WorldWideScience

Sample records for federal clean air

  1. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water Pollution...

  2. Federal-state partnership: An overview of the Clean Air Act through the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter examines the experience with Clean Air Act regulation over the past two decades as a means of understanding the multiple layers of regulatory requirements that now exist since the enactment of the 1990 Amendments to the Act. The efforts of Congress and the EPA to deal with the complexities of clean air regulation suggest several themes for the 1990s: more federal oversight, more complex regulatory issues, an emphasis on alternatives to traditional rulemaking proceedings, and a search for innovative ways to control the escalating costs of clean air regulation

  3. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211 Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water...

  4. Air emission points for facilities in Iowa with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act_considered MAJOR permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Air emission points for facilities in Iowa with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, considered "major" permits. Also includes emission points...

  5. Nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report briefly describes the history of the use of high- efficiency particulate air filters for air cleaning at nuclear installations in the United States and discusses future uses of such filters

  6. The Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coburn, L.L.

    1990-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments alter the complex laws affecting atmospheric pollution and at the same time have broad implications for energy. Specifically, the Clean Air Act amendments for the first time deal with the environmental problem of acid deposition in a way that minimizes energy and economic impacts. By relying upon a market-based system of emission trading, a least cost solution will be used to reduce sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by almost 40 percent. The emission trading system is the centerpiece of the Clean Air Act (CAA) amendments effort to resolve energy and environmental interactions in a manner that will maximize environmental solutions while minimizing energy impacts. This paper will explore how the present CAA amendments deal with the emission trading system and the likely impact of the emission trading system and the CAA amendments upon the electric power industry

  7. Electric utilities and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.E.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that electricity has become essential to American life. Approximately 70 percent of the nation's electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels, with coal, the most abundant, domestically-available, extracted natural resource, providing over 55 percent of the total electricity consumed. Emissions resulting from the burning of fossil fuels are regulated by both the federal and state governments. In 1970, Congress passed the comprehensive Clean Air Act which established a national program to protect the nation's air quality. In 1977, additional strict regulations were passed, which mandated even more stringent emission controls for factories, power plants and auto emissions. Prior to passage of the Clean Air Act of 1990, utilities were required to adhere to three major types of clean air regulations: National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) review. NAAQS established limits for the maximum concentration levels of specific air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. For example, for an area to be in compliance with the NAAQS for sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), its annual average SO 2 concentration must not exceed 0.03 ppm of SO 2 and a peak 24 hour level of 0.14 ppm of SO 2 must not be exceeded more than once per year

  8. Analysis of recently enacted national energy legislation and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as related to Decontamination and Decommissioning at Federal, State, and private facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This report is a summary of an analysis of recently enacted national energy legislation and the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 as related to Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) at Federal, State and private facilities. It is submitted pursuant to Appendix A of subcontract 9-X62-0785E-1, dated July 27, 1992, between the Regents of the University of California and Van Ness, Feldman ampersand Curtis

  9. Canada's Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper provided an outline of Canada's Clean Air Act and examined some of the regulatory changes that will occur as a result of its implementation. The Act is being introduced to strengthen the legislative basis for taking action on reducing air pollution and GHGs, and will allow the government to regulate both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHGs. The Act will require the Ministers of the Environment and Health to establish national air quality objectives, as well as to monitor and report on their attainment. The Canadian Environmental Protection Act will be amended to enable the government to regulate the blending of fuels and their components. The Motor Vehicle Fuel Consumption Standards Act will also be amended to enhance the government's authority to regulate vehicle fuel efficiency. The Energy Efficiency Act will also be expanded to allow the government to set energy efficiency standards and labelling requirements for a wider range of consumer and commercial products. The Act will commit to short, medium and long-term industrial air pollution targets. Regulations will be proposed for emissions from industry; on-road and off-road vehicles and engines; and consumer and commercial products. It was concluded that the Government of Canada will continue to consult with provinces, territories, industries and Canadians to set and reach targets for the reduction of both indoor and outdoor air pollutants and GHG emissions. 6 figs

  10. A guide for determining compliance with the Clean Air Act Standards for radionuclide emissions from NRC-licensed and non-DOE federal facilities (Rev. 1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-10-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued standards under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act of February 6, 1985 that limit airborne emissions of radionuclides to the atmosphere. In February 1989 these standards were re proposed , and in November 1989 final standards may be promulgated. This document provides guidance for determining compliance with one of the National Emissions for Hazardous Air Pollutants covering facilities that are licensed by NRC, and federal facilities not operated by the DOE, that could emit radionuclides to the ai00.

  11. Air-cleaning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    An air-cleaning, heat-exchange apparatus includes a main housing portion connected by means of an air inlet fan to the kitchen exhaust stack of a restaurant. The apparatus includes a plurality of heat exchangers through which a heat-absorptive fluid is circulated, simultaneously, by means of a suitable fluid pump. These heat exchangers absorb heat from the hot exhaust gas, out of the exhaust stack of the restaurant, which flows over and through these heat exchangers and transfers this heat to the circulating fluid which communicates with remote heat exchangers. These remote heat exchangers further transfer this heat to a stream of air, such as that from a cold-air return duct for supplementing the conventional heating system of the restaurant. Due to the fact that such hot exhaust gas is heavily grease laden , grease will be deposited on virtually all internal surfaces of the apparatus which this exhaust gas contacts. Consequently, means are provided for spraying these contacted internal surfaces , as well as the hot exhaust gas itself, with a detergent solution in which the grease is soluble, thereby removing grease buildup from these internal surfaces

  12. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1319...

  13. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  14. Canadian government motivators for clean air vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forster, J. [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    1999-07-01

    A slide presentation is included which covers: why support clean air vehicles, key areas of action including climate change and cleaner air and conclusions. Reasons for supporting clean air vehicles include: the environment is not a top of mind issue for Canadians but is a core issue, transportation contributes significantly to environmental problems, e.g., 40-50% of smog emissions, and 27% of greenhouse gas emissions, and clean air vehicles are part of the solution. The first area of action is that of climate change, and includes as elements: the Kyoto Protocol, First Ministers, and 15 Issue Tables. The second area of action is clean air. Action on climate change can have ancillary benefits, e.g., reduction in smog-related emissions. Government is taking action to address smog in concert with the provinces in the Federal Smog Management Plan. A key element in the Plan is that of ensuring that appropriate emissions standards are in place. Transport Canada supports clean air vehicles through research conducted at the Transporation Research and Development Centre. Further Transport Canada involvement includes: partnership in Montreal 2000, demonstration/conversion testing, development of advanced EV systems, and membership in the CEVEQ. In the longer term, new technologies hold the key to addressing many environmental challenges. This is particularly true with respect to climate change and air quality, and new vehicle technologies will play an important role.

  15. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.

  16. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based...... on an experimental study, a technology called clean air heat pump is proposed as a practical approach for indoor air cleaning....

  17. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  18. Air conditioning systems to clean radioactive air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganz, G.

    1987-01-01

    The author reports a study by the Institutes fuer Klimatechnik and Umweltschutz Giessen that shows that air conditioning systems not only make the atmosphere more comfortable, they also extract dust particles. This cleaning action is also valid for radioactively contaminated air. (G.T.H./Auth.)

  19. Meeting the clean air demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocker, C.

    1991-01-01

    This article addresses the impacts to the emissions control industry and the future of small independent projects of the Clean Air Act. Topics discussed include technological and market niche of pollution control companies, risk reduction by owning and operating the emission control portion of the plant as a separate entity, the diversity of technologies, and legislative effects

  20. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  1. Nuclear air cleaning activities in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1991-01-01

    The discussion is limited to nuclear air cleaning activities in the Federal Republic of Germany. Work is underway on containment venting with regard to filtration based on a combination of stainless steel roughing and fine filters with a decontamination factor similar to or better than that achieved with high-efficiency particulate air filters. The main point of interest is the development of relatively small filter units that can be located inside the containment. The concept of a new design for double containment having annular rooms between the steel containment and the concrete containment is discussed. Work related to the dismantling of decommissioned reactors and limited research for fuel reprocessing facilities are also noted

  2. Pollution Law - Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt Glaeser, W.; Meins, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    This volume deals with how the living space air is kept clean by means of the pollution law, focussing on the documentation of central problems of pollution law by means of selected articles and court decisions. The literature and jurisdiction available on this sector of which we can hardly keep track makes such a documentation look useful and necessary. It will make working easier for those who do not have direct access to large libraries. The only intention of the guide for the pollution law which preceeds the documentation is to outline basic problems. It is intended to provide basic information in this complex field of law. At the same time, it also constitutes a 'guide' for the documentation: By naming the documentation number in the margin of the respective passage reference is made to the documented publications which deal with the legal issues considered. Using this guide, the documentation can be easily tapped. (orig.) [de

  3. Containment air cleaning for LMFBRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Owen, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1979-01-01

    A variety of air cleaning concepts was evaluated for potential use in future sodium-cooled breeder reactors. A 3-stage aqueous scrubber system was selected for large-scale demonstration testing under conditions similar to those postulated for containment venting and purging during reactor melt-through accidents. Two tests were performed in the Containment Systems Test Facility using a quench tank, a jet venturi scrubber and a high efficiency fibrous scrubber in series. The results of two tests with Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH aerosol and NaI vapor are presented showing >99.9% removal of Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ and NaOH and >99.7% for NaI. 7 refs

  4. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  5. The Federal Air Pollution Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Described is the Federal air pollution program as it was in 1967. The booklet is divided into these major topics: History of the Federal Program; Research; Assistance to State and Local Governments; Abatement and Prevention of Air Pollution; Control of Motor Vehicle Pollution; Information and Education; and Conclusion. Federal legislation has…

  6. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    Building occupants, including cleaning personnel, are exposed to a wide variety of airborne chemicals when cleaning agents and air fresheners are used in buildings. Certain of these chemicals are listed by the state of California as toxic air contaminants (TACs) and a subset of these are regulated...... by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals...... that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which...

  7. Clean Air Markets - Monitoring Surface Water Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about how EPA uses Long Term Monitoring (LTM) and Temporily Integrated Monitoring of Ecosystems (TIME) to track the effect of the Clean Air Act Amendments on acidity of surface waters in the eastern U.S.

  8. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  9. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...

  10. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  11. Odor and the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, H.N.

    1993-01-01

    The case described in this paper involves the interpretation of language contained in the Texas Clean Air Act Texas Health and Safety Code Ann. Sections 382.001-382.141. The State of Texas, on behalf of the Texas Air Control Board, brought suit in the District Court of Erath County, Texas against the F/R Cattle Company, Inc., alleging that, because of odors emanating from the company's cattle feeding facility, the company was violating the Clean Air Act. The Board is granted the power and duty to administer the Clean Air Act and is directed to accomplish the purposes of the Act through the control of air contaminants by all practical and economically feasible methods. Described here is the evidence presented at and proceedings of the trial

  12. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks was equip......An experiment with 28 human subjects was performed to examine effects of using a local air cleaning device combined with ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality. Experiments were performed in a test room with displacement ventilation. The DPV at one of two desks...... was equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C. The pollution load in the room was simulated by PVC floor covering. The subjects assessed...

  13. Source terms in relation to air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernero, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    There are two sets of source terms for consideration in air cleaning, those for routine releases and those for accident releases. With about 1000 reactor years of commercial operating experience in the US done, there is an excellent data base for routine and expected transient releases. Specifications for air cleaning can be based on this body of experience with confidence. Specifications for air cleaning in accident situations is another matter. Recent investigations of severe accident behavior are offering a new basis for source terms and air cleaning specifications. Reports by many experts in the field describe an accident environment notably different from previous models. It is an atmosphere heavy with aerosols, both radioactive and inert. Temperatures are sometimes very high; radioiodine is typically in the form of cesium iodide aerosol particles; other nuclides, such as tellurium, are also important aerosols. Some of the present air cleaning requirements may be very important in light of these new accident behavior models. Others may be wasteful or even counterproductive. The use of the new data on accident behavior models to reevaluate requirements promptly is discussed

  14. Continuing challenges in nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The safe operation of nuclear facilities is heavily dependent upon the adequate performance of air cleaning systems. Although many problems have been solved, new questions and new challenges continue to arise. These are well illustrated by weaknesses in air cleaning and ventilating systems revealed by the Browns Ferry fire, and the need to develop additional data on the reliability of such systems, particularly under emergency conditions, as revealed by the Reactor Safety Study. Assessments of the degree to which engineered safety features can compensate for deficiencies in nuclear power plant sites continue to challenge those involved in risk/benefit evaluations. Additional challenges are being generated by the air cleaning requirements associated with the commercial development of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

  15. New air cleaning technology in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Y.; Kitani, S.; Matsui, H.; Ikezawa, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Application of the new techniques and improvements in air cleaning systems have been made to reduce release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities based on the ALARA concept. For example, the reduction of release of radioactive gaseous effluents has been made by installation of a charcoal gas hold-up system and a clean steam supply system for a turbine gland seal in a BWR and of a gas decay tank system in a PWR. In connection with the effort for reduction of releases in plants, research and development on air cleaning technology have also been made. Some activities mentioned in the present paper are: removal of particulates, airborne radioiodine, noble gases and tritium; penetration characteristics of submicron DOP aerosol for HEPA filters; radioiodine removal from air exhausts; and operational performance of the incineration plants using ceramic filters

  16. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq...

  17. Electricity competition and clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, J.; Bjorkquist, S.

    1998-04-01

    The government of Ontario plans to establish a competitive market for the generation and sale of electricity by the year 2000, at which time Ontario Hydro will lose its monopoly. The government's rationale for moving to a competitive electricity market and the details of why this move could lead to a significant increase in air pollution was discussed. An overview of the health and environmental effects of electricity related air pollution was presented and the current national and provincial air quality objectives were outlined. The government of Ontario has promised that in implementing a competitive electricity market it will ensure that the province's environmental protection record is maintained and improved. It was suggested that in order to fulfill this commitment, new environmental regulations should be established to ensure that Ontario's total electricity-related emissions will decline when competition begins. Currently, air pollution from coal-fired power generating stations causes some of Ontario's most challenging health and environmental problems. Coal-fired generation stations are also major contributors to the build-up of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 74 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs

  18. Testing of nuclear air-cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    A standard is presented which describes methods for field-testing nuclear power plant air cleaning systems. Included are specifications for visual inspection; duct and housing leak test; mounting frame pressure leak test; airflow capacity, distribution, and residence time tests; air-aerosol mixing uniformity test; in place leak test of HEPA filter banks; multiple sampling technique; in-place leak test of adsorber stage; laboratory testing of adsorbent; and duct heater performance test

  19. Senate begins clean air legislation debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yates, M.

    1990-01-01

    This article reports on Senate debate on the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1989. Topics include acid rain provisions, administration objections, costs of the bill including disparity of costs in different regions and cost-sharing proposals, and the effects the current energy policy will have on the bill. Presidential, Senate, and subcommittee views on the bill are presented

  20. CARBON ADSORPTION FOR INDOOR AIR CLEANING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the use of carbon adsorption for indoor air cleaning, focusing on the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) using granular activated carbon (GAC). It addresses GAC performance in two directions. Initially, it presents performance measurements for GAC at...

  1. Clean air: time for responsible reform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, G.

    1982-01-01

    An opinion concerning the renewal of the Clean Air Act by Gary Hart, the U.S. Senator from Colorado, is presented. Hart discusses how effective programs covered by the act can be preserved, how burdensome requirements can be streamlined, and how coverage can be expanded to unforeseen problems

  2. Ensuring clean air: Developing a clean air strategy for British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    In 1992, a clean air strategy will be developed to incorporate views of British Columbians on ways to meet goals related to air quality. A discussion paper is presented to provide information to those interested in participation in developing this strategy. The paper gives information on air quality issues important to the province, including local air quality, urban smog, ozone layer depletion, and global climate change. The views and concerns expressed by stakeholders who attended the Clean Air Conference in 1991 are summarized. The process used to develop the clean air strategy is outlined and some outcomes to be anticipated from the strategy are suggested, including policies and priorities for action to ensure clean air. Air pollutants of concern are total reduced sulfur, mainly from pulp mills and gas processing plants; smoke from wood burning; sulfur dioxide from pulp mills and gas plants; hydrogen fluoride from aluminum smelting; ground-level ozone in urban areas; and acid rain. Elements of a clean air strategy include a smoke management policy, management strategies for greenhouse gases and ozone smog, ozone layer protection measures, regional air quality management plans, and long-term planning efforts in energy use, transportation modes, community design, and land use. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Controlling the cost of clean air - A new clean coal technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kindig, J.K.; Godfrey, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the authors' alternative to expensive coal combustion products clean-up by cleaning the coal, removing the sulfur, before combustion. Topics discussed include sulfur in coal and the coal cleaning process, the nature of a new coal cleaning technology, the impact on Clean Air Act compliance, and the economics of the new technology

  4. Benefits and Costs of the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress added to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments a requirement under section 812 that EPA conduct periodic, scientifically reviewed studies to assess the benefits and the costs of the entire Clean Air Act.

  5. Significant OH production under surface cleaning and air cleaning conditions: Impact on indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carslaw, N; Fletcher, L; Heard, D; Ingham, T; Walker, H

    2017-11-01

    We report measurements of hydroxyl (OH) and hydroperoxy (HO 2 ) radicals made by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy in a computer classroom (i) in the absence of indoor activities (ii) during desk cleaning with a limonene-containing cleaner (iii) during operation of a commercially available "air cleaning" device. In the unmanipulated environment, the one-minute averaged OH concentration remained close to or below the limit of detection (6.5×10 5  molecule cm -3 ), whilst that of HO 2 was 1.3×10 7  molecule cm -3 . These concentrations increased to ~4×10 6 and 4×10 8  molecule cm -3 , respectively during desk cleaning. During operation of the air cleaning device, OH and HO 2 concentrations reached ~2×10 7 and ~6×10 8  molecule cm -3 respectively. The potential of these OH concentrations to initiate chemical processing is explored using a detailed chemical model for indoor air (the INDCM). The model can reproduce the measured OH and HO 2 concentrations to within 50% and often within a few % and demonstrates that the resulting secondary chemistry varies with the cleaning activity. Whilst terpene reaction products dominate the product composition following surface cleaning, those from aromatics and other VOCs are much more important during the use of the air cleaning device. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. ''How clean is clean'' in the United States federal and Washington State cleanup regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landau, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    The enactment of legislation and promulgation of implementing regulations generally involves the resolution of conflicting goals. Defining ''How Clean is Clean?'' in federal and state cleanup laws, regulations, and policies is no exception. Answering the ''How Clean is Clean?'' question has resulted in the identification of some important and sometimes conflicting goals. Continuing resolution of the following conflicting goals is the key to effect cleanup of hazardous waste sites: Expediency vs. Fairness; Flexibility vs. Consistency; Risk Reduction vs. Risk Causation; and Permanence vs. Cost Effectiveness

  7. The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torrens, I.M.; Cichanowicz, J.E.; Platt, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    The impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments on utilities are substantial, presenting a host of new technical challenges, introducing new business risks, changing costs of electric generation, creating new winners and losers, and calling for new organizational responses capable of dealing with the complexity and short time for decisions. The magnitude of costs and unknowns puts clean air compliance into a new league of energy issues, in which the decisions utilities must make are not simply technological or engineering economic choices, but rather are very complex business decisions with numerous stakeholders, pitfalls, and opportunities. This paper summarizes the key regulatory requirements of the CAAA, outlines compliance options and questions facing the utility industry, and addresses how utility strategic business decisions could be affected

  8. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosby, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    The natural gas liquids industry and specifically the gas processing business has not been rosy the last several years. processors have been faced with low NGL prices, high inventories and more regulations which have forced product margins to all time lows and have resulted in plant closings, mergers and a determined search for those processors that are left for ways to make ends meet until times get better. Whether a barometer for the future or merely a fluke in the economy, things got better in 1990. Last year represented a change for the positive in all the indicators characterizing the gas processing business. An early winter in 1989, propane distribution problems, overall increases in petrochemical demand for NGLs and the fear brought on by events in Kuwait all contributed to changes in the marketplace. For the gas processor, these events combined with relatively low natural gas prices to produce wider processing margins and a degree of prosperity. The biggest regulatory event in 1990 however was without a doubt the Clean Air Act Amendments. These sweeping changes to the 1970 Clean Air Act promise to affect the economy and public health well into the next century. The purpose of this paper is to examine first the major provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and then relate those anticipated changes to the gas processing industry. As will be examined later, the Amendments will create both threats and opportunities for gas processors

  9. Clean Air Act amendments of 1991: Detailed summary of titles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    ;Contents: Provisions for Attainment and Maintenance of National Ambient Air Quality Standards; Provisions Relating to Mobile Sources; Hazardous Air Pollutants; Acid Deposition Control; Permits; Stratospheric Ozone Protection; Provisions Relating to Enforcement; Miscellaneous Provisions; Clean Air Research; Disadvantaged Business Concerns; Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance

  10. Motivations for self-regulation: The clean air action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuliano, Genevieve; Linder, Alison

    2013-01-01

    In the fall of 2006 the Ports of Long Beach and Los Angeles announced the Clean Air Action Plan (CAAP). Its intent was to greatly accelerate emissions reductions from port activities. The CAAP was unprecedented in several ways: it was a voluntary agreement between two competing ports; it was achieved with the cooperation of local, state and federal agencies; it promised large particulate emissions reductions along with continued port growth, and it had a price tag of $2.1 billion. What explains the Ports’ decision to implement the CAAP? We conduct a case study to explore alternative explanations for the CAAP. Using data from interviews, media, and the history of events leading up to the CAAP, we find that the CAAP was a strategic response to social and political pressures that had built up over the previous decade. Its intent was to respond to local concerns and reduce opposition to port growth. The CAAP represents an example of the potential of voluntary efforts to solve environmental problems. - Highlights: • We conduct a case study of self-regulation for emissions reduction at seaports in Southern California. • We examine motivations for implementing the Clean Air Action Plan. • We find that social and political pressures were the main motivators, with regulatory threats a contributing factor. • The Clean Air Action Plan is a powerful example of the potential of voluntary strategies

  11. Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Interagency Committee on Indoor Air Quality (CIAQ), which meets three times a year, was established by Congress to coordinate the activities of the Federal Government on issues relating to Indoor Air Quality.

  12. Cleaning up commingled uranium mill tailings: is Federal assistance necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    GAO was asked to determine whether Federal assistance should be given to operating mill owners that have processed uranium for sale to both government and industry and, thus, generated residual radioactive wastes. The wastes generated for both government and commercial use are called commingled uranium mill tailings. GAO recommends that the Congress provide assistance to active mill owners to share in the cost of cleaning up that portion of the tailings which were produced under Federal contract. Further, GAO believes that the Congress should also consider having the Federal government assist those mills who acted in good faith in meeting all legal requirements pertaining to controlling the mill tailings that were generated for commercial purposes and for which the Federal government is now requiring retroactive remedial action. At the same time, the Congress should make sure that this action establishes no precedent for the Federal government assuming the financial responsibility of cleaning up other non-Federal nuclear facilities and wastes, including those mill tailings generated after the date when the Federal government notified industry that the failings should be controlled

  13. Toronto 2001 Inter-governmental Declaration on Clean Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This formal declaration commits the municipalities in the Greater Toronto Area, the provincial government of Ontario, and the federal government in Ottawa to undertake certain specific actions to improve air quality in their respective areas of jurisdiction, recognizing the validity of claims made by experts in numerous studies, linking air pollution to premature deaths, illnesses and hospitalization in major Canadian cities. The declaration also recognizes the validity of scientific claims as to the relationship between solar radiation, ambient heat, ground level ozone and global climate change, and the role played in air pollution by fossil fuel combustion. The Declaration calls for cooperation of all governments operating in the Greater Toronto Area to take inter-governmental actions to improve air quality by following up on key issues identified at annual Summits and by supporting the planning of future Summits, by working together with the Toronto Organizing Committee for the Olympic Games to ensure that the 2008 Olympic Games will contribute to a legacy of clean air for the Toronto region, and by implementing a social marketing campaign to help householders reduce both home energy use and vehicle kilometres travelled by 20 per cent. Beyond these inter-governmental commitments, special commitments of individual municipalities, and the provincial and federal governments also form part of the Declaration

  14. Experimental study on air cleaning effect of clean air heat pump and its impact on ventilation requirement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Sheng, Ying; Nie, Jinzhe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated air purification effect of a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) which combined a desiccant wheel with a heat pump for both air cleaning and HVAC of buildings. The experiment was conducted in a field lab at four different outdoor air supply rates with and without air cleaning by CAHP....... Both sensory assessments of perceived air quality and chemical measurements of TVOC concentrations were conducted for evaluating the air cleaning performance of the CAHP. The results of experiment showed that running the CAHP improved significantly perceived air quality. At 2 L/s per person of outdoor...... air supply rate with operating the CAHP, the air quality was equivalent to the value at the higher outdoor air supply rate of 10 L/s per person without running CAHP. The TVOC measurements observed over 92% of efficiency on removal of indoor air VOCs and no VOCs accumulation on the desiccant wheel...

  15. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...... to investigate its energy performance. Energy consumption of the prototype of CAHP was measured in laboratory at different climate conditions including mild-cold, mildhot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy saving potential of the clean air heat pump compared to a conventional ventilation and air......-conditioning system was calculated. The experimental results showed that the clean air heat pump saved substantial amount of energy compared to the conventional system. For example, the CAHP can save up to 59% of electricity in Copenhagen, up to 40% of electricity in Milan and up to 30% of electricity in Colombo...

  16. 77 FR 39262 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... Frozen Bakery Products, Inc. (collectively ``Cottage'') for violations of the federal Clean Air Act, 42 U... Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District v. Cottage Bakery, Inc. and Ralcorp Frozen Bakery Products, Inc., case number 2:12-at-00895, was lodged with the United States District Court for the Eastern...

  17. Clean Air Act compliance issues/panel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This morning, four panelists will discuss the birth of the free market allowance trading system, how it was formed, when it was formed, how it was sold, how allowance trading has worked, how it is expected to work, and how utilities are planning based on allowance trading. We will also hear from a utility commissioner who will make some of the final decisions on cost recovery. So we will have various perspectives today on allowance trading. Many of you are here to learn more about how to comply with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Allowance trading is the cornerstone of the entire Title 4, the acid deposition title of the amendments, in which SO 2 emission allowances are a tradeable right. Following the four presentations, we will entertain questions to the four participants from the audience

  18. Revised Clean Air Act - Consequent enforcement necessary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, A.

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the stipulations of the Swiss Clean Air Act regarding wood-fired combustion systems. In particular, the regulations on fine-dust emissions from wood-fired systems are discussed and its influence on the market for wood-fired heating systems is examined. Conformity statements can be issued for heating systems with a power of less than 70 kW that are tested to meet EN standards by accredited testing facilities. The history of the Swiss Association for Wood Energy and its efforts to introduce quality labels in this area of business are discussed. The situation regarding equipment with a power of less than 70 kW is addressed, as are large-scale wood-fired furnaces with ratings up to over 1,000 kW.

  19. New Jersey: Clean Air Communities (A Former EPA CARE Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clean Air Communities (CAC) is the recipient of a Level II CARE cooperative agreement to implement recommendations by the state’s Environmental Justice Task Force and the Air Toxics Pilot Project to reduce environmental risks.

  20. Complying with Clean Air Act acid rain provisions: A case history of required air quality analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComb, G.G. Jr.; Naperkoski, G.J.; Rogers, F.A.

    1990-01-01

    Clean Air Act Amendments being considered by Congress require SO 2 emissions reductions from numerous large power generation sources nationwide. As currently written, these amendments also require that the affected sources must continue to comply with all provisions of the existing Clean Air Act while achieving the required reductions. United Engineers and Constructors is presently assisting utilities in the evaluation of compliance options for units totaling over 18,000 MW. The methods of achieving compliance with the probable requirements of the Act most often include the retrofit installation of SO 2 scrubbers. A study designed to determine permitting issues and the scope of air quality analyses required to demonstrate the regulatory acceptability of installation of wet scrubbing systems has been completed for units totaling a portion of the above-referenced 18,000 MW. The study results show that, under certain commonly occurring circumstances, there is a risk of creating National Ambient Air Quality Standards contraventions for SO 2 and NO 2 when scrubbers are installed at an existing facility. Any such contraventions subject the plant to state and/or federal enforcement actions. In addition, installation of materials handling equipment for lime stone can trigger Prevention of Significant Deterioration requirements as a major modification. This paper is divided into two major areas. The first deals with the air quality regulatory requirements imposed upon installation of pollution control equipment. The first section is further sub-divided into two sections: one covering requirements emanating from the 1977 Clean Air Act Amendments and its implementing regulations and the other the regulatory requirements of the new Clean Air Act Amendments. This section on regulatory requirements provides background information for the understanding of the second major section of the paper which gives the results of the hypothetical case study

  1. New Clean Air Act complicates power plant operation, design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smock, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    In November the president signed into law the new Clean Air Act, ushering in a new era in the power generation industry. This paper reviews the six important sections of the Clean Air Act and their impact on power plant operation and design

  2. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier

  3. Air-cleaning systems for sodium-fire-aerosol control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1982-05-01

    A development program has been carried out at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) with the purpose of developing and proof testing air cleaning components and systems for use under severe sodium fire conditions, including those involving high levels of radioactivity. The air cleaning components tested can be classified as either dry filters or aqueous scrubbers. Test results are presented

  4. A brief history of the air cleaning conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1995-01-01

    I have been asked to prepare a history of the air cleaning conferences. Undertaking such a task is, of course, a wonderful opportunity for reminiscences and a chance to retell old war stories. I must admit that it has taken much longer than I anticipated because I found myself so completely engrossed rereading the old records that time seemed to stop, although the hours passed. But a history of the nuclear air cleaning conferences means more than a stroll down memory lane. The 23 recorded air cleaning conference proceedings reflect an important aspect of the history of major nuclear developments, both military and civilian, because engineered safety features designed to prevent dispersion of radioactive products to the environment have always been a necessity for progress in this field. For this reason, I hope the history of the nuclear air cleaning conferences will not only be enjoyable, but also have meaning for young people entering this field. The air cleaning conferences were an outgrowth of the operations of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's (AEC) Stack Gas Working Group established in 1948 to review air cleaning operations at AEC installations. AEC's Division of Engineering sponsored and funded air cleaning research and development at Harvard University's School of Public Health, beginning about the same time. In addition to research and development, the Harvard contract called for consulting and educational services. The latter provided the opportunity for meetings devoted to information on air cleaning that could be applied to ongoing and anticipated nuclear operations

  5. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  6. An experimental evaluation on air purification performance of Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air cleaner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei; Sun, Yuexia

    2018-01-01

    was 96.8%, which indicated that the most of gaseous pollutants were not accumulated in the CAHP. The regeneration temperature for the wheel could affect the air purification performance of CAHP. At 70 °C of regeneration temperature, the air-cleaning efficiency reached 96.7%. Up to 70% of the outdoor air......The escalation of energy consumption in buildings and heightened concerns about acceptable indoor air quality stimulate interest in the usage of air cleaner as an adjunct for indoor environmental conditioning. A regenerative desiccant wheel integrated into a ventilation system termed Clean-Air Heat...... Pump (CAHP) can improve the air quality during the process of dehumidification without using additional energy. An experimental study in a field lab was performed to investigate the air cleaning performance of CAHP. Photoacoustic gas analyzer-INNOVA was used to characterize chemical removal of indoor...

  7. Clean air strategy for Alberta: Background project reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    As a background to the development of a clean air strategy for Alberta, reports are presented which cover the definition of what clean air is, the applicability of full cost accounting to this strategy, market-based approaches to managing Alberta air emissions, gas and electric utility incentives programs for energy efficiency, energy efficiency legislation in Alberta and other jurisdictions, initiatives which address emissions reduction in the transportation sector, coordination of science and technology relevant to clean air issues, and initiatives in energy and environmental education

  8. Comparison between polluted and clean air masses over Lake Michigan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkezweeny, A.J.; Laulainen, N.S.

    1981-01-01

    Clean and polluted air masses, advected over Lake Michigan, were studied using instrumental aircraft during the summers of 1976 and 1978. The results show that regardless of the degree of pollution, the particle size distribution is bimodal. The concentrations of sulfate, nitrate and trace metals in a clean air mass are more than an order of magnitude lower than those in polluted air masses. Furthermore, these concentrations are comparable with those measured in remote areas of the world. In clean air the ratio of the total light scattering to Rayleigh scattering is very close to one, indicating very low concentrations of particulates in the optically active size classes

  9. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, R.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  10. Household air pollution, health, and climate change: cleaning the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldemberg, Jose; Martinez-Gomez, Javier; Sagar, Ambuj; Smith, Kirk R.

    2018-03-01

    Air pollution from the use of solid household fuels is now recognized to be a major health risk in developing countries. Accordingly, there has been some shift in development thinking and investment from previous efforts, which has focused only on improving the efficiency of household fuel use, to those that focus on reducing exposure to the air pollution that leads to health impact. Unfortunately, however, this is occurring just as the climate agenda has come to dominate much of the discourse and action on international sustainable development. Thus, instead of optimizing approaches that centrally focus on the large health impact, the household energy agenda has been hampered by the constraints imposed by a narrow definition of sustainability—one primarily driven by the desire to mitigate greenhouse emissions by relying on renewable biomass fueling so-called improved cookstoves. In reality, however, solid biomass is extremely difficult to burn sufficiently cleanly in household stoves to reach health goals. In comparison to the international development community, however, some large countries, notably Brazil historically and more recently, India have substantially expanded the use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) in their household energy mix, using their own resources, having a major impact on their national energy picture. The net climate impact of such approaches compared to current biomass stoves is minimal or non-existent, and the social and health benefits are, in contrast, potentially great. LPG can be seen as a transition fuel for clean household energy, with induction stoves powered by renewables as the holy grail (an approach already being adopted by Ecuador as also discussed here). The enormous human and social benefits of clean energy, rather than climate concerns, should dominate the household energy access agenda today.

  11. 16th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1981-02-01

    Major topics discussed during the Sixteenth DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference were: waste treatment, including volume reduction and storage; system and component response to stress and accident conditions; Three Mile Island accident; iodine adsorption; treatment and storage of noble gas: treatment of offgases from chemical processing; aerosol; behavior; containment venting; laboratory and in-place filter-testing methods; and particulate filtration. Volume I of the Proceedings has 49 papers from the following sessions; HEPA filter test methods; noble gas separation; air cleaning system design; containment venting; iodine adsorption; reprocessing offgas cleaning; critical review; filtration; filter testing; and aerosols. Volume II contains 44 papers from the sessions on: nuclear waste treatment; critical review; noble gas treatment; carbon-14 and tritium; air cleaning system response to stress; nuclear standards and safety; round table; open end; and air cleaning technology at Three Mile Island. Abstracts are provided for all of these papers

  12. 16th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1981-02-01

    Major topics discussed during the Sixteenth DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference were: waste treatment, including volume reduction and storage; system and component response to stress and accident conditions; Three Mile Island accident; iodine adsorption; treatment and storage of noble gas; treatment of offgases from chemical processing; aerosol behavior; containment venting; laboratory and in-place filter-testing methods; and particulate filtration. Volume I of the Proceedings has 49 papers from the following sessions: HEPA filter test methods; noble gas separation; air cleaning system design; containment venting; iodine adsorption; reprocessing offgas cleaning; critical review; filtration, filter testing, and aerosols. Volume II contains 44 papers from the sessions on: nuclear waste treatment; critical review; noble gas treatment; carbon-14 and tritium; air cleaning system response to stress; nuclear standards and safety; round table; open end; and air cleaning technology at Three Mile Island. Abstracts are provided for all of these papers

  13. 60 years of Health Protection under the Clean Air Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Longhurst, J.

    2016-01-01

    2016 marks 60 years of UK Clean Air Acts. This presentation explores the challenges, opportunities and progress since the Clean Air Act, 1956. It reflects upon historical attempts to manage air pollution noting success factors and barriers to progress. Particular attention is given to the impact of the 1952 Great Smog and the role of National Smoke Abatement Society, the forerunner of Environmental Protection UK, in creating the momentum for the 1956 Act. The presentation concludes with a rev...

  14. Enlisting municipal governments in a national approach to clean air and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) and the Government of Canada have a shared commitment to improve environmental performance and protect the health of Canadians. Air pollution and climate change are also a shared responsibility among federal, municipal and provincial/territorial governments. Although they operate independently, their policies and programs tend to overlap. This is both costly and inefficient. In order to create synergies and leverage the role and potential of each level of government, the FCM proposed a national approach to clean air and climate change. The approach involves all levels of government in a nationally coordinated effort, with roles appropriate to their capacities. The municipal role in clean air and climate change action, roles and responsibilities of municipal governments, and guiding principles of a new Canadian approach were discussed in this document. Recommendations and next steps were also identified. They centred on the following themes: enhancing public transit, clean transportation and related infrastructure; improving commercial and residential building efficiency; stimulating ongoing productivity and pollution prevention within municipal operations through incentives and policies; enhancing clean energy; strengthened and enforceable air quality standards; emissions trading; climate change adaptation; public education and awareness; and demonstrating success and ensuring accountability. The document concluded that only a long-term intergovernmental partnership can meet the challenges posed by climate change and air pollution. FCM urged the Government of Canada to adopt an integrative and strategic approach to clean air and climate change by enlisting municipal governments as partners in both its development and implementation

  15. Evaluation of air cleaning technologies existing in the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    Five portable air cleaning technologies including one new technology were evaluated to find their effectiveness in removing ultrafine particles. Measurements were carried out both in a duct and in a test room. The results showed that the technologies that use/create ozone to clean air can increase...... the ozone level significantly in the room. Moreover, they can cause generation of ultrafine particles and consequently increase ultrafine particle concentration in the room. The study suggests using a mechanical filter with low pressure drop as a recommended air cleaning technology in order to remove...

  16. The importance of damper drive performance for clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wistrom, K.

    2002-01-01

    Amendments to the U.S. Federal Clean Air Act require petroleum refineries and other industries to examine every aspects of their process heating operations in order to reduce cumulative nitrogen oxide emissions from their plants. It has been found that changing the final damper control elements to more reliable and accurate damper drives greatly improves the combustion of air and flue gases and reduces tramp air from entering furnaces. This paper discusses the increasing importance of precise damper drives in nitrogen oxides reduction efforts, and the challenges involved in effecting good damper control. It also provides some technical details about final control drives, manufactured by TYPE K Damper Drives, a division of Controls International Inc., that thrive in environments of extreme temperatures, heavy vibration and fly ash, while providing continuous duty service with smooth, accurate and repeatable damper positioning. Case history of an Ontario oil refinery installing several damper drives designed by TYPE K, indicating high level of nitrogen oxides reduction is described to illustrate the importance and the advantages of damper control drives designed by this firm. In addition to meeting regulatory requirements, additional benefits include improved product quality and safety levels, combined with lower maintenance expenses. photos

  17. Some impacts of the 1990 Clean Air Act and state clean-air regulations on the fertilizer industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breed, C.E.; Kerns, O.S.

