WorldWideScience

Sample records for federal clean air

  1. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  2. 23 CFR 633.211 - Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Water Pollution Control Act. 633.211 Section 633.211 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...) implementing requirements with respect to the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act are... Contracts (Appalachian Contracts) § 633.211 Implementation of the Clean Air Act and the Federal...

  3. Air emission points for facilities in Iowa with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act_considered MAJOR permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Air emission points for facilities in Iowa with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, considered "major" permits. Also includes emission points...

  4. Airing 'clean air' in Clean India Mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, T; Kumar, M; Mall, R K; Singh, R S

    2017-03-01

    The submission explores the possibility of a policy revision for considering clean air quality in recently launched nationwide campaign, Clean India Mission (CIM). Despite of several efforts for improving availability of clean household energy and sanitation facilities, situation remain still depressing as almost half of global population lacks access to clean energy and proper sanitation. Globally, at least 2.5 billion people do not have access to basic sanitation facilities. There are also evidences of 7 million premature deaths by air pollution in year 2012. The situation is even more disastrous for India especially in rural areas. Although, India has reasonably progressed in developing sanitary facilities and disseminating clean fuel to its urban households, the situation in rural areas is still miserable and needs to be reviewed. Several policy interventions and campaigns were made to improve the scenario but outcomes were remarkably poor. Indian census revealed a mere 31% sanitation coverage (in 2011) compared to 22% in 2001 while 60% of population (700 million) still use solid biofuels and traditional cook stoves for household cooking. Further, last decade (2001-2011) witnessed the progress decelerating down with rural households without sanitation facilities increased by 8.3 million while minimum progress has been made in conversion of conventional to modern fuels. To revamp the sanitation coverage, an overambitious nationwide campaign CIM was initiated in 2014 and present submission explores the possibility of including 'clean air' considerations within it. The article draws evidence from literatures on scenarios of rural sanitation, energy practises, pollution induced mortality and climatic impacts of air pollution. This subsequently hypothesised with possible modification in available technologies, dissemination modes, financing and implementation for integration of CIM with 'clean air' so that access to both sanitation and clean household energy may be

  5. Air Cleaning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective This health technology policy assessment will answer the following questions: When should in-room air cleaners be used? How effective are in-room air cleaners? Are in-room air cleaners that use combined HEPA and UVGI air cleaning technology more effective than those that use HEPA filtration alone? What is the Plasmacluster ion air purifier in the pandemic influenza preparation plan? The experience of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) locally, nationally, and internationally underscored the importance of administrative, environmental, and personal protective infection control measures in health care facilities. In the aftermath of the SARS crisis, there was a need for a clearer understanding of Ontario’s capacity to manage suspected or confirmed cases of airborne infectious diseases. In so doing, the Walker Commission thought that more attention should be paid to the potential use of new technologies such as in-room air cleaning units. It recommended that the Medical Advisory Secretariat of the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care evaluate the appropriate use and effectiveness of such new technologies. Accordingly, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee asked the Medical Advisory Secretariat to review the literature on the effectiveness and utility of in-room air cleaners that use high-efficiency particle air (HEPA) filters and ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) air cleaning technology. Additionally, the Ontario Health Technology Advisory Committee prioritized a request from the ministry’s Emergency Management Unit to investigate the possible role of the Plasmacluster ion air purifier manufactured by Sharp Electronics Corporation, in the pandemic influenza preparation plan. Clinical Need Airborne transmission of infectious diseases depends in part on the concentration of breathable infectious pathogens (germs) in room air. Infection control is achieved by a combination of administrative, engineering

  6. 14 CFR 1260.34 - Clean air and water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean air and water. 1260.34 Section 1260... AGREEMENTS General Provisions § 1260.34 Clean air and water. Clean Air and Water October 2000 (Applicable... the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 1857c-8(c)(1) or the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C....

  7. Clean Air OnLine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finney, D. [Environment Canada, Gatineau, PQ (Canada). Air Pollution Prevention Directorate

    2004-04-07

    This presentation describes Clean Air OnLine, a multi-tiered website dedicated to providing Canadians with information on air quality. The website is under development to support action to reduce air emissions, demonstrate the links between air emissions and environmental impacts, and enhance the understanding of sustainable community development issues such as health, energy, and urban sprawl. Partners in the Clean Air OnLine (CAOL) initiative include Environment Canada and the Clean Air Partnership which includes the Greater Toronto Area pilot project. The audience for CAOL includes municipal decision makers, local decision makers, community leaders, and the general public. The project provides Canadians with air pollution contextual information on pollution sources, pollutants, and related issues. It also provides information on health, environmental and economic impacts and the interrelationships with climate change issues and energy use. tabs., figs.

  8. Clean air in the Anthropocene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelieveld, Jos

    2017-08-24

    In atmospheric chemistry, interactions between air pollution, the biosphere and human health, often through reaction mixtures from both natural and anthropogenic sources, are of growing interest. Massive pollution emissions in the Anthropocene have transformed atmospheric composition to the extent that biogeochemical cycles, air quality and climate have changed globally and partly profoundly. It is estimated that mortality attributable to outdoor air pollution amounts to 4.33 million individuals per year, associated with 123 million years of life lost. Worldwide, air pollution is the major environmental risk factor to human health, and strict air quality standards have the potential to strongly reduce morbidity and mortality. Preserving clean air should be considered a human right, and is fundamental to many sustainable development goals of the United Nations, such as good health, climate action, sustainable cities, clean energy, and protecting life on land and in the water. It would be appropriate to adopt "clean air" as a sustainable development goal.

