been conducted as part of Washington River Protection Solutions' Small Scale Mixing Demonstration (SSMD) project to determine the performance of the DST mixing and sampling systems. A series of these tests have used a five-part simulant composed of particles of different size and density and designed to be equal or more challenging than AY-102 waste. This five-part simulant, however, has not been compared with the broad range of Hanford waste, and thus there is an additional uncertainty that this simulant may not be as challenging as the most difficult Hanford waste. The purpose of this study is to quantify how the current five-part simulant compares to all of the Hanford sludge waste, and to suggest alternate simulants that could be tested to reduce the uncertainty in applying the current testing results to potentially more challenging wastes.

  9. Engineered modular biomaterial logic gates for environmentally triggered therapeutic delivery

    Badeau, Barry A.; Comerford, Michael P.; Arakawa, Christopher K.; Shadish, Jared A.; Deforest, Cole A.

    2018-03-01

    The successful transport of drug- and cell-based therapeutics to diseased sites represents a major barrier in the development of clinical therapies. Targeted delivery can be mediated through degradable biomaterial vehicles that utilize disease biomarkers to trigger payload release. Here, we report a modular chemical framework for imparting hydrogels with precise degradative responsiveness by using multiple environmental cues to trigger reactions that operate user-programmable Boolean logic. By specifying the molecular architecture and connectivity of orthogonal stimuli-labile moieties within material cross-linkers, we show selective control over gel dissolution and therapeutic delivery. To illustrate the versatility of this methodology, we synthesized 17 distinct stimuli-responsive materials that collectively yielded all possible YES/OR/AND logic outputs from input combinations involving enzyme, reductant and light. Using these hydrogels we demonstrate the first sequential and environmentally stimulated release of multiple cell lines in well-defined combinations from a material. We expect these platforms will find utility in several diverse fields including drug delivery, diagnostics and regenerative medicine.

  10. Technical baseline description of high-level waste and low-activity waste feed mobilization and delivery

    Papp, I.G.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a compilation of information related to the high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging, mobilization, and transfer/delivery issues. Information relevant to current Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) inventories and activities designed to feed the Phase I Privatization effort at the Hanford Site is included. Discussions on the higher level Phase II activities are offered for a perspective on the interfaces

  11. Environmental labelling of electricity delivery contracts in Sweden

    Kaaberger, Tomas

    2003-01-01

    Competition in the electricity market allows customers to choose between suppliers. As a consequence, customers may demand electricity from specified sources of energy. In Sweden, the Swedish Society for Nature Conservation (SSNC), operates a system of environmental labelling of electricity delivery contracts since 1996. Labelling is available for suppliers offering electricity from renewable sources of energy with some additional criteria. Companies may acquire a licence to use the label by showing ability to deliver such electricity and by agreeing to be audited. The system is private independent. It is operating on the bases of credibility earned by the SSNC during 90 years as an environmental organisation and 10 years as operator of environmental labelling of consumer products. The system is market oriented, compatible with WTO and EU market principles, and independent of governmental environmental restrictions, subsidy or quota systems. It is relying on voluntary agreements. The results are desirable if only a few by electricity under labelled contracts as well as if every customer do so. The market is growing. A majority of the suppliers have a license and may offer labelled contracts. In the year 2000, 7% of all electricity sold to final consumers was sold under labelled contracts

  12. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-11-11

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed.

  13. Waste Feed Delivery System Phase 1 Preliminary Reliability and Availability and Maintainability Analysis [SEC 1 and 2

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1999-01-01

    The document presents updated results of the preliminary reliability, availability, maintainability analysis performed for delivery of waste feed from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AN-105 to British Nuclear Fuels Limited, inc. under the Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Contract. The operational schedule delay risk is estimated and contributing factors are discussed

  14. The use of specialisation indices to predict vulnerability of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to environmental change

    Lawton, Rebecca J.; Pratchett, Morgan S.; Berumen, Michael L.

    2011-01-01

    , the utility of these different indices to predict vulnerability to future environmental change is unknown. Here we compare the performance of specialisation indices using coral-feeding butterflyfishes as a model group. Our aims were to 1) quantify the dietary

  15. Comparing environmental impacts from insects for feed and food as an alternative to animal production

    Halloran, Afton Marina Szasz; Hansen, Hanne Helene; Jensen, Lars Stoumann

    2018-01-01

    This chapter systematically compares and contrasts the known environmental impacts of traditional vertebrate animal production with insect production intended for both food and animal feed. There are major physiological and biological differences between traditional livestock species and insects,...

  16. Management of marine cage aquaculture. Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate.

    Cai, Huiwen; Sun, Yinglan

    2007-11-01

    Marine cage aquaculture produces a large amount of waste that is released directly into the environment. To effectively manage the mariculture environment, it is important to determine the carrying capacity of an aquaculture area. In many Asian countries trash fish is dominantly used in marine cage aquaculture, which contains more water than pellet feed. The traditional nutrient loading analysis is for pellet feed not for trash fish feed. So, a more critical analysis is necessary in trash fish feed culturing areas. Corresponding to FCR (feed conversion rate), dry feed conversion rate (DFCR) was used to analyze the nutrient loadings from marine cage aquaculture where trash fish is used. Based on the hydrodynamic model and the mass transport model in Xiangshan Harbor, the relationship between the water quality and the waste discharged from cage aquaculture has been determined. The environmental carrying capacity of the aquaculture sea area was calculated by applying the models noted above. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the water quality parameters considered in this study. The simulated results show that the maximum nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 0.216 mg/L and 0.039 mg/L, respectively. In most of the sea area, the nutrient concentrations were higher than the water quality standard. The calculated environmental carrying capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Xiangshan Harbor were 1,107.37 t/yr and 134.35 t/yr, respectively. The waste generated from cage culturing in 2000 has already exceeded the environmental carrying capacity. Unconsumed feed has been identified as the most important origin of all pollutants in cage culturing systems. It suggests the importance of increasing the feed utilization and improving the feed composition on the basis of nutrient requirement. For the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry, it is an effective management measure to keep the stocking density and pollution loadings below the environmental carrying

  17. HLW Feed Delivery AZ101 Batch Transfer to the Private Contractor Transfer and Mixing Process Improvements [Initial Release at Rev 2

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    2000-02-28

    The primary purpose of this business case is to provide Operations and Maintenance with a detailed transfer process review for the first High Level Waste (HLW) feed delivery to the Privatization Contractor (PC), AZ-101 batch transfer to PC. The Team was chartered to identify improvements that could be implemented in the field. A significant penalty can be invoked for not providing the quality, quantity, or timely delivery of HLW feed to the PC.

  18. Eating beyond metabolic need: how environmental cues influence feeding behavior.

    Johnson, Alexander W

    2013-02-01

    Animals use current, past, and projected future states of the organism and the world in a finely tuned system to control ingestion. They must not only deal effectively with current nutrient deficiencies, but also manage energy resources to meet future needs, all within the constraints of the mechanisms of metabolism. Many recent approaches to understanding the control of ingestive behavior distinguish between homeostatic mechanisms concerned with energy balance, and hedonic and incentive processes based on palatability and reward characteristics of food. In this review, I consider how learning about environmental cues influences homeostatic and hedonic brain signals, which may lead to increases in the affective taste properties of food and desire to over consume. Understanding these mechanisms may be critical for elucidating the etiology of the obesity epidemic. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feed an food from desert environments. [Controlled environmental agricultural technology

    Bassham, J.A.

    1977-09-01

    Research programs on controlled environmental agricultural technology to allow a broad range of conventional and unconventional crops to be grown with very limited supplies of fresh or brackish water are reviewed. The use of water derived from the sea, from saline lakes, or from waste water treatment for crops in arid lands is discussed. Plant breeding programs to improve the nutritional value of food crops and irrigation systems to improve plant productivity are discussed. The production of liquid hydrocarbons and lubricating oils from plant species such as Euphorbic and Jojoba, and the use of leguminous plants such as mesquite (Prosopis juliflora), and other native plants, which thrive in arid regions, as important sources of proteins and carbohydrates are cited as examples of the productive potential of arid lands. 41 references.

  20. Assessing environmental consequences of using co-products in animal feed

    Zanten, van H.H.E.; Mollenhorst, H.; Vries, de J.W.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Kernebeek, van H.R.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The livestock sector has a major impact on the environment. This environmental impact may be reduced by feeding agricultural co-products (e.g. beet tails) to livestock, as this transforms inedible products for humans into edible products, e.g. pork or beef. Nevertheless, co-products have different

  1. Evaluation of the Validity of three Criteria for Sampling and Analyzing DST Wastes in Support of Waste Feed Delivery

    BOGER, R.M.

    2000-01-01

    This document summarizes the analysis of 3 basic criteria for the sampling systems that will provide waste validation samples of tank waste feeds prior to delivery to the waste treatment and immobilization plant where the wastes will be converted to glass forms. The assessed criteria includes sampling through a 4-inch riser, sampling while a mixer pump is operating, and the deployment of an at-tank analysis system. The assessment, based on the Phase I, 3S6 waste feed scenario, indicated that for high level waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser is not required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating will be required. For low activity waste, sampling through a 4-inch riser will be required but sampling while mixer pumps are operating is not required. The assessment indicated that an at-tank analysis system to provide tank mixing/settling (homogeneity) status is not needed since the number of tanks providing LAW feed was expanded and the payment basis in the original privatization contract has been modified

  2. Economic and environmental effects of providing increased amounts of solid feed to veal calves.

    Mollenhorst, H; Berentsen, P B M; Berends, H; Gerrits, W J J; de Boer, I J M

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, veal calves receive most of their nutrients from milk replacer (MR). Nowadays, however, solid feed (SF; i.e., concentrates and roughages) increasingly substitutes for MR. Studies have shown that providing SF reduces different types of nonnutritive oral behaviors. The objective of this study was to assess the economic and environmental effects of substituting SF for MR in veal calf diets. With respect to environmental effects, we considered the emission of greenhouse gases and land occupation. Substitution rates were based on an experiment in which 160 calves were provided 2 mixtures of SF at 4 levels of dry matter (DM) intake. Mixtures of SF contained either 80% concentrates, 10% corn silage, and 10% straw on DM basis (C80) or 50% concentrates, 25% corn silage, and 25% straw (C50). The 4 levels of SF during the last 17 wk of the fattening period were 20, 100, 180, and 260 kg of DM SF. Additionally, provision of MR was adjusted to achieve equal rates of carcass gain. Substitution rates, representing the SF equivalent needed to substitute for 1 kg of DM MR, were 1.43 kg of DM for C80 and 1.61 kg of DM for C50. Economic effects were assessed based on prices and substitution rates of SF for MR and the possible penalty for carcass color. Environmental effects were assessed based on effects related to the production of feed ingredients, substitution rates, and changes in enteric methane emission and energy use for feed preparation. Costs of feeding SF needed to substitute for 1 kg of DM MR were €0.68 lower for C80 and €0.71 lower for C50, compared with the costs of feeding 1 kg of DM MR. When carcass color scores became too high, however, lower feeding costs were offset by lower revenues from meat. Emissions of greenhouse gases were hardly affected when SF intake was increased. In general, increased enteric methane emission were offset by lower emissions from feed production and energy use. Land occupation increased when intake of SF was increased

  3. The Primary Care Electronic Library: RSS feeds using SNOMED-CT indexing for dynamic content delivery.

    Robinson, Judas; de Lusignan, Simon; Kostkova, Patty; Madge, Bruce; Marsh, A; Biniaris, C

    2006-01-01

    Rich Site Summary (RSS) feeds are a method for disseminating and syndicating the contents of a website using extensible mark-up language (XML). The Primary Care Electronic Library (PCEL) distributes recent additions to the site in the form of an RSS feed. When new resources are added to PCEL, they are manually assigned medical subject headings (MeSH terms), which are then automatically mapped to SNOMED-CT terms using the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) Metathesaurus. The library is thus searchable using MeSH or SNOMED-CT. Our syndicate partner wished to have remote access to PCEL coronary heart disease (CHD) information resources based on SNOMED-CT search terms. To pilot the supply of relevant information resources in response to clinically coded requests, using RSS syndication for transmission between web servers. Our syndicate partner provided a list of CHD SNOMED-CT terms to its end-users, a list which was coded according to UMLS specifications. When the end-user requested relevant information resources, this request was relayed from our syndicate partner's web server to the PCEL web server. The relevant resources were retrieved from the PCEL MySQL database. This database is accessed using a server side scripting language (PHP), which enables the production of dynamic RSS feeds on the basis of Source Asserted Identifiers (CODEs) contained in UMLS. Retrieving resources using SNOMED-CT terms using syndication can be used to build a functioning application. The process from request to display of syndicated resources took less than one second. The results of the pilot illustrate that it is possible to exchange data between servers using RSS syndication. This method could be utilised dynamically to supply digital library resources to a clinical system with SNOMED-CT data used as the standard of reference.

  4. Evaluation of 241-AZ tank farm supporting phase 1 privatization waste feed delivery

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1998-11-19

    This evaluation is one in a series of evaluations determining the process needs and assessing the adequacy of existing and planned equipment in meeting those needs at various double-shell tank farms in support of Phase 1 privatization. A number of tank-to-tank transfers and waste preparation activities are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractor in support of Phase 1 privatization. The scope of this evaluation is limited to process needs associated with 241-AZ tank farm during the Phase 1 privatization.

  5. Evaluation of 241-AZ tank farm supporting phase 1 privatization waste feed delivery

    CARLSON, A.B.

    1998-01-01

    This evaluation is one in a series of evaluations determining the process needs and assessing the adequacy of existing and planned equipment in meeting those needs at various double-shell tank farms in support of Phase 1 privatization. A number of tank-to-tank transfers and waste preparation activities are needed to process and feed waste to the private contractor in support of Phase 1 privatization. The scope of this evaluation is limited to process needs associated with 241-AZ tank farm during the Phase 1 privatization

  6. Environmental implications of wireless technologies: news delivery and business meetings.

    Toffel, Michael W; Horvath, Arpad

    2004-06-01

    Wireless information technologies are providing new ways to communicate, and are one of several information and communication technologies touted as an opportunity to reduce society's overall environmental impacts. However, rigorous system-wide environmental impact comparisons of these technologies to the traditional applications they may replace have only recently been initiated, and the results have been mixed. In this paper, the environmental effects of two applications of wireless technologies are compared to those of conventional technologies for which they can substitute. First, reading newspaper content on a personal digital assistant (PDA) is compared to the traditional way of reading a newspaper. Second, wireless teleconferencing is compared to business travel. The results show that for both comparisons wireless technologies create lower environmental impacts. Compared to reading a newspaper, receiving the news on a PDA wirelessly results in the release of 32-140 times less CO2, several orders of magnitude less NOx and SOx, and the use of 26-67 times less water. Wireless teleconferencing results in 1-3 orders of magnitude lower CO2, NOx, and SO2 emissions than business travel.

  7. A Comparative Analysis of the Environmental Benefits of Drone-Based Delivery Services in Urban and Rural Areas

    Jiyoon Park; Solhee Kim; Kyo Suh

    2018-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, drones) used as delivery vehicles have received increasing attention due to their mobility and accessibility to remote areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of drone versus motorcycle delivery and to compare the expected environmental improvements due to drone delivery in urban and rural areas. In addition, the potential environmental contributions of electric motorcycles were assessed to determine the effects of introducing t...

  8. Environmental and health impacts of using food waste as animal feed: a comparative analysis of food waste management options.

    Salemdeeb, Ramy; Zu Ermgassen, Erasmus K H J; Kim, Mi Hyung; Balmford, Andrew; Al-Tabbaa, Abir

    2017-01-01

    The disposal of food waste is a large environmental problem. In the United Kingdom (UK), approximately 15 million tonnes of food are wasted each year, mostly disposed of in landfill, via composting, or anaerobic digestion (AD). European Union (EU) guidelines state that food waste should preferentially be used as animal feed though for most food waste this practice is currently illegal, because of disease control concerns. Interest in the potential diversion of food waste for animal feed is however growing, with a number of East Asian states offering working examples of safe food waste recycling - based on tight regulation and rendering food waste safe through heat treatment. This study investigates the potential benefits of diverting food waste for pig feed in the UK. A hybrid, consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) was conducted to compare the environmental and health impacts of four technologies for food waste processing: two technologies of South Korean style-animal feed production (as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed) were compared with two widespread UK disposal technologies: AD and composting. Results of 14 mid-point impact categories show that the processing of food waste as a wet pig feed and a dry pig feed have the best and second-best scores, respectively, for 13/14 and 12/14 environmental and health impacts. The low impact of food waste feed stems in large part from its substitution of conventional feed, the production of which has substantial environmental and health impacts. While the re-legalisation of the use of food waste as pig feed could offer environmental and public health benefits, this will require support from policy makers, the public, and the pig industry, as well as investment in separated food waste collection which currently occurs in only a minority of regions.

  9. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Martin, Rocio; Makino, Hiroshi; Cetinyurek Yavuz, Aysun; Ben-Amor, Kaouther; Roelofs, Mieke; Ishikawa, Eiji; Kubota, Hiroyuki; Swinkels, Sophie; Sakai, Takafumi; Oishi, Kenji; Kushiro, Akira; Knol, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to support the

  10. Early-Life Events, Including Mode of Delivery and Type of Feeding, Siblings and Gender, Shape the Developing Gut Microbiota.

    Rocio Martin

    Full Text Available Colonization of the infant gut is believed to be critically important for a healthy growth as it influences gut maturation, metabolic, immune and brain development in early life. Understanding factors that influence this process is important, since an altered colonization has been associated with a higher risk of diseases later in life. Fecal samples were collected from 108 healthy neonates in the first half year of life. The composition and functionality of the microbiota was characterized by measuring 33 different bacterial taxa by qPCR/RT qPCR, and 8 bacterial metabolites. Information regarding gender, place and mode of birth, presence of siblings or pets; feeding pattern and antibiotic use was collected by using questionnaires. Regression analysis techniques were used to study associations between microbiota parameters and confounding factors over time. Bacterial DNA was detected in most meconium samples, suggesting bacterial exposure occurs in utero. After birth, colonization by species of Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Bacteroides was influenced by mode of delivery, type of feeding and presence of siblings, with differences found at species level and over time. Interestingly, infant-type bifidobacterial species such as B. breve or B. longum subsp infantis were confirmed as early colonizers apparently independent of the factors studied here, while B. animalis subsp. lactis presence was found to be dependent solely on the type of feeding, indicating that it might not be a common infant gut inhabitant. One interesting and rather unexpected confounding factor was gender. This study contributes to our understanding of the composition of the microbiota in early life and the succession process and the evolution of the microbial community as a function of time and events occurring during the first 6 months of life. Our results provide new insights that could be taken into consideration when selecting nutritional supplementation strategies to

  11. Feed-Back Moisture Sensor Control for the Delivery of Water to Plants Cultivated in Space

    Levine, Howard G.; Prenger, Jessica J.; Rouzan, Donna T.; Spinale, April C.; Murdoch, Trevor; Burtness, Kevin A.

    2005-01-01

    The development of a spaceflight-rated Porous Tube Insert Module (PTIM) nutrient delivery tray has facilitated a series of studies evaluating various aspects of water and nutrient delivery to plants as they would be cultivated in space. We report here on our first experiment using the PTIM with a software-driven feedback moisture sensor control strategy for maintaining root zone wetness level set-points. One-day-old wheat seedlings (Tritium aestivum cv Apogee; N=15) were inserted into each of three Substrate Compartments (SCs) pre-packed with 0.25-1 . mm Profile(TradeMark) substrate and maintained at root zone relative water content levels of 70, 80 and 90%. The SCs contained a bottom-situated porous tube around which a capillary mat was wrapped. Three Porous Tubes. were planted using similar protocols (but without the substrate) and also maintained at these three moisture level set-points. Half-strength modified Hoagland's nutrient solution was used to supply water and nutrients. Results on hardware performance, water usage rates and wheat developmental differences between the different experimental treatments are presented.

  12. Environmentally relevant concentrations of citalopram partially inhibit feeding in the three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Kellner, M; Porseryd, T; Porsch-Hällström, I; Hansen, S H; Olsén, K H

    2015-01-01

    Selective Serotonin Re-uptake Inhibitors (SSRI) are mood-altering, psychotropic drugs commonly used in the treatment of depression and other psychological illnesses. Many of them are poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and enter the environment unaltered. In laboratory studies, they have been demonstrated to affect a wide range of behaviours in aquatic organisms. In this study we investigated the effect of a three-week exposure to 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l of the SSRI citalopram dissolved in the ambient water on the feeding behaviour in three-spine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Feeding, measured as the number of attacks performed on a piece of frozen bloodworms during a 10-min period, was reduced by 30-40% in fish exposed to both 0.15 and 1.5 μg/l citalopram. The effects of the environmentally relevant concentration 0.15 μg/l on feeding, an important fitness characteristic, suggests that the ecological significance of environmental SSRI exposure may be pronounced. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Plastic response by a small cervid to supplemental feeding in winter across a wide environmental gradient

    Ossi, F.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Hebblewhite, M.; Morellet, N.; Ranc, N.; Sandfort, R.; Kroeschel, M.; Kjellander, P.; Mysterud, A.; Linnell, J. D. C.; Heurich, M.; Soennichsen, L.; Šustr, Pavel; Berger, A.; Rocca, M.; Urbano, F.; Cagnacci, F.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2017), č. článku e01629. ISSN 2150-8925 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415; GA ČR GB14-36098G Institutional support: RVO:86652079 Keywords : deer capreolus-capreolus * white-tailed deer * home-range size * moose alces-alces * roe deer * climate-change * habitat selection * red deer * seasonal migration * snow-cover * artificial feeding * climate behavioral responses * climate change * roe deer * winter severity * ungulate management Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour OBOR OECD: Environmental sciences (social aspects to be 5.7) Impact factor: 2.490, year: 2016

  14. Initial Investigation of Waste Feed Delivery Tank Mixing and Sampling Issues

    Fort, James A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Meyer, Perry A.; Stewart, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    The Hanford tank farms contractor will deliver waste to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) from a staging double-shell tank. The WTP broadly classifies waste it receives in terms of 'Envelopes,' each with different limiting properties and composition ranges. Envelope A, B, and C wastes are liquids that can include up to 4% entrained solids that can be pumped directly from the staging DST without mixing. Envelope D waste contains insoluble solids and must be mixed before transfer. The mixing and sampling issues lie within Envelope D solid-liquid slurries. The question is how effectively these slurries are mixed and how representative the grab samples are that are taken immediately after mixing. This report summarizes the current state of knowledge concerning jet mixing of wastes in underground storage tanks. Waste feed sampling requirements are listed, and their apparent assumption of uniformity by lack of a requirement for sample representativeness is cited as a significant issue. The case is made that there is not an adequate technical basis to provide such a sampling regimen because not enough is known about what can be achieved in mixing and distribution of solids by use of the baseline submersible mixing pump system. A combined mixing-sampling test program is recommended to fill this gap. Historical Pacific Northwest National Laboratory project and tank farms contractor documents are used to make this case. A substantial investment and progress are being made to understand mixing issues at the WTP. A summary of the key WTP activities relevant to this project is presented in this report. The relevant aspects of the WTP mixing work, together with a previously developed scaled test strategy for determining solids suspension with submerged mixer pumps (discussed in Section 3) provide a solid foundation for developing a path forward

  15. How does pattern of feeding and rate of nutrient delivery influence conditioned food preferences?

    Duncan, A J; Elwert, C; Villalba, J J; Yearsley, J; Pouloupoulou, I; Gordon, I J

    2007-09-01

    Ruminant herbivores have been shown to learn about food properties by associating food flavours with the food's post-ingestive consequences. Previous experimentation supporting the conditioned food aversion/preference hypothesis has generally employed very simple diet learning tasks which do not effectively represent the wide range of foods selected within single bouts typical of wild, free-ranging ruminant herbivores. We tested the ability of a ruminant herbivore to associate a food with artificially administered nutrient rewards in a designed experiment where we altered the temporal pattern of encounter with the food as well as the nature (fast or slow reward) of the post-ingestive outcome. Twenty-four goats were offered branches of Sitka spruce (SS) and Norway spruce (NS) for 4 h per day on two days per week for five weeks. The pattern of feeding varied with treatment such that the species on offer changed every hour (short) or every 2 h (long). The energy treatment altered the reward delivered during Sitka consumption so that animals were dosed either with predominantly sugar (rapidly fermented), predominantly starch (slower fermentation rate), or with water (placebo). Preference was measured on the day following each learning day. We expected that goats would find it easier to associate SS with post-ingestive rewards when the duration of encounter was longest, and that associations would be stronger with the most rapidly digested post-ingestive reward. In the event, goats did not alter their consumption of SS in response to the treatments. Our results suggest that at the scale of temporal resolution of encounters with different plant species (1-2 h), and at the different rates of experiencing post-ingestive consequences tested in this experiment, ruminants do not appear to discriminate the nutritive properties of foods predominantly through a post-ingestive feedback mechanism. They must, instead, use a range of cues-including post-ingestive consequences

  16. Feeding patterns of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in six Brazilian environmental preservation areas.

    dos Santos Silva, Júlia; Alencar, Jeronimo; Costa, Janira Martins; Seixas-Lorosa, Elias; Guimarães, Anthony Érico

    2012-12-01

    Feeding patterns of mosquitoes in six Brazilian environmental preservation areas were analyzed by the precipitin technique. The mosquito populations were captured using Shannon traps during different time periods. Bird, cow, dog, horse, opossum, human, and rodent antisera diagnostic tests were employed and results were analyzed by calculating the Sørensen similarity index and using the null-model test. Of the 647 analyzed specimens, 443 reacted to the utilized antisera, of which 331 reacted to one blood source, with the most frequent being birds (49.4%); and 112 specimens reacted to two blood sources, with the most frequent combination from birds + rodents (14.3%). The feed profiles demonstrated that Anopheles albitarsis, An. evansae, Aedes fulvus, Psorophora albigenu, Ps. albipes, Ps. ferox, and Mansonia titillans fed predominantly on birds. The similarity index showed that in some localities An. cruzii, Chagasia fajardi, Ae. scapularis, Ae. serratus, Haemagogus leucocelaenus, Ps. albigenu, and Ps. ferox presented similar dietary habits. The null-models test indicated that species from SMSP, INP, CGNP, and THP demonstrated an aggregate pattern, while species from SONP and SBNP showed a random pattern. The mosquitoes fed predominantly on birds, but from an epidemiological standpoint, the eclectic feeding habits were found to be constant among the mosquitoes analyzed. © 2012 The Society for Vector Ecology.

  17. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training.

    Brian J Greco

    Full Text Available The management of African (Loxodonta africana and Asian (Elephas maximus elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants' nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; p<0.001, and managed time increased by 20.2% for every year of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli. The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses.

  18. Elephant Management in North American Zoos: Environmental Enrichment, Feeding, Exercise, and Training.

    Greco, Brian J; Meehan, Cheryl L; Miller, Lance J; Shepherdson, David J; Morfeld, Kari A; Andrews, Jeff; Baker, Anne M; Carlstead, Kathy; Mench, Joy A

    2016-01-01

    The management of African (Loxodonta africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephants in zoos involves a range of practices including feeding, exercise, training, and environmental enrichment. These practices are necessary to meet the elephants' nutritional, healthcare, and husbandry needs. However, these practices are not standardized, resulting in likely variation among zoos as well as differences in the way they are applied to individual elephants within a zoo. To characterize elephant management in North America, we collected survey data from zoos accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, developed 26 variables, generated population level descriptive statistics, and analyzed them to identify differences attributable to sex and species. Sixty-seven zoos submitted surveys describing the management of 224 elephants and the training experiences of 227 elephants. Asian elephants spent more time managed (defined as interacting directly with staff) than Africans (mean time managed: Asians = 56.9%; Africans = 48.6%; pyear of age for both species. Enrichment, feeding, and exercise programs were evaluated using diversity indices, with mean scores across zoos in the midrange for these measures. There were an average of 7.2 feedings every 24-hour period, with only 1.2 occurring during the nighttime. Feeding schedules were predictable at 47.5% of zoos. We also calculated the relative use of rewarding and aversive techniques employed during training interactions. The population median was seven on a scale from one (representing only aversive stimuli) to nine (representing only rewarding stimuli). The results of our study provide essential information for understanding management variation that could be relevant to welfare. Furthermore, the variables we created have been used in subsequent elephant welfare analyses.

  19. A Comparative Analysis of the Environmental Benefits of Drone-Based Delivery Services in Urban and Rural Areas

    Jiyoon Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV, drones used as delivery vehicles have received increasing attention due to their mobility and accessibility to remote areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the environmental impacts of drone versus motorcycle delivery and to compare the expected environmental improvements due to drone delivery in urban and rural areas. In addition, the potential environmental contributions of electric motorcycles were assessed to determine the effects of introducing this new type of vehicle. Changes in the national electricity generation plan were also examined. The results showed that global warming potential (GWP per 1 km delivery by drone was one-sixth that of motorcycle delivery, and the particulates produced by drone delivery were half that of motorcycle delivery. The actual environmental impact reduction in consideration of the delivery distance was 13 times higher in a rural area than in an urban area. Increasing the use of environmentally friendly electricity systems, such as solar and wind power, would further enhance the environmental effects of a drone delivery system.

  20. Delivery of dsRNA through topical feeding for RNA interference in the citrus sap piercing-sucking hemipteran, Diaphorina citri.

    Killiny, Nabil; Kishk, Abdelaziz

    2017-06-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful means to study functional genomics in insects. The delivery of dsRNA is a challenging step in the development of RNAi assay. Here, we describe a new delivery method to increase the effectiveness of RNAi in the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri. Bromophenol blue droplets were topically applied to fifth instar nymphs and adults on the ventral side of the thorax between the three pairs of legs. In addition to video recordings that showed sucking of the bromophenol blue by the stylets, dissected guts turned blue indicating that the uptake was through feeding. Thus, we called the method topical feeding. We targeted the abnormal wing disc gene (awd), also called nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK), as a reporter gene to prove the uptake of dsRNA via this method of delivery. Our results showed that dsRNA-awd caused reduction of awd expression and nymph mortality. Survival and lifespan of adults emerged from treated nymphs and treated adults were affected. Silencing awd caused wing malformation in the adults emerged from treated nymphs. Topical feeding as a delivery of dsRNA is highly efficient for both nymphs and adults. The described method could be used to increase the efficiency of RNAi in D. citri and other sap piercing-sucking hemipterans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    Besson, M; de Boer, I J M; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M; Quillet, E; Komen, H; Aubin, J

    2017-01-01

    In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA) to calculate the economic (EV) and environmental (ENV) values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod), annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed), standing stock (Qstock), and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed). ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish)) and per farm per year (ENV(farm)). Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish) and ENV(farm) were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish) of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm) of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  2. Effect of production quotas on economic and environmental values of growth rate and feed efficiency in sea cage fish farming.

    M Besson

    Full Text Available In sea cage fish farming, production quotas aim to constrain the impact of fish farming on the surrounding ecosystem. It is unknown how these quotas affect economic profitability and environmental impact of genetic improvement. We combined bioeconomic modelling with life cycle assessment (LCA to calculate the economic (EV and environmental (ENV values of thermal growth coefficient (TGC and feed conversion ratio (FCR of sea bass reared in sea cages, given four types of quota commonly used in Europe: annual production (Qprod, annual feed distributed (Qannual_feed, standing stock (Qstock, and daily feed distributed (Qdaily_feed. ENV were calculated for LCA impact categories climate change, eutrophication and acidification. ENV were expressed per ton of fish produced per year (ENV(fish and per farm per year (ENV(farm. Results show that irrespective of quota used, EV of FCR as well as ENV(fish and ENV(farm were always positive, meaning that improving FCR increased profit and decreased environmental impacts. However, the EV and the ENV(fish of TGC were positive only when quota was Qstock or Qdaily_feed. Moreover, the ENV(farm of TGC was negative in Qstock and Qdaily_feed quotas, meaning that improving TGC increased the environmental impact of the farm. We conclude that Qstock quota and Qdaily_feed quota are economically favorable to a genetic improvement of TGC, a major trait for farmers. However, improving TGC increases the environmental impact of the farm. Improving FCR represents a good opportunity to balance out this increase but more information on its genetic background is needed to develop breeding programs improving FCR.

  3. The use of specialisation indices to predict vulnerability of coral-feeding butterflyfishes to environmental change

    Lawton, Rebecca J.

    2011-07-14

    In the absence of detailed assessments of extinction risk, ecological specialisation is often used as a proxy of vulnerability to environmental disturbances and extinction risk. Numerous indices can be used to estimate specialisation; however, the utility of these different indices to predict vulnerability to future environmental change is unknown. Here we compare the performance of specialisation indices using coral-feeding butterflyfishes as a model group. Our aims were to 1) quantify the dietary preferences of three butterflyfish species across habitats with differing levels of resource availability; 2) investigate how estimates of dietary specialisation vary with the use of different specialisation indices; 3) determine which specialisation indices best inform predictions of vulnerability to environmental change; and 4) assess the utility of resource selection functions to inform predictions of vulnerability to environmental change. The relative level of dietary specialisation estimated for all three species varied when different specialisation indices were used, indicating that the choice of index can have a considerable impact upon estimates of specialisation. Specialisation indices that do not consider resource abundance may fail to distinguish species that primarily use common resources from species that actively target resources disproportionately more than they are available. Resource selection functions provided the greatest insights into the potential response of species to changes in resource availability. Examination of resource selection functions, in addition to specialisation indices, indicated that Chaetodon trifascialis was the most specialised feeder, with highly conserved dietary preferences across all sites, suggesting that this species is highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate-induced coral loss on reefs. Our results indicate that vulnerability assessments based on some specialisation indices may be misleading and the best estimates of

  4. Economic, welfare and environmental impact of feed-in tariff policy: A case study in Iran

    Tabatabaei, Sharareh Majdzadeh; Hadian, Ebrahim; Marzban, Hossein; Zibaei, Mansour

    2017-01-01

    Following a particular attention given to environmental issues over the last few decades, establishing proper developmental policies to increase electricity production from renewable energy (RE) has not only been an important issue but also a challenge for many countries. Feed-in Tariff (FIT) Policy is one of the tools that is being used to facilitate the development of RE. This research evaluated the economic, welfare and environmental impact of this policy on Iran's economy. Therefore, after developing an Economic-Energy-Environmental (E3) type of Hybrid General Equilibrium model, the effect of FIT policy was examined under different scenarios in order to find an optimal condition in which 10% of electrical energy could be produced from renewable resources. The comparison between the results showed that the application of subsidies to RE and the way the government finances these subsidies can affect the results of FIT policy. Meanwhile, regardless of the role considered for the impact of environmental factors, our policies under the scenario of technology neutral is the most efficient, as it has less impact on the decline of GDP of different sectors and also has less financial cost for government. - Highlights: • E3 type of Hybrid CGE model is used under two different financing policies. • Technology neutral and technology specific scenarios are applied to these policies. • Results show the effect of our policies and scenarios on the efficiency of FIT policy. • This efficiency comes from the impact on GDP balance and government's financial cost. • The results show that, the scenario of technology neutral is the most efficient.

  5. Environmental and economic impacts of feeding strategies in Costa Rican dairy farms.

    Juan Pablo Iñamagua-Uyaguari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze feeding practices in Costa Rica’s dairy farms and their influence on greenhouse gas emissions (GHG. Methane (CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O, and income over feed cost (IOFC were evaluated. This study was carried out at 104 dairy farms, which were distributed within a range of altitude from 1000 to 2400 meters above sea level. Using cluster analysis based on type of feed, grazing period, areas of forage and pastures; four feeding strategies were identified, which included different proportions of feed categories in daily rations. Emissions expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent per kilo of fat and protein corrected milk (CO2eq/FPCM were higher for forage feeding strategies and lower for farms found in higher altitudes. Concentrate feed accounted for the higher cost in all feeding strategies, and represented more than 50% in the intensive concentrate based production system, whereas the costs of fertilizers were higher in pasture based feeding strategies. Income from milk sales was higher for the concentrate based feeding strategy. However, IOFC was the same for all feeding strategies in spite of the large differences in daily milk production. Feeding strategies influenced GHG emissions and feeding costs. Feeding strategies associated with lower GHG emissions within the farm were more dependent from external inputs.

  6. Economic and Environmental Impacts of Improving Growth Rate and Feed Efficiency in Fish Farming Depend on Nitrogen and Density Limitation

    Besson, M.; Komen, H.; Vandeputte, M.; Aubin, J.; Boer, de I.J.M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of fish breeding is to increase profit by producing faster growing fish with lower feed intake. However, little is known about the economic and environmental impacts of selective breeding programs for fish. We modelled a fish farm producing African catfish in a Recirculating Aquaculture

  7. Environmental correlates underlying elevational richness, abundance, and biomass patterns of multi-feeding guilds in litter invertebrates across the treeline.

    Xu, Guorui; Zhang, Shuang; Zhang, Yuxin; Ma, Keming

    2018-08-15

    Elevational richness patterns and underlying environmental correlates have contributed greatly to a range of general theories of biodiversity. However, the mechanisms underlying elevational abundance and biomass patterns across several trophic levels in belowground food webs remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to disentangle the relationships between the elevational patterns of different trophic levels of litter invertebrates and their underlying environmental correlates for two contrasting ecosystems separated by the treeline. We sampled 119 plots from 1020 to 1770 asl in forest and 21 plots from 1790 to 2280 asl in meadow on Dongling Mountain, northwest of Beijing, China. Four functional guilds were divided based on feeding regime: omnivores, herbivores, predators, and detritivores. We used eigenvector-based spatial filters to account for spatial autocorrelation and multi-model selection to determine the best environmental correlates for the community attributes of the different feeding guilds. The results showed that the richness, abundance and biomass of omnivores declined with increasing elevation in the meadow, whereas there was a hump-shaped richness pattern for detritivores. The richness and abundance of different feeding guilds were positively correlated in the forest, while not in the meadow. In the forest, the variances of richness in omnivores, predators, and detritivores were mostly correlated with litter thickness, with omnivores being best explained by mean annual temperature in the meadow. In conclusion, hump-shaped elevational richness, abundance and biomass patterns driven by the forest gradient below the treeline existed in all feeding guilds of litter invertebrates. Climate replaced productivity as the primary factor that drove the richness patterns of omnivores above the treeline, whereas heterogeneity replaced climate for herbivores. Our results highlight that the correlated elevational richness, abundance, and biomass patterns of

  8. Future Atmospheric CO2 Concentration and Environmental Consequences for the Feed Market: a Consequential LCA

    Saxe, Henrik; Hamelin, Lorie; Hinrichsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    that such altered chemical composition and crop yields would have for the production of pig feed. Results revealed, among others, that an extra European demand of pig feed under an atmospheric [CO2] of 550 μmole mole-1 would lead to ca. 6% less expansion of additional arable land worldwide, in comparison to feed...

  9. Future atmospheric CO2 concentration and environmental consequences for the feed market: a consequential LCA

    Saxe, Henrik; Hamelin, Lorie; Hinrichsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    that such altered chemical composition and crop yields would have for the production of pig feed. Results revealed, among others, that an extra European demand of pig feed under an atmospheric [CO2] of 550 μmole mole-1 would lead to ca. 6% less expansion of additional arable land worldwide, in comparison to feed...

  10. Double strand RNA oral delivery methods to induce RNA interference in phloem and plant-sap-feeding insects

    Phloem and plant sap feeding insect pests invade the integrity of crops and fruits to retrieve nutrients in the process damaging food productivity. Hemipteran insects account for a number of economically substantial pests of plants that cause damage to crops by feeding on phloem sap. Halyomorpha hal...

  11. Pulsatile delivery of a leucine supplement during long-term continuous enteral feeding enhances lean growth in term neonatal pigs

    Neonatal pigs are used as a model to study and optimize the clinical treatment of infants who are unable to maintain oral feeding. Using this model, we have previously shown that pulsatile administration of leucine during continuous feeding over 24 h via orogastric tube enhanced protein synthesis in...

  12. Environmental, economic, and social impacts of feed-in tariffs: A Portuguese perspective 2000–2010

    Behrens, Paul; Rodrigues, João F.D.; Brás, Tiago; Silva, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel, hybrid input–output analysis of historic feed-in tariff impacts. • We explore operational, investment, and opportunity cost/benefits in Portugal. • Environmental (GHG), economic (GDP), and social (job years) impacts are estimated. • For 2000–2010 we find impacts of −7.2 MtCO_2eq GHG, +1557 M€ GDP and +160,000 job years. • Lifetime impacts are dependent on opportunity costs of future FIT payments. - Abstract: Over the past two decades, many countries have used aggressive policies such as feed-in tariffs and power purchase agreements to promote renewable energy. These policies have been very successful in several countries, initiating large changes in the structure of energy sectors, and conferring large environmental, economic, and social impacts. In this paper, we quantify these impacts over the period 2000–2010 for Portugal; a country that witnessed a substantial increase in renewable energy penetration rates, with the share of wind power in electricity production jumping from 0.4% in 2000 to 16.8% in 2010. We use a novel, hybrid energy-economic input–output model to compare the historical energy policy against a counterfactual scenario in which the surge in energy subsidies and concurrent expansion of renewable energies did not take place. We consider the impact of renewable energy policy stemming from three propagation modes – operational, investment, and opportunity costs – in both the energy sector and the rest of the economy. This is the first time such a comprehensive analysis has been undertaken. Our findings show that, in the period under consideration, the combined historical renewable energy policy and renewable energy developments yielded a clear reduction in emissions, in excess of 7.2 MtCO_2eq, an increase in GDP of 1557 M€, and a creation of 160 thousand job-years. These estimates do not include opportunity costs from future FIT payments that projects built in this period may be entitled to

  13. Influence of number of deliveries and total breast-feeding time on bone mineral density in premenopausal and young postmenopausal women.