    1992-01-01

    The Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 will intensify national efforts to reduce air pollution. They will have major impacts on governmental agencies and on industrial and commercial facilities throughout the country. As with other industries, it is essential for fertilizer dealers and producers to understand how these changes to the Clean Air Act can significantly change the way they do business. This paper is proffered as an overview of ways in which the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act may impact the fertilizer industry. The nonattainment, toxics, and permit provisions of the amended act will be three areas of particular concern to the fertilizer industry. Implementation of the new regulatory requirements of this legislation promises to be a long and onerous process for all concerned. However, it appears that state and local regulations may have a much more profound impact on the fertilizer industry than the new Clean Air Act

  18. Utility view of the source term and air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Littlefield, P.S.

    1985-01-01

    The utility view of the source term and air cleaning is discussed. The source term is made up of: (1) noble gases, which there has been a tendency to ignore in the past because it was thought there was nothing that could be done with them anyway, (2) the halogens, which have been dealt with in Air Cleaning Conferences in the past in terms of charcoal and other systems for removing them, and (3) the solid components of the source term which particulate filters are designed to handle. Air cleaning systems consist of filters, adsorbers, containment sprays, suppression pools in boiling water reactors and ice beds in ice condenser-equipped plants. The feasibility and cost of air cleaning systems are discussed

  19. Proceedings of the fifteenth DOE nuclear air cleaning conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1979-02-01

    Papers presented are grouped under the following topics: noble gas separation, damage control, aerosols, test methods, new air cleaning technology from Europe, open-end, and filtration. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  20. Agenda and Presentations from Circumpolar Workshop: Transport and Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and its partners convened Transport and Clean Air, a Circumpolar Workshop held in December 2013. This seminar allowed leading experts to share best practices on reducing emissions of particulates and black carbon from diesel sources in the Arctic.

  1. A brief history of the air cleaning conferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W.

    1995-02-01

    I have been asked to prepare a history of the air cleaning conferences. Undertaking such a task is, of course, a wonderful opportunity for reminiscences and a chance to retell old war stories. I must admit that it has taken much longer than I anticipated because I found myself so completely engrossed rereading the old records that time seemed to stop, although the hours passed. But a history of the nuclear air cleaning conferences means more than a stroll down memory lane. The 23 recorded air cleaning conference proceedings reflect an important aspect of the history of major nuclear developments, both military and civilian, because engineered safety features designed to prevent dispersion of radioactive products to the environment have always been a necessity for progress in this field. For this reason, I hope the history of the nuclear air cleaning conferences will not only be enjoyable, but also have meaning for young people entering this field. The air cleaning conferences were an outgrowth of the operations of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission`s (AEC) Stack Gas Working Group established in 1948 to review air cleaning operations at AEC installations. AEC`s Division of Engineering sponsored and funded air cleaning research and development at Harvard University`s School of Public Health, beginning about the same time. In addition to research and development, the Harvard contract called for consulting and educational services. The latter provided the opportunity for meetings devoted to information on air cleaning that could be applied to ongoing and anticipated nuclear operations.

  2. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  3. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  4. Clean Air Slots Amid Atmospheric Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    This article investigates the mechanism for those layers in the atmosphere that are free of air borne pollution even though the air above and below them carry pollutants. Atmospheric subsidence is posed as a mechanism for this phenomenon.

  5. 77 FR 20625 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Action on Clean Air Act Grants to the Idaho Department of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ...The U.S. EPA has made a proposed determination that reduction in expenditures of non-Federal funds for the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (IDEQ) in support of its continuing air program under Clean Air Act (CAA) Section 105 for the period of calendar year 2010 was not selective relative to the expenditures of all other executive branch agencies in the State for the same period. This determination, when final, will reset IDEQ's required recipient maintenance of effort level for 2010 and 2011, retain its federal award for the 2010 and 2011 grant years, and allow IDEQ to remain eligible for a Sec. 105 grant for 2012 and beyond.

  6. Clean indoor air increases physical independence : a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, M.C.L.; Koren, L.G.H.; Kort, H.S.M.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Clean indoor air enhances health. In a pilot study, we examined whether a good indoor air quality increases the activity potential of older persons with chronic lung disease. Five older persons were studied while performing kitchen activities. Body movement and heart rate were monitored.

  7. Clean Air Slots Amid Dense Atmospheric Pollution in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Peter V.

    2003-01-01

    During the flights of the University of Washington's Convair-580 in the Southern African Regional Science Initiative (SAFARI 2000) in southern Africa, a phenomenon was observed that has not been reported previously. This was the occurrence of thin layers of remarkably clean air, sandwiched between heavily polluted air, which persisted for many hours during the day. Photographs are shown of these clean air slots (CAS), and particle concentrations and light scattering coefficients in and around such slot are presented. An explanation is proposed for the propensity of CAS to form in southern Africa during the dry season.

  8. Fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application in cleanrooms

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Air Cleaning Technology and Its Application in Cleanrooms sets up the theoretical framework for cleanrooms. New ideas and methods are presented, which include the characteristic index of cleanrooms, uniform and non-uniform distribution characteristics, the minimum sampling volume, a new concept of outdoor air conditioning and the fundamentals of leakage-preventing layers. Written by an author who can look back on major scientific achievements and 50 years of experience in this field, this book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application. The work is intended for researchers, college teachers, graduates, designers, technicians and corporate R&D personnel in the field of HVAC and air cleaning technology. Zhonglin Xu is a senior research fellow at China Academy of Building Research.

  9. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  10. The Clean Air Act and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing economy have gone hand in hand. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies for which the United States has become a global market leader.

  11. An analysis of candidates for addition to the Clean Air Act list of hazardous air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonya Lunder; Tracey J. Woodruff; Daniel A. Axelrad [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). School of Public Health

    2004-02-01

    There are 188 air toxics listed as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) in the Clean Air Act (CAA), based on their potential to adversely impact public health. This paper presents several analyses performed to screen potential candidates for addition to the HAPs list. We analyzed 1086 HAPs and potential HAPs, including chemicals regulated by the state of California or with emissions reported to the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). HAPs and potential HAPs were ranked by their emissions to air, and by toxicity-weighted (tox-wtd) emissions for cancer and noncancer, using emissions information from the TRI and toxicity information from state and federal agencies. Separate consideration was given for persistent, bioaccumulative toxins (PBTs), reproductive or developmental toxins, and chemicals under evaluation for regulation as toxic air contaminants in California. Forty-four pollutants were identified as candidate HAPs based on three ranking analyses and whether they were a PBT or a reproductive or developmental toxin. Of these, nine qualified in two or three different rankings (ammonia (NH{sub 3}), copper (Cu), Cu compounds, nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), vanadium (V) compounds, zinc (Zn), and Zn compounds). This analysis suggests further evaluation of several pollutants for possible addition to the CAA list of HAPs. 28 refs., 2 figs., 11 tabs.

  12. Emergency air cleaning system development for LMFBR containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, J.D.; Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1975-01-01

    Criteria for evaluating the various types of Emergency Air Cleaning Systems which may be used in LMFBR plants have been established for both single containment and containment-confinement arrangements. These two plant arrangements have quite different air cleaning requirements for postulated design base accident conditions. Work is currently in progress to select from a list of candidate air cleaning systems those which best meet the criteria requirements. By means of a weighted rating system, areas of strength or weakness can be found and the conceptual system design then optimized. The final system arrangements will be ranked and several of the most promising systems selected for large-scale tests in the former CSE vessel at Hanford. 8 references. (U.S.)

  13. Can a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) maintain air purification capability when using polluted air for regeneration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    Clean Air Heat Pump (CAHP) was one type of rotary desiccant cooling system which combined a silica gel rotor with a heat pump to achieve air cleaning, dehumidifying and cooling in buildings. Using exhaust air from the conditioned room for regeneration of the silica gel rotor might have an advantage...... on reducing the regeneration air temperature and further improving the energy performance of the CAHP. However, the exhaust air carried a lot of indoor air pollutants. Whether using exhaust air for the regeneration of the silica gel rotor had an impact on the air cleaning performance of the CAHP...... was experimentally studied. The results showed that using the air contained acetone or toluene for regeneration reduced the pollutants removal capability of CAHP with a reduction of approx. 10% in air cleaning efficiency. The energy performance of the CAHP when using exhaust air for regeneration was also evaluated...

  14. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  15. 77 FR 3386 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Clean Vehicles Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Clean Vehicles Program AGENCY: Environmental... vehicles (LEV II). The Clean Air Act (CAA) contains specific authority allowing any state to adopt new... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference...

  16. Cleaning the air with renewable energy : briefing note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-09-01

    The Clean Air Renewable Energy Coalition promotes the development of the renewable energy industry in Canada. It acknowledges the effort that the Canadian government has taken to advance investment in renewable energy, but the Coalition is concerned that these investments alone will not achieve the desired objectives without additional policy development by federal, provincial and territorial governments. This report presents an overview of 7 proposals designed to promote and advance renewable energy in Canada. The benefits of these proposals include cleaner air, improved health, engaging public and industry participation in climate change initiatives, and fostering innovation and entrepreneurship in the sector. Brief details were presented for the following 7 proposals: (1) establish a national low-impact renewable energy target for Canada, (2) increase the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI) to 2.7 cent per kilowatt hour to ensure appropriate investment in wind energy and harmonization with the United States, (3) extend incentive programs similar to the WPPI to other renewable energy technologies, (4) work with other levels of government to implement policy mechanisms to meet the recommended national renewable energy target, (5) expand the Market Incentive Program (MIP) funding to 30 million dollars per year to 2012 and consult with the provinces and territories to develop a broad-based consumer green energy rebate and education program, (6) identify mechanisms to ensure a meaningful role for renewable energy to contribute to the country's climate change strategy, and (7) develop a Wind Energy Mapping and Wind Measurement Initiative. In a recent update, the Coalition states that low environmental impact renewable energy needs market recognition for its environmental and social benefits. In general, these benefits are not financially valued in energy market pricing. In addition, energy sources that impact significantly on the environment are not financially

  17. Clean air renewable energy (CARE) coalition : a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambert, G. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada); Pollock, D. [Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development, Drayton Valley, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This paper highlights the opportunity for new partnerships between business and non-governmental organizations in the field of sustainable development through the growing convergence of interests. The authors also briefly describe both Suncor Energy and the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development stances on sustainable development. Since 1990, both organizations have collaborated on the future of the emerging renewable energy industry. Renewable energy represents an energy source diversification through the regional creation of jobs and improved air quality and associated benefits resulting from the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The Clean Air Renewable Energy Coalition (Coalition) was established in December 2000 in order to assess the barriers to capital investment in the renewable energy industry. It was revealed that the international community as a whole was further ahead than Canada in terms of renewable support, production and export of technology and services. Some of the challenges facing the industry are: low demand for renewables and low supply. The coalition allowed for the joint identification of desired policy changes, such as new tax incentives for renewable energy supply and demand. Efforts were made in inviting the support of industry, municipalities and environmental non governmental organizations. The list of members that have joined the coalition to date was shown. The coalition is asking for consumer green energy credit, designed for the creation of demand and the education of the general public, and producer incentives to increase supply. The proposals were explained, as well as the strategic principles underlying them. A new tax incentive was announced in the December 2001 Canadian federal budget. The authors concluded by mentioning some future opportunities and the lessons learned on the importance of the right partners, of broad-based advocacy, of targeted and focuses messages, and of evolutionary change.

  18. Clean air renewable energy (CARE) coalition : a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, G.; Pollock, D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper highlights the opportunity for new partnerships between business and non-governmental organizations in the field of sustainable development through the growing convergence of interests. The authors also briefly describe both Suncor Energy and the Pembina Institute for Appropriate Development stances on sustainable development. Since 1990, both organizations have collaborated on the future of the emerging renewable energy industry. Renewable energy represents an energy source diversification through the regional creation of jobs and improved air quality and associated benefits resulting from the reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The Clean Air Renewable Energy Coalition (Coalition) was established in December 2000 in order to assess the barriers to capital investment in the renewable energy industry. It was revealed that the international community as a whole was further ahead than Canada in terms of renewable support, production and export of technology and services. Some of the challenges facing the industry are: low demand for renewables and low supply. The coalition allowed for the joint identification of desired policy changes, such as new tax incentives for renewable energy supply and demand. Efforts were made in inviting the support of industry, municipalities and environmental non governmental organizations. The list of members that have joined the coalition to date was shown. The coalition is asking for consumer green energy credit, designed for the creation of demand and the education of the general public, and producer incentives to increase supply. The proposals were explained, as well as the strategic principles underlying them. A new tax incentive was announced in the December 2001 Canadian federal budget. The authors concluded by mentioning some future opportunities and the lessons learned on the importance of the right partners, of broad-based advocacy, of targeted and focuses messages, and of evolutionary change

  19. Cleaning the air with renewable energy : briefing note

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-09-01

    The Clean Air Renewable Energy Coalition promotes the development of the renewable energy industry in Canada. It acknowledges the effort that the Canadian government has taken to advance investment in renewable energy, but the Coalition is concerned that these investments alone will not achieve the desired objectives without additional policy development by federal, provincial and territorial governments. This report presents an overview of 7 proposals designed to promote and advance renewable energy in Canada. The benefits of these proposals include cleaner air, improved health, engaging public and industry participation in climate change initiatives, and fostering innovation and entrepreneurship in the sector. Brief details were presented for the following 7 proposals: (1) establish a national low-impact renewable energy target for Canada, (2) increase the Wind Power Production Incentive (WPPI) to 2.7 cent per kilowatt hour to ensure appropriate investment in wind energy and harmonization with the United States, (3) extend incentive programs similar to the WPPI to other renewable energy technologies, (4) work with other levels of government to implement policy mechanisms to meet the recommended national renewable energy target, (5) expand the Market Incentive Program (MIP) funding to 30 million dollars per year to 2012 and consult with the provinces and territories to develop a broad-based consumer green energy rebate and education program, (6) identify mechanisms to ensure a meaningful role for renewable energy to contribute to the country's climate change strategy, and (7) develop a Wind Energy Mapping and Wind Measurement Initiative. In a recent update, the Coalition states that low environmental impact renewable energy needs market recognition for its environmental and social benefits. In general, these benefits are not financially valued in energy market pricing. In addition, energy sources that impact significantly on the environment are not

  20. Clean air litigation; Klagen fuer Saubere Luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-11

    The pollution of air by nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) in cities is one of the central challenges of air pollution in Germany, in addition to the pollution of particulate matter (PM10). In cooperation with the British non-governmental organization ClientEarth, the German Environmental Aid (DUH) filed a lawsuit in November 2015 for exceeding air quality limits for NO{sub 2}. The cities of Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Duesseldorf, Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Aachen, Cologne and Bonn are affected. Here, citizens are constantly exposed to high air pollution. Because of the excess of the NO{sub 2} limits at all traffic-related measuring stations in Berlin, the DUH initiated legal steps and filed a lawsuit too in June 2016. With the lawsuits, DUH wants to promote the implementation of measures to reduce NO{sub 2} in Germany. [German] Die Belastung der Luft durch Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}) in Staedten ist neben der Belastung durch Feinstaub (PM10) eine der zentralen Herausforderungen der Luftreinhaltung in Deutschland. In Zusammenarbeit mit der britischen Nichtregierungsorganisation ClientEarth legte die Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH) im November 2015 Klage wegen Ueberschreitung der Luftqualitaetsgrenzwerte fuer NO{sub 2}ein. Betroffen sind die Staedte Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Duesseldorf, Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Aachen, Koeln und Bonn. Hier sind Buergerinnen und Buerger anhaltend zu hoher Luftverschmutzung ausgesetzt. Wegen Ueberschreitung der NO{sub 2}-Grenzwerte an allen verkehrsnahen Messstationen in Berlin hat die DUH im Juni 2016 auch hier rechtliche Schritte eingeleitet und Klage eingereicht. Mit den Klagen will die DUH die Umsetzung von Massnahmen zur NO{sub 2}-Reduktion in Deutschland voranbringen.

  1. VOCs and formaldehyde emissions from cleaning products and air fresheners

    OpenAIRE

    Solal , Cécilia; Rousselle , Christophe; Mandin , Corinne; Manel , Jacques; Maupetit , François

    2008-01-01

    International audience; Human indoor exposure to Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may be associated with the use of household products. However little is known about their emissions and to what extent they contribute to indoor air pollution. The French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) conducted tests in order to characterize VOCs emissions from 32 consumer products: air fresheners, glass cleaners, furniture polishes, toilet products, carpet and floor cleaning ...

  2. Air toxics and the 1990 Clean Air Act: Managing trace element emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, W.; Levin, L.; Miller, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has historically regulated air toxics (hazardous air pollutants) under Section 112 of the Clean Air Act. To date, EPA has established emission standards for 8 hazardous air pollutants (arsenic, asbestos, benzene, beryllium, mercury, radionuclides, coke oven emissions and vinyl chloride). The US electric utility industry was not determined to be a source category requiring regulation for any of the eight chemicals. Of the eight, radionuclides were the last species for which EPA established hazardous emissions standards. In this instance, EPA determined that the risks associated with electric utility fossil fuel power plant emissions were sufficiently low that they should not be regulated. However, the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments require a new evaluation of the electric utility industry emissions of hazardous air pollutants. This paper summarizes the key features of the air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments, describes EPRI's activities on the subject, and provides some preliminary insights from EPRI's research to date

  3. Index to the AEC/ERDA/DOE Air Cleaning Conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    A comprehensive index to the papers in the second through sixteenth AEC/ERDA/DOE Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference is discussed. The index will be published in early 1981 and will be designated as Volume 3 of the proceeding of the sixteenth conference. The index has three parts, a straight numeric tabulation, an author index, and a key word in context (KWIC) index

  4. Proceedings of the fifteenth DOE nuclear air cleaning conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1979-02-01

    Papers presented are grouped under the following topics: air cleaning; waste volume reduction and preparation for storage; tritium, carbon-14, ozone; containment of accidental releases; adsorbents and absorbents; and off-gas treatment. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  5. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  6. 78 FR 51184 - Air Pollution Control: Proposed Actions on Clean Air Act Section 105 Grant to the Lane Regional...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ...The EPA has made a proposed determination that a reduction in recurring expenditures of non-Federal funds for the Lane Regional Air Protection Agency (LRAPA) in Eugene, Oregon is a result of agency wide non-selective reductions in expenditures. This determination, when final, will permit the LRAPA to continue to receive grant funding under Section 105 of the Clean Air Act for the state fiscal year (SFY) 2014. This determination will also reset the LRAPA required maintenance of effort level for SFY 2012 and 2013 to reflect the non-selective reductions made to address reductions in revenue due to adverse economic conditions in Lane County, Oregon.

  7. Chapter 4: Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 4 of Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy helps state states understand the methods, models, opportunities, and issues associated with assessing the GHG, air pollution, air quality, and human health benefits of clean energy options.

  8. Clean air strategy for Alberta: Report to the ministers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-11-01

    As a response to continuing discussions on the impact of fossil fuels on global warming, acid deposition, and smog, a clean air strategy consultation program was announced by Alberta's Ministers of Energy and Environment to encourage public discussion on air emissions resulting from the production and use of energy. The consultation program had three objectives: to help identify and clarify the most important issues associated with energy production and use which need to be addressed in developing a clean air strategy; to outline practical and achievable actions which can be taken to reduce emissions; and to develop program and policy recommendations to the provincial government. The consultation program included workshops and regional sessions, as well as background research. The discussions, findings, and conclusions from the program are summarized. Several air quality management challenges were identified, including the need for a more comprehensive system for managing air quality; the priority of local air quality issues and problems; the need to address cumulative regional emissions and impacts; and scientific and economic uncertainties. A number of goals have been developed to address these challenges, such as implementation of a comprehensive air quality management system, identification of cost-effective energy conservation and efficiency opportunities, development of innovative and targeted solutions to manage cumulative emissions, and improvement of the gathering and application of scientific and technical knowledge regarding atmospheric processes and effects. A glossary of terms is included. 12 figs., 17 tabs

  9. Air and gas cleaning technology for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    All large-scale uses of radioactive materials require rigid control of off-gases and generated aerosols. Nuclear air and gas cleaning technology has answered the need from the days of the Manhattan Project to the present with a variety of devices. The one with the longest and most noteworthy service is the HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter that originally was referred to as an absolute filter in recognition of its extraordinary particle retention characteristics. Activated-charcoal adsorbers have been employed worldwide for retention of volatile radioiodine in molecular and combined forms and, less frequently, for retention of radioactive noble gases. HEPA filters and activated -charcoal adsorbers are often used with auxiliary devices that serve to extend their effective service life or significantly improve collection efficiency under unfavorable operating conditions. Use of both air cleaning devices and their auxiliaries figure prominently in atomic energy, disposal of high- and low-level nuclear wastes, and in the production of fissile materials. The peaceful uses of nuclear energy would be impossible without these, or equivalent, air- and gas-cleaning devices

  10. The diffusion and impact of clean indoor air laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksen, Michael P; Cerak, Rebecca L

    2008-01-01

    Over the past quarter century, primarily as a result of scientific discovery, citizen advocacy, and legislative action, comprehensive clean indoor air laws have spread rapidly throughout the world. Laws that establish completely smoke-free indoor environments have many relative advantages including being low cost, safe, effective, and easy to implement. The diffusion of these laws has been associated with a dramatic and rapid reduction in population levels of serum cotinine among nonsmokers and has also contributed to a reduction in overall cigarette consumption among smokers, with no adverse economic impact, except to the tobacco industry. Currently, nearly half of the U.S. population lives in jurisdictions with some combination of completely smoke-free workplaces, restaurants, or bars. The diffusion of clean indoor air laws is spreading rapidly throughout the world, stimulated by the first global health treaty, the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  11. Market Initiatives for Clean Air Schools; Marktinitiatieven frisse scholen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeuwen, D. [Communication Concert, Weesp (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Seven years ago, the Clean Air Schools Program was launched to encourage people to use less energy and improve the indoor environment. In 2012, the program Energy and Built Environment will no longer pay specific attention focused on school buildings. Therefore, the market needs to jump in. 'Market initiatives' refers to projects, products and services that contribute to the realization of Clean Air Schools and which are not initiated by the Dutch government [Dutch] Zeven jaar geleden is het Frisse Scholen Programma gestart om gemeenten en scholen te stimuleren om minder energie te gebruiken en het binnenmilieu te verbeteren. In 2012 biedt het programma Energie en Gebouwde Omgeving geen ruimte meer voor specifieke aandacht gericht op scholen. Daarom zal het stokje overgedragen moeten worden aan marktpartijen. Met 'marktinitiatieven' wordt gedoeld op projecten, producten en diensten die bijdragen aan de realisatie van Frisse Scholen en niet door de Rijksoverheid worden geinitieerd.

  12. Nuclear air cleaning programs in progress in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcey, P.

    1991-01-01

    A short presentation is given of the nuclear air cleaning programs in progress in France with respect to pressurized water reactors, fuel reprocessing plants, radioactive waste management facilities, and the dismantling of nuclear facilities. The effects of fires in rooms and ventilation ducts in all nuclear facilities is being studied and computer simulation codes are being developed. A brief review of filter development and filter testing is also presented

  13. Methods for air cleaning system design and accident analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.S.; Nichols, B.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes methods, in the form of a handbook and five computer codes, that can be used for nuclear facility air cleaning system design and accident analysis. Four of the codes were developed primarily at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and one was developed in France. Tools such as these are used to design ventilation systems in the mining industry but do not seem to be commonly used in the nuclear industry. For example, the Nuclear Air Cleaning Handbook is an excellent design reference, but it fails to include information on computer codes that can be used to aid in the design process. These computer codes allow the analyst to use the handbook information to form all the elements of a complete system design. Because these analysis methods are in the form of computer codes they allow the analyst to investigate many alternative designs. In addition, the effects of many accident scenarios on the operation of the air cleaning system can be evaluated. These tools originally were intended for accident analysis, but they have been used mostly as design tools by several architect-engineering firms. The Cray, VAX, and personal computer versions of the codes, an accident analysis handbook, and the codes availability will be discussed. The application of these codes to several design operations of nuclear facilities will be illustrated, and their use to analyze the effect of several accident scenarios also will be described

  14. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  15. Clean air and energy: from conflict to reconciliation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolstad, C.D.; Schulze, W.D.; Williams, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    Unconstrained energy resource development in the Rocky Mountain west is likely to threaten the environment and the health and well-being of the people. Impacts may be associated with visibility degradation, toxic concentrations of gases, and deposition of acidic or toxic substances. Because the possible benefits of energy development in the region are very large, there is great concern that constraints imposed by air quality regulation may preclude the use of important resources or make unduly expensive energy produced from the region. The conflict between energy and clean air in the region is exacerbated by non-energy sources, such as copper smelters and urban areas, that already pose significant environmental threats. The hard policy question is not how to preserve clean air resources or how to develop energy but how to achieve and balance both goals. The effects and regulatory costs and benefits of air pollution control are discussed, and policy directions to protect air quality while pursuing energy development are presented

  16. Ceramic membrane defouling (cleaning) by air Nano Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimkhani, Aliasghar; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2016-03-01

    Ceramic membranes are among the most promising technologies for membrane applications, owing to their excellent resistance to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stresses. However, membrane fouling is still an issue that hampers the applications at large scales. Air Nano Bubbles (NBs), due to high mass transfer efficiency, could potentially prevent fouling of ceramic membrane filtration processes. In this study, bench and pilot scale ceramic membrane filtration was performed with air NBs to resist fouling. To simulate fouling, humic acid, as an organic foulant, was applied to the membrane flat sheet surface. Complete membrane clogging was achieved in less than 6 h. Membrane defouling (cleaning) was performed by directly feeding of air NBs to the membrane cells. The surface of the ceramic membrane was superbly cleaned by air NBs, as revealed by atomic force microscope (AFM) images before and after the treatment. The permeate flux recovered to its initial level (e.g., 26.7 × 10(-9) m(3)/m(2)/s at applied pressure of 275.8 kPa), which indicated that NBs successfully unclogged the pores of the membrane. The integrated ceramic membrane and air NBs system holds potential as an innovative sustainable technology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 - Implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, N.D. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    On November 15, 1991 the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 were signed into law. The Amendments include eleven titles. They are: Title I specifies the requirements for attainment and maintenance of the national ambient air quality standards; Title II provides for more stringent motor vehicle emission limits and cleaner vehicle fuels; Title III addresses the release of air toxics; Title IV creates an acid deposition control program; Title V imposes a new comprehensive operating permit system for stationary sources; Title VI provides for stratospheric ozone protection; Title VII imposes increased civil and criminal penalties and liability; Title VIII contains miscellaneous provisions. Title IX provides for air quality research projects; Title X directs the EPA to make ten percent of research funds available to disadvantaged businesses; and Title XI amends the Job Training Partnership Act

  18. Proceedings of the clean air and climate change summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Clean Air Partnership was established in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) over 10 years ago to work on issues related to air pollution and climate change. This summit presented details of the partnership's municipal activities and provided an outline of various projects conducted to reduce air pollution, increase the use of green energy, and encourage residents to reduce their ecological footprint. Climate change was discussed in relation to the recent economic crisis and recently discovered problems related to ocean acidification. The International Energy Agency (IEA) annual report was discussed in relation to peak oil and future economic crises. Advancements in green energy policy in Ontario were outlined. Sustainable housing and renewable energy projects in Germany were presented along with successful urban designs in Melbourne, New York City, and Denver. The GTA-CAC inter-governmental declaration on clean air was discussed, and an interim progress report was presented. The summit concluded with a video presentation of a collaborative artistic piece about climate change and the Arctic. 11 figs.

  19. Proceedings of the clean air and climate change summit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Clean Air Partnership was established in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) over 10 years ago to work on issues related to air pollution and climate change. This summit presented details of the partnership's municipal activities and provided an outline of various projects conducted to reduce air pollution, increase the use of green energy, and encourage residents to reduce their ecological footprint. Climate change was discussed in relation to the recent economic crisis and recently discovered problems related to ocean acidification. The International Energy Agency (IEA) annual report was discussed in relation to peak oil and future economic crises. Advancements in green energy policy in Ontario were outlined. Sustainable housing and renewable energy projects in Germany were presented along with successful urban designs in Melbourne, New York City, and Denver. The GTA-CAC inter-governmental declaration on clean air was discussed, and an interim progress report was presented. The summit concluded with a video presentation of a collaborative artistic piece about climate change and the Arctic. 11 figs.

  20. Phase I Recommendations by the Air Quality Management Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recommendations to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee by Air Quality Management Work Group addressing the recommendations made by the National Research Council to improve the U.S. air quality management system.

  1. Will the US Clean Air Act come to Australia?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxby, Bill

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the Clean Air Act and whether the emerging situation in Sydney and Melbourne is likely to require similar radical action to prevent a decline in public health of city dwellers. It is concluded that both Sydney and Melbourne are in the league of the world's polluted cities. The pollutants of concern are mainly carbon monoxide and ozone. Emissions reduction in these two cities during the 1980s has reduced photochemical smog formation to near the guidelines, but both these cities retain the potential to form high levels of photochemical smog under the right weather conditions, as shown by Sydney in 1990. 2 tabs., ills

  2. Air-cleaning devices for vented filtered LMFBR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhlestein, L.D.; Hilliard, R.K.

    1982-07-01

    An effort lasting several years is summarized which evaluated, developed and tested air cleaning devices for potential use in breeder reactor containment venting applications. State-of-technology evaluations were completed for both a hypothetical head release accident and a primary vessel melt-through accident. Commercially available systems or components were tested which included HEPA filters, sand and gravel beds, and aqueous scrubbers. Large-scale demonstration tests were completed and results are presented for two- and three-stage conventional aqueous scrubber systems; and for a newly developed passive, submerged gravel scrubber

  3. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported

  4. The actual practice of air cleaning in Belgian nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goossens, W.R. [PEGO, Mol (Belgium)

    1995-02-01

    With 60% of its power generation from nuclear stations Belgium has 7 nuclear power stations in operation with a total capacity of 5.4 MWe. Enriched uranium is imported and converted to fuel assemblies. The actinides of reprocessed fuel are recycled as MOX fuel. A main waste conditioning operation has been performed in the PAMELA vitrifier. The actual practice of nuclear air cleaning in the Belgian PWR station DOEL-4 and in the PAMELA -vitrification plant for high level liquid waste is reviewed.

  5. Evaluating impacts of Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirer, D.A.; Evans, R.J.; Harrison, C.D.; Kehoe, D.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 requires that by the year 2000, US SO 2 emissions must be reduced by 10 million tons. This requirement will have significant impact on coal-fired electric utilities. As a result, most utilities are currently evaluating numerous compliance options, including buying allowances, coal cleaning/blending/switching, and flue gas scrubbing. Moreover, each utility must address its own unique circumstances with regard to competition, efficiency, capital expenditures, reliability, etc. and many utilities may choose a combination of compliance options to simultaneously satisfy their environmental, performance, and financial objectives. The Coal Quality Expert, which is being developed under a clean coal technology project funded by US DOE and EPRI, will predict the economic, operational, and environmental benefits of using higher-quality coals and provides an assessment of the merits of various post-combustion control technologies for specific utility applications. This paper presents background on how utilities evaluate their compliance options, and it describes how the Coal Quality Expert could be used for such evaluations in the future to assure that each utility can select the best combination of coal specifications and emission control technologies to meet its compliance objectives

  6. Nuclear air cleaning: the need for a change in emphasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.

    1982-11-01

    The nuclear industry now has over 35 years of experience in nuclear air cleaning. This experience covers technology development, system design, operations, and maintenance. Much of the past experience has been directed towards technology development with particular emphasis on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Implementation of this technology has lagged its development by a number of years. A recent study examines the cause and frequencies of HEPA filter changeouts and failures. These data lead to a conclusion that a shift in emphasis from technology development to the training of personnel and the designing and maintaining of such systems is needed. Some highlights of the data and a discussion of topics which should be addressed in training will be presented

  7. The high efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Williams, K.; Violet, C.

    1990-08-01

    We have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing our steel filters, we first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, we then built prototype filters for venting compressed gases and evaluated them in our automated filter tester. 12 refs., 20 figs

  8. High efficiency steel filters for nuclear air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, W.; Conner, J.; Larsen, G.; Lopez, R.; Turner, C.; Vahla, G.; Violet, C.; Williams, K.

    1991-01-01

    The authors have, in cooperation with industry, developed high-efficiency filters made from sintered stainless-steel fibers for use in several air-cleaning applications in the nuclear industry. These filters were developed to overcome the failure modes in present high-efficiently particulate air (HEPA) filters. HEPA filters are made from glass paper and glue, and they may fail when they get hot or wet and when they are overpressured. In developing steel filters, they first evaluated the commercially available stainless-steel filter media made from sintered powder and sintered fiber. The sintered-fiber media performed much better than sintered-powder media, and the best media had the smallest fiber diameter. Using the best media, prototype filters were then built for venting compressed gases and evaluated in their automated filter tester

  9. Nuclear air cleaning: the need for a change in emphasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbaugh, E.H.

    1983-01-01

    The nuclear industry now has over 35 years of experience in nuclear air cleaning. This experience covers technology development, system design, operations, and maintenance. Much of the past experience has been directed towards technology development with particular emphasis on high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. Implementation of this technology has lagged its development by a number of years. A recent study examines the causes and frequencies of HEPA filter changeouts and failures. These data lead to a conclusion that a shift in emphasis from technology development to the training of personnel and the designing and maintaining of such systems is needed. Some highlights of the data and a discussion of topics which should be addressed in training will be presented. 7 references, 5 tables

  10. USNRC regulatory guidance for engineered safety feature air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    The need for clear, technically appropriate, and easily implementable guidance for the design, testing, and maintenance of nuclear air cleaning systems has long been recognized. Numerous industry consensus standards have been issued and revised over the last 30 years. Guidance has also been published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the form of regulations, regulatory guides, standard review plans, NUREG documents, and information notices. This paper will summarize the latest revisions to these documents and emphasize Regulatory Guide 1.52, Design, Testing, and Maintenance Criteria for Post-Accident Engineered-Safety-Feature Atmosphere Cleanup System Air Filtration and Adsorption Units of Light-Water-Cooled Nuclear Power Plants, which was last revised in 1978. The USNRC has undertaken a project to revise this regulatory guide, and the status of that revision is highlighted

  11. 76 FR 68381 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania Clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Pennsylvania Clean Vehicles Program AGENCY... Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. This SIP revision contains Pennsylvania's Clean Vehicle Program, which adopts California's second generation low emission vehicle program...

  12. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    .... Bill 658, requires the FAA to identify bleed air purification technology. Specifically, the FAA seeks... Administration 14 CFR Part 25 [Docket No. FAA-2012-0714] Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and... developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and sensor technology...

  13. 76 FR 76762 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... recovery at no additional cost; (2) no longer accept small appliances, motor vehicle air conditioners... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby.... Environmental Protection Agency (``U.S. EPA''), sought penalties and injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act...

  14. 76 FR 57764 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... recovery at no additional cost; (2) no longer accept small appliances, motor vehicle air conditioners... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby... Agency (``U.S. EPA''), sought penalties and injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') against...

  15. 77 FR 23278 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... accept small appliances, motor vehicle air conditioners (``MVACs''), or MVAC- like appliances with cut... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby... Agency (``U.S. EPA''), sought penalties and injunctive relief under the Clean Air Act (``CAA'') against...

  16. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy [Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  17. Summary and overview of the allowance program in the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) created a new regulatory instrument, an emission allowance, that electric power producers will be required to possess and expend to emit sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere. The emission allowance system will be integrated into an already complex system of state and federal electric utility regulation. The way state public utility commissions and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission respond to utility compliance actions will greatly affect the decisions that electric utilities under their jurisdiction make to comply with the CAAA and the cost of compliance to ratepayers. This chapter summarizes the CAAA, presenting dates for the implementation of the allowance system rule, and discusses conservation and renewable energy bonus allowances, EPA allowance sales and auctions, allowance pooling, exempt power facilities, election by additional resources, nitrogen oxides control, compliance planning third-party ownership, allowance property rights, and an example of utility compliance options with allowances. 11 refs., 6 tabs

  18. A survey of the extent of compliance with Title V of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goss, Carol; Sandhu, Ravinder [Department of Environmental Analysis and Management, Troy State University, Troy (United States)

    1999-04-01

    As public awareness of environmental issues increases, the federal government is faced with continually renewing and redesigning the air quality regulations for the betterment of air quality. This study was designed to survey the compliance of Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act by industries in Alabama, California, Pennsylvania, and South Carolina. Forty survey forms per state were sent out to facilities selected at random. The maximum number of responses were obtained from South Carolina followed by Alabama, California, and Pennsylvania. The study showed that large industries, with an average annual revenue in excess of ?10 million and more than 300 employees, responded with higher frequency and these companies were more in compliance with Title V of the 1990 Clean Air Act

  19. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.; Harvard Univ., Boston, MA

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  20. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  1. Clean Energy Use for Cloud Computing Federation Workloads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahav Biran

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cloud providers seek to maximize their market share. Traditionally, they deploy datacenters with sufficient capacity to accommodate their entire computing demand while maintaining geographical affinity to its customers. Achieving these goals by a single cloud provider is increasingly unrealistic from a cost of ownership perspective. Moreover, the carbon emissions from underutilized datacenters place an increasing demand on electricity and is a growing factor in the cost of cloud provider datacenters. Cloud-based systems may be classified into two categories: serving systems and analytical systems. We studied two primary workload types, on-demand video streaming as a serving system and MapReduce jobs as an analytical systems and suggested two unique energy mix usage for processing that workloads. The recognition that on-demand video streaming now constitutes the bulk portion of traffic to Internet consumers provides a path to mitigate rising energy demand. On-demand video is usually served through Content Delivery Networks (CDN, often scheduled in backend and edge datacenters. This publication describes a CDN deployment solution that utilizes green energy to supply on-demand streaming workload. A cross-cloud provider collaboration will allow cloud providers to both operate near their customers and reduce operational costs, primarily by lowering the datacenter deployments per provider ratio. Our approach optimizes cross-datacenters deployment. Specifically, we model an optimized CDN-edge instance allocation system that maximizes, under a set of realistic constraints, green energy utilization. The architecture of this cross-cloud coordinator service is based on Ubernetes, an open source container cluster manager that is a federation of Kubernetes clusters. It is shown how, under reasonable constraints, it can reduce the projected datacenter’s carbon emissions growth by 22% from the currently reported consumption. We also suggest operating

  2. Impact of clean air legislation on the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    As the 1990s begin, the petroleum refining and marketing industry faces an unprecedented number of environmental issues that, combined, will bring major changes in the fundamentals of the business by the turn of the century. The following background on the history of environmentally driven change in the oil business provides a broad view of current environmental laws and regulations, while addressing timing and general impacts on the downstream segment. It will then focus on the Clean Air Act of 1990, providing information on the range of areas this comprehensive legislative initiative will regulate. Finally, the discussion narrows to the mobile source provisions of the act. It is through this section that the most foundational changes in our business will occur. In this paper the nature of those changes are discussed, and a short list of issues with potential for significant impact on a global basis are covered

  3. Air and gas cleaning methods for reactor containment vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, L.

    1963-11-15

    In this paper, a survey is made of the existing and some proposed new methods for the control and purification of air and gases which might be released from a reactor contained or confined for protection of the health and safety of the public from potential accidents. The difference between confinement and containment concepts must be considered. The problems involved and the need for decontamination, site selection, exclusion area, population density, distance, etc., have been discussed elsewhere. We propose to discuss here the safety measures necessary to control the release of radioactive materials to the environment. This requires special systems which must function effectively to minimize loss of fission products such as halogens and particulates. These can penetrate the confinement filters or the containment vessel to a limited extent even after cleaning.

  4. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, D. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Williams, L. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, S. C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ng, N. L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thornton, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Knighton, B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Coulter, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prévôt, Ash [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-03-01

    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  5. Consistent approach to air-cleaning system duct design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, W.H.; Ornberg, S.C.; Rooney, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    Nuclear power plant air-cleaning system effectiveness is dependent on the capability of a duct system to safely convey contaminated gas to a filtration unit and subsequently to a point of discharge. This paper presents a logical and consistent design approach for selecting sheet metal ductwork construction to meet applicable criteria. The differences in design engineers' duct construction specifications are acknowledged. Typical duct construction details and suggestions for their effective use are presented. Improvements in duct design sections of ANSI/ASME N509-80 are highlighted. A detailed leakage analysis of a control room HVAC system is undertaken to illustrate the effects of conceptual design variations on duct construction requirements. Shortcomings of previously published analyses and interpretations of a current standard are included

  6. Citizen Science Air Sensor Project with Clean Air Carolina and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientists are partnering with Clean Air Carolina (CAC) in Charlotte, N.C., and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) in Cherokee, N.C., to conduct a citizen science air quality project in these regions.