  9. A method and device for cleaning air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments.......The present invention relates to a method and device for cleaning pollution from air wherin the air to be cleaned is subjected to a sequence of physical and chemical treatments....

  10. 75 FR 11560 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water Act and Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that... violations of the Clean Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq., and the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq....

  11. Clean Air and Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-04-10

    The air we breathe and the water we drink are both vital components of our health. Nevertheless, bacteria, pollutants, and other contaminates can alter life-giving air and water into health-threatening hazards. Learn about how scientists at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention work to protect the public from air and water-related health risks.  Created: 4/10/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 4/13/2007.

  12. Senate passes clean air bill

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an 89 to 11 vote the Senate passed a clean air bill aimed at reducing pollution by the turn of the century by imposing tougher controls on American industry. The bill is the first revision of the Clean Air Act of 1970 in 13 years and calls for new limits on auto pollution to clean up smog in most U.S. cities, decreasing by half emissions by power plants that cause acid rain to protect the ecology, and increasing technological controls on factories to protect against cancer-causing and toxic substances. The bill will add about $20 billion per year to the estimated $33 billion cost of complying with current pollution laws.

  13. Air cleaning using regenerative silica gel wheel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei

    2011-01-01

    This paper discussed the necessity of indoor air cleaning and the state of the art information on gas-phase air cleaning technology. The performance and problems of oxidation and sorption air cleaning technology were summarized and analysed based on the literature studies. Eventually, based on an...

  14. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  15. Allegheny County Clean Indoor Air Act Exemptions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — List and location of all the businesses and social clubs who have received an exemption from the Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act. “The Clean Indoor Air Act, Act...

  16. The Value of Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  17. Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazaroff, W.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2004-01-01

    . More than two dozen research articles present evidence of adverse health effects from inhalation exposure associated with cleaning or cleaning products. Exposure to primary and secondary pollutants depends on the complex interplay of many sets of factors and processes, including cleaning product...... by the US federal government as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). California's Proposition 65 list of species recognized as carcinogens or reproductive toxicants also includes constituents of certain cleaning products and air fresheners. In addition, many cleaning agents and air fresheners contain chemicals...... that can react with other air contaminants to yield potentially harmful secondary products. For example, terpenes can react rapidly with ozone in indoor air generating many secondary pollutants, including TACs such as formaldehyde. Furthermore, ozone-terpene reactions produce the hydroxyl radical, which...

  18. Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...

  19. Clean Air Markets - Allowances Query Wizard

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Allowances Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The Allowances...

  20. Clean Air Markets - Quick Facts and Trends

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Quick Facts and Trends module is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://camddataandmaps.epa.gov/gdm/index.cfm. The...

  1. Clean air Hamilton 2001 progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    This community initiative called Clean Air Hamilton was established to improve air quality in Hamilton, Ontario. It has been mandated to annually report on progress and provide advice with regard to current air quality issues. The quality of life of residents is improved as a result of the work performed by Clean Air Hamilton, and it also enhances Hamilton's image. Numerous inquiries have been received from City officials in several municipalities such as Toronto, Kitchener-Waterloo and Windsor as a testament to the success of the initiative. Financial support is received from all levels of government. The funding received from the Council has helped in attracting additional donations in support of this initiative. Clean Air Hamilton was involved in one capacity or another in research, emissions reduction projects and public awareness campaigns during 2001, and its contributions were valued at approximately 500,000 dollars. The City of Hamilton was awarded the United Nations for Human Settlements award as a result of Clean Air Hamilton's community process in local air quality improvement. In addition, the City received the Dubai International Award for Best Practices in Improving the Living Environment. Clean Air Hamilton is ready to move to the next phase, which requires moving current structures that supplements voluntary commitments with committed funding from key stakeholders. Since June 1996, the advisory level of 32 on the Air Pollution Index has not been reached, and rarely goes over 20. Throughout the 1990s, levels of toxics have decreased significantly. A three-year self-sustaining program should be developed and funding sought for those initiatives, discussions should be facilitated among industrial stakeholders when they address air quality issues, and research should continue to be supported and advice on current air quality issues be provided to City Council. 1 fig.

  2. 76 FR 40728 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2011 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations for Clean Air Excellence Awards. ] SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in...

  3. 75 FR 35025 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC); Request for Nominations for 2010 Clean Air Excellence Awards Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Request for nominations for Clean Air Excellence Awards. SUMMARY: EPA established the Clean Air Excellence Awards Program in...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.926 - Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts...-Water Pollution Control Acts. Clean Air-Water Pollution Control Acts July 2002 If this cooperative... 91-604) and section 308 of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (33 U.S.C. 1251 et...

  5. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...

  6. 76 FR 30600 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revisions to Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... (CAIR) trading program, is comprised of technical corrections and revisions to the definition of a cogeneration unit to ensure the Commonwealth's CAIR trading program is consistent with Federal CAIR... to Clean Air Interstate Rule Emissions Trading Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...