    Tsvetov, Gloria; Levy, Sigal; Benbassat, Carlos; Shraga-Slutzky, Ilana; Hirsch, Dania

    2014-03-01

    Pregnancy and lactation have been associated with decline in bone mineral density (BMD). It is not clear if there is a full recovery of BMD to baseline. This study sought to determine if pregnancy or breast-feeding or both have a cumulative effect on BMD in premenopausal and early postmenopausal women. We performed single-center cohort analysis. Five hundred women aged 35-55 years underwent routine BMD screening from February to July 2011 at a tertiary medical center. Patients were questioned about number of total full-term deliveries and duration of breast-feeding and completed a background questionnaire on menarche and menopause, smoking, dairy product consumption, and weekly physical exercise. Weight and height were measured. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure spinal, dual femoral neck, and total hip BMD. Associations between background characteristics and BMD values were analyzed. Sixty percent of the women were premenopausal. Mean number of deliveries was 2.5 and mean duration of breast-feeding was 9.12 months. On univariate analysis, BMD values were negatively correlated with patient age (p=0.006) and number of births (p=0.013), and positively correlated with body mass index (posteoporosis later in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Environmental quality modulates the cooperative and competitive nature of a microbial cross-feeding mutualism

    Hoek, Tim; Axelrod, Kevin; Yurtsev, Eugene; Gore, Jeff

    Mutualisms are essential for ecosystem function and stability. However, in some environments the competitive aspects of an interaction may dominate the mutualistic aspects. Although these transitions could have far-reaching implications, it has been difficult to study the causes and consequences of this mutualistic-competitive transition in experimentally tractable systems. Here we experimentally study a microbial cross-feeding mutualism in which each yeast strain supplies an essential amino acid for its partner strain. We find that, depending upon the amino acid concentration, this pair of strains can exhibit any of: obligatory mutualism, facultative mutualism, competition, parasitism, competitive exclusion, or failed mutualism leading to extinction of the population. A simple model capturing the essential features of this interaction predicts that environmental quality specifies the outcome and provides a ``phase diagram'' of net interactions in this mutualism. In addition, the model accurately predicts that changes in the dynamics of the mutualism in deteriorating environments can predict that population collapse is imminent. Our results provide a general framework for how mutualisms may transition between qualitatively different regimes of interaction.

  15. Involving the expert in the delivery of environmental information from the web

    Wanner, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Automatic provision of accurate user need- and profile-tailored environmental information is of increasing demand. However, it is a challenging task with many facets. Among them is the difficulty to compile and cast into a formal representation all the expert knowledge needed to accurately and exhaustively acquire, assess and process the data in order to be able to reliably judge their relevance to the user and to produce an adequate summary and recommendations. Studies in Human-Computer Interaction show that both the satisfaction of the users with an application and the objective performance of a service increases if the users (in particular, experts) are assigned an active role in the system. Based on this insight, we propose a largely interactive environmental information acquisition and generation framework, which has been realized in the FP7 project ''Personalized Environmental Service Configuration and Delivery Orchestration'' (PESCaDO). The PESCaDO service involves the experts in four central tasks: (i) determination of criteria for the search of environmental nodes in the web; (ii) assessment of the relevance of the identified nodes; (iii) assessment of the quality of the data provided by the nodes, and (iv) selection of the content to be communicated to the user. Quantitative evaluations and user trials show that the performance of the system is good and the satisfaction with the service is high. (orig.)

  16. Sociocultural and Environmental Influences on Brazilian Immigrant Mothers' Beliefs and Practices Related to Child Feeding and Weight Status.

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Wallington, Sherrie F; Greaney, Mary L; Hasselman, Maria H; Machado, Marcia M T; Mezzavilla, Raquel S; Detro, Barbara M

    2017-05-01

    Background Length of residence in the United States (US), changes in dietary and physical activity behaviors, and economic and social barriers contribute to high childhood obesity rates among children from immigrant families in the US. Brazilians comprise a fast-growing immigrant population group in the US, yet little research has focused on health issues affecting Brazilian children in immigrant families. Understanding sociocultural and environmental influences on parents' beliefs and practices related to child feeding and weight status is essential to altering obesity trends in this group. Methods Qualitative study consisting of five focus groups with a convenience sample of 29 Brazilian immigrant mothers. Results Analyses revealed that the sociocultural and environment transitions faced by Brazilian immigrant mothers' influence their beliefs and practices related to child feeding and weight status. Additionally, acculturation emerged as a factor affecting mothers' feeding practices and their children's eating habits, with mothers preferring Brazilian food environments and that their children preferring American food environments. Mothers viewed themselves as being responsible for promoting and maintaining their children's healthy eating and feeding behaviors, but changes in their social and cultural environments due to immigration and the pressures and demands of raising a family in a new country make this difficult. Conclusions Health promotion interventions to improve healthful eating and feeding practices of Brazilian children in immigrant families must account for social and cultural changes and daily life demands due to immigration as well as potential variation in the levels of acculturation between mothers and their children.

  17. "Got rats?" Global environmental costs of thirst for milk include acute biodiversity impacts linked to dairy feed production.

    Luque-Larena, Juan J; Mougeot, François; Arroyo, Beatriz; Lambin, Xavier

    2018-07-01

    Rodents damaging alfalfa crops typically destined for export to booming Eastern markets often cause economical losses to farmers, but management interventions attempting to control rodents (i.e., use of rodenticides) are themselves damaging to biodiversity. These damages resonate beyond dairy feed producing regions through animal migration and are an overlooked part of the transferred environmental burden caused by a growing thirst for milk in China and elsewhere. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Targeted full energy and protein delivery in critically ill patients: a study protocol for a pilot randomised control trial (FEED Trial

    Kate Fetterplace

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines for the provision of protein for critically ill patients are based on incomplete evidence, due to limited data from randomised controlled trials. The present pilot randomised controlled trial is part of a program of work to expand knowledge about the clinical effects of protein delivery to critically ill patients. The primary aim of this pilot study is to determine whether an enteral feeding protocol using a volume target, with additional protein supplementation, delivers a greater amount of protein and energy to mechanically ventilated critically ill patients than a standard nutrition protocol. The secondary aims are to evaluate the potential effects of this feeding strategy on muscle mass and other patient-centred outcomes. Methods This prospective, single-centred, pilot, randomised control trial will include 60 participants who are mechanically ventilated and can be enterally fed. Following informed consent, the participants receiving enteral nutrition in the intensive care unit (ICU will be allocated using a randomisation algorithm in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (high-protein daily volume-based feeding protocol, providing 25 kcal/kg and 1.5 g/kg protein or standard care (hourly rate-based feeding protocol providing 25 kcal/kg and 1 g/kg protein. The co-primary outcomes are the average daily protein and energy delivered to the end of day 15 following randomisation. The secondary outcomes include change in quadriceps muscle layer thickness (QMLT from baseline (prior to randomisation to ICU discharge and other nutritional and patient-centred outcomes. Discussion This trial aims to examine whether a volume-based feeding protocol with supplemental protein increases protein and energy delivery. The potential effect of such increases on muscle mass loss will be explored. These outcomes will assist in formulating larger randomised control trials to assess mortality and morbidity. Trial registration

  19. Biofuels and Their Co-Products as Livestock Feed: Global Economic and Environmental Implications.

    Popp, József; Harangi-Rákos, Mónika; Gabnai, Zoltán; Balogh, Péter; Antal, Gabriella; Bai, Attila

    2016-02-29

    This review studies biofuel expansion in terms of competition between conventional and advanced biofuels based on bioenergy potential. Production of advanced biofuels is generally more expensive than current biofuels because products are not yet cost competitive. What is overlooked in the discussion about biofuel is the contribution the industry makes to the global animal feed supply and land use for cultivation of feedstocks. The global ethanol industry produces 44 million metric tonnes of high-quality feed, however, the co-products of biodiesel production have a moderate impact on the feed market contributing to just 8-9 million tonnes of protein meal output a year. By economically displacing traditional feed ingredients co-products from biofuel production are an important and valuable component of the biofuels sector and the global feed market. The return of co-products to the feed market has agricultural land use (and GHG emissions) implications as well. The use of co-products generated from grains and oilseeds can reduce net land use by 11% to 40%. The proportion of global cropland used for biofuels is currently some 2% (30-35 million hectares). By adding co-products substituted for grains and oilseeds the land required for cultivation of feedstocks declines to 1.5% of the global crop area.

  20. Assessment of Available Particle Size Data to Support an Analysis of the Waste Feed Delivery System Transfer System

    JEWETT, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    Available data pertaining to size distribution of the particulates in Hanford underground tank waste have been reviewed. Although considerable differences exist between measurement methods, it may be stated with 95% confidence that the median particle size does not exceed 275 (micro)m in at least 95% of the ten tanks selected as sources of HLW feed for Phase 1 vitrification in the RPP. This particle size is recommended as a design basis for the WFD transfer system

  1. Effect of feeding strategy on environmental impacts of pig fattening in different contexts of production: evaluation through life cycle assessment.

    Monteiro, A N T R; Garcia-Launay, F; Brossard, L; Wilfart, A; Dourmad, J-Y

    2016-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used in many studies to evaluate the effect of feeding strategy on the environmental impact of pig production. However, because most studies have been conducted in European conditions, the question of possible interactions with the context of production is still under debate. The objective of this study was to evaluate these effects in 2 contrasted geographic contexts of production, South America (Brazil) and Europe (France). The LCA considered the process of pig fattening, including production and transport of feed ingredients and feed, raising of fattening pigs, and manure storage, transport, and spreading. Impacts were calculated at the farm gate, and the functional unit considered was 1 kg of BW gain over the fattening period. The performances of pigs were simulated for each scenario using the InraPorc population model (2,000 pigs per scenario considering between-animal variability). The LCA calculations were performed for each pig according to its own performance and excretion, and the results were subjected to variance analysis. The results indicate that for some impacts there are clear interactions between the effects of the feeding program, the origin of soybean, and the location of production. For climate change, interest in phase feeding and incorporation of crystalline AA (CAA) is limited and even counterproductive in Brazil with soybeans from the South (without deforestation), whereas they appear to be efficient strategies with soybeans from the Center West (with deforestation), especially in France. Rather similar effects, as those for climate change, were observed for cumulative energy demand. Conversely, potential eutrophication and acidification impacts were reduced by phase feeding and CAA addition in a rather similar way in all situations. Individual daily feeding, the only strategy that took into account between-animal variability, was the most effective approach for reducing the life cycle impact of pig

  2. The Delivery of Health Promotion and Environmental Health Services; Public Health or Primary Care Settings?

    Lene Bjørn Jensen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The WHO Regional Office for Europe developed a set of public health functions resulting in the ten Essential Public Health Operations (EPHO. Public health or primary care settings seem to be favorable to embrace all actions included into EPHOs. The presented paper aims to guide readers on how to assign individual health promotion and environmental health services to public health or primary care settings. Survey tools were developed based on EPHO 2, 3 and 4; there were six key informant surveys out of 18 contacted completed via e-mails by informants working in Denmark on health promotion and five face-to-face interviews were conducted in Australia (Melbourne and Victoria state with experts from environmental health, public health and a physician. Based on interviews, we developed a set of indicators to support the assignment process. Population or individual focus, a system approach or one-to-one approach, dealing with hazards or dealing with effects, being proactive or reactive were identified as main element of the decision tool. Assignment of public health services to one of two settings proved to be possible in some cases, whereas in many there is no clear distinction between the two settings. National context might be the one which guides delivery of public health services.

  3. The Delivery of Health Promotion and Environmental Health Services; Public Health or Primary Care Settings?

    Bjørn Jensen, Lene; Lukic, Irena; Gulis, Gabriel

    2018-05-07

    The WHO Regional Office for Europe developed a set of public health functions resulting in the ten Essential Public Health Operations (EPHO). Public health or primary care settings seem to be favorable to embrace all actions included into EPHOs. The presented paper aims to guide readers on how to assign individual health promotion and environmental health services to public health or primary care settings. Survey tools were developed based on EPHO 2, 3 and 4; there were six key informant surveys out of 18 contacted completed via e-mails by informants working in Denmark on health promotion and five face-to-face interviews were conducted in Australia (Melbourne and Victoria state) with experts from environmental health, public health and a physician. Based on interviews, we developed a set of indicators to support the assignment process. Population or individual focus, a system approach or one-to-one approach, dealing with hazards or dealing with effects, being proactive or reactive were identified as main element of the decision tool. Assignment of public health services to one of two settings proved to be possible in some cases, whereas in many there is no clear distinction between the two settings. National context might be the one which guides delivery of public health services.

  4. Model Projections of Future Fluvial Sediment Delivery to Major Deltas Under Environmental Change

    Darby, S. E.; Dunn, F.; Nicholls, R. J.; Cohen, S.; Zarfl, C.

    2017-12-01

    Deltas are important hot spots for climate change impacts on which over half a billion people live worldwide. Most of the world's deltas are sinking as a result of natural and anthropogenic subsidence and due to eustatic sea level rise. The ability to predict rates of delta aggradation is therefore critical to assessments of the extent to which sedimentation can potentially offset sea level rise, but our ability to make such predictions is severely hindered by a lack of insight into future trends of the fluvial sediment load supplied to their deltas by feeder watersheds. To address this gap we investigate fluvial sediment fluxes under future environmental change for a selection (47) of the world's major river deltas. Specifically, we employed the numerical model WBMsed to project future variations in mean annual fluvial sediment loads under a range of environmental change scenarios that account for changes in climate, socio-economics and dam construction. Our projections indicate a clear decrease (by 34 to 41% on average, depending on the specific scenario) in future fluvial sediment supply to most of the 47 deltas. These reductions in sediment delivery are driven primarily by anthropogenic disturbances, with reservoir construction being the most influential factor globally. Our results indicate the importance of developing new management strategies for reservoir construction and operation.

  5. Substitution of pig feed preparation using firewood with biogas in Samosir Island: transforming an environmental catastrophe into environmental, social, economic benefits

    Ginting, N.

    2018-02-01

    In Samosir Island, Indonesia pigs care was not environmentally friendly as people were used firewood in pig feed preparation. A series of research has been conducted from March until September 2017 which was preceded by survey. It was found that people cut tree for firewood. As Samosir Island was under Toba Go Green Project which was a tree planting project so feed pig preparation was in contrast to the project. More over, Indonesia has been committed to reduce its green house gases (GHG) by 26% in 2020, any mitigation on GHG was strongly recommended. One way of mitigation in Samosir was by installing biogas for pig feed preparation. 5 biodigesters 500 liters capacity each were installed in Parbaba Village, Samosir Island and biodigester input were pig manure, water hyacinth. Research design was Randomized Completely Design. Parameters were gas production, pH, temperature and C/N ratio. Biogas than used to cook feed pig. It was known that to cook for 5 finisher pigs, 3 kg firewood could be substituted by 250 liters of biogas.

  6. Environmental, economic, and social impacts of feed-in tariffs : A Portuguese perspective 2000–2010

    Behrens, P.A.; Rodrigues, J.D.F.; Bras, T.; Silva, C.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, many countries have used aggressive policies such as feed-in tariffs and power purchase agreements to promote renewable energy. These policies have been very successful in several countries, initiating large changes in the structure of energy sectors, and conferring large

  7. Environmental quality and natural food performance at feeding sites in a carp (Cyprinus carpio) pond

    Adámek, Z.; Mrkvová, Markéta; Zukal, Jan; Roche, Kevin Francis; Mikl, Libor; Šlapanský, Luděk; Janáč, Michal; Jurajda, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 6 (2016), s. 1591-1606 ISSN 0967-6120 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP505/12/G112 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Pond aquaculture * Supplemental feeding * Zooplankton * Macrozoobenthos * Oxygen * Turbidity Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.095, year: 2016

  8. Economic and environmental effects of providing increased amounts of solid feed to veal calves

    Mollenhorst, H.; Berentsen, P.B.M.; Berends, H.; Gerrits, W.J.J.; Boer, de I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, veal calves receive most of their nutrients from milk replacer (MR). Nowadays, however, solid feed (SF; i.e., concentrates and roughages) increasingly substitutes for MR. Studies have shown that providing SF reduces different types of nonnutritive oral behaviors. The objective of

  9. Examining Delivery Method and Infant Feeding Intentions between Women in Traditional and Non-Traditional Prenatal Care.

    Risisky, Deb; Chan, Ronna L; Zigmont, Victoria A; Asghar, Syed Masood; DeGennaro, Nancy

    2018-02-01

    Introduction The purpose of the study is to evaluate delivery method and breastfeeding initiation in women enrolled in group prenatal care (CenteringPregnancy) and in traditional prenatal care. Methods Data were obtained from medical records of a hospital-based midwifery practice in south central Connecticut that offered both types of prenatal care programs. Medical information from 307 women enrolled in this practice was included in the analysis. Out of the 307, 80 were enrolled in group prenatal care. Socio-demographic, lifestyle, and previous and current obstetrical information from medical records formed the basis of comparison. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were carried out. Results Women in Centering had fewer planned cesarean sections (1.3 vs. 12.8%) and had a higher breastfeeding initiation (88.7 vs. 80.0%). However, Centering women were found to have a higher portion of unplanned cesarean sections (27.5 vs. 11.0%). Both the unadjusted and the adjusted odds ratios of having a cesarean planned delivery were lower in the group care. Women in Centering had 2.44 (95% CI 1.05, 5.66) times the odds of breastfeeding initiation compared to the odds for women in traditional prenatal care after adjusting for maternal age, smoking status, gestation and race. Discussion CenteringPregnancy can have positive impact for the woman and baby. This program implementation saw lower rates of elective cesarean sections and increased breastfeeding compared to women in traditional care.

  10. The environmental sustainability of insects as food and feed. A review

    Huis, van, Arnold; Oonincx, Dennis G.A.B.

    2017-01-01

    With a growing world population, increasingly demanding consumers, and a limited amount of agricultural land, there is an urgent need to find alternatives to conventional meat products. Livestock production is, moreover, a leading cause of anthropogenic-induced climate change. To mediate this, more sustainable diets are needed, with reduced meat consumption or the use of alternative protein sources. Insects are promoted as human food and animal feed worldwide. In tropical countries, edible in...

  11. Environmental impacts of genetic improvement of growth rate and feed conversion ratio in fish farming under rearing density and nitrogen output limitations

    Besson, M.; Aubin, J.; Komen, H.; Poelman, M.; Quillet, E.; Vandeputte, M.; Arendonk, Van J.A.M.; Boer, De I.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Today, fish farming faces an increasing demand in fish products, but also various environmental challenges. Genetic improvement in growth rate and feed conversion ratio is known to be an efficient way to increase production and increase efficiency in fish farming. The environmental consequences

  12. Environmental and Public Health Issues of Animal Food Products Delivery System in Imo State, Nigeria

    Opara Maxwell Nwachukwu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Information on livestock movement, animal food products processing facilities, meat inspection methods, official meat inspection records and distribution and marketing systems for processed products in Imo state, Nigeria needed for policy development interventions in the sector are not fully understood. The primary data generated with the aid of personal interviews, field observations and secondary data obtained from records accumulated by the department of veterinary services Imo state from 2001 to 2004 were used to investigate the environmental and public health issues of animal food products delivery system in state. Majority of trade animals supplied to the state originated from the northern states of the country and were brought in with trucks by road. Only two veterinary control posts served the whole state thus resulting in non-inspection and taxing of a large proportion of trade animals. Official record of trade animals supplied to the state from 2001 to 2004 ranged from 45000 – 144000 for cattle, 23000 – 96000 for goats and 11000 – 72000 for sheep per annum, with supplies increasing steadily across the years. Official slaughter points in the state were principally low-grade quality slaughter premises consisting of a thin concrete slab. Meat handling was very unhygienic with carcasses dressed beside refuse heaps of over 2 years standing. Carcasses were dragged on the ground and transported in taxi boots and open trucks. Meat inspection at these points was not thorough because of stiff resistance of butchers to carcass condemnation. Official meat inspection records for the state from 2001 to 2004 revealed that overall totals of 159,000 cattle, 101,000 goats and 67,000 sheep were slaughtered. This accounted for about 56, 57 and 57% shortfall of cattle, goat and sheep respectively supplied to the state and represents the volume of un-inspected animals during the study period. Fascioliasis and tuberculosis were the most common

  13. Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: Relationships with feeding ecology and body condition

    Fuglei, E.; Bustnes, J.O.; Hop, H.; Mork, T.; Bjoernfoth, H.; Bavel, B. van

    2007-01-01

    Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43 15 N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain. - High contaminant concentrations in the coastal ecotype of arctic fox may cause toxic health effects due to huge annual cyclic variation in storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue

  14. Effects of Environmental Conditions on Activity, Feeding, and Body Weight in Male and Female Adolescent Rats

    Tomchesson, Joshua L

    2006-01-01

    .... Responses to environmental enrichment included: body weight (BW), Body Mass Index score (BMI), Lee Index score (LI), consumption of standard rat chow, Oreo cookies, and Lays potato chips, and physical activity...

  15. Biofuels done right: land efficient animal feeds enable large environmental and energy benefits.

    Dale, Bruce E; Bals, Bryan D; Kim, Seungdo; Eranki, Pragnya

    2010-11-15

    There is an intense ongoing debate regarding the potential scale of biofuel production without creating adverse effects on food supply. We explore the possibility of three land-efficient technologies for producing food (actually animal feed), including leaf protein concentrates, pretreated forages, and double crops to increase the total amount of plant biomass available for biofuels. Using less than 30% of total U.S. cropland, pasture, and range, 400 billion liters of ethanol can be produced annually without decreasing domestic food production or agricultural exports. This approach also reduces U.S. greenhouse gas emissions by 670 Tg CO₂-equivalent per year, or over 10% of total U.S. annual emissions, while increasing soil fertility and promoting biodiversity. Thus we can replace a large fraction of U.S. petroleum consumption without indirect land use change.

  16. Environmental and energy benefits of freight delivery consolidation in urban area.

    2013-03-01

    Among new, innovative city logistics strategies, delivery cooperation has received increasing academic and : practical attention mostly in Europe and Japan. The idea is to establish cooperation among the suppliers, carriers : and the customers throug...

  17. Environmental contaminants in arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) in Svalbard: Relationships with feeding ecology and body condition

    Fuglei, E. [Norwegian Polar Institute, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway)]. E-mail: eva.fuglei@npolar.no; Bustnes, J.O. [Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Division of Arctic Ecology, Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Hop, H. [Norwegian Polar Institute, The Polar Environmental Centre, N-9296 Tromso (Norway); Mork, T. [National Veterinary Institute, Regional Laboratory, N-9292 Tromso (Norway); Bjoernfoth, H. [MTM Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden); Bavel, B. van [MTM Research Centre, Department of Natural Sciences, Orebro University, 701 82 Orebro (Sweden)

    2007-03-15

    Adipose tissues from 20 arctic foxes (Alopex lagopus) of both sexes from Svalbard were analysed for polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE), polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDE), chlordane, and hexachlorobenzene (HCB) concentrations. Gender (0.43 < p < 0.97) and age (0.15 < p < 0.95) were not significantly related to any of the organohalogen groups. Body condition showed a significant inverse relationship with {sigma}PBDE, {sigma}Chlordane and HCB, suggesting that increased tissue contaminant concentrations are associated with depletion of adipose tissue. The seasonal cyclic storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue, characteristic in Arctic wildlife, may then provide increased input of contaminants to sensitive, vital effect organs. Trophic position was estimated by {delta} {sup 15}N from muscle samples and showed significantly positive relationship with all contaminants, with the exception of HCB concentrations. This indicates that foxes feeding at high trophic levels had higher tissue contaminant levels as a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain. - High contaminant concentrations in the coastal ecotype of arctic fox may cause toxic health effects due to huge annual cyclic variation in storage and mobilisation of adipose tissue.

  18. Environmental Transmission of the Gut Symbiont Burkholderia to Phloem-Feeding Blissus insularis.

    Xu, Yao; Buss, Eileen A; Boucias, Drion G

    2016-01-01

    The plant-phloem-feeding Blissus insularis possesses specialized midgut crypts, which harbor a dense population of the exocellular bacterial symbiont Burkholderia. Most individual B. insularis harbor a single Burkholderia ribotype in their midgut crypts; however, a diverse Burkholderia community exists within a host population. To understand the mechanism underlying the consistent occurrence of various Burkholderia in B. insularis and their specific association, we investigated potential gut symbiont transmission routes. PCR amplification detected a low titer of Burkholderia in adult reproductive tracts; however, fluorescence in situ hybridization assays failed to produce detectable signals in these tracts. Furthermore, no Burkholderia-specific PCR signals were detected in eggs and neonates, suggesting that it is unlikely that B. insularis prenatally transmits gut symbionts via ovarioles. In rearing experiments, most nymphs reared on St. Augustinegrass treated with cultured Burkholderia harbored the cultured Burkholderia strains. Burkholderia was detected in the untreated host grass of B. insularis, and most nymphs reared on untreated grass harbored a Burkholderia ribotype that was closely related to a plant-associated Burkholderia strain. These findings revealed that B. insularis neonates acquired Burkholderia primarily from the environment (i.e., plants and soils), even though the possibility of acquisition via egg surface cannot be excluded. In addition, our study explains how the diverse Burkholderia symbiont community in B. insularis populations can be maintained.

  19. Terra Incognita: Absence of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations from the National Land Cover Database and Implications for Environmental Risk

    Martin, K. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; Vose, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    The number of concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) has increased rapidly in recent decades. Although important to food supplies, CAFOs may present significant risks to human health and environmental quality. The National land cover database (NLCD) is a publically available database of land cover whose purpose is to provide assessment of ecosystem health, facilitate nutrient modeling, land use planning, and developing land management practices. However, CAFOs do not align with any existing NLCD land cover classes. This is especially concerning due to their distinct nutrient loading characteristics, potential for other environmental impacts, and given that individual CAFOs may occupy several NLCD pixels worth of ground area. Using 2011 NLCD data, we examined the land cover classification of CAFO sites in North Carolina (USA). Federal regulations require CAFOs with a liquid waste disposal system to obtain a water quality permit. In North Carolina, there were 2679 permitted sites as of 2015, primarily in the southeastern part of the state. As poultry operations most frequently use dry waste disposal systems, they are not required to obtain a permit and thus, their locations are undocumented. For each permitted CAFO, we determined the mode of the NLCD land uses within a 50m buffer surrounding point coordinates. We found permitted CAFOS were most likely to be classified as hay/pasture (58%). An additional 13% were identified as row crops, leaving 29% as a non-agricultural land cover class, including wetlands (12%). This misclassification of CAFOs can have implications for environmental management and public policy. Scientists and land managers need access to better spatial data on the distribution of these operations to monitor the environmental impacts and identify the best landscape scale mitigation strategies. We recommend adding a new land cover class (concentrated animal operations) to the NLCD database.

  20. The reproduction of Blennius pavo (Teleostei, Blenniidae). I. Ovarial cycle, environmental factors and feeding

    Patzner, Robert A.

    1983-03-01

    Blennius (Salaria) pavo is a very common coastal fish in the Mediterranean Sea. The development of the ovary was studied over a period of one year; seven stages of oogenesis are described. Ripe eggs are carried during the spawning season from Juni to August. The ovary shows a resting period of more than half a year (September to March). Environmental factors of the study area such as surface water temperature and daylength are described as well as the condition factors of male and female fish. Observations on food and behaviour during the winter months are also included.

  1. How to feed environmental studies with soil information to address SDG 'Zero hunger'

    Hendriks, Chantal; Stoorvogel, Jetse; Claessens, Lieven

    2017-04-01

    As pledged by UN Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 2, there should be zero hunger, food security, improved food nutrition and sustainable agriculture by 2030. Environmental studies are essential to reach SDG 2. Soils play a crucial role, especially in addressing 'Zero hunger'. This study aims to discuss the connection between the supply and demand of soil data for environmental studies and how this connection can be improved illustrating different methods. As many studies are resource constrained, the options to collect new soil data are limited. Therefore, it is essential to use existing soil information, auxiliary data and collected field data efficiently. Existing soil data are criticised in literature as i) being dominantly qualitative, ii) being often outdated, iii) being not spatially exhaustive, iv) being only available at general scales, v) being inconsistent, and vi) lacking quality assessments. Additional field data can help to overcome some of these problems. Outdated maps can, for example, be improved by collecting additional soil data in areas where changes in soil properties are expected. Existing soil data can also provide insight in the expected soil variability and, as such, these data can be used for the design of sampling schemes. Existing soil data are also crucial input for studies on digital soil mapping because they give information on parent material and the relative age of soils. Digital soil mapping is commonly applied as an efficient method to quantitatively predict the spatial variation of soil properties. However, the efficiency of digital soil mapping may increase if we look at functional soil properties (e.g. nutrient availability, available water capacity) for the soil profile that vary in a two-dimensional space rather than at basic soil properties of individual soil layers (e.g. texture, organic matter content, nitrogen content) that vary in a three-dimensional space. Digital soil mapping techniques are based on statistical

  2. Milk production, feeding systems and environmental impact of dairy cattle farming in Alpine areas: results of a field study

    Anna Sandrucci

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of milk production occurs even in areas traditionally characterized by low-intensive farming systems like mountain areas, leading to environmental concern. The aim of this study was to analyze management and feeding systems in a sample of 31 dairy farms in a mountain area of Lombardy (Valtellina and their effects on milk production and environmental sustainability. In 2006 daily milk sold was 17.5±5.6 kg/cow on average and daily DMI was 19.4±1.3 kg/cow, with a high forages content (65.8±9.2% DM. Rations were quite energetically balanced (+0.09±17.6 MJ/d of ME. Rations higher in starch and lower in NDF resulted in higher milk yields but significantly compromised farm self-sufficiency (which was 62.9±16.8% DM on average. Average Metabolizable Protein balance was negative (-280±203 g/d of MP, mainly due to the low CP content of diets (13.5±1.5% DM. When CP content increased, N manure and N excreted in urine increased (P<0.05 and P<0.01 respectively, probably due to insufficient energy intake which is partly caused by the scarce quality of forages. An improvement in forages quality could increase ME and MP contents of diets without compromising farm self-sufficiency.

  3. What’s in a Dog’s Breakfast? Considering the Social, Veterinary and Environmental Implications of Feeding Food Scraps to Pets Using Three Australian Surveys

    Kirrilly Thompson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Diverting food waste away from landfills is one way to minimise its serious environmental impact. Given that over a third of Australian households have at least one pet, the feeding of food waste to dogs constitutes one potentially significant waste diversion path. However, the proportion of dog owners that feed food waste to their pets is unknown. Moreover, there has been no investigation into any relationship between practices of feeding scraps to pets and the animals’ body condition, living arrangements (inside or outside and exercise regime. To provide some insight, this paper presents findings from three surveys across two Australian studies. The first reports both pet and dog-specific findings from two surveys within a wider food waste research project (n = 1017, establishing that 28% of respondents fed leftovers to pets as a main food waste minimization strategy, yet in only 5% of households did this constitute more than half of the household’s food scraps. This modest diversion of food scraps from landfill to feeding pets was reflected in the finding that there was no significant difference seen in the claimed level of food discards to the waste stream for households feeding food scraps to dogs and those that did not. The second—a dog owner specific study (n = 355—found that almost half (44% of respondents reported feeding table scraps to dogs. They were more likely to be females, owners of medium sized dogs, and in larger households. There was no significant difference in self-rated dogs’ body condition scores between respondents who fed table scraps to their dog and those who did not. Further multidisciplinary research is recommended to reconcile the social, veterinary and environmental risks and benefits of feeding food waste to animals.

  4. Environmental conditions, early life stages distributions and larval feeding of patagonian sprat Sprattusfuegensis and common sardine Strangomerabentincki in fjords and channels of the northern Chilean patagonia

    Contreras, Tabit; Castro, Leonardo R.; Montecinos, Sandra; Gonzalez, Humberto E.; Soto, Samuel; Muñoz, Maria I.; Palma, Sergio

    2014-12-01

    We assessed ontogenetic changes in distribution and feeding of the Patagonian sprat Sprattus fuegensis and common sardine Strangomera bentincki, and their association with environmental characteristics (hydrography, larval food, gelatinous zooplankton predators), and actual feeding from inshore to offshore areas of the Chilean Patagonia. During the springs of 2007 and 2008, S. bentincki egg and larvae were present north of the Taitao Peninsula (47°S) and S. fuegensis was found to the south of the peninsula. Along the inshore-offshore axis, distributions also differed: while eggs and early larval stages of S. bentincki occurred inshore and seawards, larger larvae occurred mostly seawards. The opposite was observed in S. fuegensis. However, distributions of both species followed the same rule, determined by the size of their prey: eggs and early larval stages occurred in areas of higher abundance of small prey sizes, and larger larvae coincided with the highest abundances of larger prey sizes. No relationship was detected between potential gelatinous predators and the egg and larval distributions of both fish species. Mean ingested prey sizes in both species increased as larvae grew, while maintaining the capacity to feed on small sized items. This ontogenetic feeding pattern and the distributions linked to prey seem to be beneficial in order to take advantage of short term food pulses and to overcome the strong changes in environmental conditions east to west from fjords to open waters.

  5. Duration of effects of acute environmental changes on food anticipatory behaviour, feed intake, oxygen consumption, and cortisol release in Atlantic salmon parr.

    Folkedal, Ole; Torgersen, Thomas; Olsen, Rolf Erik; Fernö, Anders; Nilsson, Jonatan; Oppedal, Frode; Stien, Lars H; Kristiansen, Tore S

    2012-01-18

    We compared behavioural and physiological responses and recovery time after different acute environmental challenges in groups of salmon parr. The fish were prior to the study conditioned to a flashing light signalling arrival of food 30 s later to study if the strength of Pavlovian conditioned food anticipatory behaviour can be used to assess how salmon parr cope with various challenges. The effect on anticipatory behaviour was compared to the effect on feed intake and physiological responses of oxygen hyper-consumption and cortisol excretion. The challenges were temperature fluctuation (6.5C° over 4 h), hyperoxia (up to 380% O(2) saturation over 4 h), and intense chasing for 10 min. Cortisol excretion was only elevated after hyperoxia and chasing, and returned to baseline levels after around 3 h or less. Oxygen hyper-consumption persisted for even shorter periods. Feed intake was reduced the first feeding after all challenges and recovered within 3 h after temperature and hyperoxia, but was reduced for days after chasing. Food anticipatory behaviour was reduced for a longer period than feed intake after hyperoxia and was low at least 6 h after chasing. Our findings suggest that a recovery of challenged Atlantic salmon parr to baseline levels of cortisol excretion and oxygen consumption does not mean full recovery of all psychological and physiological effects of environmental challenges, and emphasise the need for measuring several factors including behavioural parameters when assessing fish welfare. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Distribution, abundance and feeding ecology of baleen whales in Icelandic waters: have recent environmental changes had an effect?

    Gísli Arnór Víkingsson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The location of Iceland at the junction of submarine ridges in the North-East Atlantic where warm and cold water masses meet south of the Arctic Circle contributes to high productivity of the waters around the island. During the last two decades, substantial increases in sea temperature and salinity have been reported. Concurrently, pronounced changes have occurred in the distribution of several fish species and euphausiids. The distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the Central and Eastern North Atlantic have been monitored regularly since 1987. Significant changes in the distribution and abundance of several cetacean species have occurred in this time period. The abundance of Central North Atlantic humpback and fin whales has increased from 1,800 to 11,600 and 15,200 to 20,600, respectively, in the period 1987-2007. In contrast, the abundance of minke whales on the Icelandic continental shelf decreased from around 44,000 in 2001 to 20,000 in 2007 and 10,000 in 2009. The increase in fin whale abundance was accompanied by expansion of distribution into the deep waters of the Irminger Sea. The distribution of the endangered blue whale has shifted northwards in this period. The habitat selection of fin whales was analyzed with respect to physical variables (temperature, depth, salinity using a generalized additive model, and the results suggest that abundance was influenced by an interaction between the physical variables depth and distance to the 2000m isobaths, but also by sea surface temperature and sea surface height, However, environmental data generally act as proxies of other variables, to which the whales respond directly. Overall, these changes in cetacean distribution and abundance may be a functional feeding response of the cetacean species to physical and biological changes in the marine environment, including decreased abundance of euphausiids, a northward shift in summer distribution of capelin and a crash in the abundance of

  7. Environmental measurements and inspections on imported foods and feed-stuffs in Greece after the Fukushima accident

    Potiriadis, C.; Anagnostakis, M. J.; Clouvas, A.; Eleftheriadis, K.; Florou, E.; Housiadas, C.; Ioannides, K.; Ioannidou, A.; Karangelos, D. I.; Karfopoulos, K. L.; Kehagia, K.; Kolovou, M.; Kritidis, P.; Manolopoulou, M.; Papastefanou, K.; Savva, M. I.; Simopoulos, S. E.; Stamoulis, K.; Stoulos, S.; Xanthos, S.; Xarchoulakos, D.

    2013-01-01

    The radionuclides released during the accident at the Fukushima Daichii nuclear power plant following the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011 were dispersed in the whole north hemisphere. Traces of 131 I, 134 Cs and 137 Cs reached Greece and were detected in air, grass, sheep milk, ground deposition, rainwater and drainage water. Members of Six Greek laboratories of the national network for environmental radioactivity monitoring have collaborated with the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) and carried out measurements during the time period between 11 March 2011 and 10 May 2011 and reported their results to GAEC. These laboratories are sited in three Greek cities, Athens, Thessaloniki and Ioannina, covering a large part of the Greek territory. The concentrations of the radionuclides were studied as a function of time. The first indication for the arrival of the radionuclides in Greece originating from Fukushima accident took place on 24 March 2011. After 28 April 2011', concentrations of all the radionuclides were below the minimum detectable activities ( -3 for 131 I). The range of concentration values in aerosol particles was 10-520 μBq m -3 for 131 I, 10-200 μBq m -3 for 134 Cs and 10-200 μBq m -3 for 137 Cs and was 10-2200 μBq m -3 for 131 I in gaseous phase. The ratios of 131 I/ 137 Cs and 134 Cs/ 137 Cs concentrations are also presented. For 131 I, the maximum concentration detected in grass was 2.2 Bq kg -1 . In the case of sheep milk, the maximum concentration detected for 131 I was 2 Bq l -1 . Furthermore, more than 200 samples of imported foodstuff have been measured in Greece, following the EC directives on the inspection of food and feeding stuffs. (authors)

  8. Does low to moderate environmental exposure to noise and air pollution influence preterm delivery in medium-sized cities?

    Barba-Vasseur, Marie; Bernard, Nadine; Pujol, Sophie; Sagot, Paul; Riethmuller, Didier; Thiriez, Gérard; Houot, Hélène; Defrance, Jérôme; Mariet, Anne-Sophie; Luu, Vinh-Phuc; Barbier, Alice; Benzenine, Eric; Quantin, Catherine; Mauny, Frédéric

    2017-12-01

    Preterm birth (PB) is an important predictor of childhood morbidity and educational performance. Beyond the known risk factors, environmental factors, such as air pollution and noise, have been implicated in PB. In urban areas, these pollutants coexist. Very few studies have examined the effects of multi-exposure on the pregnancy duration. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between PB and environmental chronic multi-exposure to noise and air pollution in medium-sized cities. A case-control study was conducted among women living in the city of Besançon (121 671 inhabitants) or in the urban unit of Dijon (243 936 inhabitants) and who delivered in a university hospital between 2005 and 2009. Only singleton pregnancies without associated pathologies were considered. Four controls were matched to each case in terms of the mother's age and delivery location. Residential noise and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposures were calculated at the mother's address. Conditional logistic regression models were applied, and sensitivity analyses were performed. This study included 302 cases and 1204 controls. The correlation between noise and NO2 indices ranged from 0.41 to 0.59. No significant differences were found in pollutant exposure levels between cases and controls. The adjusted odds ratios ranged between 0.96 and 1.08. Sensitivity analysis conducted using different temporal and spatial exposure windows demonstrated the same results. The results are in favour of a lack of connection between preterm delivery and multi-exposure to noise and air pollution in medium-sized cities for pregnant women without underlying disease. © The Author 2017; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  9. The North American power delivery system: Balancing market restructuring and environmental economics with infrastructure security

    Massoud Amin, S.; Gellings, Clark W.

    2006-01-01

    The North American electric power system was developed over the last 100 years without a conscious awareness and analysis of the system-wide implications of its current evolution under the forces of deregulation, system complexity, power-market impacts, terrorism, and human error. The possibility of power delivery beyond neighboring areas was a distant secondary consideration. Today, the North American power network may realistically be considered to be the largest machine in the world. With the advent of deregulation and competition in the electric power industry, new ways are being sought to improve the efficiency of that network without seriously diminishing its reliability and security. Controlling a heterogeneous, widely dispersed, yet globally interconnected system is a serious technological problem in any case. It is even more complex and difficult to control it for optimal efficiency and maximum benefit to the ultimate consumers while still allowing all its business components to compete fairly and freely. In this paper we present an overview of key issues and the context in which the electricity infrastructure is being operated under the above forces along with a strategic vision extending to a decade, or longer, that would enable more secure and robust systems operation, security monitoring, and efficient energy markets. (author)

  10. Breastfeeding is best feeding.

    Cutting, W

    1995-02-01

    The traditional practice of breast feeding is the best means to make sure infants grow up healthy. It costs nothing. Breast milk contains antibodies and other substances which defend against disease, especially those linked to poor food hygiene and inadequate water and sanitation. In developing countries, breast fed infants are at least 14 times less likely to die from diarrhea than those who are not breast fed. Urbanization and promotion of infant formula undermine breast feeding. Even though infants up to age 4-6 months should receive only breast milk to remain as healthy as possible, infants aged less than 4-6 months often receive other milks or gruels. Attendance of health workers at delivery and their contact with mother-infant pairs after delivery are ideal opportunities to encourage mothers to breast feed. In fact, if health workers provide mothers skilled support with breast feeding, mothers are more likely to breast feed well and for a longer time. Health workers need counseling skills and firm knowledge of techniques on breast feeding and of how to master common difficulties to help mothers with breast feeding. Listening skills and confidence building skills are also needed. Good family and work place support allows women in paid employment outside the home to continue breast feeding. Breast feeding is very important in emergency situations where access to water, sanitation, food, and health care is limited (e.g., refugee camps). In these situations, health workers should especially be aware of women's ability to breast feed and to support their breast feeding. HIV can be transmitted to nursing infants from HIV infected mothers. Yet one must balance this small risk against the possibility of contracting other serious infections (e.g., diarrhea) through alternative infant feeding, particularly if there is no access to potable water and sanitation.

  11. Vehicle to Grid regulation services of electric delivery trucks: Economic and environmental benefit analysis

    Zhao, Yang; Noori, Mehdi; Tatari, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Potential net present revenues of electric truck based V2G regulation services are investigated. • GHG emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks are quantified. • The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed. • V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable revenues and GHG emission savings. - Abstract: Concerns regarding the fuel costs and climate change impacts associated with petroleum combustion are among the main driving factors for the adoption of electric vehicles. Future commercial delivery truck fleets may include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Extended Range Electric Vehicles (EREVs); in addition to savings on fuel and maintenance costs, the introduction of these grid accessible electric vehicles will also provide fleet owners with possible Vehicle to Grid (V2G) opportunities. This study investigates the potential net present revenues and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission mitigation of V2G regulation services provided by electric trucks in a typical fleet. The total cost of ownership and the life-cycle GHG emissions of electric trucks are also analyzed and compared to those of traditional diesel trucks. To account for uncertainties, possible ranges for key parameters are considered instead of only considering fixed single data values for each parameter. The results of this research indicate that providing V2G regulation services for electric trucks could yield considerable additional revenues ($20,000–50,000) and significant GHG emission savings (approximately 300 ton CO_2) compared to conventional diesel trucks.