  7. Notification: Background Investigation Services EPA’s Efforts to Incorporate Environmental Justice Into Clean Air Act Inspections for Air Toxics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Project #OPE-FY14-0017, March 7, 2014. The OIG plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an evaluation of the EPA's efforts to incorporate environmental justice into Clean Air Act (CAA) inspections for air toxics.

  8. Experimental analysis of indoor air quality improvement achieved by using a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air-cleaner in a ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the air purification effect of a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air-cleaner which combined a silica gel rotor with a heat pump to achieve air cleaning, heating and ventilation in buildings. The experiments were conducted in a field laboratory and compared a low outdoor air...... supply rate with CAHP air purification of recirculated air with three different outdoor air supply rates without recirculation or air cleaning. Sensory assessments of perceived air quality and chemical measurements of TVOC concentration were used to evaluate the air-cleaning performance of the CAHP....... The results of the experiment showed that the operation of the CAHP significantly improved the perceived air quality in a room polluted by both human bio-effluents and building materials. At the outdoor airflow rate of 2 L/s per person, the indoor air quality with CAHP was equivalent to what was achieved...

  9. Proceedings of the 24. DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning and treatment conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1997-08-01

    This report contains the papers presented at the 24th DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference and the associated discussions. Major topics are: (1) nuclear air cleaning issues, (2) waste management, (3) instrumentation and measurement, (4) testing air and gas cleaning systems, (5) progress and challenges in cleaning up Hanford, (6) international nuclear programs, (7) standardized test methods, (8) HVAC, (9) decommissioning, (10) computer modeling applications, (11) adsorption, (12) iodine treatment, (13) filters, and (14) codes and standards for filters and adsorbers. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  10. Sizing of air cleaning systems for access to nuclear plant spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estreich, P.J.

    A mathematical basis is developed to provide the practicing engineer with a method for sizing air-cleaning systems for nuclear facilities. In particular, general formulas are provided to relate cleaning and contamination dynamics of an enclosure such that safe conditions are obtained when working crews enter. Included in these considerations is the sizing of an air-cleaning system to provide rapid decontamination of airborne radioactivity. Multiple-nuclide contamination sources, leak rate, direct radiation, contaminant mixing efficiency, filter efficiencies, air-cleaning-system operational modes, and criteria for maximum permissible concentrations are integrated into the procedure. (author)

  11. Proceedings of the 24. DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning and treatment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1997-08-01

    This report contains the papers presented at the 24th DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference and the associated discussions. Major topics are: (1) nuclear air cleaning issues, (2) waste management, (3) instrumentation and measurement, (4) testing air and gas cleaning systems, (5) progress and challenges in cleaning up Hanford, (6) international nuclear programs, (7) standardized test methods, (8) HVAC, (9) decommissioning, (10) computer modeling applications, (11) adsorption, (12) iodine treatment, (13) filters, and (14) codes and standards for filters and adsorbers. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  12. Implementation of the clean air strategy for Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, H.S.; Angle, R.P. [Alberta Dept. of Environmental Protection, Alberta (Canada); Kelly, M. [Clean Air Strategic Alliance, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Air quality and its effects on the environment and human health have received considerable attention during the last three decades in Alberta, Canada. Among the issues receiving a high priority are acid deposition, smog and global warming. There are various sources of emissions to Alberta`s atmosphere, many of which relate to the extraction, processing, and burning of fossil fuels; pulp and paper manufacture; and transportation. There are also natural sources of contaminants, such as particulates from forest fires and methane from bogs. The extraction, processing and combustion of fossil fuels play an important role in Alberta`s economy. The province produces over 80 % of the oil and natural gas in Canada, and nearly half the coal. Low sulphur coal is used in power plants to supply more than 90 % of the electricity used in this province by nearly three million people. As a result, Alberta is responsible for about 27 % of the CO{sub 2}, 23 % of the nitrogen oxides, and 16 % of the SO{sub 2} emissions generated in Canada. Alberta`s air quality is monitored by the Government of Alberta at nine continuous, eight intermittent, over 250 static, and 12 precipitation monitoring stations. Parameters such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, particulates, and ion-content of precipitation are measured. Industry operates a large number of ambient and static SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S monitoring stations across Alberta, with monitoring costs estimated at 56-80 million USD annually. The unique features of the Clean Air Strategy for Alberta (CASA) have already been published elsewhere. This presentation discusses the mechanism and progress on its implementation. (author)

  13. Implementation of the clean air strategy for Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, H S; Angle, R P [Alberta Dept. of Environmental Protection, Alberta (Canada); Kelly, M [Clean Air Strategic Alliance, Alberta (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Air quality and its effects on the environment and human health have received considerable attention during the last three decades in Alberta, Canada. Among the issues receiving a high priority are acid deposition, smog and global warming. There are various sources of emissions to Alberta`s atmosphere, many of which relate to the extraction, processing, and burning of fossil fuels; pulp and paper manufacture; and transportation. There are also natural sources of contaminants, such as particulates from forest fires and methane from bogs. The extraction, processing and combustion of fossil fuels play an important role in Alberta`s economy. The province produces over 80 % of the oil and natural gas in Canada, and nearly half the coal. Low sulphur coal is used in power plants to supply more than 90 % of the electricity used in this province by nearly three million people. As a result, Alberta is responsible for about 27 % of the CO{sub 2}, 23 % of the nitrogen oxides, and 16 % of the SO{sub 2} emissions generated in Canada. Alberta`s air quality is monitored by the Government of Alberta at nine continuous, eight intermittent, over 250 static, and 12 precipitation monitoring stations. Parameters such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, particulates, and ion-content of precipitation are measured. Industry operates a large number of ambient and static SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S monitoring stations across Alberta, with monitoring costs estimated at 56-80 million USD annually. The unique features of the Clean Air Strategy for Alberta (CASA) have already been published elsewhere. This presentation discusses the mechanism and progress on its implementation. (author)

  14. CLEAN-AIR heat pump. Reduced energy consumption for ventilation in buildings by integrating air cleaning and heat pump. Final Report; CLEAN-AIR heat pump - Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger ved luftrensning integreret med luft varmepumpe. Slut rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, L.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Molinaro, G.; Simmonsen, P.; Skocajic, S. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Institut for Byggeri og Anlaeg, Lyngby (Denmark); Hummelshoej, R.M.; Carlassara, L. [COWI A/S, Lyngby, (Denmark); Groenbaek, H.; Hansen, Ole R. [Exhausto A/S, Langeskov (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes task 1 of the Clean Air Heat Pump project - modelling and simulation on energy savings when using the clean air heat pump for ventilation, air cleaning and energy recovery. The total energy consumption of the proposed ventilation systems using clean air heat pump technology was calculated by a theoretical model and compared with the reference ventilation systems (conventional ventilation systems). The energy compared between the two systems includes energy used for heating, cooling and fan. The simulation and energy saving calculation was made for the application of the clean air heat pump in three typical climate conditions, i.e. mild-cold, mild-hot and hot and wet climates. Real climate data recorded from three cities in 2002 was used for the calculation. The three cities were Copenhagen (Denmark), Milan (Italy) and Colombo (Sir Lanka) which represent the above three typical climate zones. For the Danish climate (the mild cold climate), the calculations show that the ventilation system using clean air heat pump technology can save up to 42% of energy cost in winter compared to the conventional ventilation system. The energy saving in summer can be as high as 66% for the ventilation system with humidity control and 9% for the ventilation system without the requirement of humidity control. Since the Danish summer climate is very mild, over 80% of the yearly energy consumption for ventilation is used during winter season. It is, therefore, estimated that more than 35% annual energy saving for ventilation is expected in Denmark using the clean air heat pump ventilation technology. For the mild hot climate, e.g. the Italian climate, the calculations show that up to 63% of the energy saving can be achieved in summer season. For the winter mode, 17% reduction of the energy cost can be expected for the domestic use. For industrial use, the energy cost of the clean air heat pump may not be favourable due to the industrial price of gas in Italy is

  15. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct....... The increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation...

  16. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Opportunities for Promoting Renewable Energy; Final Report: December 11, 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, D.R.; Morss, E.M. (Young, Sommer, Ward, Ritzenberg, Wooley, Baker and Moore, LLC, Albany, New York)

    2001-01-08

    This report explores key aspects of the intersection between the nation's clean air and energy goals and proposes alternatives for encouraging renewable energy in the context of the federal Clean Air Act (CAA). As with most environmental statutes enacted in the early 1970s, the 1970 CAA embraced a somewhat rigid ''command-and-control'' approach to achieving its clean air goals. Although effective, this approach has been criticized for discouraging creative and cost-effective solutions to reducing air emissions. In response to this concern, Congress included the first significant market-based program to address an environmental problem-in this case, acid rain caused by sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from power plants-in the 1990 CAA Amendments. This program prompted the federal government and various state governments to pursue other market-based programs to address air pollution problems. Ten years have elapsed since the passage of the 1990 CAA Amendments, so the time is ripe to consider expanding opportunities for renewable energy development in the reform of clean air policies. A significant potential for renewables exists in conjunction with international efforts to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), including CO2. Unfortunately, Congressional opposition to international GHG reduction agreements makes it difficult to develop GHG emission-reduction programs, including a cap-and-trade alternative, that would enable the renewables industry to harness this potential. The renewable industry can, however, track developments both nationally and internationally to ensure that the programs developed adequately address renewables.

  17. Fossil fuels and air pollution in USA after the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuveliov, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses environmental issues in the USA after the Clean Air Act. Economic damage assessment to population and environment due to air pollution from stationary and mobile sources producing and utilizing fossil fuels in the USA for the period of 1970--1986 is determined and discussed. A comparison of environmental damage assessments for the USA and USSR is provided. The paper also addresses ecologo-economical aspects of hydrogen energy and technology. The effectiveness of hydrogen use in ferrous metallurgy and motor vehicles in the USA is determined and discussed

  18. Aerosol challenges to air cleaning systems during severe accidents in nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieseke, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of air cleaning systems may be operating in nuclear power plants and under severe accident conditions, these systems may be treating airborne concentrations of aerosols which are very high. Predictions of airborne aerosol concentrations in nuclear power plant containments under severe accident conditions are reviewed to provide a basis for evaluating the potential effects on the air cleaning systems. The air cleaning systems include filters, absorber beds, sprays, water pools, ice beds, and condensers. Not all of these were intended to operate as air cleaners but will in fact be good aerosol collectors. Knowledge of expected airborne concentrations will allow better evaluation of system performances

  19. Proceedings of the 23rd DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1995-02-01

    The report contains the papers presented at the 23rd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference and the associated discussions. Major topics are: (1) nuclear air cleaning codes, (2) nuclear waste, (3) filters and filtration, (4) effluent stack monitoring, (5) gas processing, (6) adsorption, (7) air treatment systems, (8) source terms and accident analysis, and (9) fuel reprocessing. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Learning from 25 years of experience with the United States clean air act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, R.H. [Trinity Consultants Incorporated, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Twenty-five years ago, the United States embarked on a quest to attain clean air. President Nixon, in signing the Clean Air Act of 1970, defined clean air as the objective for the `70s. Although enormous progress has been made, much remains to be done. Newly constructed industry is quite clean, but many older facilities continue to operate with antiquated controls. Significant advances have been made in cleaning up the emissions from new automobiles, but two factors have impaired progress. First, cars last longer than they did in 1970, so the average age of the fleet has increased. Second, travel has increased as people have moved to the suburbs. Thus, the emission decreases from clean cars have not been as great as expected. This presentation will address some of the lessons learned from the efforts in the United States to implement clean air programs. In a large number of countries, excessively elaborate studies have been substituted for action programs. Since much is now known about air quality, fairly brief studies can define programs that should be undertaken. What may take longer is developing public support and enthusiasm for improved air quality. In most cases, it is desirable to reduce spending on studies and increase spending on devising and implementing plans, as well as effectively communicating the necessary changes to the public. Balanced spending on studies- and action programs is essential to a sound air quality control program. (author)

  1. Learning from 25 years of experience with the United States clean air act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, R H [Trinity Consultants Incorporated, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Twenty-five years ago, the United States embarked on a quest to attain clean air. President Nixon, in signing the Clean Air Act of 1970, defined clean air as the objective for the `70s. Although enormous progress has been made, much remains to be done. Newly constructed industry is quite clean, but many older facilities continue to operate with antiquated controls. Significant advances have been made in cleaning up the emissions from new automobiles, but two factors have impaired progress. First, cars last longer than they did in 1970, so the average age of the fleet has increased. Second, travel has increased as people have moved to the suburbs. Thus, the emission decreases from clean cars have not been as great as expected. This presentation will address some of the lessons learned from the efforts in the United States to implement clean air programs. In a large number of countries, excessively elaborate studies have been substituted for action programs. Since much is now known about air quality, fairly brief studies can define programs that should be undertaken. What may take longer is developing public support and enthusiasm for improved air quality. In most cases, it is desirable to reduce spending on studies and increase spending on devising and implementing plans, as well as effectively communicating the necessary changes to the public. Balanced spending on studies- and action programs is essential to a sound air quality control program. (author)

  2. The Clean Coal Program's contributions to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential contributions of the US Department of Energy's Clean Coal Program (CCP) to addressing the requirements of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 (CAA90). Initially funded by Congress in 1985, the CCP is a government and industry co-funded effort to demonstrate a new generation of more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies in a series of full- scale ''showcase'' facilities built across the country. The CCP is expected to provide funding for more than $5 billion of projects during five rounds of competition, with at least half of the funding coming from the private sector. To date, 42 projects have been selected in the first 4 rounds of the CCP. The CAA and amendments form the basis for regulating emissions of air pollutants to protect health and the environment throughout the United States. Although the origin of the CAA can be traced back to 1955, many amendments passed since that time are testimony to the iterative process involved in the regulation of air pollution. Three key components of CAA90, the first major amendments to the CAA since 1977, include mitigation measures to reduce levels of (1) acid deposition, (2) toxic air pollutants, and (3) ambient concentrations of air pollutants. This paper focuses on the timeliness of clean coal technologies in contributing to these provisions of CAA90

  3. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  4. AEC Regulatory view of the reliability of air cleaning systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.; Zavadoski, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Air cleaning systems in nuclear facilities can be divided into three categories: ventilation exhaust systems, containment atmosphere cleanup systems, and process offgas systems. These systems have been the subject of numerous reports, regulatory guides, discussions, and meetings. Some of the analyses have been critical of the operation and design of these air cleaning systems--in particular, the engineered safety features containment atmosphere cleanup systems. Although for the most part the criticism is applicable, and recognizing that there are a number of unresolved issues pertaining to gaseous waste management systems, there are data to show that air cleaning systems in use in nuclear facilities are performing their intended function. (U.S.)

  5. 78 FR 2333 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ...] Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Asbestos Management... protection, Administrative practice and procedure, Air pollution control, Hazardous substances, Incorporation...-Sw 2100: Management and Control of Asbestos Disposal Sites Not Operated after July 9, 1981,'' and the...

  6. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  7. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act'') Notice is hereby given that on July 21, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree... Sections 301 and 308 of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in...

  8. Ontario's Clean Air Action Plan : protecting environmental and human health in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Ontario's Clean Air Action Plan was launched in June 2000 in an effort to improve air quality and comply with the Canada-Wide Standards for Particulate Matter and Ozone. This paper describes Ontario's approach to reducing smog. Smog-related air pollution is linked to health problems such as premature death, respiratory and heart problems. Smog also contributes to environmental problems such as damage to forests, agricultural crops and natural vegetation. The two main ingredients of smog are ground level ozone and particulate matter. In order to reduce the incidence of smog, the following four key smog-causing pollutants must be reduced: nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds, sulphur dioxide and particular matter. This paper includes the 2001 estimates for Ontario's emissions inventory along with Ontario's smog reduction targets. It was noted that approximately half of all smog in Ontario comes from sources in the midwestern United States. The province of Ontario is committed to replacing coal-fired power plants with cleaner sources of energy. It is also considering emission caps for key industrial sectors. The key players in reducing smog include municipalities, industry, individuals, the federal government and programs that reduce emissions in the United States. 3 figs., 8 tabs., 1 appendix

  9. Partial pit exhaust improves indoor air quality and effectiveness of air cleaning in livestock housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, B.; Zong, C.

    2017-01-01

    Ammonia and odor emissions from livestock production systems cause negative impact on atmospheric environment and local society. It is, therefore, important to develop cost-effective methods to reduce these emissions. Air cleaning technologies, including chemical and biological filters, have been...... and experimental investigations, to identify important factors that may affect the system performances for removal of ammonia and other pollutants from the animal housing and to address the extension work that may be needed to apply the method in actual production scales. It is shown that PPAE is an effective...

  10. Evaluation of air cleaning system concepts for emergency use in LMFBR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; McCormack, J.D.; Postma, A.K.

    1976-12-01

    Nineteen different air cleaning concepts are arranged into twenty-four systems and evaluated for use as accident mitigating systems in LMFBR plants. Both single, low-leakage containment plants and once-through operation applicable to containment/confinement plants are considered. Plant characteristics affecting air cleaning requirements are defined for 1000 MW(e) plants and a sodium and radiological release term is postulated. The accident conditions under which the emergency air cleaning system (EACS) must function is established by use of SOFIRE-II and HAA-3B computer codes. Criteria are developed for evaluating the various systems and for assigning comparative ratings. The numerical ratings are combined with information on cost and development potential to arrive at recommendations for the most promising systems. The conclusion is made that reliable and effective systems are feasible for use as engineered safety features for LMFBR plants, but that development effort is required for all the air cleaning concepts evaluated

  11. 75 FR 24946 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ..., South Carolina, Wisconsin, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Louisiana, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Colorado..., Wisconsin, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, Louisiana, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, Colorado, Montana, South Dakota... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9146-3] Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit...

  12. 75 FR 10794 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) Request for Nominations to the CAAAC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel... Nominations: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) invites nominations of qualified candidates to be...

  13. Developing self-cleaning and air purifying transportation infrastructure components to minimize environmental impact of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Creating transportation infrastructure, which can clean up itself and contaminated air surrounding it, can be a : groundbreaking approach in addressing environmental challenges of our time. This project has explored a possibility of : depositing coat...

  14. Risk Management Programs under Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Guidance for Implementing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accidental release prevention programs under section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) are related to and build on activities under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.

  15. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers

  16. Research and development on air cleaning system of reprocessing plant in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naruki, K.

    1985-01-01

    Present status in Japan of R and D on air cleaning systems, especially of the fuel reprocessing plant is summarized. The description is centered on the R and D and experience of Tokai-reprocessing plant, which covers the plant air cleaning system, effort carried out for decreasing I 2 effluence in the actual vented off-gas, and R and D for recovery of Kr and 3 H. Some experimental results for the evaluation of HEPA filter are also described

  17. Effectiveness of HVAC duct cleaning procedures in improving indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I; Tansel, B; Mitrani, J D

    2001-12-01

    Indoor air quality has become one of the most serious environmental concerns as an average person spends about 22 hr indoors on a daily basis. The study reported in this article, was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three commercial HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) duct cleaning processes in reducing the level of airborne particulate matter and viable bioaerosols. The three HVAC sanitation processes were: (1) Contact method (use of conventional vacuum cleaning of interior duct surfaces); (2) Air sweep method (use of compressed air to dislodging dirt and debris); (3) Rotary brush method (insertion of a rotary brush into the ductwork to agitate and dislodge the debris). Effectiveness of these sanitation processes was evaluated in terms of airborne particulate and viable bioaerosol concentrations in residential homes. Eight identical homes were selected in the same neighborhood. Two homes were cleaned using each procedure and two were used as controls. It was found that both particle count readings and bioaerosol concentrations were higher when cleaning was being performed than before or after cleaning, which suggests that dirt, debris and other pollutants may become airborne as a result of disturbances caused by the cleaning processes. Particle count readings at 0.3 micron size were found to have increased due to cigarette smoking. Particle counts at 1.0 micron size were reduced due to HVAC duct cleaning. Post-level bioaerosol concentrations, taken two days after cleaning, were found to be lower than the pre-level concentrations suggesting that the cleaning procedures were effective to some extent. Homes cleaned with the Air Sweep procedure showed the highest degree of reduction in bioaerosol concentration among the three procedures investigated.

  18. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo

    2011-01-01

    America, and Asia with expertise in air cleaning, aerosol science, medicine, chemistry and ventilation. The effects on health were not examined. Over 26,000 articles were identified in major literature databases; 400 were selected as being relevant based on their titles and abstracts by the first two......Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some...... air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North...

  19. Proceedings of the 19th DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First, M.W.

    1987-05-01

    This document contains the papers and the associated discussions of the 19 DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. Sessions were devoted to (1) fire, explosion and accident analysis, (2) adsorption and iodine retention, (3) filters and filter testing, (4) standards and regulation, (5) treatment of radon, krypton, tritium and carbon-14, (6) ventilation and air cleaning in reactor operations, (7) dissolver off-gas cleaning, (8) adsorber fires, (9) nuclear grade carbon testing, (10) sampling and monitoring, and (11) field test experience. Individual papers were processed separately for the data base

  20. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  1. Testing and operation of nuclear air-cleaning systems in Qinshan NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lin

    1993-01-01

    The components of nuclear air-cleaning system, system function, operational mode and the performance of cleaning components in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant are described. The items, purpose, methods and results of in-place testing after the installation are also described in detail. The in-place testing verifies that nuclear air-cleaning systems in Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant are reliable and high effective. It also describes the points of the operational management. It is shown that the good operational management is the key which developed prescription function of nuclear air-cleaning systems. At present, Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant will be in full power, the normal operation of the system is satisfied with the demand of safe operation in Qinshan Nuclear Power Company

  2. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Within...

  3. Clean Air Act Guidelines and Standards for Waste Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the waste management industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  4. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Electric Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for theelectric utilitiesr industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  5. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Sterilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the sterilizer industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  6. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Mineral Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the mineral processing industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  7. No Need to Wait for the Clean Air Dividend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew

    2012-01-01

    upfront costs of some measures can be prohibitive even when they eventually pay for themselves. But this can be overcome by mechanisms such as international financing of capital costs. For other measures, the costs are typically borne by a few while the benefits accrue to everybody. In such cases civil society and governments must get involved. Governments are starting to act. In February, the US, Canada, Sweden, Bangladesh, Ghana and Mexico launched the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to support implementation of measures like these. This coalition will hopefully expand and achieve rapid, widespread adoption of measures to cut black carbon and ozone. While the climate benefits will be substantial, it is important to note that these measures cannot substitute for cuts in carbon dioxide. Black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide and methane stay in the atmosphere for a fairly short time - a few days for black carbon and about a decade for methane. They thus respond quickly to emissions changes and give us substantial leverage over near-term climate change. In contrast, carbon dioxide is very long-lived and so responds slowly to emissions changes. This means that cuts have little immediate impact, but it also means they must be made now to avoid disastrous changes later on. Controlling short-lived climate pollutants is thus an issue of fairness. Much as failure to reduce carbon dioxide emissions soon would condemn future generations to disastrous change, failure to reduce near-term climate change condemns those alive today to suffer worsening effects of the sort already seen. Some wonder if we really can do both. We can, and we must.

  8. 18 CFR 1316.5 - Clean Air and Water Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1319), offeror shall include in its offer a...(c) of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act. As used in this clause “facilities” shall have the... Violating Facilities. Prompt notification shall be required prior to contract award. (End of clause) ...

  9. The community takes charge : story and success of Clean Air Hamilton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarry, B.

    2004-01-01

    Clean Air Hamilton was established in 2001 to identify priority air quality issues, pollution sources, and evaluate impacts and solutions for air quality issues. Clean Air Hamilton also assesses the human health effects of ambient air exposures in Hamilton. A 1997 survey of Hamilton residents showed that most citizens were extremely concerned about health effects, black fallout, smog visibility, and odours. Clean Air Hamilton has established an air monitoring network which includes 19 member companies and 22 industrial sites. The objective is to determine recent contaminant trends in upwind/downwind air quality. The timeline for establishing the Hamilton air monitoring network was presented. The network, which serves as a model for Ontario and Canada, monitors the impact of vehicular and industrial emissions and establishes ten-year air quality trends for benzo(a)pyrene, sulphur, nitrogen dioxide, and ozone at industrial sites and the downtown core. Analysis of air quality trends shows that there has been improvement in levels of some locally-generated contaminants. The data has also been used for epidemiological studies to determine the health effects of industry on Hamiltonians. figs

  10. L’Aquila Smart Clean Air City: The Italian Pilot Project for Healthy Urban Air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Avveduto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to atmospheric pollution is a major concern for urban populations. Currently, no effective strategy has been adopted to tackle the problem. The paper presents the Smart Clean Air City project, a pilot experiment concerning the improvement in urban air quality. Small wet scrubber systems will be operating in a network configuration in suitable urban areas of L’Aquila city (Italy. The purpose of this work is to describe the project and show the preliminary results obtained in the characterization of two urban sites before the remediation test; the main operating principles of the wet scrubber system will be discussed, as well as the design of the mobile treatment plant for the processing of wastewater resulting from scrubber operation. Measurements of particle size distributions in the range of 0.30–25 µm took place in the two sites of interest, an urban background and a traffic area in the city of L’Aquila. The mean number concentration detected was 2.4 × 107 and 4.5 × 107 particles/m3, respectively. Finally, theoretical assessments, performed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD codes, will show the effects of the wet scrubber operation on air pollutants under different environmental conditions and in several urban usage patterns.

  11. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors

  12. 76 FR 9609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... the Environmental Protection Agency and the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District... related to emissions of pollutants; install and operate required pollution control technology; undertake... Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7413(b), for alleged environmental violations at defendant's biomass electric...

  13. Smogbusters: Grassroots Action for Clean Air and Sustainable Transport in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Eric; Wake, David; Carlisle, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Smogbusters was a national, community-based, government-funded community education program promoting clean air and sustainable transport in Australia from 1994 to 2002. Smogbusters aimed to improve air quality primarily by raising awareness about motor vehicle transport and its negative impacts on health, the environment and communities, and by…

  14. Human Response to Ductless Personalised Ventilation: Impact of Air Movement, Temperature and Cleanness on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria

    2013-01-01

    environment facially applied individually controlled air movement of room air, with or without local filtering, did not have significant impact on eye blink frequency and tear film quality. The local air movement and air cleaning resulted in increased eye blinking frequency and improvement of tear film......The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink...

  15. Combining active chilled beams and air cleaning technologies to improve indoor climate in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2012-01-01

    This project is part of a long-term research programme studying the possibilities of using efficient air cleaning technologies to improve the indoor air quality in buildings. The purpose of this part of the project is to study energy-saving potential by combining cooling and cleaning of air in of....... Furthermore, the measurement results of the combined system showed that adding the filter accelerated the removal rate of the particles by 2 (h-1). However, the efficiency of the chilled beam in exchanging the heat reduced by 38%....

  16. Air cleaning efficiency of deodorant materials under dynamic conditions: effect of air flow rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizutani, Chiyomi; Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    Unpleasant odor is a serious problem in hospitals and elderly facilities. One of the unpleasant odors is ammonia originating from human urine and sweat. The air cleaning efficiency of porous activated carbon fiber fabric which has been treated with acid, and porous activated carbon fiber fabric...... mixed with ammonia gas at a concentration of 20 ppm and velocities of 0.05, 0.15, 0.3 and 1.2 m/s. The activated carbon fibers treated with acid had a high deodorizing effect for ammonia (0.8) at a velocity of 0.05 m/s. The deodorizing effect of this material decreased with the increase in the velocity....... The porous activated carbon fiber fabric did not have a deodorant effect....

  17. Sample and injection manifolds used to in-place test of nuclear air-cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Dangui; Li Xinzhi; Hou Jianrong; Qiao Taifei; Wu Tao; Zhang Jirong; Han Lihong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: According to the regulations of nuclear safety rules and related standards, in-place test of the nuclear air-cleaning systems should be carried out before and during operation of the nuclear facilities, which ensure them to be in good condition. In some special conditions, the use of sample and injection manifolds is required to make the test tracer and ventilating duct air fully mixed, so as to get the on-spot typical sample. Methods: This paper introduces the technology and application of the sample and injection manifolds in nuclear air-cleaning system. Results: Multi point injection and multi point sampling technology as an effective experimental method, has been used in a of domestic and international nuclear facilities. Conclusion: The technology solved the problem of uniformly of on-spot injection and sampling,which plays an important role in objectively evaluating the function of nuclear air-cleaning system. (authors)

  18. The Political Economy of Clean Air Legislation. An Analysis of Voting in the U.S. Senate on Amendments to the 1990 Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkey, M.L.; Durden, G.C.

    1998-01-01

    Much research in political science and economics has attempted to explain voting patterns among members of legislative bodies. In this paper we extend the existing analysis in three ways. First, we address the subject of voting on air quality regulation by the U.S. Senate. A subject of great importance and significance, such votes have not previously been the focus of much empirical investigation. Second, we develop an arguably more correct and effective methodology for measuring and understanding the ideological preferences of individual Senators, as revealed by their voting patterns on 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act. Third, we apply the minimum chi-square methodology for estimating the determinants of Senator voting patterns on the issue. In Section 2, the economic theory of regulation is elaborated as it is specifically related to 1990 senate voting on amendments to the Clean Air Act. In Section 3, we provide a brief literature review, focusing on the principal-agent model and how voting patterns are influenced by campaign contributions, constituent socio-economic characteristics, and individual legislator ideology. In Section 4 we present a very simple model of the principal-agent relationship which underlies legislative voting behavior. In this section (supplemented by information in an appendix) we introduce a new methodology for creating a proxy variable to represent legislator ideology, comparing the new method with those previously used. Section 5 provides a chronological background on clean air legislation, and Section 6 discusses the data and proxy variables used for the empirical estimations. Section 7 contains a presentation and evaluation of three empirical techniques, including one not previously used, the minimum chi-square method which, we argue, is both appropriate and easily interpretable. This claim is based upon the fact that the dependent variable, SCORE, is neither continuous nor dichotomous, but ordered and categorical, constructed

  19. Socio-economic considerations of cleaning Greater Vancouver's air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-08-01

    Socio-economic considerations of better air quality on the Greater Vancouver population and economy were discussed. The purpose of the study was to provide socio-economic information to staff and stakeholders of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD) who are participating in an Air Quality Management Plan (AQMP) development process and the Sustainable Region Initiative (SRI) process. The study incorporated the following methodologies: identification and review of Canadian, American, and European quantitative socio-economic, cost-benefit, cost effectiveness, competitiveness and health analyses of changes in air quality and measures to improve air quality; interviews with industry representatives in Greater Vancouver on competitiveness impacts of air quality changes and ways to improve air quality; and a qualitative analysis and discussion of secondary quantitative information that identifies and evaluates socio-economic impacts arising from changes in Greater Vancouver air quality. The study concluded that for the Greater Vancouver area, the qualitative analysis of an improvement in Greater Vancouver air quality shows positive socio-economic outcomes, as high positive economic efficiency impacts are expected along with good social quality of life impacts. 149 refs., 30 tabs., 6 appendices

  20. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  1. Eastern States Harness Clean Energy to Promote Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-10-01

    States on the East Coast are including renewable energy and energy efficiency projects into their air quality plans that they submit to the EPA to address nonattainment for nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.

  2. 75 FR 34647 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Solvent NESHAP for cleaning or drying parts, except any cold cleaning machine that uses a solvent which... cleaning machines in which parts such as film, coils, wire, and metal strips are cleaned at speeds... requires each cleaning machine to have [[Page 34650

  3. Users view of the reliability of air cleaning systems in nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovach, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    The state of the art of air cleaning systems has advanced, but a wealth of knowledge did not result in a commensurate increase in the improvement of the design, manufacture, and operation of air cleaning systems. Often the developed data is not available or known to the designer, equipment supplier or operator. There are still systems installed where the equipment will operate under the specified criteria only when it is new and little thought is given to the subsequent maintainance and operating problems. The dissemination of available information to all of those concerned with the design, construction, installation, and operation of air cleaning systems through relevant standards, guides, etc. is unsatisfactory at the present time. (U.S.)

  4. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  5. Cleaning products and air fresheners: emissions and resulting concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, B C; Destaillats, H; Hodgson, A T; Nazaroff, W W

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m3 room ventilated at approximately 0.5/h. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 microg/m3 for individual terpenoids, including alpha-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and alpha-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or d-limonene were 300-6000 microg/m3 after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, and approximately 25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were approximately 35-70% with towels retained, and 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and beta-citronellol) were emitted at 35-180 mg/day over 3 days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 microg/m3. While effective cleaning can improve the healthfulness of indoor environments, this work shows that use of some consumer cleaning agents can yield high levels of volatile organic compounds, including glycol ethers--which are regulated toxic air contaminants--and terpenes that can react with ozone to form a variety of secondary pollutants including formaldehyde and ultrafine particles. Persons involved in cleaning, especially those who clean occupationally or often, might encounter

  6. Combining active chilled beams and air-cleaning technologies to improve the indoor climate in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    This project is part of a long-term research programme to study the possibilities of using efficient air-cleaning technologies to improve the indoor air quality in buildings. The purpose of this part of the project was to study the energy-saving potential of combining the cooling and cleaning of ...... than 5 Pa (0.104 Ibf /ft2). Furthermore, the measurement results of the combined system showed that adding the filter accelerated the removal rate of the particles by 2 h-1. However, the efficiency of the chilled beam in exchanging heat was reduced by 38%....

  7. The regulation of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Effects on the Portland cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikols, E.H.; Gill, A.S.; Dougherty, A.

    1996-01-01

    Title III of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) addresses the control of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from major sources of air pollution in the US. In the CAAA, Congress defined 189 compounds as hazardous air pollutants in need of additional control by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Congress directed EPA to identify the major source categories which emit HAPs and to prepare regulations that would reduce and control future HAP emissions. This paper outlines the activities undertaken by EPA to regulate HAP emissions from Portland cement plants and the program developed by the Portland cement manufacturing industry to cope with Title III

  8. 77 FR 16548 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ..., and consensus-building skills. --Ability to volunteer time to attend meetings 2-3 times a year... third term. The CAAAC usually meets 2-3 times annually with workgroups meeting more frequently. The... governments issues. --Experience working with air quality policy issues. --Executive management level...

  9. BACT analysis under the Clean Air Act's PCD program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simms, P.; Walke, J. [National Resources Development Council, Washington, DC (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Before a company may build a new major industrial source of air pollution, or make modifications to an existing major source in the USA it must apply for and receive a Clean Air Act (CAA) Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) permit. State environmental agencies typically issue such permits, either under state law or by exercising delegated authority to implement the federal PSD program. To fully comply with the CAA, the emissions limits identified as BACT must incorporate consideration of more than just add-on emissions control technology, they must also reflect appropriate considerations of fuel quality (e.g. low-sulfur coal) and process changes (e.g. advanced combustion techniques) as a means of controlling emissions, and must consider the other environmental and public welfare benefits of the identified emissions control options. Several states including New Mexico and Illinois have already determined that innovated technologies, such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), must be considered in connection with the BACT analysis for new coal-fired power plants. Even the notion that BACT is categorically limited in scope to the general type of facility proposed is contrary to EPA precedent. For example, the Environmental Appeals Board (EAB) has explained that permitting authorities retain the discretion under the definition of BACT to require dramatically different facility designs (e.g. a natural gas plant instead of a coal-fired power plant). The best advice for any permit applicant is to include in the BACT analysis a careful and honest examination of better performing alternative processes and/or innovative combustion techniques and to aggressively pursue such options wherever feasible. 17 refs.

  10. Nanomaterials for benign indoor environments: Electrochromics for 'smart windows', sensors for air quality, and photo-catalysts for air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granqvist, C.G.; Azens, A.; Heszler, P.; Kish, L.B.; OEsterlund, L.

    2007-01-01

    Nanomaterials can be used in a number of technologies in order to accomplish benign indoor environments. This paper takes a unified view on this problem from a solar-energy-based perspective and specifically considers electrochromics for achieving good day-lighting jointly with energy efficiency, sensors aimed at air quality assessment, and photocatalysis for air cleaning. Recent results, mainly from the authors' laboratories, are reported for all of these areas. (author)

  11. Human Response to Ductless Personalized Ventilation with Local Air Cleaning: Air Quality and Prevalence of SBS Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Bivolarova, Maria; Fillon, Maelys

    2013-01-01

    The impact of local air cleaning and cooling of the head region by ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality (PAQ) and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. Thirty subjects participated in experiments performed in a test room with displacement ventilation (DV...... with air filter and 29 °C with DPV without filter. During the experiments the subjects simulated office work and answered on computerized questionnaires. At warm environment PAQ and air freshness significantly improved when DPV was used. Eye dryness increased significantly with time but was not influenced...... by air temperature and filtering. At 29 °C the facially applied air movement from DPV increased the eye dryness. The SBS symptoms increased with time and were higher (not significantly) at the warm conditions. Air movement did not have profound impact on the SBS symptoms, while filtering had only at 23...

  12. Is the perception of clean, humid air indeed affected by cooling the respiratory tract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Rudolf; Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz

    2017-07-01

    The study aims at determining exposure-response relationships after short exposure to clean air and long exposure to air polluted by people. The impact of water vapor content in the indoor air on its acceptability (ACC) was assessed by the occupants after a short exposure to clean air and an hour-long exposure to increasingly polluted air. The study presents a critical analysis pertaining to the stimulation of olfactory sensations by the air enthalpy suggested in previous models and proposes a new model based on the Weber-Fechner law. Our assumption was that water vapor is the stimulus of olfactory sensations. The model was calibrated and verified in field conditions, in a mechanically ventilated and air conditioned auditorium. Measurements of the air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and CO2 content were carried out; the acceptability of air quality was assessed by 162 untrained students. The subjective assessments and the measurements of the environmental qualities allowed for determining the Weber coefficients and the threshold concentrations of water vapor, as well as for establishing the limitations of the model at short and long exposure to polluted indoor air. The results are in agreement with previous studies. The standard error equals 0.07 for immediate assessments and 0.17 for assessments after adaptation. Based on the model one can predict the ACC assessments of trained and untrained participants.

  13. Proceedings of the 10th world clean air congress. Emissions and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolvanen, M.; Anttila, P.; Kaemaeri, J.

    1995-01-01

    Rapid economical growth and expansion of human population have produced a number of environmental problems with varying geographic dimensions. While local problems remain near the pollution sources, the focus of the scientific community is more and more shifted towards regional, continental and global consequences of air pollutants. The theme of the 10th Clean Air Congress 'Growing Challenges from Local to Global' reflects the growing demand from the scientific and professional community working in air pollution prevention and environmental protection - more and more complex mechanisms should be understood on a growing spatial scale. The 10th World Clean Air Congress addresses in its more than 400 presentations, documented in three Volumes of Proceedings, the history, the present and the potential futures of the air pollution problems. Air has during different times always represented something valuable to people: the logo of the Congress, the octahedron sign, sympolizes the element of air in acient Greek philosophy. Today air quality is not only valued as important, it is a death serious matter. This Volume includes the presentations of the path A 'Emissions and Control' of the Congress. This path deals with issues related to measurement, monitoring and inventories of air pollutants from mobile and stationary sources, and the various ways to control the emissions of acidifying pollutants, air toxics and aerosols, volatile organic compounds, and odours. Integrated approaches to pollution prevention and non-waste technologies in various industrial sectors, have recently obtained special attention

  14. A baseline evaluation of casino air quality after enactment of Nevada's Clean Indoor Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Nancy L; Lee, Kiyoung

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General reports that there is no safe level of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). The purpose of this study was to measure levels of fine particulate matter in nonsmoking casino restaurants after enactment of Nevada's Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA). Fine particulate mattercasino hotel restaurants and gaming areas for a total of 32 venues. A battery-operated SidePak aerosol monitor was discreetly used for at least 30 min in each venue. Nonsmoking restaurant PM2.5 levels ranged from 5 to 101 microg/m3 (M=31; SD=22.9) while gaming areas ranged from 20 to 73 microg/m3 (M=48; SD=15.9). There was a significant difference in PM2.5 between restaurants and gaming areas, t30=-2.54, p=.017. There was also a strong correlation between the levels of restaurant PM2.5 and gaming area PM2.5 (r=.71; p=.005). Fine PM2.5 in all casino areas was above what the Environmental Protection Agency recommends as healthy. This information can be used to educate policy decision makers when discussing potential strengthening of the law.