  7. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Volume 5. Federal Regions VIII, IX, and X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-02-01

    The following material is provided for each state in Federal Regions VIII, IX, and X: state title page (lists nonattainment areas for each pollutant, the number of monitors with valid readings for a particular averaging time for a pollutant, and the number of monitors that recorded a violation of the standard); revised State Implementation Plan (SIP) outline (covers sources of the problems, the proposed strategies for achieving attainment, and new state review procedures); maps of nonattainment areas, as designated; SAROAD (Storage and Retrieval of Aerometric Data) data; SAROAD data maps; power plant data; power plant maps; and county maps. States in Federal Region VIII are Colorado, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, and Wyoming. Federal Region IX includes Arizona, California, and Nevada. Federal Region X includes Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. (JGB)

  8. Effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-12-31

    At Argonne National Laboratory, we have a great deal of interest in the coal resource and in Clean Coal Technology, CCT. We had helped to develop dry scrubbing technology and we are currently active in developing Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and combined SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal technologies. I have spent much of the last 10 years developing computer simulation models representing the impacts of environmental policies on electric utilities, the coal industry and the economy as a whole. This work has been sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NA.PAP), the US Departmentof Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Federal Reserve Bank. Today I will talk about the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) which will affect the coal market. I will focus on the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) requirements and not nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) or other aspects of the CAAA regulations.

  9. Effects of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.A.

    1992-01-01

    At Argonne National Laboratory, we have a great deal of interest in the coal resource and in Clean Coal Technology, CCT. We had helped to develop dry scrubbing technology and we are currently active in developing Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and combined SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x] removal technologies. I have spent much of the last 10 years developing computer simulation models representing the impacts of environmental policies on electric utilities, the coal industry and the economy as a whole. This work has been sponsored by the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NA.PAP), the US Departmentof Energy, the US Environmental Protection Agency and the Federal Reserve Bank. Today I will talk about the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) which will affect the coal market. I will focus on the sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) requirements and not nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) or other aspects of the CAAA regulations.

  10. Clean Air Act Settlement Improves Chemical Safety at Bloomfield, Conn. Meat Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    A CT co. that runs an ammonia refrigeration system at its meat processing plant has agreed to pay $65K in civil penalties to resolve claims by the EPA that it violated federal clean air laws as well as the federal right-to-know law in its use of ammonia.

  11. Experimental study on energy performance of clean air heat pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    to investigate its energy performance. Energy consumption of the prototype of CAHP was measured in laboratory at different climate conditions including mild-cold, mildhot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy saving potential of the clean air heat pump compared to a conventional ventilation and air......-conditioning system was calculated. The experimental results showed that the clean air heat pump saved substantial amount of energy compared to the conventional system. For example, the CAHP can save up to 59% of electricity in Copenhagen, up to 40% of electricity in Milan and up to 30% of electricity in Colombo......An innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed and developed based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor. The clean air heat pump integrated air purification, dehumidification and cooling in one unit. A prototype of the clean air heat pump was developed...

  12. 77 FR 44672 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water and Clean Air Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Water and Clean Air Acts Notice is hereby given that on... resolve its violations of the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act. The Allegheny County Health... the Clean Water Act, Plaintiffs allege that Shenango violated the effluent limitations in the...

  13. 17th DOE nuclear air cleaning conference: proceedings. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1983-02-01

    Volume 2 contains papers presented at the following sessions: adsorption; noble gas treatment; personnel education and training; filtration and filter testing; measurement and instrumentation; air cleaning equipment response to accident related stress; containment venting air cleaning; and an open end session. Twenty-eight papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Data Base. Ten papers had been entered earlier.

  14. Air cleaning issues with contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellamy, R.R. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, King of Prussia, PA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed a list of contaminated sites that warrant special USNRC attention because they pose unique or complex decommissioning issues. This list of radiologically contaminated sites is termed the Site Decommissioning Management Plan (SDMP), and was first issued in 1990. A site is placed on the SDMP list if it has; (1) Problems with the viability of the responsible organization (e.g., the licensee for the site is unable or unwilling to pay for the decommissioning); (2) Large amounts of soil contamination or unused settling ponds or burial grounds that may make the waste difficult to dispose of; (3) The long-term presence of contaminated, unused buildings; (4) A previously terminated license; or (5) Contaminated or potential contamination of the ground water from on-site wastes. In deciding whether to add a site to the SDMP list, the NRC also considers the projected length of time for decommissioning and the willingness of the responsible organization to complete the decommissioning in a timely manner. Since the list was established, 9 sites have been removed from the list, and the current SDMP list contains 47 sites in 11 states. The USNRC annually publishes NUREG-1444, {open_quotes}Site Decommissioning Management Plan{close_quotes}, which updates the status of each site. This paper will discuss the philosophical goals of the SDMP, then will concentrate on the regulatory requirements associated with air cleaning issues at the SDMP sites during characterization and remediation. Both effluent and worker protection issues will be discussed. For effluents, the source terms at sites will be characterized, and measurement techniques will be presented. Off-site dose impacts will be included. For worker protection issues, air sampling analyses will be presented in order to show how the workers are adequately protected and their doses measured to satisfy regulatory criteria during decontamination operations. 1 tab.

  15. Proceedings of the fifteenth DOE nuclear air cleaning conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1979-02-01

    Papers presented are grouped under the following topics: noble gas separation, damage control, aerosols, test methods, new air cleaning technology from Europe, open-end, and filtration. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  16. EnviroAtlas - Clean Air Metrics for Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service supports research and online mapping activities related to EnviroAtlas (https://www.epa.gov/enviroatlas). The Clean Air category in this...