  12. Productive, economic and environmental effects of optimised feeding strategies in small-scale dairy farms in the Highlands of Mexico

    José Velarde-Guillén

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Since most dairy production in developing countries comes from small farms, there is scope to reduce their contribution to greenhouse gas (GHG emissions. In the highlands of Mexico, the limitations in these systems are high feeding costs. This paper assessed the production, economics and estimated methane emissions from traditional feeding strategies (TFS in 22 small-scale dairy farms compared to optimised feeding strategies (OFS evaluated through on-farm research in eight participating farms in the dry (DS and in the rainy (RS seasons. Results were analysed with a completely randomized design. There were no differences (P>0.05 in milk fat, body condition score (BCS or live weight between TFS and OFS, but there was higher (P

  13. Environmental assessment of Ronozyme (R) p5000 CT phytase as an alternative to inorganic phosphate supplementation to pig feed used in intensive pig production

    Nielsen, Per H.; Wenzel, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    be used as an alternative to inorganic phosphorus supplementation to feed and the study addresses the environmental implications of substituting inorganic phosphorus with Ronozyme Phytase in intensive pig production in Denmark. Methods. Life cycle assessment is used as an analytical tool, and modelling...... pig production is justified by major advantages in terms of avoided contributions to global warming, acidification, photochemical ozone formation and particularly nutrient enrichment and by significant energy savings and particularly phosphate savings. A single trade-off in terms of agricultural land......Goal, Scope and Background. Ronozyme (R) P5000 CT is an industrially produced enzyme product (phytase) which is able to degrade naturally occurring phytate in animal feed and release the phytate's content of phosphorus for pig's growth. Ronozyme P5000 CT (hereafter called Ronozyme Phytase) can...

  14. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration, compared with separate components, increases time spent feeding and results in more evenly

  15. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); P.S. Ross (Peter); J.G. Vos (Joseph); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractMass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function

  16. Evaluation of Environmental Factors to Determine the Distribution of Functional Feeding Groups of Benthic Macroinvertebrates Using an Artificial Neural Network

    Verdonschot, P.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Functional feeding groups (FFGs) of benthic macroinvertebrates are guilds of invertebrate taxa that obtain food in similar ways, regardless of their taxonomic affinities. They can represent a heterogeneous assemblage of benthic fauna and may indicate disturbances of their habitats. The proportion of

  17. Economic and Environmental Evaluation of a Brick Delivery System Based on Multi-Trip Vehicle Loader Routing Problem for Small Construction Sites

    Heungjo An

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available While large construction sites have on-site loaders to handle heavy and large packages of bricks, small brick manufacturers employ a truck-mounted loader or sometimes deploy a loader truck to accompany normal brick delivery trucks to small construction sites lacking on-site loaders. It may be very challenging for small contractors to manage a sustainable delivery system that is both cost-effective and environmentally friendly. To address this issue, this paper proposes to solve a multi-trip vehicle loader routing problem by uniquely planning routes and schedules of several types of vehicles considering their synchronized operations at customer sites and multi trips. This paper also evaluates the sustainability of the developed model from both economic and environmental perspectives. Case studies based on small construction sites in the Middle East demonstrate applications of the proposed model to make the most economical plans for delivering bricks. Compared to the single-trip vehicle loader routing problem, the proposed model reduces, on average, 18.7% of the total delivery cost while increasing CO2 emission negligibly. The economic benefit is mainly achieved by reducing the required number of vehicles. Brick plant managers can use the proposed mathematical model to plan the most cost-effective delivery schedules sustainably while minimizing negative environmental effects.

  18. Adaptive Management of Return Flows: Lessons from a Case Study in Environmental Water Delivery to a Floodplain River

    Wolfenden, Benjamin J.; Wassens, Skye M.; Jenkins, Kim M.; Baldwin, Darren S.; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Maguire, James

    2018-03-01

    For many floodplain rivers, reinstating wetland connectivity is necessary for ecosystems to recover from decades of regulation. Environmental return flows (the managed delivery of wetland water to an adjacent river) can be used strategically to facilitate natural ecosystem connectivity, enabling the transfer of nutrients, energy, and biota from wetland habitats to the river. Using an informal adaptive management framework, we delivered return flows from a forested wetland complex into a large lowland river in south-eastern Australia. We hypothesized that return flows would (a) increase river nutrient concentrations; (b) reduce wetland nutrient concentrations; (c) increase rates of ecosystem metabolism through the addition of potentially limiting nutrients, causing related increases in the concentration of water column chlorophyll-a; and (d) increase the density and species richness of microinvertebrates in riverine benthic habitats. Our monitoring results demonstrated a small increase in the concentrations of several key nutrients but no evidence for significant ecological responses was found. Although return flows can be delivered from forested floodplain areas without risking hypoxic blackwater events, returning nutrient and carbon-rich water to increase riverine productivity is limited by the achievable scale of return flows. Nevertheless, using return flows to flush carbon from floodplains may be a useful management tool to reduce carbon loads, preparing floodplains for subsequent releases (e.g., mitigating the risk of hypoxic blackwater events). In this example, adaptive management benefited from a semi-formal collaboration between science and management that allowed for prompt decision-making.

  19. Food and feeding of juvenile chinook salmon in the central Columbia River in relation to thermal discharges and other environmental features

    Becker, C.D. [Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (United States). Ecosystems Dept.

    1970-08-01

    The relationship of thermal discharges from operating Hanford reactors to food and feeding of juvenile chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the central Columbia River, Washington was studied in 1968 and 1969. The primary objectives were to (1) evaluate the food composition and feeding activities of the fish and (2) determine if heated effluents influenced their welfare. Environmental conditions (seasonal changes in river temperatures and flow volumes) in relation to thermal requirements of young chinook are detailed. Data on food organisms utilized by the fish in 1968 and 1969 are presented, whereas analyses for possible thermal effects are based on the more extensive 1969 data. No consistent differences attributable to thermal increments were evident. The lack of detectable effects apparently results from the fact that the main discharge plumes occur in midriver and the effluents are well mixed before reaching inshore feeding areas. The transient nature of fish at each sampling site and the availability of food organisms in the river drift are ecological factors affecting critical thermal evaluation.

  20. Feed safety in the feed supply chain

    Pinotti, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of issues have weakened the public's confidence in the quality and wholesomeness of foods of animal origin. As a result farmers, nutritionists, industry and governments have been forced to pay serious attention to animal feedstuff production processes, thereby acknowledging that animal feed safety is an essential prerequisite for human food safety. Concerns about these issues have produced a number of important effects including the ban on the use of processed animal proteins, the ban on the addition of most antimicrobials to farm animals diets for growth‐promotion purposes, and the implementation of feed contaminant regulations in the EU. In this context it is essential to integrate knowledge on feed safety and feed supply. Consequently, purchase of new and more economic sources of energy and protein in animal diets, which is expected to conform to adequate quality, traceability, environmental sustainability and safety standards, is an emerging issue in livestock production system.

  1. Creep feeding nursing beef calves.

    Lardy, Gregory P; Maddock, Travis D

    2007-03-01

    Creep feeding can be used to increase calf weaning weights. However, the gain efficiency of free-choice, energy-based creep feeds is relatively poor. Generally, limit-feeding, high-protein creep feeds are more efficient, and gains may be similar to those produced by creep feeds offered free choice. Creep feeding can increase total organic matter intake and improve the overall energy status of the animal. Creep-fed calves tend to acclimate to the feedlot more smoothly than unsupplemented calves. Furthermore, provision of a high-starch creep feed may have a positive influence on subsequent carcass quality traits. Creep feeding can be applied to numerous environmental situations to maximize calf performance; however, beef cattle producers should consider their individual situations carefully before making the decision to creep feed.

  2. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves: Gardening and Environmental Education Cards for Reading, Seeding, Doing, Feeding. Project Outside/Inside.

    Hunken, Jorie; And Others

    Forty-five activity-oriented gardening and environmental education activities suitable for grades 4-6 are presented. They include such topics as demonstrating how to plan, plant, care for and harvest herb, flower, and vegetable gardens. This book teaches a basic understanding of plant growth and development through the use of illustrations and…

  3. Dip-strip method for monitoring environmental contamination of aflatoxin in food and feed: use of a portable aflatoxin detection kit.

    Sashidhar, R B

    1993-10-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of food and feed have gained global significance due to its deleterious effect on human and animal health and its importance in the international trade. The potential of aflatoxin as a carcinogen, mutagen, teratogen, and immunosuppressive agent is well documented. The problem of aflatoxin contamination of food and feed has led to the enactment of various legislation. However, meaningful strategies for implementation of this legislation is limited by nonavailability of simple, cost-effective method for screening and detection of aflatoxin under field conditions. Keeping in mind the analytical constraints in developing countries, a simple-to-operate, rapid, reliable, and cost-effective portable aflatoxin detection kit has been developed. The important components of the kit include a hand-held UV lamp (365 nm, 4 W output), a solvent blender (12,000 rpm) for toxin extraction, and adsorbent-coated dip-strips (polyester film) for detecting and quantifying aflatoxin. Analysis of variance indicates that there were no significant differences between various batches of dip-strips (p > 0.05). The minimum detection limit for aflatoxin B1 was 10 ppb per spot. The kit may find wide application as a research tool in public health laboratories, environmental monitoring agencies, and in the poultry industry.

  4. Feeding Tubes

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  5. Role of breast-feeding in the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea.

    Huffman, S L; Combest, C

    1990-09-01

    Recent studies have again shown the beneficial effects of breast-feeding in preventing morbidity and mortality from diarrhoea in infants. A case-control study in Brazil has shown that young infants who are not breast-fed have a 25-time greater risk of dying of diarrhoea than those who are exclusively breast-fed. A longitudinal study in the urban slums of Lima, Peru found that exclusively breast-fed infants have a reduced risk of diarrhoeal morbidity when compared with infants receiving only water in addition to breast-milk. Both these studies, along with numerous others in developing countries, point to the need to extend the duration of exclusive breast-feeding to at least 4-6 months. A review of concerned studies throughout the world shows that even in malnourished women, breast-milk output is sufficient to maintain growth of infants up to this age. The addition of early food supplements to infants fed under prevailing environmental conditions in developing countries leads to their increased diarrhoeal attacks and associated reduced food intake. This results in worsened nutritional status of the affected infants. Breast-feeding helps maintain hydration status during diarrhoeal episodes. Studies in Peru, India, and Nigeria have shown that breast-feeding can be continued during diarrhoea when the infants often refuse other foods, specially non-human milk. Thus, breast-feeding is important in providing necessary calories and protein during a time when a loss of appetite for other foods is common. Diarrhoeal disease control programmes need to modify service delivery to ensure that breast-feeding mothers are not separated from their infants while being treated with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) as inpatients or outpatients. Oral rehydration solution (ORS) should be given to infants with cup and spoon rather than bottles, in order not to interfere with suckling. When in a health system bottles are used for treatment, an implicit credibility is given to their role in

  6. A piscicultura e o ambiente: o uso de alimentos ambientalmente corretos em piscicultura Fish farming and the environment: the use of environmental friendly feeds in fish culture

    José Eurico Possebon Cyrino

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Embora a ciência da nutrição de peixes esteja longe de estabelecer um padrão geral de exigências nutricionais, a necessidade de desenvolvimento de alimentos de baixo impacto poluente há muito faz parte da agenda das comunidades científica e empresarial internacional da aqüicultura. Não só é absolutamente possível formular alimentos ambientalmente corretos, como é necessário modelar a formulação destes alimentos. Porém, é necessária absoluta acurácia para atender formulações espécie-específicas, considerando-se as interações da biologia e fisiologia nutricional das espécies com os alimentos e com as variações abióticas do meio. O conhecimento disponível sobre as mais de 200 espécies de peixe produzidas comercialmente no mundo é ainda incipiente e os sistemas de produção de peixe, nos diferentes regimes de exploração, estão implantados em todas as condições ecológicas possíveis. Neste cenário, produzir rações ambientalmente corretas é, senão impossível, pelo menos muito difícil e depende da ação coordenada e positiva de produtores, indústria da alimentação, agências regulatórias, e instituições de ensino e pesquisa para definir os parâmetros necessários à consecução deste objetivo.Although fish nutrition science is far from establishing general standards of nutritional requirements, the need for developing low impact feeds has long been included in the agenda of aquaculture's international scientific and business communities of. Not only is absolutely possible to formulate environmental friendly feeds, as it is necessary modeling the formulation of these feeds. However, it is necessary higher accuracy to develop species-specific formulations, considering interactions of the biology and nutritional physiology of the species with the feedstuffs and variations of abiotic environment. The knowledge on more than 200 species of commercially farmed fish is still incipient and fish production

  7. Feed sources for livestock

    Zanten, van H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way.

  8. Maternal obesity, environmental factors, cesarean delivery and breastfeeding as determinants of overweight and obesity in children: results from a cohort.

    Portela, Daniel S; Vieira, Tatiana O; Matos, Sheila Ma; de Oliveira, Nelson F; Vieira, Graciete O

    2015-04-15

    Overweight and obesity are a public health problem with a multifactorial aetiology. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors for overweight and obesity in children at 6 years of age, including type of delivery and breastfeeding. This study relates to a cohort of 672 mother-baby pairs who have been followed from birth up to 6 years of age. The sample included mothers and infants seen at all ten maternity units in a large Brazilian city. Genetic, socioeconomic, demographic variables and postnatal characteristics were analyzed. The outcome analyzed was overweight and/or obesity defined as a body mass index greater than or equal to +1 z-score. The sample was stratified by breastfeeding duration, and a descriptive analysis was performed using a hierarchical logistic regression. P-values of obesity among the children were 15.6% and 12.9%, respectively. Among the subset of breastfed children, factors associated with the outcome were maternal overweight and/or obesity (PR 1.92; 95% confidence interval "95% CI" 1.15-3.24) and lower income (PR 0.50; 95% CI 0.29-0.85). Among children who had not been breastfed or had been breastfed for shorter periods (less than 12 months), predictors were mothers with lower levels of education (PR 0.39; 95% CI 0.19-0.78), working mothers (PR 1.83; 95% CI 1.05-3.21), caesarean delivery (PR 1.98; 95% CI 1.14 - 3.50) and maternal obesity (PR 3.05; 95% CI 1.81 - 5.25). Maternal obesity and caesarean delivery were strongly associated with childhood overweight and/or obesity. Lower family income and lower levels of education were identified as protective factors. Breastfeeding duration appeared to modify the association between overweight/obesity and the other predictors studied.

  9. The 2D Hyperlink/Geocaching hybrid as a New Method for Improving Communication and Educational Delivery in Environmental Science

    Graham, J.; Byrne, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    Geocaching is a game of hiding and locating caches (treasures), usually with the aid of a GPS-enabled device, and then posting the locations online for others to discover. Its remarkable success as a cultural phenomenon - transcending the traditional boundaries of age, gender, race and culture, while seamlessly combining the elements of technology, mental challenge, travel, geography, orienteering and entertainment - has been well documented. One would expect, therefore, that something so accessible and so physically, mentally and technologically engaging could also have great potential as an educational tool; specifically for the teaching of environmental science in situ. The attempts to date, however, have been disappointing. It will be the purpose of this poster to demonstrate a new and effective approach to educational environmental science-based geocaching; one which treats discreet elements of the living landscape as caches (rather than obstacles), and which combines several commonly available technologies so as to create a rich, immersive experience for viewers of many ages and backgrounds. Specifically, our poster will demonstrate how traditional geocaching methods can be dramatically improved, for the purposes of education, by combining it with 2D hyperlinking technologies in such a way as to allow the viewer to access a variety of different online and/or offline media elements - documentaries, texts, websites, animations, and images, while immersed in the physical environment to which they relate. It will be shown that this site-specific approach to environmental education has considerable potential for improving the meaningful dialogue between environmental scientists and the general public.

  10. Delivery presentations

    Pregnancy - delivery presentation; Labor - delivery presentation; Occiput posterior; Occiput anterior; Brow presentation ... The mother can walk, rock, and try different delivery positions during labor to help encourage the baby ...

  11. The effect of environmentally induced changes in the bark of young conifers on feeding behaviour and reproductive development of adult Hylobius abietis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Wainhouse, D; Staley, J; Johnston, J; Boswell, R

    2005-04-01

    Young plants of Sitka spruce, Scots and Corsican pine were subject to high and low light, and high and low nitrogen treatments in a polyhouse experiment. The effect of treatments on resin duct size and nitrogen concentration in stem bark was determined together with feeding by Hylobius abietis Linnaeus on the stems of 'intact' plants and on 'detached' stems cut from the plant. Resin duct size was largest on Corsican pine and smallest on Sitka spruce and inherent variation in duct size between the three conifer species appears to determine the pattern of weevil feeding between species. Resin ducts and the flow of resin from them protect the stems of young conifers from weevil feeding not by affecting the total amount of bark eaten but by limiting the depth of feeding and so protecting the inner phloem and cambium. Shallow feeding may increase the likelihood of effective wound repair. Duct size was positively related to plant growth and in particular increased with bark thickness. Overall, ducts were largest in the high light treatment although species differed in their response to the treatment. It is suggested that the effects of plant size, growing conditions and transplantation on susceptibility to attack by H. abietis, reported in various studies, may be due to underlying variation in resin duct size or flow rate. The effect on weevils of superficial feeding on stems is to increase the time for reproductive maturation by reducing consumption of the inner bark which has a higher nitrogen content.

  12. Feed sources for livestock

    Zanten, van, H.H.E.

    2016-01-01

    Production of food has re-emerged at the top of the global political agenda, driven by two contemporary challenges: the challenge to produce enough nutritious food to feed a growing and more prosperous human population, and the challenge to produce this food in an environmentally sustainable way. Current levels of production of especially animal-source food (ASF), pose severe pressure on the environment via their emissions to air, water, and soil; and their use of scarce resources, such as la...

  13. Response of broilers to feeding low-calcium and phosphorus diets plus phytase under different environmental conditions: body weight and tibiotarsus mineralization.

    Catalá-Gregori, P; García, V; Hernández, F; Madrid, J; Cerón, J J

    2006-11-01

    Three experiments on Ross broiler chickens were conducted in 3 locations: cages (Experiment 1), floor pens (Experiment 2), and commercial farms (Experiment 3). The effect of low-total P (TP) wheat-soybean based diets plus microbial phytase (Natuphos) was evaluated. Four experimental starter and finisher diets were used in a 2-phase feeding program, as follows: control diet (SC until 21 d, FC from 22 to 42 d); 2 diets (SL400 and SL600 until 21 d, FL400 and FL600 from 22 to 42 d) with low TP (0.61% for starter and 0.54% for finisher), including 400 and 600 U/kg of phytase, respectively; and a very low-TP (0.52% for starter and 0.44% for finisher) diet (SVL600 until 21 d, FVL600 from 22 to 42 d) with 600 U/kg of phytase. In Experiment 1 (broilers in cages had movement limitation and no access to litter), no differences in BW, tibiotarsus mineralization, or mineral metabolism were observed among diets. In Experiment 2 (broilers in floor pens had movement limitation and access to litter), at 21 d of age, the lowest tibiotarsus ash percentage and BW were shown by birds fed the SVL600 diet. At 42 d of age, broilers fed the FC diet were the lightest. For the rest of the parameters of tibiotarsus mineralization and mineral metabolism measured in Experiment 2, no differences were shown. In Experiment 3 (broilers in commercial farms had access to litter without movement limitation), the BW of broilers fed the SC diet was the highest at 21 d of age. At 42 d of age, the broilers fed FL400 and FL600 diets were the heaviest. At the end of Experiment 3, broilers fed the FC diet had the highest dry litter Ca and P, whereas broilers fed the FVL600 diet had the lowest values. In conclusion, the very low-TP wheat-soybean based diet supplemented with 600 U/kg of phytase was sufficient to optimize all the parameters measured in Experiment 1 but not in Experiments 2 and 3. Therefore, when evaluating Ca and P in phytase-supplemented diets for broilers, it is necessary to bear in mind the

  14. Effect of different commercial feeds on growth and survival of African ...

    Clarias gariepinus fingerlings with mean weight 10.63±0.25 g were fed five different commercial diets for eight weeks to determine the most suitable and efficient feed for growth and survival under controlled environmental conditions. The diets used were Multi feed, Ajanla feed, Vital feed, Coppens feed and ARAC feed.

  15. Long-term environmental consequences of the production and feeding of bio gas; Langfristige Auswirkungen auf die Umwelt bei der Erzeugung und Einspeisung von Biogas

    Graf, Frank; Koeppel, Wolfgang; Karch, Udo [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). DVGW-Forschungsstelle am Engler-Bunte-Institut; Kiefer, Joachim; Ball, Thomas [DVGW-Technologiezentrum Wasser (TZW), Karlsruhe (Germany). Abt. Grundwasser und Boden

    2010-03-15

    In the context of an investigation financed by the German Technical and Scientific Association for Gas and Water (DVGW, Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany), the effects of feeding bio gas into the natural gas grid on ground, plants, air and water were examined. The entire process chain was evaluated beginning with the biomass production till to the biogas production, processing of bio gas, feeding of bio gas and utilization of residues. The literature study was based on the results of a DVGW project finished in 2008 for the evaluation of the production of biomass for the energetic use from the view of the water protection and on an investigation of the process engineering of the cleaning of bio gas.

  16. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals.

  17. Project W-314 phase I environmental permits and approvals plan

    TOLLEFSON, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the range of environmental actions, including required permits and other agency approvals, for Project W-314 activities in the Hanford Site's Tank Waste Remediation System. This document outlines alternative approaches to satisfying applicable environmental standards, and describes selected strategies for acquiring permits and other approvals needed for waste feed delivery to proceed. This document also includes estimated costs and schedule to obtain the required permits and approvals based on the selected strategy. It also provides estimated costs for environmental support during design and construction based on the preliminary project schedule provided

  18. Systematic analysis of feeding behaviors and their effects on feed efficiency in Pekin ducks

    Feng Zhu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Feeding behavior study is important for animal husbandry and production. However, few studies were conducted on the feeding behavior and their relationship with feeding efficiency in Pekin ducks. In order to investigate the feeding behavior and their relationship with feed efficiency and other economic traits in Pekin ducks, we selected 358 male Pekin ducks and recorded feeding information between 3 to 6 wk of age using automatic electronic feeders, and compared the feeding behavior under different residual feed intake (RFI levels. Results We observed that total feed time, daily feed intake and feed intake per meal had strong positive correlations with feed efficiency traits; moreover, strong correlation between feed intake per meal and body weight was found (R=0.32, 0.36. Daily feeding rate meal and meal duration had weak correlations with feed efficiency (R=0.14~0.15. The phenotypic correlation of between-meal pauses, with feed efficiency was not observed. When daily changes were analyzed, high RFI ducks had the highest feed consumption over all times, and obvious differences in daily visits were found among different RFI level animals during the middle period; these differences were magnified with age, but there was no difference in daily meal number. Moreover, our data indicate that high RFI birds mainly take their meals at the edge of the population enclosure, where they are more susceptible to environmental interference. Conclusions Overall, this study suggests that the general feeding behaviors can be accurately measured using automatic electronic feeders and certain feeding behaviors in Pekin ducks are associated with improved feed efficiency.

  19. Overcoming low environmental temperatures in the primary feeding season: low-level activity and long basking in the tortoise Homopus signatus

    Loehr, V.J.T.; Stark, T.; Weterings, M.J.A.; Kuipers, H.

    2015-01-01

    Tortoises that live in regions where food plants grow in winter may have to cope with relatively low environmental temperatures to obtain resources. The speckled tortoise, Homopus signatus, inhabits an arid winter rainfall range where it is active in winter and spring at environmental temperatures

  20. Low Activity Waste Feed Process Control Strategy

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  1. Soil redistribution and nutrient delivery in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem with different crops and management: environmental and economic aspects

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Álvarez, Sara

    2017-04-01

    Mediterranean agro-ecosystems are characterised by fragmented fields and patched vegetation. This shape governs the spatial patterns of water, soil and nutrient redistribution. Rainfall parameters, human infrastructures, crop management, support practices, and land use changes (set aside crops, land abandonment) control the magnitude of these processes. Under rain-fed water supply conditions, runoff generation and soil water content are two important factors in determining crop yield. Soil erosion and nutrient delivery are two of the factors which limit crop yield and thus, the gross earning of the landowner. In hilly landscapes, farmers usually supply extra soil to fill in the ephemeral gullies, and nutrient replenishment with fertilizers is a common practice. The aim of this study is to evaluate the environmental (runoff yield, soil erosion and nutrient delivery) and economic (replenishment of soil and nutrient losses with new soil and fertilizers) consequences of different conventional and conservative practices (fallow/crop rotation, cover crops, land abandonment, buffer strips) in a Mediterranean rain-fed agro-ecosystem (27 ha) with vineyards, cereal crops, cultivated and abandoned olive orchards, several trails and patches of natural vegetation. The five winter cereal fields (wheat and barley) follow fallow/crop rotation. The four vineyards are devoted to the Garnacha variety: one planted in 2007 with white wine grapes, and three planted in 2008 with red wine grapes. The inter-crop strips are managed with a mixture of plant species as cover crop (CC), including: i) spontaneous vegetation, and ii) plantation of common sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia). The maintenance of the CC includes one mowing pass at the end of spring, between May and June. The appearance and development of ephemeral gullies and the deposition of soil at the bottom of the hillslope are two of the main concerns of the landowners. In some places, the accumulation of soil complicates grape

  2. Enteral feeding pumps: efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability

    White H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Helen White, Linsey King Nutrition and Dietetic Group, School of Health and Wellbeing, Faculty Health and Social Science, Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom Abstract: Enteral feeding is a long established practice across pediatric and adult populations, to enhance nutritional intake and prevent malnutrition. Despite recognition of the importance of nutrition within the modern health agenda, evaluation of the efficacy of how such feeds are delivered is more limited. The accuracy, safety, and consistency with which enteral feed pump systems dispense nutritional formulae are important determinants of their use and acceptability. Enteral feed pump safety has received increased interest in recent years as enteral pumps are used across hospital and home settings. Four areas of enteral feed pump safety have emerged: the consistent and accurate delivery of formula; the minimization of errors associated with tube misconnection; the impact of continuous feed delivery itself (via an enteral feed pump; and the chemical composition of the casing used in enteral feed pump manufacture. The daily use of pumps in delivery of enteral feeds in a home setting predominantly falls to the hands of parents and caregivers. Their understanding of the use and function of their pump is necessary to ensure appropriate, safe, and accurate delivery of enteral nutrition; their experience with this is important in informing clinicians and manufacturers of the emerging needs and requirements of this diverse patient population. The review highlights current practice and areas of concern and establishes our current knowledge in this field. Keywords: nutrition, perceptions, experience

  3. Feed intake and oxygen consumption in fish

    Subramanian, S.

    2013-01-01

    In fish, the voluntary feed intake is influenced by dietary, environmental and/or physiological factors. It is well known that under hypoxia the concentration of oxygen in the water (DO) determines the feed intake of fish. However at non-limiting water DO levels (normoxia), several other

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family ... community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please ... been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. ...

  6. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    ... for Educators Search English Español Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth / For Parents / Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding What's ... work with a lactation specialist. All About Formula Feeding Commercially prepared infant formulas are a nutritious alternative ...

  7. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  8. Animal Feeding Operations

    ... type=”submit” value=”Submit” /> Healthy Water Home Animal Feeding Operations Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) What are Animal Feeding Operations (AFOs)? According to the United States ...

  9. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  10. After Delivery

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... A Listen En Español After Delivery After your baby arrives, your body begins to recover from the ...

  11. The feeding and diet of the deep-sea shrimp Aristeus antennatus off the Balearic Islands (Western Mediterranean): Influence of environmental factors and relationship with the biological cycle

    Cartes, Joan E.; Papiol, Vanesa; Guijarro, Beatriz

    2008-10-01

    Spatio-temporal variation of feeding intensity and diet in the red shrimp Aristeus antennatus was studied at two locations around the island of Mallorca (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterraean) in August, September, and November 2003, and in February, April and June 2004 at depths between 550 and 750 m. The two areas, with different oceanographic conditions, were respectively located in the northwest (Sóller) and the south (Cabrera) of Mallorca. Off Sóller, feeding intensity of A. antennatus showed a significant increase from February to April and June 2004 in all the three size-classes studied (small shrimps: CL diet of both small (CL diets) were grouped by depth, never by season. The most remarkable seasonal shift in the diet of A. antennatus off Sóller was the increase of mesopelagic prey in April-June relative to other months. In all size categories there was an increase off Sóller in the energy intake of prey ingested from February to June 2004, an increase not found off Cabrera. Degree of digestion of mesopelagic prey indicated nocturnal feeding on mesopelagic fauna. These prey probably have a shallower depth distribution at night than found in our daylight sampling, and possible migratory movements among prey and A. antennatus at night would explain the lack of correlation between prey abundance in guts and in the environment found during daylight periods for most micronekton mesopelagic prey (euphausiids, myctophids and sergestids). Off Sóller, fullness and diet were significantly linked to temporal changes in water column productivity (e.g., Chl a readings, fluorescence) and to changes in the shrimp biology (lipid content of hepatopancreas, Gonado-somatic Index, GSI). Off Cabrera, we found a higher dependence of fullness and diet with T and S, both variables in turn related to depth. The increase of stomach fullness and dietary energy intake in pre-reproductive females from February to April-June 2004 found off Sóller, coupled with the consumption of

  12. Determinants of Prelacteal Feeding in Rural Northern India

    Manas Pratim Roy

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: The problem of prelacteal feeding is still prevalent in rural India. Age, caste, and place of delivery were associated with the problem. For ensuring neonatal health, the problem should be addressed with due gravity, with emphasis on exclusive breast feeding.

  13. Stable isotope-labelled feed nutrients to assess nutrient-specific feed passage kinetics in ruminants

    Warner, D.; Dijkstra, J.; Hendriks, W.H.; Pellikaan, W.F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of digesta passage kinetics in ruminants is essential to predict nutrient supply to the animal in relation to optimal animal performance, environmental pollution and animal health. Fractional passage rates (FPR) of feed are widely used in modern feed evaluation systems and mechanistic

  14. Dietary L-arginine supplement alleviates hepatic heat stress and improves feed conversion ratio of Pekin ducks exposed to high environmental temperature.

    Zhu, W; Jiang, W; Wu, L Y

    2014-12-01

    The current intensive indoor production system of commercial Pekin ducks never allows adequate water for swimming or wetting. Therefore, heat stress is a key factor affecting health and growth of ducks in the hot regions and season. Experiment 1 was conducted to study whether heat stress was deleterious to certain organs of ducks. Forty-one-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly allocated to four electrically heated battery brooders comprised of 10 ducks each. Ducks were suddenly exposed to 37 °C ambient temperature for 3 h and then slaughtered, in one brooder at 21 days and in another brooder at 49 days of age. The results showed that body weight and weight of immune organs, particularly liver markedly decreased in acute heat stress ducks compared with the control. Experiment 2 was carried out to investigate the influences of dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplement on weight and compositions of certain lymphoid organs, and growth performance in Pekin ducks, under daily cyclic hot temperature environment. A total of 151-day-old mixed-sex Pekin ducks were randomly divided into one negative control and two treatment groups, fed experimental diets supplemented with 0, 5, and 10 g L-Arginine (L-Arg)/kg to the basal diet respectively. Ducks were exposed to cyclic high temperature simulating natural summer season. The results showed that the addition of L-Arg improves feed conversion ratio (FCR) during a period of 7-week trial, as well as increases hepatic weight relative to body weight at 21 days, while decreases the hepatic water content at 49 days of age. This study indicated that the liver was more sensitive to acute heat stress, and the hepatic relative weight and chemical composition could be regulated by dietary L-Arg supplementation in Pekin ducks being reared at high ambient temperature. These beneficial effects of Arg on liver might be a cause of improved FCR. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  16. Nutrition, feeding, and behavior of fish.

    Lall, Santosh P; Tibbetts, Sean M

    2009-05-01

    Nutrition and feeding influence growth, reproduction, and health of fish and their response to physiologic and environmental stressors and pathogens. The basics of fish metabolism are similar to those of warm-blooded animals in that they involve food intake, digestion, absorption, and transport of nutrients to the various tissues. Fish, however, being the most primitive form of vertebrates, possess some distinguishing features which will be discussed. Unlike warm-blooded animals, which are homoeothermic, fish are poikilothermic, so their body temperature and metabolic rate depends on the water temperature and this has practical implications for the nutrition, feeding and health of fish. Several behavioral responses have been linked to methods of feeding, feeding habits, frequency of feeding, mechanisms of food detection, and food preferences. Fish are also unique among vertebrates in their ability to absorb minerals not only from their diets but also from water through their gills and skin.

  17. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth ...

  18. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E- ... We're working to radically improve the health care they receive. We're pioneering research to find ...

  19. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ... fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? Labor & birth Postpartum care Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your ...

  20. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a valid e-mail address. Your information: Your recipient's information: Your ...

  1. Feeding tube - infants

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  2. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community March for Babies Nacersano Share Your Story ... Frequently asked questions Email sign up Join our online community Home > Baby > Feeding your baby Feeding your ...

  5. New competitive dendrimer-based and highly selective immunosensor for determination of atrazine in environmental, feed and food samples: the importance of antibody selectivity for discrimination among related triazinic metabolites.

    Giannetto, Marco; Umiltà, Eleonora; Careri, Maria

    2014-01-02

    A new voltammetric competitive immunosensor selective for atrazine, based on the immobilization of a conjugate atrazine-bovine serum albumine on a nanostructured gold substrate previously functionalized with poliamidoaminic dendrimers, was realized, characterized, and validated in different real samples of environmental and food concern. Response of the sensor was reliable, highly selective and suitable for the detection and quantification of atrazine at trace levels in complex matrices such as territorial waters, corn-cultivated soils, corn-containing poultry and bovine feeds and corn flakes for human use. Selectivity studies were focused on desethylatrazine, the principal metabolite generated by long-term microbiological degradation of atrazine, terbutylazine-2-hydroxy and simazine as potential interferents. The response of the developed immunosensor for atrazine was explored over the 10(-2)-10(3) ng mL(-1) range. Good sensitivity was proved, as limit of detection and limit of quantitation of 1.2 and 5 ng mL(-1), respectively, were estimated for atrazine. RSD values <5% over the entire explored range attested a good precision of the device. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Assisted Vaginal Delivery

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Assisted Vaginal Delivery Home For Patients Search FAQs Assisted Vaginal ... Vaginal Delivery FAQ192, February 2016 PDF Format Assisted Vaginal Delivery Labor, Delivery, and Postpartum Care What is ...

  7. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    ... Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health. http://www.womenshealth.gov/publications/our-publications/breastfeeding-guide. Accessed March 11, 2015. Shelov SP, et al. Feeding your ...

  8. Premature delivery

    Bernardita Donoso Bernales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Preterm delivery is the single most important cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. In Chile, preterm births have increased in the past decade, although neonatal morbidity and mortality attributable to it shows a downward trend, thanks to improvements in neonatal care of premature babies, rather than the success of obstetric preventive and therapeutic strategies. This article describes clinical entities, disease processes and conditions that constitute predisposing factors of preterm birth, as well as an outline for the prevention and clinical management of women at risk of preterm birth.

  9. Bioresponsive matrices in drug delivery

    Ye George JC

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract For years, the field of drug delivery has focused on (1 controlling the release of a therapeutic and (2 targeting the therapeutic to a specific cell type. These research endeavors have concentrated mainly on the development of new degradable polymers and molecule-labeled drug delivery vehicles. Recent interest in biomaterials that respond to their environment have opened new methods to trigger the release of drugs and localize the therapeutic within a particular site. These novel biomaterials, usually termed "smart" or "intelligent", are able to deliver a therapeutic agent based on either environmental cues or a remote stimulus. Stimuli-responsive materials could potentially elicit a therapeutically effective dose without adverse side effects. Polymers responding to different stimuli, such as pH, light, temperature, ultrasound, magnetism, or biomolecules have been investigated as potential drug delivery vehicles. This review describes the most recent advances in "smart" drug delivery systems that respond to one or multiple stimuli.

  10. SMART POLYMERS: INNOVATIONS IN NOVEL DRUG DELIVERY

    Apoorva Mahajan; Geeta Aggarwal

    2011-01-01

    Smart polymers are attracting the researchers for development of novel drug delivery systems. Importance of smart polymers is rising day by day as these polymers undergo large reversible, physical or chemical changes in response to small changes in the environmental conditions such as pH, temperature, dual- stimuli, light and phase transition. Smart polymers are representing promising means for targeted drug delivery, enhanced drug delivery, gene therapy, actuator stimuli and protein folders....

  11. Outcomes of vaginal delivery and cesarean in Mashhad Ghaem University Hospital

    Hassan Boskabadi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study showed in comparison with cesarean delivery, normal vaginal delivery provides better outcomes in terms of breast problems, breast feeding status, duration of labor and duration of maternal hospitalization for both mother and infant. So, adopting careful instructions in management and administration of deliveries will help the prevalence of making decisions for normal vaginal delivery and the recovery of delivery outcomes.

  12. Municipal service delivery SET for success

    Naidoo, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The application of scientific, engineering and technological solutions by the CSIR to support local government environmental management and service delivery has the potential for significant impact. A case study illustrates the application...

  13. Streamlining project delivery through risk analysis.

    2015-08-01

    Project delivery is a significant area of concern and is subject to several risks throughout Plan Development : Process (PDP). These risks are attributed to major areas of project development, such as environmental : analysis, right-of-way (ROW) acqu...

  14. Breast-feeding and alcoholism

    Goodwin, D W; Gabrielli, W F; Penick, E C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors' goal was to determine whether early termination of breast-feeding contributes to later alcohol dependence, as proposed more than 200 years ago by the British physician Thomas Trotter. METHOD: In 1959-1961, a multiple-specialty group of physicians studied 9, 182 consecutive...... deliveries in a Danish hospital, obtaining data about prepartum and postpartum variables. The present study concentrates on perinatal variables obtained from 200 of the original babies who participated in a 30-year high-risk follow-up study of the antecedents of alcoholism. RESULTS: Of the 27 men who were...... diagnosed as alcohol dependent at age 30, 13 (48%) came from the group weaned from the breast before the age of 3 weeks; only 33 (19%) of the 173 non-alcohol-dependent subjects came from the early weaning group. When challenged by other perinatal variables in a multiple regression analysis, early weaning...

  15. Biogas feed analysis

    Song, Yuan

    2008-01-01

    Biogas production is regarded as the best energy recovery process from wet organic solid wastes (WOSW). Feed composition, storage conditions and time will influence the compositions of feed to biogas processes. In this study, apple juice from Meierienes Juice factory was used as the model substrates to mimic the liquid phase that can be extracted from fruit or juice industry WOSW. A series of batch experiments were carried out with different initial feed concentrations (0, 1, 2, 5, 10 %) of a...

  16. NUCLEOTIDES IN INFANT FEEDING

    L.G. Mamonova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the application of nucleotides-metabolites, playing a key role in many biological processes, for the infant feeding. The researcher provides the date on the nucleotides in the women's milk according to the lactation stages. She also analyzes the foreign experience in feeding newborns with nucleotides-containing milk formulas. The article gives a comparison of nucleotides in the adapted formulas represented in the domestic market of the given products.Key words: children, feeding, nucleotides.

  17. THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF THE DELIVERY OF MINERAL RAW MATERIALS USED FOR BUILDING MATERIALS PRODUCTION TO THE CITY OF ZAGREB AND THE ZAGREB COUNTY

    Karolina Novak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineral raw material transport directly affects a product’s unit price and exhaust gases amounts. Transportation length is proportional to raw material price; its low price enables short transportation distances only. Taking into account stone aggregates delivered to Zagreb, the consequence of exploitation fields closure in the Zagreb area, particularly within the Medvednica Nature Park, we tried to answer the question of the impact of transport distances on the greenhouse gas emissions. Certain models will present environmental impact of the stone aggregate transportation and of nearby city quarries. The generally accepted public opinion on the closure of nearby city quarries as the best solution to environmental pollution will have to be reviewed. Mining works are predestined by mineral resources sites and limited by real possibilities and intentions of the community, therefore the experts, i.e. miners, geologists and other geoscientists, should be actively involved in spatial planning. During the years of intensive construction, millions of tons have been delivered from distances up to 100 km. The question arises whether some more rational solutions could be generated by more appropriate spatial planning? (the paper is published in Croatian

  18. Logistics and feed preparation of straw for gasification and combustion

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The system for supply of biomass comprises the entire chain from harvest to feeding. The subsequent energy process makes demands on the quality of the biomass that is supplied. The process, moreover, makes a number of demands on the preceding pretreatment and the equipment subsequently utilised. The straw delivery and handling system ought therefore to be considered as a coherent unit whole consisting of the following: harvesting and collection; storage; transportation; fragmentizing; drying; densification; handling at the plants; feeding; `subsequent process`. (EG)

  19. Infectious waste feed system

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  20. High-Level Waste (HLW) Feed Process Control Strategy

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The primary purpose of this document is to describe the overall process control strategy for monitoring and controlling the functions associated with the Phase 1B high-level waste feed delivery. This document provides the basis for process monitoring and control functions and requirements needed throughput the double-shell tank system during Phase 1 high-level waste feed delivery. This document is intended to be used by (1) the developers of the future Process Control Plan and (2) the developers of the monitoring and control system

  1. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  2. Caprine in utero learning and feed neophobia

    Vu Hai, P.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental driven changes in meat goat production systems in Vietnam require the use of new feedstuffs in the diets for goats. The introduction of novel feedstuffs to young goats is often associated with a reduced feed intake, daily gain and welfare. The work presented here investigated different

  3. TENDENCIES AND PECULIARITIES OF SHRIMP FEED PRODUCTION

    LIUDMYLA V. FIHURSKA

    2018-04-01

    disadvantages of using the two most common processes of production of shrimp feeds (pelleting andextrusion, despite the relatively high cost extrusion, undoubtedly, is the main process of shrimp feed production.At the same time, there are challenges, which need to be overcome by the industry for effective further development: toproduce environmentally friendly feeds, to conduct further studies in order to clarify the required nutritional value of shrimp feedand add amino acids, feed enzymes, chemo-attractants, probiotics, and immunostimulants, to provide the necessary water stability ofpellets, and to increase feed conversion rate, develop regional, national, or international guidelines and codes of practices for bothfeed manufacturing practices and feed management practices, reduce fish meal in shrimp feed recipes.Despite the existence of problems, shrimp production is growing and the production of feed for their feeding has a greatpotential as an important source of animal protein in human nutrition.

  4. Selection of Feed Intake or Feed Efficiency

    Veerkamp, Roel F; Pryce, Jennie E; Spurlock, Diane

    2013-01-01

    . In February 2013, the co-authors discussed how information on DMI should be incorporated in the breeding decisions. The aim of this paper is to present the overall discussion and main positions taken by the group on four topics related to feed efficiency: i) breeding goal definition; ii) biological variation...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for your baby and how to make bottle-feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping a breastfeeding log Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding Starting your baby on solid foods Using a breast pump Baby Feeding your baby ...