  15. Clean Air Act : historical information on EPA's process for reviewing California waiver requests and making waiver determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Emissions from mobile sources, such as automobiles and trucks, contribute to air quality degradation and can threaten public health and the environment. Under the Clean Air Act, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates these emissions. The...

  16. Performance evaluation of control room HVAC and air cleaning systems under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almerico, F.; Machiels, A.J.; Ornberg, S.C.; Lahti, G.P.

    1985-01-01

    In light water reactors, control rooms and technical support centers must be designed to provide habitable environments in accordance with the requirements specified in General Design Criterion 19 of Appendix A, 10 CFR Part 50. Therefore, the effectiveness of HVAC and air cleaning system designs with respect to plant operator protection has to be evaluated by the system designer. Guidance for performing the analysis has been previously given in ANSI/ASME N509-1980 as well as in presentations at past Air Cleaning Conferences. The previous work is extended and the methodology used in a generic, interactive computer program that performs Main Control Room and Technical Support Center (TSC) habitability analyses for LWR nuclear power plants is presented. For given accident concentrations of radionuclides or hazardous gases in the outdoor air intakes and plant spaces surrounding the Main Control Room (or TSC), the program models the performance of the HVAC and air cleaning system designs, and determines control room (or TSC) contaminant concentrations and plant operator protection factors. Calculated or actual duct leakage, air cleaning efficiency, and airborne contamination are taken into account. Flexibility of the model allows for the representation of most control rooms (or TSC) and associated HVAC and air cleaning system conceptual designs that have been used by the US architect/engineers. The program replaced tedious calculations to determine the effects of HVAC ductwork and equipment leakage and permits (1) parametric analyses of various HVAC system design options early in the conceptual phase of a project, and (2) analysis of the effects of leakage test results on contaminant room concentrations, and therefore operator doses

  17. Dynamics Analysis of Castor Hulling in the Process of Air-and-Screen Cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Ruitao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The air-and-screen cleaning mechanism of castor hulling is analyzed in this paper. And the numeric expression equations of the castor dynamics analysis are established. The correlation of floating speeds vp, air speeds w, the direction angle of airflow velocity β, the direction angle of vibration δ, the friction angle ϕ, the slip coefficient, the fell coefficient and the jumping coefficient are analyzed.

  18. Dynamics Analysis of Castor Hulling in the Process of Air-and-Screen Cleaning

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Ruitao; Cao Yuhua; Yao Liangliang; Jin Hong

    2016-01-01

    The air-and-screen cleaning mechanism of castor hulling is analyzed in this paper. And the numeric expression equations of the castor dynamics analysis are established. The correlation of floating speeds vp, air speeds w, the direction angle of airflow velocity β, the direction angle of vibration δ, the friction angle ϕ, the slip coefficient, the fell coefficient and the jumping coefficient are analyzed.

  19. Off-gas and air cleaning systems for accident conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report surveys the design principles and strategies for mitigating the consequences of abnormal events in nuclear power plants by the use of air cleaning systems. Equipment intended for use in design basis accident and severe accident conditions is reviewed, with reference to designs used in IAEA Member States. 93 refs, 48 figs, 23 tabs

  20. 75 FR 62421 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... States of America v. James Valley Ethanol, LLC, Northern Lights Ethanol, LLC, and Poet Plant Management... Ethanol, LLC (``James Valley''), Northern Lights Ethanol, LLC (``Northern Lights''), and POET Plant Management (``POET'') pursuant to Sections 111 and 502(a) of the Clean Air Act (the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7411...

  1. 77 FR 44544 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Utah; Determination of Clean Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... further progress plans, reasonably available control measures, and contingency measures, no longer apply... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Utah; Determination of Clean Data for the 1987 PM 10 Standard... VI. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews Definitions For the purpose of this document, we are giving...

  2. 78 FR 38074 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... manufacturing plants operating in as many states. The states of Arkansas, Idaho, Kansas, Montana, Nebraska... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act On June... Court for the District of Kansas in the lawsuit entitled United States et al. v. Ash Grove Cement...

  3. 78 FR 43200 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-19

    ... Social Responsibility--Los Angeles v. EPA, No. 12-56175, upon receipt of written notice from EPA that the... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OGC-2013-0484; FRL-9835-6] Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  4. Dependence of adsorption quality of carbon in NPP air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vujisic, Lj.

    1994-01-01

    A relationship which describes the influence of aging, relative humidity and organic poisons on the adsorption quality of coconut charcoal has been established. The relationship is rearranged for easy calculation of the reliable operation time of the adsorbent media in charcoal filters of any single nuclear air-cleaning system during accidental and incidental situation of NPP (author)

  5. Proceedings of the 10th world clean air congress. Impacts and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemaeri, J.; Tolvanen, M.; Anttila, P.; Salonen, R.O. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    Rapid economical growth and expansion of human population have produced a number of environmental problems with varying geographic dimensions. While local problems remain near the pollution sources, the focus of the scientific community is more and more shifted towards regional, continental and global consequences of air pollutants. The theme of the 10th Clean Air Congress `Growing Challenges from Local to Global` reflects the growing demand from the scientific and professional community working in air pollution prevention and environmental protection - more and more complex mechanisms should be understood on a growing spatial scale. The 10th World Clean Air Congress addresses in its more than 400 presentations, documented in three Volumes of Proceedings, the history, the present and the potential futures of the air pollution problems. This volume includes all papers of paths C `Pollutant Impacts`, D `Pollution Management`, and E `Health Effects`. Path C includes numerous highly relevant papers dealing with climate change and greenhouse gases, as well as with environmental effects of air pollutants mostly on materials and vegetation. The most critical issues on air pollutant management throw light on national and regional abatement strategies and on the applicability of various tools for pollution management. The path on effects on human health includes a session on `Air pollution epidemiology` sponsored by the Economic Commission for Europe and a session on `Health effect control strategies` sponsored by the UN World Health Organization. In these sessions invited speakers describe the current understanding of human responses to air pollution exposure

  6. Proceedings of the 10th world clean air congress. Impacts and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemaeri, J; Tolvanen, M; Anttila, P; Salonen, R O [eds.

    1996-12-31

    Rapid economical growth and expansion of human population have produced a number of environmental problems with varying geographic dimensions. While local problems remain near the pollution sources, the focus of the scientific community is more and more shifted towards regional, continental and global consequences of air pollutants. The theme of the 10th Clean Air Congress `Growing Challenges from Local to Global` reflects the growing demand from the scientific and professional community working in air pollution prevention and environmental protection - more and more complex mechanisms should be understood on a growing spatial scale. The 10th World Clean Air Congress addresses in its more than 400 presentations, documented in three Volumes of Proceedings, the history, the present and the potential futures of the air pollution problems. This volume includes all papers of paths C `Pollutant Impacts`, D `Pollution Management`, and E `Health Effects`. Path C includes numerous highly relevant papers dealing with climate change and greenhouse gases, as well as with environmental effects of air pollutants mostly on materials and vegetation. The most critical issues on air pollutant management throw light on national and regional abatement strategies and on the applicability of various tools for pollution management. The path on effects on human health includes a session on `Air pollution epidemiology` sponsored by the Economic Commission for Europe and a session on `Health effect control strategies` sponsored by the UN World Health Organization. In these sessions invited speakers describe the current understanding of human responses to air pollution exposure

  7. Application of nuclear air cleaning and treatment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    All modifications to existing ventilation systems, as well as any new ventilation systems used on the Hanford Site are required to meet both American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes N509 and N510. Difficulties encountered when applying code N509 at the Hanford Site include the composition of the ventilation air stream and requirements related to ventilation equipment procurement. Also, the existing ventilation systems for the waste tanks at the Hanford Site cannot be tested in accordance with code N510 because of the current configuration of these systems

  8. Application of nuclear air cleaning and treatment codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriskovich, J.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    All modifications to existing ventilation systems, as well as any new ventilation systems used on the Hanford Site are required to meet both American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes N509 and N510. Difficulties encountered when applying code N509 at the Hanford Site include the composition of the ventilation air stream and requirements related to ventilation equipment procurement. Also, the existing ventilation systems for the waste tanks at the Hanford Site cannot be tested in accordance with code N510 because of the current configuration of these systems.

  9. Emission allowance trading under the Clean Air Act Amendments: An incentive mechanism for the adoption of Clean Coal Technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South, D.W.; McDermott, K.A.

    1993-01-01

    Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (P.L. 101-549) uses tradeable SO 2 allowances as a means of reducing acidic emissions from the electricity generating industry. The use of emission allowances generates two important results; first, utilities are given the flexibility to choose their optimal (least cost) compliance strategies and second, the use of emission allowances creates greater incentives for the development and commercialization of innovative emissions control technology. Clean Coal Technologies (CCTs) are able to generate electricity more efficiently, use a wide variety of coal grades and types, and dramatically reduce emissions of SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , and PM per kWh. However, development and adoption of the technology is limited by a variety of regulatory and technological risks. The use of SO 2 emission allowances may be able to provide incentives for utility (and nonutility) adoption of this innovative technology. Emission allowances permit the utility to minimize costs on a systemwide basis and provides rewards for addition emission reductions. As CCTs are a more efficient and low emitting source of electricity, the development and implementation of this technology is desirable. This paper will explore the relationship between the incentives created by the SO 2 allowance market and CCT development. Regulatory hindrances and boons for the allowance market shall also be identified to analyze how market development, state mandates, and incentive regulation will effect the ability of allowances to prompt CCT adoption

  10. 78 FR 69709 - Notice of Extension to Public Comment Period for Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning and Community Right- To Know Act'' On September 30, 2013, the... lawsuit filed under the Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning & Community Right to Know Act, the United... would receive comments concerning the settlement for a period of thirty (30) days from the date of...

  11. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the...

  12. 75 FR 75463 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9234-9] Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper Company, Luke, MD AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of final action. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), the...

  13. [Assessment of the air quality improment of cleaning and disinfection on central air-conditioning ventilation system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lihong; Wang, Fei; Xue, Zhiming

    2009-09-01

    To assess the effect of air quality of cleaning and disinfection on central air-conditioning ventilation systems. 102 air-conditioning ventilation systems in 46 public facilities were sampled and investigated based on Hygienic assessment criterion of cleaning and disinfection of public central air-conditioning systems. Median dust volume decreased from 41.8 g/m2 to 0.4 g/m2, and the percentage of pipes meeting the national standard for dust decreased from 17.3% (13/60) to 100% (62/62). In the dust, median aerobic bacterial count decreased from 14 cfu/cm2 to 1 cfu/cm2. Median aerobic fungus count decreased from 10 cfu/cm2 to 0 cfu/cm2. The percentage of pipes with bacterial and fungus counts meeting the national standard increased from 92.4% (171/185) and 82.2% (152/185) to 99.4% (165/166) and 100% (166/166), respectively. In the ventilation air, median aerobic bacterial count decreased from 756 cfu/m3 to 229 cfu/m3. Median aerobic fungus count decreased from 382 cfu/m3 to 120 cfu/m3. The percentage of pipes meeting the national standard for ventilation air increased from 33.3% (81/243) and 62.1% (151/243) to 79.8% (292/366) and 87.7% (242/276), respectively. But PM10 rose from 0.060 mg/m3 to 0.068 mg/m3, and the percentage of pipes meeting the national standard for PM10 increased from 74.2% (13/60) to 90.2% (46/51). The cleaning and disinfection of central air-conditioning ventilation systems could have a beneficial effect of air quality.

  14. Give clean air the economic value it deserves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhagen, H.

    2000-01-01

    India contributes more to the management of the atmosphere than a country like the Netherlands. This is not to the credit of the Indian government; rather, it is merely a consequence of poverty. Poor people use almost no fossil fuels and emit almost no CO2. Paying developing countries for this environmental service to the world community would create a financial incentive to continue to provide this service in the future, while at the same time generating additional funds to improve the living standards of the poorest people. The attractiveness of this approach depends on one important assumption: the conventional development path - economic growth implies emissions - must be replaced by a sustainable development path delinks economic growth from increasing emissions. Rich industrialised countries also have an interest in such decoupling. The compensation they pay the developing countries would fall proportionately to the reduction of their CO2 emissions. So an incentive is created on both sides to switch over to a low-carbon energy strategy. After the completion of this transition, every country can use as much energy as it wants, because energy consumption would then no longer cause CO2 emissions. This is the picture of the future to which the United Air Fund aspires

  15. Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant Clean Air Act permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    This document briefly describes the Hanford Site and provides a general overview of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP). Other topics include sources of emissions, facility operating parameters, facility emissions, pollutant and radionuclide control technology and air quality. The HWVP will convert mixed wastes (high-activity radioactive and hazardous liquid wastes) to a solid vitrified form (borosilicate glass) for disposal. Mixed wastes pretreated in the Hanford Site B Plant will be pumped into double- shell tanks in the 200 East Area for interim storage. This pretreated mixed waste will be batch transferred from interim storage to the HWVP facility, where the waste will be concentrated by evaporation, treated with chemicals, and mixed with glass-forming materials. The mixture will then be continuously fed into an electrically heated glass melter. The molten glass will be poured into canisters that will be cooled, sealed, decontaminated, and stored until the vitrified product can be transferred to a geologic repository. 25 refs., 18 figs., 32 tabs

  16. An analysis of SO2 emission compliance under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.A.; Cilek, C.M.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.

    1992-01-01

    The effectiveness of SO 2 emission allowance trading under Title 4 of the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA) is of great interest due to the innovative nature of this market incentive approach. However, it may be a mistake to frame the compliance problem for a utility as a decision to trade or not. Trading of allowances should be the consequence, not the decision. The two meaningful decision variables for a utility are the control approaches chosen for its units and the amount of allowances to hold in its portfolio of assets for the future. The number allowances to be bought or sold (i.e. traded) is determined by the emission reduction and banking decisions. Our preferred approach is to think of the problem in terms of ABC's of the 1990 CAA Amendments: abatement strategy, banking, and cost competitiveness. The implications of the general principles presented in this paper on least cost emission reductions and emissions banking to hedge against risk are being simulated with version 2 of the ARGUS model representing the electric utility sector and regional coal supplies and transportation rates. A rational expectations forecast for allowances prices is being computed. The computed allowance price path has the property that demand for allowances by electric utilities for current use or for banking must equal the supply of allowances issued by the federal government or provided as forward market contracts in private market transactions involving non-utility speculators. From this rational expectations equilibrium forecast, uncertainties are being explored using sensitivity tests. Some of the key issues are the amount of scrubbing and when it is economical to install it, the amount of coal switching and how much low sulfur coal premiums will be bid up; and the amount of emission trading within utilities and among different utilities

  17. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  18. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denas Bacevičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial concentrations of pollutants was determined. Different concentrations of pollutants were estimated during the acetone dilution with water. During the tests the efficiency of biofilter air purification from acetone vapor and its change under different concentrations of vapors was set. Based on test results, the maximum efficiency of biofilter air purification was up to 93%. Studies have shown that increasing the allowable pollutant concentration, the efficiency of air purification unit decreases. Increasing the concentration of supplied acetone vapor into the biofilter from 232 to 701 mg/m3, cleaning efficiency decreased from 92.8 to 82.3%. Since microorganisms fail to oxidize organic compounds, the filter works better at lower initial concentrations of pollutants.

  19. Clean/alternative fueled fleet programs - 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act, the Colorado Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act, and Denver City and County regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, S.L.; Manderino, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Despite substantial regulations for nearly two decades, attainment of this ambient standards for ozone and carbon monoxide (CO) remain difficult goals to achieve, Even with of ozone precursors and CO. The 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act (CAA90) prescribe further reductions of mobile source emissions. One such reduction strategy is using clean fuels, such as methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (in blends of 85 percent or more alcohol with gasoline or other fuel), reformulated gasoline or diesel, natural gas, liquified petroleum gas, hydrogen, or electricity. There are regulatory measures involving special fuels which will be required in areas heavily polluted with ozone and CO. The state of Colorado recently passed the 1992 Air Pollution Prevention and Control Act which included provisions for the use of alternative fuels which will be implemented in 1994. In addition to adhering to the Colorado state regulations, the city and county of Denver also have regulations pertaining to the use of alternative fuels in fleets of 10 or more vehicles. Denver's program began in 1992. This paper will address the issue of fleet conversion and its impact on industry in Colorado, and Denver in particular

  20. The impact of cost recovery on electric utilities' Clean Air Act compliance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bensinger, D.L.

    1993-01-01

    By 1995, over 200 electric power plant units in twenty one states must comply with Phase I of the acid rain requirements in Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). By the year 2000, an additional 2200 units must comply with the Title IV. Compliance costs are expected to necessitate significant electricity rate increases. In order to recover their compliance costs, utilities must file rate increase requests with state public utility commissions (PUC's), and undergo a rate proceeding involving public heatings. Because of the magnitude of cost and the complexity of compliance options, including interaction with Titles I and III of the CAAA, extensive PUC reviews of compliance strategies are likely. These reviews could become as adversarial as the nuclear prudence reviews of the 1980's. A lack of understanding of air pollution and the CAA by much of the general public and the flexibility of compliance options creates an environment conducive to adverse public reaction to the cost of complying with the Clean Air Act. Public attitudes toward pollution control technologies will be greatly affected by these hearings, and the early plant hearings will shape the utility rate making process under the Clean Air Act. Inadequate cost recovery due to constrained compliance strategies or adverse hearings could significantly inhibit industry willingness to invest in certain control technologies or advanced combustion technologies. There are already signs that Clean Air Act compliance will be the prudence issue of the 1990's for utilities, even where state statutes mandate particular compliance approaches. Specific actions should be undertaken now by the utility industry to improve the probability of sound cost recovery decisions, preserve compliance options, including multimedia strategies, and avoid the social- and cost-acceptance problems of nuclear power

  1. Technical development of nuclear air cleaning in the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xue Qun; Liu Hui; Wang Tie Shen; Xin Song Niam; Guo Liang Tian.

    1985-01-01

    In the past 20 years, with the utilization of nuclear technology in China, air cleaning techniques were developed to prevent the environment from pollution caused by radioactive materials and to ensure the safety of occupational personnel. The technical developments involve many fields including the manufacture of filter media and adsorbents; the application of filters and iodine adsorbers and the testing of them; the improvement of instruments and methods for aerosol concentration measurement; the retention of radioactive noble gases; and others. As nuclear power stations are to be built in China, nuclear air cleaning will be advancing more rapidly. Many programs have been scheduled, such as producing other types of adsorbers, moisture separators, nuclear grade HEPA filters that have excellent performance to resist adverse circumstances, and in-place testing for units of ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. These programs are discussed

  2. The ageing and poisoning of charcoal used in nuclear plant air cleaning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadbent, D.

    1986-01-01

    Ageing and Poisoning are terms which are used to describe the in-service deterioration or weathering of activated charcoals used to remove radioiodine from air cleaning systems. This paper describes an investigation aimed at identifying the relative importance of the two effects and at comparing the resistance to weathering of potassium iodide (KI) impregnated charcoal with triethylene diamine (TEDA) impregnated charcoal. Some preliminary results are given on the rates of oxidative ageing of charcoals as a function of temperature and relative humidity. The effect on charcoal performance of organic poisons has been examined by measuring the index of performance (k-factor) of charcoals preloaded with a range of organic solvents. Finally the combined effect of oxidative ageing and organic poisoning has been measured using realistic operating conditions of temperature and relative humidity. The in-service deterioration of charcoal in air cleaning systems can be accounted for by a combination of oxidative ageing and poisoning by airborne organic solvents. (author)

  3. Performance evaluation of air cleaning devices of an operating low level radioactive solid waste incinerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Surya Narayana, D.S.; Sundararajan, A.R.; Satyasai, P.M.; Ahmed, Jaleel

    1997-01-01

    Particle removal efficiencies of a cyclone separator, baghouse filters and a high efficiency particulate activity (HEPA) filter bank of an incinerator have been determined during the incineration of combustible low level solid radioactive wastes with surface dose of 20 - 50 gy/h. Experimental runs have been carried out to collect the particulates in various aerodynamic size ranges using an eight stage Andersen sampler and a low pressure impactor (LPI) while the incinerator is in operation. The collection efficiencies of the cyclone, baghouse and HEPA filters have been found to be 100 per cent for particles of size greater than 4.7, 2.1 and 1.1 μm respectively. The results of our investigations indicate that the air cleaning devices of the incinerator are working according to their design criteria. The data will be useful in the design and operation of air cleaning devices for toxic gaseous effluents. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  4. Wiping the Slate Clean: A New Federalism for the 21st Century Student. State-Federal Partnerships in Postsecondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, James L.; Fulton, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Substantial increases in federal support for higher education over the last decade or more have made the federal government the largest direct investor in U.S. higher education. That increase however, has not produced the expected level of increase in college educated people in the workforce. This is largely for two reasons. First the investment…

  5. Design of off-gas and air cleaning systems at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to describe the current design of air and process off-gas cleaning technologies used in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Because of the large inventory of fission products that are produced in the fuel (i.e. in the range of 5x10 19 Bq per GW(e)·a) and the highly restrictive airborne radionuclide release limits being established by Member States, air and process off-gas cleaning technologies are constantly being improved to provide higher airborne radionuclide recovery efficiencies and a smaller probability of malfunction. For various technologies considered an attempt has been made to provide the following information: (a) Process description in terms of principles of off-gas and air cleaning, operating parameters and system performance; (b) Design for normal and accident situations; (c) Design of components with regard to construction materials, size, shape and geometry of the system, resistance to chemical and physical degradation from the operational environment, safety and quality assurance requirements

  6. Feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a postfilter in the air cleaning unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Jung, D. Y.; Byun, S. C.; Kim, S. H.

    2002-01-01

    The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) is provided in a nuclear facility to filter the radioactive materials in gaseous effluents released from the facility during normal operation and during a postulated accident. The Air Cleaning Unit (ACU) consists of pre-HEPA filters, charcoal adsorber, post HEPA filters, fans, etc. The charcoal filters keep on-site dose and off-site effluents ALARA, consistent with regulatory requirements. The function of HEPA filter downstream of charcoal(carbon) adsorber in ACU is to catch potential radioactive carbon dust and to be a backup in the event of failure of upstream HEPA. Previous Regulatory Guide use only post HEPA filter of charcoal adsorber downstream but the Regulatory Guide of current revisions allows use of 95% dust spot efficiency filters in lieu of HEPA at the downstream of the carbon adsorber. In this paper is described that the background information of filters, Current Regulatory Guide of revised by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the feasibility for the medium efficiency filter as a carbon adsorber post filter in the Air Cleaning Unit

  7. Experimental Study on Indoor Air Cleaning Technique of Nano-Titania Catalysis Under Plasma Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Deli; Yang Xuechang; Zhou Fei; Wu Yuhuang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a new technique of air cleaning by plasma combined with catalyst was proposed, which consisted of electrostatic precipitation, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decomposition and sterilization. A novel indoor air purifier based on this technique was adopted. The experimental results showed that formaldehyde decomposition by the plasma-catalyst hybrid system was more efficient than that by plasma only. Positive discharge was better than negative discharge in formaldehyde removal. Meanwhile, the outlet concentration of ozone byproduct was effectively reduced by the nano-titania catalyst.

  8. Air-cleaning philosophy in a nuclear-materials fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, F.Y.; Yoder, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    At the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats Plant there is a major ventilation improvement project underway. To achieve the desired goals of ALARA regarding radioactivity and toxic material releases and natural phenomena insults, a comprehensive air-cleaning philosophy and policy statement was developed. Design of the upgraded systems were evaluated against these statements and we believe that upon completion of the projects that an efficient system will be demonstrated. the design permits reuse and heat recovery of ventilation air, the optimization of sampling points to reduce analytical laboratory services. This paper discusses the basis of the philosophy and the engineering features incorporated to meet this stated objective. Points of compromise are noted

  9. XPS response in the corrosion products analysis for copper exposed at clean air environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariaca, L.; Morcillo, M.; Feliu Jr, S.; Gonzalez, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    In this work is presented the obtained response for superficial analysis technique by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS or ESCA), to determine the corrosion products formed during the copper exposure at environment without pollutants (clean air) at 50, 70 and 90 % of relative humidity at 35 Centigrade. One of the copper corrosion products most knew is Cu 2 O. This oxide is formed instantly to be exposed the copper at air. However in function of the exposure time and the relative humidity at it is exposed, the Cu 2 O oxide is transformed at Cu O and Cu(OH) 2 (Author)

  10. Phase II Recommendations by the Air Quality Management Subcommittee to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary charge of the AQM Subcommittee was to develop recommendations to improve the air quality management system and address the air quality challenges in this country expected over the next 10 to 20 years. This report addresses those challenges.

  11. 75 FR 22400 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Wheelabrator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9142-6] Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Wheelabrator Baltimore, L.P., Baltimore City, MD AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of final action. SUMMARY: Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean...

  12. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  13. ACCESSING FEDERAL DATA BASES FOR CONTAMINATED SITE CLEAN-UP TECHNOLOGIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Federal Remediation Technologies Roundtable (Roundtable) eveloped this publication to provide information on accessing Federal data bases that contain data on innovative remediation technologies. The Roundtable includes representatives from the Department of Defense (DoD), En...

  14. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air Traffic Control System Emergency Operation Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 60 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Pt. 91, SFAR No. 60...

  16. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  17. Twenty-second DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning and treatment conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, R.R.; Moeller, D.W.; First, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Twenty-Second Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission Nuclear Air Cleaning and Treatment Conference was held Aug. 24-27, 1992, in Denver, Colo. A total of 224 air-cleaning specialists attended the conference. The United States and 12 foreign countries were represented, and the specialists were affiliated with government agencies, educational institutions, and all aspects of the nuclear industry, including utilities, architect engineers, equipment suppliers, and consultants. Several major topics were discussed, similar to areas covered at previous conferences: chemical processing off-gas cleaning; particulate filler developments, including filter testing, performance, and response to physical stress,adsorber testing and performance, including laboratory and in-place testing; waste management; system operation; codes and standards; and advanced nuclear power plants. The conference continued to provide an effective forum for direct interchange of information of both a practical and theoretical nature. International participation and interest continues, as evidenced by over 40% of the papers being sponsored by foreign interests and almost 20% of the attendees being from outside the United States. The potential for new, safer nuclear plants of an advanced design was an optimistic note during the conference. Regulatory authorities are playing a major role in providing guidance in the development of safety goals and other technical criteria for these new installations

  18. A comparative study on laser induced shock cleaning of radioactive contaminants in air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Aniruddha; Prasad, Manisha; Bhatt, R. B.; Behere, P. G.; Biswas, D. J.

    2018-03-01

    Efficient removal of Uranium-di-oxide (UO2) particulates from stainless steel surface was effected by Nd-YAG laser induced plasma shock waves in air as well as in water environment. The propagation velocity of the generated shock wave was measured by employing the photo-acoustic probe deflection method. Monitoring of the alpha activity of the sample with a ZnS (Ag) scintillation detector before and after the laser exposure allowed the estimation of decontamination efficiency defined as the percentage removal of the initial activity. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of laser pulse energy, number of laser exposures, orientation of the sample, the separation between the substrate surface and the onset point of the shock wave on the de-contamination efficiency. The most optimised cleaning was found to occur when the laser beam impinged normally on the sample that was immersed in water and placed at a distance of ∼0.7 mm from the laser focal spot. Analysis of the cleaned surface by optical microscopes established that laser induced shock cleaning in no way altered the surface property. The shock force generated in both air and water has been estimated theoretically and has been found to exceed the Van der Waal's binding force for spherical contaminant particulate.

  19. Removal of mercury vapor from ambient air of dental clinics using an air cleaning system based on silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiman Saeidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Mercury is a toxic and bio-accumulative pollutant that has adverse effects on environmental and human health. There have been a number of attempts to regulate mercury emissions tothe atmosphere. Silver nanoparticles are a number of materials that have highly potential to absorb mercury and formation of mercury amalgam.The aim of this study is removal of mercury vapors in the dental clinic using a n a ir cleaning system based on silver nanoparticles. Methods: In this study, silver nanoparticles coated on the bed of foam and chemical and structural properties were determined using a number of methods such as UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM connected the X-ray Emission Spectroscopy Energy (EDS. The a ir cleaning system efficiency to remove of the mercury vapor in simulated conditions in the laboratory and real conditions in the dental clinicwere measured by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (CVAAS. Results: The images of SEM, showed that average sizeof silver nanoparticles in colloidal solution was ∼ 30nm and distribution of silver nanoparticles coated on foam was good. EDS spectrum confirmed associated the presence of silver nanoparticles coated on foam. The significantly difference observed between the concentration of mercury vapor in the off state (9.43 ± 0.342 μg.m-3 and on state (0.51 ± 0.031μg.m-3 of the a ir cleaning system. The mercury vapor removal efficiencyof the a ir cleaning system was calculated 95%. Conclusion : The air cleaning system based on foam coated by silver nanoparticles, undertaken to provide the advantages such as use facilitating, highly efficient operational capacity and cost effective, have highly sufficiency to remove mercury vapor from dental clinics.

  20. Effects of filter housing and ductwork configuration on air flow uniformity inside air cleaning filter housings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    Each new HEPA filter installation presents a different physical configuration based on the system requirements, the available space and designer preference. Each different configuration can result in variations of air flow uniformity inside the filter housing across the filter banks. This paper presents the results of air flow uniformity testing for six different filter housing/ductwork configurations and discusses if any of those variations in air flow uniformity is attributable to the difference in the physical arrangements for the six cases

  1. Energy efficient biological air cleaning for farm stable ventilation; Energieffektiv biologisk luftrensning til staldventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenborg Nicolaisen, C.; Hansen, Mads P.R. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Stroem, J.; Soerensen, Keld [DXT. Danish Exergy Technology A/S, Skoerping (Denmark); Goetke, C. [Lokalenergi Aarhus, Viby J. (Denmark); Morsing, S.; Soerensen, Lars C. [SKOV A/S, Roslev (Denmark); Ladegaerd Jensen, T.; Pedersen, Poul [Videncenter for svineproduktion, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The project has been designed to reduce energy consumption for air purification by 30% while having a payback period of maximum 3 years. The project has achieved very significant results which are far above the target. Particularly satisfying is the wide range of new components that are launched in late 2012. By implementing the newly developed system at 100% cleaning (LPC 13 ventilators and Dynamic multistep control) in relation to Best Practice (SKOV's original system with DA600 fans) in a concrete pigsty, a saving of 61% and a simple payback of 1.7 years is achieved. Similarly, it is found that the energy used for pump operation can be reduced by 37% with the new Dynamic sprinkling control. At 20% cleaning a potential saving of 15% per year and a payback period of between 0 and 5 years was found, which is dependent on the desired performance as the capacities in the bio-filter's upper capacity range between 26 thousand to 30 thousand m3 / h entails costs for an additional extraction unit in the new solution. Furthermore, the newly developed components proved highly suitable for standard installations without air cleaning where a savings potential is 53% and the payback period 1.5 years. Product-wise, the project formed the basis for the development of: 1. New energy-efficient ventilation units (LPC11, 12,13) that are suitable for air purification; 2. A new energy-saving control principle (Dynamic Multi-Step) which is particularly suitable for low-energy ventilators; 3. A new energy-saving flow measurement system for ventilating ducts (Dynamic air to the central exhaust); 4. An energy-saving pressure control in common ducts (pressure control as a function of outside temperature); 5. Proposal for a new energy-saving pump operation for sprinkling of biological filters (Dynamic sprinkling). (LN)

  2. 76 FR 52275 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revisions to Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... evaluation and voluntarily discloses such violations to the Commonwealth and takes prompt and appropriate... CFR Part 52 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Incorporation by reference, Nitrogen...

  3. 76 FR 30600 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revisions to Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... and takes prompt and appropriate measures to remedy the violations. Virginia's Voluntary Environmental... Environmental protection, Air pollution control, Nitrogen dioxide, Ozone, Particulate matter, Reporting and...

  4. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (China)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  5. Effect of Air Cleaning Technologies in Conjunction With the Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Ekberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a research project concerning the possibilities of applying efficient air cleaning technologies using rotary heat exchanger in residential buildings. The purpose of this project was to identify and adapt new air-cleaning technologies for implementation in HVAC systems...... with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop and a 4 cm thick activated carbon filter were selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included testing of the filters, separately and combined, in a ductwork to study the efficiency...

  6. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1996-02-01

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

  7. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1996-02-01

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them

  8. Methods for air cleaning and protection of building occupants from airborne pathogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolashikov, Z.D.; Melikov, A.K. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Nils Koppels Alle, building 402, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark)

    2009-07-15

    This article aims to draw the attention of the scientific community towards the elevated risks of airborne transmission of diseases and the associated risks of epidemics or pandemics. The complexity of the problem and the need for multidisciplinary research is highlighted. The airborne route of transmission, i.e. the generation of pathogen laden droplets originating in the respiratory tract of an infected individual, the survivability of the pathogens, their dispersal indoors and their transfer to a healthy person are reviewed. The advantages and the drawbacks of air dilution, filtration, ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI), photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), plasmacluster ions and other technologies for air disinfection and purification from pathogens are analyzed with respect to currently used air distribution principles. The importance of indoor air characteristics, such as temperature, relative humidity and velocity for the efficiency of each method is analyzed, taking into consideration the nature of the pathogens themselves. The applicability of the cleaning methods to the different types of total volume air distribution used at present indoors, i.e. mixing, displacement and underfloor ventilation, as well as advanced air distribution techniques (such as personalized ventilation) is discussed. (author)

  9. Review of failures in nuclear air cleaning systems (1975--1978)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    During the period from January 1, 1975 through June 30, 1978, over 9,000 Licensee Event Reports (LERs) pertaining to the operation of commercial light water nuclear power plants in the US were reported to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Of these reports, over 1,200 (approximately 13%) pertained to failures in air monitoring, ventilating and cleaning systems. For BWR installations, over half of the reported events related to failures in equipment for monitoring the performance of air cleaning systems as contrasted to failures in the systems themselves. In PWR installations, failures in monitoring equipment amounted to about 32% of the total. Reported problem areas in BWR installations included the primary containment and standby gas treatment and off-gas systems, as well as the High Pressure Coolant Injection and Reactor Core Isolation Systems. For PWR installations, reported problem areas included primary containment and associated spray systems and waste processing equipment. Although data on reported failures in power reactor installations can be interpreted in a variety of ways, one message is clear. There is a need for research on the development of more reliable equipment for sampling and monitoring air systems. Equipment that provides inaccurate data on the performance of such systems can lead to as many problems as inadequacies in the systems themselves

  10. The impact of the US Clean Air Act - seven years after enactment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aloe, A.; Ailor, D.

    2000-07-01

    The United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) have added operating expenses, renewed interest in coke battery repair techniques, played a role in new battery technology choices and spurred investigation into non-traditional coke making technologies. United States coke producers have demonstrated compliance with the new standards. The ultimate impact of the CAAA requirements will be known as aging coke batteries in the United States are shut down. At that point the demand for coke coupled with the CAAA requirements will determine if new batteries are built, and if so, what technology will be used. 7 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Response of air cleaning system dampers and blowers to simulated tornado transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.; Idar, E.; Smith, P.; Hensel, E.; Smith, E.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of tornado-like pressure transients upon dampers and blowers in nuclear air cleaning systems were studied. For the dampers pressure drop as a function of flow rate was obtained and an empirical relationship developed. Transient response was examined for several types of dampers, as was structural integrity. Both centrifugal and axi-vane blowers were tested and transient characteristic curves were generated in outrunning and backflow situations. The transient characteristic curves do not necessarily match the quasi-steady characteristic curves

  12. Development of filters for exhaust air or off-gas cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, J.

    1988-01-01

    The activities of the 'Laboratorium fuer Aerosolphysik und Filtertechnik II' of the 'Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe' concentrate on the development of filters to be used for cleaning nuclear and conventional exhaust air and off-gas. Originally, these techniques were intended to be applied in nuclear facilities only. Their application for conventional gas purification, however, has led to a reorientation of research and development projects. By way of example, it is reported about the use of the multi-way sorption filter for radioiodine removal in nuclear power plants and following flue-gas purification in heating power plants as well as for off-gas cleaning in chemical industry. The improvement of HEPA filters and the development of metal fibre filters has led to components which can be used in the range of high humidity and moisture as well as at high temperatures and an increased differential pressure. The experience obtained in the field of high-efficiency filtering of nuclear airborne particles is made use of during the investigations concerning the removal of particles of conventional pollutants in the submicron range. A technique of radioiodine removal and an improved removal of airborne particles has been developed for use in the future reprocessing plant. Thus, a maximum removal efficiency can be achieved and an optimum waste management is made possible. It is reported about the components obtained as a result of these activities and their use for off-gas cleaning in the Wackersdorf reprocessing plant (WAW). (orig.) [de

  13. Testing Open-Air Storage of Stumps to Provide Clean Biomass for Energy Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pari

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available When orchards reach the end of the productive cycle, the stumps removal becomes a mandatory operation to allow new soil preparation and to establish new cultivations. The exploitation of the removed stump biomass seems a valuable option, especially in the growing energy market of the biofuels; however, the scarce quality of the material obtained after the extraction compromises its marketability, making this product a costly waste to be disposed. In this regard, the identification of affordable strategies for the extraction and the cleaning of the material will be crucial in order to provide to plantation owners the chance to sell the biomass and offset the extraction costs. Mechanical extraction and cleaning technologies have been already tested on forest stumps, but these systems work on the singular piece and would be inefficient in the conditions of an intensive orchard, where stumps are small and numerous. The objective of this study was to test the possibility to exploit a natural stumps cleaning system through open-air storage. The tested stumps were obtained from two different vineyards, extracted with an innovative stump puller specifically designed for continuous stump removal in intensively-planted orchards. The effects of weathering were evaluated to determine the fuel quality immediately after the extraction and after a storage period of six months with respect to moisture content, ash content, and heating value. Results indicated interesting storage performance, showing also different dynamics depending on the stumps utilized.

  14. Cleaning and air conditioning device for atmosphere in thermonuclear reactor chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Seiji.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention removes tritium efficiently and attains ventilation and conditioning of a great amount of air flow. That is, there are disposed a humidity separator, a filter, a heater, a catalyst filled layer, a water jetting type humidifying heat insulation cooler and a cooler in this order from an inlet side (upstream) of contaminated room atmospheric gases. The catalyst filled layer, etc. are incorporated integrally into the ventilation air conditioning facility for ventilating air in the chamber of the thermonuclear reactor, to clean a tritium atmosphere at the same time. Accordingly, the device is made compact as a whole. A limit for the air flow rate owing to the use of the conventional catalyst tower and adsorbing tower is eliminated. Then a ventilating air conditioning for a great flow rate can be attained. Tritium is removed by cooling and dehumidification without using any adsorbent. Accordingly, an adsorbing tower is no more necessary and conventional regeneration operation is not required. As a result, space for installation is reduced, the system is simplified and the cost for construction and facility can be reduced. (I.S.)