  17. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2010-10-27

    Approximately ten percent of the energy consumed in U.S. commercial buildings is used by HVAC systems to condition outdoor ventilation air. Reducing ventilation rates would be a simple and broadly-applicable energy retrofit option, if practical counter measures were available that maintained acceptable concentrations of indoor-generated air pollutants. The two general categories of countermeasures are: 1) indoor pollutant source control, and 2) air cleaning. Although pollutant source control should be used to the degree possible, source control is complicated by the large number and changing nature of indoor pollutant sources. Particle air cleaning is already routinely applied in commercial buildings. Previous calculations indicate that particle filtration consumes only 10percent to 25percent of the energy that would otherwise be required to achieve an equivalent amount of particle removal with ventilation. If cost-effective air cleaning technologies for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were also available, outdoor air ventilation rates could be reduced substantially and broadly in the commercial building stock to save energy. The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel VOC air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. The minimum required VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50percent reduction in ventilation rate for air cleaning systems installed in the HVAC supply airstream is modest (generally 20percent or less).

  18. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  19. Evaluation of Potential Locations for Siting Small Modular Reactors near Federal Energy Clusters to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) technology was applied to analyze federal energy demand across the contiguous US. Several federal energy clusters were previously identified, including Hampton Roads, Virginia, which was subsequently studied in detail. This study provides an analysis of three additional diverse federal energy clusters. The analysis shows that there are potential sites in various federal energy clusters that could be evaluated further for placement of an integral pressurized-water reactor (iPWR) to support meeting federal clean energy goals.

  20. Self-scrubbing coal{sup TM}: An integrated approach to clean air. A proposed Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared by the U.S.Department of Energy (DOE), with compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, Council on Environmental Quality (CE) regulations for implementating NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and DOE regulations for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021), to evaluate the potential environmental impacts associated with a proposed demonstration project to be cost-shared by DOE and Custom Coals International (CCI) under the Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy. CCI is a Pennsylvania general partnership located in Pittsburgh, PA engaged in the commercialization of advanced coal cleaning technologies. The proposed federal action is for DOE to provide, through a cooperative agreement with CCI, cost-shared funding support for the land acquisition, design, construction and demonstration of an advanced coal cleaning technology project, {open_quotes}Self-Scrubbing Coal: An Integrated Approach to Clean Air.{close_quotes} The proposed demonstration project would take place on the site of the presently inactive Laurel Coal Preparation Plant in Shade Township, Somerset County, PA. A newly constructed, advanced design, coal preparation plant would replace the existing facility. The cleaned coal produced from this new facility would be fired in full-scale test burns at coal-fired electric utilities in Indiana, Ohio and PA as part of this project.

  1. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  2. Fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application in cleanrooms

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhonglin

    2014-01-01

    Fundamentals of Air Cleaning Technology and Its Application in Cleanrooms sets up the theoretical framework for cleanrooms. New ideas and methods are presented, which include the characteristic index of cleanrooms, uniform and non-uniform distribution characteristics, the minimum sampling volume, a new concept of outdoor air conditioning and the fundamentals of leakage-preventing layers. Written by an author who can look back on major scientific achievements and 50 years of experience in this field, this book offers a concise and accessible introduction to the fundamentals of air cleaning technology and its application. The work is intended for researchers, college teachers, graduates, designers, technicians and corporate R&D personnel in the field of HVAC and air cleaning technology. Zhonglin Xu is a senior research fellow at China Academy of Building Research.

  3. Ductless personalized ventilation with local air cleaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Vesely, Michal; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2012-01-01

    was equipped with an activated carbon filter installed at the air intake, while the DPV at the second desk was without such a filter. The air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor) was 29 °C. The pollution load in the room was simulated by PVC floor covering. The subjects assessed...

  4. Section 609 of the Clean Air Act: Motor Vehicle Air Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact sheet provides a general overview of EPA regulations under Section 609 of the Clean Air Act, which is focused on preventing the release of refrigerants during the servicing of motor vehicle air-conditioning systems and similar appliances.

  5. Self-Cleaning Particulate Air Filter Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA requires an innovative solution to the serious issue of particulate fouling on air revitalization component surfaces in order to address the potential for...

  6. The Clean Air Act and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1970, cleaner air and a growing economy have gone hand in hand. The Act has created market opportunities that have helped to inspire innovation in cleaner technologies for which the United States has become a global market leader.

  7. 76 FR 52275 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revisions to Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... to Clean Air Interstate Rule Emissions Trading Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Commonwealth of Virginia. The revision, which amends the Virginia Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) trading program, is comprised of technical corrections and revisions to the definition of a cogeneration unit to...

  8. New challenges to air/gas cleaning systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovach, J.L. [NUCON International, Inc., Columbus, OH (United States)

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the need for changes in the design and manufacturing of air and gas cleaning systems to meet waste management and site remediation requirements. Current design and manufacturing practices are primarily directed toward evaluating operational problems with existing systems in nuclear reactor facilities. However, nuclear waste management needs have developed which are much broader in scope and have different processing conditions. Numerous examples of air cleaning needs for waste management activities are provided; the major differences from operating facility needs are the requirement for continuous effluent treatment under widely different processing conditions. Related regulatory issues are also discussed briefly. 1 ref.