  8. Early elective cesarean delivery before 36 weeks vs late spontaneous delivery in infants with gastroschisis.

    Hadidi, Ahmed; Subotic, Ulrike; Goeppl, Maximilian; Waag, Karl-L

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the value of early elective cesarean delivery for patients with gastroschisis in comparison with late spontaneous delivery. Analysis of infants with gastroschisis admitted between 1986 and 2006 at a tertiary care center was performed. The findings were analyzed statistically. Eighty-six patients were involved in the study. This included 15 patients who underwent emergency cesarean delivery (EM CD group) because of fetal distress and/or bowel ischemia. The remaining 71 patients born electively were stratified into 4 groups. The early elective cesarean delivery (ECD) group included 23 patients born by ECD before 36 weeks; late vaginal delivery (LVD) group included 23 patients who had LVD after 36 weeks; 24 patients had LCD after 36 weeks because of delayed diagnosis that resulted in late referral; and 1 patient had early spontaneous vaginal delivery (EVD group) before 36 weeks. The mean time to start oral feeding, incidence of complications, and primary closure were significantly better in the ECD group than in the LVD group. The duration of ventilation and the length of stay were shorter in ECD group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Elective cesarean delivery before 36 weeks allows earlier enteral feeding and is associated with less complications and higher incidence of primary closure (statistically significant).

  9. Assisted delivery with forceps

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000509.htm Assisted delivery with forceps To use the sharing features on ... called vacuum assisted delivery . When is a Forceps Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  10. Final environmental assessment for a refinement of the power delivery component of the Southern Nevada Water Authority Treatment and Transmission Facility

    1998-07-01

    The Southern Nevada Water Authority (SNWA) is designing and constructing a system of regional water supply facilities to meet current and projected water demands and increase system reliability. The existing Southern Nevada Water system is being upgraded with a number of improvements to increase the capacity of the system. However, even the expanded system is expected to be unable to meet projected peak daily water demands by the year 1999. As a result, new facilities are being designed and constructed to operate in conjunction with the upgraded Southern Nevada Water system. These new facilities, known as the Southern Nevada Water Authority Treatment and Transmission Facility (SNWA-TTF), include four primary components: a new raw water intake; new transmission facilities including below ground pipelines, tunnels, and above ground pumping stations; a water treatment facility; and new power supply facilities. Because existing power supplies would not be adequate for the new water treatment facilities, new power facilities, consisting of two new 230 kV-69 kV substations and new 69 and 230 kV power lines, are being constructed. This environmental assessment is specifically on the new power facilities

  11. Development of a P((MAA-co-NVP)-g-EG) Hydrogel Platform for Oral Protein Delivery: Effects of Hydrogel Composition on Environmental Response and Protein Partitioning.

    Steichen, Stephanie; O'Connor, Colleen; Peppas, Nicholas A

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogels based upon terpolymers of methacrylic acid, N-vinyl pyrrolidone, and poly(ethylene glycol) are developed and characterized for their ability to respond to changes in environmental pH and to partition protein therapeutics of varying molecular weights and isoelectric points. P((MAA-co-NVP)-g-EG) hydrogels are synthesized with PEG-based cross-linking agents of varying length and incorporation densities. The composition is confirmed using FT-IR spectroscopy and shows peak shifts indicating hydrogen bonding. Scanning electron microscopy reveals microparticles with an irregular, planar morphology. The pH-responsive behavior of the hydrogels is confirmed under equilibrium and dynamic conditions, with the hydrogel collapsed at acidic pH and swollen at neutral pH. The ability of the hydrogels to partition model protein therapeutics at varying pH and ionic strength is evaluated using three model proteins: insulin, porcine growth hormone, and ovalbumin. Finally, the microparticles are evaluated for adverse interactions with two model intestinal cell lines and show minimal cytotoxicity at concentrations below 5 mg mL -1 . © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Attributional versus consequential life cycle assessment and feed optimization

    Zanten, van Hannah H.E.; Bikker, Paul; Meerburg, Bastiaan G.; Boer, de Imke J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Feed production is responsible for the majority of the environmental impact of livestock production, especially for monogastric animals, such as pigs. Some feeding strategies demonstrated that replacing one ingredient with a high impact, e.g. soybean meal (SBM), with an alternative

  13. An educational intervention on promotion of breast feeding.

    Neyzi, O; Olgun, P; Kutluay, T; Uzel, N; Saner, G; Gökçay, G; Taşdelen, E; Akar, U

    1991-07-01

    This study was designed to search for an effective method to promote exclusive breast feeding among Turkish city women delivering in hospitals. Four hundred and forty-two primiparae with uncomplicated deliveries and with healthy infants with birthweights of greater than 2500 g were exposed to a group educational session on breast feeding after birth, followed by one repeat session at home. Four hundred and ninety-nine women served as controls. All homes were visited monthly for 6 months by independent observers and data relevant to the feeding of the infants were collected. Weight measurements of 176 infants were taken at age 4 months. The study and control mothers were similar in sociodemographic characteristics which reflected a low socio-economic/educational background but relatively good housing conditions. Although significant differences in frequency of exclusive breast feeding were found between the study and control groups, the impact of the intervention was much lower than our expectations and short-lived. Type of feeding was not related to sex or birthweight of the infant, nor to maternal variables. Weight at age 4 months was within normal limits and similar in the study and control groups. It was concluded that lack of up-to-date information on infant feeding was the main obstacle to breast feeding in urban groups in Turkey, and that the impact of an educational intervention limited to the first week after delivery was lost within the first 2 months.

  14. Audit of feeding practices in the neonatal wards at the Charlotte ...

    better nutritional outcomes, including protecting against obesity in ... Background. Breastfeeding is the preferred choice of infant feeding. ... pressure, the date of initiation and date of being weaned off were .... at the time of delivery. The majority ...

  15. Waste Feed Delivery Purex Process Connector Design Pressure

    BRACKENBURY, P.J.

    2000-01-01

    The pressure retaining capability of the PUREX process connector is documented. A context is provided for the connector's current use within existing Projects. Previous testing and structural analyses campaigns are outlined. The deficient condition of the current inventory of connectors and assembly wrenches is highlighted. A brief history of the connector is provided. A bibliography of pertinent references is included

  16. Organic Poultry Feeding

    Arda Yıldırım

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Many people have led to the consumption of organic animal products in the event that the increase in sensitivity to a healthy diet in developed countries, and maintaining the safety of food of animal origin. Feeding and breeding in conventional production are emerged some of the negative effects and also it is more in organic production with new restrictions. Organic production is based on animal welfare. On the basis of behaviors such as feather-pecking and cannibalism known to be low in protein level of rations and unbalanced in terms of amino acids or minerals. As of 2015, organic poultry feed provided the appropriate conditions that will be 95% organic certified in Turkey and therefore, to create a balanced ration and feed hygiene in protecting brings serious challenges. Fodder supply of organic poultry feed raw materials that make up the quality, quantity and issue forms a significant effect on the health of the poultry additives permitted. The quality of the feed raw materials that constituent diets, quantity, feed supplying form and permitted feed additives significantly affects the health of poultry. Different physiological stages of the animal's nutritional requirements in order to ensure production of quality poultry products must be met from organically produced and very well-known with the contents of feedstuff digestibility. In this study, the problems encountered in feeding can be eliminated while performing economic production with considering animal welfare, following that balanced and adequate organic ration formulations and issues such as improving the production of feed raw materials are discussed.

  17. Urban Bird Feeding: Connecting People with Nature.

    Daniel T C Cox

    Full Text Available At a time of unprecedented biodiversity loss, researchers are increasingly recognizing the broad range of benefits provided to humankind by nature. However, as people live more urbanized lifestyles there is a progressive disengagement with the natural world that diminishes these benefits and discourages positive environmental behaviour. The provision of food for garden birds is an increasing global phenomenon, and provides a readily accessible way for people to counter this trend. Yet despite its popularity, quite why people feed birds remains poorly understood. We explore three loosely defined motivations behind bird feeding: that it provides psychological benefits, is due to a concern about bird welfare, and/or is due to a more general orientation towards nature. We quantitatively surveyed households from urban towns in southern England to explore attitudes and actions towards garden bird feeding. Each household scored three Likert statements relating to each of the three motivations. We found that people who fed birds regularly felt more relaxed and connected to nature when they watched garden birds, and perceived that bird feeding is beneficial for bird welfare while investing time in minimising associated risks. Finally, feeding birds may be an expression of a wider orientation towards nature. Overall, we found that the feelings of being relaxed and connected to nature were the strongest drivers. As urban expansion continues both to threaten species conservation and to change peoples' relationship with the natural world, feeding birds may provide an important tool for engaging people with nature to the benefit of both people and conservation.

  18. Demographic, breast-feeding, and nutritional trends among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Baruah, Manash P; Ammini, Ariachery C; Khurana, Madan L

    2011-01-01

    The pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) requires a genetic predisposition to particular environmental triggers that may activate mechanisms leading to progressive loss of pancreatic beta cells. We tried to compare the impact of some demographic and environmental factors and breast-feeding on children (aged 18 years) with recent onset diabetes mellitus (≤1 year) with that on age, sex, and socioeconomic status-matched controls. A total of 43 consecutive patients (male, 24, mean age ± SD = 12.58 ± 9.6 years) and equal number of controls without diabetes mellitus or dysglycemia were included in this hospital-based case-control study. A distinct peak in the incidence noted in the early adolescence with segregation in the winter months. Our patients did not differ significantly from the controls with regard to birth order, mode of delivery, parental age, parental education, dietary practices, breast-feeding, and migration in the family. Growth characteristics and nutritional status were also similar. A population study with more power will be better equipped to answer such queries.

  19. Buccal and sublingual vaccine delivery.

    Kraan, Heleen; Vrieling, Hilde; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Jiskoot, Wim; Kersten, Gideon; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-28

    Because of their large surface area and immunological competence, mucosal tissues are attractive administration and target sites for vaccination. An important characteristic of mucosal vaccination is its ability to elicit local immune responses, which act against infection at the site of pathogen entry. However, mucosal surfaces are endowed with potent and sophisticated tolerance mechanisms to prevent the immune system from overreacting to the many environmental antigens. Hence, mucosal vaccination may suppress the immune system instead of induce a protective immune response. Therefore, mucosal adjuvants and/or special antigen delivery systems as well as appropriate dosage forms are required in order to develop potent mucosal vaccines. Whereas oral, nasal and pulmonary vaccine delivery strategies have been described extensively, the sublingual and buccal routes have received considerably less attention. In this review, the characteristics of and approaches for sublingual and buccal vaccine delivery are described and compared with other mucosal vaccine delivery sites. We discuss recent progress and highlight promising developments in the search for vaccine formulations, including adjuvants and suitable dosage forms, which are likely critical for designing a successful sublingual or buccal vaccine. Finally, we outline the challenges, hurdles to overcome and formulation issues relevant for sublingual or buccal vaccine delivery. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump

    ... button, close the clamp on the feeding set, disconnect the extension set from the button, and close ... Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers & Players MedlinePlus Connect for EHRs For Developers U.S. National Library of ...

  1. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... Our work Community impact Global programs Research Need help? Frequently asked questions Contact us Tools & Resources Born ... your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a ...

  2. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... baby Formula feeding How to breastfeed Keeping breast milk safe and healthy Problems and discomforts when breastfeeding ... health & safety ') document.write('') } Ask our experts! Have a ...

  3. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... baby Feeding your baby E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter a ... for your baby during the first year of life. Learn how to breastfeed and why breast milk ...

  4. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... Baby Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & ... health research Prematurity research centers For providers NICU Family Support® Prematurity Campaign Collaborative Info for your patients ...

  5. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Health Topics Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & ... Caring for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature ...

  6. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... discomforts . If you’re feeding your baby formula , find out how to choose the best one for ... care they receive. We're pioneering research to find solutions. We're empowering families with the knowledge ...

  7. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow healthy and strong. It’s also a great time for you and your partner to bond with ...

  8. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... for your baby Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & Resources Frequently asked health questions ...

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... bond with her. Breast milk is the best food for your baby during the first year of ... feeding safe. And then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best ...

  10. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... then get ready for solid foods ! In This Topic Breastfeeding help Breastfeeding is best Food allergies and ... breast pump Baby Feeding your baby Other Baby topics ') document.write(' Caring for your baby ') document.write('') } ') ...

  11. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  12. Transdermal drug delivery

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability ...

  13. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed... (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN ASSETS CONTROL, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY HIGHLY ENRICHED URANIUM (HEU) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The...

  14. The role of the nurse in support of breast feeding.

    Auerbach, K G

    1979-05-01

    The nurse can provide information about, and support of, breast feeding. The prenatal nurse can inform the mother of the advantages of breast feeding to herself and her baby. The labour and delivery nurse can aid the mother in her first contact with the baby and reassure the mother who has a Caesarean birth, or a premature or sick infant, that she too can nurse. The postpartum nurse can help breast feeding to continue by providing frequent maternal-infant contact during the mother's hospital stay. The nursery nurse supports breast feeding by refraining from giving the baby other fluids. The paediatric nurse continues the helping pattern by reinforcing the statements and actions of others which will further impress the mother with the appropriateness of her infant feeding method. Mothers need to be informed about infant feeding options in order to make a knowledgeable choice based on awareness of alternatives. The nurse's role in support of breast feeding varies with the time and place where patient care is provided. In each setting, however, the nurse plays a significant role in helping the mother to begin breast feeding and to enjoy it, at the same time providing her infant with optimum nutrition for his early growth and development.

  15. Transdermal drug delivery

    Prausnitz, Mark R.; Langer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Transdermal drug delivery has made an important contribution to medical practice, but has yet to fully achieve its potential as an alternative to oral delivery and hypodermic injections. First-generation transdermal delivery systems have continued their steady increase in clinical use for delivery of small, lipophilic, low-dose drugs. Second-generation delivery systems using chemical enhancers, non-cavitational ultrasound and iontophoresis have also resulted in clinical products; the ability of iontophoresis to control delivery rates in real time provides added functionality. Third-generation delivery systems target their effects to skin’s barrier layer of stratum corneum using microneedles, thermal ablation, microdermabrasion, electroporation and cavitational ultrasound. Microneedles and thermal ablation are currently progressing through clinical trials for delivery of macromolecules and vaccines, such as insulin, parathyroid hormone and influenza vaccine. Using these novel second- and third-generation enhancement strategies, transdermal delivery is poised to significantly increase impact on medicine. PMID:18997767

  16. Sheep Feed and Scrapie, France

    Philippe, Sandrine; Ducrot, Christian; Roy, Pascal; Remontet, Laurent; Jarrige, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Scrapie is a small ruminant, transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). Although in the past scrapie has not been considered a zoonosis, the emergence of bovine spongiform encephalopathy, transmissible to humans and experimentally to sheep, indicates that risk exists for small ruminant TSEs in humans. To identify the risk factors for introducing scrapie into sheep flocks, a case-control study was conducted in France from 1999 to 2000. Ninety-four case and 350 control flocks were matched by location and main breed. Three main hypotheses were tested: direct contact between flocks, indirect environmental contact, and foodborne risk. Statistical analysis was performed by using adjusted generalized linear models with the complementary log-log link function, considering flock size as an offset. A notable effect of using proprietary concentrates and milk replacers was observed. The risk was heterogeneous among feed factories. Contacts between flocks were not shown to be a risk factor. PMID:16102318

  17. Establishing breast feeding in hospital.

    Levi, J

    1988-01-01

    The experience and practice of the author is described in her appointment as a breast feeding advisor to the paediatric and obstetric units at University College Hospital with special responsibility for supervising infant feeding, especially breast feeding in the maternity unit. During 1980-5 there were 13,185 mothers whose babies fed. The feeding method of 12,842 mothers was recorded on discharge from the postnatal wards and 77% were breast feeding; only 3% of these mothers gave complement f...

  18. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Garry, A [Department dIngenierie Biologique, Ecole Polytechnique de Universite de Nice - Sophia Antipolis, 1645 Route des Lucioles, 06410 Biot (France); Virginie Rigourd, V; Aubry, S [Lactarium d' Ile de France, Institut de Puericulture et de Perinatalogie, 26 Boulevard Brune, 75014 Paris (France); Amirouche, A; Fauroux, V [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre, 89 rue d' Assas, 75006 Paris (France); Serreau, R [Centre de Recherche Clinique Paris Centre EA 3620, 89 rue d' Assas 75006 Paris (France)

    2009-07-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  19. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    Garry, A.; Virginie Rigourd, V.; Aubry, S.; Amirouche, A.; Fauroux, V.; Serreau, R.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  20. Feed and organic matter

    Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang

    2011-01-01

    impact on the receiving water body by reducing dissolved oxygen concentrations and increasing sedimentation. Within aquaculture systems, a high organic load may affect fish health and performance directly (e.g., gill disease) as well as indirectly (proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and parasites......, reduction of dissolved oxygen concentrations, etc.). In recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS), a high organic load caused by limited water exchange may affect biofilter performance by favouring heterotrophic bacteria at the expense of autotrophic, nitrifying bacteria. Organic waste in RAS primarily...... originates from undigested feed, but also metabolic losses, mucus, dead tissue, feed waste and intake water may contribute. The nutrient composition of the feed affects the quantity and composition of the organic (undigested) waste, and including for example plant protein ingredients may affect...

  1. [Maternal and neonatal outcomes of unplanned deliveries].

    Nguyen, M-L; Lefèvre, P; Dreyfus, M

    2016-01-01

    Know the impact of the unplanned deliveries in a town of medium size, the characteristics of these women and maternal and neonatal risks. This was a retrospective study conducted between January 2002 and December 2009. Unexpected delivery was defined as any delivery taking place outside of a non-elective way maternity. Each unexpected delivery was matched at nearest delivery of equivalent term, at the CHU maternity, with an onset of spontaneous labour. Ninety-four women gave birth unexpectedly for a total of 48,721 births (incidence of 0.19%). There was a significant difference between cases and controls for parity (1.8 versus 0.9), the lack of follow-up of pregnancy (21.3% versus 1.1%), tobacco (57.4% versus 25.5%), the socio-economic level, the type of feeding (artificial: 61.7% versus 30.6%), the home-hospital distance and obstetric follow-up. We found a significant increase in perinatal mortality (6.4% versus 1%) and stay in Neonatal ICU (19.1% versus 9.2%). The main neonatal morbidity was hypothermia. It is difficult to target a population at risk because the type of these women is non-specific. Prevention of unplanned deliveries and their morbidities through information of patients on the grounds of urgent consultation and support of the newborn to limit hypothermia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Xanthophylls in Poultry Feeding

    Breithaupt, Diemar R.

    Since most consumers associate an intense colour of food with healthy animals and high food quality, xanthophylls are widely used as feed additives to generate products that meet consumers' demands. An important large-scale application is in poultry farming, where xanthophylls are added to feed to give the golden colour of egg yolk that is so much appreciated. Now, with numerous new applications in human food, in the pharmaceutical industry, and in cosmetic products, there is an increasing demand for xanthophylls on the international market (Volume 5, Chapter 4).

  3. Design scheme of automatic feeding equipment of domestic uranium chemical concentrate

    Hu Jinming; Wang Chao; Peng Jinhui; Zhang Libo

    2014-01-01

    In order to solve problems by artificial feeding mode with low work efficiency, large intensity manual labor and environmental pollution in domestic uranium concentrate purification process, the design scheme of automatic feeding device was set up, including work flow sheet, composition of automatic equipment and operation. By application of automatic feeding equipment, the feeding speed can be greatly increased, labor force can be reduced, and harm to workman health can be decreased. (authors)

  4. Efeito da restrição alimentar como redutor do poder poluente dos dejetos de suínos Feed restriction as an alternative to reduce environmental impact of swine waste

    Simara Márcia Marcato

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da restrição alimentar sobre a excreção de minerais nas fezes de suínos, foram utilizados 48 machos castrados com peso inicial de 41,92 ± 0,21kg, distribuídos em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com três tratamentos (T1=alimentação à vontade; T2=95% do consumo diário apresentado por T1; e T3=90% do consumo diário apresentado por T1 e 16 repetições. Os animais permaneceram durante 21 dias em adaptação aos tratamentos em baias coletivas e gaiolas de estudos metabólicos. As coletas de urina e fezes foram realizadas durante dois dias, utilizando-se 20 g de partículas de plástico colorido como marcador fecal. Houve redução de 8,54% no consumo diário de ração dos animais do T3, acarretando em decréscimo em torno de 9,65% excreção de matéria mineral nas fezes, quando comparado com o consumo ad libitum (T1. Todos os macrominerais, com exceção do magnésio, sofreram redução significativa no conteúdo fecal com o aumento da restrição alimentar. Os teores de cálcio e potássio das fezes representaram cerca de 29% da matéria mineral excretada pelas fezes dos animais e foram reduzidos significativamente com o emprego da restrição alimentar. Para todos os microminerais, as relações entre as quantidades excretadas e as quantidades consumidas foram iguais ou superiores a 86,60%, indicando que os animais apresentaram baixa eficiência de retenção desses nutrientes. Concluiu-se que a restrição alimentar de suínos em fase de terminação acarreta redução da quantidade de matéria seca e da maioria dos minerais excretados.With the objective to evaluate the effect of feed restriction on fecal mineral content of finishing swine, forty-eight barrows, with initial weight of 41.92 ± 0.27 kg were assigned to a randomized experimental block design. Treatments were: T1=ad libitum feeding; T2=95% T1 feed intake; and T3 = 90% T1 feed intake and 16 replications. Animals were kept during 21

  5. eDelivery

    US Agency for International Development — eDelivery provides the electronic packaging and delivery of closed and complete OPM investigation files to government agencies, including USAID, in a secure manner....

  6. Vacuum-assisted delivery

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000514.htm Vacuum-assisted delivery To use the sharing features on this page, ... through the birth canal. When is Vacuum-assisted Delivery Needed? Even after your cervix is fully dilated ( ...

  7. Can farmers mitigate environmental impacts through combined production of food, fuel and feed? A consequential life cycle assessment of integrated mixed crop-livestock system with a green biorefinery

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Dalgaard, Tommy; Birkved, Morten

    2018-01-01

    (Sys-II). Processing of grass-clover to produce feed protein was considered in Sys-II, particularly to substitute the imported soybean meal. Waste generated from the livestock and GBR systems were considered for the conversion to biomethane (Sys-IV). Digestate produced therefrom was assumed...... potential and freshwater ecotoxicity, compared to a conventional mixed crop-livestock system, without the biogas conversion facility and the GBR....

  8. Feeding of Diarmis Proboscis

    Young, Jocelyn

    2005-01-01

    The feeding of Diarmis proboscis is an exciting outdoor laboratory activity that demonstrates a single concept of adaptations--cryptic colorations. The students are "transformed" into D. proboscis (no Harry Potter magic needed) in order to learn how adaptations work in the natural world. Prior to beginning this activity, students should have a…

  9. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... mail was sent. Save to my dashboard Sign in or Sign up to save this page. Saving Just a moment, please. You've saved this page It's been added to your dashboard . Time to eat! Feeding your baby helps her grow ...

  10. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  11. Feeding Your Baby

    Full Text Available ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal care Is it safe? ... Feeding your baby Family health & safety Complications & Loss Pregnancy complications Preterm labor & premature birth The newborn intensive ...

  12. Low Emission Feed

    Klop, G.

    2016-01-01

    Research into manipulating methane (CH4) production as a result of enteric fermentation in ruminants currently receives global interest. Using feed additives may be a feasible strategy to mitigate CH4 as they are supplied in such amounts that the basal diet composition will not be largely

  13. New feed ingredients

    Raamsdonk, van L.W.D.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Jong, de J.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the

  14. Articulating feedstock delivery device

    Jordan, Kevin

    2013-11-05

    A fully articulable feedstock delivery device that is designed to operate at pressure and temperature extremes. The device incorporates an articulating ball assembly which allows for more accurate delivery of the feedstock to a target location. The device is suitable for a variety of applications including, but not limited to, delivery of feedstock to a high-pressure reaction chamber or process zone.

  15. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of ...

    Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth of Oreochromis mossambicus (Teleostei: Cichlidae) fry. ... Weight gain, specific growth rate and gross food conversion ratio were significantly affected by ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  16. Transition in Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices in India.

    Puri, Seema

    2017-01-01

    Optimal infant and young child feeding, which includes initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for first six months, age appropriate complementary feeding after six months along with continued breastfeeding for 2 years and beyond, is a public health intervention to prevent child morbidity, mortality and malnutrition [1]. In India, even though institutional delivery rates are increasing, only 44% women are able to breastfeed their babies within one hour of delivery. While 65% children are exclusively breast fed for the first six months, the median duration of breastfeeding is 24.4 months and complementary feeding rates are 50%. To achieve optimal IYCF practices, each woman should have access to a community based IYCF counseling support system. Efforts are therefore needed to upgrade skill based training of health workers and revive and update the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI). To promote and sustain breastfeeding amongst working women, it is essential to ensure adequate maternity leave, crèches at work place, flexible working hours, and provision of physical space for breast feeding at work place. It is imperative to also create public awareness about the dangers of bottle and formula feeding and to provide accurate information on the appropriate complementary food to be given to infants. In conclusion, India needs to make serious efforts to overcome malnutrition with not only prioritized IYCF policies but also their effective implementation in place. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. A review of feed efficiency in swine: biology and application.

    Patience, John F; Rossoni-Serão, Mariana C; Gutiérrez, Néstor A

    2015-01-01

    Feed efficiency represents the cumulative efficiency with which the pig utilizes dietary nutrients for maintenance, lean gain and lipid accretion. It is closely linked with energy metabolism, as the oxidation of carbon-containing components in the feed drive all metabolic processes. While much is known about nutrient utilization and tissue metabolism, blending these subjects into a discussion on feed efficiency has proven to be difficult. For example, while increasing dietary energy concentration will almost certainly increase feed efficiency, the correlation between dietary energy concentration and feed efficiency is surprisingly low. This is likely due to the plethora of non-dietary factors that impact feed efficiency, such as the environment and health as well as individual variation in maintenance requirements, body composition and body weight. Nonetheless, a deeper understanding of feed efficiency is critical at many levels. To individual farms, it impacts profitability. To the pork industry, it represents its competitive position against other protein sources. To food economists, it means less demand on global feed resources. There are environmental and other societal implications as well. Interestingly, feed efficiency is not always reported simply as a ratio of body weight gain to feed consumed. This review will explain why this arithmetic calculation, as simple as it initially seems, and as universally applied as it is in science and commerce, can often be misleading due to errors inherent in recording of both weight gain and feed intake. This review discusses the importance of feed efficiency, the manner in which it can be measured and reported, its basis in biology and approaches to its improvement. It concludes with a summary of findings and recommendations for future efforts.

  18. Feeding behavior of Frontonia leucas (Ehrenberg (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hymenostomatida under different environmental conditions in a lotic system Comportamento alimentar de Frontonia leucas (Ehrenberg (Protozoa, Ciliophora, Hymenostomatida sob diferentes condições ambientais em um sistema lótico

    Roberto Júnio P. Dias

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to record and describe the morphological changes and the ingestion mechanisms of Frontonia leucas (Ehrenberg, 1833 according to the food type and to relate the food ingested with the different environmental conditions in a lotic system, namely São Pedro stream, located in the municipality of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil. We sampled three points on a monthly basis from August 2002 to June 2003, each of which receiving different levels of untreated sewage. We prepared culture media for the ciliate specimens containing filtered water from each point and the types of food observed inside F. leucas (cyanobacteria, diatoms, desmids and testate amoebas. We observed the ingestion mechanisms of F. leucas in vivo, under a phase contrast optical microscope, using instantaneous sampling and sequence sampling as behavior observation methods, noting the following parameters: dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, conductivity and water temperature. We noted the F. leucas ciliates ingesting diatoms and desmids at collection point 1 and filamentous cyanobacteria, testate amoebas (Arcella and Centropyxis and rotifers at points 2 and 3. The present work records for the first time the ingestion of testate amoebas of the genus Centropyxis by F. leucas. We noted five ingestion mechanisms by F. leucas while feeding on cyanobacteria and testate amoebas of the genus Centropyxis, three of these related to the ciliary action and two involving physical changes in the cytoplasm. For ingestion of diatoms, desmid (Closterium and Arcella, the mechanisms involving ciliary action alone were sufficient for ingestion, since these preys are smaller than the ciliate under study. The autecological data registered for F. leucas were 1.98-8.01 mg l-1 O2, pH 6.9-8.73, 58-390 µS/cm and 19.5-26.2ºC, confirming its ample ecological valence.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi registrar e descrever as alterações morfológicas e os mecanismos de ingest

  19. Genetic variance components for residual feed intake and feed ...

    Feeding costs of animals is a major determinant of profitability in livestock production enterprises. Genetic selection to improve feed efficiency aims to reduce feeding cost in beef cattle and thereby improve profitability. This study estimated genetic (co)variances between weaning weight and other production, reproduction ...

  20. Age, lighting treatment, feed allocation and feed form influence ...

    During a broiler breeder trial with 3200 Cobb 500 hens, the effects of lighting treatment after 20 weeks' feed allocation and of feed form on the length of time taken to consume the daily allocation of feed were measured. Pullets were reared on 8-hour photoperiods to 20 weeks, then transferred to one of four lighting ...

  1. Prospects of complete feed system in ruminant feeding: A review

    Yasir Afzal Beigh

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective utilization of available feed resources is the key for economical livestock rearing. Complete feed system is one of the latest developments to exploit the potential of animal feed resources in the best possible way. The complete feed is a quantitative mixture of all dietary ingredients, blended thoroughly to prevent separation and selection, fed as a sole source of nutrients except water and is formulated in a desired proportion to meet the specific nutrient requirements. The concentrate and roughage levels may vary according to the nutrient requirement of ruminants for different production purposes. The complete feed with the use of fibrous crop residue is a noble way to increase the voluntary feed intake and thus animal's production performance. In this system of feeding, the ruminant animals have continuous free choice availability of uniform feed mixture, resulting in more uniform load on the rumen and less fluctuation in release of ammonia which supports more efficient utilization of ruminal non-protein nitrogen. Feeding complete diet stabilizes ruminal fermentation, thereby improves nutrient utilization. This feeding system allows expanded use of agro-industrial byproducts, crop residues and nonconventional feeds in ruminant ration for maximizing production and minimizing feeding cost, thus being increasingly appreciated. However, to extend the concept extensively to the field and make this technology successful and viable for farmers, more efforts are needed to be taken.

  2. Maternal intention to exclusively breast feed among mainland Chinese mothers: A cross-sectional study.

    Yang, Xiao; Ip, Wan-Yim; Gao, Ling-Ling

    2018-02-01

    to examine postpartum maternal recall of their intentions to exclusively breast feed among breastfeeding women and identify its predictors. a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a regional teaching hospital at Guangzhou, China between April 1 and July 14, 2014. 571 mothers who were within four days after delivery were recruited to the study. data were collected by four research assistants with maternal intention to breast feed data sheet, the Network Support for Breastfeeding Scale (NSBS), and a socio-demographic data sheet. greater than half of the mothers (69.5%) intended to exclusively breast feed. The logistic regression analysis revealed six variables which predicted postpartum maternal recall of their intentions to exclusively breast feed. They were support from husband, being breast-fed as an infant, previous breast feeding experience, attending antenatal breast feeding class, time of decision to breast feed, and the rating of the importance of my baby's health. health care professionals could develop strategies to enhance mothers' intention to exclusively breast feed, such as providing antenatal breast feeding class on internet, a strong focus on the benefits of exclusive breast feeding on the baby's health in the education programme, and more efforts directed toward educating school-aged children and adolescents to modify societal perceptions of what are considered normal infant feeding. Mothers' husband could be encouraged in supporting exclusive breast feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. UAV Delivery Monitoring System

    San Khin Thida

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available UAV-based delivery systems are increasingly being used in the logistics field, particularly to achieve faster last-mile delivery. This study develops a UAV delivery system that manages delivery order assignments, autonomous flight operation, real time control for UAV flights, and delivery status tracking. To manage the delivery item assignments, we apply the concurrent scheduler approach with a genetic algorithm. The present paper describes real time flight data based on a micro air vehicle communication protocol (MAVLink. It also presents the detailed hardware components used for the field tests. Finally, we provide UAV component analysis to choose the suitable components for delivery in terms of battery capacity, flight time, payload weight and motor thrust ratio.

  4. Pediatric Enteric Feeding Techniques: Insertion, Maintenance, and Management of Problems

    Nijs, Els L. F.; Cahill, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    Enteral feeding is considered a widespread, well-accepted means of delivering nutrition to adults and children who are unable to consume food by mouth or who need support in maintaining adequate nutrition for a variety of reasons, including acute and chronic disease states. Delivery of enteral feeding to nutritionally deprived patients may be achieved by several means. In this article, the indications and insertion of enteral access in children will be reviewed. In addition, common complications and management of problems will be discussed.

  5. Color doppler evaluation of the influence of type of delivery, sex, postnatal age and time post feeding on full term healthy newborns cerebral blood flow Doppler colorido na avaliação da influência do tipo de parto, sexo, idade pós-natal e tempo pós-mamada no fluxo sanguíneo cerebral em recém-nascidos a termo e saudáveis

    Carlos Alberto Aranha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate with Color Doppler the influence of type of delivery, sex, postnatal age and time post feeding on full term healthy newborns cerebral blood flow. METHOD: 50 newborns were studied. The Doppler parameters, peak-systolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, mean velocity, pulsatility index and resistance index, were measured in the anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and basilar artery. The data were compared and analyzed by statistical tests. Informed consent was obtained from all parents, and the study was approved by institutional ethical committee and review board. RESULTS: We observed not statistically significant differences on cerebral blood flow Doppler parameters in relation to type of delivery, sex, postnatal age and feeding in full term healthy newborns. CONCLUSION: We believe that the knowledge of these cerebral hemodynamic profile of newborns in the first days of life can contribute in an accurate interpretation of cranial Doppler abnormal findings when pathologic flow velocities are analyzed.OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar com Doppler colorido a influência do tipo de parto, sexo, idade pós-natal e tempo pós-mamada no fluxo sanguíneo cerebral de recém-nascidos a termo e saudáveis. MÉTODO: Foram estudados 50 recém-nascidos. A Dopplervelocimetria foi obtida nas artérias cerebral anterior, cerebral média, cerebral posterior e basilar. Os parâmetros foram comparados e analisados pelos testes estatísticos Esta pesquisa foi aprovada pela comissão ética e de pós-graduação das instituições e o consentimento informado dos pais foi obtido em todos os casos. RESULTADOS: Não observamos diferenças estatísticamente significativas na Dopplervelocimetria do fluxo sanguíneo cerebral em relação ao tipo de parto, sexo, idade pós-natal e tempo pós-mamada dos recém-nascidos normais e saudáveis estudados. CONCLUS

  6. Feed the dogs

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  7. Radiation technology and feed production

    Ershov, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    The use of radiation technology to prepare feeds and feed additions for cattle of non-feed vegetable blends is considered.Physicochemical foundations of radiation-chemical processes, possibilities of the use of various radiation devices are given. Data on practical realization of the technology are presented and prospects of its introduction to solve the tasks put forward by the USSR program on feed production are analyzed

  8. Promotion of breast feeding in the community: impact of health education programme in rural communities in Nigeria.

    Davies-Adetugbo, A A

    1996-03-01

    Breast feeding has been recognized as a child survival strategy, while breast feeding programmes have been increasingly implemented in many communities. This study assesses the effectiveness of a breast feeding education programme launched through the primary health care programme in the rural communities of Nigeria. Late trimester pregnant women were enrolled into the study and given a questionnaire on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) about breast feeding. Women in the study group (n = 126) received breast feeding counselling before and after delivery, while those in control group (n = 130) did not receive any counselling. Both groups were monitored after delivery and followed with the KAP questionnaire. The results of the study showed marked improvements in the intervention group for colostrum feeding (p = 0.0000). Moreover, 31.6% of the mothers in the intervention group practised timely initiation of breast feeding compared to 5.6% of the controls, and the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months was 39.8% in the intervention group compared to 13.9% for the controls. Multivariate analysis showed that the intervention was a powerful and the only significant predictor of the increase in breast feeding behaviours (p = 0.0000), and that an early initiation of breast feeding is a strong predictor of exclusive breast feeding at 4 months of age. It is concluded that breast feeding promotion in rural communities is feasible and can lead to behavioural changes.

  9. Designing and assessing a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery case study.

    Kim, Junbeum; Xu, Ming; Kahhat, Ramzy; Allenby, Braden; Williams, Eric

    2009-01-01

    We attempted to design and assess an example of a sustainable networked delivery (SND) system: a hybrid business-to-consumer book delivery system. This system is intended to reduce costs, achieve significant reductions in energy consumption, and reduce environmental emissions of critical local pollutants and greenhouse gases. The energy consumption and concomitant emissions of this delivery system compared with existing alternative delivery systems were estimated. We found that regarding energy consumption, an emerging hybrid delivery system which is a sustainable networked delivery system (SND) would consume 47 and 7 times less than the traditional networked delivery system (TND) and e-commerce networked delivery system (END). Regarding concomitant emissions, in the case of CO2, the SND system produced 32 and 7 times fewer emissions than the TND and END systems. Also the SND system offer meaningful economic benefit such as the costs of delivery and packaging, to the online retailer, grocery, and consumer. Our research results show that the SND system has a lot of possibilities to save local transportation energy consumption and delivery costs, and reduce environmental emissions in delivery system.

  10. Emerging issues in complementary feeding

    Michaelsen, Kim F.; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence; Bégin, France

    2017-01-01

    the complementary feeding period is summarized. The increased availability of sugar-containing beverages and unhealthy snack foods and its negative effect on young child's diet is described. Negative effects of nonresponsive feeding and force feeding are also discussed, although few scientific studies have...

  11. Enteral feeding without pancreatic stimulation

    Kaushik, Neeraj; Pietraszewski, Marie; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: All forms of commonly practiced enteral feeding techniques stimulate pancreatic secretion, and only intravenous feeding avoids it. In this study, we explored the possibility of more distal enteral infusions of tube feeds to see whether activation of the ileal brake mechanism can result...

  12. Overview of FEED, the feeding experiments end-user database.

    Wall, Christine E; Vinyard, Christopher J; Williams, Susan H; Gapeyev, Vladimir; Liu, Xianhua; Lapp, Hilmar; German, Rebecca Z

    2011-08-01

    The Feeding Experiments End-user Database (FEED) is a research tool developed by the Mammalian Feeding Working Group at the National Evolutionary Synthesis Center that permits synthetic, evolutionary analyses of the physiology of mammalian feeding. The tasks of the Working Group are to compile physiologic data sets into a uniform digital format stored at a central source, develop a standardized terminology for describing and organizing the data, and carry out a set of novel analyses using FEED. FEED contains raw physiologic data linked to extensive metadata. It serves as an archive for a large number of existing data sets and a repository for future data sets. The metadata are stored as text and images that describe experimental protocols, research subjects, and anatomical information. The metadata incorporate controlled vocabularies to allow consistent use of the terms used to describe and organize the physiologic data. The planned analyses address long-standing questions concerning the phylogenetic distribution of phenotypes involving muscle anatomy and feeding physiology among mammals, the presence and nature of motor pattern conservation in the mammalian feeding muscles, and the extent to which suckling constrains the evolution of feeding behavior in adult mammals. We expect FEED to be a growing digital archive that will facilitate new research into understanding the evolution of feeding anatomy.

  13. Optimizing health care delivery by integrating workplaces, homes, and communities: how occupational and environmental medicine can serve as a vital connecting link between accountable care organizations and the patient-centered medical home.

    McLellan, Robert K; Sherman, Bruce; Loeppke, Ronald R; McKenzie, Judith; Mueller, Kathryn L; Yarborough, Charles M; Grundy, Paul; Allen, Harris; Larson, Paul W

    2012-04-01

    In recent years, the health care reform discussion in the United States has focused increasingly on the dual goals of cost-effective delivery and better patient outcomes. A number of new conceptual models for health care have been advanced to achieve these goals, including two that are well along in terms of practical development and implementation-the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) and accountable care organizations (ACOs). At the core of these two emerging concepts is a new emphasis on encouraging physicians, hospitals, and other health care stakeholders to work more closely together to better coordinate patient care through integrated goals and data sharing and to create team-based approaches that give a greater role to patients in health care decision-making. This approach aims to achieve better health outcomes at lower cost. The PCMH model emphasizes the central role of primary care and facilitation of partnerships between patient, physician, family, and other caregivers, and integrates this care along a spectrum that includes hospitals, specialty care, and nursing homes. Accountable care organizations make physicians and hospitals more accountable in the care system, emphasizing organizational integration and efficiencies coupled with outcome-oriented, performance-based medical strategies to improve the health of populations. The ACO model is meant to improve the value of health care services, controlling costs while improving quality as defined by outcomes, safety, and patient experience. This document urges adoption of the PCMH model and ACOs, but argues that in order for these new paradigms to succeed in the long term, all sectors with a stake in health care will need to become better aligned with them-including the employer community, which remains heavily invested in the health outcomes of millions of Americans. At present, ACOs are largely being developed as a part of the Medicare and Medicaid systems, and the PCMH model is still gathering

  14. Maternal feeding controls fetal biological clock.

    Hidenobu Ohta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is widely accepted that circadian physiological rhythms of the fetus are affected by oscillators in the maternal brain that are coupled to the environmental light-dark (LD cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To study the link between fetal and maternal biological clocks, we investigated the effects of cycles of maternal food availability on the rhythms of Per1 gene expression in the fetal suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN and liver using a transgenic rat model whose tissues express luciferase in vitro. Although the maternal SCN remained phase-locked to the LD cycle, maternal restricted feeding phase-advanced the fetal SCN and liver by 5 and 7 hours respectively within the 22-day pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that maternal feeding entrains the fetal SCN and liver independently of both the maternal SCN and the LD cycle. This indicates that maternal-feeding signals can be more influential for the fetal SCN and particular organ oscillators than hormonal signals controlled by the maternal SCN, suggesting the importance of a regular maternal feeding schedule for appropriate fetal molecular clockwork during pregnancy.

  15. Project delivery system (PDS)

    2001-01-01

    As business environments become increasingly competitive, companies seek more comprehensive solutions to the delivery of their projects. "Project Delivery System: Fourth Edition" describes the process-driven project delivery systems which incorporates the best practices from Total Quality and is aligned with the Project Management Institute and ISO Quality Standards is the means by which projects are consistently and efficiently planned, executed and completed to the satisfaction of clients and customers.