  15. The successful of finite element to invent particle cleaning system by air jet in hard disk drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jai-Ngam, Nualpun; Tangchaichit, Kaitfa

    2018-02-01

    Hard Disk Drive manufacturing has faced very challenging with the increasing demand of high capacity drives for Cloud-based storage. Particle adhesion has also become increasingly important in HDD to gain more reliability of storage capacity. The ability to clean on surfaces is more complicated in removing such particles without damaging the surface. This research is aim to improve the particle cleaning in HSA by using finite element to develop the air flow model then invent the prototype of air cleaning system to remove particle from surface. Surface cleaning by air pressure can be applied as alternative for the removal of solid particulate contaminants that is adhering on a solid surface. These technical and economic challenges have driven the process development from traditional way that chemical solvent cleaning. The focus of this study is to develop alternative way from scrub, ultrasonic, mega sonic on surface cleaning principles to serve as a foundation for the development of new processes to meet current state-of-the-art process requirements and minimize the waste from chemical cleaning for environment safety.

  16. Are there SO2 externality costs beyond the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghi, A.; Joseph, A.L.

    1992-01-01

    Inclusion of environmental externality costs in the selection of utility resources has become a reality in New York, Massachusetts, Nevada and California. Soon several other jurisdictions are likely to join these states in using environmental externality costs in decision-making. The consideration of environmental externalities are bound to profoundly affect utility decision-making in the future. So far attention has focused largely on air emission externalities of SO 2 , NO x and CO 2 . However, the recent Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) will reduce SO 2 emissions from utilities by about 50 percent. With such a large reduction in SO 2 loading, the question has been raised as to the need to further consider SO 2 externality costs in decision-making. This paper comments on this issue. By using generation and emission data from New York utilities, the paper shows that SO 2 emission externalities exist even after complying with requirements of the CAAA

  17. Testing on air cleaning systems: Testing of the components in-place tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billard, F.; Brion, J.

    1967-01-01

    The reliability of air cleaning systems is dependent on testing they are submitted to. Although in-place tests are the most important as they act as final tests upon achieved plants, component tests are necessary too. They allow detection of defective units before they are installed, partition of unit defects from mounting defects and they are more sensitive. For similar reasons, material teats are most useful. The various tests are described, about aerosol filters for one part, iodine trap for the other. The checked features are: materials nature, units sizes, efficiency, air resistance, flammability, humidity resistance, temperature resistance, adsorbent friability, etc... On iodine trapping systems, small check traps, working by-pass with the main trap are periodically subjected to efficiency test. This control allow to cut down the in-place tests frequency, particularly when poisoning from organic vapours is to be feared. (authors) [fr

  18. The National Coordinated Research Programme for Air Quality. Another choice for clean air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Giezen, M.; Havinga, A.; De Boer, H.

    2009-01-01

    On August 1st 2009 the National Coordinated Research Programme for Air quality (NSL in Dutch) entered into operation. This programme must help improve air quality such that it meets the European standards. At the same time the deadlock between environment and space is also solved. A special approach has been chosen for this purpose, which is based on a common interest of the State, provinces and local authorities. It was an intensive and interesting process. The annual monitoring will have to show whether or not the NSL will meet its objectives. [nl

  19. Characterization of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) in cleaning reagents and air fresheners in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu; Ho, Steven Sai Hang; Ho, Kin Fai; Lee, Shun Cheng; Gao, Yuan; Cheng, Yan; Chan, C. S.

    2011-11-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from cleaning products and air fresheners indoors are prone to oxidation resulting in the formation of secondary pollutants that can pose health risks on residents. In this study, a solid phase microextraction (SPME) coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) method was applied for the determination of BVOCs compositions in three categories of cleaning products including floor cleaners (FC), kitchen cleaners (KC) and dishwashing detergents (DD), and also air fresheners (AF). The analysis results demonstrated that chemical composition and concentration of individual BVOC varied broadly with household products in the view of their different functions and scents as indicated on the labels. The concentration of total BVOCs for sample FC1 was the highest up to 4146.0 μg g -1, followed by FC2 of 264.6 μg g -1, FC4 of 249.3 μg g -1 and FC3 of 139.2 μg g -1. D-limonene was the most abundant detected BVOCs in KC samples with the chemical composition varying from 19.6 ± 1.0 to 1513.0 ± 37.1 μg g -1. For dishwashing detergents, only D-limonene was detected and quantified. The BVOCs compositions of air freshener samples are much more complicated. It was estimated that the consumption of floor cleaners contributed 51% of the total BVOCs amount indoors in Hong Kong, followed by air fresheners 42%, kitchen cleaners 5% and dishwashing detergents 2%.

  20. Postulated accident conditions for air cleaning systems and radiological dose assessments for containment options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Postma, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    Ambient conditions and performance requirements for emergency air cleaning systems applicable to commercial LMFBR plants were studied. The focus of this study centered on aerosol removal under hypothetical core disruptive accident conditions. Effort completed includes a review of air cleaning systems related to LMFBR plants, selection of three reference containment system designs, postulation of the EACS design basis accident (EACS-DBA), analysis of thermal conditions resulting from the DBA, analysis of aerosol transport behavior following the DBA, and an estimate of bone dose at the site boundary for each of the reference plant designs. Reference plant concepts were a single containment system (e.g., FFTF), a double containment system (e.g., CRBRP with closed head compartment), and a containment-confinement design in which an inerted, sealed primary volume was located within a ventilated building whose exhaust was filtered. The reference design basis accident selected here involved release to the inner containment system of 1 percent of non-volatile solids and plutonium, 25 percent of core halogens, 25 percent of core volatile solids, 100 percent of core noble gases, 68 lbs of sodium vapor and 5000 lbs of liquid sodium. 13 references. (U.S.)

  1. Association between clean indoor air laws and voluntary smokefree rules in homes and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Wen; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; McMillen, Robert; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-03-01

    This study examines the influence that smokefree workplaces, restaurants and bars have on the adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars, and whether there is an association with adopting smokefree rules in homes and cars. Bivariate probit models were used to jointly estimate the likelihood of living in a smokefree home and having a smokefree car as a function of law coverage and other variables. Household data were obtained from the nationally representative Social Climate Survey of Tobacco Control 2001, 2002 and 2004-2009; clean indoor air law data were from the American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation Tobacco Control Laws Database. 'Full coverage' and 'partial coverage' smokefree legislation is associated with an increased likelihood of having voluntary home and car smokefree rules compared with 'no coverage'. The association between 'full coverage' and smokefree rule in homes and cars is 5% and 4%, respectively, and the association between 'partial coverage' and smokefree rules in homes and cars is 3% and 4%, respectively. There is a positive association between the adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars. Clean indoor air laws provide the additional benefit of encouraging voluntary adoption of smokefree rules in homes and cars. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. 76 FR 54462 - Notification of a Public Teleconference; Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee; Air Monitoring...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... found at the EPA CASAC Web site at http://www.epa.gov/casac . Any inquiry regarding EPA's draft Near.... State and local air agencies are required to consider traffic volumes, fleet mix, roadway design, traffic congestion patterns, local terrain or topography, meteorology, population exposure and other...

  3. Air quality improvements and health benefits from China’s clean air action since 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yixuan; Xue, Tao; Zhang, Qiang; Geng, Guannan; Tong, Dan; Li, Xin; He, Kebin

    2017-11-01

    Aggressive emission control measures were taken by the Chinese government after the promulgation of the ‘Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan’ in 2013. Here we evaluated the air quality and health benefits associated with this stringent policy during 2013-2015 by using surface PM2.5 concentrations estimated from a three-stage data fusion model and cause-specific integrated exposure-response functions. The population-weighted annual mean PM2.5 concentrations decreased by 21.5% over China during 2013-2015, reducing from 60.5 in 2013 to 47.5 μg m-3 in 2015. Subsequently, the national PM2.5-attributable mortality decreased from 1.22 million (95% CI: 1.05, 1.37) in 2013 to 1.10 million (95% CI: 0.95, 1.25) in 2015, which is a 9.1% reduction. The limited health benefits compared to air quality improvements are mainly due to the supralinear responses of mortality to PM2.5 over the high concentration end of the concentration-response functions. Our study affirms the effectiveness of China’s recent air quality policy; however, due to the nonlinear responses of mortality to PM2.5 variations, current policies should remain in place and more stringent measures should be implemented to protect public health.

  4. OH and HO2 chemistry in clean marine air during SOAPEX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sommariva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO] The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM. Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 17 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5–10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30–40% for OH and 25–30% for HO2 was estimated for the model calculations using a Monte Carlo technique coupled with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS.

  5. Section 112 hazardous air pollutants Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990; potential impact of fossil/NUC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronmiller, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    Control of hazardous air pollutants under the Clean Air Act (CAA) goes back several decades. Section 112 of the 1970 CAA as amended in 1977 served as the national statutory basis for controlling hazardous air pollutants until the most recent 1990 Amendments. Following severe criticism of the effectiveness of the Act to address hazardous air pollutant issues and a pile of seemingly never ending lawsuits challenging the regulatory process, the U.S. Congress has substantially rewritten Section 112 in the 1990 CAA Amendments. Many provisions heretofore requiring findings or regulatory decisions by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Administrator are now automatic in the sense that the decisions have already been made by the US Congress legislatively. Thus, the new Section 112 has eliminated many of the existing regulatory obstacles, or safeguards; this will likely result in sweeping new regulatory programs mandating extensive controls on many industrial activities. A much needed study program to address fossil fuel fired steam electric generating units' hazardous air emissions and to identify control alternatives to regulate these emissions, if regulation is required, was incorporated into new Section 112. Because of this study, the regulatory fate of these units under the new Section 112 remains highly uncertain. An extensive regulatory program addressing hazardous air pollutants of these utility units under Section 112 would dwarf electric utility costs associated with the new acid rain control program. First, this paper identifies major provisions of the old law and the resulting regulatory status for both coal and nuclear power facilities before addressing the new Section 112 under the 1990 CAA Amendments and potential implications for electric utilities specifically

  6. Notification: Background Investigation Services New Assignment Notification: EPA’s Efforts to Incorporate Environmental Justice Into Clean Air Act Inspections for Air Toxics

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this memorandum is to notify you that the EPA OIG plans to begin the preliminary research phase of an evaluation of the U.S. EPA's efforts to incorporate environmental justice into Clean Air Act inspections for air toxics.

  7. Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in China: the Price of Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Woo, J.; Streets, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development are contributing to increased energy consumption in China. One of the unintended consequences is poor air quality due to a lack of environmental controls. The coal dependent energy structure in China only worsens the situation. Quantification of the environmental costs resulting from air pollution is needed in order to provide a mechanism for making strategic energy policy that accounts for the life-cycle cost of energy use. However, few such studies have been conducted for China that examine the entire energy system. Here we examine the extent to which public health has been compromised due to elevated air pollution and how China could incorporate environmental costs into future energy and environmental policies. Taking the Shandong region in eastern China as a case study, we develop a high-resolution regional inventory for anthropogenic emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, PM10, VOCs, NH3 and SO2. SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System) is used to process spatial and temporal distributions and chemical speciation of the regional emissions, MM5 (the Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Meso-scale Model, Version 3) is used to generate meteorology and Models3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System) is used to simulate ambient concentrations of particulates and other gaseous species in this region. We then estimate the mortality and morbidity in this region resulting from exposure to these air pollutants. We also estimate the monetary values associated with the resulting mortality and morbidity and quantify the contributions from various economic sectors (i.e. power generation, transportation, industry, residential and others). Finally, we examine the potential health benefits that adoption of best available or advanced energy (coal-based, in particular) and environmental technologies in different sectors could bring about. The results of these analyses are intended to provide

  8. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... fully develop improved brake systems and also to ensure vehicle control and stability while braking... [Docket No. NHTSA 2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial improvements in...

  9. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring... between Bendix Commercial Vehicle Systems and Dana Corporation; and ArvinMeritor. The agency received four...

  10. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... initial speeds, vehicle manufacturers will need to develop unique or complicated braking systems to comply... [Docket No. NHTSA-2013-0011] RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems... rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring...

  11. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Development of an emergency air-cleaning system for liquid-metal reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, R.K.

    1980-11-01

    A novel air cleaning concept has been developed for potential use in venting future commercial liquid metal fast breeder reactor containment buildings in the unlikely event of postulated core disruptive accidents. The passive concept consists of a submerged gravel bed to collect the bulk of particulate contaminates carried by the vented gas. A fibrous scrubber could be combined with the submerged gravel scrubber to enhance collection efficiencies for the smaller sized particles. The submerged gravel scrubber is unique in that water flow through the packed bed is induced by the gas flow, eliminating the need for an active liquid pump. In addition, design gas velocities through the packed bed are 10 to 20 times higher than for a conventional sand bed filter

  13. Competing initiatives: a new tobacco industry strategy to oppose statewide clean indoor air ballot measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, Gregory J; Hendlin, Yogi H; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-03-01

    To describe how the tobacco and gaming industries opposed clean indoor air voter initiatives in 2006, we analyzed media records and government and other publicly available documents and conducted interviews with knowledgeable individuals. In an attempt to avoid strict "smoke free" regulations pursued by health groups via voter initiatives in Arizona, Ohio, and Nevada, in 2006, the tobacco and gaming industries sponsored competing voter initiatives for alternative laws. Health groups succeeded in defeating the pro-tobacco competing initiatives because they were able to dispel confusion and create a head-to-head competition by associating each campaign with its respective backer and instructing voters to vote "no" on the pro-tobacco initiative in addition to voting "yes" on the health group initiative.

  14. Preliminary assessment of future refining impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1991-09-01

    A preliminary assessment of the future refining impacts of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has been performed with the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting Systems. The assessment suggests that gasoline reformulation costs in domestic coastal and near-coastal refining regions in the year 2000 could be 3.5 to 5.6 cents per gallon (in terms of 1989 currency). For heating value equivalent to one gallon of conventional gasoline, the regional total added costs (including reformulation costs) for reformulated gasoline could be 5.9 to 8.0 cents. In blending reformulated gasolines, the reduction of butane for lower Reid vapor pressure and the reduction of reformate for lower aromatics are generally compensated by increased percentages of alkylate and/or straight run naphthas. Relatively larger refinery process capacity additions are required for butane isomerization, alkylation, aromatics recovery, and distillate hydrotreating. 21 refs., 3 figs., 18 tabs

  15. Extended-life nuclear air cleaning filters via dynamic exclusion prefilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, S.R.; Crouch, H.S.; Bond, J.H. [Micro Composite Materials Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to ascertain if a dynamic, self-cleaning particulate exclusion precleaner, designed for relatively large dust removal (2 to 100+ {mu}m diameter particles) from helicopter turbine inlets, could be extended to submicron filtration. The improved device could be used as a prefilter for HEPA filtration systems, significantly increasing service life. In nuclear air cleaning, its use would reduce the amount of nuclear particulate matter that would otherwise be entrapped in the HEPA filter cartridge/panel, causing fouling and increased back pressure, as well as requiring subsequent disposal of the contaminated media at considerable expense. A unique (patent-pending) mechanical separation device has recently been developed to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams based on a proprietary concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT). The device creates multiple boundary layers that actively exclude particles from entering the perimeter of the device, while allowing air to traverse the boundaries relatively unimpeded. A modified two-dimensional (2-D) computerized flow simulation model was used to assist in the prototype design. Empirical results are presented from particle breakthrough and AP experiments obtained from a reduced-scale prototype filter. Particles larger than 0.23 {mu}m were actively excluded by the prototype, but at a higher pressure drop than anticipated. Experimental data collected indicates that the filter housing and the inlet flow configuration may contribute significantly to improvements in device particle separation capabilities. Furthermore, preliminary experiments have shown that other downstream pressure drop considerations (besides those just across the spinning filtration disks) must be included to accurately portray the AP across the device. Further detailed quantitative investigations on a larger scale (1,000 CFM) prototype are warranted. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Fuelling clean air : municipal fuel purchasing policies that reduce emissions contributing to poor air quality and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrotta, K.

    2003-03-01

    Air quality can be improved by low sulphur fuels in two ways: through the direct reduction of sulphates, sulphur dioxide and PM; and by improving the effectiveness of existing emission control devices. This report examined three case studies involving the fuel purchasing policies in three Ontario municipalities: Toronto, Waterloo, and Brampton. Toronto favors purchasing conventional fuels with lower sulphur levels. Waterloo will purchase on-road diesel for its off-road diesel fleet; ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) for buses; and 10 per cent ethanol blended with 90 per cent gasoline (E10) for its gasoline-fuelled fleet. Brampton purchased 20 per cent biodiesel blended with 80 per cent on-road diesel (B20). Two approaches were examined for lowering emissions from gasoline fuelled vehicles: favouring gasoline with the lowest sulphur levels, and purchasing E10. It was recommended that the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) Clean Air Council look into: ownership of emissions trading credits created as a result of fuel purchasing policies; the benefits of, and mechanisms available for, pooling fuel purchases; and, establishing a subcommittee to monitor developments related to fuels, vehicles and emission control technologies. 48 refs., 18 tabs

  17. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates.

  18. Cooperative federalism and hydraulic fracturing: a human right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This Article argues that filling the energy governance gaps regarding unconventional natural gas can best be accomplished through collaborative governance that is genuinely adaptive and cooperative. Through cooperative federalism, combined with procedural rights for inclusive, innovative decision-making, state and non-state actors should design and implement the requisite safeguards before further natural gas development advances. Hydraulic fracturing provisions are strikingly fragmented and have sparked a fierce debate about chemical disclosure, radioactive wastewater disposal, and greenhouse gas emissions. United States natural gas production may stunt the direction and intensity of renewable energy by up to two decades and will not provide a bridge to a sound energy policy if it "erode[s] efforts to prepare a landing at the other end of the bridge." Unconventional natural gas extraction need not become a transition to a new addiction. This Article analyzes how cooperative federalism and inclusive decision-making can provide legitimacy and transparency when balancing property rights against police powers to regulate natural gas production.

  19. The clean water act -- (Federal Water Pollution Control Act), what it means to utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talt, L.A. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Bloomfield Hills, MI (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Departing from previous policy, in August 1993 the USEPA`s Water Office recommended that the agency regulate a proposed electric power plant`s cooling pond as a water of the US. At issue was a proposal by Florida Power corp. to build a new electric power plant in Polk County, Florida. A 2,600 acre cooling pond to collect heated and discharged water was included in the proposal. Region 4 USEPA staff asked USEPA Headquarters in Washington, DC to decide whether the pond was exempt from the CWA or a water of the US. The pond could be a habitat for migratory birds according to a memo prepared by Region 4 staff. The USEPA Water Office used the presence of migratory birds to claim a nexus to interstate commerce and therefore concluded that the pond should be regulated under the CWA. Electric power industry proponents have argued that an overly expansive definition of waters of the US may result in any new power plant being required to construct cooling towers. Cooling towers are said to be a more expensive and wasteful method to cool heated water. Region 4 ultimately recanted its earlier position after considerable discussions with various other Environmental Protection Agency offices and, no doubt industry pressure. Florida Power Corp. was not required to obtain an NPDES permit for the cooling pond. The lesson of Florida Power Corp. is that the regulatory environment for utilities can be uncertain under the Clean Water Act even in the face of a relatively straightforward exemption from regulation.

  20. Preservation of atomically clean silicon surfaces in air by contact bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Francois; Ljungberg, Karin

    1997-01-01

    When two hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces are placed in contact under cleanroom conditions, a weak bond is formed. Cleaving this bond under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, and observing the surfaces with low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we find that the or...... reconstruction from oxidation in air, Contact bonding opens the way to novel applications of reconstructed semiconductor surfaces, by preserving their atomic structure intact outside of a UHV chamber. (C) 1997 American Institute of Physics.......When two hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces are placed in contact under cleanroom conditions, a weak bond is formed. Cleaving this bond under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, and observing the surfaces with low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we find...... that the ordered atomic structure of the surfaces is protected from oxidation, even after the bonded samples have been in air for weeks. Further, we show that silicon surfaces that have been cleaned and hydrogen-passivated in UHV can be contacted in UHV in a similarly hermetic fashion, protecting the surface...

  1. High Mercury Wet Deposition at a "Clean Air" Site in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, James B; Engle, Mark A; Scholl, Martha; Krabbenhoft, David P; Brunette, Robert; Olson, Mark L; Conroy, Mary E

    2015-10-20

    Atmospheric mercury deposition measurements are rare in tropical latitudes. Here we report on seven years (April 2005 to April 2012, with gaps) of wet Hg deposition measurements at a tropical wet forest in the Luquillo Mountains, northeastern Puerto Rico, U.S. Despite receiving unpolluted air off the Atlantic Ocean from northeasterly trade winds, during two complete years the site averaged 27.9 μg m(-2) yr(-1) wet Hg deposition, or about 30% more than Florida and the Gulf Coast, the highest deposition areas within the U.S. These high Hg deposition rates are driven in part by high rainfall, which averaged 2855 mm yr(-1). The volume-weighted mean Hg concentration was 9.8 ng L(-1), and was highest during summer and lowest during the winter dry season. Rainout of Hg (decreasing concentration with increasing rainfall depth) was minimal. The high Hg deposition was not supported by gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) at ground level, which remained near global background concentrations (<10 pg m(-3)). Rather, a strong positive correlation between Hg concentrations and the maximum height of rain detected within clouds (echo tops) suggests that droplets in high convective cloud tops scavenge GOM from above the mixing layer. The high wet Hg deposition at this "clean air" site suggests that other tropical areas may be hotspots for Hg deposition as well.

  2. Pollution prevention incentives and disincentives created by the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, C.F.; Wolffe, G.S.

    1998-01-01

    Environmental laws and regulations have not always been implemented in a manner that allows for the consideration of pollution prevention (P2) alternatives as a means of achieving progress toward air quality goals. Recently, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has been making strides to reinterpret laws and regulations to be more flexible and encourage P2 projects that do not involve end-of-the-pipe controls. For instance, when conducting control technology evaluations such as best available control technology (BACT) and lowest achievable emission rate (LAER), facilities can and should take into consideration P2 options that accomplish the same emission reduction goals as traditional end-of-the-pipe controls. There are also new emissions trading provisions building on those allowed in the acid rain and offset trading programs that promise to make P2 projects much more cost-effective. Several traditional 'command-and-control' programs of the Clean Air Act (CAA) also promote P2 projects. For instance, emission reductions realized through P2 projects show managers a direct cost savings due to reductions in Title V facility annual emissions fees and possibly a direct cost benefit through sale of emission credits. Furthermore, the CAA encourages P2 indirectly through the detail understanding of processes gained from emissions inventories and risk management plans (RMPs). However, many CAA prescriptive programs create disincentives for industry to select P2 alternatives. 30 refs

  3. Experimental evaluation on energy performance of innovative clean air heat pump for indoor environment control in summer and winter seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor, an innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed, developed and investigated through experimental studies. The CAHP integrated air purification, dehumidification and heating/cooling in one unit. A prototype of the CAHP...... was developed. Laboratory experimental studies were conducted to investigate its energy performance under different outdoor climates including cold, mild-cold, mild-hot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy performance of the CAHP was then evaluated by comparing with a conventional air source heat...... pump. The results showed that to keep same indoor air quality, the CAHP could save substantial amount of energy. For example, compared to the conventional air source heat pump, the CAHP could save up to 59%, 40%, 30% of electricity for ventilation and air conditioning in a test room in summer...

  4. Environmental planning and the siting of nuclear facilities: the integration of water, air, coastal, and comprehensive planning into the nuclear siting process. Improving regulatory effectiveness in federal/state siting actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noble, J.B.; Epting, J.T.; Blumm, M.C.; Ackerman, S.; Laist, D.W.

    1977-02-01

    The National Environmental Policy Act, the Coastal Zone Management Act, the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, the Clean Air Act Amendments, and the Housing and Urban 701 Comprehensive Planning Assistance Program are discussed in relation to the planning and siting of nuclear facilities

  5. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9759-4] California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act Preemption; California's 2010 Model Year Heavy-Duty Vehicle and... for CARB's own motor vehicle pollution control program based on lack of compelling and extraordinary...

  6. 77 FR 32135 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-31

    ... Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act. Notice is hereby given that on May 23, 2012, a proposed..., was lodged with the United States District Court for the Northern District of Indiana. The settlement... the Clean Air Act and under the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act related to the...

  7. 78 FR 1759 - Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act Outer Continental Shelf Minor Source/Title V Minor Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... documents relevant to the above-referenced permits are available for public inspection during normal... permit decisions, to the extent it is available, may be sought by filing a petition for review in the... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR PART 52 [FRL-9767-5] Notice of Approval of Clean Air Act...

  8. 78 FR 6817 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Wisconsin Public Service Corporation--JP Pulliam Plant. Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Act, a... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL 9774-6] Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for Wisconsin Public Service Corporation--JP Pulliam Plant AGENCY...

  9. 76 FR 53452 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9457-3 ] Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit for Reliant Portland Generating Station, Upper Mount Bethel Township, Northampton County, PA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of action...

  10. Clean air. Measures against fine dust and nitrogen oxide; Luftreinhalteplanung. Massnahmen gegen Feinstaub und Stickstoffoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    Within the meeting of the Bavarian Environmental Protection Agency (Augsburg, Federal Republic of Germany) at 13th October, 2011, in Augsburg (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Air pollution burden in Bavaria - Results from actual investigations (Juergen Diemer); (2) Winter spreading services: Reduction of particulate matter by means of CMA (Wolfgang Hafner); (3) Scenarios for the development of immission loads by NO{sub 2} at traffic-orientated air quality measuring stations in Bavaria (Frank Duennebeil); (4) Photocatalytic efficiency of titanium dioxide coatings in the reduction of the loading by nitrous oxides (Anja Baum); (5) Environmental zone Berlin (Martin Lutz); (6) Environmental zones in the Ruhr district (Cornelia Wappenschmidt); (7) Environmental zone Augsburg (Manfred Ertl); (8) Reduction of NO{sub x} by Euro 6 diesel passenger cars (Thomas Fortner); (9) (e)-Mobility leads to a new era. The next step in the evolution of the automobility (BMW Group); (10) Experience report on the FE project: 'Testing of diesel particle filters for the utilization in the inland navigation' (Torsen Mundt); (11) Reduction of the pollution burden by means of an ecological traffic control: Analysis and control of the pollution control by means of 'smart' IT solutions (Stefen Schaefer); (12) Emissions reductions at busses by means of SCRT upgrading (Detlef Plachta).

  11. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain...

  12. Safety by design: effects of operating room floor marking on the position of surgical devices to promote clean air flow compliance and minimise infection risks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Korne, Dirk F.; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen D. H.; van Rooij, Jeroen; Wauben, Linda S. G. L.; Hiddema, U. Frans; Klazinga, Niek S.

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the use of floor marking on the positioning of surgical devices within the clean air flow in an operating room (OR) to minimise infection risk. Laminar flow clean air systems are important in preventing infection in ORs but, for optimal results, surgical devices must be correctly

  13. Efficiency enhancement in IGCC power plants with air-blown gasification and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, Antonio; Romano, Matteo C.; Lozza, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    Air-blown IGCC systems with hot fuel gas clean-up are investigated. In detail, the gas clean-up station consists of two reactors: in the first, the raw syngas exiting the gasifier and passed through high-temperature syngas coolers is desulfurized by means of a zinc oxide-based sorbent, whereas in the second the sulfided sorbent is duly regenerated. The hot fuel gas clean-up station releases H 2 S-free syngas, which is ready to fuel the combustion turbine after hot gas filtration, and a SO 2 -laden stream, which is successively treated in a wet scrubber. A thermodynamic analysis of two air-blown IGCC systems, the first with cold fuel gas clean-up and the second with hot fuel gas clean-up, both with a state-of-the-art combustion turbine as topping cycle, shows that it is possible to obtain a really attractive net efficiency (more than 51%) for the second system, with significant improvements in comparison with the first system. Nevertheless, higher efficiency is accomplished with a small reduction in the power output and no sensible efficiency improvements seem to be appreciated when the desulfurization temperature increases. Other IGCC systems, with an advanced 1500 °C-class combustion turbine as the result of technology improvements, are investigated as well, with efficiency as high as 53%. - Highlights: ► Hot fuel gas clean-up is a highly favorable technology for IGCC concepts. ► Significant IGCC efficiency improvements are possible with hot fuel gas clean-up. ► Size reductions of several IGCC components are possible. ► Higher desulfurization temperatures do not sensibly affect IGCC efficiency. ► IGCC efficiency as high as 53% is possible with a 1500°C-class combustion turbine

  14. The temporal evolution process from fluorescence bleaching to clean Raman spectra of single solid particles optically trapped in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiyong; Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden; Wang, Chuji

    2017-12-01

    We observe the entire temporal evolution process of fluorescence and Raman spectra of single solid particles optically trapped in air. The spectra initially contain strong fluorescence with weak Raman peaks, then the fluorescence was bleached within seconds, and finally only the clean Raman peaks remain. We construct an optical trap using two counter-propagating hollow beams, which is able to stably trap both absorbing and non-absorbing particles in air, for observing such temporal processes. This technique offers a new method to study dynamic changes in the fluorescence and Raman spectra from a single optically trapped particle in air.

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.25 - What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? 102-80.25 Section 102-80.25... Environmental Management Indoor Air Quality § 102-80.25 What are Federal agencies' responsibilities concerning the management of indoor air quality? Federal agencies must assess indoor air quality of buildings as...

  16. Ship emissions and the use of current air cleaning technology: contributions to air pollution and acidification in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claremar, Björn; Haglund, Karin; Rutgersson, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The shipping sector is a significant contributor to emissions of air pollutants in marine and coastal regions. In order to achieve sustainable shipping, primarily through new regulations and techniques, greater knowledge of dispersion and deposition of air pollutants is required. Regional model calculations of the dispersion and concentration of sulfur, nitrogen, and particulate matter, as well as deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen from the international maritime sector in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, have been made for the years 2011 to 2013. The contribution from shipping is highest along shipping lanes and near large ports for concentration and dry deposition. Sulfur is the most important pollutant coupled to shipping. The contribution of both SO2 concentration and dry deposition of sulfur represented up to 80 % of the total in some regions. WHO guidelines for annual concentrations were not trespassed for any analysed pollutant, other than PM2.5 in the Netherlands, Belgium, and central Poland. However, due to the resolution of the numerical model, 50 km × 50 km, there may be higher concentrations locally close to intense shipping lanes. Wet deposition is more spread and less sensitive to model resolution. The contribution of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen from shipping was up to 30 % of the total wet deposition. Comparison of simulated to measured concentration at two coastal stations close to shipping lanes showed some underestimations and missed maximums, probably due to resolution of the model and underestimated ship emissions. A change in regulation for maximum sulfur content in maritime fuel, in 2015 from 1 to 0.1 %, decreases the atmospheric sulfur concentration and deposition significantly. However, due to costs related to refining, the cleaning of exhausts through scrubbers has become a possible economic solution. Open-loop scrubbers meet the air quality criteria but their consequences for the marine environment are largely unknown

  17. Index to the 1st through 16th AEC/ERDA/DOE nuclear air cleaning conferences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1981-02-01

    The Proceedings of the sixteen conferences comprise a vertible encyclopedia on the technology of nuclear air and gas treatment and the control of airborne nuclear waste. These Proceedings cover the history of the technology; describe most of the research and developments in the field, worldwide, since the early 1950's; describe the problems that have been encountered and the solutions found to those problems; and summarize experience with equipment and systems developed for the control of airborne radioactive wastes in laboratory, radiochemical, and reactor operations, both government and commercial. The problem with this encyclopedia is that there has been no index to it; there has been no easy way for searching it to find what was available. This index fills the gap. The first conference was an informal meeting of a number of interested parties from among the then AEC contractors. Consequently, there were no proceedings for that meeting. The subsequent conferences, with their years, locations, and Proceedings numbers, are listed. This index consists of three parts: a tabulation of papers and their authors by paper number (Part I); a tabulation of papers and their paper numbers by author (Part II); and a key-word-in context (KWIC) index of papers. The paper number is a two-part designation consisting of the number of the conference (2, 3...16) followed by the page number of the paper in the corresponding Proceedings. The author index lists each author who has participated in the air cleaning conferences over the years, and the paper index lists all authors of the respective papers. The KWIC index is, in effect, a comprehensive subject cross index; each paper is listed as many times, by keyword, as there are major terms (i.e., keywords) in its title. Although this multiple listing results in a lengthy list, it provides a very deep cross-indexing of the papers

  18. Clean air, clear market. Making emissions trading work: The role of a computer-assisted auction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartels, C.W.; Marron, D.B.; Lipsky, M.I.

    1993-01-01

    Creating a new commodity presents the chance to develop new markets in which to trade it. In many cases, existing markets can be adapted easily; in other cases it proves worthwhile to develop new forms that reflect special characteristics of the commodity and those who trade it. In the case of the sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission allowances created by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, a number of standard market forms already have been adopted. While these will prove useful for handling some transactions, a new Market Clearing Auction (MCA) offers buyers and sellers a centralized marketplace for trading SO 2 emission allowances. The MCA, which was developed by the brokerage firm Cantor Fitzgerald, is a computer-assisted open-quotes smartclose quotes auction designed to replicate the outcome of an efficient market in emission allowances, and accepts bids and offers for any possible combination of allowances. Orders can be submitted for streams of allowances. Orders can be submitted for streams of allowances covering more than one year. The auction then determines the combination of bids and offers that maximizes the gains from trades in the market, and establishes uniform market clearing prices for each allowance issue (1995, 1996, and so on). Once executed, trades are settled on a cash-forward basis; that is, allowances are delivered and payments are made at future dates

  19. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the Great Lakes economy: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.; Molburg, J.; Pandola, G.; Taxon, T.; Lurie, G.; Fisher, R.; Boyd, G.; Fox, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with the market for SO 2 emission allowances over time and electric utility compliance choices. For currently high emitting plants ( > 2.5 lb SO 2 /MMBtu), the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) provide for about twice as many SO 2 allowances to be issued per year in Phase 1 (1995--1999) than in Phase 2. Also, considering the scrubber incentives in Phase 1, there is likely to be substantial emission banking for use in Phase 2. Allowance prices are expected to increase over time at a rate less than the return on alternative investments, so utilities which are risk neutral or other potential speculators in the allowance market are not expected to bank allowances. The allowances will be banked by risk averse utilities or the utilities may buy forward contracts for SO 2 allowances. However, speculators may play an important role by selling forward contracts for SO 2 allowances to the risk averse utilities. The Argonne Utility Simulation Model (ARGUS) is being revised to incorporate the provisions of the CAAA acid rain title and to simulate SO 2 allowance prices, compliance choices, capacity expansion, system dispatch, fuel use, and emissions. The revised model (ARGUS2) incorporates unit-level performance data and can incorporate unit-specific compliance decisions when these are known. The model has been designed for convenience in analyzing alternatives scenarios (demand growth rates, technology mix, economic parameters, etc). 1 ref., 5 figs

  20. Future refining impacts of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadder, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of the future refining impacts of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 has been performed with the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System. In 1992, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) should finalize precise requirements for Phase I reformulated gasoline, to be produced in 1995-1999. EPA requirements for Phase II reformulated gasoline, to be produced after 1999, will not be established until 1993. The assessment of refining impacts assumes that reformulated gasoline with likely Phase I specifications will be produced for markets projected for the year 2000. The assessment suggests that gasoline reformulation costs in U.S. coastal and near-coastal refining regions could be 3.5 to 5.6 cents per gallon (1989 U.S. currency). The relative value of MTBE is the most important determinant of the reformulation cost. For mileage equivalent to one gallon of conventional gasoline, the regional total added costs (including reformulation costs) for reformulated gasoline could be 5.2 to 7.6 cents. In blending reformulated gasolines, the reduction of butane for lower Reid vapor pressure and the reduction of reformate for lower aromatics are generally compensated by increased percentages of alkylate and/or straight run naphthas. Relatively larger refinery process capacity additions are required for butane isomerization alkylation aromatics recovery, and distillate hydrotreating. (Author)

  1. Sulfur dioxide emissions and market effects under the Clean Air Act Acid Rain Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zipper, C.E.; Gilroy, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA90) established a national program to control sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions from electricity generation. CAAA90's market-based approach includes trading and banking of SO 2 -emissions allowances. The paper presents an analysis of data describing electric utility SO 2 emissions in 1995, the first year of the program's Phase I, and market effects over the 1990-95 period. Fuel switching and flue-gas desulfurization were the dominant means used in 1995 by targeted generators to reduce emissions to 51% of 1990 levels. Flue-gas desulfurization costs, emissions allowance prices, low-sulfur coal prices, and average sulfur contents of coals shipped to electric utilities declined over the 1990-95 period. Projections indicate that 13-15 million allowances will have been banked during the programs' Phase I, which ends in 1999, a quantity expected to last through the first decade of the program's stricter Phase II controls. In 1995, both allowance prices and SO 2 emissions were below pre-CAAA90 expectations. The reduction of SO 2 emissions beyond pre-CAAA90 expectations, combined with lower-than-expected allowance prices and declining compliance costs, can be viewed as a success for market-based environmental controls. 21 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  3. Decision-making for complying with SO2 provisions of the Clean Air Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metzler, A.R.; Gallardy, P.B.; Sebesta, J.J.; Mc Laughlin, B.R.; Ireland, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    Prior to the Clean Air Act of 1990 (CAA), SO 2 removal options were based on a command and control approach for each plant. This approach usually resulted in the addition of an FGD system. However, the CAA offers a market based emission allowance program which offers considerable flexibility for compliance with the new regulations. The flexibility for compliance introduces more available options into the evaluation and increases the complexity of the decision-making process. This paper discusses the methodology of a recent analysis which evaluated various strategies for meeting SO 2 compliance. The importance of evaluating options based on certain goals is discussed. An overall goal was established to develop a flexible and least cost compliance plan. However, these goals need to be balanced against constraints for the utility which may include: minimizing SO 2 allowance market risk; optimizing the availability, cost and timing of capital expenditures into the analysis; minimizing site impacts and construction lead time; and coordinating strategies from various units and stations into a cohesive plan

  4. 75 FR 51521 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ....121) mandates antilock braking systems (ABS) on all new air-braked vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000...-0116] Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems; Technical Report on the Effectiveness of Antilock Braking Systems in Heavy Truck Tractors and Trailers AGENCY: National Highway Traffic...

  5. Criminal provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and their interface with the United States sentencing guidelines. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, W.P.

    1991-09-30

    The growing severity of our societal response to environmental misconduct is reflected, in part, by the criminalization of environmental wrongs by both state and Federal governments. Indeed, the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 continue this trend, giving the Environmental Protection Agency, via the Department of Justice, significant new criminal enforcement tools. The importance attached to law enforcement of environmental laws is a relatively recent phenomenon and took a significant upswing in 1982 when the department of Justice created what is today the Environmental Crimes Section in what is now the Environment and Natural Resources Division, which section has grown steadily and now has over 25 attorneys who prosecute or assist in the prosecution of environmental crimes in the U.S.

  6. Human breath measurements in a clean-air chamber to determine half-lives for volatile organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Sydney M.; Wallace, Lance A.; Pelllzzari, Edo D.; O'Neill, Hugh J.

    The expired breath of four non-occupationally exposed subjects was monitored following exposure at near-normal environmental concentrations using a specially developed pulmonary clearance technique. The four were exposed to polluted air on a heavily trafficked freeway or at a local dry-cleaning establishment, then spent the next 10 h in a clean-air environmental chamber. Breath and chamber-air samples were collected at regular intervals throughout the 10-h period and analyzed for the presence of selected target compounds. The breath levels of two of the compounds were elevated and decreased slowly with time once the subjects began to breathe clean air. Nonlinear least-squares fitting of the decay-uptake curves permitted the calculation of biological half-lives. Several of the target compounds occurred, however, at very low levels, and the resultant experimental scatter limited the value of these measurements. Higher initial exposures to most of the target compounds would have improved the reliability of the estimates.