  9. Clean air litigation; Klagen fuer Saubere Luft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-11-11

    The pollution of air by nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) in cities is one of the central challenges of air pollution in Germany, in addition to the pollution of particulate matter (PM10). In cooperation with the British non-governmental organization ClientEarth, the German Environmental Aid (DUH) filed a lawsuit in November 2015 for exceeding air quality limits for NO{sub 2}. The cities of Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Duesseldorf, Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Aachen, Cologne and Bonn are affected. Here, citizens are constantly exposed to high air pollution. Because of the excess of the NO{sub 2} limits at all traffic-related measuring stations in Berlin, the DUH initiated legal steps and filed a lawsuit too in June 2016. With the lawsuits, DUH wants to promote the implementation of measures to reduce NO{sub 2} in Germany. [German] Die Belastung der Luft durch Stickstoffdioxid (NO{sub 2}) in Staedten ist neben der Belastung durch Feinstaub (PM10) eine der zentralen Herausforderungen der Luftreinhaltung in Deutschland. In Zusammenarbeit mit der britischen Nichtregierungsorganisation ClientEarth legte die Deutsche Umwelthilfe (DUH) im November 2015 Klage wegen Ueberschreitung der Luftqualitaetsgrenzwerte fuer NO{sub 2}ein. Betroffen sind die Staedte Stuttgart, Frankfurt, Duesseldorf, Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Aachen, Koeln und Bonn. Hier sind Buergerinnen und Buerger anhaltend zu hoher Luftverschmutzung ausgesetzt. Wegen Ueberschreitung der NO{sub 2}-Grenzwerte an allen verkehrsnahen Messstationen in Berlin hat die DUH im Juni 2016 auch hier rechtliche Schritte eingeleitet und Klage eingereicht. Mit den Klagen will die DUH die Umsetzung von Massnahmen zur NO{sub 2}-Reduktion in Deutschland voranbringen.

  10. Evaluation of air cleaning technologies existing in the Danish market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    the ozone level significantly in the room. Moreover, they can cause generation of ultrafine particles and consequently increase ultrafine particle concentration in the room. The study suggests using a mechanical filter with low pressure drop as a recommended air cleaning technology in order to remove...

  11. Further developed filter systems for keeping the air clean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hochstrat, W.B.

    1978-12-01

    The pulse-jet filter system is presented in this contribution. The development of improved fibers to produce high-quality needle felting was the basis for surface filters as well as tube filters. The system tube filter with pressurized-air cleaning is described in greater detail. Its advantage besides good degrees of separation is especially the little maintenance required.

  12. Proceedings of the fifteenth DOE nuclear air cleaning conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. (ed.)

    1979-02-01

    Papers presented are grouped under the following topics: air cleaning; waste volume reduction and preparation for storage; tritium, carbon-14, ozone; containment of accidental releases; adsorbents and absorbents; and off-gas treatment. A separate abstract was prepared for each paper.

  13. Plants Clean Air and Water for Indoor Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services Inc., founded by longtime government environmental scientist B.C. "Bill" Wolverton, is an environmental consulting firm that gives customers access to the results of his decades of cutting-edge bioremediation research. Findings about how to use plants to improve indoor air quality have been published in dozens of NASA technical papers and in the book, "How to Grow Fresh Air: 50 Houseplants That Purify Your Home or Office." The book has now been translated into 12 languages and has been on the shelves of bookstores for nearly 10 years. A companion book, "Growing Clean Water: Nature's Solution to Water Pollution," explains how plants can clean waste water. Other discoveries include that the more air that is allowed to circulate through the roots of the plants, the more effective they are at cleaning polluted air; and that plants play a psychological role in welfare in that people recover from illness faster in the presence of plants. Wolverton Environmental is also working in partnership with Syracuse University, to engineer systems consisting of modular wicking filters tied into duct work and water supplies, essentially tying plant-based filters into heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Also, the company has recently begun to assess the ability of the EcoPlanter to remove formaldehyde from interior environments. Wolverton Environmental is also in talks with designers of the new Stennis Visitor's Center, who are interested in using its designs for indoor air-quality filters

  14. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Hemenway, A. [USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  15. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: Hazardous Air Pollutant Requirements and the DOE Clean Coal Technology Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskowitz, P.D.; DePhillips, M.; Fthenakis, V.M. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Hemenway, A. (USDOE Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, Washington, DC (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the US Department of Energy -- Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCTP) is to provide the US energy marketplace with advanced, efficient, and environmentally sound coal-based technologies. The design, construction, and operation of Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Projects (CCTDP) will generate data needed to make informed, confident decisions on the commercial readiness of these technologies. These data also will provide information needed to ensure a proactive response by DOE and its industrial partners to the establishment of new regulations or a reactive response to existing regulations promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The objectives of this paper are to: (1) Present a preliminary examination of the potential implications of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) -- Title 3 Hazardous Air Pollutant requirements to the commercialization of CCTDP; and (2) help define options available to DOE and its industrial partners to respond to this newly enacted Legislation.

  16. Chapter 4: Assessing the Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gas, Air Quality, and Health Benefits of Clean Energy Initiatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapter 4 of “Assessing the Multiple Benefits of Clean Energy” helps state energy, environmental, and economic policy makers assess the air quality, greenhouse gas, air pollution, and health benefits of clean energy initiatives.

  17. Rationing health protection: a proposal to exempt nuisance dust from US Clean Air Act regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J; Colson, Gregory

    2013-03-15

    The US House of Representative has passed a bill called the "Farm Dust Regulation Prevention Act" (Dust Act) that would exempt most types of particulate matter (PM) in rural areas from the air quality controls of the US Clean Air Act. The Dust Act would markedly change the country's air quality standards. An examination of the proposed provisions shows that they would exempt non-combustion PM pollutants from mining, smelting, petroleum production, and power generation from existing air quality standards. Persons downwind from pollutants generated in rural areas could be exposed to concentrations of carcinogenic heavy metals, asbestos, and benzene known to adversely affect their health and ecological resources. Existing federal air quality standards based on science would be replaced by a flexible standard that rations health protection.