  16. First feeding of larval herring

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Munk, Peter; Støttrup, Josianne

    1985-01-01

    The transition period from endogenous to exogenous feeding by larval herring was investigated in the laboratory for four herring stocks in order to evaluate the chances of survival at the time of fiest feeding. Observations on larval activity, feeding and growth were related to amount of yolk......, visual experience with potential prey organisms prior to first feeding and prey density. Herring larvae did not initiate exogenous feeding until around the time of yolk resorption. The timing of first feeding was not influenced by prior exposure to potential prey organisms during the yolk sac stage....... In the light of these observations, the ecological significance of the yolk sac stage is discussed. Initiation of exogenous feeding was delayed by 1-4 days at a low (7.5 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) compared to a high (120 nauplii .cntdot. l-1) prey density, but even at prey densities corresponding to the lower end...

  17. Pressuring and restrictive feeding styles influence infant feeding and size among a low-income African-American sample.

    Thompson, Amanda L; Adair, Linda S; Bentley, Margaret E

    2013-03-01

    The prevalence of overweight among infants and toddlers has increased dramatically in the past three decades, highlighting the importance of identifying factors contributing to early excess weight gain, particularly in high-risk groups. Parental feeding styles and the attitudes and behaviors that characterize parental approaches to maintaining or modifying children's eating behavior are an important behavioral component shaping early obesity risk. Using longitudinal data from the Infant Care and Risk of Obesity Study, a cohort study of 217 African-American mother-infant pairs with feeding styles, dietary recalls, and anthropometry collected from 3 to 18 months of infant age, we examined the relationship between feeding styles, infant diet, and weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Longitudinal mixed models indicated that higher pressuring and indulgent feeding style scores were positively associated with greater infant energy intake, reduced odds of breastfeeding, and higher levels of age-inappropriate feeding of liquids and solids, whereas restrictive feeding styles were associated with lower energy intake, higher odds of breastfeeding, and reduced odds of inappropriate feeding. Pressuring and restriction were also oppositely related to infant size with pressuring associated with lower infant weight-for-age and restriction with higher weight-for-age and sum of skinfolds. Infant size also predicted maternal feeding styles in subsequent visits indicating that the relationship between size and feeding styles is likely bidirectional. Our results suggest that the degree to which parents are pressuring or restrictive during feeding shapes the early feeding environment and, consequently, may be an important environmental factor in the development of obesity. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  18. Wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT

    Bandari, Hanumanth Rao; Sankarasubramanian, G; Kumar, A Praveen

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the existing feeds in use at the GMRT Observatory and details the ongoing development of next generation wideband feeds for the upgraded GMRT. The existing feeds include: feed with folded thick dipoles (for 150 MHz), dipole-disc feed (for 325 MHz), dual-band coaxial feed (for 233 MHZ and 610 MHz), and corrugated horn feed (for 1400–1450 MHz). The new broadband feeds covered in this paper are: cone-dipole feeds for 250–500 and 500–1000 MHz, wideband horn feed for 550–900 MHz, and dual ring feed for 130–260 MHz. Design techniques and performance results for these are described.

  19. Experience of radiation treatment of laboratory and farm animal feeds in Hungary

    Nadudvari, I.

    1979-01-01

    The testing of methods suitable for the disinfection and sterilization of farm and laboratory animal feeds, and research into the effects of the methods on feeds and animals, started in Hungary within the last decade. Altogether, 871 tonnes of feeds sterilized and disinfected by various methods were used in 1976 for the feeding of farm and laboratory animals. Gamma radiation was used for sterilization of approx. 90 tonnes. Feeds for SPF animals were sterilized mainly at 1.5 Mrad, but 2.0-2.5 Mrad levels were also used. Feeds for germ-free animals were sterilized at a level of 4.5 Mrad. Experience gained over the past ten years has shown that irradiation at levels between 1.5 and 2.5 Mrad is excellent for the sterilization of mouse, rat, guinea pig and poultry feeds. Quality deterioration of the feeds remained slight and only slight decomposition of vitamins A and E and among the essential amino acids of lysine was observed. The irradiated feeds were readily consumed by the animals. In some cases, e.g. mice and rats, it was observed that weight gain in groups receiving irradiated diets exceeded that in groups fed on untreated or autoclaved diets, and at the same time the daily feed consumption in the groups receiving irradiated feed also increased. No adverse effect on reproduction and health of the farm and laboratory animals fed on irradiated feeds was observed. In Hungary the widespread use of feeds sterilized by irradiation is hindered, in spite of several advantages over feeds sterilized by conventional methods, mainly by the high cost of the irradiation and the supplemental costs associated with special packing and delivery. Therefore only a modest increase in the utilization of irradiated feeds can be expected in the next few years. (author)

  20. Applicable international environmental impact assessment laws for ...

    Lawrence Hart

    1971-05-28

    May 28, 1971 ... appraise selected International Environmental laws and the Nigerian Environmental Impact Assessment methodology ... maze of pipelines, delivery lines, flow lines, canals and .... Toxic Materials and international waterways.

  1. Implementation of enteral feeding protocol in an intensive care unit

    Padar, Martin; Uusvel, Gerli; Starkopf, Liis

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS: An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013......, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population...... the groups. Patients in the After group had a lower 90-d (P = 0.026) and 120-d (P = 0.033) mortality. In the After group, enteral nutrition was prescribed less frequently (P = 0.039) on day 1 but significantly more frequently on all days from day 3. Implementation of the feeding protocol resulted in a higher...

  2. Feed conversion, survival and development, and composition of four insect species on diets composed of food by-products

    Oonincx, D.G.A.B.; Broekhoven, Van Sarah; Huis, Van Arnold; Loon, Van J.J.A.

    2015-01-01

    A large part of the environmental impact of animal production systems is due to the production of feed. Insects are suggested to efficiently convert feed to body mass and might therefore form a more sustainable food and/or feed source. Four diets were composed from byproducts of food

  3. Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment

    Distefano, E.; Noll, C.

    1993-06-01

    The Advanced Liquid Feed Experiment (ALFE) is a Hitchhiker experiment flown on board the Shuttle of STS-39 as part of the Space Test Payload-1 (STP-1). The purpose of ALFE is to evaluate new propellant management components and operations under the low gravity flight environment of the Space Shuttle for eventual use in an advanced spacecraft feed system. These components and operations include an electronic pressure regulator, an ultrasonic flowmeter, an ultrasonic point sensor gage, and on-orbit refill of an auxiliary propellant tank. The tests are performed with two transparent tanks with dyed Freon 113, observed by a camera and controlled by ground commands and an on-board computer. Results show that the electronic pressure regulator provides smooth pressure ramp-up, sustained pressure control, and the flexibility to change pressure settings in flight. The ultrasonic flowmeter accurately measures flow and detects gas ingestion. The ultrasonic point sensors function well in space, but not as a gage during sustained low-gravity conditions, as they, like other point gages, are subject to the uncertainties of propellant geometry in a given tank. Propellant transfer operations can be performed with liquid-free ullage equalization at a 20 percent fill level, gas-free liquid transfer from 20-65 percent fill level, minimal slosh, and can be automated.

  4. [Puppy feeding in Switzerland].

    Liesegang, A; Füglistaller, C; Wichert, B

    2009-11-01

    In this study breeders and owners of 8 different dog breeds (Beagle, Bernese Mountain Dog, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel, Great Dane, German Shepherd (GS), Labrador, Papillon, Sheltie) were interviewed to obtain information on puppy feeding in Switzerland. Besides answering a questionnaire (husbandry and feeding of the puppies), the participation in this study included weekly weighing of the animals as well as exact documentation of the amount fed to the animals. Totally 67 dog breeders and 131 new owners of puppies participated. The weight development of the puppies was mostly parallel to the growth curve in the GS, Labradors and Shelties. There were some substantial differences to the ideal growth curve within the other breeds. The daily mean energy requirement was estimated too high, when including the growth curves. 80 - 90 % of the recommendations would be sufficient for most animals. The calcium supply was in the range of tolerance in all breeds. Nearly all breeders used commercially available complete food while raising the puppies. No breed-specific differences could be shown.

  5. 6. Home deliveries

    Sitwala

    determine factors associated with home deliveries. Main outcome ... deliver at home than a health facility compared to those who .... regression analysis, women who had four years of schooling or .... by report bias, the burden of home deliveries is a real challenge .... Journal of Econometrics 1987; 36: 185-204. 14. Michelo ...

  6. Global Delivery Models

    Manning, Stephan; Larsen, Marcus M.; Bharati, Pratyush

    2013-01-01

    This article examines antecedents and performance implications of global delivery models (GDMs) in global business services. GDMs require geographically distributed operations to exploit both proximity to clients and time-zone spread for efficient service delivery. We propose and empirically show...

  7. Health care delivery systems.

    Stevens, F.; Zee, J. van der

    2007-01-01

    A health care delivery system is the organized response of a society to the health problems of its inhabitants. Societies choose from alternative health care delivery models and, in doing so, they organize and set goals and priorities in such a way that the actions of different actors are effective,

  8. Global Delivery Models

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush

    -zone spread allowing for 24/7 service delivery and access to resources. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent pools and speed of service delivery, and in particular when services are highly...

  9. E-learning strategies of higer education institutions : an exploraty study into the influence of environmental contingencies on strategic choices of higher education institutions with respect to integrating e-learning in their education delivery and support processes

    Boezerooy, P.

    2006-01-01

    Looking back at the main research question of this thesis ¿how do higher education institutions differ in their strategic choices with respect to integrating e- Learning into their educational delivery processes and how can these differences be explained?¿ the results of this study showed that

  10. Data quality objectives for TWRS privatization Phase 1: Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for low-activity waste feed batch X

    Certa, P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Phase 1 privatization contracts require that the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) contractors, on behalf of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), deliver the appropriate quantities of the proper composition of feed on schedule to the Privatization contractors (DOE-RL 1996). The type of feed needed, the amount of feed needed, and the overall timing of when feed is to be delivered to the Privatization contractor are specified by the contract. Additional requirements are imposed by the interface control document (ICD) for low-activity waste (LAW) feed (PHMC 1997a). The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (TWRSO/UP) as updated by the Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) deliverable establishes the baseline operating scenario for the delivery of feed to two Privatization contractors for the first twelve LAW batches. The project master baseline schedule (PMBS) and corresponding logic diagrams that will be used to implement the operating scenario have been developed and are currently being refined. The baseline operating scenario in the TWRSO/UP/RTP specifies which tanks will be used to provide feed for each specific feed batch, the operational activities needed to prepare and deliver each feed batch, and the timing of these activities. This operating scenario has considered such factors as the privatization contracts and ICD requirements, waste composition and chemistry, equipment availability, project schedules and funding, tank farm logistics and the availability of tank space. The PMBS includes activities to reduce programmatic risk

  11. Data quality objectives for TWRS privatization Phase 1: Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for low-activity waste feed batch X

    Certa, P.J.

    1998-07-02

    The Phase 1 privatization contracts require that the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) contractors, on behalf of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), deliver the appropriate quantities of the proper composition of feed on schedule to the Privatization contractors (DOE-RL 1996). The type of feed needed, the amount of feed needed, and the overall timing of when feed is to be delivered to the Privatization contractor are specified by the contract. Additional requirements are imposed by the interface control document (ICD) for low-activity waste (LAW) feed (PHMC 1997a). The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (TWRSO/UP) as updated by the Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) deliverable establishes the baseline operating scenario for the delivery of feed to two Privatization contractors for the first twelve LAW batches. The project master baseline schedule (PMBS) and corresponding logic diagrams that will be used to implement the operating scenario have been developed and are currently being refined. The baseline operating scenario in the TWRSO/UP/RTP specifies which tanks will be used to provide feed for each specific feed batch, the operational activities needed to prepare and deliver each feed batch, and the timing of these activities. This operating scenario has considered such factors as the privatization contracts and ICD requirements, waste composition and chemistry, equipment availability, project schedules and funding, tank farm logistics and the availability of tank space. The PMBS includes activities to reduce programmatic risk.

  12. Influence of environmental integrity on the feeding biology of Astyanax altiparanae (Garutti & Britski, 2000 in the Ivinhema river basin - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v35i4.19497

    Lucilene Finoto Viana

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the influence of different levels of environmental integrity of streams of the Ivinhema river basin (Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil on the diet of A. altiparanae. Samplings were performed from July 2001 to November 2011 at 101 sites, using sieves, seining and gill nets, and electrofishing. Streams were classified into three levels of environmental integrity. We analyzed 664 stomachs with the methods of frequency of occurrence and volumetric analysis index, combined in the Importance Index (AI. The species was omnivorous, with predominance of allochthonous resources. At the least impacted sites, the most representative resource was allochthonous plant material; and in the altered sites in the rainy period the most consumed item was allochthonous arthropods. On the other hand, at the most impacted sites in the dry period there was a lower consumption of allochthonous plant material and allochthonous arthropods, compared with other levels of environmental integrity considered, with higher consumption of autochthonous arthropods. The results evidenced that in the least impacted sites there was greater contribution from allochthonous resources, probably because these environments show a more preserved riparian forest.

  13. Automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device

    Gillardeau, J.; Bona, F.; Dejachy, G.

    1963-01-01

    An automatic liquid nitrogen feeding device has been developed (and used) in the framework of corrosion tests realized with constantly renewed uranium hexafluoride. The issue was to feed liquid nitrogen to a large capacity metallic trap in order to condensate uranium hexafluoride at the exit of the corrosion chambers. After having studied various available devices, a feeding device has been specifically designed to be robust, secure and autonomous, as well as ensuring a high liquid nitrogen flowrate and a highly elevated feeding frequency. The device, made of standard material, has been used during 4000 hours without any problem [fr

  14. Feeding premature neonate

    Dam, Mie S.; Juhl, Sandra M.; Sangild, Per T.

    2017-01-01

    Kinship, understood as biogenetic proximity, between a chosen animal model and a human patient counterpart, is considered essential to the process of ‘translating’ research from the experimental animal laboratory to the human clinic. In the Danish research centre, NEOMUNE, premature piglets are fed...... a novel milk diet (bovine colostrum) to model the effects of this new diet in premature infants. Our ethnographic fieldwork in an experimental pig laboratory and a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in 2013–2014 shows that regardless of biogenetics, daily practices of feeding, housing, and clinical care...... the researchers refer to as the ‘translatability’ of the results. In the NICU, parents of premature infants likewise imagine a kind of interspecies kinship when presented with the option to supplement mother's own milk with bovine colostrum for the first weeks after birth. However, in this setting the NICU...

  15. ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL- AND PLANT-DERIVED FEED ...

    During a national survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (CDD), dibenzofurans (CDF), and dioxin-like coplanar PCBs (PCB) in poultry, elevated concentrations above 20 parts per trillion (ppt) toxic equivalents (TEQ) were found in the fat of 2 broilers. These TEQ values were driven by very high concentrations of CDD. A team comprised of individuals from the United States (US) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the US Department of Agriculture (DA) traced the source of elevated CDD to a minor component in the poultry feed. This component was ball clay and it was used as an anti-caking agent in the soybean meal. The ball clay often comprised less than 0.2% of the dry weight of the complete ration in contaminated poultry. The investigation traced the ball clay to a mine in Mississippi. After learning that other ball clay mines in Kentucky and Tennessee also contained elevated CDD levels, the FDA issued a letter to producers or users of clay products in animal feeds asking that they cease using ball clay in any animal feed or feed ingredient. Subsequent contaminations of animal feed in Belgium with PCB and of citrus pulp from Brazil with CDD and CDF alerted countries worldwide that animal feeds can become contaminated with CDD/CDF/PCB (DFP) via contamination of minor feed components. This type of contamination can overshadow the normal air-to-leaf process that is thought to dominate the food chain for terr

  16. Ethical aspects of insect production for food and feed

    Gjerris, Mickey; Gamborg, Christian; Röcklinsberg, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Given a growing global human population and high pressures on resources, interest in insects as a source of protein for human food (entomophagy) and for animal feed is growing. So far, the main issues discussed have been the embedded technical challenges of scaling up the production. The use...... as protein providers in the Western food and feed production chains. We identify five areas where ethical questions are especially pertinent: environmental impact, human and animal health, human preferences and social acceptability, animal welfare and finally broader animal ethics issues. Especially...... of insects as a major human food and feed source is thought to present two major challenges: (1) how to turn insects into safe, tasty socially acceptable feed and food; and (2) how to cheaply yet sustainably produce enough insects? Entomophagy, however, as any utilisation of animals and the rest of nature...

  17. The animal feed mineral phosphorus tax in Denmark

    Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2017-01-01

    Denmark’s tax on animal feed phosphorus came into effect in 2005 with a tax rate of DKK 4 (EUR 0.53) per kg of phosphorus. It targets commercial animal feed phosphate and aims to reduce the saturation of soils with phosphorus, and leaching to surface waters. Consumption of mineral phosphate...... in animal feeds has been reduced by about 2,000 tonnes (or 15%) since the introduction of the tax, although the tax rate has not been adjusted with inflation. The tax is believed to have improved overall efficiency in the use of animal feed. Farmer organisations did not oppose the tax and accepted...... it as part of a broader package deal on measures to reduce nutrient leaching and pollution of surface waters. Environmental NGOs voiced concerns about impacts on organic farms, and were not strong advocates of the tax. The tax arose from efforts to identify the most cost-effective means for reducing nutrient...

  18. Breast feeding in Kelantan.

    Balakrishnan, S; Hussein, H B

    1977-04-01

    The incidence of breastfeeding is investigated in relation to duration of breastfeeding without supplementation and the age when solids were first introduced in the infant's diet. The study also evaluates the awareness of the mothers of the benefits of breast milk. 461 mothers were interviewed in May 1976 by 3 doctors including the author. 95% (438) were found to breastfeed their babies at least once or twice a day. However, only 18% (86) of the mothers were fully breastfeeding up to 3 months and 9% (45) were breastfeeding without added solids up to 6 months. A disappointing finding was the introduction of solid foods by 78% (351) of the mothers before the end of the 3rd month; of these, 117 or 25% have introduced the solids as early as the 1st 6 months. Only 5% (23) were artificially feeding their infants. 86% (399) agreed that breast milk was the best milk for their children but only 277 (59%) agreed that infection occurs less frequently in breastfed than bottlefed children. 65% (302) were aware that solids should be introduced after 6 months to the infant's diet. Only 48% (222) were aware that a well-balanced diet is essential for an adequate supply of breast milk. Although 50% (232) reported that they were advised by nurses or bidans to breastfeed their children, only 37% (172) were given instructions on the technique of breastfeeding. Breastfeeding programs launched by the Ministry of Health should promote breastfeeding for at least 4-6 months duration and discourage early complement feeding and introduction of solids to infants less than 6 months of age.

  19. Effect of feeding frequency and feeding rate on growth performance ...

    Fish fed at higher feeding rates accumulated significantly more lipid within the body and had associated decreases in moisture, protein, and ash content, but carcass composition was unaffected by feeding frequency. Juvenile pompano show better growth performance when fed 10% BW/day 3 and 6 times a day.

  20. Feed intake, growth and feed utilization patterns of pigs highly ...

    Mean daily live mass gain was, however, 174 g/day (20,5%) more for the Large White boars and feed conversion16,5% ... of protein and fat in genetically lean and obese pigs, and showed that feed ..... regulation of growth and production.

  1. What Is a Cesarean Delivery?

    ... Twitter Pinterest Email Print What is a cesarean delivery? A cesarean delivery is a surgical procedure in which a fetus ... 32.2% of U.S. births were by cesarean delivery. 2 The CDC also found that the number ...

  2. FEED SYSTEM INNOVATION FOR GASIFICATION OF LOCALLY ECONOMICAL ALTERNATIVE FUELS (FIGLEAF)

    Michael L. Swanson; Mark A. Musich; Darren D. Schmidt; Joseph K. Schultz

    2003-02-01

    The Feed System Innovation for Gasification of Locally Economical Alternative Fuels (FIGLEAF) project was conducted by the Energy & Environmental Research Center and Gasification Engineering Corporation of Houston, Texas (a subsidiary of Global Energy Inc., Cincinnati, Ohio), with 80% cofunding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The goal of the project was to identify and evaluate low-value fuels that could serve as alternative feedstocks and to develop a feed system to facilitate their use in integrated gasification combined-cycle and gasification coproduction facilities. The long-term goal, to be accomplished in a subsequent project, is to install a feed system for the selected fuel(s) at Global Energy's commercial-scale 262-MW Wabash River Coal Gasification Facility in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The feasibility study undertaken for the project consisted of identifying and evaluating the economic feasibility of potential fuel sources, developing a feed system design capable of providing a fuel at 400 psig to the second stage of the E-Gas (Destec) gasifier to be cogasified with coal, performing bench- and pilot-scale testing to verify concepts and clarify decision-based options, reviewing information on high-pressure feed system designs, and determining the economics of cofeeding alternative feedstocks with the conceptual feed system design. A preliminary assessment of feedstock availability within Indiana and Illinois was conducted. Feedstocks evaluated included those with potential tipping fees to offset processing cost: sewage sludge, municipal solid waste, used railroad ties, urban wood waste (UWW), and used tires/tire-derived fuel. Agricultural residues and dedicated energy crop fuels were not considered since they would have a net positive cost to the plant. Based on the feedstock assessment, sewage sludge was selected as the primary feedstock for consideration at the Wabash River Plant. Because of the limited waste heat available for drying and

  3. TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM: REVIEW

    Vishvakarama Prabhakar; Agarwal Shivendra; Sharma Ritika; Saurabh Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Various new technologies have been developed for the transdermal delivery of some important drugs. Today about 74% of drugs are taken orally and are found not to be as effective as desired. To improve such characters transdermal drug delivery system was emerged. Drug delivery through the skin to achieve a systemic effect of a drug is commonly known as transdermal drug delivery and differs from traditional topical drug delivery. Transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS) are dosage forms involve...

  4. Observance of who ten steps towards successful breast feeding; a survey from postpartum mothers

    Masood, S.; Rahman, M.U.; Mahmood, H.; Faisal, T.; Maroof, S.; Qureshi, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast feeding is a physiological phenomenon, nonetheless, this act is a learned behaviour that requires continuous active support to make it successful. This study determines the frequency of mothers practicing successful breast feeding according to the WHO ten steps at tertiary care hospital. Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in the Obstetrics department of Military Hospital, Rawalpindi over six month duration from July to December 2014. Booked mothers aged 15-49 years, having given birth to healthy, singleton baby were included in the study. Questions were asked after taking written informed consent from the mothers after delivery. Data was entered and analysed on SPSS version 20. Results: Out of 148 mothers, 35 (23.7 percentage) mothers were following successful breast feeding, i.e., knew 7 or more steps. A total of 100 (67.6 percentage) mothers received support for breast feeding by healthcare staff during their stay in hospital while 19 (12.8 percentage) mothers started breast feeding within one hour. About 71 percentage had started formula milk along with breast feeding. About 127 (85.8 percentage) reported that they fed their children on demand and 144 (97.3 percentage) did not use dummies. Statistically significant difference was observed as housewife mothers gave no top feed (p=0.005) and multiparous mothers started breast feeding within one hour of delivery (p=0.04). Conclusion: The steps to achieve successful breast feeding are followed to a small extent among mothers. Delayed initiation of breast feeding and increasing trend towards use of formula feed was observed. Employed, primiparous mothers are the most sensitive group to be focused during antenatal period. (author)

  5. AUTOMATION OF IN FEED CENTERLESS GRINDING MACHINE

    Piyusha P. Jadhav*, Sachin V. Lomte, Sudhir Surve

    2017-01-01

    In-feed centerless grinding technique offers a major contribution to the industries. This is the alternative in-feed centerless grinding technique using regulating wheel. Mainly centerless grinding is divided in three types, and those are End feed, in-feed and through feed Centerless grinding. This paper mainly deals with low cost automation on in-feed Centerless grinding machine using regulating wheel suitable for multiple in-feed type jobs. It deals with the development of a Centerless grin...

  6. Addressing the recovery of feeding rates in post-exposure feeding bioassays: Cyathura carinata as a case study

    Pais-Costa, Antonia Juliana [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Acevedo, Pelayo [SaBio IREC, Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (UCLM-CSIC-JCCM), Ciudad Real 13005 (Spain); Marques, João Carlos [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal); Martinez-Haro, Mónica, E-mail: monica.martinezharo@gmail.com [IMAR—Institute of Marine Research, MARE—Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, Faculty of Sciences and Technology, University of Coimbra, 3004-517 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2015-02-15

    Post-exposure bioassays are used in environmental assessment as a cost-effective tool, but the effects of organism's recovery after exposure to pollutant has not yet been addressed in detail. The recoveries of post-exposure feeding rates after being exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium during two different exposure periods (48 h and 96 h) were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the estuarine isopod Cyathura carinata. Results showed that feeding depression was a stable endpoint up to 24 h after cadmium exposure, which is useful for ecotoxicological bioassays. - Highlights: • We studied recovery of post-exposure feeding rates 48–96 h after cadmium exposure. • The assay is based on the isopod Cyathura carinata. • Post-exposure feeding inhibition is a stable sublethal endpoint.

  7. Insects as food and feed: from production to consumption

    Huis, van Arnold; Tomberlin, Jeffery K.

    2017-01-01

    Alternative protein sources are urgently required as the available land area is not sufficient to satisfy the growing demand for meat. Insects have a high potential of becoming a new sector in the food and feed industry, mainly because of the many environmental benefits when compared to meat

  8. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    Maciel-Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even in

  9. Best-feeding the baby

    Enrique

    Best-feeding the baby. Human infants should be fed their own mothers' breast- milk. Where this is unavailable, replacement feeding becomes necessary. Through the ages and right up to the present, human milk has been supplied by other lactating women within or from outside the family. Donated breast-milk has been ...

  10. Vaginal delivery - discharge

    Pregnancy - discharge after vaginal delivery ... You may have bleeding from your vagina for up to 6 weeks. Early on, you may pass some small clots when you first get up. Bleeding will slowly become ...

  11. Bribes for Faster Delivery

    Sanyal, Amal

    2000-01-01

    The paper models the practice of charging bribes for faster delivery of essential services in third world countries. It then examines the possibility of curbing corruption by supervision, and secondly, by introducing competition among delivery agents. It is argued that a supervisory solution eludes the problem because no hard evidence of the reduction of corruption can be established for this type of offenses. It is also shown that using more than one supplier cannot eliminate the practice, a...

  12. A History of Infant Feeding

    Stevens, Emily E; Patrick, Thelma E; Pickler, Rita

    2009-01-01

    The historical evolution of infant feeding includes wet nursing, the feeding bottle, and formula use. Before the invention of bottles and formula, wet nursing was the safest and most common alternative to the natural mother's breastmilk. Society's negative view of wet nursing, combined with improvements of the feeding bottle, the availability of animal's milk, and advances in formula development, gradually led to the substitution of artificial feeding for wet nursing. In addition, the advertising and safety of formula products increased their popularity and use among society. Currently, infant formula-feeding is widely practiced in the United States and appears to contribute to the development of several common childhood illnesses, including atopy, diabetes mellitus, and childhood obesity. PMID:20190854

  13. Radiation sterilization of livestock feeds

    Kawashima, Koji

    1984-01-01

    The radiation sterilization of livestock feeds is not much used presently because the process is not known well, and the cost is relatively high. However, its effect of sterilization is absolute, the radiation-sterilized feeds are safe in both nutrition and toxicity, and do not affect the appetite of livestocks, and the radiation energy required is small. In the future, as in the sterilization of medical supplies, feed radiation sterilization plants should be established, to stabilize livestock industry and to contribute to the health control of experimental animals. The following matters are described: radiation, comparison between radiation sterilization and other sterilization methods, the practice of feed radiation sterilization, the adverse effects of radiation sterilization, economic aspect, and the situation of feed radiation sterilization in various countries. (Mori, K.)

  14. Feed conversion efficiency in aquaculture: do we measure it correctly?

    Fry, Jillian P.; Mailloux, Nicholas A.; Love, David C.; Milli, Michael C.; Cao, Ling

    2018-02-01

    Globally, demand for food animal products is rising. At the same time, we face mounting, related pressures including limited natural resources, negative environmental externalities, climate disruption, and population growth. Governments and other stakeholders are seeking strategies to boost food production efficiency and food system resiliency, and aquaculture (farmed seafood) is commonly viewed as having a major role in improving global food security based on longstanding measures of animal production efficiency. The most widely used measurement is called the ‘feed conversion ratio’ (FCR), which is the weight of feed administered over the lifetime of an animal divided by weight gained. By this measure, fed aquaculture and chickens are similarly efficient at converting feed into animal biomass, and both are more efficient compared to pigs and cattle. FCR does not account for differences in feed content, edible portion of an animal, or nutritional quality of the final product. Given these limitations, we searched the literature for alternative efficiency measures and identified ‘nutrient retention’, which can be used to compare protein and calories in feed (inputs) and edible portions of animals (outputs). Protein and calorie retention have not been calculated for most aquaculture species. Focusing on commercial production, we collected data on feed composition, feed conversion ratios, edible portions (i.e. yield), and nutritional content of edible flesh for nine aquatic and three terrestrial farmed animal species. We estimate that 19% of protein and 10% of calories in feed for aquatic species are ultimately made available in the human food supply, with significant variation between species. Comparing all terrestrial and aquatic animals in the study, chickens are most efficient using these measures, followed by Atlantic salmon. Despite lower FCRs in aquaculture, protein and calorie retention for aquaculture production is comparable to livestock production

  15. New feed ingredients: the insect opportunity.

    van Raamsdonk, L W D; van der Fels-Klerx, H J; de Jong, J

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of sustainability and a circular economy, new ingredients for feed are desired and, to this end, initiatives for implementing such novel ingredients have been started. The initiatives include a range of different sources, of which insects are of particular interest. Within the European Union, generally, a new feed ingredient should comply with legal constraints in terms of 'yes, provided that' its safety commits to a range of legal limits for heavy metals, mycotoxins, pesticides, contaminants, pathogens etc. In the case of animal proteins, however, a second legal framework applies which is based on the principle 'no, unless'. This legislation for eradicating transmissible spongiform encephalopathy consists of prohibitions with a set of derogations applying to specific situations. Insects are currently considered animal proteins. The use of insect proteins is a good case to illustrate this difference between a positive, although restricted, modus and a negative modus for allowing animal proteins. This overview presents aspects in the areas of legislation, feed safety, environmental issues, efficiency and detection of the identity of insects. Use of insects as an extra step in the feed production chain costs extra energy and this results in a higher footprint. A measure for energy conversion should be used to facilitate the comparison between production systems based on cold- versus warm-blooded animals. Added value can be found by applying new commodities for rearing, including but not limited to category 2 animal by-products, catering and household waste including meat, and manure. Furthermore, monitoring of a correct use of insects is one possible approach for label control, traceability and prevention of fraud. The link between legislation and enforcement is strong. A principle called WISE (Witful, Indicative, Societal demands, Enforceable) is launched for governing the relationship between the above-mentioned aspects.

  16. A simple approach to recycle broiler litter as animal feed | Makinde ...

    Broiler litter (BL) is a major waste from poultry production that constitutes serious disposal and environmental pollution problems globally despite its potential as animal feed. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a simple procedure for converting broiler litter into animal feed using wheat offal (WO) and cattle ...

  17. Hydrothermally treated chitosan hydrogel loaded with copper and zinc particles as a potential micro-nutrient based antimicrobial feed additive

    Parthiban eRajasekaran

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale use of antibiotics in food animal farms as growth promoters is considered as one of the driving factors behind increasing incidence of microbial resistance. Several alternatives are under investigation to reduce the amount of total antibiotics used in order to avoid any potential transmission of drug resistant microbes to humans through food chain. Copper sulfate and zinc oxide salts are used as feed supplement as they exhibit antimicrobial properties in addition to being micronutrients. However, higher dosage of copper and zinc (often needed for growth promoting effect to animals is not advisable because of potential environmental toxicity arising from excreta. Innovative strategies are needed to utilize the complete potential of trace minerals as growth promoting feed supplements. To this end, we describe here the development and preliminary characterization of hydrothermally treated chitosan as a delivery vehicle for copper and zinc nanoparticles that could act as a micronutrient based antimicrobial feed supplement. Material characterization studies showed that hydrothermal treatment makes a chitosan hydrogel that re-arranged to capture the copper and zinc metal particles. Systemic antimicrobial assays showed that this chitosan biopolymer matrix embedded with copper (57.6 μg/ml and zinc (800 μg/ml reduced the load of model gut-bacteria (target organisms of growth promoting antibiotics such as Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus fermentum under in vitro conditions. Particularly, the chitosan/copper/zinc hydrogel exhibited significantly higher antimicrobial effect against L. fermentum, one of the primary targets of antibiotic growth promoters. Additionally, the chitosan matrix ameliorated the cytotoxicity levels of metal supplements when screened against a murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 and in TE-71, a murine thymic epithelial cell line. In this proof of concept study, we show

  18. Intelligent environmental data warehouse

    Ekechukwu, B.

    1998-01-01

    Making quick and effective decisions in environment management are based on multiple and complex parameters, a data warehouse is a powerful tool for the over all management of massive environmental information. Selecting the right data from a warehouse is an important factor consideration for end-users. This paper proposed an intelligent environmental data warehouse system. It consists of data warehouse to feed an environmental researchers and managers with desire environmental information needs to their research studies and decision in form of geometric and attribute data for study area, and a metadata for the other sources of environmental information. In addition, the proposed intelligent search engine works according to a set of rule, which enables the system to be aware of the environmental data wanted by the end-user. The system development process passes through four stages. These are data preparation, warehouse development, intelligent engine development and internet platform system development. (author)

  19. Foraging response and acclimation of ambush feeding and feeding-current feeding copepods to toxic dinoflagellates

    Xu, Jiayi; Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    reticulatum. We hypothesize (1) that ambush feeders are less affected by toxic algae than feeding-current feeders, (2) that copepods acclimate to the toxic algae, and (3) that phytoplankton cells previously exposed to copepod cues elicit stronger responses. Both copepod species consumed the toxic algae...... to examine the response and temporal acclimation (5 d) of two copepods with different foraging behaviors to toxic dinoflagellates. Feeding-current feeding Temora longicornis and ambush feeding Acartia tonsa were offered three strains of toxic Alexandrium tamarense and a nontoxic control Protoceratium...... at a reduced rate and there was no difference in their net-response, but the mechanisms differed. T. longicornis responded in strain-specific ways by reducing its feeding activity, by rejecting captured algae, or by regurgitating consumed cells. A. tonsa reduced its consumption rate, jump frequency, and jump...

  20. Environmental protection

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In this chapter environmental protection in the Slovak Republic in 1997 are reviewed. The economics of environmental protection, state budget, Slovak state environmental fund, economic instruments, environmental laws, environmental impact assessment, environmental management systems, and environmental education are presented

  1. Protein-Based Drug-Delivery Materials

    Dave Jao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a pressing need for long-term, controlled drug release for sustained treatment of chronic or persistent medical conditions and diseases. Guided drug delivery is difficult because therapeutic compounds need to survive numerous transport barriers and binding targets throughout the body. Nanoscale protein-based polymers are increasingly used for drug and vaccine delivery to cross these biological barriers and through blood circulation to their molecular site of action. Protein-based polymers compared to synthetic polymers have the advantages of good biocompatibility, biodegradability, environmental sustainability, cost effectiveness and availability. This review addresses the sources of protein-based polymers, compares the similarity and differences, and highlights characteristic properties and functionality of these protein materials for sustained and controlled drug release. Targeted drug delivery using highly functional multicomponent protein composites to guide active drugs to the site of interest will also be discussed. A systematical elucidation of drug-delivery efficiency in the case of molecular weight, particle size, shape, morphology, and porosity of materials will then be demonstrated to achieve increased drug absorption. Finally, several important biomedical applications of protein-based materials with drug-delivery function—including bone healing, antibiotic release, wound healing, and corneal regeneration, as well as diabetes, neuroinflammation and cancer treatments—are summarized at the end of this review.

  2. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed

    Passey, C.A.; Roy, D.; Savoie, L.; Wilson, J.

    1990-01-01

    No significant differences were observed in the net birth rate of mink kits/female between the 7 breeding groups. However, there was reduced incidence (P=0.05) of kit deaths among the females receiving irradiated feed, and larger kit size (P<0.0001) at birth particularly for the litter size of 5-8 kits. The second generation minks born to parents receiving feed irradiated to a planned dose of 1 kGy weighed on average about 2.5% more, and their fur was on average about 1±0.26 cm longer (12% more males making the top length grade). Moreover, there was no effect of irradiated feed on fur quality. Irradiation of mink feed with subsequent frozen storage of the meat component improved the microbiological quality by decreasing the incidence of Pseudomonas sp. and Salmonella sp. Radiation pasteurization of mink feed (frozen meat to 1 kGy, and dry feed to 2 kGy or more) should therefore help improve feed utilization, keep animals healthier, and reproducing better without affecting fur quality. (author)

  3. Effects of feed forms, levels of quantitative feed restriction on ...

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Data were collected on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and cost benefits were calculated. Data were subjected to ... Keywords: Broilers, carcass, performance, quantitative feed restriction ...

  4. Microfabrication for Drug Delivery

    Koch, Brendan; Rubino, Ilaria; Quan, Fu-Shi; Yoo, Bongyoung; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2016-01-01

    This review is devoted to discussing the application of microfabrication technologies to target challenges encountered in life processes by the development of drug delivery systems. Recently, microfabrication has been largely applied to solve health and pharmaceutical science issues. In particular, fabrication methods along with compatible materials have been successfully designed to produce multifunctional, highly effective drug delivery systems. Microfabrication offers unique tools that can tackle problems in this field, such as ease of mass production with high quality control and low cost, complexity of architecture design and a broad range of materials. Presented is an overview of silicon- and polymer-based fabrication methods that are key in the production of microfabricated drug delivery systems. Moreover, the efforts focused on studying the biocompatibility of materials used in microfabrication are analyzed. Finally, this review discusses representative ways microfabrication has been employed to develop systems delivering drugs through the transdermal and oral route, and to improve drug eluting implants. Additionally, microfabricated vaccine delivery systems are presented due to the great impact they can have in obtaining a cold chain-free vaccine, with long-term stability. Microfabrication will continue to offer new, alternative solutions for the development of smart, advanced drug delivery systems. PMID:28773770

  5. Advanced SLARette delivery machine

    Bodner, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    SLARette 1 equipment, comprising of a SLARette Delivery Machine, SLAR Tools, SLAR power supplies and SLAR Inspection Systems was designed, developed and manufactured to service fuel channels of CANDU 6 stations during the regular yearly station outages. The Mark 2 SLARette Delivery Machine uses a Push Tube system to provide the axial and rotary movements of the SLAR Tool. The Push Tubes are operated remotely but must be attached and removed manually. Since this operation is performed at the Reactor face, there is radiation dose involved for the workers. An Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine which incorporates a computer controlled telescoping Ram in the place of the Push Tubes has been recently designed and manufactured. Utilization of the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine significantly reduces the amount of radiation dose picked up by the workers because the need to have workers at the face of the Reactor during the SLARette operation is greatly reduced. This paper describes the design, development and manufacturing process utilized to produce the Advanced SLARette Delivery Machine and the experience gained during the Gentilly-2 NGS Spring outage. (author)

  6. Maternal factors in newborns breast feeding jaundice: a case control study

    Alizadeh Taheri P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal jaundice, especially breast feeding jaundice is one of the most common causes of neonatal readmission during the first month of life. Breast feeding jaundice may be due to decreased milk intake with dehydration and/or reduced caloric intake.  The aim of this Study was to determine maternal risk factors of breast feeding jaundice in order to prevent it than before.Methods: This case- control study was performed at Bahrami University Hospital, Tehran, Iran and involved 75 term exclusively breast fed newborns admitted for hyperbilirubinemia, with a weight loss greater than 7%, with one positive lab data as: serum Na≥ 150meq/lit, urine specific gravity> 1012, serum urea≥ 40mgr/dl, without assigned cause for hyperbilirubinemia. They were compared with 75 matched controls with weight loss less than 7%, without dehydration and a known cause of hyperbilirubinemia.Results: In comparison with control group, in neonates with breast feeding jaundice, inappropriate feeding practice (P<0.033, delayed onset of lactation (P<0.0001, inverted nipple (P<0.001 were significantly higher. In our study, there was no significant difference between two groups in education level of mother, learning breast feeding practice before and after delivery, method of delivery (cesarean or vaginal delivery, primiparity or multiparity and use of supplements (water or glucose water.Conclusion: This study shows need for special attention and follows up of mothers and neonates at risk for breast feeding jaundice, especially those with inverted nipples or undergraduate for successful breast feeding. On the other hand this study shows encouraging mothers for early lactation especially in the first hour of life decreases the risk for this kind of jaundice.

  7. MRI in ocular drug delivery

    Li, S. Kevin; Lizak, Martin J.; Jeong, Eun-Kee

    2008-01-01

    Conventional pharmacokinetic methods for studying ocular drug delivery are invasive and cannot be conveniently applied to humans. The advancement of MRI technology has provided new opportunities in ocular drug-delivery research. MRI provides a means to non-invasively and continuously monitor ocular drug-delivery systems with a contrast agent or compound labeled with a contrast agent. It is a useful technique in pharmacokinetic studies, evaluation of drug-delivery methods, and drug-delivery de...

  8. The parasite community of the sharks Galeus melastomus, Etmopterus spinax and Centroscymnus coelolepis from the NW Mediterranean deep-sea in relation to feeding ecology and health condition of the host and environmental gradients and variables

    Dallarés, Sara; Padrós, Francesc; Cartes, Joan E.; Solé, Montserrat; Carrassón, Maite

    2017-11-01

    The parasite communities of sharks have been largely neglected despite the ecological importance and vulnerability of this group of fishes. The main goal of the present study is to describe the parasite communities of three deep-dwelling shark species in the NW Mediterranean. A total of 120 specimens of Galeus melastomus, 11 Etmopterus spinax and 10 Centroscymnus coelolepis were captured at 400-2200 m depth at two seasons and three localities off the mainland and insular slopes of the Balearic Sea. Environmental and fish biological, parasitological, dietary, enzymatic and histological data were obtained for each specimen, and the relationships among them tested. For G. melastomus, E. spinax and C. coelolepis a total of 15, two and eight parasite species were respectively recovered. The parasite community of G. melastomus is characterized by high abundance, richness and diversity, and the cestodes Ditrachybothridium macrocephalum and Grillotia adenoplusia dominate the infracommunities of juvenile and adult specimens, respectively. A differentiation of parasite communities, linked to a diet shift, has been observed between ontogenic stages of this species. E. spinax displays a depauperate parasite community, and that of C. coelolepis, described for the first time, shows moderate richness and diversity. Detailed parasite-prey relationships have been discussed and possible transmission pathways suggested for the three hosts. Parasites were mostly related to high water turbidity and O2 levels, which enhance zooplankton proliferation and could thus enhance parasite transmission. The nematodes Hysterothylacium aduncum and Proleptus obtusus were linked to high salinity levels, as already reported by previous studies, which are associated to high biomass and diversity of benthic and benthopelagic crustaceans. A decrease of acetylcholinesterase activity and lower hepatosomatic index, possibly linked to infection-related stress, have been observed. Lesions associated to

  9. Food and Feed Commodity Vocabulary

    Food and Feed Vocabulary was developed to consolidate all the major OPP Commodity Vocabularies into one standardized vocabulary. The EPA-preferred term is the only term that can be used in setting tolerances.