  7. INVESTIGATION INTO ADVANCED AIR TRANSPORTATION NETWORK OF RUSSIAN FEDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. U. Udzhukhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An approach allowing one to predict the development of air-route network is proposed. It proceeds from the principle of increasing the accessibility of points of destination, that is to make available for passengers non-stop flights or flights with one transit landing in case of the largest number of routes. With comparative analysis of possible variants of extending the structure of air-route network, it is reasonable to take into account a generalized time parameter and a number of alternative routes for passenger delivery from departure point to point of destination.

  8. Development of ultra low dew-point clean air generator; Cho tei roten seijo kuki hassei sochi no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, H.; Okamura, N. [Takasago thermal Engineering Co., Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    2000-05-10

    To reduce the manufacturing cost of semiconductors, some systems have been proposed that use a cheap and high purity Clean Dry Air (CDA). CDA can reduce process step such as wafer cleaning, because CDA flow in stocker prevents the wafer surface from adsorbing of moisture and organic impurities. We have already optimized a two-stage rotary dehumidifier and have conducted a study of methods for cheaply manufacturing air that has a low dew-point of -70 degree C to -50 degree C. We have further developed the method in which a dry dehumidifier is used, and developed an ultra low dew-point air generator. The air generator is a three-stage rotary dehumidifier in which a further stage is added to the two-stage rotary dehumidifier. The main component of the rotors is metal silicate. The air generator can supply dry air with a dew-point of -110 degree C. or less, in which the concentration in all gaseous contaminants is far below 1 ppb. We made a trial calculation of the manufacturing cost, and an average cost of 0.25 yen/m{sup 3} was obtained. (author)

  9. A 14-year longitudinal study of the impact of clean indoor air legislation on state smoking prevalence, USA, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Craig M; Lee, Joseph G L; Hudson, Suzanne; Hoover, Jeanne; Civils, Donald

    2017-06-01

    While clean indoor air legislation at the state level is an evidence-based recommendation, only limited evidence exists regarding the impact of clean indoor air policies on state smoking prevalence. Using state smoking prevalence data from 1997 to 2010, a repeated measures observational analysis assessed the association between clean indoor air policies (i.e., workplace, restaurant, and bar) and state smoking prevalence while controlling for state cigarette taxes and year. The impacts from the number of previous years with any clean indoor air policy, the number of policies in effect during the current year, and the number of policies in effect the previous year were analyzed. Findings indicate a smoking prevalence predicted decrease of 0.13 percentage points (p=0.03) for each additional year one or more clean indoor air policies were in effect, a predicted decrease of 0.12 percentage points (p=0.09) for each policy in effect in the current year, and a predicted decrease of 0.22 percentage points (p=0.01) for each policy in effect in the previous year on the subsequent year. Clean indoor air policies show measurable associations with reductions in smoking prevalence within a year of implementation above and beyond taxes and time trends. Further efforts are needed to diffuse clean indoor air policies across states and provinces that have not yet adopted such policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of the Ventilation and Air Cleaning System Design Concepts for Safety Requirements during Fire Conditions in Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.; El-Fawal, M.; Kandil, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ventilation and air cleaning system in the nuclear or radiological installations is one of the essential nuclear safety concerns. It is responsible for confining the radioactive materials involved behind suitable barriers during normal and abnormal conditions. It must be designed to prevent the release of harmful products (radioactive gases, or airborne radioactive materials) from the system or facility, impacting the public or workers, and doing environmental damage. There are two important safety functions common to all ventilation and air cleaning system in nuclear facilities. They are: a) the requirements to maintain the pressure of the ventilated volume below that of surrounding, relatively non-active areas, in order to inhibit the spread of contamination during normal and abnormal conditions, and b) the need to treat the ventilated gas so as to minimize the release of any radioactive or toxic materials. Keeping the two important safety functions is achieved by applying the fire protection for the ventilation system to achieve safety and adequate protection in nuclear applications facilities during fire and accidental criticality conditions.The main purpose of this research is to assist ventilation engineers and experts in nuclear installations for safe operation and maintaining ventilation and air cleaning system during fire accident in nuclear facilities. The research focuses on fire prevention and protection of the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. High-Efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are extremely susceptible to damage when exposed to the effects of fire, smoke, and water; it is the intent of this research to provide the designer with the experience gained over the years from hard lessons learned in protecting HEPA filters from fire. It describes briefly and evaluates the design safety features, constituents and working conditions of ventilation and air cleaning system in nuclear and radioactive industry.This paper provides and

  11. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Air Traffic Activity FY 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-30

    possible to show changes in growth. Hub designations are based on the number of enplanements within the 50 U.S. States, and other U.S. areas as reported in...46515 98866 61307 S137 LOCAL OPERATIONS 46298 43A09 249C TOTAL OPERATIONS 259723 ’.S15 98866 105115 9227 N&8.E tLAO KdAJALEIN iAF IKEA ) _, ITINERANT...total enplaned passengers in scheduled carriers in the 50 U.S. States, the Listrict of Columbia, and other U.S. areas designated by the Federal

  12. WRF modeling of PM2.5 remediation by SALSCS and its clean air flow over Beijing terrain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qingfeng; Shen, Lian; Chen, Sheng-Chieh; Pui, David Y H

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric simulations were carried out over the terrain of entire Beijing, China, to investigate the effectiveness of an air-pollution cleaning system named Solar-Assisted Large-Scale Cleaning System (SALSCS) for PM 2.5 mitigation by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. SALSCS was proposed to utilize solar energy to generate airflow therefrom the airborne particulate pollution of atmosphere was separated by filtration elements. Our model used a derived tendency term in the potential temperature equation to simulate the buoyancy effect of SALSCS created with solar radiation on its nearby atmosphere. PM 2.5 pollutant and SALSCS clean air were simulated in the model domain by passive tracer scalars. Simulation conditions with two system flow rates of 2.64 × 10 5  m 3 /s and 3.80 × 10 5  m 3 /s were tested for seven air pollution episodes of Beijing during the winters of 2015-2017. The numerical results showed that with eight SALSCSs installed along the 6 th Ring Road of the city, 11.2% and 14.6% of PM 2.5 concentrations were reduced under the two flow-rate simulation conditions, respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Interactions between energy efficiency and emission trading under the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillsman, E.L.; Alvic, D.R.

    1994-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments affect electric utilities in numerous ways. The feature that probably has received the greatest attention is the provision to let utilities trade emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), while at the same time requiring them to reduce S0 2 emissions in 2000 by an aggregate 43%. The emission trading system was welcomed by many as a way of reducing the cost of reducing emissions, by providing greater flexibility than past approaches. This report examines some of the potential interactions between trading emissions and increasing end-use energy efficiency. The analysis focuses on emission trading in the second phase of the trading program, which begins in 2000. The aggregate effects, calculated by an emission compliance and trading model, turn out to be rather small. Aggressive improvement of end-use efficiency by all utilities might reduce allowance prices by $22/ton (1990 dollars), which is small compared to the reduction that has occurred in the estimates of future allowance prices and when compared to the roughly $400/ton price we estimate as a base case. However, the changes in the allowance market that result are large enough to affect some compliance decisions. If utilities in only a few states improve end-use efficiency aggressively, their actions may not have a large effect on the price of an allowance, but they could alter the demand for allowances and thereby the compliance decisions of utilities in other states. The analysis shows how improving electricity end-use efficiency in some states can cause smaller emission reductions in other states, relative to what would have happened without the improvements. Such a result, while not surprising given the theory behind the emission trading system, is upsetting to people who view emissions, environmental protection, and energy efficiency in moral rather than strictly economic terms

  14. Effects of welding fumes on nuclear air cleaning system carbon adsorber banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, P.W. [Duke Power Company, Huntersville, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Standard Technical Specifications for nuclear air cleaning systems include requirements for surveillance tests following fire, painting, or chemical release in areas communicating with the affected system. To conservatively implement this requirement, many plants categorize welding as a chemical release process, and institute controls to ensure that welding fumes do not interact with carbon adsorbers in a filter system. After reviewing research data that indicated welding had a minimal impact on adsorber iodine removal efficiency, further testing was performed with the goal of establishing a welding threshold. It was anticipated that some quantity of weld electrodes could be determined that had a corresponding detrimental impact on iodine removal efficiency for the exposed adsorber. This value could be used to determine a conservative sampling schedule that would allow the station to perform laboratory testing to ensure system degradation did not occur without a full battery of surveillance tests. A series of tests was designed to demonstrate carbon efficiency versus cumulative welding fume exposure. Three series of tests were performed, one for each of three different types of commonly used weld electrodes. Carbon sampling was performed at baseline conditions, and every five pounds of electrode thereafter. Two different laboratory tests were performed for each sample; one in accordance with ASTM 3803/1989 at 95% relative humidity and 30 degrees C, and another using the less rigorous conditions of 70% relative humidity and 80 degrees C. Review of the test data for all three types of electrodes failed to show a significant correlation between carbon efficiency degradation and welding fume exposure. Accordingly, welding is no longer categorized as a `chemical release process` at McGuire Nuclear Station, and limits on welding fume interaction with ventilation systems have been eliminated. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Ship emissions and the use of current air cleaning technology: contributions to air pollution and acidification in the Baltic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Claremar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The shipping sector is a significant contributor to emissions of air pollutants in marine and coastal regions. In order to achieve sustainable shipping, primarily through new regulations and techniques, greater knowledge of dispersion and deposition of air pollutants is required. Regional model calculations of the dispersion and concentration of sulfur, nitrogen, and particulate matter, as well as deposition of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen from the international maritime sector in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, have been made for the years 2011 to 2013. The contribution from shipping is highest along shipping lanes and near large ports for concentration and dry deposition. Sulfur is the most important pollutant coupled to shipping. The contribution of both SO2 concentration and dry deposition of sulfur represented up to 80 % of the total in some regions. WHO guidelines for annual concentrations were not trespassed for any analysed pollutant, other than PM2.5 in the Netherlands, Belgium, and central Poland. However, due to the resolution of the numerical model, 50 km  ×  50 km, there may be higher concentrations locally close to intense shipping lanes. Wet deposition is more spread and less sensitive to model resolution. The contribution of wet deposition of sulfur and nitrogen from shipping was up to 30 % of the total wet deposition. Comparison of simulated to measured concentration at two coastal stations close to shipping lanes showed some underestimations and missed maximums, probably due to resolution of the model and underestimated ship emissions. A change in regulation for maximum sulfur content in maritime fuel, in 2015 from 1 to 0.1 %, decreases the atmospheric sulfur concentration and deposition significantly. However, due to costs related to refining, the cleaning of exhausts through scrubbers has become a possible economic solution. Open-loop scrubbers meet the air quality criteria but their consequences for

  16. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What...

  17. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for...

  18. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Requirements for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber And/or...

  19. Seeing Through Smoke: Sorting through the Science and Politics in the Making of the 1956 British Clean Air Act (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The 1952 “Killer Smog” left over 4000 citizens of Greater London dead in a single week. It was a highly visible environmental disaster, which pinned the British government with responsibility over factory and domestic coal smoke pollution. Within four years of the Smog, the British parliament passed the 1956 Clean Air Act, which was designed primarily to prevent the release of dark smoke from the chimneys of private dwellings and factories. This act is considered a significant turning point in the history of environmental regulation. Through the analysis of confidential documents from government ministries and Members of Parliament, my research has focused on how decisions were made following this man-made environmental catastrophe. The primary focus of this presentation will be to explore why the British government appeared lethargic in the face of its long-standing coal pollution problem and why it finally passed the first clean air act in the world. In this case, establishing responsibility and organizing research were the major time constraints on policy action. In the months following the 1952 Smog, government departments passed off responsibility and quarreled over jurisdiction in the smog matter. Ministries held responsible for air pollution jointly established the Committee on Air Pollution to find a solution to urban smog. In the years following, the Committee on Air Pollution compiled research on the health effects and economic impact of air pollution, deriving its information from a variety of sources. In its 1954 final report, the committee named smoke and sulfur dioxide the most likely culprits of the 1952 deaths, and it recommended the elimination of smoke-producing coal from the British market, a major change to how the British fueled their homes and factories. The resulting 1956 Clean Air Act was the product of numerous compromises over the economic, political, and social issues present in Great Britain at the time. The British government

  20. Early Warning Report: Use of Contractors to Conduct Clean Air Act Risk Management Program Inspections in Certain States Goes Against Court Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #12-P-0376, March 28, 2012. The OIG is currently evaluating whether the EPA has adequate management controls for ensuring the effectiveness of its Clean Air Act (CAA) Section 112(r) risk management program inspections.

  1. Potential Impact of Clean Air Act Regulations on Nitrogen Fate and Transport in the Neuse River Basin: a Modeling Investigation Using CMAQ and SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    There has been extensive analysis of Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) regulation impacts to changes in atmospheric nitrogen deposition; however, few studies have focused on watershed nitrogen transfer particularly regarding long-term predictions. In this study, we investigated impa...

  2. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.; Atkins, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program of the Clean Air Act (CAA) requires promulgation of regulations to reduce and prevent damage to the earth's protective ozone layer. Regulations pursuant to Title VI of the CAA are promulgated in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at Title 40 CFR, Part 822. The regulations include ambitious production phaseout schedules for ozone depleting substances (ODS) including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, carbon tetrachloride, and methyl chloroform under 40 CFR 82, Subpart A. The regulations also include requirements for recycling and emissions reduction during the servicing of refrigeration equipment and technician certification requirements under Subpart F; provisions for servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners under Subpart B; a ban on nonessential products containing Class 1 ODS under Subpart C; restrictions on Federal procurement of ODS under Subpart D; labeling of products using ODS under Subpart E; and the Significant New Alternatives Policy Program under Subpart G. This paper will provide details of initiatives undertaken at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of requirements under the Title VI Stratospheric Ozone Protection Program. The Stratospheric Ozone Protection Plans include internal DOE requirements for: (1) maintenance of ODS inventories; (2) ODS procurement practices; (3) servicing of refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; (4) required equipment modifications or replacement; (5) technician certification training; (6) labeling of products containing ODS; (7) substitution of chlorinated solvents; and (8) replacement of halon fire protection systems. The plans also require establishment of administrative control systems which assure that compliance is achieved and maintained as the regulations continue to develop and become effective

  3. Negative pressure of the environmental air in the cleaning area of the materials and sterilization center: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lopes Ciofi-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the scientific evidence on aerosols generated during cleaning activities of health products in the Central Service Department (CSD and the impact of the negative pressure of the ambient air in the cleaning area to control the dispersion of aerosols to adjacent areas. Method: for this literature systematic review the following searches were done: search guidelines, manuals or national and international technical standards given by experts; search in the portal and databases PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science; and a manual search of scientific articles. Results: the five technical documents reviewed recommend that the CSD cleaning area should have a negative differential ambient air pressure, but scientific articles on the impact of this intervention were not found. The four articles included talked about aerosols formed after the use of a ultrasonic cleaner (an increased in the contamination especially during use and pressurized water jet (formation of smaller aerosols 5μm. In a study, the aerosols formed from contaminated the hot tap water with Legionella pneumophila were evaluated. Conclusions: there is evidence of aerosol formation during cleanup activities in CSD. Studies on occupational diseases of respiratory origin of workers who work in CSD should be performed.

  4. Air Quality Case Studies Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) recognizes that many metropolitan areas are struggling with how to respond adequately to the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) and the 1991 Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA), particu...

  5. Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerm, N; Cesari, G

    2015-08-01

    Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment.

  6. Validation of the Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist Pre-Training Screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    Two formal validation studies of the Air Traffic Control Specialist Pre Training Screen (ATCS/PTS), a 5 day computer administered test battery, are described. The ATCS/PTS was designed to replace the 9 week US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Ac...

  7. 75 FR 66125 - Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... pollutants that could affect the health and status of resources in areas managed by the three agencies... Work Group (FLAG) AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of final... Public Comments document. The Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) was...

  8. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, B.C.; Coleman, B.K.; Destaillats, H.

    2006-01-01

    introduction. In the absence of reactive chemicals, the chamber ozone level was approximately 60 ppb. Ozone was substantially consumed following cleaning product use, mainly by homogeneous reaction. For the AFR, ozone consumption was weaker and heterogeneous reaction with sorbed AFR-constituent VOCs...... than 100 mu g m(-3)) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10-12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  9. Tobacco control policies are egalitarian: a vulnerabilities perspective on clean indoor air laws, cigarette prices, and tobacco use disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinno, Alexis; Glantz, Stanton

    2009-04-01

    This study models independent associations of state or local strong clean indoor air laws and cigarette prices with current smoker status and consumption in a multilevel framework, including interactions with educational attainment, household income and race/ethnicity and the relationships of these policies to vulnerabilities in smoking behavior. Cross sectional survey data are employed from the February 2002 panel of the Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (54,024 individuals representing the US population aged 15-80). Non-linear relationships between both outcome variables and the predictors were modeled. Independent associations of strong clean indoor air laws were found for current smoker status (OR 0.66), and consumption among current smokers (-2.36 cigarettes/day). Cigarette price was found to have independent associations with both outcomes, an effect that saturated at higher prices. The odds ratio for smoking for the highest versus lowest price over the range where there was a price effect was 0.83. Average consumption declined (-1.16 cigarettes/day) over the range of effect of price on consumption. Neither policy varied in its effect by educational attainment, or household income. The association of cigarette price with reduced smoking participation and consumption was not found to vary with race/ethnicity. Population vulnerability in consumption appears to be structured by non-white race categories, but not at the state and county levels at which the policies we studied were enacted. Clean indoor air laws and price increases appear to benefit all socio-economic and race/ethnic groups in our study equally in terms of reducing smoking participation and consumption.

  10. Screening procedure to evaluate effects of air pollution on Eastern Region wildernesses cited as Class I air quality areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; Dale S. Nichols; Anthony C. Federer; Keith F. Jensen; Harry Parrott

    1991-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region manages eight wilderness areas that have been designated as Class I air quality areas by the Federal Clean Air Act. As part of this legislation, Federal land managers are required to consult with air pollution regulators on the potential impacts of proposed air pollution emissions--including phytotoxic gases and acidic...

  11. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Energy, Engines, and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the energy, engines, and combustion industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  12. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Chemical Production and Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the chemical production & distribution industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, click on the links below.

  13. Clean Air Act Guidelines and Standards for Solvent Use and Surface Coating Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the solvent use and surface coating industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  14. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Agriculture, Food and Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the agriculture, food, and forestry industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  15. Preliminary calculations for the CAFE project (Clean Air For Europe); Calculs preparatoires pour la strategie thematique CAFE (Clean Air For Europe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The European Commission decided in 2001 an analysis program to reduce the atmospheric emissions. This report presents different limit scenari for France in 2020 (the reference scenari and the MTFR scenari, Maximum Technically Feasible Reduction), optimized scenari calculated by the RAINS model (Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation), the costs of the scenari calculated with RAINS and the cost-benefit analysis of the strategy CAFE. From the study results, the benefits are higher than the costs, even with the most ambitious scenari. At an european level the emission reduction strategies have no effect on the employment but an impact on the Gross Domestic Product (decrease between 0,04 % and 0,12 % in function of the scenari). (A.L.B.)

  16. Engineered-safety-feature air-cleaning systems for commercial light-water-cooled nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchsted, C.A.

    1975-01-01

    Substantial improvement has been observed in the design and construction of ESF air cleaning systems in some of the newer power plants, as compared to earlier practice, but there is still much to be done. Adequate space must be provided for these facilities in the earliest containment and building layout, and system designers, equipment designers, and building layout engineers must give adequate consideration to easy access to facilitate maintenance and testing. Finally, constructors and utilities must provide for proper storage of critical components such as HEPA filters and adsorber cells during construction and during the period awaiting startup of the plant. (U.S.)

  17. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With this poster we present the environmental benefit on air quality derived by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS pilot project. The CLEAN-ROADS project addresses the problem of the environmental pollution caused by de-icing salts during winter road maintenance activities in the Province of Trento (Italy). A demonstrative Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) has been developed in order to improve the intervention procedures of the road management service. Specifically it aims to optimize the efficiency of how available resources (e.g., salt consumption) are currently used while guaranteeing the current level of road safety. The CLEAN-ROADS project has been tested and validated on a test area located in a valley bottom (Adige Valley), where the highest optimization margins are to be expected. The project supports current road maintenance practices, which has proved to be reliable and accurate, with a new scalable and energy-efficient road monitoring system. This system is based on a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route. It is capable to collect real-time data about the road conditions and to perform short-term and now-cast road weather forecasts, which actively integrate weather data and bulletins covering the target area [1]. This poster presents the results obtained from a three-year monitoring activity with the aim to (1) determine the impact of de-icing salts on air quality and (2) quantify the improvements obtained by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS project on air quality. The Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe Directive (2008/50/EC) states that contributions to exceedances of particulate matter PM10 limit values that are attributable to road winter salting may be subtracted when assessing compliance with air quality limit values, once provided that reasonable measures have been taken to lower concentrations [2]. As the de-icing salts used in road maintenance are mainly based

  18. Study of loading/air back-pulse cleaning cycles on the performance of ceramic membrane filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waggoner, Charles; Alderman, Steven; Parsons, Michael; Hogoncamp, Kristina; Alderman, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The most commonly identified threats to conventional glass fiber HEPA filter performance are moisture and rapid blinding of filters by smoke. Regenerable filter media composed of ceramics or sintered metal can be utilized as pre-filters to protect the more vulnerable glass fiber HEPA filters in the event of upset conditions. Additionally, used in a pre-filtering application, the use of these regenerable filters can potentially extend the lifetime of conventional units. A series of tests have been conducted using CeraMem ceramic membrane filters in an effort to evaluate their performance after repeated loading and air back pulse cleaning. This was done in an effort to access filter performance after repeated loading/cleaning cycles. The filters were loaded using a solid potassium chloride aerosol challenge. The filters were evaluated for pressure drop and filtering efficiency changes from one cleaning cycle to the next. Additionally, the particle size distribution of the aerosol penetrating the filters was measured. (authors)

  19. Seismic simulation and functional performance evaluation of a safety related, seismic category I control room emergency air cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manley, D.K.; Porco, R.D.; Choi, S.H.

    1985-01-01

    Under a nuclear contract MSA was required to design, manufacture, seismically test and functionally test a complete Safety Related, Seismic Category I, Control Room Emergency Air Cleaning System before shipment to the Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Station in Rowe, Massachusetts. The installation of this system was required to satisfy the NRC requirements of NUREG-0737, Section III, D.3.4, ''Control Room Habitability''. The filter system tested was approximately 3 ft. wide by 8 ft. high by 18 ft. long and weighed an estimated 8300 pounds. It had a design flow rate of 3000 SCFM and contained four stages of filtration - prefilters, upstream and downstream HEPA filters and Type II sideload charcoal adsorber cells. The filter train design followed the guidelines set forth by ANSI/ASME N509-1980. Seismic Category I Qualification Testing consisted of resonance search testing and triaxial random multifrequency testing. In addition to ANSI/ASME N510-1980 testing, triaxial response accelerometers were placed at specific locations on designated prefilters, HEPA filters, charcoal adsorbers and test canisters along with accelerometers at the corresponding filter seal face locations. The purpose of this test was to demonstrate the integrity of the filters, filter seals, and monitor seismic response levels which is directly related to the system's ability to function during a seismic occurrence. The Control Room Emergency Air Cleaning System demonstrated the ability to withstand the maximum postulated earthquake for the plant site by remaining structurally sound and functional

  20. Mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow screen reduces air contamination in a simulated setting for intra-vitreal injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid-Gortzak, Ruth; Traversari, Roberto; van der Linden, Jan Willem; Lesnik Oberstein, Sarit Y; Lapid, Oren; Schlingemann, Reinier O

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine whether the use of a mobile ultra-clean laminar airflow screen reduces the air-borne particle counts in the setting of a simulated procedure of an intra-vitreal injection. A mobile ultra-clean unidirectional airflow (UDF) screen was tested in a simulated procedure for intra-vitreal injections in a treatment room without mechanical ventilation. One UDF was passed over the instrument tray and the surgical area. The concentration of particles was measured in the background, over the instrument table, and next to the ocular area. The degree of protection was calculated at the instrument table and at the surgical site. Use of the UDF mobile screen reduced the mean particle concentration (particles > 0.3 microns) on the instrument table by a factor of at least 100.000 (p air contamination. Mobile UDF screen reduces the mean particle concentration substantially. The mobile UDF screen may therefore allow for a safer procedural environment for ambulatory care procedures such as intra-vitreal injections in treatment rooms.

  1. Self Cleaning High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filtration without Interrupting Process Flow - 59347

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadwick, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The strategy of protecting the traditional glass fibre HEPA filtration train from it's blinding contamination and the recovery of dust by the means of self cleaning, pre-filtration is a proven means in the reduction of ultimate disposal volumes and has been used within the Fuel Production Industry. However, there is an increasing demand in nuclear applications requiring elevated operating temperatures, fire resistance, moisture resistance and chemical composition that the existing glass fibre HEPA filtration cannot accommodate, which can be remedied by the use of a metallic HEPA filter media. Previous research suggests that the then costs to the Department of Energy (DOE), based on a five year life cycle, was $29.5 million for the installation, testing, removal and disposal of glass fibre HEPA filtration trains. Within these costs, $300 was the value given to the filter and $4, 450 was given to the peripheral activity. Development of a low cost, cleanable, metallic, direct replacement of the traditional filter train will the clear solution. The Bergman et al work has suggested that a 1000 ft 3 /min, cleanable, stainless HEPA could be commercially available for $5, 000 each, whereas the industry has determined that the truer cost of such an item in isolation would be closer to $15, 000. This results in a conflict within the requirement between 'low cost' and 'stainless HEPA'. By proposing a system that combines metallic HEPA filtration with the ability to self clean without interrupting the process flow, the need for a tradition HEPA filtration train will be eliminated and this dramatically reduces the resources required for cleaning or disposal, thus presenting a route to reducing ultimate costs. The paper will examine the performance characteristics, filtration efficiency, flow verses differential pressure and cleanability of a self cleaning HEPA grade sintered metal filter element, together with data to prove the contention. (authors)

  2. Federal Disaster Funding Opportunities for Water and Wastewater Utilities through the Drinking Water and Clean Water State Revolving Funds

    Science.gov (United States)

    The following provides a checklist that will help you take advantage of Drinking Water State Revolving Funds. For more detailed information on Drinking Water SRF, see DWSRF in Fed FUNDS. For more information on Clean Water SRF, see CWSRF in Fed FUNDS.

  3. 77 FR 281 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM should be formatted in Word or ASCII file, avoiding the use of... U.S. Virgin Islands had failed to submit CAA SIPs for improving visibility in mandatory Federal...

  4. Device for filling up air cleaning cells with adsorbent coal and its loading process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parish, H.C.; Allard, M.D.; Petit, J.L.; Sfulgis, I.S.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns improved appliances enabling granules to be compressed, evenly on the whole, in a hopper, filter or any other component to be filled with such granules. This criterion is particularly important in the case of air filters using granulated adsorbing coal for separating the radioactive substances in the air should an ccident occur in a nuclear power station [fr

  5. Development of an air knife to remove seed coat fragments during lint cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    An air knife is a tool commonly used to blow off debris in a manufacturing line. The knife may also be used to break the attachment force between a lint cleaner saw and a seed coat fragment (SCF) with attached fiber, and remove them. Work continued on evaluating an auxiliary air knife mounted on t...

  6. 75 FR 80809 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-23

    ... Department of Air Quality to the Tennessee Valley Authority's Paradise Fossil Plant in Drakesboro, Kentucky... permit issued by the Kentucky Department of Air Quality to the Tennessee Valley Authority's Paradise...'s policy is that public comments, whether submitted electronically or in paper, will be made...

  7. 78 FR 16630 - Clean Air Act Grant: South Coast Air Quality Management District; Opportunity for Pubic Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-18

    ... disproportionately impacted or singled out for a reduction. A section 105 recipient must submit a final financial.... The recipient must provide evidence that the air program is not being singled out for a reduction or...

  8. Methods for air cleaning and protection of building occupants from airborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    germicidal irradiation (UVGI), photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), plasmacluster ions and other technologies for air disinfection and purification from pathogens are analyzed with respect to currently used air distribution principles. The importance of indoor air characteristics, such as temperature, relative...... of transmission, i.e. the generation of pathogen laden droplets originating in the respiratory tract of an infected individual, the survivability of the pathogens, their dispersal indoors and their transfer to a healthy person are reviewed. The advantages and the drawbacks of air dilution, filtration, ultraviolet...... humidity and velocity for the efficiency of each method is analyzed, taking into consideration the nature of the pathogens themselves. The applicability of the methods to the different types of total volume air distribution used at present indoors, i.e. mixing, displacement and underfloor ventilation...

  9. Design of ventilation and air cleaning systems for the new Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, R.; DeField, J.; Stafford, R.; McNeese, W.; Eberhardt, W.; Laushkin, N.

    1975-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's new plutonium facility will conform to AECM Appendix 6301-Part II, Section H-Minimum Design Criteria for New Plutonium Facilities. The glove box process exhaust air is filtered through three or four stages of HEPA filters. The design of this multi-stage filter installation is shown with a method of in-place testing of each stage individually. A glove box filter holder and the in-place test procedure is described. General room air from plutonium work areas is recirculated at the rate of eight air changes per hour with a 10 percent fresh air make-up. The filter plenums for the recirculated air are designed to permit in-place testing of each of the two filter stages. (U.S.)

  10. Comparison of three distinct clean air suits to decrease the bacterial load in the operating room: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasina, Piotr; Tammelin, Ann; Blomfeldt, Anne-Marie; Ljungqvist, Bengt; Reinmüller, Berit; Ottosson, Carin

    2016-01-01

    Lowering air-borne bacteria counts in the operating room is essential in prevention of surgical site infections in orthopaedic joint replacement surgery. This is mainly achieved by decreasing bacteria counts through dilution, with appropriate ventilation and by limiting the bacteria carrying skin particles, predominantly shed by the personnel. The aim of this study was to investigate if a single use polypropylene clothing system or a reusable polyester clothing system could offer similar air quality in the operating room as a mobile laminar airflow device-assisted reusable cotton/polyester clothing system. Prospective observational study design, comparing the performance of three Clean Air Suits by measuring Colony Forming Units (CFU)/m(3) of air during elective hip and knee arthroplasties, performed at a large university-affiliated hospital. The amount of CFU/m(3) of air was measured during 37 operations of which 13 were performed with staff dressed in scrub suits made of a reusable mixed material (69 % cotton, 30 % polyester, 1 % carbon fibre) accompanied by two mobile laminar airflow units. During 24 procedures no mobile laminar airflow units were used, 13 with staff using a reusable olefin fabric clothing (woven polypropylene) and 11 with staff dressed in single-use suits (non-woven spunbonded polypropylene). Air from the operating field was sampled through a filter, by a Sartorius MD8, and bacterial colonies were counted after incubation. There were 6-8 measurements from each procedure, in total 244 measurements. Statistical analysis was performed by Mann-Whitney U-test. The single-use polypropylene suit reduced the amount of CFU/m(3) to a significantly lower level than both other clothing systems. Single-use polypropylene clothing systems can replace mobile laminar airflow unit-assisted reusable mixed material-clothing systems. Measurements in standardized laboratory settings can only serve as guidelines as environments in real operation settings present a

  11. Testing of adsorbents used in nuclear power plant air cleaning systems using the open-quotes Newclose quotes standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, W.P.

    1993-01-01

    Ever since the publication of the NRC Information Notice No. 87-32: Deficiencies in the Testing of Nuclear-Grade Activated Charcoal, nuclear power facilities in the US have struggled in their efforts to open-quotes...review the information for applicability to their facilities and consider action, if appropriate ...close quotes as stated in the notice. The encouragement of resident NRC inspectors at some nuclear power facilities has prompted a variety of responses ranging from no change at all in testing requirements to contemplated changes in plant technical specifications. This confusion is the result of a couple factors. The first factor is the lack of a current revision to NRC Regulatory Guide 1.52, the basic document used in nuclear power plant technical specifications for the testing of engineered-safety feature (ESF) post accident air cleaning systems. The second factor is the standards that have been written since the last revision of Reg. Guide 1.52 which include two revision of ANSI N509 and N510, two revisions of RDT M16-1T, two version of ASTM D3803, two versions of ASTM D4069, and three versions of an SME code AG-1. Few of the standards and codes listed above are commensurate with each other and, thus, present a nearly insolvable maze to the HVAC engineer asked to upgrade adsorbent testing requirements following the standards. This paper describes the authors experience with a number of nuclear power facilities in their efforts to meet the requirements of the new standards of testing adsorbents from nuclear power plant air cleaning systems. The existing standards are discussed in light of the current state of the art for adsorbent testing of adsorbent media from nuclear air treatment systems. Test results are presented showing the impact of new test requirements on acceptance criteria when compared to the old test requirements and recommendations are offered for solution of this testing problem in the future. 12 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  13. 76 FR 75544 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM should be formatted in Word or ASCII file, avoiding the use of... U.S. Virgin Islands had failed to submit CAA SIPs for improving visibility in mandatory Federal..., Vermont, U.S. Virgin Islands, Virginia, Washington, and Wisconsin. The proposed consent decree would also...

  14. 77 FR 46759 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-06

    ... holidays. Comments on a disk or CD-ROM should be formatted in Word or ASCII file, avoiding the use of... U.S. Virgin Islands had failed to submit CAA SIPs for improving visibility in mandatory Federal... from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for...

  15. Radioactivity in the furnace air-cleaning filter from a house with an unusually high level of airborne radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Essling, M.A.; Urnezis, P.W.

    1979-01-01

    The amounts of the three short-lived daughters of radon on the furnace air-cleaning filter from a house with a high level of radon were estimated to be 8.2, 33, and 38 kBq (0.22, 0.89, and 1.03 μCi) for 218 Po, 214 Pb, and 214 Bi, respectively, at the time of removal from the furnace. These data were used to calculate the airborne concentrations of the three, and the results indicated that about 70% of the daughters were lost to surfaces in the house and by impaction in the air ducts. The filter's content of 210 Pb was found to be 4.4 kBg (0.12 μCi); from this the average concentration of radon-producing filterable daughters during the time the furnace blower operated, was estimated to be 860 Bq m -3 . This indicated that there was no significant loss to surfaces or in air ducts. Possible reasons for the difference are given. The filter was also found to contain 1 kBq (27 nCi) of 212 Bi from the thorium series

  16. Air contamination for predicting wound contamination in clean surgery: A large multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birgand, Gabriel; Toupet, Gaëlle; Rukly, Stephane; Antoniotti, Gilles; Deschamps, Marie-Noelle; Lepelletier, Didier; Pornet, Carole; Stern, Jean Baptiste; Vandamme, Yves-Marie; van der Mee-Marquet, Nathalie; Timsit, Jean-François; Lucet, Jean-Christophe

    2015-05-01

    The best method to quantify air contamination in the operating room (OR) is debated, and studies in the field are controversial. We assessed the correlation between 2 types of air sampling and wound contaminations before closing and the factors affecting air contamination. This multicenter observational study included 13 ORs of cardiac and orthopedic surgery in 10 health care facilities. For each surgical procedure, 3 microbiologic air counts, 3 particles counts of 0.3, 0.5, and 5 μm particles, and 1 bacteriologic sample of the wound before skin closure were performed. We collected data on surgical procedures and environmental characteristics. Of 180 particle counts during 60 procedures, the median log10 of 0.3, 0.5, and 5 μm particles was 7 (interquartile range [IQR], 6.2-7.9), 6.1 (IQR, 5.4-7), and 4.6 (IQR, 0-5.2), respectively. Of 180 air samples, 50 (28%) were sterile, 90 (50%) had 1-10 colony forming units (CFU)/m(3) and 40 (22%) >10 CFU/m(3). In orthopedic and cardiac surgery, wound cultures at closure were sterile for 24 and 9 patients, 10 and 11 had 1-10 CFU/100 cm(2), and 0 and 6 had >10 CFU/100 cm(2), respectively (P air microbial counts (P contamination (P = .22). This study suggests that particle counting is a good surrogate of airborne microbiologic contamination in the OR. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. HVAC--the importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, S O

    2004-01-01

    HVAC systems, if properly designed, installed, operated and maintained, will improve thermal conditions and air quality indoors. However, the success strongly depends on the design of the system and the quality of the components we use in our HVAC installations. Regrettably, several investigations have revealed that many HVAC installations have a lot of operational and maintenance problems, especially related to moisture, rain and snow entrainment. In short, it seems that too little attention is placed on the design of the intake section, despite the fact that there exists a large number of national and international guidelines and recommendations. This is a serious problem because the air intake is the initial component of the ventilation plant and as such the first line of defense against debris and other outdoor air pollutants. Unfortunately, the design is often an argued compromise between the architect, the civil engineer and the HVAC engineer. In the future, the technical, hygienic and microbiological feature of air intakes must be better ensured in order to avoid the air intake becoming a risk component as regards contamination and indoor air quality. Further, it seems that the magnitude of the problem is not well known, or recognized, by the building designers, engineers and professionals involved in the construction and operation of buildings. This fact needs to be addressed more seriously, because obviously there is a big difference between the idealistic architectonic design, engineering intentions and the real life situation. Several practical recommendations for design and operation of HVAC systems are presented. Following the recommendations will result in less pollution from the HVAC-system and increased indoor environmental quality.

  18. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  19. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  20. Direct in-vessel applications experiments at Harvard Air Cleaning Laboratory. Annual report, October 1, 1975--January 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallove, E.; Hinds, W.; First, M.W.

    1977-02-01

    Prototypes of direct in-vessel emergency air cleaning systems were evaluated for possible application in an LMFBR containment vessel after a hypothetical core disruptive accident. These were turbulence enhanced sedimentation, powder dispersal scavenging, acoustic agglomeration enhanced sedimentation, and combinations of turbulence with powder dispersal. The effect of turbulent agglomeration in enhancing the sedimentation of a sodum pool fire aerosol was experimentally demonstrated in a 90 m 3 test chamber, 4 meters high. Two hour dose reduction factors (DRF(2 hr)) from 7 to 56 were achieved in the 4 meter high chamber using fan-induced turbulent agglomeration on aerosols that varied in initial mass concentration from 1 to 12 gm/m 3 . In the same chamber, a prototype limestone powder dispersal scavenging system was tested and achieved DRF(2 hr)'s up to 10. The beneficial effect of combining turbulence with powder dispersal in a single system was demonstrated in a test which yielded a DRF(2 hr) of 20. This was greater than for either mechanism separately applied when initial aerosol mass concentration was 2 gm/m3. Acoustic agglomeration of sodium pool fire aerosols was tested in a smaller 0.65 m 3 , 75 cm high settling chamber, using an electronic siren which produced a sound pressure level of 145 dB in the reverberant chamber. The DRF(2 hr) in the small chamber with the siren operating was found to be from 17 to 31, 2 to 3 times greater than the DRF(2 hr) for unperturbed settling. Pulse-jet engines were found to be unsuitable for generating high sound levels for this application. Scaling each of the systems tested to a 30 m high containment vessel indicated no reason why one or more of the systems investigated could not be applied successfully as an emergency air cleaning system

  1. Radioactive air emissions notice of construction 340-A building tank sludge clean out

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hays, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    This document serves as a notice of construction pursuant to the requirements of Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247-060 and as a request for approval to construct pursuant to 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61.96 for the removal of sludge from six storage tanks located inside the 340-A Building, which is located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site

  2. 76 FR 9610 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... pollution control technology; undertake periodic equipment testing; and to submit required reports. The... resolves allegations by the Environmental Protection Agency and the San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District (``District''), asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree...