  18. 76 FR 53452 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Response to Petition To Reopen the 2001 Title V Permit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-26

    ... the U.S. Court of Appeals for Third Circuit. Under the terms of a settlement agreement between EPA and... Circuit Court of Appeals is the appropriate court of appeals. Section 307(b)(1) also requires that any.... Judicial Review Section 307(b)(1) of the Clean Air Act indicates which Federal Courts of Appeals have...

  19. 75 FR 75463 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Luke Paper... issues during the comment period or that the grounds for objection or other issue arose after the comment...

  20. Market Initiatives for Clean Air Schools; Marktinitiatieven frisse scholen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeuwen, D. [Communication Concert, Weesp (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Seven years ago, the Clean Air Schools Program was launched to encourage people to use less energy and improve the indoor environment. In 2012, the program Energy and Built Environment will no longer pay specific attention focused on school buildings. Therefore, the market needs to jump in. 'Market initiatives' refers to projects, products and services that contribute to the realization of Clean Air Schools and which are not initiated by the Dutch government [Dutch] Zeven jaar geleden is het Frisse Scholen Programma gestart om gemeenten en scholen te stimuleren om minder energie te gebruiken en het binnenmilieu te verbeteren. In 2012 biedt het programma Energie en Gebouwde Omgeving geen ruimte meer voor specifieke aandacht gericht op scholen. Daarom zal het stokje overgedragen moeten worden aan marktpartijen. Met 'marktinitiatieven' wordt gedoeld op projecten, producten en diensten die bijdragen aan de realisatie van Frisse Scholen en niet door de Rijksoverheid worden geinitieerd.

  1. 40 CFR 2.301 - Special rules governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... information obtained under the Clean Air Act. 2.301 Section 2.301 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... governing certain information obtained under the Clean Air Act. (a) Definitions. For the purpose of this section: (1) Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq. (2)(i) Emission data...

  2. 76 FR 17671 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on March 21, 2011, a... this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the Environmental Protection Agency, asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air...

  3. 76 FR 66718 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  4. 75 FR 25855 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  5. 76 FR 9609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the Environmental... in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air Act,...

  6. 77 FR 66462 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee; Notice of Charter Renewal AGENCY: Environmental Protection...'s Clean Air Act Advisory committee (CAAAC) will be renewed for an additional two-year period, as a... recommendations to the EPA Administrator on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act....

  7. 78 FR 9388 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  8. 75 FR 1379 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-11

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with ] implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  9. 75 FR 79369 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC) on November 19, 1990, to provide independent advice and counsel to EPA on policy issues associated with implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The...

  10. 76 FR 9610 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-18

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on February 14, 2011... California. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement action resolves allegations by the...''), asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the Clean Air...

  11. 78 FR 49511 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meeting of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on November... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  12. 78 FR 77448 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Environmental Protection... public meetings of the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC). The EPA established the CAAAC on... implementation of the Clean Air Act of 1990. The Committee advises on economic, environmental,...

  13. Air Cleaning Devices for HVAC Supply Systems in Schools. Technical Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Arthur E.

    Guidelines for maintaining indoor air quality in schools with HVAC air cleaning systems are provided in this document. Information is offered on the importance of air cleaning, sources of air contaminants and indoor pollutants, types of air cleaners and particulate filters used in central HVAC systems, vapor and gas removal, and performance…

  14. Ceramic membrane defouling (cleaning) by air Nano Bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadimkhani, Aliasghar; Zhang, Wen; Marhaba, Taha

    2016-03-01

    Ceramic membranes are among the most promising technologies for membrane applications, owing to their excellent resistance to mechanical, chemical, and thermal stresses. However, membrane fouling is still an issue that hampers the applications at large scales. Air Nano Bubbles (NBs), due to high mass transfer efficiency, could potentially prevent fouling of ceramic membrane filtration processes. In this study, bench and pilot scale ceramic membrane filtration was performed with air NBs to resist fouling. To simulate fouling, humic acid, as an organic foulant, was applied to the membrane flat sheet surface. Complete membrane clogging was achieved in less than 6 h. Membrane defouling (cleaning) was performed by directly feeding of air NBs to the membrane cells. The surface of the ceramic membrane was superbly cleaned by air NBs, as revealed by atomic force microscope (AFM) images before and after the treatment. The permeate flux recovered to its initial level (e.g., 26.7 × 10(-9) m(3)/m(2)/s at applied pressure of 275.8 kPa), which indicated that NBs successfully unclogged the pores of the membrane. The integrated ceramic membrane and air NBs system holds potential as an innovative sustainable technology.

  15. Proceedings of the clean air and climate change summit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The Clean Air Partnership was established in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) over 10 years ago to work on issues related to air pollution and climate change. This summit presented details of the partnership's municipal activities and provided an outline of various projects conducted to reduce air pollution, increase the use of green energy, and encourage residents to reduce their ecological footprint. Climate change was discussed in relation to the recent economic crisis and recently discovered problems related to ocean acidification. The International Energy Agency (IEA) annual report was discussed in relation to peak oil and future economic crises. Advancements in green energy policy in Ontario were outlined. Sustainable housing and renewable energy projects in Germany were presented along with successful urban designs in Melbourne, New York City, and Denver. The GTA-CAC inter-governmental declaration on clean air was discussed, and an interim progress report was presented. The summit concluded with a video presentation of a collaborative artistic piece about climate change and the Arctic. 11 figs.

  16. Indoor Air Quality Assessment of the San Francisco Federal Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael; Bennett, Deborah H.; Faulkner, David; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Spears, Michael; Sullivan, Douglas P; Trout, Amber L.