  10. KNOWLEDGE OF LACTATING MOTHERS ABOUT IMPORTANCE AND NECESSITY OF BREAST FEEDING IN INFANTS - ISFAHAN PROVINCE

    M HASHEMIPOOR

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In spite of high physiologic ability of lactation in mothers, most of them have not cooperation for breast feeding. Mothers' knowledge and attitude are important for lactation behavior. Although 99 percent of mothers are capable for breast feeding, but WHO's reports revealed that breast feeding is decreasing in low socioeconomic families. We decided to evaluate the knowledge of lactating mothers about the importance and necessity of breast feeding. Methods. Based on a descriptive, cross sectional study, 2799 mothers with infants younger than 15 months were selected by a cluster sampling. The study was performed in urban and rural health centers of Isfahan province. Findings. Nearly 80 percent of mothers did not know anything about the necessity of exclusive breast feeding during the first 4 months of life. Eighty five percent of mothers who worked out of home preferred formula feeding and 45 percent of mothers supposed that their milk has no good taste and is watery. More than half of mothers believed that antibiotic consumption, repregnancy and long time hospitalization are inhibitor factors for normal breast feeding. Almost 50 percent of mothers had no insight about the time of breast feeding after cesarean section delivery and the age of supplementary feeding. Knowledge about breast feeding was similar in urban and rural area. About 56 percent of mothers had not any training class and 32 percent had not been oriented in hospital about breast feeding. Conclusion. It seems that knowledge of mothers about importance of breast milk depended on their previous experience especially previous training and cultural believing and this training isn't suitable for maintenance of breast feeding. Therefore, it is necessary to promote the knowledge of mothers especially by radio and television according to their culture and educational levels.

  11. Feeding device for rotary retorts

    Hutchins, T W.S.

    1923-04-25

    A horizontal rotary retort is heated externally with a feeding-worm or the like for distilling coal, oil shale, etc. It is characterized in that the shaft of the feeder moves adjustably lengthwise, so that, under the hopper more or less of the worm comes for action on the feed, so that the hopper is withdrawn through the retort while it projects into the retort and is secured in a position against the rotation.

  12. Social theory and infant feeding

    2011-01-01

    Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, I introduce some of Bourdieu's ideas and suggest researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. PMID:21676218

  13. Redefining continuing education delivery.

    Carlton, K H

    1997-01-01

    Just as technology is transforming the delivery of education, the Internet and advanced telecommunication applications are changing the "face" of CE and the connotation of "lifelong learning." As late as the mid-1980s, a discussion of computer applications in nursing CE focused on the "timely" transition to microcomputers as tools for the enhancement of managerial tasks for increased productivity. Even as recently as 1990, there seemed to be "time" for those providers who were "slower to adopt innovation" to "catch up." Now, the CE provider who does not integrate the microcomputer and advanced telecommunications as an integral component of their delivery modalities may be outsourced rapidly by an educational or commercial competitive unit that is able to utilize the communication medium, mergers and partnerships, enterprise, and individual lifestyle and learning patterns that will epitomize the CE unit of the 21st century. As with the "re-engineering" of nursing education, the "re-engineered" delivery modalities of evolving CE entity might now best be conceptualized on a continuum from the traditional mode that time and place dependent to a mode of synchronous and asynchronous data and advanced telecommunication. Delivery methods will need to be selected according to the target populations, content, and situation. The health-care educational provider may discover, as in other industries, that a combination of distance and residential offerings will be the most successful medium for the delivery of CE to the progressively more "information and technologically savvy" lifelong learner of the 21st century. In addressing the dramatic effects of the information technology era on the refocused multimedia/interactive delivery method for student education, educators amply quoted Bob Dylan's phrase of the 1960s, "The times, they are a-changing." And so, we see that the times are also changing at an astronomical rate for the health-care educational provider as well as the

  14. Feed quality in swine diet

    Živković Branislav

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper will demonstrate the quality of some feed used in swine diet. The emphasis will be on feed whose incorporation into mixes could result in unfavorable effects on production, health and economic production of swine. Data will be presented on maize and its possible negative effects, having in mind toxins. Soybean meal, or genetically modified soybean meal, will also be observed. The next feed which will be discussed will be soybean whey obtained by different procedures and the potential dangers of its use in swine diet rations. Sunflower meal, feed of animal origin, with emphasis on fish flour and meat-bone flour will also be covered in the work. A feed which has been attracting particular attention lately is yeast imported from Italy. Its quality characteristics will be discussed, the so-called non-protein nitrogen. Analyses of mineral feed will include sources of phosphorus, phosphates (monocalciumphosphate, dicalcium phosphate phytases and resolving the problem of phosphorus in swine rations. Finally, an inevitable segment are synthetic amino acids, especially lysine and its role in swine diet.

  15. Enteral Feeding Set Handling Techniques.

    Lyman, Beth; Williams, Maria; Sollazzo, Janet; Hayden, Ashley; Hensley, Pam; Dai, Hongying; Roberts, Cristine

    2017-04-01

    Enteral nutrition therapy is common practice in pediatric clinical settings. Often patients will receive a pump-assisted bolus feeding over 30 minutes several times per day using the same enteral feeding set (EFS). This study aims to determine the safest and most efficacious way to handle the EFS between feedings. Three EFS handling techniques were compared through simulation for bacterial growth, nursing time, and supply costs: (1) rinsing the EFS with sterile water after each feeding, (2) refrigerating the EFS between feedings, and (3) using a ready-to-hang (RTH) product maintained at room temperature. Cultures were obtained at baseline, hour 12, and hour 21 of the 24-hour cycle. A time-in-motion analysis was conducted and reported in average number of seconds to complete each procedure. Supply costs were inventoried for 1 month comparing the actual usage to our estimated usage. Of 1080 cultures obtained, the overall bacterial growth rate was 8.7%. The rinse and refrigeration techniques displayed similar bacterial growth (11.4% vs 10.3%, P = .63). The RTH technique displayed the least bacterial growth of any method (4.4%, P = .002). The time analysis in minutes showed the rinse method was the most time-consuming (44.8 ± 2.7) vs refrigeration (35.8 ± 2.6) and RTH (31.08 ± 0.6) ( P refrigerating the EFS between uses is the next most efficacious method for handling the EFS between bolus feeds.

  16. Designing appropriate complementary feeding recommendations: tools for programmatic action.

    Daelmans, Bernadette; Ferguson, Elaine; Lutter, Chessa K; Singh, Neha; Pachón, Helena; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Woldt, Monica; Mangasaryan, Nuné; Cheung, Edith; Mir, Roger; Pareja, Rossina; Briend, André

    2013-09-01

    Suboptimal complementary feeding practices contribute to a rapid increase in the prevalence of stunting in young children from age 6 months. The design of effective programmes to improve infant and young child feeding requires a sound understanding of the local situation and a systematic process for prioritizing interventions, integrating them into existing delivery platforms and monitoring their implementation and impact. The identification of adequate food-based feeding recommendations that respect locally available foods and address gaps in nutrient availability is particularly challenging. We describe two tools that are now available to strengthen infant and young child-feeding programming at national and subnational levels. ProPAN is a set of research tools that guide users through a step-by-step process for identifying problems related to young child nutrition; defining the context in which these problems occur; formulating, testing, and selecting behaviour-change recommendations and nutritional recipes; developing the interventions to promote them; and designing a monitoring and evaluation system to measure progress towards intervention goals. Optifood is a computer-based platform based on linear programming analysis to develop nutrient-adequate feeding recommendations at lowest cost, based on locally available foods with the addition of fortified products or supplements when needed, or best recommendations when the latter are not available. The tools complement each other and a case study from Peru illustrates how they have been used. The readiness of both instruments will enable partners to invest in capacity development for their use in countries and strengthen programmes to address infant and young child feeding and prevent malnutrition. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Feeding the Monster

    2005-10-01

    Near-infrared images of the active galaxy NGC 1097, obtained with the NACO adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope, disclose with unprecedented detail a complex central network of filamentary structure spiralling down to the centre of the galaxy. These observations provide astronomers with new insights on how super-massive black holes lurking inside galaxies get fed. "This is possibly the first time that a detailed view of the channelling process of matter, from the main part of the galaxy down to the very end in the nucleus is released," says Almudena Prieto (Max-Planck Institute, Heidelberg, Germany), lead author of the paper describing these results. Located at a distance of about 45 million light-years in the southern constellation Fornax (the Furnace), NGC 1097 is a relatively bright, barred spiral galaxy seen face-on. At magnitude 9.5, and thus just 25 times fainter than the faintest object that can be seen with the unaided eye, it appears in small telescopes as a bright, circular disc. NGC 1097 is a very moderate example of an Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), whose emission is thought to arise from matter (gas and stars) falling into oblivion in a central black hole. However, NGC 1097 possesses a comparatively faint nucleus only, and the black hole in its centre must be on a very strict "diet": only a small amount of gas and stars is apparently being swallowed by the black hole at any given moment. Astronomers have been trying to understand for a long time how the matter is "gulped" down towards the black hole. Watching directly the feeding process requires very high spatial resolution at the centre of galaxies. This can be achieved by means of interferometry as was done with the VLTI MIDI instrument on the central parts of another AGN, NGC 1068 (see ESO PR 17/03), or with adaptive optics [1]. Thus, astronomers [2] obtained images of NGC 1097 with the adaptive optics NACO instrument attached to Yepun, the fourth Unit Telescope of ESO's VLT

  18. Ethical issues in cesarean delivery.

    Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B

    2017-08-01

    Cesarean delivery is the most common and important surgical intervention in obstetric practice. Ethics provides essential guidance to obstetricians for offering, recommending, recommending against, and performing cesarean delivery. This chapter provides an ethical framework based on the professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics. This framework is then used to address two especially ethically challenging clinical topics in cesarean delivery: patient-choice cesarean delivery and trial of labor after cesarean delivery. This chapter emphasizes a preventive ethics approach, designed to prevent ethical conflict in clinical practice. To achieve this goal, a preventive ethics approach uses the informed consent process to offer cesarean delivery as a medically reasonable alternative to vaginal delivery, to recommend cesarean delivery, and to recommend against cesarean delivery. The limited role of shared decision making is also described. The professional responsibility model of obstetric ethics guides this multi-faceted preventive ethics approach. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    Abdel-Hady El-Gilany

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%. The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0% and mother’s/mother in law’s advice (58.3%. The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father’s education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education.

  20. Health Care Delivery.

    Starfield, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews emerging health care delivery options for handicapped children. Cost structures, quality of care, and future prospects are considered for Health Maintenance Organizations, Preferred Provider Organizations, Tax Supported Direct Service Programs, Hospital-Based Services, and Ambulatory Care Organizations. (Author/DB)

  1. Drug delivery and formulations.

    Breitkreutz, Jörg; Boos, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Paediatric drug delivery is a major challenge in drug development. Because of the heterogeneous nature of the patient group, ranging from newborns to adolescents, there is a need to use appropriate excipients, drug dosage forms and delivery devices for different age groups. So far, there is a lack of suitable and safe drug formulations for children, especially for the very young and seriously ill patients. The new EU legislation will enforce paediatric clinical trials and drug development. Current advances in paediatric drug delivery include interesting new concepts such as fast-dissolving drug formulations, including orodispersible tablets and oral thin strips (buccal wafers), and multiparticulate dosage forms based on mini-tabletting or pelletization technologies. Parenteral administration is likely to remain the first choice for children in the neonatal period and for emergency cases. Alternative routes of administration include transdermal, pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. A few products are already available on the market, but others still need further investigations and clinical proof of concept.

  2. Drug delivery through microneedles

    Luttge, R.; Dietzel, A.

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery through microneedles is a new form of a pharmaceutical dosage system. While single microneedles have been clinically applied already, the out-of-plane integration of a multitude of microneedles in a pharmaceutical patch is a disruptive technology. To take advantage of micro- and

  3. A Medical Delivery Device

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a medical delivery device comprising at least two membrane electrode assembly units each of which comprises three layers: an upper and a lower electrode and a selective ionic conductive membrane provided there-between. At least one of the three layers are shared...

  4. Global Delivery Models

    Manning, Stephan; Møller Larsen, Marcus; Bharati, Pratyush M.

    2015-01-01

    antecedents and contingencies of setting up GDM structures. Based on comprehensive data we show that providers are likely to establish GDM location configurations when clients value access to globally distributed talent and speed of service delivery, in particular when services are highly commoditized...

  5. Environmental radioactivity monitoring in Republic of Serbia

    Joksic, J.; Radenkovic, M.; Tanaskovic, I.; Vujovic, M.; Vuletic

    2011-01-01

    According to environmental radioactivity monitoring programme continuous measurements of radioactivity in different samples are performed. Measurements are performed in aerosol samples, fallout, soil, surface waters, drinking water, food of animal and plant origin, milk and feeding stuffs. [sr

  6. Effects of the neonatal intensive care unit environment on preterm infant oral feeding

    Pickler RH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita H Pickler,1 Jacqueline M McGrath,2 Barbara A Reyna,3 Heather L Tubbs-Cooley,1 Al M Best4, Mary Lewis,3 Sharon Cone,3 Paul A Wetzel51Department of Patient Services, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA; 2School of Nursing, University of Connecticut and Connecticut Children's Medical Center, Hartford, CT, USA; 3VCU Medical Center, Children's Hospital of Richmond, Richmond, VA, USA; 4School of Dentistry, 5School of Engineering, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USAObjective: To examine the effect of neonatal intensive care unit environmental characteristics (perceived levels of light and sound, and time of day in open unit wards and single-family rooms (SFRs on oral feeding outcomes in preterm infants.Design: Data were collected at each scheduled oral feeding for 87 preterm infants from the first oral feeding until discharge. Data included the prescribed volume of feeding and the volume consumed, the infant's level of wakefulness before feeding, and the nurse's perception of light and sound.Results: Data were collected on 5111 feedings in the ward unit and 5802 in the SFR unit from feedings involving 87 preterm infants. Light and sound were rated significantly lower in the SFR (χ2 = 139 and 1654.8, respectively. Feeding times of 9 am, 12 noon, and 3 pm were associated with the highest perceived levels of light and sound, regardless of unit design (P < 0.0001. Moderate light levels and feeding times of 12, 3, and 6 am were associated with improved feeding outcomes. Infants consumed a greater proportion of their prescribed feeding volume when fed in the open ward and when awake before feeding.Conclusion: Further study on the clinical effects of unit design is needed, as is study on the effects of environmental stimuli, so that interventions can be appropriately developed and tailored for infants needing the most support for optimal development.Keywords: NICU design, clinical outcomes, environment

  7. EARLY ENTERAL FEEDING AND DELAYED ENTERAL FEEDING- A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Alli Muthiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Nutrients form the fuel for the body, which comes in the form of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. The body is intended to burn fuels in order to perform work. Starvation with malnutrition affects the postoperative patients and patients with acute pancreatitis. There is an increased risk of nosocomial infections and a delay in the wound healing may be noted. They are more prone for respiratory tract infections. Enteral Nutrition (EN delivers nutrition to the body through gastrointestinal tract. This also includes the oral feeding. This study will review the administration, rationale and assess the pros and cons associated with the early initiation of enteral feeding. The aim of this study is to evaluate if early commencement of enteral nutrition compared to traditional management (delayed enteral feeding is associated with fewer complications and improved outcome-  In patients undergoing elective/emergency gastrointestinal surgery.  In patients with acute pancreatitis. It is also used to determine whether a period of starvation (nil by mouth after gastrointestinal surgery or in the early days of acute pancreatitis is beneficial in terms of specific outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A prospective cohort interventional study was conducted using 100 patients from July 2012 to November 2012. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria were included in the study. Patients admitted in my unit for GIT surgeries or acute pancreatitis constituted the test group, while patients admitted in other units for similar disease processes constituted the control group. RESULTS Our study concluded that early enteral feeding resulted in reduced incidence of surgical site infections. When the decreased length of stay, shorter convalescent period and the lesser post-interventional fatigue were taken into account, early enteral feeding has a definite cost benefit.CONCLUSION Early enteral feeding was beneficial associated with fewer

  8. High-Fibre feeding in gestation

    Meunier-Salaün, M.C.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    Gestating sows are usually fed low levels of feed, which may not provide sufficient satiety, and does not allow sows to fully fulfil their motivation to express foraging and feeding behaviours. Feed restriction may therefore lead to high occurrences of non-feeding oral activities, including

  9. Nutritional, technological and managerial parameters for precision feeding to enhance feed nutrient utilization and productivity in different dairy cattle production systems

    van Empel, Mireille JM; Makkar, Harinder PS; Dijkstra, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Increased future demand of animal products as well as competition between food, feed and fuel, require efficient utilization of feed resources to strengthen environmental, economic and social sustainability of livestock systems. The objective of this review is to summarize current knowledge...... on precision feeding (PF) and the relevance of PF approaches in dairy cattle production systems in developing countries. The concept of PF aims at achieving balanced nutrition (matching animal requirements with nutrient supply, preferably from locally available feed resources) to improve animal productivity...... and to reduce both the cost of production and environmental pollution. In addition to the supply of proper amounts of nutrients to the dairy cow using various methodologies and tools, approaches that enhance overall nutrient digestion and availability to the animal are also discussed as an integral part of PF...

  10. Self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems for oral insulin delivery

    Li, Ping; Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the combination of self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery systems (SNEDDS) and enteric-coated capsules as a potential delivery strategy for oral delivery of insulin. The SNEDDS preconcentrates, loaded with insulin-phospholipid complex at different levels (0, 2.5 and 10% w...

  11. Feed/meat transfer factor determination

    Hoepfner, U.

    1981-01-01

    The transfer of cesium from the feed to bovine meat is taken as an example to discuss natural environmental conditions and their effects on the determination of the transfer factor. Criteria for estimating the validity of experimentally determined transfer factors are given and used for a critical evaluation of significant literature data. The evaluation presented in this report is not a merely statistical evaluation of transfer data, indicating one single value as the correct one (sometimes within a certain margin), but rather scans the data available for incertainties and drawbacks of the experimental methods applied, finally stating a range of variation within which transfer factors can be considered to be correct. (orig./DG) [de

  12. Supplier Cooperation in Drone Delivery

    Sawadsitang, Suttinee; Niyato, Dusit; Siew, Tan Puay; Wang, Ping

    2018-01-01

    Recently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also known as drones, has emerged as an efficient and cost-effective solution for package delivery. Especially, drones are expected to incur lower cost, and achieve fast and environment friendly delivery. While most of existing drone research concentrates on surveillance applications, few works studied the drone package delivery planning problem. Even so, the previous works only focus on the drone delivery planning of a single supplier. In this paper...

  13. Floating Microparticulate Oral Diltiazem Hydrochloride Delivery ...

    Delivery System for Improved Delivery to Heart ... Conclusion: Microparticulate floating (gastroretentive) oral drug delivery system of diltiazem prepared ..... treatment of cardiac disease. ... hydrochloride-loaded mucoadhesive microspheres.

  14. Impact of delivery mode on the colostrum microbiota composition.

    Toscano, Marco; De Grandi, Roberta; Peroni, Diego Giampietro; Grossi, Enzo; Facchin, Valentina; Comberiati, Pasquale; Drago, Lorenzo

    2017-09-25

    Breast milk is a rich nutrient with a temporally dynamic nature. In particular, numerous alterations in the nutritional, immunological and microbiological content occur during the transition from colostrum to mature milk. The objective of our study was to evaluate the potential impact of delivery mode on the microbiota of colostrum, at both the quantitative and qualitative levels (bacterial abundance and microbiota network). Twenty-nine Italian mothers (15 vaginal deliveries vs 14 Cesarean sections) were enrolled in the study. The microbiota of colostrum samples was analyzed by next generation sequencing (Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine). The colostrum microbiota network associated with Cesarean section and vaginal delivery was evaluated by means of the Auto Contractive Map (AutoCM), a mathematical methodology based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) architecture. Numerous differences between Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum were observed. Vaginal delivery colostrum had a significant lower abundance of Pseudomonas spp., Staphylococcus spp. and Prevotella spp. when compared to Cesarean section colostrum samples. Furthermore, the mode of delivery had a strong influence on the microbiota network, as Cesarean section colostrum showed a higher number of bacterial hubs if compared to vaginal delivery, sharing only 5 hubs. Interestingly, the colostrum of mothers who had a Cesarean section was richer in environmental bacteria than mothers who underwent vaginal delivery. Finally, both Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum contained a greater number of anaerobic bacteria genera. The mode of delivery had a large impact on the microbiota composition of colostrum. Further studies are needed to better define the meaning of the differences we observed between Cesarean section and vaginal delivery colostrum microbiota.

  15. Feeding ecology of pintail hens during reproduction

    Krapu, G.L.

    1974-01-01

    Food supply has been acknowledged as one of eight major external factors regulating the sexual cycles of birds (Marshall 1961). Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain the role of food supply as an ultimate factor regulating breeding (Marshall 1951; Lack 1954, 1968; Wynne-Edwards 1962; and others). Another potential influence of food is its being a proximate stimulus to breeding. When certain foods become available they may act as a stimulus as the female requires them to meet her dietary needs during egg formation. Lack (1966a: 24) suggested that the average date of laying by the Great Tit (Parus major) probably resulted from a correlation between spring temperatures and the time of appearance of the insect foods the adult females need to form eggs. He also cited other passerines whose breeding was affected by food supply available to the female. In waterfowl it has been suggested that laying females require invertebrate foods (Moyle 1961, Leitch 1964). If true, this implies that the timing of laying is influenced by those environmental changes that affect food supply.The Pintail (Anas acuta) lives primarily on plant foods during much of the year (Martin et al. 1951); thus a study of feeding ecology during the nesting season provided an opportunity to evaluate the significance of an invertebrate food source to females during the period of egg formation. Marshall (1951) stated that essentially vegetarian species appear compelled to switch at least partially to a heavier protein diet when feeding their developing young. Production of a clutch of eggs, like tissue growth in the young, requires a special dietary need that presumably should be reflected in the diet of vegetarian species during the period that eggs are being formed. This paper describes the diet of the female Pintail prior to, during, and after laying and discusses the impact of certain environmental and physiological changes on Pintail breeding.

  16. Breast feeding: is it vital?

    Alnasir, F A

    1990-12-01

    Human milk is the natural food of infants. It is a naturally balanced diet which meets the needs of the newborn. No artificial food can compare with human milk's natural, nutritional, and anti-infective properties. Various agencies have therefore strongly advocated every infant's right to be breast fed. For example, the International Confederation of Midwives at their 1984 meeting recommended that breast feeding be undertaken for at least 6 months especially in areas of the world where the incidence of infant mortality, morbidity, and malnutrition is high. The majority of women should be able to breast feed even if malnourished, and providing food for a lactating woman is less expensive than providing artificial formula for her baby. In some Western countries, breasts are seen more as sex symbols than sources of nourishment for infants. Women in developing countries should instead retain their tradition of breast feeding in the best interest of both their children and society.

  17. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia

    2017-01-01

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate......-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude......; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet...

  18. Supersaturating drug delivery systems

    Laitinen, Riikka; Löbmann, Korbinian; Grohganz, Holger

    2017-01-01

    of the bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs by increasing the driving force for drug absorption. However, ASDs often require a high weight percentage of carrier (usually a hydrophilic polymer) to ensure molecular mixing of the drug in the carrier and stabilization of the supersaturated state, often leading......Amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) are probably the most common and important supersaturating drug delivery systems for the formulation of poorly water-soluble compounds. These delivery systems are able to achieve and maintain a sustained drug supersaturation which enables improvement...... strategy for poorly-soluble drugs. While the current research on co-amorphous formulations is focused on preparation and characterization of these systems, more detailed research on their supersaturation and precipitation behavior and the effect of co-formers on nucleation and crystal growth inhibition...

  19. Pyomyositis after vaginal delivery.

    Gaughan, Eve

    2011-01-01

    Pyomyositis is a purulent infection of skeletal muscle that arises from haematogenous spread, usually with abscess formation. It can develop after a transient bacteraemia of any cause. This type of infection has never been reported before in the literature after vaginal delivery. A 34-year-old woman had progressive severe pain in the left buttock and thigh and weakness in the left lower limb day 1 post spontaneous vaginal delivery. MRI showed severe oedema of the left gluteus, iliacus, piriformis and adductor muscles of the left thigh and a small fluid collection at the left hip joint. She was diagnosed with pyomyositis. She had fever of 37.9°C immediately postpartum and her risk factors for bacteraemia were a mild IV cannula-associated cellulitis and labour itself. She required prolonged treatment with antibiotics before significant clinical improvement was noted.

  20. Social video content delivery

    Wang, Zhi; Zhu, Wenwu

    2016-01-01

    This brief presents new architecture and strategies for distribution of social video content. A primary framework for socially-aware video delivery and a thorough overview of the possible approaches is provided. The book identifies the unique characteristics of socially-aware video access and social content propagation, revealing the design and integration of individual modules that are aimed at enhancing user experience in the social network context. The change in video content generation, propagation, and consumption for online social networks, has significantly challenged the traditional video delivery paradigm. Given the massive amount of user-generated content shared in online social networks, users are now engaged as active participants in the social ecosystem rather than as passive receivers of media content. This revolution is being driven further by the deep penetration of 3G/4G wireless networks and smart mobile devices that are seamlessly integrated with online social networking and media-sharing s...

  1. Mucoadhesive drug delivery systems

    Rahamatullah Shaikh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucoadhesion is commonly defined as the adhesion between two materials, at least one of which is a mucosal surface. Over the past few decades, mucosal drug delivery has received a great deal of attention. Mucoadhesive dosage forms may be designed to enable prolonged retention at the site of application, providing a controlled rate of drug release for improved therapeutic outcome. Application of dosage forms to mucosal surfaces may be of benefit to drug molecules not amenable to the oral route, such as those that undergo acid degradation or extensive first-pass metabolism. The mucoadhesive ability of a dosage form is dependent upon a variety of factors, including the nature of the mucosal tissue and the physicochemical properties of the polymeric formulation. This review article aims to provide an overview of the various aspects of mucoadhesion, mucoadhesive materials, factors affecting mucoadhesion, evaluating methods, and finally various mucoadhesive drug delivery systems (buccal, nasal, ocular, gastro, vaginal, and rectal.

  2. Postpartum care and breast-feeding.

    Acheson, L S; Danner, S C

    1993-09-01

    Scientific studies investigating the postpartum period are scarce, and observational studies greatly outnumber controlled trials. Many studies are biased in their assumptions about the social roles of women and men and in the interpretation of observations and treatment strategies. The published literature is fragmentary; few researchers have attempted a comprehensive, biopsychosocial system-oriented view of postpartum health. More research is needed on the occurrence and treatment of such common postpartum problems as urinary incontinence, sexual dysfunction, and back pain. Widespread application of what is already known about support for breast-feeding, prevention of fatigue and depression, contraception, and maintenance of healthy lifestyles will require innovations in healthcare delivery, professional practices, and social policy, particularly in the occupational arena. Many postpartum problems have been found to be iatrogenic and responsive to changes in the routine care of mothers and newborns. Finally, it is clear that women of lower education and socioeconomic status and those with less social support are consistently at higher risk for postpartum and parenting problems; great benefits are likely from interventions that enhance the well-being of these mothers and infants.

  3. infant feeding issues implications of formula feeding to reduce hiv

    2004-08-03

    Aug 3, 2004 ... exclusive bottle-feeding is, in theory, negligible. However, .... †Independent sample t-tests; categorical variables were tested using the X2-test. TABLE I. RESULTS FOR FIT ... increase the risk of diarrhoeal events.9. Frequent ...

  4. Feeding habits and comparative feeding rates of three southern ...

    Food utilization by three arboreal squirrels was studied with regard to feeding habits and efficiency, food preferences and chemical analyses of the food. Food selected in the field by the two forest subspecies the Ngoye red squirrel Paraxerus palliatus ornatus and the Tonga red squirrel, P. p. tongensis are listed.

  5. Prey perception in feeding-current feeding copepods

    Kiørboe, Thomas; Goncalves, Rodrigo J.; Florian Couespel, Damien

    2016-01-01

    We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey concentrati......We reply to the comments of Paffenhöfer and Jiang () who argues that remote chemical prey perception is necessary for feeding-current feeding copepods to fulfill their nutritional requirements in a dilute ocean, that remote chemical prey detection may only be observed at very low prey...... cells have short intense leakage burst, only a very small fraction of prey cells would be available to the copepod at any instance in time and, thus would be inefficient at low prey concentration. Finally, we report a few new observations of prey capture in two species of copepods, Temora longicornis...... and Centropages hamatus, offered a 45-μm sized dinoflagellate at very low concentration. The observed short prey detection distances, up to a few prey cell radii, are consistent with mechanoreception and we argue briefly that near-field mechanoreception is the most likely and common prey perception mechanism...

  6. The influence of supplementary feeding to ewes and creep feeding ...

    KARIN KOEP

    2015-03-24

    Mar 24, 2015 ... Condition of use: The user may copy, distribute, transmit and adapt the work, but must recognise the authors and the South African. Journal of Animal Science. .... mix (lick) supplied to producing SA. Mutton Merino ewes and creep feed for suckling lambs grazing wheat stubble during the dry summer period.

  7. Static feed water electrolysis module

    Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    An advanced static feed water electrolysis module (SFWEM) and associated instrumentation for generating breathable O2 was developed. The system also generates a H2 byproduct for use in an air revitalization system for O2 recovery from metabolic CO2. Special attention was given to: (1) eliminating water feed compartment degassing, (2) eliminating need for zero gravity condenser/separators, (3) increasing current density capability, and (4) providing a self contained module so that operation is independent of laboratory instrumentation and complicated startup/shutdown procedures.

  8. Peptide and protein delivery using new drug delivery systems.

    Jain, Ashish; Jain, Aviral; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Hurkat, Pooja; Jain, Sanjay K

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical and biotechnological research sorts protein drug delivery systems by importance based on their various therapeutic applications. The effective and potent action of the proteins/peptides makes them the drugs of choice for the treatment of numerous diseases. Major research issues in protein delivery include the stabilization of proteins in delivery devices and the design of appropriate target-specific protein carriers. Many efforts have been made for effective delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs through various routes of administrations for successful therapeutic effects. Nanoparticles made of biodegradable polymers such as poly lactic acid, polycaprolactone, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), the poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride chitosan, and modified chitosan, as well as solid lipids, have shown great potential in the delivery of proteins/peptidal drugs. Moreover, scientists also have used liposomes, PEGylated liposomes, niosomes, and aquasomes, among others, for peptidal drug delivery. They also have developed hydrogels and transdermal drug delivery systems for peptidal drug delivery. A receptor-mediated delivery system is another attractive strategy to overcome the limitation in drug absorption that enables the transcytosis of the protein across the epithelial barrier. Modification such as PEGnology is applied to various proteins and peptides of the desired protein and peptides also increases the circulating life, solubility and stability, pharmacokinetic properties, and antigenicity of protein. This review focuses on various approaches for effective protein/peptidal drug delivery, with special emphasis on insulin delivery.

  9. Salmonella Radicidation of Dry Mixed Feeds and Feed Ingredients

    Mossel, D. A.A. [Central Institute for Nutrition and Food Research TNO, Zeist (Netherlands); San Marcos University, Lima (Peru)

    1967-11-15

    Feed components contaminated with salmonellae act as vehicles in the transmission of these bacteria to slaughter animals and hence to meat and poultry. Terminal decontamination of ingredients or mixed feed seems required because sanitary improvements in processing, bagging and storage do not always appear effective in considerably reducing salmonella contamination rates. Experiments were carried out to assay the decontamination effect of pelletization of mixed feed. Enumeration of enterobacteriaceae was used as the analytical criterion. It appeared that a temperature over 80 Degree-Sign C generally led to five decimal reductions in enterobacteriaceae counts; however, also currently used lower temperatures may bring about two decimal reductions only. Following earlier experiments with fish meal, range finding tests on the decontamination of mixed feed with {sup 60}Co gamma rays were also performed. To achieve five decimal reductions in the counts of the most resistant enterobacteriaceae which were encountered about 0.5 Mrad was required; survival curves were generally not linear, so that overall effective dose had to be used as a parameter. Feeding experiments with rats, using 35% fish meal irradiated at 0.8 Mrad in the diet for two years, demonstrated that neither losses of nutritive value nor the occurrence of orally toxic factors is effected by such an irradiation treatment. It is recommended that pilot plant tests be carried out. In these tests an attempt should be made to combine improved sanitation and pelletizing with a terminal radiation treatment of the bagged material with the lowest dose required. Such tests should preferably be carried out in suitable areas of countries like Peru or Chile. A brief outline is given of the development work and training of scientific and technical staff that should be carried out during the installation of such a pilot plant. (author)

  10. Nano/Micro Formulations for Bacteriophage Delivery.

    Cortés, Pilar; Cano-Sarabia, Mary; Colom, Joan; Otero, Jennifer; Maspoch, Daniel; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2018-01-01

    Encapsulation methodologies allow the protection of bacteriophages for overcoming critical environmental conditions. Moreover, they improve the stability and the controlled delivery of bacteriophages which is of great innovative value in bacteriophage therapy. Here, two different encapsulation methodologies of bacteriophages are described using two biocompatible materials: a lipid cationic mixture and a combination of alginate with the antacid CaCO 3 . To perform bacteriophage encapsulation, a purified lysate highly concentrated (around 10 10 -10 11  pfu/mL) is necessary, and to dispose of a specific equipment. Both methodologies have been successfully applied for encapsulating Salmonella bacteriophages with different morphologies. Also, the material employed does not modify the antibacterial action of bacteriophages. Moreover, both technologies can also be adapted to any bacteriophage and possibly to any delivery route for bacteriophage therapy.

  11. Household food security and infant feeding practices in rural Bangladesh.

    Owais, Aatekah; Kleinbaum, David G; Suchdev, Parminder S; Faruque, Asg; Das, Sumon K; Schwartz, Benjamin; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-07-01

    To determine the association between household food security and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Bangladesh. Prospective, cohort study using structured home interviews during pregnancy and 3 and 9 months after delivery. We used two indicators of household food security at 3-months' follow-up: maternal Food Composition Score (FCS), calculated via the World Food Programme method, and an HHFS index created from an eleven-item food security questionnaire. Infant feeding practices were characterized using WHO definitions. Two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj, Bangladesh. Mother-child dyads (n 2073) who completed the 9-months' follow-up. Complementary feeding was initiated at age ≤4 months for 7 %, at 5-6 months for 49 % and at ≥7 months for 44 % of infants. Based on 24 h dietary recall, 98 % of infants were still breast-feeding at age 9 months, and 16 % received ≥4 food groups and ≥4 meals (minimally acceptable diet) in addition to breast milk. Mothers' diet was more diverse than infants'. The odds of receiving a minimally acceptable diet for infants living in most food-secure households were three times those for infants living in least food-secure households (adjusted OR=3·0; 95 % CI 2·1, 4·3). Socio-economic status, maternal age, literacy, parity and infant sex were not associated with infant diet. HHFS and maternal FCS were significant predictors of subsequent infant feeding practices. Nevertheless, even the more food-secure households had poor infant diet. Interventions aimed at improving infant nutritional status need to focus on both complementary food provision and education.

  12. Sustainability assessment of salmonid feed using energy, classical exergy and eco-exergy analysis

    Draganovic, V.; Jorgensen, S.E.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.; Goot, van der A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Reduction of the environmental impact of feed products is of paramount importance for salmon farming. This article explores the potential to compare three thermodynamically based ecological indicators. The environmental impact of partial replacement of fish meal (FM) and fish oil with alternative

  13. Chitosan nanofibers for transbuccal insulin delivery.

    Lancina, Michael G; Shankar, Roopa Kanakatti; Yang, Hu

    2017-05-01

    In this work, they aimed at producing chitosan based nanofiber mats capable of delivering insulin via the buccal mucosa. Chitosan was electrospun into nanofibers using poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) as a carrier molecule in various feed ratios. The mechanical properties and degradation kinetics of the fibers were measured. Insulin release rates were determined in vitro using an ELISA assay. The bioactivity of released insulin was measured in terms of Akt activation in pre-adipocytes. Insulin permeation across the buccal mucosa was measured in an ex-vivo porcine transbuccal model. Fiber morphology, mechanical properties, and in vitro stability were dependent on PEO feed ratio. Lower PEO content blends produced smaller diameter fibers with significantly faster insulin release kinetics. Insulin showed no reduction in bioactivity due to electrospinning. Buccal permeation of insulin facilitated by high chitosan content blends was significantly higher than that of free insulin. Taken together, the work demonstrates that chitosan-based nanofibers have the potential to serve as a transbuccal insulin delivery vehicle. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1252-1259, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Effect of environmental factors on the digestibility and voluntary feed ...

    ... to the digestion and intake trials at Cedara were pooled, analysed using multiple regression techniques, and regressed on dry matter digestibilty and VFI, to examine the influence of environment on the nutritive value of the herbage and to develop simple linear regression models for predicting kikuyu quality and intake.

  15. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  16. Parental concerns about complementary feeding

    Nielsen, Annemette; Michaelsen, Kim F.; Holm, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    Background/objectives:To investigate and analyze differences in parental concerns during earlier and later phases of complementary feeding.Subject/methods:Eight focus group interviews were conducted with 45 mothers of children aged 7 or 13 months. Deductive and inductive coding procedures were ap......:10.1038/ejcn.2013.165....

  17. Food and feed safety assessment

    Kuiper, H.A.; Paoletti, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The general principles for safety and nutritional evaluation of foods and feed and the potential health risks associated with hazardous compounds are described as developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) and further elaborated in the

  18. International trade of animal feed

    Wang, Jingmeng; Liu, Qian; Hou, Yong; Qin, Wei; Lesschen, Jan Peter; Zhang, Fusuo; Oenema, Oene

    2018-01-01

    International trade of food and feed has facilitated the specialization and agglomeration of agricultural production systems in many countries. Confined animals in specialized production systems are increasingly supplied with soybean and maize, imported from other countries. This has increased

  19. Feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles: The effect of zooplankton feeding behavior on vertical flux

    Koski, Marja; Boutorh, Julia; De La Rocha, Christina L.

    2017-01-01

    Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles) and of ......Zooplankton feeding activity is hypothesized to attenuate the downward flux of elements in the ocean. We investigated whether the zooplankton community composition could influence the flux attenuation, due to the differences of feeding modes (feeding on dispersed vs. aggregated particles...

  20. Child feeding and human rights

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  1. Framing breastfeeding and formula-feeding messages in popular U.S. magazines.

    Frerichs, Leah; Andsager, Julie L; Campo, Shelly; Aquilino, Mary; Stewart Dyer, Carolyn

    2006-01-01

    Media framing of infant feeding has the ability to influence knowledge and views of the barriers, benefits, and solutions inherent in breastfeeding or formula-feeding. This study examined how seven popular U.S. parenting, general women's, and African American magazines framed breastfeeding and formula-feeding messages to determine whether a sense-making approach was used and the extent to which visual images portrayed feeding practices. Analysis included 615 articles published from 1997 to 2003 that referred to infant feeding. Text and images were analyzed. The magazines provided more information on breastfeeding than formula feeding. Parenting magazines included more advice than barriers or benefits. African American magazines presented more breastfeeding benefits, and general women's magazines contained the least infant-feeding information. Messages were focused on individualized breastfeeding barriers and advice, seldom covered social and environmental issues, and placed much of the responsibility of infant feeding on the mother, while the role of social and partner support was diminished. Bottle-feeding images were nearly as common as breastfeeding images. Findings can be used by public health practitioners to increase the likelihood of reaching certain target audiences through popular magazines.

  2. Relation of supplementary feeding to resumptions of menstruation and ovulation in lactating postpartum women.

    Li, Wei; Qiu, Yi

    2007-05-20

    Resumption of menstrual cycles is one of the indicators for restoration of reproductive capability in postpartum women. However, menstruation does not necessarily mean that ovulation has taken place. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation of supplementary feeding to return of menstruation and ovulation after delivery. A questionnaire was used to obtain data from 101 breastfeeding mothers. The following elements were analyzed: age, education level, breastfeeding practice, time of return of menstruation, contraceptive practice, and starting time of supplementary feeding during the lactation at intervals of 6 weeks to 18 months after delivery. The ovulation was continuously monitored by ultrasonography and basal body temperature (BBT) measurement. By ultrasonography, 53 of the 101 women (52.5%) had the first ovulation (follicle > 1.8 cm in diameter) within 154 days after delivery on average, among whom 11 (10.9%, 11/101) had restoration of ovulation within 4 months and 42 (41.6%, 42/101) had it after 4 months. In women with follicles > 1.8 cm in diameter (n = 53), the menstruation resumed (138 +/- 84) days after delivery, and the supplementary feeding was started at (4.0 +/- 1.1) months, which were significantly earlier than those in the women with follicular diameter menstruation before the end of ultrasonographic monitoring, while only 8 in the women with follicular diameter menstruation (n = 100, r = 0.4764, P < 0.01) and first ovulation after delivery (n = 53, r = 0.5554, P < 0.01). In this series, no woman had pregnancy within 18 months postpartum. Supplementary feeding can affect the restoration of menstrual cycles and ovulation in lactating postpartum women.

  3. A survey on the starting age of complementary feeding and some of its associated factors in the breast-feeding infants (Semnan, Iran

    A. Shahbazi

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is a relationship between children’s survival, development and health and theirfeeding. Malnutrition is a common complication in most of the developing countries. Complementaryfeeding begins in infants when they can not obtain enough energy and nutrients from mother’s milk.Both early and late beginning of complementary nutrition lead to severe complications, and suitableage for feeding in infants is after month 6. The present study was performed to estimate the age ofbeginning of complementary feeding and related factors in infants of Semnan.Materials&Methods: In this cross sectional study, 400 infants aged 6-12 months were analized viaquestionnaire. In each of 8 health centers in Semnan, 50 mothers who referred to health care centers,filled up questionnaires.Results: 76.3% of mothers begin the complementary feeding from 6 months after delivery. Themost common complementary food, which was used, was cereal (69.5%. Mean (±SD beginning ageof complementary feeding was 5.86±0.60 month. Most of mothers (97.5% had been receivedinformation about infant’s feeding through appointments, books, vaccination card and pamphlet priorto their infants reach to age 6 month. There was a significant relationship between occupation ofmother (P=0.049, age of mother (P=0.040, father's educational level (P=0.002, type of delivery(P=0.015 and the beginning age of complementary feeding. However, no significant relationship wasobserved between gender, type of milk, birth order, type of health care center, mother's educationallevel, first complementary feeding, type of mother's education and the beginning age ofcomplementary feeding.Conclusion: The findings of current study showed that 97.5% of mothers were educated forbeginning of complementary feeding in a suitable time; however, about 23% of them didn’t begincomplementary feeding in an appropriate time. Therefore, it seems more effective education isnecessary to give by health care centers

  4. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Stringer, Timothy Kent [Bucyrus, KS; Yerganian, Simon Scott [Lee's Summit, MO

    2009-10-20

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position one or more of the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  5. Characteristics of exogenous carbon monoxide deliveries

    Hui-jun Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO has long been considered an environmental pollutant and a poison. Exogenous exposure to amounts of CO beyond the physiologic level of the body can result in a protective or adaptive response. However, as a gasotransmitter, endogenous CO is important for multiple physiologic functions. To date, at least seven distinct methods of delivering CO have been utilized in animal and clinical studies. In this mini-review, we summarize the exogenous CO delivery methods and compare their advantages and disadvantages.