  3. 78 FR 49511 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    [email protected] , preferably at least 10 days prior to the meeting to give EPA as much time as possible to... Committee agenda and any documents prepared for the meeting will be publicly available on the CAAAC Web site... CAAAC meeting minutes, will also be available on the CAAAC Web site or by contacting the Office of Air...

  4. 75 FR 51483 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... given that on August 9, 2010, a proposed Consent Decree in United States v. Middlesex County Utilities... Air Pollution Control Act, N.J.S.A. 26:2C-1 et seq., at the Middlesex County landfill in East... to the United States and New Jersey, and shall upgrade the Middlesex County Landfill Gas Collection...

  5. 75 FR 25855 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ...) Permits/NSR/Toxics Integration--Liz Naess, (919) 541-1892; (2) Economic Incentives and Regulatory... Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental, technical scientific, and...., Washington, DC. Seating will be available on a first come, first served basis. The Economic Incentives and...

  6. 75 FR 22787 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Rick Vetter, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of General Counsel, U.S... Parish, a non-profit corporation, (hereinafter collectively ``LEAN'') filed a complaint in the United..., LEAN alleges that EPA has failed to fulfill a mandatory duty to respond to an administrative petition...

  7. 75 FR 75672 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ...: Jan Tierney, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of General Counsel, U.S. Environmental... with the Court in LEAN v. Jackson (civil action no. 1:09-01333) a motion pursuant to Fed. R. Civ. P. 41... available for public viewing at the Office of Environmental Information (OEI) Docket in the EPA Docket...

  8. 78 FR 18979 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    .... Jackson, Case No. 12- 1096 (D.D.C.) (``LEAN v. Jackson''). Plaintiffs filed this suit to compel the... INFORMATION CONTACT: Melina Williams, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of General Counsel, U.S... Amended Complaint with prejudice in LEAN v. Jackson. In addition, the proposed settlement agreement...

  9. 75 FR 1770 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Division, to the Public Service of Colorado to operate the Hayden Station power plant near Hayden, Colorado... Environment, Air Pollution Division, to the Public Service of Colorado to operate the Hayden Station power plant near Hayden, Colorado. Under the terms of the proposed consent decree, EPA has agreed to respond...

  10. An Examination of the Legal Authority for the 1999 NATO Air Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Magnan, Richard

    2000-01-01

    ...?s use of force against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY). My objective for this article is to investigate the legal authority for NATO's use of force against the FRY during the Kosovo air campaign...

  11. Controlling particulate matter under the Clean Air Act: a menu of options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    This document was prepared by STAPPA and ALAPCO to help US state and local air pollution control officials understand the effects of particulate matter (PM) on human health and air quality, the relative contribution of various sources to particulate emissions, and the effectiveness and costs of various approaches - including innovative ones - to minimizing these emissions. The document covers particulate matter with a nominal diameter of 10 microns ({mu}m) or less (PM{sub 10}), including `fine` PM of 2.5 microns or less in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}). Sections cover: the effects of particulate matter on human health; regulatory issues; characterization of particulate matter; emission control strategies for mobile sources (diesel engines, small nonroad engines, alternative fuels etc.), particulates from stationary sources (electric utilities, industry and commercial fuel combustion; mineral products industry, metallurgical industry etc.); particulates from area sources; and market-based strategies for controlling particulate matter. 2 apps.

  12. Air Emission Projections During Acid Cleaning of F-Canyon Waste Header No.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHOI, ALEXANDER

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the air emission projections for the maintenance operation to dissolve and flush out the scale material inside the F-Canyon Waste Header No.2. The chemical agent used for the dissolution is a concentrated nitric acid solution, so the pollutant of concern is the nitric acid vapor. Under the very conservative operating scenarios considered in this study, it was determined that the highest possible rate of nitric acid emission during the acid flush would be 0.048 lb. per hr. It turns out that this worst-case air emission projection is just below the current exemption limit of 0.05 lb. per hr. for permit applications

  13. FISSION 2120: a program for assessing the need for engineered safety feature grade air cleaning systems in post accident environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G. Jr.; Michlewicz, D.; Thomas, J.

    1979-01-01

    A computer program FISSION 2120, has been developed to evaluate the need for various engineered Safety Feature grade air cleaning systems to mitigate radiation exposures resulting from accidential releases of radioactivity. Those systems which are generally investigated include containment sprays with chemical additives, containment fan coolers with charcoal filters, and negative pressure maintenance systems for double barrier containments with either one-pass filtration or recirculation with filtration. The program can also be used to calculate the radiation doses to control room personnel. This type of analysis is directed towards the various protection aspects of the emergency ventilation system and involves the modeling of the radiological source terms and the atmospheric transport of the radioactive releases. The modeling is enhanced by the inherent capability of the program to accommodate simultaneous release of activity from several sources and to perform a dose evaluation for a wide range of the design characteristics of control room emergency air filtration systems. Use of the program has resulted in considerable savings in the time required to perform such analyses and in the selection of the most cost-effective Engineered Safety Features

  14. Reactive inspection response of NRC Region III to potential technical deficiencies identified in recent Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, C.F.

    1987-01-01

    In order to effectively meet its responsibility to protect the public health and safety, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) nuclear power plant licensing and inspection programs respond to potential technical deficiencies identified by conference and professional society meeting papers when deemed appropriate. The NRC staff's response mechanisms for such technical deficiencies include: generic letters, Bulletins, Information Notices, Standard Review Plan (NUREG-0800) revisions, docketed Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) questions, special studies, special (reactive) inspection, and inspection program revisions. This paper describes reactive inspection efforts by Region III in response to potential technical deficiencies identified in recent air cleaning conference papers, including: post-accident effluent sample line deposition losses; failure to implement good engineering practices in the design, construction, and testing of Nuclear Air Treatment Systems (NATS); filter bypass via filter housing drain lines; spinster carbon degradation; use of silicone sealants and other temporary patching material in NATS; filter housing fire protection deluge system problems; lack of charcoal batch traceability; Quality Assurance records problems involving equipment, vendor, filter, and personnel qualifications; inadequate ANSI/ASME N510 acceptance criteria and tests; and failure to adequately demonstrate control room habitability per 10 CFR 50, Appendix A, General Design Criterion-19. Region III inspections indicate that many of these deficiencies appear to be prevalent. Inspection findings and utility responses to the findings are discussed. NRC Region III and Headquarters programmatic reactions to the identified generic problem areas are also discussed

  15. Development of a software and hardware system for monitoring the air cleaning process using a cyclone-separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaeva, B. K.; Borisov, A. P.; Zlochevskiy, V. L.

    2017-08-01

    The article is devoted to the development of a hardware-software complex for monitoring and controlling the process of air purification by means of a cyclone-separator. The hardware of this complex is the Arduino platform, to which are connected pressure sensors, air velocities, dustmeters, which allow monitoring of the main parameters of the cyclone-separator. Also, a frequency converter was developed to regulate the rotation speed of an asynchronous motor necessary to correct the flow rate, the control signals of which come with Arduino. The program part of the complex is written in the form of a web application in the programming language JavaScript and inserts into CSS and HTML for the user interface. This program allows you to receive data from sensors, build dependencies in real time and control the speed of rotation of an asynchronous electric drive. The conducted experiment shows that the cleaning efficiency is 95-99.9%, while the airflow at the cyclone inlet is 16-18 m/s, and at the exit 50-70 m/s.

  16. Validation of the criteria for initiating the cleaning of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) ductwork under real conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jacques; Marchand, Geneviève; Cloutier, Yves; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2011-08-01

    Dust accumulation in the components of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is a potential source of contaminants. To date, very little information is available on recognized methods for assessing dust buildup in these systems. The few existing methods are either objective in nature, involving numerical values, or subjective in nature, based on experts' judgments. An earlier project aimed at assessing different methods of sampling dust in ducts was carried out in the laboratories of the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST). This laboratory study showed that all the sampling methods were practicable, provided that a specific surface-dust cleaning initiation criterion was used for each method. However, these conclusions were reached on the basis of ideal conditions in a laboratory using a reference dust. The objective of this present study was to validate these laboratory results in the field. To this end, the laboratory sampling templates were replicated in real ducts and the three sampling methods (the IRSST method, the method of the U.S. organization National Air Duct Cleaner Association [NADCA] and that of the French organization Association pour la Prévention et l'Étude de la Contamination [ASPEC]) were used simultaneously in a statistically representative number of systems. The air return and supply ducts were also compared. Cleaning initiation criteria under real conditions were found to be 6.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the IRSST method, 2.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the NADCA method, and 23 mg/100 cm(2) using the ASPEC method. In the laboratory study, the criteria using the same methods were 6.0 for the IRSST method, 2.0 for the NADCA method, and 3.0 for the ASPEC method. The laboratory criteria for the IRSST and NADCA methods were therefore validated in the field. The ASPEC criterion was the only one to change. The ASPEC method therefore allows for the most accurate evaluation of dust accumulation in HVAC

  17. Controlling the clean room atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meeks, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    Several types of clean rooms are commonly in use. They include the conventional clean room, the horizontal laminar flow clean room, the vertical laminar flow clean room and a fourth type that incorporates ideas from the previous types and is known as a clean air bench or hood. These clean rooms are briefly described. The origin of contamination and methods for controlling the contamination are discussed

  18. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part...

  19. Economic and environmental aspects on energy alternatives for a clean air -- wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calanter, P.; Serban, O. [Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies (Romania). Doctoral School; Dragomir, A. [SC CEPSTRA GRUP SRL, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    Fossil fuels combustion in the energy sector is a major contribution to the generation of greenhouse gases emission (GHG) -- mainly carbon dioxide. Emissions reduction represents an important means to protect the environment and to improve the health status of the population -- the major requirement in the context of a sustainble development strategy -- knowing the association of the greenhouse effect with climate change. Fossil fuels are limited and expensive resources. According to the Romanian National Agency for Mineral Resources (2009), under the current extraction level the national oil and gas resources are industrial exploitable for 15 years, while coal would be available for about 30 years. At present, the alternative of renewable energy -- solar, wind, geothermal, hydro, and biomass -- is becoming more and more attractive at the global scale. The use of renewable energy offers a clean alternative for energy production, which allows considerable reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases, contributing to climate change mitigation efforts, and also savings of fossil fuels limited resources. Wind energy represents an increasingly more attractive alternative in Romania. Regulations concern not only investment and operation of installations, but also energy recovery and environmental protection. Even though the use of the entire national wind energy potential could determine a significant GHG emissions reduction, the technology, infrastructure and environmental restrictions limits wind energy valorization. Wind farms development, sustained by landscape, wind speed distribution and investors financial promotion, competes with the prudence imposed by the potential environmental impact (biodiversity, microclimate, etc), and the lack of historical data and information structuring. Adequate organization and dissemination of relevant information might be valuable for investors and sustainable development strategies. To estimate the GHG emissions reduction in Romania

  20. Compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments: Challenge of the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odegard, G.J.; Van, H.

    1993-01-01

    With its 17,593 miles of pipeline, El Paso Natural Gas Company is one of the country's largest interstate natural gas transmission companies. To keep the gas continually moving through the pipeline, it is compressed back to high pressures at 73 stations comprising 1,210,120 horsepower located along the pipeline route. These compressor stations, which operate 24 hours a day every day, house 316 reciprocating engines and 92 gas turbines. As fuel, these engines and turbines burn natural gas. Natural gas combustion releases emissions of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide with small amounts of particulates, sulfur dioxide and volatile organic compounds. This presentation will describe how one large energy company plans to comply with these new requirements over the next several years. El Paso has developed an extensive Air Program designed to obtain all needed operating permits by the November 1995 deadline. Work is underway to quantify and document emissions at every operating facility. Emissions tests will measure NOx, CO, oxygen, CO 2 , water, stack temperature, stack velocity and fuel flow rate. Data generated by the Emissions Inventory System will be used not only for permit applications, but to develop alternative emission reduction strategies at facilities located in nonattainment areas. Dispersion modeling will be performed to analyze compliance with PSD increments and National Ambient Air Quality Standards

  1. Clean air benefits and costs in the GVRD [Greater Vancouver Regional District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gislason, G.; Martin, J.; Williams, D.; Caton, B.; Rich, J.; Rojak, S.; Robinson, J.; Stuermer, A. von

    1994-01-01

    Air pollution is a major concern in the Greater Vancouver Regional District in British Columbia. An analysis was conducted to assess the costs and benefits of an innovative plan to reduce the emissions of five primary pollutants in the GVRD: nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), particulates, and CO. The study adopts a damage function approach in which the benefits of reduced emissions are given by the averted damages to human health, crops, and so on. Under a base case scenario, motor vehicle emission controls and additional measures proposed in the region's air quality management plan (AQMP) are projected to lead to emission reductions of 873,000 tonnes in the GVRD by the year 2020, compared to the emission level projected without intervention. The AQMP is projected to avert over its life some 2,800 premature deaths, 33,000 emergency room visits, 13 million restricted activity days, and 5 million symptoms. Crop losses due to ozone are projected to decrease by 1-4%/y over the next several decades due to the AQMP. Damage averted to materials and property per tonne of pollutant reduced ranges from $30 for VOC to $180 for particulates. Under base-case conservative assumptions, the AQMP generates $5.4 billion in benefits and $3.8 billion in costs, nearly 2/3 of which are paid by the industrial and commercial sectors. 1 tab

  2. Measurements of free radicals in a megacity during the Clean Air for London Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Dwayne; Whalley, Lisa; Stone, Daniel; Clancy, Noel; Lee, James; Kleffman, Jorg; Laufs, Sebastian; Bandy, Brian

    2013-04-01

    Free radicals control the photo-oxidative chemistry of the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3, multifunctional species and particulates. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2 and RO2 radicals and OH reactivity recorded at North Kensington, Central London, during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) of the Clear Air for London (Clearflo) project in the summer and winter of 2012. OH and HO2 were measured using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy at low pressure (the FAGE technique), and RO2 was measured using the recently developed ROXLIF technique, which utilises an external flow-reactor interfaced to FAGE, and which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals. Through control of reagent gases we are further able to provide a separate measurement of those RO2 species which are known to give an interference for HO2 measurements (namely alkene, aromatic and large-chain alkane derived RO2). OH reactivity was measured using laser-flash photolysis combined with FAGE. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the winter IOP, with mixing ratios of [OH] ~ 0.04 pptv, [HO2] ~ 0.4 pptv, and [RO2] ~ 1.6 pptv at noon, all displaying a negative correlation with NO. The photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O vapour was only a minor contribution to radical production in winter, with photolysis of HONO a major radical source. The summer IOP coincided with the London Olympic Games, with a number of pollution events, with ozone peaking at 100 ppbv (exceeding EU air quality directives) and elevated radical concentrations (peak [OH] ~ 0.14 pptv, [HO2] ~ 4 pptv, [RO2] ~ 6.4 pptv) being observed. The net rate of ozone production was calculated from radical observations and agreed well with measured ozone production, suggesting that advection/dilution by continental air-masses was not playing a significant role in determining ozone

  3. More than clean air and tranquillity: Residential green is independently associated with decreasing mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; de Hoogh, Kees; Faeh, David; Kaufmann, Marco; Wunderli, Jean Marc; Röösli, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Green space may improve health by enabling physical activity and recovery from stress or by decreased pollution levels. We investigated the association between residential green (greenness or green space) and mortality in adults using the Swiss National Cohort (SNC) by mutually considering air pollution and transportation noise exposure. To reflect residential green at the address level, two different metrics were derived: normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) for greenness, and high resolution land use classification data to identify green spaces (LU-green). We used stratified Cox proportional hazard models (stratified by sex) to study the association between exposure and all natural cause mortality, respiratory and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including ischemic heart disease, stroke and hypertension related mortality. Models were adjusted for civil status, job position, education, neighbourhood socio-economic position (SEP), geographic region, area type, altitude, air pollution (PM 10 ), and transportation noise. From the nation-wide SNC, 4.2 million adults were included providing 7.8years of follow-up and respectively 363,553, 85,314 and 232,322 natural cause, respiratory and CVD deaths. Hazard ratios (and 95%-confidence intervals) for NDVI [and LU-green] per interquartile range within 500m of residence were highly comparable: 0.94 (0.93-0.95) [0.94 (0.93-0.95)] for natural causes; 0.92 (0.91-0.94) [0.92 (0.90-0.95)] for respiratory; and 0.95 (0.94-0.96) [0.96 (0.95-0.98)] for CVD mortality. Protective effects were stronger in younger individuals and in women and, for most outcomes, in urban (vs. rural) and in the highest (vs. lowest) SEP quartile. Estimates remained virtually unchanged after incremental adjustment for air pollution and transportation noise, and mediation by these environmental factors was found to be small. We found consistent evidence that residential green reduced the risk of mortality independently from other environmental

  4. Cleaning the Air and Improving Health with Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, M. Z.; Colella, W. G.; Golden, D. M.

    2005-06-01

    Converting all U.S. onroad vehicles to hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles (HFCVs) may improve air quality, health, and climate significantly, whether the hydrogen is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, wind electrolysis, or coal gasification. Most benefits would result from eliminating current vehicle exhaust. Wind and natural gas HFCVs offer the greatest potential health benefits and could save 3700 to 6400 U.S. lives annually. Wind HFCVs should benefit climate most. An all-HFCV fleet would hardly affect tropospheric water vapor concentrations. Conversion to coal HFCVs may improve health but would damage climate more than fossil/electric hybrids. The real cost of hydrogen from wind electrolysis may be below that of U.S. gasoline.

  5. Photocatalytic equipment with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide for air cleaning and disinfecting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Thanh Son; Ngo, Quoc Buu; Nguyen, Viet Dung; Nguyen, Hoai Chau; Dao, Trong Hien; Tran, Xuan Tin; Kabachkov, E N; Balikhin, I L

    2014-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO 2 nanoparticle photocatalysts were synthesized by a sol–gel procedure using tetra-n-butyl orthotitanate as a titanium precursor and urea as a nitrogen source. Systematic studies for the preparation parameters and their impact on the material's structure were carried out by multiple techniques: thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry showed that the nitrogen-doped TiO 2 calcined at 500 °C for 3 h exhibited a spherical form with a particle size about 15–20 nm and crystal phase presented a mixture of 89.12% anatase. The obtained product was deposited on a porous quartz tube (D = 74 mm; l = 418 mm) to manufacture an air photocatalytic cleaner as a prototype of the TIOKRAFT company's equipment. The created air cleaner was able to remove 60% of 10 ppm acetone within 390 min and degrade 98.5% of bacteria (total aerobic bacteria and fungi, 300 cfu m −3 ) within 120 min in a 10 m 3 box. These photodegradation activities of N-TiO 2 are higher than that of the commercial nano-TiO 2 (Skyspring Inc., USA, particle size of 5–10 nm). (paper)

  6. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part I: Theoretical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éric Dumont

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study demonstrated that a laboratory-scale recirculation closed-loop reactor can be an efficient technique for the determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR of PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO air purification devices. The recirculation closed-loop reactor was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: one is a perfectly mixed reservoir and the other is a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device itself. Based on the assumption that the ratio between the residence time in the PCO device and the residence time in the reservoir τP/τR tends to 0, the model highlights that a lab closed-loop reactor can be a suitable technique for the determination of the efficiency of PCO devices. Moreover, if the single-pass removal efficiency is lower than 5% of the treated flow rate, the decrease in the pollutant concentration over time can be characterized by a first-order decay model in which the time constant is proportional to the CADR. The limits of the model are examined and reported in terms of operating conditions (experiment duration, ratio of residence times, and flow rate ranges.

  7. Indoor air quality in hospitality venues before and after implementation of a clean indoor air law--Western New York, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-12

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) contains more than 50 carcinogens. SHS exposure is responsible for an estimated 3,000 lung cancer deaths and more than 35,000 coronary heart disease deaths among never smokers in the United States each year, and for lower respiratory infections, asthma, sudden infant death syndrome, and chronic ear infections among children. Even short-term exposures to SHS, such as those that might be experienced by a patron in a restaurant or bar that allows smoking, can increase the risk of experiencing an acute cardiovascular event. Although population-based data indicate declining SHS exposure in the United States over time, SHS exposure remains a common but preventable public health hazard. Policies requiring smoke-free environments are the most effective method of reducing SHS exposure. Effective July 24, 2003, New York implemented a comprehensive state law requiring almost all indoor workplaces and public places (e.g., restaurants, bars, and other hospitality venues) to be smoke-free. This report describes an assessment of changes in indoor air quality that occurred in 20 hospitality venues in western New York where smoking or indirect SHS exposure from an adjoining room was observed at baseline. The findings indicate that, on average, levels of respirable suspended particles (RSPs), an accepted marker for SHS levels, decreased 84% in these venues after the law took effect. Comprehensive clean indoor air policies can rapidly and effectively reduce SHS exposure in hospitality venues.

  8. Clearing the air : with 87 recommendations now implemented for reducing sulphur emissions from conventional facilities, clean air strategists in Alberta are setting their sights on the oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collison, M.

    2008-11-15

    Clean air strategists in Alberta are now preparing to implement recommendations for reducing sulfur emissions in oil sands facilities. The oil and gas industry in Alberta has made significant reductions in emissions over the last few decades. Sulfur emissions at acid gas flaring plants have decreased by 73 per cent, and emissions from sulfur recovery plants have decreased by 40 per cent. Complaints about emissions have also dropped as industry regulations and practices have been refined and improved. The impacts of sour gas on human and animal health have not been proven despite the fact that many Alberta residents claim that the emissions have harmed their health. An independent public safety sour gas advisory committee was formed in the province in 1999 in order to identify and communicate with major stakeholder groups in the province. Recommendations made by the committee after consultation with public stakeholders included more direct involvement with disputes over sour gas. In 2007, the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) toughened sour gas regulations and assisted in researching the health effects of sour gas exposure. Regulations for the inspection and testing of sour gas pipelines were also implemented. It was concluded that maintaining and improving air quality in Alberta will require comprehensive strategies that involve governments, industry, and individual stakeholders. 2 figs.

  9. Can environmental investment and expenditure enhance financial performance of US electric utility firms under the clean air act amendment of 1990?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Department of Management, 801 Leroy Place, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States); National Cheng Kung University, College of Business, Department of Industrial and Information Management, Tainan (China); Goto, Mika [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, 2-11-1, Iwado Kita, Komae-shi, Tokyo, 201-8511 (Japan)

    2009-11-15

    This study investigates the causality from environmental investment (as a long-term effort) and expenditure (as a short-term effort) to financial performance in the US electric utility industry. The industry is one of the large air polluters in the United States. This empirical study finds that the environmental expenditure under the US Clean Air Act has had a negative impact from 1989 to 2001. The negative impact has become much effective after the implementation of the Title IV Program (1995) of the US Clean Air Act. This study cannot find the influence of environmental investment on financial performance by a statistical test although it indicates a positive impact. In the United States, fossil-fueled power plants such as coal-fired ones still produce a large portion of electricity. The generation structure is inconsistent with the betterment in the US environmental protection and imposes a financial burden to electric utility firms. (author)

  10. Can environmental investment and expenditure enhance financial performance of US electric utility firms under the clean air act amendment of 1990?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the causality from environmental investment (as a long-term effort) and expenditure (as a short-term effort) to financial performance in the US electric utility industry. The industry is one of the large air polluters in the United States. This empirical study finds that the environmental expenditure under the US Clean Air Act has had a negative impact from 1989 to 2001. The negative impact has become much effective after the implementation of the Title IV Program (1995) of the US Clean Air Act. This study cannot find the influence of environmental investment on financial performance by a statistical test although it indicates a positive impact. In the United States, fossil-fueled power plants such as coal-fired ones still produce a large portion of electricity. The generation structure is inconsistent with the betterment in the US environmental protection and imposes a financial burden to electric utility firms.

  11. Clean air plans and action plans: perspectives from the viewpoint of environmental and public health; Luftreinhalteplaene und Aktionsplaene - eine Bewertung aus umweltmedizinischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmann, T.; Herr, C. [Inst. fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen, Giessen (Germany); [Technische Univ. Dreden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten; Koeckler, H. [Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), Univ. Kassel (Germany); [Mentec GmbH, Aue/Sa. (Germany); Nieden, A. zur [Inst. fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen, Giessen (Germany); FG Stadtklimatologie, Univ. Kassel (Germany); Katzschner, L. [FG Stadtklimatologie, Univ. Kassel (Germany); [INTECUS Dresden GmbH (Germany); Schimmelpfennig, M. [Gesundheitsamt der Stadt Kassel (Germany); Eikmann, S. [GUK - Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttoxikologie und Krankenhaushygiene mbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The present discussion on the health effects associated with airborne fine particulate matter has lead to an increased public interest in the general framework of compilation and evaluation of clean air plans and actions plans. While the surveys of the ''old'' clean air plans of the 80ies and 90ies of the last century relied on assessment of direct and indirect effects of air pollution on human health (and ecology), theses surveys are not part of the ''new'' clean air plans according to European law. This reduction of surveys and actions directed at threshold compliance only, abandons assessing, i.e., documentation and evaluation the health status and quality of life of populations. Assessment of individual and focus group specific sensibility and vulnerability becomes possible once health related, sociodemographic and environmental data are combined. By this, unequal life chance, i.e., unimpaired health as well as reasonable strategies towards minimizing environmental injustice can be identified. As of yet it is unclear, to what extend quality of life and quality of environment of populations living in air polluted areas are attributable to socioeconomic factors. Likewise, it is not known to which degree the environmental quality of individuals and families is self determined. This has to be considered especially for children, immigrants and women. These issues i.e., environmental justice/injustice should be considered in future projects on the development of clean air plans and especially actions plans derived thereof. Scientists, government officials and physicians working in field of preventive or environmental medicine cannot agree to a limitation of the cautionary principle to the bare compliance with thresholds. (orig.)

  12. Air pollution-related health and climate benefits of clean cookstove programs in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Irfan, Ans; Kinney, Patrick; Kleiman, Gary; Pillarisetti, Ajay

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 95% of households in Mozambique burn solid fuels for cooking, contributing to elevated indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and subsequent health and climate impacts. Little is known about the potential health and climate benefits of various approaches for expanding the use of cleaner stoves and fuels in Mozambique. We use state-of-the-science methods to provide a first-order estimation of potential air pollution-related health and climate benefits of four illustrative scenarios in which traditional cooking fires and stoves are displaced by cleaner and more efficient technologies. For rural areas, we find that a 10% increase in the number of households using forced draft wood-burning stoves could achieve >2.5 times more health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure (200 avoided premature deaths and 14 000 avoided disability adjusted life years, DALYs, over a three-year project lifetime) compared to natural draft stoves in the same households, assuming 70% of households use the new technology for both cases. Expanding use of LPG stoves to 10% of households in five major cities is estimated to avoid 160 premature deaths and 11 000 DALYs from reduced PM2.5 exposure for a three-year intervention, assuming 60% of households use the new stove. Advanced charcoal stoves would achieve ∽80% of the PM2.5-related health benefits of LPG stoves. Approximately 2%-5% additional health benefits would result from reduced ambient PM2.5, depending on the scenario. Although climate impacts are uncertain, we estimate that all scenarios would reduce expected climate change-related temperature increases from continued solid fuel use by 4%-6% over the next century. All results are based on an assumed adjustment factor of 0.8 to convert from laboratory-based emission reduction measurements to exposure reductions, which could be optimistic in reality given potential for continued use of the traditional stove. We conclude that cleaner cooking stoves

  13. Carbon pricing comes clean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Wit, Elisa

    2011-01-01

    Together with the Clean Energy Bill, the implications of the Australian Federal Government's climate change legislative package are far reaching. Norton Rose gives business a heads-up in this breakdown of the draft legislation underpinning the carbon pricing and clean energy scheme. It is a summary of Norton Rose's full analysis.

  14. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  15. Demonstrating practical application of soil and groundwater clean-up and recovery technologies at natural gas processing facilities: Bioventing, air sparging and wetlands remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, B.

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the project newsletter described the nature of bioventing, air sparging and wetland remediation. It reviewed their effectiveness in remediating hydrocarbon contaminated soil above the groundwater surface. Bioventing was described as an effective, low cost treatment in which air is pumped below ground to stimulate indigenous bacteria. The bacteria then use the oxygen to consume the hydrocarbons, converting them to CO 2 and water. Air sparging involves the injection of air below the groundwater surface. As the air rises, hydrocarbons are stripped from the contaminated soil and water. The advantage of air sparging is that it cleans contaminated soil and water from below the groundwater surface. Hydrocarbon contamination of wetlands was described as fairly common. Conventional remediation methods of excavation, trenching, and bellholes to remove contamination often cause extreme harm to the ecosystem. Recent experimental evidence suggests that wetlands may be capable of attenuating contaminated water through natural processes. Four hydrocarbon contaminated wetlands in Alberta are currently under study. Results to date show that peat's high organic content promotes sorption and biodegradation and that some crude oil spills can been resolved by natural processes. It was suggested that assuming peat is present, a good clean-up approach may be to contain the contaminant source, monitor the lateral and vertical extent of contamination, and wait for natural processes to resolve the problem. 3 figs

  16. Towards the year 2000: Critical issues in the global environment. A summary of the 9th World Clean Air Congress of the International Union of Air Pollution Prevention Associations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, A.B.

    1992-01-01

    The global impact of environmental issues, such as sustainable development, technology transfer North to South and the link between economics and environmental protection, was a central theme at the 9th World Clean Air Congress. The Congress supported increased cooperation among individuals, organizations, governments and companies by providing a forum to share environmental concerns and problem-solving approaches

  17. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Héquet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m3 and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10−3 m3. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm2 and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm−2; (ii air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s−1; and (iii initial toluene concentration C0 (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv. The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m3·h−1, were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I, the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  18. Amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture in air-blown IGCC systems with cold and hot gas clean-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giuffrida, A.; Bonalumi, D.; Lozza, G.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hot fuel gas clean-up is a very favorable technology for IGCC concepts. • IGCC net efficiency reduces to 41.5% when realizing post-combustion CO 2 capture. • Complex IGCC layouts are necessary if exhaust gas recirculation is realized. • IGCC performance does not significantly vary with exhaust gas recirculation. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the thermodynamic performance of air-blown IGCC systems with post-combustion CO 2 capture by chemical absorption. Two IGCC technologies are investigated in order to evaluate two different strategies of coal-derived gas clean-up. After outlining the layouts of two power plants, the first with conventional cold gas clean-up and the second with hot gas clean-up, attention is paid to the CO 2 capture station and to issues related to exhaust gas recirculation in combined cycles. The results highlight that significant improvements in IGCC performance are possible if hot coal-derived gas clean-up is realized before the syngas fuels the combustion turbine, so the energy cost of CO 2 removal in an amine-based post-combustion mode is less strong. In particular, IGCC net efficiency as high as 41.5% is calculated, showing an interesting potential if compared to the one of IGCC systems with pre-combustion CO 2 capture. Thermodynamic effects of exhaust gas recirculation are investigated as well, even though IGCC performance does not significantly vary against a more complicated plant layout

  19. Negative pressure of the environmental air in the cleaning area of the materials and sterilization center: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi-Silva, Caroline Lopes; Hansen, Lisbeth Lima; Almeida, Alda Graciele Claudio Dos Santos; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2016-09-01

    to analyze the scientific evidence on aerosols generated during cleaning activities of health products in the Central Service Department (CSD) and the impact of the negative pressure of the ambient air in the cleaning area to control the dispersion of aerosols to adjacent areas. for this literature systematic review the following searches were done: search guidelines, manuals or national and international technical standards given by experts; search in the portal and databases PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science; and a manual search of scientific articles. the five technical documents reviewed recommend that the CSD cleaning area should have a negative differential ambient air pressure, but scientific articles on the impact of this intervention were not found. The four articles included talked about aerosols formed after the use of a ultrasonic cleaner (an increased in the contamination especially during use) and pressurized water jet (formation of smaller aerosols 5μm). In a study, the aerosols formed from contaminated the hot tap water with Legionella pneumophila were evaluated. there is evidence of aerosol formation during cleanup activities in CSD. Studies on occupational diseases of respiratory origin of workers who work in CSD should be performed. analisar as evidências científicas sobre aerossóis gerados durante atividades de limpeza dos produtos para saúde no Centro de Material e Esterilização (CME) e o impacto da pressão negativa do ar ambiente na área de limpeza para controle da dispersão de aerossóis para áreas adjacentes. para essa revisão sistemática de literatura foram realizadas: busca de diretrizes, manuais ou normas técnicas nacionais e internacionais indicadas por especialistas; busca no portal e bases de dados PUBMED, SCOPUS, Cinahl e Web of Science; e busca manual de artigos científicos. Os cinco documentos técnicos analisados preconizam que na área de limpeza do CME haja diferencial negativo de pressão do ar ambiente

  20. Who is afraid of the big bad ban? An evaluation of the effects of the Spanish clean air law on expenditure at hospitality venues

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia Villar, Jaume; López-Nicolás, Ángel

    2014-01-01

    Background:In January 2011 Spain modified clean air legislation in force since 2006, removing all existing exceptions applicable to hospitality venues. Although this legal reform was backed by all political parties with parliamentary representation, the government's initiative was contested by the tobacco industry and its allies in the hospitality industry. One of the most voiced arguments against the reform was its potentially disruptive effect on the revenue of hospitality venues. This pape...

  1. 40 CFR 49.137 - Rule for air pollution episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rule for air pollution episodes. 49.137 Section 49.137 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE TRIBAL CLEAN AIR ACT AUTHORITY General Federal Implementation Plan Provisions General Rules for Application to Indian Reservations in Epa...

  2. The 1970 Clean Air Act and termination of rainfall suppression in a U.S. urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Jeremy E.

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of reduced atmospheric particulate resulting from the Clean Air Act of 1970 on changes in summer rainfall in the Atlanta, Georgia USA region. In order to determine if rainfall at nine candidate stations in the metropolitan area was influenced by changes in particulate concentrations within the 1948-2009 period, predicted rainfall characteristics were derived from rainfall frequencies at nine reference stations located more than 80 km from downtown Atlanta. Both parametric and non-parametric tests were used to test for significant differences between observed values and predicted values within 34 overlapping 30-year periods. For the country as a whole, emissions of PM10 (i.e. particulates with a diameter less than or equal to 10 μm) decreased by approximately 40% from 1970 to 1975. The reduction in emissions caused a rapid rebound in summer rainfall in the Atlanta region. There was suppression of rainfall over and downwind of the Atlanta urbanized area during 30-yr periods that comprise all or portions of the decades of the 1950s, 1960s, and 1970s. This suppression occurred even while urban-related factors that promote rainfall enhancement were present. During the 1948-1977 suppression period, there was a decrease in rainfall of at least 40 mm at affected locales, which is substantial given that the mean seasonal rainfall was approximately 300 mm. The rainfall suppression involved a decrease of heavy-rainfall days. Atlanta is most likely not a unique case; therefore, particulate-induced rainfall suppression might have occurred over and downwind of other U.S. urban areas prior to the late 1970s.

  3. Waste processing air cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriskovich, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Waste processing and preparing waste to support waste processing relies heavily on ventilation. Ventilation is used at the Hanford Site on the waste storage tanks to provide confinement, cooling, and removal of flammable gases

  4. Clean air for Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Coal power generation produces gases which pollute the environment and cause damage to vegetation and human health. Where alternative sources of energy are not economically viable, the only solution is to ensure that gas emissions are reduced to a minimum. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme with the support of the Department of Research and Isotopes to demonstrate a technology which will show Poland, and possibly other countries, a way to attain European emission standards without the need to compromise industrial growth. (IAEA)

  5. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  6. Air Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  7. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  8. Roadmaps to Transition Countries to 100% Clean, Renewable Energy for All Purposes to Curtail Global Warming, Air Pollution, and Energy Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.

    2017-10-01

    Solving the problems of global warming, air pollution, and energy security requires a massive effort by individuals, communities, businesses, nonprofits, and policy makers around the world. The first step in that process is to have a plan. To that end, roadmaps to transition 139 countries of the world to 100% clean, renewable wind, water, and solar power for all energy purposes (electricity, transportation, heating, cooling, industry, agriculture, forestry, and fishing) by 2050, with 80% by 2030, have been developed. The evolution, characteristics, and impacts to date of these plans are briefly described.

  9. 75 FR 19968 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Objection to State Operating Permit for Public Service Company of Colorado--Hayden Station AGENCY... of Colorado dba Xcel Energy (Xcel)--Hayden Power Station. Pursuant to section 505(b)(2) of the Clean.... Additionally, the final order for Public Service Company of Colorado--Hayden Power Station, is available...

  10. Experimental research on the flow field uniformity in the filter house of a nuclear air cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Feng; Yang Jun; Ye Suisheng

    2000-01-01

    The filter house structure is designed using similarity laws showing that the filter house structure causes a non-uniform flow field. The flow field is also measured experimentally. The air flow field is analyzed for different conditions. The results show that: (1) The HEPA filters affect the dispersion of the air flow; (2) The appropriate angle for air input to the rectifier satisfies the requirements for uniform air flow for the test conditions; (3) The rectifier has little influence on the air flow for operating conditions

  11. EPA scientists develop Federal Reference & Equivalent Methods for measuring key air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA operates a nationwide air monitoring network to measure six primary air pollutants: carbon monoxide, lead, sulfur dioxide, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, and particulate matter as part of its mission to protect human health and the environment.

  12. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and oxides of nitrogen (NO x ) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO 2 take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV

  13. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  14. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  15. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  16. Regionally differentiated air pollution control regulations in the installation-related emission control law of the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buettner, T.W.

    1992-01-01

    The volume treats an issue from the boundary zone between environmental law and environmental economics, namely the regionalization of air pollution control standards in installation-related emission control law. In order to examine the question of whether this proposal, which originates in the field of environmental economics, can be adopted and is purposeful, the author initially performs a complete inventorization of applicable norms, this covering emission control law, the law of regional planning, and the provisions of international law. This status quo is then reviewed using conformity and optimization criteria developed by the political sciences. The assessment comes to the conclusion that the introduction of regionally differentiated air pollution control standards is not desirable. The author further submits proposals for the streamlining of the law of installation-related air pollution control in the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.) [de

  17. A generic model for evaluation of the Federal Aviation Administration air traffic control specialist training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-03-01

    The Systems Analysis Research Unit at the Civil Aeromedical Institute (CAMI) has developed a generic model for Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy training program evaluation. The model will serve as a basis for integrating the total data b...

  18. Health benefits of a reduction of PM10 and NO2 exposure after implementing a clean air plan in the Agglomeration Lausanne-Morges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Alberto; Künzli, Nino; Götschi, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to urban air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on cardio-vascular and respiratory health, both short and long term. Consequently, governments have applied policies to reduce air pollution. Quantitative health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution have been conducted at national and global level, but assessments of observed air pollution changes associated with specific clean air policies at a local or regional scale remain scarce. This study estimates health impacts attributable to a decrease in PM 10 and NO 2 exposure in the Agglomeration of Lausanne-Morges (ALM), Switzerland, between 2005 and 2015, corresponding to the implementation period of a supra-municipal plan of measures to reduce air pollution in different sectors such as transport, energy, and industry (called Plan OPair 05). The health impact assessment compares health effects attributed to air pollution exposure levels in 2015 (reference case) with those in 2005 (counterfactual scenario), using 2015 as baseline for all other input data. In the ALM, the modeled PM 10 exposure reduction of 3.3μg/m 3 from 2005 to 2015 prevents 26 premature deaths (equivalent to around 290 years of life lost), 215 hospitalization days due to cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases as well as approximately 47,000 restricted activity days annually. Monetized health impacts of the reduction of PM 10 exposure are valued at approximately CHF 36 million annually. Immaterial costs, mainly related to the economic valuation of years of life lost, dominate the monetized health impacts (90% of total value), while savings at the workplace (net loss in production and reoccupation costs) amount to about CHF 1.9 million, and savings in health care costs to about CHF 0.5 million. The assessment is sensitive to the value assigned to immaterial costs and to uncertainties in the relative risk estimates, whereas variations in the baseline year (i.e. using 2005 data instead of 2015 data) affect

  19. First report of the Civil Nuclear Power Working Group to the Technical Comittee of the National Society for Clean Air -Summer 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The accident at the Chernobyl reactor in April 1986 had serious consequences, not just for Russia but for many countries in Europe. Following the accident, the National Society for Clean Air formed a Working Group to look at the Society's policy on civil nuclear power. Its finding and recommendations are presented in this first report. The subject was considered under several headings - radioactivity (public education in measurement and dose evaluation), emergency procedures in the event of incidents overseas, radiation monitoring, a national monitoring and information service, plant safety, nuclear materials handling and radioactive waste disposal, energy policy and conservation. Four main recommendations are made on public education, risk assessment and radiation monitoring, radioactive waste disposal and energy policy. (U.K.)