    2008-07-01

    An assessment of the indoor air quality (IAQ) of the San Francisco Federal Building (SFFB) was conducted on May 12 and 14, 2009 at the request of the General Services Administration (GSA). The purpose of the assessment was for a general screening of IAQ parameters typically indicative of well functioning building systems. One naturally ventilated space and one mechanically ventilated space were studied. In both zones, the levels of indoor air contaminants, including CO2, CO, particulate matter, volatile organic compounds, and aldehydes, were low, relative to reference exposure levels and air quality standards for comparable office buildings. We found slightly elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) including two compounds often found in"green" cleaning products. In addition, we found two industrial solvents at levels higher than typically seen in office buildings, but the levels were not sufficient to be of a health concern. The ventilation rates in the two study spaces were high by any standard. Ventilation rates in the building should be further investigated and adjusted to be in line with the building design. Based on our measurements, we conclude that the IAQ is satisfactory in the zone we tested, but IAQ may need to be re-checked after the ventilation rates have been lowered.

  17. New clean air efforts face tough challenges, say senators and former EPA administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-02-01

    With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) coming under repeated attack from some members of Congress and others for perceived heavy-handed regulatory actions, two moderate U.S. senators and two former EPA administrators recently noted the need for continued measures to improve air quality. However, they also acknowledged the difficulty in moving forward with new legislative efforts to revise the federal Clean Air Act to further reduce air pollution in the current polarized political climate. "Nobody who wants to see constructive changes [to the act] would dare touch it or propose it in the current climate," said former EPA administrator William Reilly at a 23 January forum sponsored by the World Resources Institute. Reilly, who served as EPA administrator from 1989 to 1992, noted that bipartisan congressional support had been key to addressing many environmental problems up until the mid-1990s.

  18. Citizen suit Clean Air Act enforcement: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, W.G. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    Almost every federal environmental statute has a provision that allows citizens to sue violators in lieu of governmental enforcement authorities under certain circumstances. Generally, if the relevant governmental enforcement authority was not deemed to be diligently prosecuting enforcement action against an alleged violator and certain procedural requirements were met a citizens suit could be filed in federal court. If a violation was proved penalties could be assessed against the violator and the plaintiff citizen could receive reimbursement of both his or her attorney's fees and other expenses. Historically, however, the only federal statute that has been the subject of significant citizens suit activity has been the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). This paper will explore a variety of events that are expected to significantly increase the number of citizen suits CAA permitted facilities will face over the next ten years. The paper will briefly address the role the Title V operating permit will play. It will also include a discussion of how this permit will now encompass specific emission limitations along with a mandate to report exceedances. Further, and equally important, will be the role of the 1997 federal Environmental Protection Agency any credible evidence rule which potentially broadens the type, amount, and accessibility available to a CAA citizen suit plaintiff. This rule along with the additional monitoring data that will be generated by the Title V periodic and compliance assurance monitoring requirements will be an issue. Two important CAA citizen suits will be discussed which illustrate the potential role of credible evidence. Also, recent citizen suit decisions involving other federal environmental statutes with implications for the CAA will be examined. Further, the paper will provide some thoughts on how facilities can protect themselves to the extent possible against citizen suits.

  19. Investigation of air cleaning system response to accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrae, R.W.; Bolstad, J.W.; Foster, R.D.; Gregory, W.S.; Horak, H.L.; Idar, E.S.; Martin, R.A.; Ricketts, C.I.; Smith, P.R.; Tang, P.K.

    1980-01-01

    Air cleaning system response to the stress of accident conditions are being investigated. A program overview and hghlight recent results of our investigation are presented. The program includes both analytical and experimental investigations. Computer codes for predicting effects of tornados, explosions, fires, and material transport are described. The test facilities used to obtain supportive experimental data to define structural integrity and confinement effectiveness of ventilation system components are described. Examples of experimental results for code verification, blower response to tornado transients, and filter response to tornado and explosion transients are reported.

  20. Path instabilities of air bubbles rising in clean water

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, M; Wu, Mingming; Gharib, Moteza

    1998-01-01

    Experiments are conducted to study the path and shape of single air bubbles (diameter range 0.10- 0.20cm) rising freely in clean water. The experimental results demonstrate that the bubble shape has a bistable state, i. e. the bubble chooses to be in spherical or ellipsoidal shape depending on its generation mechanism. The path of a spherical/ellipsoidal bubble is found to change from a straight path to a zigzag/spiral path via a supercritical/subcritical bifurcation when the Reynolds number of the bubble exceeds a threshold.

  1. Pure Air`s advanced flue gas desulfurization clean coal project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generating Station. This project received a $60 million grant from the DOE Clean Coal II program. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The facility was designed, built and is owned and operated by Pure Air of Allentown, Pennsylvania, through its project company, Pure Air on the Lake, Limited Partnership. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum.

  2. Experimental analysis of indoor air quality improvement achieved by using a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air-cleaner in a ventilation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheng, Ying; Fang, Lei; Nie, Jinzhe

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the air purification effect of a Clean-Air Heat Pump (CAHP) air-cleaner which combined a silica gel rotor with a heat pump to achieve air cleaning, heating and ventilation in buildings. The experiments were conducted in a field laboratory and compared a low outdoor air...

  3. 75 FR 34673 - Approval of the Clean Air Act, Section 112(l), Authority for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ...'') request for approval to implement and enforce Air Pollution Control Regulation Number 36, Control of Emissions from Organic Solvent Cleaning (``RI Regulation No. 36'') and Rhode Island Air Pollution Control.... Ira W. Leighton, Acting Regional Administrator, EPA New England. BILLING CODE 6560-50-P...