  6. Infant feeding practices in the rural population of north India

    Syed E Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Breastfeeding is one of the most important determinants of child survival, birth spacing, and the prevention of childhood infections. The beneficial effects of breastfeeding depend on its initiation, duration, and the age at which the breastfed child is weaned. Breastfeeding practices vary among different regions and communities. Objectives: To assess the pattern of infant feeding and its relation to certain practices of maternity and newborn care, and to assess the knowledge of mothers on the advantages of exclusive breastfeeding. Materials and Methods: The cross-sectional study was carried out in randomly selected villages of the Bhojipura Block of Bareilly district, Uttar Pradesh. A total of 123 women who had delivered within the last year were interviewed in a house-to-house survey. A study instrument was used to collect data. Chi- square test and regression analysis were used to analyze the data. Results: Most of the mothers were aged less than 30 years (78.04% and were Hindus (73.9%. Most were illiterate (69.9% and belonged to the lower socioeconomic class (97.5%. The majority were housewives (99.1% and multiparous (68.2%. Most had initiated breastfeeding (78.8% within 24 hours of delivery. About 15.4% of the infants did not receive colostrum and 22.8% of the infants were not exclusively breastfed. Ghutti (water mixed with honey and herbs, boiled water, tea, and animal milk were commonly used pre-lacteal feeds. About 47.2% of the respondents were not aware of the benefits of exclusive breastfeeding. About one quarter of the mothers started complementary feeding before the child was six months old. About half the deliveries had taken place at home and only a quarter of the females had had three or more antenatal visits during pregnancy. The birth weight of the majority (78% of newborns was not measured. A majority (69.9% of the mothers did not receive advice on child feeding. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed

  7. Environmental radioactivity. Measurement and monitoring

    2009-11-01

    The contribution on environmental radioactivity covers the following issues: natural and artificial radioactivity; continuous monitoring of radioactivity; monitoring authorities and measurement; radioactivity in the living environment; radioactivity in food and feeding stuff; radioactivity of game meat and wild-growing mushrooms; radioactivity in mines; radioactivity in the research center Rossendorf.

  8. Archaeosomes: an excellent carrier for drug and cell delivery.

    Kaur, Gurmeet; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Archaeosomes as liposomes made with one or more ether lipids that are unique to the domain of Archaeobacteria, found in Archaea constitute a novel family of liposome. Achaean-type lipids consist of archaeol (diether) and/or caldarchaeol (tetraether) core structures. Archaeosomes can be produced using standard procedures (hydrated film submitted to sonication, extrusion and detergent dialysis) at any temperature in the physiological range or lower, therefore making it possible to encapsulate thermally stable compounds. Various physiological as well as environmental factors affect its stability. Archaeosomes are widely used as drug delivery systems for cancer vaccines, Chagas disease, proteins and peptides, gene delivery, antigen delivery and delivery of natural antioxidant compounds. In this review article, our major aim was to explore the applications of this new carrier system in pharmaceutical field.

  9. Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications Imaging, Targeting, and Delivery

    Prud'homme, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This book clearly demonstrates the progression of nanoparticle therapeutics from basic research to applications. Unlike other books covering nanoparticles used in medical applications, Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery Applications presents the medical challenges that can be reduced or even overcome by recent advances in nanoscale drug delivery. Each chapter highlights recent progress in the design and engineering of select multifunctional nanoparticles with topics covering targeting, imaging, delivery, diagnostics, and therapy.

  10. Valorisation of food waste to produce new raw materials for animal feed.

    San Martin, D; Ramos, S; Zufía, J

    2016-05-01

    This study assesses the suitability of vegetable waste produced by food industry for use as a raw material for animal feed. It includes safety and nutritional viability, technical feasibility and environmental evaluation. Vegetable by-products were found to be nutritionally and sanitarily appropriate for use in animal feed. The drying technologies tested for making vegetable waste suitable for use in the animal feed market were pulse combustion drying, oven and microwave. The different meal prototypes obtained were found to comply with all the requirements of the animal feed market. An action plan that takes into account all the stages of the valorisation process was subsequently defined in agreement with local stakeholders. This plan was validated in a pilot-scale demonstration trial. Finally, the technical feasibility was studied and environmental improvement was performed. This project was funded by the European LIFE+ program (LIFE09 ENV/ES/000473). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Potential of insects as food and feed in assuring food security.

    van Huis, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a serious challenge for the future. Approximately 1,900 insect species are eaten worldwide, mainly in developing countries. They constitute quality food and feed, have high feed conversion ratios, and emit low levels of greenhouse gases. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as fish meal. This requires the development of cost-effective, automated mass-rearing facilities that provide a reliable, stable, and safe product. In the tropics, sustainable harvesting needs to be assured and rearing practices promoted, and in general, the food resource needs to be revalorized. In the Western world, consumer acceptability will relate to pricing, perceived environmental benefits, and the development of tasty insect-derived protein products.

  12. Fermented liquid feed - Microbial and nutritional aspects and impact on enteric diseases in pigs

    Canibe, Nuria; Jensen, Bent Borg

    2012-01-01

    The use of liquid feed in pig nutrition has recently gained interest due to several reasons: (1) the political wish of decreasing the use of antibiotics in pig production; (2) the current fluctuations in feed prices what makes liquid feed, with the possibility of using cheap liquid ingredients......, an interesting feeding strategy; (3) the policies aiming at increasing production of renewable biofuel with a corresponding increase in liquid co-products from the bioethanol industry, suitable for liquid feeding; (4) environmental policies aiming at decreasing disposal of waste, for example, liquid co-products...... mixture. Several factors affect the microbial and nutritional characteristics of the final product and therefore knowledge on the impact of these factors on the characteristics of the mixture is crucial. The initial hours of incubation are characterized by high pH, low numbers of lactic acid bacteria...

  13. Dendrimers for Drug Delivery

    Abhay Singh Chauhan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Dendrimers have come a long way in the last 25 years since their inception. Originally created as a wonder molecule of chemistry, dendrimer is now in the fourth class of polymers. Dr. Donald Tomalia first published his seminal work on Poly(amidoamine (PAMAM dendrimers in 1985. Application of dendrimers as a drug delivery system started in late 1990s. Dendrimers for drug delivery are employed using two approaches: (i formulation and (ii nanoconstruct. In the formulation approach, drugs are physically entrapped in a dendrimer using non-covalent interactions, whereas drugs are covalently coupled on dendrimers in the nanoconstruct approach. We have demonstrated the utility of PAMAM dendrimers for enhancing solubility, stability and oral bioavailability of various drugs. Drug entrapment and drug release from dendrimers can be controlled by modifying dendrimer surfaces and generations. PAMAM dendrimers are also shown to increase transdermal permeation and specific drug targeting. Dendrimer platforms can be engineered to attach targeting ligands and imaging molecules to create a nanodevice. Dendrimer nanotechnology, due to its multifunctional ability, has the potential to create next generation nanodevices.

  14. [Operative vaginal deliveries training].

    Dupuis, O

    2008-12-01

    The appropriate use of forceps, vacuums or spatulas facilitates the rapid delivery of foetuses faced with life-threatening situations. It also makes possible the relief of certain cases of prolonged second-stage labor. In France, operative vaginal delivery (OVD) accounts for approximately 10% of all births. OVD training aims to optimize maternal, as well as neonatal safety. It should enable trainees to indicate or contraindicate an OVD safely, as well as to choose the appropriate instrument, use it correctly, and master quality control principles. Traditional OVD training is confronted with both spatial and time-related limitations. Spatial constraints involve both the teacher and trainee who only have limited visual access to the pelvic canal, and the head of the foetus; the time constraint occurs whenever the OVD occurs in an emergency setting. These limitations have been further aggravated by new constraints: decreasing time dedicated to training (European safety rules prohibit work the day after night duty), increasing litigation, and constraints imposed by society. Training by means of simulation removes such limitations making it possible to both avoid exposing pregnant women to the hazards of traditional training, and adapt the training to the skills of each trainee. OVD training should include forceps, vacuums and the use of spatulas. The OVD skills of obstetricians should be audited regularly on both a personal and a confidential level. Such audits could be based on a method using a simulator. Prospective studies comparing traditional and simulation-based training should be encouraged.

  15. Relationships of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with metabolic rate, methane production, and energy partitioning in beef cattle.

    Nkrumah, J D; Okine, E K; Mathison, G W; Schmid, K; Li, C; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Wang, Z; Moore, S S

    2006-01-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its BW and growth rate over a specified period. The biological mechanisms underlying the variation in feed efficiency in animals with similar BW and growth rate are not well understood. This study determined the relationship of feedlot feed efficiency, performance, and feeding behavior with digestion and energy partitioning of 27 steers. The steers were selected from a total of 306 animals based on their RFI following feedlot tests at the University of Alberta Kinsella Research Station. Selected steers were ranked into high RFI (RFI > 0.5 SD above the mean, n = 11), medium RFI (RFI +/- 0.5 SD above and below the mean, n = 8), and low RFI (RFI 0.10). Residual feed intake was correlated with daily methane production and energy lost as methane (r = 0.44; P < 0.05). Methane production was 28 and 24% less in low-RFI animals compared with high- and medium-RFI animals, respectively. Residual feed intake tended to be associated (P < 0.10) with apparent digestibilities of DM (r = -0.33) and CP (r = -0.34). The RFI of steers was correlated with DE (r = -0.41; P < 0.05), ME (r = -0.44; P < 0.05), heat production (HP; r = 0.68; P < 0.001), and retained energy (RE; r = -0.67; P < 0.001; energy values are expressed in kcal/kg of BW(0.75)). Feedlot partial efficiency of growth was correlated (P < 0.01) with methane production (r = -0.55), DE (r = 0.46), ME (r = 0.49), HP (r = -0.50), and RE (r = 0.62). With the exception of HP (r = 0.37; P < 0.05), feed conversion ratio was unrelated to the traits considered in the study. Feeding duration was correlated (P < 0.01) with apparent digestibility of DM (r = -0.55), CP (r = -0.47), methane production (r = 0.51), DE (r = -0.52), ME (r = -0.55), and RE (r = -0.60). These results have practical implications for the selection of animals that eat less at a similar BW and growth rate and for the environmental sustainability of beef

  16. Live feed culture - Problems and perspectives

    Royan, J.P.

    The importance of live feed in aquaculture is stressed. Organisms currently cultured as live feed are microalgae, turbellarians, tanaidaceans, annelids, brine shrimps, fairy shrimps, rotifers, cladocerans and copepods. Their culture methods...

  17. Carbon source feeding strategies for recombinant protein ...

    USER

    2010-04-12

    Apr 12, 2010 ... protein expression with the influence of the carbon source feeding ... in the culture media, increasing the peroxisomes numbers ...... source, temperature, pH, O2, methanol feeding strategy) ..... Catabolite Inactivation in Yeast.

  18. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    ... 000806.htm Infant Formula - buying, preparing, storing, and feeding To use the sharing features on this page, ... brush to get at hard-to-reach places. Feeding Formula to Baby Here is a guide to ...

  19. Oxidative stress in newborns by different modes of delivery

    Veleminský Jr., M.; Ambrož, Antonín; Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Dostál, Miroslav; Pastorková, Anna; Pulkrabová, J.; Hajslová, J.; Solanský, Ivo; Hanzl, M.; Šrám, Radim

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 6 (2016), s. 445-451 ISSN 0172-780X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-13458S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : vaginal delivery * Cesarean section * newborns Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality OBOR OECD: Public and environmental health Impact factor: 0.918, year: 2016

  20. Alternative Public Service Delivery Models in Health, Water and ...

    This project seeks to analyze health, water and electricity delivery models in Africa, Asia and Latin America in order to identify and document successful alternatives to commercialization. Researchers will draw up a set of ... Documents. Environmental and water management law in post-apartheid South Africa. Documents.

  1. 40 CFR 141.155 - Report delivery and recordkeeping.

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Report delivery and recordkeeping. 141.155 Section 141.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Consumer Confidence Reports § 141.155...

  2. Does feeding frequency affect utilization of added amino acids in Nile tilapia?

    Hoque, Rezaul; Bajgai, Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is one of the major farmed fish species, with main production in Asia, South and Central America that can tolerate a wide range of environmental stress and easily adapt with low quality of feed ingredients. The aims of the experiments were to determine effects of feeding frequency on utilization of protein and energy in Nile tilapia, to quantify differences in excretion of ammonia and ammonium in Nile tilapia fed the same daily ration, distributed over 2 a...

  3. 体外产气法研究沙柳混合发酵饲料对绵羊瘤胃内环境参数的影响%Effects of Salix Mixed Fermented Feed on Ruminal Environmental Parameters by in Vitro Gas Production Method

    李满双; 薛树媛; 王超; 王莉梅; 郭天龙; 金海

    2015-01-01

    The current experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of Salix mixed fermented feed on ruminal environmental parameters by in vitro gas production method. According to the different proportion of Salix (36.44% and 67.08%), two groups of mixed fermentation feed were made, represented by FF1 and FF2 groups respectively. Each group was added the same number of compound bacteria preparation ( live number≥5×107 CFU/g). Gas production and gas production kinetic parameters in 96 h, and ruminal fermentation char-acteristic indexes in 24 h at different fermentation periods of 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 15, 22, 30, 45 and 60 days were determined, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) with the extension of fermentation time, ac-cumulative gas production in 96 h, digestible organic matter content and metabolizable energy were firstly de-creased and then increased. 2) The concentrations of volatile fatty acids and microbial protein were significantly increased ( P<0.05) , while pH, the concentrations of ammonia nitrogen and butyric acid, and acetic acid/pro-pionic acid were significantly decreased by Salix mixed fermentation feed ( P<0.05) . In conclusion, under in vitro culture condition, the two kinds of Salix mixed fermented feed with the supplemental proportion of Salix of 36.44% and 67.08% can effectively promote rumen microbial fermentation, raise energy utilization efficien-cy and increase the microbial protein synthesis in rumen, and the optimal supplemental proportion of Salix is 36.44% compared with 67.08%.%本试验旨在采用体外产气法研究沙柳混合发酵饲料对绵羊瘤胃内环境参数的影响。按沙柳不同添加量(36.44%和67.08%)调制成2组混合发酵饲料,分别用FF1组和FF2组表示,在各组中添加等量的复合菌剂(活菌数≥5×107 CFU/g),考察发酵饲料在发酵1、3、5、7、10、12、15、22、30、45和60 d时,体外培养96 h的产气量、产气动力学参数和24 h瘤胃发酵

  4. Responsive versus scheduled feeding for preterm infants

    Watson, Julie; McGuire, William

    2016-01-01

    Version 5\\ud Background\\ud \\ud Feeding preterm infants in response to their hunger and satiation cues (responsive, cue-based, or infant-led feeding) rather than at scheduled intervals might enhance infants' and parents' experience and satisfaction, help in the establishment of independent oral feeding, increase nutrient intake and growth rates, and allow earlier hospital discharge.\\ud \\ud \\ud Objectives\\ud \\ud To assess the effect of a policy of feeding preterm infants on a responsive basis v...

  5. Does breast-feeding influence liver biochemistry?

    Jørgensen, M. H.; Ott, P.; Juul, A.

    2003-01-01

    It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants.......It is assumed that early feeding can affect liver biochemistry because breast-fed infants have a higher risk of hyperbilirubinemia than formula-fed infants. The authors sought to determine how feeding mode affected liver biochemistry in healthy term infants....

  6. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    Jones, Brian C.

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  7. Hydrodynamics of microbial filter feeding.

    Nielsen, Lasse Tor; Asadzadeh, Seyed Saeed; Dölger, Julia; Walther, Jens H; Kiørboe, Thomas; Andersen, Anders

    2017-08-29

    Microbial filter feeders are an important group of grazers, significant to the microbial loop, aquatic food webs, and biogeochemical cycling. Our understanding of microbial filter feeding is poor, and, importantly, it is unknown what force microbial filter feeders must generate to process adequate amounts of water. Also, the trade-off in the filter spacing remains unexplored, despite its simple formulation: A filter too coarse will allow suitably sized prey to pass unintercepted, whereas a filter too fine will cause strong flow resistance. We quantify the feeding flow of the filter-feeding choanoflagellate Diaphanoeca grandis using particle tracking, and demonstrate that the current understanding of microbial filter feeding is inconsistent with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and analytical estimates. Both approaches underestimate observed filtration rates by more than an order of magnitude; the beating flagellum is simply unable to draw enough water through the fine filter. We find similar discrepancies for other choanoflagellate species, highlighting an apparent paradox. Our observations motivate us to suggest a radically different filtration mechanism that requires a flagellar vane (sheet), something notoriously difficult to visualize but sporadically observed in the related choanocytes (sponges). A CFD model with a flagellar vane correctly predicts the filtration rate of D. grandis , and using a simple model we can account for the filtration rates of other microbial filter feeders. We finally predict how optimum filter mesh size increases with cell size in microbial filter feeders, a prediction that accords very well with observations. We expect our results to be of significance for small-scale biophysics and trait-based ecological modeling.

  8. Mechanisms of Feeding Deterrence by Ziziphins.

    1985-05-30

    number) e mechanism of feeding deterrence by ziziphins for sout rn armyworms ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) was investigated using bo long... Spodoptera eridania , to investigate the mechanisms of feeding deterrence by ziziphins extracted from the leaves of • .Ziziphus jujuba. Evaluation...Videotape Analysis of Feeding Suppression in the Southern Armyworm ( Spodoptera eridania ; Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Produced by Extracts of the

  9. Co-occurring mycotoxins in animal feeds

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-04

    Jul 4, 2008 ... hazards present in animal feeds pose a threat to human health. Public concern on health matters related to food has ... meat, milk or eggs (Park and Laing, 1993; Dorner et al.,. 1994). ... are used in animal feed production (yellow whole maize, sifted ... number of fungal species than processed food and feed.

  10. The Hungry Worm Feeds the Bird

    Onrust, J.; Piersma, T.

    2017-01-01

    Earthworms (Lumbricidae) are important prey for many birds. Based on theirown feeding ecology, earthworms can be separated into two ecotypes: the detritivoresthat feed on organic material and the geophages that feed on soil particlesand organic matter. Detritivores collect their food on the surface

  11. 7 CFR 205.237 - Livestock feed.

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Organic Production and Handling Requirements § 205.237 Livestock feed. (a... specific stage of life; (3) Feed plastic pellets for roughage; (4) Feed formulas containing urea or manure...

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERN AND ENVIRONMENTALLY ...

    critique of theoretical approaches towards understanding the formation of environmental attitudes, a model has been developed ... instances, people must have the motivation and know- ... feelings and emotion, and behaviour to behavioural.

  13. Bulk Fuel Storage and Delivery Systems Infrastructure Military Construction Requirements for Japan

    Padgett, Gary

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, and environmental and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  14. 75 FR 52549 - Environmental Impact Statement; Alabama Beach Mouse Draft General Conservation Plan; Fort Morgan...

    2010-08-26

    ... significantly impairing essential behavioral patterns, including breeding, feeding, and sheltering [50 CFR 17.3..., economics, and other environmental resource issues that could occur directly or indirectly with...

  15. Feed legumes for truly sustainable crop-animal systems

    Paolo Annicchiarico

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Legume cultivation has sharply decreased in Italy during the last 50 years. Lucerne remains widely grown (with about 12% of its area devoted to dehydration, whereas soybean is definitely the most-grown grain legume. Poor legume cropping is mainly due to the gap in yielding ability with major cereals, which has widened up in time according to statistical data. Lucerne displays definitely higher crude protein yield and somewhat lower economic gap with benchmark cereals than feed grain legumes. Pea because of high feed energy production per unit area and rate of genetic progress, and white lupin because of high protein yield per unit area, are particularly interesting for Italian rain-fed environments. Greater legume cultivation in Europe is urged by the need for reducing energy and green-house gas emissions and excessive and unbalanced global N flows through greater symbiotic N fixation and more integrated crop-animal production, as well as to cope with ongoing and perspective raising prices of feed proteins and N fertilisers and insecurity of feed protein supplies. The transition towards greater legume cultivation requires focused research effort, comprehensive stakeholder cooperation and fair economic compensation for legume environmental services, with a key role for genetic improvement dragged by public breeding or pre-breeding. New opportunities for yield improvement arise from the ongoing development of cost-efficient genome-enabled selection procedures, enhanced adaptation to specific cropping conditions via ecophysiological and evolutionary-based approaches, and more thorough exploitation of global genetic resources.

  16. Livestock feed for domestic animals in and around Rokkasho, Aomori

    Iyogi, Takashi; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi; Inaba, Jiro

    2004-01-01

    We collected natural and sociological environmental data related to the estimation of radiation dose by radionuclides that will be released from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, which is now under construction in Rokkasho Village. The consumption rate of livestock feed eaten by domestic animals is an important factor for the estimation of radioactive material transfer to the animals. We surveyed the amount of livestock feed in and around Rokkasho Village by means of questionnaires to stockbreeding farmers. The questionnaires were distributed to 90 farmers who kept one of five kinds of domestic animals or poultry; milking cattle, beef cattle, hogs, broilers and laying hens. Several farming companies were also included as subjects. Recovery of the questionnaires was 59%. The hogs, broilers and laying hens were fed compound feeds consisting of imported materials. The feed for milking cattle and beef cattle consisted of grass, field corn and other concentrates. The consumption rates of grass and field corn for dairy cattle were 22.5 kg-fresh d -1 and 8.3 kg-fresh d -1 , respectively. The grass and field corn consumption rate for beef cattle were 2.8 kg-fresh d -1 and 0.3 kg-fresh d -1 , respectively. All of these rates were lower than those used for dose assessment of the reprocessing plant. (author)

  17. Alternative fish feed production from waste chicken feathers

    Sri Jumini

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this This devotion has been done to provide education and training of the utilization of waste chicken manure, making flour chicken feathers as a fish feed alternative, that can overcome some of the problems that waste chicken feathers from the center cutting broiler chickens in the village Krasak enough, it causes pollution, and not used optimally; Low public awareness of awareness of environmental pollution; the lack of public knowledge about the utilization of waste chicken feathers, and processing technology, as well as to address the needs of fish feed more expensive, need alternative feed ingredients. This service program has provided insight to the public about waste chicken feathers so that it can be used as a new entrepreneurial startups. To achieve these objectives have been done of activity as follows: 1 Provide counseling and understanding of the community will be a negative impact on the environment of waste chicken feathers. 2 Provide counseling utilization of waste chicken feathers for people in nearby farms. 3 Make a chicken feather meal of chicken feather waste as an alternative fish feed to improve digestibility of chicken feathers. 3 The formation of the group for increasing the economic income of the family. This service activities program runs quite well with demonstrated some activity, namely: 1 Change Behavior Society (knowledge transfer; 2 Chicken Feather Extension Waste Utilization; 3 Making Unit Waste Chicken Feathers; 4 Establishment of New Business of Diversified Waste Chicken Feathers.

  18. Reconsidering rumen microbial consortia to enhance feed efficiency and reduce environmental impact of ruminant livestock production systems Consórcios microbianos no rúmen para melhorar a eficiência alimentar e reduzir o impacto ambiental dos sistemas de produção animal

    Jeffrey Lynn Firkins

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Because cultivation-based approaches to assess rumen microbiology assess only the minority of microbial groups and can miss opportunities to assess important functions, molecular-based approaches have flourished in microbial ecology and have been adapted to the rumen. Current approaches are described herein, specifically for a robust adaptation to nutrition studies or future opportunities. These included automated profiling techniques, density gradient gel electrophoresis, and future adaption of microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies. Based on current knowledge, a more holistic approach is needed to describe various functional groups of microbes within the context of how they influence, and are influenced by, the whole consortium (combination of microbial groups. Such a perspective is applied to issues related to increasing fiber digestibility when feeding concentrate or unsaturated fats to high producing beef and dairy cattle. These same microbial populations should help to provide growth factors for fibrolytic bacteria while competing against the hyperammonia-producing bacteria such that there would be less need for excessive rumen-degraded protein as a safety factor. Moreover, these same dietary conditions influence the processes of biohydrogenation and methanogenesis. After accounting for population structures of bacteria, protozoa, methanogenic archaea, and even fungi, efforts to integrate molecular-based rumen microbial ecology with dietary conditions should allow us to better explain and therefore predict conditions that will improve feed efficiency and reduce environmental impact of ruminant production systems.Técnicas tradicionais de identificação de microorganismos ruminais utilizando metodologias de cultivo conseguem identificar um pequeno grupo de bactérias. Técnicas de identificação molecular têm sido amplamente utilizadas em ecossistemas microbiológicos e adaptadas em estudos com ruminantes. Fundamentado no

  19. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    2008-03-01

    . This primarily results from the fact that defined single substances can be dosed to laboratory animals at very large multiples of the expected human exposure, thus giving a large margin of safety. In contrast foodstuffs are bulky, lead to satiation and can only be included in the diet at much lower multiples of expected human intakes. When testing whole foods, the possible highest concentration of the GM food and feed in the laboratory animal diet may be limited because of nutritional imbalance of the diet, or by the presence of compounds with a known toxicological profile. The aim of the 90-days rodent feeding study with the whole GM food and feed is to assess potential unintended effects of toxicological and/or nutritional relevance and to establish whether the GM food and feed is as safe and nutritious as its traditional comparator rather than determining qualitative and quantitative intrinsic toxicity of defined food constituents. The design of the study should be adapted from the OECD 90-day rodent toxicity study. The precise study design has to take into account the nature of the food and feed and the characteristics of the new trait(s) and their intended role in the GM food and feed. A 90-day animal feeding trial has a large capacity (sensitivity and specificity) to detect potential toxicological effects of single well defined compounds. This can be concluded from data reported on the toxicology of a wide range of industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals, food substances, environmental, and agricultural chemicals. It is possible to model the sensitivity of the rat subchronic feeding study for the detection of hypothetically increased amount of compounds such as anti-nutrients, toxicants or secondary metabolites. With respect to the detection of potential unintended effects in whole GM food and feed, it is unlikely that substances present in small amounts and with a low toxic potential will result in any observable (unintended) effects in a 90-day rodent feeding

  20. Factors Causing Exclusive Breast Feeding Failure in a Pakistani Urban Population

    Farrukh, H.; Basheer, F.; Jalil, J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the factors responsible for termination of exclusive breast feeding in our population. Location and Duration: A cross sectional study was conducted at Combined Military Hospital Quetta, from February 2010 to June 2010. Study design: Cross-sectional study. Sample Size: A total of 620 mothers carrying healthy infants were interviewed.Inclusion Criteria: Mothers who failed to exclusively breast feed their infants within first six months of life and started supplemental feeds. Data Collection Procedure: A semi-structured, preformed questionnaire was filled containing information about mothers age, infant sex and reasons for discontinuation of exclusive breast feeding. Data Analysis: Data was analyzed using SPSS version 18. Results: Mean maternal age was 25.87 years. Early failure was seen in 41.9%$ and late failure in 58.1% infants. Difficulties in initiating and establishing breast feeding (84%), knowledge deficit about breast feeding benefits (78.8%) and milk insufficiency (69.2%) were the main reasons for early failure. Deficient knowledge about exclusive breast feeding which included its WHO definition of six months and its benefits (88.9%) was the most common reason of addition of weaning diets after 4 months of age. Other significant factors found for failure were working mothers (21.3%), premature delivery (13.5%), early second pregnancy (16.1%), and perception of poor weight gain by infant while exclusively breast fed (19.4%). Conclusion: Exclusive breast feeding ensures the best possible health of an infant. Dedicated efforts are required at national level for dissemination and promotion of knowledge about exclusive breast feeding. (author)

  1. Parent-reported feeding and feeding problems in a sample of Dutch toddlers

    Moor, J.M.H. de; Didden, H.C.M.; Korzilius, H.P.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with

  2. Behavioral Change Strategies for Improving Complementary Feeding and Breastfeeding.

    Osendarp, Saskia J M; Roche, Marion L

    2016-01-01

    Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding, has been identified as one of the most effective interventions to improve child survival, stunting and wasting. Evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that effective promotion of breastfeeding and complementary feeding, with or without food provision, has the potential to improve IYCF practices and child nutrition. However, in many countries, breastfeeding practices and complementary feeding practices are still far from optimal. The lack of implementation of available, effective, affordable interventions in scale-up programs is in part attributed to a lack of innovative, creative and effective behavioral change strategies that enable and encourage caregivers. Successful behavioral change strategies should be based on a rigorous situational analysis and formative research, and the findings and insights of formative research should be used to further design interventions that address the identified barriers and enablers, to select delivery channels, and to formulate appropriate and effective messages. In addition, successful behavioral change interventions should a priori define and investigate the program impact pathway to target behavioral change and should assess intermediary behavioral changes and indicators to learn why the expected outcome was achieved or not achieved by testing the program theory. The design of behavioral change communication must be flexible and responsive to shifts in societies and contexts. Performance of adequate IYCF also requires investments to generate community demand through social mobilization, relevant media and existing support systems. Applying these principles has been shown to be effective in improving IYCF practices in Vietnam, Bangladesh and Ethiopia and is recommended to be adopted by other programs and countries in order to accelerate progress in improving child nutrition. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Secondary fuel delivery system

    Parker, David M.; Cai, Weidong; Garan, Daniel W.; Harris, Arthur J.

    2010-02-23

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  4. Focus on Delivery

    Hasman, Kirsten; Barfoed, Anne

    Background: Compared to other Nordic countries, Denmark has a high incidence of anal sphincter injury. Recent studies indicate that a strict focus on prevention of severe perineal trauma has decreased the incidence (1). This has resulted in changed clinical procedures in several Danish labour wards...... (2). It is, however, not clarified which of the multifaceted aspects of preventing perineal injury that might explain the decrease (3). Aims: We hypothesized that the use of structured reflection on a clinical practice by midwives and midwifery students would increase both parts’ knowledge on how...... attended the delivery, facilitated the midwife’s and the student’s structured reflection. Further, the project midwife held daily simulation workshops with midwives and students. Two focus group interviews with students and midwives were conducted and analyzed using content analysis. Results and conclusion...

  5. Characterization of Dietary Energy in Swine Feed and Feed Ingredients: A Review of Recent Research Results

    D. E. Velayudhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  6. Characterization of dietary energy in Swine feed and feed ingredients: a review of recent research results.

    Velayudhan, D E; Kim, I H; Nyachoti, C M

    2015-01-01

    Feed is single most expensive input in commercial pork production representing more than 50% of the total cost of production. The greatest proportion of this cost is associated with the energy component, thus making energy the most important dietary in terms of cost. For efficient pork production, it is imperative that diets are formulated to accurately match dietary energy supply to requirements for maintenance and productive functions. To achieve this goal, it is critical that the energy value of feeds is precisely determined and that the energy system that best meets the energy needs of a pig is used. Therefore, the present review focuses on dietary supply and needs for pigs and the available energy systems for formulating swine diets with particular emphasis on the net energy system. In addition to providing a more accurate estimate of the energy available to the animal in an ingredient and the subsequent diet, diets formulated using the this system are typically lower in crude protein, which leads to additional benefits in terms of reduced nitrogen excretion and consequent environmental pollution. Furthermore, using the net energy system may reduce diet cost as it allows for increased use of feedstuffs containing fibre in place of feedstuffs containing starch. A brief review of the use of distiller dried grains with solubles in swine diets as an energy source is included.

  7. Genetically Modified Feed Crops and Feed Ingredients in Indonesia: Opportunities and Constraints of Development

    Bambang R Prawiradiputra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity of the presence of genetically modified organism (GMO forage crops in Indonesia is quite large. Although until now there is no single forage crop awarded safely crop in Indonesia, but several crop byproducts have been used as feed ingredient. The controversy over the presence of GMO plant cannot be avoided. There are a part of communities who could not accept the presence of GMO crops for some reasons. On the other hand, the producers claimed the advantages of the GMO crops such as reducing pesticide application, reducing cost of weeding, more tolerant to biotic and abiotic stresses, and increasing production, farmer’s income and welfare. For the opponent, the main concerns are environmental issues and the possibility of emerging diseases in animal as well as human being. The Biosafety Comission through Biosafety Technical Team has the authority to recommend whether GMO food or feed (and plants is safe or not safe to be consumed and grown in Indonesia after the assessment.

  8. Gender-specific feeding rates in planktonic copepods with different feeding behavior

    van Someren Gréve, Hans; Almeda, Rodrigo; Lindegren, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Planktonic copepods have sexually dimorphic behaviors, which can cause differences in feeding efficiency between genders. Copepod feeding rates have been studied extensively but most studies have focused only on females. In this study, we experimentally quantified feeding rates of males and females...... copepods, particularly in ambush feeders, where the males must sacrifice feeding for mate searching. We conducted gender-specific functional feeding response experiments using prey of different size and motility. In most cases, gender-specific maximum ingestion and clearance rates were largely explained...... in copepods with different feeding behavior: ambush feeding (Oithona nana), feeding-current feeding (Temora longicornis) and cruising feeding (Centropages hamatus). We hypothesize that carbon-specific maximum ingestion rates are similar between genders, but that maximum clearance rates are lower for male...

  9. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Stella Magdalena

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin, enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performance, quality, and health. Functional feeds increase profitability in animal husbandry production and its use is feeds are expected to be functional foods that may have positive effects in human nutrition.

  10. Predictors of exclusive breast-feeding in early infancy: a survey report from Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Sasaki, Yuri; Ali, Moazzam; Kakimoto, Kazuhiro; Saroeun, Ou; Kanal, Koum; Kuroiwa, Chushi

    2010-12-01

    Exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) is recommended in the first 6 months of an infant's life. This study aims to investigate the present status of infant feeding practices and identify factors that affect EBF practices during the first 6 months following infant birth in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. A cross-sectional survey with a semistructured questionnaire was given to 312 mothers with children aged 6 to 24 months who visited the immunization clinic in the National Maternal and Child Health Centre in Phnom Penh, Cambodia, from December 2005 to February 2006. Eighty-three percent of mothers fed breast milk exclusively in the first month, whereas only 51.3% continued EBF in the first 6 months. Within 30 minutes after delivery, 39% of mothers began breast-feeding. Results from logistic regression analysis indicate that the lack of a maternal antenatal EBF plan (odds ratio [OR] = 10.01, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.68-27.24, p feeding classes (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.13-3.28, p feed their babies, keeping in mind the benefits it may yield. Paternal involvement in breast-feeding classes may increase their awareness and consequently complement EBF practices. Finally, development of conducive working environments and policies for working mothers should be carefully explored because it could have positive influence in better care and promotion of EBF. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team Roadmap

    None

    2013-06-01

    The mission of the Hydrogen Delivery Technical Team (HDTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen delivery technologies, which will allow for fuel cell competitiveness with gasoline and hybrid technologies by achieving an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed hydrogen cost of $2-$4 per gallon of gasoline equivalent of hydrogen.

  12. Emerging Frontiers in Drug Delivery.

    Tibbitt, Mark W; Dahlman, James E; Langer, Robert

    2016-01-27

    Medicine relies on the use of pharmacologically active agents (drugs) to manage and treat disease. However, drugs are not inherently effective; the benefit of a drug is directly related to the manner by which it is administered or delivered. Drug delivery can affect drug pharmacokinetics, absorption, distribution, metabolism, duration of therapeutic effect, excretion, and toxicity. As new therapeutics (e.g., biologics) are being developed, there is an accompanying need for improved chemistries and materials to deliver them to the target site in the body, at a therapeutic concentration, and for the required period of time. In this Perspective, we provide an historical overview of drug delivery and controlled release followed by highlights of four emerging areas in the field of drug delivery: systemic RNA delivery, drug delivery for localized therapy, oral drug delivery systems, and biologic drug delivery systems. In each case, we present the barriers to effective drug delivery as well as chemical and materials advances that are enabling the field to overcome these hurdles for clinical impact.

  13. Synthetic sustained gene delivery systems.

    Agarwal, Ankit; Mallapragada, Surya K

    2008-01-01

    Gene therapy today is hampered by the need of a safe and efficient gene delivery system that can provide a sustained therapeutic effect without cytotoxicity or unwanted immune responses. Bolus gene delivery in solution results in the loss of delivered factors via lymphatic system and may cause undesired effects by the escape of bioactive molecules to distant sites. Controlled gene delivery systems, acting as localized depot of genes, provide an extended sustained release of genes, giving prolonged maintenance of the therapeutic level of encoded proteins. They also limit the DNA degradation in the nuclease rich extra-cellular environment. While attempts have been made to adapt existing controlled drug delivery technologies, more novel approaches are being investigated for controlled gene delivery. DNA encapsulated in nano/micro spheres of polymers have been administered systemically/orally to be taken up by the targeted tissues and provide sustained release once internalized. Alternatively, DNA entrapped in hydrogels or scaffolds have been injected/implanted in tissues/cavities as platforms for gene delivery. The present review examines these different modalities for sustained delivery of viral and non-viral gene-delivery vectors. Design parameters and release mechanisms of different systems made with synthetic or natural polymers are presented along with their prospective applications and opportunities for continuous development.

  14. Feeding patterns and diet - children 6 months to 2 years

    Feeding children 6 months to 2 years; Diet - age appropriate - children 6 months to 2 years; Babies - feeding solid food ... per day, but will eat more at each feeding than the first 6 months. If you feed ...

  15. Environmental impacts of beef production: Review of challenges and perspectives for durability.

    Gerber, Pierre J; Mottet, Anne; Opio, Carolyn I; Falcucci, Alessandra; Teillard, Félix

    2015-11-01

    Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle - and other ruminant species - to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive contribution to food balances. This contribution is of particular importance in marginal areas, where agro-ecological conditions and weak infrastructures do not offer much alternative. It is also valuable where cattle convert crop residues and by-products into edible products and where they contribute to soil fertility through their impact on nutrients and organic matter cycles. At the same time, environmental sustainability issues are acute. They chiefly relate to the low efficiency of beef cattle in converting natural resources into edible products. Water use, land use, biomass appropriation and greenhouse gas emissions are for example typically higher per unit of edible product in beef systems than in any other livestock systems, even when corrected for nutritional quality. This particularly causes environmental pressure when production systems are specialized towards the delivery of edible products, in large volumes. The paper discusses environmental challenges at global level, recognizing the large diversity of systems. Beef production is faced with a range of additional sustainability challenges, such as changing consumer perceptions, resilience to climate change, animal health and inequities in access to land and water resources. Entry-points for environmental sustainability improvement are discussed within this broader development context. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Viruses of insects reared for food and feed

    Maciel Vergara, Gabriela; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2017-01-01

    The use of insects as food for humans or as feed for animals is an alternative for the increasing high demand for meat and has various environmental and social advantages over the traditional intensive production of livestock. Mass rearing of insects, under insect farming conditions or even...... with large-scale sequencing techniques, new viruses are rapidly being discovered. We discuss factors affecting the emergence of viruses in mass rearing systems, along with virus transmission routes. Finally we provide an overview of the wide range of measures available to prevent and manage virus outbreaks...... for the productivity and the quality of mass rearing systems. Prevention and management of viral diseases imply the understanding of the different factors that interact in insect mass rearing. This publication provides an overview of the known viruses in insects most commonly reared for food and feed. Nowadays...

  17. Energetic cost of feeding territories in an Hawaiian honeycreeper.

    Carpenter, F Lynn; MacMillen, Richard E

    1976-09-01

    By analysis of time budgets the daily energy expenditure in territorial individuals of a Hawaiian honeycreeper (Vestiaria coccinea, Fam. Drepanididae) were estimated during the nonbreeding season and compared to that of nonterritorial individuals. The mean rise in living costs was 2.3 kcal/24 h or 17% of the nonterritorial energy budget. The most costly territorial behavior was advertisement rather than chasing, and total territorial cost was seen to be little affected by the number of intruders or the size of the territory. These results are compared with data on feeding (nonbreeding) territories of other nectar-feeding birds. The suggestion is made that hummingbirds may be more likely to develop nonbreeding territorial behavior in any set of environmental circumstances than are honeycreepers because of relatively lower total cost of advertisement plus chasing.

  18. An in situ postexposure feeding assay with Carcinus maenas for estuarine sediment-overlying water toxicity evaluations.

    Moreira, Susana M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Guilhermino, Lúcia; Ribeiro, Rui

    2006-01-01

    This study developed and evaluated a short-term sublethal in situ toxicity assay for estuarine sediment-overlying waters, with the crab Carcinus maenas (L.) based on postexposure feeding. It consisted of a 48-h in situ exposure period followed by a short postexposure feeding period (30 min). A precise method for quantifying feeding, using the Polychaeta Hediste (Nereis) diversicolor Müller as food source, was first developed. The sensitivity of the postexposure feeding response was verified by comparing it to that of lethality, upon cadmium exposure. The influence of environmental conditions prevailing during exposure (salinity, temperature, substrate, light regime, and food availability) on postexposure feeding was also addressed. The potential of this in situ assay was then investigated by deploying organisms at ten sites, located in reference and contaminated Portuguese estuaries. Organism recovery ranged between 90% and 100% and a significant postexposure feeding depression (16.3-72.7%) was observed at all contaminated sites relatively to references.

  19. The establishment of a database of Italian feeds for the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System

    Enzo Tartari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A field application of the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS in Italy has been limited because thefeed bank is based on North American feedstuffs and still few laboratories are able to analyze feeds as requested by theCNCPS. Moreover, the standardization of analytical procedures is still not homogeneous among laboratories. This workwas carried out to establish a first database for feeds commonly used in Italy, providing nutritionists and producers anaccurate and current feed composition, also indicating methods and apparatus for analytical procedures potentially availablefor routine analysis. A total of 909 samples of hays, silages and raw materials (protein feeds, cereals and by-productswere analyzed through 1999 and 2002; analysis included protein solubility and degradability, protein fractions,structural carbohydrate fractions and the calculation of neutral detergent structural carbohydrates. When possible, averagedata were compared with those included in the feed bank of CNCPS ver. 3 and with those obtained by another Italianlaboratory. The main differences were observed in chemical composition of forages and silages, whose composition largelydepends on environmental conditions and physiological stage; protein feeds, cereals and by-products showed somedifferences in crude protein, soluble protein and protein fractions even in feeds of national origin.The intent to modify the feed bank values of CNCPS for establishing an Italian data base of feeds will require a collaborativestudy of many laboratories not only for forages, hays and silages samples - whose composition is greatly dependenton environmental factors and agronomic techniques - but also for protein fractions, whose values are largely influencedby even small changes in analytical techniques.