  20. 77 FR 63827 - Request for Nominations of Experts for the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... health-based) air quality standards for oxides of nitrogen (NO X ). DATES: Nominations should be..., medicine, public health, biostatistics and risk assessment. Process and Deadline for Submitting Nominations... later than November 7, 2012. EPA values and welcomes diversity. In an effort to obtain nominations of...

  1. Are we Breathing Clean Air in Metro Manila? (Nuclear and Related Analytical Techniques and Receptor Modeling Revealing the Real Score)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.

    2015-01-01

    Air Particulate matter (APM) is a mixture of different pollutant sources which can be of anthropogenic and/or natural origin, of which the size of great concern with regard to adverse effects on human health are generally less than 10μm (Referred to as PM10). Identification and apportionment of pollutant sources is important to be able to have better understanding of prevailing conditions in the area and thus better air quality management can be applied. APM (PM10) at sampling sites in Metro Manila (Philippines) has been monitored since 1998 for the primary purpose of source identification and source apportionment. APM samples (fractionated into coarse (PM2.5-10) and fine (PM2.5) fractions) were collected using a Gent air sampler. Particulate mass was determined by gravimetry and black carbon by reflectometry organic carbon/elemental carbon by thermal optical reflectance. Elemental concentrations were determined using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as the particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) spectrometry and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry. Source apportionment of fine air particles was done using PMF2. Result show PM10 levels to be in compliance to the Philippine 1-year guideline value of 60 μg m“-“3 but in exceedance of the US EPA 1-year standard of 15 μg m“-“3 and the WHO 1-year guideline value of 10 μg m“-“3. Annual mean % Fine BC levels range from 33% to 59%, but individual points can reach up to more than 80% of the PM2.5 levels. Pb level in the fine fraction exhibit decreasing trend coinciding with the introduction of unleaded-gasoline starting in 1998 and the eventual phase-out of the use of leaded-gasoline in 2001. Six air pollution sources have been identified in the fine fraction with vehicular emissions making up the bulk at about 50%. Other sources are smoke, secondary S, fine soil and industry. Addressing problems regarding traffic-related activities can greatly reduce the fine particulate pollution problems

  2. 75 FR 22559 - Federal Advisory Committee; Air University Board of Visitors; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... Visitors; Charter Renewal AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION: Renewal of Federal advisory... the university; and c. Review and evaluate the educational effectiveness, quality of student learning... members, with the exception of travel and per diem for official travel, shall serve without compensation...

  3. Current Situations and Suggestions for Air--Conditioning Cleaning Industrv in China%空调清洗行业现状分析及发展对策探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白艳中; 郑晨潇

    2012-01-01

    指出了空调运行与管理的不当可能造成室内空气的二次污染,探讨了空调系统可能产生的污染物,借鉴国外成熟空调清洗业的发展经验,分析了我国空调清洗存在的一些问题,针对我国空调清洗业的发展提出了相应的对策。%Air--conditioner has played an increasingly important role in daily life with the improvement of people's living standards. Improper operation and management of air--conditioning system could cause secondary pollution of indoor air. Reference to the mature experience of foreign air--conditoning cleaning industry, this paper analyses the pollutants which may be generated in the air--conditioning system, points out some problems of China's air--conditioning cleaning industry, and finally puts forward some suggests for the development of air--conditioning cleaning industry in China.

  4. 75 FR 63471 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... provides advice, information and recommendations on the scientific and technical aspects of air quality... charge questions, AAMMS is drafting a report to be reviewed by the chartered CASAC on November 9, 2010.../SABPRODUCT.NSF/81e39f4c09954fcb85256ead006be86e/0fc13c821ee6181a85257473005ae1ec!OpenDocument . Technical...

  5. Clean coal technologies: A business report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The book contains four sections as follows: (1) Industry trends: US energy supply and demand; The clean coal industry; Opportunities in clean coal technologies; International market for clean coal technologies; and Clean Coal Technology Program, US Energy Department; (2) Environmental policy: Clean Air Act; Midwestern states' coal policy; European Community policy; and R ampersand D in the United Kingdom; (3) Clean coal technologies: Pre-combustion technologies; Combustion technologies; and Post-combustion technologies; (4) Clean coal companies. Separate abstracts have been prepared for several sections or subsections for inclusion on the data base

  6. Testing the efficacy and the potential effect on indoor air quality of a transparent self-cleaning TiO{sub 2}-coated glass through the degradation of a fluoranthene layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeas, V.; Pichat, P.; Guillard, C.; Chopin, T.; Lehaut, C.

    1999-10-01

    Self-cleaning glass can be obtained by coating glass with a transparent, thin layer of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. To test the self-cleaning properties, fluoranthene--the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the atmospheric particulate matter--was sprayed over the glass. Under solar-like UV light, not only was fluoranthene removed at a rate of ca. 0.73 nmol/h per cm{sup 2} of glass but also all fluoranthene degradation products were, and thus the coated-glass transparency was recovered, which did not occur with noncoated glass. The fluoranthene percentage converted to volatile carbonyl products released into ambient air was lower with than without TiO{sub 2} coating; i.e., the self-cleaning glass could have a positive influence on indoor air quality. Mechanisms are discussed to account for the main primary products among the 40 fluoranthene photocatalytic degradation intermediate products which the authors identified.

  7. Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Prenni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Bakken formation contains billions of barrels of oil and gas trapped in rock and shale. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing methods have allowed for extraction of these resources, leading to exponential growth of oil production in the region over the past decade. Along with this development has come an increase in associated emissions to the atmosphere. Concern about potential impacts of these emissions on federal lands in the region prompted the National Park Service to sponsor the Bakken Air Quality Study over two winters in 2013–2014. Here we provide an overview of the study and present some initial results aimed at better understanding the impact of local oil and gas emissions on regional air quality. Data from the study, along with long-term monitoring data, suggest that while power plants are still an important emissions source in the region, emissions from oil and gas activities are impacting ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides and black carbon and may dominate recent observed trends in pollutant concentrations at some of the study sites. Measurements of volatile organic compounds also definitively show that oil and gas emissions were present in almost every air mass sampled over a period of more than 4 months.

  8. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  9. Design, build, and test an air-cleaning system for working-level control in uranium mines. Open file report October 1979-April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, W.E.; Muldoon, T.L.; Babbitt, C.

    1984-06-01

    The health hazard from 222 radon byproducts, radon daughters, will be increasingly difficult to control by dilution with primary ventilation as the uranium industry digs farther and deeper for ore of diminishing grade. One solution is removal of daughters from air at the work place by filtering out respirable-size dust particles to which most daughters attach. This report describes design and testing of a filtration unit that reduces the working level in ventilating air 95% on an airflow of 10,000 cfm. Buildup of dust on the filter is controlled by periodic back-pulsing, so that the unit can operate for an extended period without changing elements. The effectiveness of the self-cleaning action was satisfactory under a contaminant loading that was 43% diesel smoke. Back-pulsing was able to control filter loading or buildup to a degree even under 100% diesel. The report describes testing of the filter medium and filter unit in both an experimental and an active mine and concludes with an analysis of the prototype design

  10. Removal of NO2 and O3 generated from corona discharge in indoor air cleaning with MnO2 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, H; Yu, R; Zhu, Y M; Mi, D

    2013-01-01

    The production rules and removal efficiency of harmful byproducts such as NO 2 and O 3 generated from DC corona discharge in indoor air cleaning were investigated. The production behaviours of NO 2 and O 3 and the relationship between the amount of catalyst (MnO 2 ) and the removal rate of harmful byproducts were experimentally studied. Further, indoor application tests were carried out in a closed room with 90 m 3 . The results showed that the concentrations of NO 2 and O 3 produced by corona discharge linearly increased with discharge time. The NO 2 yield is larger than O 3 by almost one order of magnitude under the same discharge power. To satisfy the demand of Standard of Indoor Air Quality (GB/T18883-2002), the power consumption of unit volume should be less than 1 W m −3 and the catalyst MnO 2 consumptions in positive-negative corona discharge were 200 cm 3 W −1 and 100 cm 3 W −1 , respectively.

  11. Clean air school buildings and governmental subsidy. Project ventiLation; Frisse scholen dankzij regeringssubsidie. Project VentiLeren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luigjes, B.; De Wit, J.W. [Rucon Ventilatoren, Harderwijk (Netherlands)

    2010-03-15

    The Dutch government has provided local authorities with 100 million euros to address the polluted air in class rooms of primary schools. However, this amount is not sufficient to solve the problem entirely. This problem has been solved by linking the implementation to a project dedicated to combating youth unemployment, named 'VentiLeren'. [Dutch] De Nederlandse overheid heeft 100 miljoen euro beschikbaar gesteld aan gemeenten om de vervuilde lucht in de lokalen van basisscholen aan te pakken. Dit bedrag is echter ontoereikend om het hele probleem op te lossen. Door de uitvoering ervan te koppelen aan een project ter bestrijding van jeugdwerkloosheid, ventiLeren genaamd, wordt dit opgelost.

  12. Overview of Clean Air Title V Financial Management and Reporting: A Handbook for Financial Officers and Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  13. Policy Decisions With Regard To The Applicability Of The Clean Air Act Requirements To The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Graphene packed needle trap device as a novel field sampler for determination of perchloroethylene in the air of dry cleaning establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Mahmoud; Bahrami, Abdolrahman; Ghiasvand, Ali Reza; Emam, Maryam Rafiei; Shahna, Farshid Ghorbani; Soltanian, Ali Reza

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe the application of a needle trap microextraction device packed with graphene nanoplatelets for the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene in dry cleaning. The study was carried out in two phases. First the parameters for the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene by NTD were evaluated and optimized in the laboratory. Then the sampler was used to determine the levels of perchloroethylene in a dry-cleaning shop. In the laboratory phase of the study the performance of the NTD packed with the proposed sorbent was examined in a variety of sampling conditions to evaluate the technique. The technique was also compared with NTDs packed with PDMS as well as SPME with Carboxen/PDMS-coated fibers. Both the NTDs and SPME performed better at lower sampling temperatures and relative humidity levels. The post-sampling storage times for a 95% recovery of the analyte were 5, 5 and 3 days for NTD-graphene, NTD-PDMS and SPME-CAR/PDMS respectively. The optimum desorption time was 3 min for NTDs packed with either graphene or PDMS and 1 min for SPME-CAR/PDMS. The limits of detection for the GC/MS detection system were 0.023 and 0.25 ng mL(-1) for NTDs packed with graphene and PDMS and 0.014 ng mL(-1) for SPME coated with CAR/PDMS. In the second stage of the study the evaluated technique was applied to the sampling and analysis of perchloroethylene in dry cleaning. In this environment the performance of the NTD-graphene as a field sampler for PCE was similar to that of the SPME-CA/PDMS, and better than the NIOSH 1003 method which had greater measurement variations. The results show that a NTD packed with carbonic graphene nanoplatelets and used as an active exhaustive sampling technique is effective for determination of VOC and HVOC occupational/environmental pollutants in air. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Dominique-Janine extension, McClean Lake project, and midwest joint venture: report of the joint Federal-Provincial panel on uranium mining developments in Northern Saskatchewan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-10-01

    A report of the joint federal-provincial panel on uranium mining developments in northern Saskatchewan. The review of the projects have taken into consideration the impact upon the peoples living in northern Saskatchewan. Benefits will be seen in the form of employment, business opportunities and royalties while causing only a small incremental increase to existing environmental and health risks.

  16. Dominique-Janine extension, McClean Lake project, and midwest joint venture: report of the joint Federal-Provincial panel on uranium mining developments in Northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    A report of the joint federal-provincial panel on uranium mining developments in northern Saskatchewan. The review of the projects have taken into consideration the impact upon the peoples living in northern Saskatchewan. Benefits will be seen in the form of employment, business opportunities and royalties while causing only a small incremental increase to existing environmental and health risks

  17. Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

    2010-05-01

    The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA

  18. Refining's-clean new jingle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that at a time when profit margins are slim and gasoline demand is down, the U.S. petroleum-refining industry is facing one of its greatest challenges; How to meet new federal and state laws for reformulated gasoline, oxygenated fuels, low-sulfur diesel and other measures to improve the environment. The American Petroleum Institute (API) estimates that industry will spend between $15 and $23 billion by the end of the decade to meet the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990, and other legislation. ENSR Consulting and Engineering's capital-spending figure runs to between $70 and 100 billion this decade, including $24 billion to produce reformulated fuels and $10-12 billion to reduce refinery emissions. M.W. Kellogg Co. estimates that refiners may have to spend up to $30 billion this decade to meet the demand for reformulated gasoline. The estimates are wide-ranging because refiners are still studying their options and delaying final decisions as long as they can, to try to ensure they are the best and least-costly decisions. Oxygenated fuels will be required next winter, but federal regulations for reformulated gasoline won't go into effect until 1995, while California's tougher reformulated-fuels law will kick in the following year

  19. DataFed: A Federated Data System for Visualization and Analysis of Spatio-Temporal Air Quality Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husar, R. B.; Hoijarvi, K.

    2017-12-01

    DataFed is a distributed web-services-based computing environment for accessing, processing, and visualizing atmospheric data in support of air quality science and management. The flexible, adaptive environment facilitates the access and flow of atmospheric data from provider to users by enabling the creation of user-driven data processing/visualization applications. DataFed `wrapper' components, non-intrusively wrap heterogeneous, distributed datasets for access by standards-based GIS web services. The mediator components (also web services) map the heterogeneous data into a spatio-temporal data model. Chained web services provide homogeneous data views (e.g., geospatial, time views) using a global multi-dimensional data model. In addition to data access and rendering, the data processing component services can be programmed for filtering, aggregation, and fusion of multidimensional data. A complete application software is written in a custom made data flow language. Currently, the federated data pool consists of over 50 datasets originating from globally distributed data providers delivering surface-based air quality measurements, satellite observations, emissions data as well as regional and global-scale air quality models. The web browser-based user interface allows point and click navigation and browsing the XYZT multi-dimensional data space. The key applications of DataFed are for exploring spatial pattern of pollutants, seasonal, weekly, diurnal cycles and frequency distributions for exploratory air quality research. Since 2008, DataFed has been used to support EPA in the implementation of the Exceptional Event Rule. The data system is also used at universities in the US, Europe and Asia.

  20. Air Pollution Studies in the Republic of Udmurtia, Russian Federation, using Moss Biomonitoring and INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankratova, Yu. S.; Frontasyeva, M. V.; Pavlov, S. S.; Berdnikov, A. A.

    2007-01-01

    The concentrations of 36 elements were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in 79 moss samples, collected in the southern part of the Republic of Udmurtia, Russian Federation, in the period 2005-2006. A factor analysis was applied to determine possible pollution sources over the territory. The seven resulting factors represent a natural and anthropogenic origin of the elemental deposition in Udmurt moss. Some of the factors are interpreted as being associated with the industry factor (W, Mo, Cr, Zn); chemical weapon destruction (As is the component of lewisite; Na is used for detoxication of lewisite). The results are compared to the data of atmospheric deposition of some regions of Russia and European countries

  1. Clean room actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Toshiro

    1987-06-01

    This report explains on the present status of the clean room actuators including the author's research results. In a clean room, there exists a possibility of dust generation, even when a direct human work is eliminated by the use of robots or automatic machines, from the machines themselves. For this, it is important to develop such clean robots and transfer/positioning mechanism that do not generate dusts, and to develop an actuator and its control technique. Topics described in the report are as follows: 1. Prevention of dust diffusion by means of sealing. 2. Elimination of mechanical contact (Linear induction motor and pneumatic float, linear motor and magnetic attraction float, linear motor and air bearing, and magnetic bearing). 3. Contactless actuator having a positioning mechanism (Use of linear step motor and rotary contactless actuator). (15 figs, 11 refs)

  2. Examination of utility Phase 1 compliance choices and state reactions to Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, K.A.; Elliott, T.J.; Carlson, L.J.; South, D.W.

    1993-11-01

    Title IV (acid rain) of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 is imposing new limitations on the emission of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (N x ) from electric power plants. The act requires utilities to develop compliance plans to reduce these emissions, and indications are that these plans will dramatically alter traditional operating procedures. A key provision of the SO 2 control program deaned in Title IV is the creation of a system of emission allowances, with utilities having the option of complying by adjusting system emissions and allowance holdings. A compilation of SO 2 compliance activities by the 110 utility plants affected by Phase I is summarized in this report. These compliance plans are presented in a tabular form, correlated with age, capacity, and power pool data. A large number of the Phase I units (46%) have chosen to blend or switch to lower sulfur coals. This choice primarily is in response to (1) prices of low-sulfur coal and (2) the need to maintain SO 2 control flexibility because of uncertain future environmental regulations (e.g., air toxics, carbon dioxide) and compliance prices. The report also discusses the responses of state legislatures and public utility commissions to the compliance requirements in Title IV. Most states have taken negligible action regarding the regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance activities. To protect mine employment, states producing high-sulfur coal have enacted regulations encouraging continued use of that coal, but for the most part, this response has had little effect on utility compliance choices

  3. Cleaning air pollutants for newborns in China: a national risk assessment on low birth weight caused by ambient fine particles during 2013-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, T.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, Q.

    2016-12-01

    -based relative risk of PM2.5 on LBW and baseline incidences. In addition, the estimated numbers of PM2.5-associated LBW were also sensitive to choice of reference safety concentrations. Nevertheless, the study indicated that more effectors to clean air pollutants should be considered to protect future newborns in China.

  4. Floatable, Self-Cleaning, and Carbon-Black-Based Superhydrophobic Gauze for the Solar Evaporation Enhancement at the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiming; Chen, Jingwei; Guo, Dawei; Cao, Moyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-06-24

    Efficient solar evaporation plays an indispensable role in nature as well as the industry process. However, the traditional evaporation process depends on the total temperature increase of bulk water. Recently, localized heating at the air-water interface has been demonstrated as a potential strategy for the improvement of solar evaporation. Here, we show that the carbon-black-based superhydrophobic gauze was able to float on the surface of water and selectively heat the surface water under irradiation, resulting in an enhanced evaporation rate. The fabrication process of the superhydrophobic black gauze was low-cost, scalable, and easy-to-prepare. Control experiments were conducted under different light intensities, and the results proved that the floating black gauze achieved an evaporation rate 2-3 times higher than that of the traditional process. A higher temperature of the surface water was observed in the floating gauze group, revealing a main reason for the evaporation enhancement. Furthermore, the self-cleaning ability of the superhydrophobic black gauze enabled a convenient recycling and reusing process toward practical application. The present material may open a new avenue for application of the superhydrophobic substrate and meet extensive requirements in the fields related to solar evaporation.

  5. Who is afraid of smoking bans? An evaluation of the effects of the Spanish clean air law on expenditure at hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villar, Jaume; López-Nicolás, Ángel

    2015-11-01

    In January 2011 Spain modified clean air legislation in force since 2006, removing all existing exceptions applicable to hospitality venues. Although this legal reform was backed by all political parties with parliamentary representation, the government's initiative was contested by the tobacco industry and its allies in the hospitality industry. One of the most voiced arguments against the reform was its potentially disruptive effect on the revenue of hospitality venues. This paper evaluates the impact of this reform on household expenditure at restaurants and bars and cafeterias. We used household expenditure micro-data for years 2006-2012 to estimate models for the probability of observing expenditures and the expected level of expenditure. We applied a before-after analysis with a wide range of controls for confounding factors and a flexible modeling of time effects in order to identify the effects of the reform. Our results suggest that the reform caused a 2% reduction in the proportion of households containing smokers but did not cause reductions in households' expenditures on restaurant services or on bars and cafeteria services.

  6. 75 FR 10690 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ...EPA is finalizing approval of revisions to the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District (SJVAPCD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on December 18, 2009 and concern reduction of animal matter and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from crude oil production, cutback asphalt, and petroleum solvent dry cleaning. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA or the Act).

  7. Air pollution control measures of the electricity industry in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlubek, W.; Kallmeyer, D.

    1989-09-01

    The pollution of air with SO 2 and NO x constitutes a problem which can be regionally delimited and can be solved by a harmonization of pollution control standards at the highest possible level. The growing CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere, however, has possibly a strong impact on the global climate. In this context it has to be borne in mind in particular that it will be impossible to undo environmental damage once it has arisen. Once lasting changes of the world climate have been caused by the increased CO 2 concentration, all the pollution control efforts will not achieve any short-term success but will produce desired effects only with a time-lag of decades at the earliest. All measures by a country to contain CO 2 emissions on a national level are almost ineffective if a reduction of CO 2 emissions is not aimed at by international agreements at the same time. All nations are therefore called upon to help solve the CO 2 problem. National single-handed approaches are equally inappropriate as the oft-heard reference to the just marginal contribution by the respective countries to global CO 2 emissions. In light of their possibilities and the magnitude of the problem, it is precisely the industrial nations that have the duty not only to cut CO 2 emissions in their own countries but also to give the developing countries the assistance required to keep the CO 2 content of the atmosphere from rising further. (author). 9 figs

  8. Cleaning Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpton, James L.

    This curriculum guide provides cleaning services instructional materials for a ninth- and tenth-grade Coordinated Vocational Education and Training: Home and Community Services program. It includes 2 sections and 11 instructional units. Each unit of instruction consists of eight basic components: performance objectives, teacher activities,…

  9. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean Water...

  10. AIR STRIPPING AND OFF-GAS ADSORPTION FOR THE REMOVAL OF MTBE FROM DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methyl-tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) is a synthetic organic chemical, primarily used for oxgenating fuel. The 1990 Federal Clean Air Act Amendments mandated the use of fuel oxgenates in areas where air quality did not meet national standards, which led to widespread use of MTBE in...

  11. Simulating secondary organic aerosol from missing diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound emissions during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ots

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We present high-resolution (5 km  ×  5 km atmospheric chemical transport model (ACTM simulations of the impact of newly estimated traffic-related emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation over the UK for 2012. Our simulations include additional diesel-related intermediate-volatility organic compound (IVOC emissions derived directly from comprehensive field measurements at an urban background site in London during the 2012 Clean Air for London (ClearfLo campaign. Our IVOC emissions are added proportionally to VOC emissions, as opposed to proportionally to primary organic aerosol (POA as has been done by previous ACTM studies seeking to simulate the effects of these missing emissions. Modelled concentrations are evaluated against hourly and daily measurements of organic aerosol (OA components derived from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS measurements also made during the ClearfLo campaign at three sites in the London area. According to the model simulations, diesel-related IVOCs can explain on average  ∼  30 % of the annual SOA in and around London. Furthermore, the 90th percentile of modelled daily SOA concentrations for the whole year is 3.8 µg m−3, constituting a notable addition to total particulate matter. More measurements of these precursors (currently not included in official emissions inventories is recommended. During the period of concurrent measurements, SOA concentrations at the Detling rural background location east of London were greater than at the central London location. The model shows that this was caused by an intense pollution plume with a strong gradient of imported SOA passing over the rural location. This demonstrates the value of modelling for supporting the interpretation of measurements taken at different sites or for short durations.

  12. The effect of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act on food services and drinking places sales and numbers, 1998-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-Qiang; Fisher, Monica A

    2013-11-27

    Philadelphia enacted its Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA) nearly 2 years before the statewide CIAA. In this study, we assessed the economic impact of CIAAs on 4 types of food services and drinking places and addressed the predominant limitation of previous pre-post ban studies, namely the lack of control for confounders and changes in secular trends over time. We analyzed data from Pennsylvania Department of Revenue Quarterly 1998-2011 taxable county-level revenue sales and number of food services and drinking places. Region-specific and type-specific adjusted sales and number of food services and drinking places accounted for consumer spending as a general economic indicator. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series methodology assessed changes in trend and level. Pennsylvania CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales or numbers except for an increase in sales in Philadelphia for limited-service eating places and in the surrounding 4 counties for special food services. Philadelphia CIAA was associated with an increase in adjusted numbers of full-service restaurants in Philadelphia and the rest of the state, special food services in Philadelphia, and drinking places in the rest of the state, and a decrease in the number of special food services in the surrounding counties. Philadelphia CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales except for an increase in special food services in the rest of the state. Overall, CIAAs had no negative business-related impact and, for the most part, suggest a positive impact on restaurant sales and numbers. Our results provide further support for comprehensive CIAA ordinance for restaurants.

  13. Implementation of the Clean Air Act, Title III, Section 112(r) Prevention of Accidental Release Rule requirements at U.S. DOE Oak Ridge Reservation facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, M.P.

    1997-01-01

    Title III, Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) Amendments of 1990 requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to promulgate regulations to prevent accidental releases of regulated substances and to reduce the severity of those releases that do occur. The final EPA rule for Risk Management Programs under Section 112(r)(7) of the CAA, promulgated June 20, 1996, applies to all stationary sources with processes that contain more than a threshold quantity of any of 139 regulated substances listed under 40 CFR 68.130. All affected sources will be required to prepare a risk management plan which must be submitted to EPA and be made available to state and local governments and to the public. This paper will provide details of initiatives underway at US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) Facilities for implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule. The ORR encompasses three DOE Facilities: the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the K-25 Site. The Y-12 Plant manufactures component parts for the national nuclear weapons program; the ORNL is responsible for research and development activities including nuclear engineering, engineering technologies, and the environmental sciences; and the K-25 Site conducts a variety of research and development activities and is the home of a mixed waste incinerator. ORR activities underway and soon to be undertaken toward implementation of the Prevention of Accidental Release Rule include: compilation of inventories of regulated substances at all processes at each of the three ORR Facilities for determination of affected processes and facilities; plans for inventory reduction to levels below threshold quantities, where necessary and feasible; determination of the overlap of processes subject to the OSHA PSM Standard and determination of parallel requirements; preparation of Risk Management Plans and Programs for affected processes and facilities including detailed requirements

  14. Clean air and project financing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, M.J.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines how environmental requirements are challenging the developers ability to secure financing for independent energy projects. The topics addressed in the article include a review of the US Environmental Protection Agency auction rules for acid rain emission allowances, short term and long term market demand, project financing issues, credit value and matching interests

  15. Ventilation cost and air cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodfellow, H. D.

    The components associated with the costs of the purchase of pollution control equipment are discussed. These include the capital cost to purchase the equipment and installation, and the costs incurred to operate the control device on an annual basis. Although the capital costs can represent a significant outlay of money, typically these costs are spread out over the life of the equipment. In general, this amortized cost is combined with the operating cost and is referred to as an 'annualized cost'. The annualized cost is a commonly used indicator to demonstrate the actual year to year cost that the equipment and operation will represent. Values and methods used to estimate costs, typical cost indicators, and sources of computerized costing models are presented. A comparison of the capital cost expenditure required for a model case (a cement kiln operation), using three control device alternatives is made.

  16. The educational policy field origins in Argentina: the case of Buenos Aires and La Plata Federal Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Susana Garcias Franco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents partial results of an ongoing study whose objective is to map the approaches and theoretical trends in the educational policy theoretical field. More specifically, this study characterizes and describes the theoretical trends of the subject Educational Policy contents in the 50s of the last century in the Buenos Aires and La Plata Federal Universities. 46 programs were analyzed in the period 1917-1959, as well as the bibliography and theoretical background linked to the professors who were responsible for the subject. Surveying professors’ biographies, it was observed that in the period prior to the institutionalization of this field, the debate focused on the positivism or anti-positivism theoretical trends. Later on, the theoretical trends that permeated the programs from 1953 to 1954 had more distinct shades of positivism and anti-positivism than those of the beginning of the century, and three axes were observed: the national tradition, the pedagogical progressivism and the Spanish Krausism.

  17. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy

  18. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  19. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  20. 48 CFR 47.303-15 - F.o.b. designated air carrier's terminal, point of exportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... charges up to this point; (3) Provide a clean bill of lading and/or air waybill; (4) Be responsible for... carrier's terminal, point of exportation. 47.303-15 Section 47.303-15 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply...

  1. Should you get your heating ducts cleaned?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation conducted research into duct cleaning during which time several houses were tested for hot air furnace duct performance before and after cleaning. Duct cleaning is a major industry which claims that cleaning of ducts will provide you with better indoor air quality, reduce household molds and allergens, get rid of house dust, result in more airflow and better delivery of warm air and reduce energy costs. This report does not substantiate those claims. Researchers found little or no discernible differences in the concentrations of house airborne particles or in duct airflows due to duct cleaning. This is because ducts are metal passages that cannot create dust. Most household dusts come from outdoors that has been tracked in or blows through windows and other openings. While duct cleaning may be justifiable personally, it does not change the quality of the air you breathe, nor will it significantly affect airflow or heating costs. Some filters effectively clean the air in the ducts but they do not create a dust-free environment because of the above-mentioned dust sources. The only time that duct cleaning may make sense is if you have water in your ducts that can result in mold growth, if you are moving into a newly constructed house to remove drywall dust, if your are having trouble with furnace airflow, or if you see an accumulation of debris in the return air ducts. It was emphasized that broadcast spraying of biocides within the duct system should not be performed.

  2. The development of clean-burning, noncatalytic manufactured fireplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broome, F.H.

    1992-01-01

    Concern for the air quality of this country in general and the Western states in particular has brought sharp focus from regulators on the emissions of Particulate Matter (PM) from all wood-burning appliances. This concern was a driving force which led to the development of a clean-burning fireplace. Many Western areas have begun to limit installation of wood-burning appliances in new construction. Some jurisdictions allow only Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified appliances. Currently no federal test methods or standards exist for fireplaces so the Manufactured Fireplace Industry, through the Hearth Products Association (HPA), set about to develop suitable test methods and standards for manufactured fireplaces

  3. New directions in federal energy management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, M.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel embargo of 1973, followed by the oil disruption of 1979 heightened national security concerns over the availability and price of foreign oil to sustain all sectors of the U.S. economy. As a result of our growing dependence on foreign oil and diminishing resources at home, the Federal government has worked since 1974 to identify and implement a variety of measures to reduce energy consumption in Federal buildings and operations. Federal energy expenditures peaked at almost $14 billion in 1982 but has now been reduced to approximately $10 billion a year. However, much more needs to be done. Since the 1973 oil embargo, a series of legislative initiatives and Presidential authorities established the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) and then expanded it to address a broad range of energy-related issues affecting the Federal sector. Administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, FEMP coordinates the design and implementation of energy-saving programs for Federal buildings and operations. This includes working with other Federal agencies through interagency committees to interpret and implement Federal policy, to provide technical assistance to other Federal agencies, and to collect and report Federal energy consumption data to Congress. In addition, with the passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, concerns over global climate change and a range of man-made and natural pollutants, environmental issues now play a critical role in our nation's energy policy. As a major consumer of energy, the Federal sector can serve as an important model for other sectors of the economy as a result of some of the innovative and cost-effective measures planned or currently underway. My talk today will focus on the Federal government's plans to ensure the energy efficient design and operation of Federal facilities, with an emphasis on life-cycle cost analyses

  4. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  5. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  6. Testing on air cleaning systems: Testing of the components in-place tests; Controle des installations d'epuration de l'air essais de conformite des elements: Tests in situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billard, F; Brion, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    The reliability of air cleaning systems is dependent on testing they are submitted to. Although in-place tests are the most important as they act as final tests upon achieved plants, component tests are necessary too. They allow detection of defective units before they are installed, partition of unit defects from mounting defects and they are more sensitive. For similar reasons, material teats are most useful. The various tests are described, about aerosol filters for one part, iodine trap for the other. The checked features are: materials nature, units sizes, efficiency, air resistance, flammability, humidity resistance, temperature resistance, adsorbent friability, etc... On iodine trapping systems, small check traps, working by-pass with the main trap are periodically subjected to efficiency test. This control allow to cut down the in-place tests frequency, particularly when poisoning from organic vapours is to be feared. (authors) [French] La surete de fonctionnement des installations d'epuratition de l'air esf fonction des controles auxquels ces installations sont soumises. Si les tests in situ sont les plus importants puisqu'ils constituent le controle final de l'installation terminee, les essais de conformite des elements constitutifs sont egalement necessaires. Ils permettent l'elimination d'elements defectueux avant leur mise en place, la discrimination des defauts du montage de ceux de l'element et sont en outre plus sensibles. De meme, le controle des materiaux constitutifs de l'element s'avere fort utile. On decrit les differents controles, d'une part, pour les fittres a aerosols, d'autre part, pour les pieges a iode. Les caracteristiques verifiees sont: nature des materiaux, dimenesions des elements, efficacite, perte de charge, resistance mecanique, inflammabilite, tenue a l'humidite, tenue a la temperature, resistance au detassement des pieges a iode, friabilite du materiau adsorbant, etc... En ce qui concerne les installations de piegeage d

  7. Quality management manual. National EU air quality reference laboratory of the Federal Environmental Agency; Qualitaetsmanagementhandbuch. Nationales EU-Luftqualitaets-Referenzlabor im Umweltbundesamt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    The 'Air' Department of the Federal Environmental Agency initiated a quality management system according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 in order to carry out its tasks as a EU reference laboratory for air pollution monitoring. Harmonisation of measurements is attempted not only in the Federal Republic of Germany but world-wide. This is to be achieved by standardising the activities of reference laboratories on the basis of the DIN EN standards. The quality management system comprises complex organisational, technical and staff-oriented measures to ensure quality-relevant procedures and to control the interdependences between the individual processes. The specifications contained in this report are to ensure that quality requirements are met, and that the QM system will be updated continuously in order to ensure constant improvement.

  8. 49 CFR 230.74 - Time of cleaning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Tenders Brake and Signal Equipment § 230.74 Time of cleaning. All valves in the air brake system, including related dirt collectors and filters, shall be cleaned and tested in accordance with accepted brake...

  9. Rice- and butterfly-wing effect inspired self-cleaning and low drag micro/nanopatterned surfaces in water, oil, and air flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregory D.; Bhushan, Bharat

    2013-12-01

    In search of new solutions to complex challenges, researchers are turning to living nature for inspiration. For example, special surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography techniques. We also present a method of creating such surfaces using a hot embossing procedure for scaled-up manufacturing. Fluid drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag, self-cleaning, and potentially antifouling surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  10. Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

    1996-12-31

    In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

  11. Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

    1995-12-31

    In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

  12. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries. Pathway #1: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass-to-Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars-to-Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the sugars-to-hydrocarbon (HC) biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the sugars-to-HC biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the sugars-to-HC biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  13. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries, Pathway #2: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the fast pyrolysis biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the fast pyrolysis biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the fast pyrolysis biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  14. RESPONSE OF SURFACE WATER CHEMISTRY TO CHANGES IN ACIDIC DEPOSITION: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE UPCOMING DEBATE ON THE FEDERAL CLEAN AIR ACT. (R829095C004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. 78 FR 58460 - Revision of Air Quality Implementation Plan; California; Placer County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ...EPA is finalizing a limited approval and limited disapproval of two permitting rules submitted by California as a revision to the Placer County Air Pollution Control District (PCAPCD) and Feather River Air Quality Management District (FRAQMD) portion of the California State Implementation Plan (SIP). These revisions were proposed in the Federal Register on February 22, 2013 and concern construction and modification of stationary sources of air pollution within each District. We are approving local rules that regulate these emission sources under the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990 (CAA). Final approval of these rules makes the rules federally enforceable and corrects program deficiencies identified in a previous EPA rulemaking (76 FR 44809, July 27, 2011). EPA is also making a technical amendment to the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) to reflect this previous rulemaking, which removed an obsolete provision from the California SIP.

  16. Fossil fuels. Commercializing clean coal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fultz, Keith O.; Sprague, John W.; Kirk, Roy J.; Clark, Marcus R. Jr.; Greene, Richard M.; Buncher, Carole S.; Kleigleng, Robert G.; Imbrogno, Frank W.

    1989-03-01

    , President Bush told the Congress that he plans to propose legislation for a new, more effective Clean Air Act, which will include a plan to reduce, by a specific date, the emissions that cause acid rain. DOE experienced difficulties in negotiating cooperative agreements with round-one project sponsors, which delayed completing agreements for five projects and resulted in the termination of negotiations for three projects. One of the main problems was that project sponsors had difficulty in completing financial and other business arrangements to fund their share of project costs. Negotiations were also delayed because of (1) sponsors' reluctance to agree to repay the federal share of project costs should the technology become commercialized and (2) sponsors' and other project participants' reluctance to release proprietary data to DOE. Further, DOE headquarters review and approval process to ensure negotiation consistency added time to the agreement formalization process. Although DOE made changes for round two of the program, federal repayment requirements and proprietary data rights could continue to cause delays in completing agreements with project sponsors. Seven of the nine funded round-one projects are not progressing as planned because of equipment failure, delays in obtaining equipment, project financing problems, and delays in obtaining permits. DOE said it is too early to tell whether the slippage will affect the timing of the commercial availability of the clean coal technologies. The CCT program can play an important role in reducing emissions from fossil fuel-fired power plants. The new administration has indicated its commitment to full funding of the program. Enactment of legislation that prescribes stringent deadlines and/or reduced levels of emissions to control acid rain could affect the program's potential effectiveness by diverting investment from emerging clean coal technologies into available conventional technologies. On the other hand, enactment of

  17. Compliance with air quality regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, D.V.; Tackett, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    Due to the probable passage of Clean Air Act Amendments in 1990, electric utilities throughout the United States are faced with numerous choices to comply with the new acid rain regulations, expected in 1991. The choice of a compliance plan is not a simple task. Every compliance option will be costly. At Ohio Edison, deliberations are quite naturally influenced by past compliance with air quality regulations. This paper discusses compliance with air quality regulations in the 1970's, clean coal technologies and advanced scrubbers, and compliance with air quality regulations in 1995 - 2000. The choice of a compliance strategy for many utilities will involve serving customer loads through some combination of scrubbers, clean coal technologies, fuel switching, fuel blending, redispatch of units, and emissions trading. Whatever the final choice, it must be economic while providing sufficient flexibility to accommodate the critical uncertainties of load growth, state regulatory treatment, markets for emission allowances, advancements in control technologies, additional federal requirements for air emissions, equipment outages and fuel supply disruptions.s

  18. Final Rule for Control of Air Pollution From Motor Vehicles and New Motor Vehicle Engines; Modification of Federal Onboard Diagnostic Regulations for Light-Duty Vehicles and Light-Duty Trucks; Extension of Acceptance of California OBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    This action finalizes modifications to the federal on-board diagnostics regulations, including: harmonizing the emission levels above which a component or system is considered malfunctioning with those of the California Air Resources Board (CARB).

  19. Federal Gasoline Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to regulate fuels and fuel additives for use in mobile sources if such fuel, fuel additive or any emission products causes or contributes to air or water pollution that may endanger the public health or welfare.

  20. 75 FR 65458 - Renewal of Department of Defense Federal Advisory Committee; Board of Visitors of the U.S. Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-25

    ... Committee; Board of Visitors of the U.S. Air Force Academy AGENCY: Department of Defense (DoD). ACTION... the Board of Visitors of the U.S. Air Force Academy (hereafter referred to as the ``Board''). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Committee [[Page 65459