  20. Mucosal delivery of liposome-chitosan nanoparticle complexes.

    Carvalho, Edison L S; Grenha, Ana; Remuñán-López, Carmen; Alonso, Maria José; Seijo, Begoña

    2009-01-01

    Designing adequate drug carriers has long been a major challenge for those working in drug delivery. Since drug delivery strategies have evolved for mucosal delivery as the outstanding alternative to parenteral administration, many new drug delivery systems have been developed which evidence promising properties to address specific issues. Colloidal carriers, such as nanoparticles and liposomes, have been referred to as the most valuable approaches, but still have some limitations that can become more inconvenient as a function of the specific characteristics of administration routes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a new drug delivery system that results from the combination of chitosan nanoparticles and liposomes, in an approach of combining their advantages, while avoiding their individual limitations. These lipid/chitosan nanoparticle complexes are, thus, expected to protect the encapsulated drug from harsh environmental conditions, while concomitantly providing its controlled release. To prepare these assemblies, two different strategies have been applied: one focusing on the simple hydration of a previously formed dry lipid film with a suspension of chitosan nanoparticles, and the other relying on the lyophilization of both basic structures (nanoparticles and liposomes) with a subsequent step of hydration with water. The developed systems are able to provide a controlled release of the encapsulated model peptide, insulin, evidencing release profiles that are dependent on their lipid composition. Moreover, satisfactory in vivo results have been obtained, confirming the potential of these newly developed drug delivery systems as drug carriers through distinct mucosal routes.

  1. The relationship between occupational fatigue and preterm delivery

    Mahbod Ebrahimi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presense of women in workplace is an unavoiding issue in modern world. The women work in different media. Occupational activities are suspected of having an adverse impact on outcomes of pregnancy. Premature delivery is a catastrophic event in course of pregnancy. The aim of the study was to define the incidence of premature delivery in occupationally involved pregnant women. Material and Methods: A total of 287 primigravida women in an urban society with singleton pregnancies at 22 to 24 weeks gestation were enrolled in a prospective study. They worked in industrial manufactures. The patients reported the number of hours worked per week and answered specific questions designed to determine the following 5 sources of occupational fatigue including:1- posture ,2- work with industrial machines 3- physical exertion 4-mental stress and 5- environmental stress. Results: The risk of preterm delivery increased with standing more than 3 hours during activities in work place (p.value=0/019. There was not a statistically significant relationship between premature delivery and other sources of occupational fatigue. There was not a statically significant relationship between premature rupture of fetal membranes and the sources of occupational fatigue. There was not a statistically significant relationship between premature delivery and increasing number of hours worked per week. Conclusion: The relationship between premature delivery and occupational fatigue may provide guidelines according to pregnant women and their employers can be advised.

  2. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects.

    Silva, Giselia A P; Costa, Karla A O; Giugliani, Elsa R J

    2016-01-01

    To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  3. Infant feeding: beyond the nutritional aspects

    Giselia A.P. Silva

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To draw attention to the importance of interaction between caregiver and child during feeding and the influence of parenting style on dietary habit formation. Source of data: A search was performed in the PubMed and Scopus databases for articles addressing responsive feeding; the articles considered most relevant by the authors were selected. Synthesis of data: The way children are fed is decisive for the formation of their eating habits, especially the strategies that parents/caregivers use to stimulate feeding. In this context, responsive feeding has been emphasized, with the key principles: feed the infant directly and assist older children when they already eat on their own; feed them slowly and patiently, and encourage children to eat but do not force them; if the child refuses many types of foods, experiment with different food combinations, tastes, textures, and methods of encouragement; minimize distractions during meals; and make the meals an opportunity for learning and love, talking to the child during feeding and maintaining eye contact. It is the caregiver's responsibility to be sensitive to the child's signs and alleviate tensions during feeding, and make feeding time pleasurable; whereas it is the child's role to clearly express signs of hunger and satiety and be receptive to the caregiver. Conclusion: Responsive feeding is very important in dietary habit formation and should be encouraged by health professionals in their advice to families.

  4. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P

    2015-11-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Effects of genetic mutations and chemical exposures on Caenorhabditis elegans feeding: evaluation of a novel, high-throughput screening assay.

    Windy A Boyd

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies have defined a need to reduce, refine or replace current mammalian-based bioassays with testing methods that use alternative species. Invertebrate species, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, provide an attractive option because of their short life cycles, inexpensive maintenance, and high degree of evolutionary conservation with higher eukaryotes. The C. elegans pharynx is a favorable model for studying neuromuscular function, and the effects of chemicals on neuromuscular activity, i.e., feeding. Current feeding methodologies, however, are labor intensive and only semi-quantitative.Here a high-throughput assay is described that uses flow cytometry to measure C. elegans feeding by determining the size and intestinal fluorescence of hundreds of nematodes after exposure to fluorescent-labeled microspheres. This assay was validated by quantifying fluorescence in feeding-defective C. elegans (eat mutants, and by exposing wild-type nematodes to the neuroactive compounds, serotonin and arecoline. The eat mutations previously determined to cause slow pumping rates exhibited the lowest feeding levels with our assay. Concentration-dependent increases in feeding levels after serotonin exposures were dependent on food availability, while feeding levels decreased in arecoline-exposed nematodes regardless of the presence of food. The effects of the environmental contaminants, cadmium chloride and chlorpyrifos, on wild-type C. elegans feeding were then used to demonstrate an application of the feeding assay. Cadmium exposures above 200 microM led to a sharp drop in feeding levels. Feeding of chlorpyrifos-exposed nematodes decreased in a concentration-dependent fashion with an EC(50 of 2 microM.The C. elegans fluorescence microsphere feeding assay is a rapid, reliable method for the assessment of neurotoxic effects of pharmaceutical drugs, industrial chemicals or environmental agents. This assay may also be applicable to large scale genetic or

  6. Environmental Performance

    Svabo, Connie; Lindelof, Anja Mølle

    from the perspective of time and liveness as experienced in art on environmental performance discussing how environmental performances frame the temporality of the world. The paper engages with contemporary examples of environmental performances from various disciplines (sound, video, television...

  7. Environmental Aesthetics

    Svabo, Connie; Ekelund, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    The philosophical subfield environmental aesthetics can contribute to the design of sustainable futures. Environmental aesthetics provides a conceptual framework for understanding the relationship between nature and culture. Current positions in environmental aesthetics are lined out and used...

  8. Effect of Ochratoxin A on Body Weight, Feed Intake and Feed Conversion in Broiler Chicken

    Sigamani Masilamani Sakthivelan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ochratoxin A (OA on the body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion was investigated in broiler chicken fed dietary levels of OA at 0, 1, and 2 ppm for 28 days from hatch. Feeding OA significantly reduced the growth rate of broiler chicken. The reduction was observed from the first week onwards in OA-treated groups. Feed consumption and feed conversion also showed a diminishing trend from the first week of feeding toxin. Its implication on the performance of broiler chicken is discussed.

  9. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Jarquin, Robin; Hanning, Irene; Ahn, Soohyoun; Ricke, Steven C.

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered. PMID:22346699

  10. Development of Rapid Detection and Genetic Characterization of Salmonella in Poultry Breeder Feeds

    Steven C. Ricke

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness in the United States, with poultry and poultry products being a primary source of infection to humans. Poultry may carry some Salmonella serovars without any signs or symptoms of disease and without causing any adverse effects to the health of the bird. Salmonella may be introduced to a flock by multiple environmental sources, but poultry feed is suspected to be a leading source. Detecting Salmonella in feed can be challenging because low levels of the bacteria may not be recovered using traditional culturing techniques. Numerous detection methodologies have been examined over the years for quantifying Salmonella in feeds and many have proven to be effective for Salmonella isolation and detection in a variety of feeds. However, given the potential need for increased detection sensitivity, molecular detection technologies may the best candidate for developing rapid sensitive methods for identifying small numbers of Salmonella in the background of large volumes of feed. Several studies have been done using polymerase chain reaction (PCR assays and commercial kits to detect Salmonella spp. in a wide variety of feed sources. In addition, DNA array technology has recently been utilized to track the dissemination of a specific Salmonella serotype in feed mills. This review will discuss the processing of feeds and potential points in the process that may introduce Salmonella contamination to the feed. Detection methods currently used and the need for advances in these methods also will be discussed. Finally, implementation of rapid detection for optimizing control methods to prevent and remove any Salmonella contamination of feeds will be considered.

  11. Ceramic drug-delivery devices.

    Lasserre, A; Bajpai, P K

    1998-01-01

    A variety of ceramics and delivery systems have been used to deliver chemicals, biologicals, and drugs at various rates for desired periods of time from different sites of implantation. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that ceramics can successfully be used as drug-delivery devices. Matrices, inserts, reservoirs, cements, and particles have been used to deliver a large variety of therapeutic agents such as antibiotics, anticancer drugs, anticoagulants, analgesics, growth factors, hormones, steroids, and vaccines. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of conventional drug-delivery systems and the different approaches used to deliver chemical and biological agents by means of ceramic systems will be reviewed.

  12. Factors influencing initiation of breast-feeding.

    Ekwo, E E; Dusdieker, L B; Booth, B M

    1983-04-01

    We used the critical incidence method to study factors motivating 33 primigravidas and 39 multigravidas to initiate breast-feeding of their infants. Women chose breast-feeding because they believed that it would provide protection to the infant against infection, establish maternal-infant bonding, was convenient, provided better nutrition than cow's milk formula, was emotionally satisfying, and was the natural way to feed infants. The decision to breast-feed was made well in advance of pregnancy by primigravidas and shortly before pregnancy by multigravidas. Friends who had successfully nursed infants were as influential as immediate family members in influencing our study subjects in their decision to breast-feed. Prenatal counseling, though important, may not be the optimal period for motivating women to breast-feed.

  13. Pediatric feeding and swallowing rehabilitation: An overview.

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Harding, Celia; van Gerven, Marjo; Cockerill, Helen

    2017-05-16

    Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on supporting growth, nutrition and hydration, the development of feeding activities, and ensuring safe swallowing with the aim of preventing choking and aspiration pneumonia. Pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders can be divided into four groups: transient, developmental, chronic or progressive.This article provides an overview of the available literature about the rehabilitation of feeding and swallowing disorders in infants and children. Principles of motor control, motor learning and neuroplasticity are discussed for the four groups of children with feeding and swallowing disorders.

  14. Bulk Fuel Storage Requirements for Maintenance, Repair, and Environmental Projects at Fort Hood, Texas

    Carros, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    This report is one in a series that addresses the accuracy and reliability of maintenance, repair, environmental, and construction requirements for bulk fuel storage and delivery systems infrastructure...

  15. Feeding Releases Endogenous Opioids in Humans.

    Tuulari, Jetro J; Tuominen, Lauri; de Boer, Femke E; Hirvonen, Jussi; Helin, Semi; Nuutila, Pirjo; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2017-08-23

    The endogenous opioid system supports a multitude of functions related to appetitive behavior in humans and animals, and it has been proposed to govern hedonic aspects of feeding thus contributing to the development of obesity. Here we used positron emission tomography to investigate whether feeding results in hedonia-dependent endogenous opioid release in humans. Ten healthy males were recruited for the study. They were scanned with the μ-opioid-specific ligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after a palatable meal, a nonpalatable meal, and after an overnight fast. Subjective mood, satiety, and circulating hormone levels were measured. Feeding induced significant endogenous opioid release throughout the brain. This response was more pronounced following a nonpalatable meal versus a palatable meal, and independent of the subjective hedonic responses to feeding. We conclude that feeding consistently triggers cerebral opioid release even in the absence of subjective pleasure associated with feeding, suggesting that metabolic and homeostatic rather than exclusively hedonic responses play a role in the feeding-triggered cerebral opioid release. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The endogenous opioid system supports both hedonic and homeostatic functions. It has been proposed that overeating and concomitant opioid release could downregulate opioid receptors and promote the development of obesity. However, it remains unresolved whether feeding leads to endogenous opioid release in humans. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to test whether feeding triggers cerebral opioid release and whether this response is associated with pleasurable sensations. We scanned volunteers using the μ-opioid receptor-specific radioligand [ 11 C]carfentanil three times, as follows: after an overnight fast, after consuming a palatable meal, and after consuming a nonpalatable meal. Feeding led to significant endogenous opioid release, and this occurred also in the absence of feeding

  16. Feeding and rearing behaviour in tsetse flies

    Otieno, L.H.; Youdeowei, Y.

    1980-01-01

    Batwing membrane was used to study salivation and feeding behaviour of tsetse flies. Probing and salivation were observed to be stimulated by tarsal contact with the membrane. Salivation and feeding responses varied from day to day with characteristic alternating high and low responses. The feeding process was invariably accompanied by a resting period. Attempts to rear G. morsitans artificially through the use of batwing membrane showed that the flies needed an initial adjustment period to in vitro maintenance. (author)

  17. Utilization of Natural Products as Functional Feed

    Stella Magdalena; Natadiputri G H; Nailufar; Purwadaria T

    2013-01-01

    The use of antibiotics as feed additive improves performance in livestock. However, scientific data related to the use of antibiotics in feed merge spreading of bacterial resistance in animal and human bodies, therefore the usage of antibiotics in animal production is restricted. This condition raise the utilization of natural antibiotic as functional feed such as phytogenics (essential oil, flavonoid, saponin, and tannin), enzyme, probiotic, and prebiotic to improve the livestock’s performan...

  18. Environmental Law

    2001-01-01

    Contains information on the National Environmental Policy Act, the Clean Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the Endangered Species Act, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability...

  19. Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits

    2008-06-01

    The biggest black holes may feed just like the smallest ones, according to data from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and ground-based telescopes. This discovery supports the implication of Einstein's relativity theory that black holes of all sizes have similar properties, and will be useful for predicting the properties of a conjectured new class of black holes. The conclusion comes from a large observing campaign of the spiral galaxy M81, which is about 12 million light years from Earth. In the center of M81 is a black hole that is about 70 million times more massive than the Sun, and generates energy and radiation as it pulls gas in the central region of the galaxy inwards at high speed. In contrast, so-called stellar mass black holes, which have about 10 times more mass than the Sun, have a different source of food. These smaller black holes acquire new material by pulling gas from an orbiting companion star. Because the bigger and smaller black holes are found in different environments with different sources of material to feed from, a question has remained about whether they feed in the same way. Using these new observations and a detailed theoretical model, a research team compared the properties of M81's black hole with those of stellar mass black holes. The results show that either big or little, black holes indeed appear to eat similarly to each other, and produce a similar distribution of X-rays, optical and radio light. AnimationMulti-wavelength Images of M81 One of the implications of Einstein's theory of General Relativity is that black holes are simple objects and only their masses and spins determine their effect on space-time. The latest research indicates that this simplicity manifests itself in spite of complicated environmental effects. "This confirms that the feeding patterns for black holes of different sizes can be very similar," said Sera Markoff of the Astronomical Institute, University of Amsterdam in the Netherlands, who led the study

  20. Laparoscopic insertion of the Moss feeding tube.

    Albrink, M H; Hagan, K; Rosemurgy, A S

    1993-12-01

    Placement of enteral feeding tubes is an important part of a surgeon's skill base. Surgical insertion of feeding tubes has been performed safely for many years with very few modifications. With the recent surge in interest and applicability of other laparoscopic procedures, it is well within the skills of the average laparoscopic surgeon to insert feeding tubes. We describe herein a simple technique for the insertion of the Moss feeding tube. The procedure described has a minimum of invasion, along with simplicity, safety, and accuracy.

  1. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Validity of the toddler feeding questionnaire for measuring parent authoritative and indulgent feeding practices which are associated with stress and health literacy among Latino parents of preschool children.

    Heerman, William J; Lounds-Taylor, Julie; Mitchell, Stephanie; Barkin, Shari L

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the contribution of parental feeding practices to childhood obesity among Latino children is a solution-oriented approach that can lead to interventions supporting healthy childhood growth and lowering rates of obesity. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability and validity of the Toddler Feeding Questionnaire (TFQ) to measure parental feeding practices among a sample of Spanish-speaking parent-preschool child pairs (n = 529), and to test the hypothesis that parent characteristics of body mass index (BMI), stress, and health literacy are associated with more indulgent and less authoritative feeding practices. Standardized parent-report questionnaires were completed during baseline interviews in a randomized controlled trial of an obesity prevention intervention. The TFQ includes subscales for indulgent practices (11 items), authoritative practices (7 items), and environmental influences (6 items) with response options scored on a 5-point Likert scale and averaged. Factor analysis confirmed a three-factor structure. Internal consistency was good for indulgent (α = 0.66) and authoritative (α = 0.65) practices but lower for environmental (α = 0.48). Spearman correlation showed indulgent practices and environmental influences were associated with unhealthy child diet patterns, whereas authoritative practices were associated with a healthier child diet. Multivariate linear regression showed higher parent stress was associated with higher indulgent and lower authoritative scores; higher parent health literacy was positively associated with indulgent scores. These results indicate the TFQ is a valid measure of authoritative and indulgent parent feeding practices among Spanish-speaking parents of preschool-age children and that stress and health literacy, potentially modifiable parent characteristics, could be targeted to support healthy feeding practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Feed pumps for a NPP

    Rzhebaev, Eh.E.; Zhukov, V.M.; Evtushenko, A.A.

    1977-01-01

    Given is a brief description of results of designing and testing the PE850-65 and SPE1650-75 pilot feed pumps for 440 MWe pressurized water reactors and for 1000 MWe boiling water reactors. Described is a bench-mark facility for the SPE1650-75 pump with full-scale parameters. The adjustment results of the preconnected axial wheel of the 1PE1650-75 pump during the service life tests of a pilot pump have been given. Practical results on new methods of the preconnected axial wheel protection have been obtained. The design criteria developed provide for the long life time within the proven range of circular velocities. Confirmed is a possibility of carrying out advanced tests for estimating the cavitation destruction intensity using the vibration due to cavitation

  4. Drug delivery across length scales.

    Delcassian, Derfogail; Patel, Asha K; Cortinas, Abel B; Langer, Robert

    2018-02-20

    Over the last century, there has been a dramatic change in the nature of therapeutic, biologically active molecules available to treat disease. Therapies have evolved from extracted natural products towards rationally designed biomolecules, including small molecules, engineered proteins and nucleic acids. The use of potent drugs which target specific organs, cells or biochemical pathways, necessitates new tools which can enable controlled delivery and dosing of these therapeutics to their biological targets. Here, we review the miniaturisation of drug delivery systems from the macro to nano-scale, focussing on controlled dosing and controlled targeting as two key parameters in drug delivery device design. We describe how the miniaturisation of these devices enables the move from repeated, systemic dosing, to on-demand, targeted delivery of therapeutic drugs and highlight areas of focus for the future.

  5. Oral delivery of anticancer drugs

    Thanki, Kaushik; Gangwal, Rahul P; Sangamwar, Abhay T

    2013-01-01

    The present report focuses on the various aspects of oral delivery of anticancer drugs. The significance of oral delivery in cancer therapeutics has been highlighted which principally includes improvement in quality of life of patients and reduced health care costs. Subsequently, the challenges...... incurred in the oral delivery of anticancer agents have been especially emphasized. Sincere efforts have been made to compile the various physicochemical properties of anticancer drugs from either literature or predicted in silico via GastroPlus™. The later section of the paper reviews various emerging...... trends to tackle the challenges associated with oral delivery of anticancer drugs. These invariably include efflux transporter based-, functional excipient- and nanocarrier based-approaches. The role of drug nanocrystals and various others such as polymer based- and lipid based...

  6. Continuous Delivery and Quality Monitoring

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    After introducing Continuous Delivery, I will switch the topic and try to answer the question how much should we invest in quality and how to do it efficiently. My observations reveal that software quality is often considered as the slo...

  7. Distiller's Grains for Dairy Cattle and Potential Environmental Impact

    Stallings, Charles C.

    2009-01-01

    Describes how distiller's grain's with solubles (DDGS) are produced, covers their protein, fat or oil and phosphorous quantity and quality, provides recommendations for use as feed for dairy cattle, as well as recommendations to minimize environmental impacts.

  8. Feed and product for AVLIS

    Williams, T.

    1991-01-01

    Today, fuel cycle organizations around the world, including British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) are undertaking the development of a new and demanding enrichment technology, customarily referred to by its American Acronym AVLIS (atomic vapor laser isotope separation). Successful commercialization of the technology will threaten established fuel cycle activities and is likely to send shock waves throughout the world industry. The stakes are high for all involved in the civil nuclear industry: do the potential rewards match up? US Department of Energy (US DOE) is regarded as the organization most committed to the early commercialization of AVLIS technology and is aiming to deploy an initial commercial plant within 6 years. However, the timescale is of course subject to a satisfactory technical progress and, no less importantly, continued funding of the necessary development and construction activities. Coupled with the changes that will be needed at the enrichment plant interfaces, the implications for feed supply and product usage, it can be seen that the 1997 target deployment date is an ambitious one. Other organizations are also developing atomic laser enrichment routes, but for the post-2000 timeframe. US DOE's desire to push ahead with early AVLIS deployment has to be seen in this global context. The different feed and product material interface requirements could generate resistance to the use of AVLIS by customers and other fuel cycle companies. The BNFL/URENCO atomic vapor laser enrichment development program is able to profit from USDOE's experience by ensuring very early that it encompasses all fuel cycle aspects. A process is being developed that is optimized from yellowcake to ceramic UO 2 , rather than just the difficult enrichment process. This is far more likely, if it becomes economically competitive, to produce a good match with customer requirements and so reduce the commercial risks of such a decision

  9. ER phospholipid composition modulates lipogenesis during feeding and in obesity.

    Rong, Xin; Wang, Bo; Palladino, Elisa Nd; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Ford, David A; Tontonoz, Peter

    2017-10-02

    Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) is a central regulator of lipogenesis whose activity is controlled by proteolytic cleavage. The metabolic factors that affect its processing are incompletely understood. Here, we show that dynamic changes in the acyl chain composition of ER phospholipids affect SREBP-1c maturation in physiology and disease. The abundance of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine in liver ER is selectively increased in response to feeding and in the setting of obesity-linked insulin resistance. Exogenous delivery of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine to ER accelerated SREBP-1c processing through a mechanism that required an intact SREBP cleavage-activating protein (SCAP) pathway. Furthermore, induction of the phospholipid-remodeling enzyme LPCAT3 in response to liver X receptor (LXR) activation promoted SREBP-1c processing by driving the incorporation of polyunsaturated fatty acids into ER. Conversely, LPCAT3 deficiency increased membrane saturation, reduced nuclear SREBP-1c abundance, and blunted the lipogenic response to feeding, LXR agonist treatment, or obesity-linked insulin resistance. Desaturation of the ER membrane may serve as an auxiliary signal of the fed state that promotes lipid synthesis in response to nutrient availability.

  10. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70 degrees C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/degree C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm 3 at 20 degrees C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm 3 at 70 degrees C

  11. Key principles to improve programmes and interventions in complementary feeding.

    Lutter, Chessa K; Iannotti, Lora; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary; Guyon, Agnes; Daelmans, Bernadette; Robert, Rebecca; Haider, Rukhsana

    2013-09-01

    Although there are some examples of successful complementary feeding programmes to promote healthy growth and prevent stunting at the community level, to date there are few, if any, examples of successful programmes at scale. A lack of systematic process and impact evaluations on pilot projects to generate lessons learned has precluded scaling up of effective programmes. Programmes to effect positive change in nutrition rarely follow systematic planning, implementation, and evaluation (PIE) processes to enhance effectiveness over the long term. As a result a set of programme-oriented key principles to promote healthy growth remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to fill this gap by proposing a set of principles to improve programmes and interventions to promote healthy growth and development. Identifying such principles for programme success has three requirements: rethinking traditional paradigms used to promote improved infant and young child feeding; ensuring better linkages to delivery platforms; and, improving programming. Following the PIE model for programmes and learning from experiences from four relatively large-scale programmes described in this paper, 10 key principles are identified in the areas of programme planning, programme implementation, programme evaluation, and dissemination, replication, and scaling up. Nonetheless, numerous operational research questions remain, some of which are highlighted in this paper. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Density of simulated americium/curium melter feed solution

    Rudisill, T.S.

    1997-09-22

    Vitrification will be used to stabilize an americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution presently stored in F-Canyon for eventual transport to Oak Ridge National Laboratory and use in heavy isotope production programs. Prior to vitrification, a series of in-tank oxalate precipitation and nitric/oxalic acid washes will be used to separate these elements and lanthanide fission products from the bulk of the uranium and metal impurities present in the solution. Following nitric acid dissolution and oxalate destruction, the solution will be denitrated and evaporated to a dissolved solids concentration of approximately 100 g/l (on an oxide basis). During the Am/Cm vitrification, an airlift will be used to supply the concentrated feed solution to a constant head tank which drains through a filter and an in-line orifice to the melter. Since the delivery system is sensitive to the physical properties of the feed, a simulated solution was prepared and used to measure the density as a function of temperature between 20 to 70{degrees} C. The measured density decreased linearly at a rate of 0.0007 g/cm3/{degree} C from an average value of 1.2326 g/cm{sup 3} at 20{degrees} C to an average value of 1.1973g/cm{sup 3} at 70{degrees} C.

  13. Organoclays for drug delivery Systems

    Canovas Creus, Alba

    2008-01-01

    Modified clays can be used as carriers of drugs due to their suitable properties and structure in order to achieve improvements in drug delivery. The study of this thesis starts with an introduction to mineral clays and its classification, properties and characterization, then deepens into modified clays (properties, comparison with mineral clays, applications and procedure of modification). Another chapter is focused in drug delivery: definition, its difficulties nowadays and the different w...

  14. Hotspots of inefficiency: Mapping the difference between crop production and food calorie delivery

    Cassidy, E. S.; Foley, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Meeting growing demands for food calories will be a substantial challenge. One place to search for solutions is in how we allocate the world's crops, and finding ways to feed more people with current crop production. Currently, a substantial proportion of crop calories are used as animal feed, and only a small fraction of those feed calories ultimately contribute to human diets. Countries like the United States and China, which together produce over a third of the world's meat, eggs and dairy, lose a substantial portion of calories and protein to the feed-to-animal conversion process. This study looks at global croplands that have a large difference between calories grown, and the food calories available for consumption. These hotspots have the potential to feed more people, while reducing environmental impacts of agriculture.;

  15. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery

    Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-01

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals—a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality. PMID:26825969

  16. Adapting Behavioral Interventions for Social Media Delivery.

    Pagoto, Sherry; Waring, Molly E; May, Christine N; Ding, Eric Y; Kunz, Werner H; Hayes, Rashelle; Oleski, Jessica L

    2016-01-29

    Patients are increasingly using online social networks (ie, social media) to connect with other patients and health care professionals--a trend called peer-to-peer health care. Because online social networks provide a means for health care professionals to communicate with patients, and for patients to communicate with each other, an opportunity exists to use social media as a modality to deliver behavioral interventions. Social media-delivered behavioral interventions have the potential to reduce the expense of behavioral interventions by eliminating visits, as well as increase our access to patients by becoming embedded in their social media feeds. Trials of online social network-delivered behavioral interventions have shown promise, but much is unknown about intervention development and methodology. In this paper, we discuss the process by which investigators can translate behavioral interventions for social media delivery. We present a model that describes the steps and decision points in this process, including the necessary training and reporting requirements. We also discuss issues pertinent to social media-delivered interventions, including cost, scalability, and privacy. Finally, we identify areas of research that are needed to optimize this emerging behavioral intervention modality.

  17. Levodopa delivery systems: advancements in delivery of the gold standard.

    Ngwuluka, Ndidi; Pillay, Viness; Du Toit, Lisa C; Ndesendo, Valence; Choonara, Yahya; Modi, Girish; Naidoo, Dinesh

    2010-02-01

    Despite the fact that Parkinson's disease (PD) was discovered almost 200 years ago, its treatment and management remain immense challenges because progressive loss of dopaminergic nigral neurons, motor complications experienced by the patients as the disease progresses and drawbacks of pharmacotherapeutic management still persist. Various therapeutic agents have been used in the management of PD, including levodopa (l-DOPA), selegiline, amantadine, bromocriptine, entacapone, pramipexole dihydrochloride and more recently istradefylline and rasagiline. Of all agents, l-DOPA although the oldest, remains the most effective. l-DOPA is easier to administer, better tolerated, less expensive and is required by almost all PD patients. However, l-DOPA's efficacy in advanced PD is significantly reduced due to metabolism, subsequent low bioavailability and irregular fluctuations in its plasma levels. Significant strides have been made to improve the delivery of l-DOPA in order to enhance its bioavailability and reduce plasma fluctuations as well as motor complications experienced by patients purportedly resulting from pulsatile stimulation of the striatal dopamine receptors. Drug delivery systems that have been instituted for the delivery of l-DOPA include immediate release formulations, liquid formulations, dispersible tablets, controlled release formulations, dual-release formulations, microspheres, infusion and transdermal delivery, among others. In this review, the l-DOPA-loaded drug delivery systems developed over the past three decades are elaborated. The ultimate aim was to assess critically the attempts made thus far directed at improving l-DOPA absorption, bioavailability and maintenance of constant plasma concentrations, including the drug delivery technologies implicated. This review highlights the fact that neuropharmaceutics is at a precipice, which is expected to spur investigators to take that leap to enable the generation of innovative delivery systems for the

  18. Recycle food wastes into high quality fish feeds for safe and quality fish production.

    Wong, Ming-Hung; Mo, Wing-Yin; Choi, Wai-Ming; Cheng, Zhang; Man, Yu-Bon

    2016-12-01

    The amount of food waste generated from modern societies is increasing, which has imposed a tremendous pressure on its treatment and disposal. Food waste should be treated as a valuable resource rather than waste, and turning it into fish feeds would be a viable alternative. This paper attempts to review the feasibility of using food waste to formulate feed pellets to culture a few freshwater fish species, such as grass carp, grey mullet, and tilapia, under polyculture mode (growing different species in the same pond). These species occupy different ecological niches, with different feeding modes (i.e., herbivorous, filter feeding, etc.), and therefore all the nutrients derived from the food waste could be efficiently recycled within the ecosystem. The problems facing environmental pollution and fish contamination; the past and present situation of inland fish culture (focusing on South China); upgrade of food waste based feed pellets by adding enzymes, vitamin-mineral premix, probiotics (yeast), prebiotics, and Chinese medicinal herbs into feeds; and potential health risks of fish cultivated by food waste based pellets are discussed, citing some local examples. It can be concluded that appropriate portions of different types of food waste could satisfy basic nutritional requirements of lower trophic level fish species such as grass carp and tilapia. Upgrading the fish pellets by adding different supplements mentioned above could further elevated the quality of feeds, leading to higher growth rates, and enhanced immunity of fish. Health risk assessments based on the major environmental contaminants (mercury, PAHs and DDTs) in fish flesh showed that fish fed food waste based pellets are safer for consumption, when compared with those fed commercial feed pellets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Insects used for animal feed in West Africa

    M. Kenis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In West Africa, as in many parts of the world, livestock and fish farming suffer from the increasing cost of feed, especially protein ingredients, which are hardly available for village poultry farming and small-scale fish farming. Insects, which are a natural food source of poultry and fish and are rich in protein and other valuable nutrients, can be used to improve animal diets, a practice which is now strongly promoted by the FAO as a tool for poverty alleviation. This paper reviews practices and research on the use of insects as animal feed in West Africa and the perspectives to further develop the techniques, in particular for smallholder farmers and fish farmers. The most promising insects are flies, especially the house fly (Musca domestica (Diptera Muscidae and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens (Diptera Stratiomyiidae, which can be mass reared on-farm for domestic use, in small production units at the community or industrial level. Flies have the advantage over most other insects of developing on freely available waste material and could even contribute to rural sanitation. Termites are traditionally used by smallholder farmers to feed village poultry. While their mass production is problematic, methods to enhance populations on-farm and facilitate collection can be developed. In any case, new methods will need to demonstrate their economic profitability, social acceptability and environmental sustainability

  20. Effect of nutrient density, NSP source, coarseness of NSP and feed form on performance and behaviour of hens at early lay.

    Krimpen, van, M.M.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Andre, G.; Peet-Schwering, van der, C.M.C.; Hartog, den, L.A.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    Feather pecking in layers is a multi factorial problem, which can be caused by environmental, genetic or nutritional factors. From the literature it has been shown that nutritional factors may positively or negatively affect feather pecking behaviour in laying hens. Nutritional factors seem to reduce feather pecking behaviour in laying hens if these factors increase the time spent on feeding behaviour, by affecting foraging and feed intake. Laying hens may spend more time on these feeding beh...

  1. Host feeding in insect parasitoids: why destructively feed upon a host that excretes an alternative?

    Burger, J.S.M.; Reijnen, T.M.; Van Lenteren, J.C.; Vet, L.E.M.

    2004-01-01

    Host feeding is the consumption of host tissue by the adult female parasitoid. We studied the function of destructive host feeding and its advantage over non-destructive feeding on host-derived honeydew in the whitefly parasitoid Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). We allowed

  2. Effects of feeding un-extruded floating feed to African giant catfish ...

    This study investigated the effects of feeding two types of un-extruded floating fish feeds (HM1 and HM2 –38% CP, produced manually using available feedstuffs) and a commercial imported fish feed (Coppens – 40% CP) on growth performance and body composition of Heterobranchus longifilis over 56 days. Commercial ...

  3. The Primary Care Electronic Library: RSS feeds using SNOMED-CT indexing for dynamic content delivery

    Judas Robinson

    2006-12-01

    Conclusion The results of the pilot illustrate that it is possible to exchange data between servers using RSS syndication. This method could be utilised dynamically to supply digital library resources to a clinical system with SNOMED-CTdata used as the standard of reference.

  4. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    BLACKER, S.M.

    2000-04-13

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented.

  5. River Protection Project waste feed delivery program technical performance measurement assessment plan

    O'TOOLE, S.M.

    1999-01-01

    This plan establishes a formal technical performance-monitoring program. Technical performance is assessed by establishing requirements based performance goals at the beginning of a program and routinely evaluating progress in meeting these goals at predetermined milestones throughout the project life cycle

  6. Waste Feed Delivery Strategy for Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107

    BLACKER, S.M.

    2000-01-01

    This engineering study establishes the detailed retrieval strategy, equipment requirements, and key parameters for preparing detailed process flowsheets; evaluates the technical and programmatic risks associated with processing, certifying, transferring, and delivering waste from Tanks 241-AN-102 and 241-AN-107 to BNFL; and provides a list of necessary follow-on actions so that program direction from ORP can be successfully implemented

  7. Colloidal drug delivery system: amplify the ocular delivery.

    Ali, Javed; Fazil, Mohd; Qumbar, Mohd; Khan, Nazia; Ali, Asgar

    2016-01-01

    The ocular perceivers are the most voluntarily accessible organs in terms of location in the body, yet drug distribution to these tissues is one of the most intriguing and challenging endeavors and problematic to the pharmaceutical scientist. The most of ocular diseases are treated with topical application of conventional formulation, i.e. solutions, suspensions and ointment. Typically on installation of these conventional formulations, only <5% of the applied dose penetrates the cornea and reaches intraocular tissues, while a major fraction of the instilled dose is wastage due to the presence of many ocular barriers like external barriers, rapid loss of the instilled solution from the precorneal area and nasolacrimal drainage system. Systemic absorption caused systemic side effects varying from mild to life-threatening events. The main objective of this review is to explore the role of colloidal delivery of drug to minimize the drawbacks associated with them. This review provides an insight into the various constraints associated with ocular drug delivery, summarizes recent findings and applications of colloidal delivery systems, i.e. nanoparticles, nanosuspensions, liposomes, niosomes, dendrimers and contact lenses containing nanoparticles have the capacity to distribute ocular drugs to categorical target sites and hold promise to revolutionize the therapy of many ocular perceiver diseases and minimized the circumscription of conventional delivery. Form the basis of literature review, it has been found that the novel delivery system have greater impact to maximize ocular drug absorption, and minimize systemic absorption and side effects.

  8. Neonatal outcomes and operative vaginal delivery versus cesarean delivery.

    Contag, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    We compared outcomes for neonates with forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. This is a secondary analysis of a randomized trial in laboring, low-risk, nulliparous women at >or=36 weeks\\' gestation. Neonatal outcomes after use of forceps, vacuum, and cesarean were compared among women in the second stage of labor at station +1 or below (thirds scale) for failure of descent or nonreassuring fetal status. Nine hundred ninety women were included in this analysis: 549 (55%) with an indication for delivery of failure of descent and 441 (45%) for a nonreassuring fetal status. Umbilical cord gases were available for 87% of neonates. We found no differences in the base excess (P = 0.35 and 0.78 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) or frequencies of pH below 7.0 (P = 0.73 and 0.34 for failure of descent and nonreassuring fetal status) among the three delivery methods. Birth outcomes and umbilical cord blood gas values were similar for those neonates with a forceps-assisted, vacuum-assisted, or cesarean delivery in the second stage of labor. The occurrence of significant fetal acidemia was not different among the three delivery methods regardless of the indication.

  9. Risk profile related to production and consumption of insects as food and feed

    Fels, van der H.J.

    2015-01-01

    The present opinion has the format of a risk profile and presents potential biological and chemical hazards as well as allergenicity and environmental hazards associated with farmed insects used as food and feed taking into account of the entire chain, from farming to the final product. The opinion

  10. HIERARCHIAL DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF PROCESSES TO GENERATE WASTE-RECYCLED FEEDS

    Hierarchical Design and Evaluation of Processes to Generate Waste-Recycled FeedsRaymond L. SmithU.S. Environmental Protection AgencyOffice of Research and DevelopmentNational Risk Management Research Laboratory26 W. Martin Luther King DriveCincinna...

  11. Deriving Genomic Breeding Values for Residual Feed Intake from Covariance Functions of Random Regression Models

    Strathe, Anders B; Mark, Thomas; Nielsen, Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    Random regression models were used to estimate covariance functions between cumulated feed intake (CFI) and body weight (BW) in 8424 Danish Duroc pigs. Random regressions on second order Legendre polynomials of age were used to describe genetic and permanent environmental curves in BW and CFI...

  12. First genetic quantification of sex- and stage-specific feeding in the ubiquitous copepod Acartia tonsa

    Ismar, Stefanie M.H.; Kottmann, Johanna Sarah; Sommer, Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    -specific feeding differences between Acartia life stages and sexes, which can have implications on food-web dynamics and specific nutrient transfer to higher trophic levels in copepod populations of varying age composition under changing environmental parameters, such as rising temperatures and increasing ocean...... acidification....

  13. A retrospective analysis of known and potential risks associated with exotic toadflax-feeding insects

    Sharlene E. Sing; Robert K. D. Peterson; David K. Weaver; Richard W. Hansen; George P. Markin

    2005-01-01

    To date, eight exotic toadflax-feeding insect species have been accidentally or intentionally introduced to North America. Reports on their establishment and impact have been recorded for more than 60 years. Environmental risks linked to biological control of toadflax were identified in terms of host resources and undesirable impacts on the target species through the...

  14. Analysing trade-offs between milk, feed and manure production on Dutch dairy farms

    Samson, Sabrina; Gardebroek, C.; Jongeneel, R.A.

    2017-01-01

    The abolition of milk quota fuels environmental concerns in the Netherlands. A microeconomic model is developed to analyse the technical relations between milk, roughage and manure production. Production functions for milk, feed and roughage are estimated based on milk quota and manure constraints.

  15. The relationship between different measures of feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits in Duroc pigs.

    Lu, D; Jiao, S; Tiezzi, F; Knauer, M; Huang, Y; Gray, K A; Maltecca, C

    2017-08-01

    Utilization of feed in livestock species consists of a wide range of biological processes, and therefore, its efficiency can be expressed in various ways, including direct measurement, such as daily feed intake, as well as indicator measures, such as feeding behavior. Measuring feed efficiency is important to the swine industry, and its accuracy can be enhanced by using automated feeding systems, which record feed intake and associated feeding behavior of individual animals. Each automated feeder space is often shared among several pigs and therefore raises concerns about social interactions among pen mates with regard to feeding behavior. The study herein used a data set of 14,901 Duroc boars with individual records on feed intake, feeding behavior, and other off-test traits. These traits were modeled with and without the random spatial effect of Pen_Room, a concatenation of room and pen, or random social interaction among pen mates. The nonheritable spatial effect of common Pen-Room was observed for traits directly measuring feed intake and accounted for up to 13% of the total phenotypic variance in the average daily feeding rate. The social interaction effect explained larger proportions of phenotypic variation in all the traits studied, with the highest being 59% for ADFI in the group of feeding behaviors, 73% for residual feed intake (RFI; RFI4 and RFI6) in the feed efficiency traits, and 69% for intramuscular fat percentage in the off-test traits. After accounting for the social interaction effect, residual BW gain and RFI and BW gain (RIG) were found to have the heritability of 0.38 and 0.18, respectively, and had strong genetic correlations with growth and off-test traits. Feeding behavior traits were found to be moderately heritable, ranging from 0.14 (ADFI) to 0.52 (average daily occupation time), and some of them were strongly correlated with feed efficiency measures; for example, there was a genetic correlation of 0.88 between ADFI and RFI6. Our work

  16. Environmental strategy

    Zabkar, Vesna; Cater, Tomaz; Bajde, Domen

    2013-01-01

    perspective, appropriate environmental strategies in compliance with environmental requirements aim at building competitive advantages through sustainable development. There is no universal “green” strategy that would be appropriate for each company, regardless of its market requirements and competitive......Environmental issues and the inclusion of environmental strategies in strategic thinking is an interesting subject of investigation. In general, managerial practices organized along ecologically sound principles contribute to a more environmentally sustainable global economy. From the managerial...

  17. 9 CFR 3.9 - Feeding.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.9 Section 3.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.9 Feeding. (a) Dogs and cats must be fed at least once each day...

  18. 9 CFR 3.29 - Feeding.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.29 Section 3.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Hamsters Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.29 Feeding. (a) Guinea pigs and hamsters shall be fed...

  19. 9 CFR 3.82 - Feeding.

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Feeding. 3.82 Section 3.82 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE... Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.82 Feeding. (a) The diet for nonhuman primates must be...

  20. Trend analysis of mycotoxins in animal feed

    Adamse, P.; Egmond, van H.J.; Driessen, J.J.M.; Rijk, de T.C.; Jong, de J.; Nijs, de W.C.M.

    2012-01-01

    Feed materials were analysed for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and B2, and HT-2- and T-2-toxins. In this report trends in the average content during the period 2001-2009 are reported for these mycotoxins. Monitoring data from the National Feed