  4. Cleaning practices and cleaning products in nurseries and schools: to what extent can they impact indoor air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W; Boumier, J; Wyart, G; Ramalho, O; Mandin, C

    2016-08-01

    In the framework of a nationwide survey on indoor air quality conducted from September 2009 to June 2011 in 310 nurseries, kindergartens, and elementary schools in all regions of France, cleaning practices and products were described through an extensive questionnaire completed on-site by expert building inspectors. The questionnaire included the cleaning frequencies and periods, cleaning techniques, whether windows were open during cleaning, and the commercial names of the products used. Analysis of the questionnaire responses showed that cleaning was generally performed daily for furniture and floors. It was performed mostly in the evening with wet mopping and with one or more windows open. Five hundred eighty-four different cleaning products were listed, among which 218 safety data sheets (SDSs) were available and analyzed. One hundred fifty-two chemical substances were identified in the SDSs. The typical substances in cleaning products included alcohols, chlorides, terpenes, aldehydes, and ethers; more than half of them are irritants. Two endocrine disruptors, 2-phenylphenol and Galaxolide, were identified in two cleaning products used every day to clean the floors, in seven kindergartens and in a nursery respectively. Eleven reactive substances containing C=C double bonds, mostly terpenes, were identified in a wide variety of cleaning products.

  5. Chicago Clean Air, Clean Water Project: Environmental Monitoring for a Healthy, Sustainable Urban Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none, none; Tuchman, Nancy [Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-11-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy awarded Loyola University Chicago and the Institute of Environmental Sustainability (IES) $486,000.00 for the proposal entitled “Chicago clean air, clean water project: Environmental monitoring for a healthy, sustainable urban future.” The project supported the purchase of analytical instruments for the development of an environmental analytical laboratory. The analytical laboratory is designed to support the testing of field water and soil samples for nutrients, industrial pollutants, heavy metals, and agricultural toxins, with special emphasis on testing Chicago regional soils and water affected by coal-based industry. Since the award was made in 2010, the IES has been launched (fall 2013), and the IES acquired a new state-of-the-art research and education facility on Loyola University Chicago’s Lakeshore campus. Two labs were included in the research and education facility. The second floor lab is the Ecology Laboratory where lab experiments and analyses are conducted on soil, plant, and water samples. The third floor lab is the Environmental Toxicology Lab where lab experiments on environmental toxins are conducted, as well as analytical tests conducted on water, soil, and plants. On the south end of the Environmental Toxicology Lab is the analytical instrumentation collection purchased from the present DOE grant, which is overseen by a full time Analytical Chemist (hired January 2016), who maintains the instruments, conducts analyses on samples, and helps to train faculty and undergraduate and graduate student researchers.

  6. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference; Sessions 1--8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1991-02-01

    Separate abstracts have been prepared for the papers presented at the meeting on nuclear facility air cleaning technology in the following specific areas of interest: air cleaning technologies for the management and disposal of radioactive wastes; Canadian waste management program; radiological health effects models for nuclear power plant accident consequence analysis; filter testing; US standard codes on nuclear air and gas treatment; European community nuclear codes and standards; chemical processing off-gas cleaning; incineration and vitrification; adsorbents; nuclear codes and standards; mathematical modeling techniques; filter technology; safety; containment system venting; and nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. (MB)

  7. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, D. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Williams, L. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, S. C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ng, N. L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thornton, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Knighton, B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Coulter, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prévôt, Ash [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-03-01

    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  8. Citizen Science Air Sensor Project with Clean Air Carolina and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA scientists are partnering with Clean Air Carolina (CAC) in Charlotte, N.C., and the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians (EBCI) in Cherokee, N.C., to conduct a citizen science air quality project in these regions.

  9. A review of potential alternatives for air cleaning at the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1990-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this review in support of the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) being designed by Fluor Daniel Inc. for the US Department of Energy (DOE). The literature on air cleaning systems is reviewed to identify potential air cleaning alternatives that might be included in the design of HWVP. An overview of advantages/disadvantages of the various air cleaning technologies follows. Information and references are presented for the following potential air cleaning alternatives: deep-bed glass-fiber filters (DBGF), high-efficiency particulate air filters (HEPA), remote modular filter systems, high-efficiency mist eliminators (HEME), electrostatic precipitators, and the sand filter. Selected information is summarized for systems in the United States, Belgium, Japan, and West Germany. This review addresses high-capacity air cleaning systems currently used in the nuclear industry and emphasizes recent developments. 10 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Saving energy and improving IAQ through application of advanced air cleaning technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, W.J; Destaillats, H.; Sidheswaran, M.A.

    2011-03-01

    In the future, we may be able use air cleaning systems and reduce rates of ventilation (i.e., reduce rates of outdoor air supply) to save energy, with indoor air quality (IAQ) remaining constant or even improved. The opportunity is greatest for commercial buildings because they usually have a narrower range of indoor pollutant sources than homes. This article describes the types of air cleaning systems that will be needed in commercial buildings.

  11. 76 FR 5609 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on January 26, 2011, a... United States et al. v. HOVENSA L.L.C., Civil Action No. 1:11-cv-6. The Consent Decree in this Clean Air... Agency, asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under section 113(b) of the...

  12. 75 FR 61774 - Notice of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on September 28, 2010... Consent Decree in this Clean Air Act enforcement actions against Murphy Oil USA, Inc. (``Murphy... Louisiana asserted in a complaint filed together with the Consent Decree, under Section 113(b) of the...

  13. 40 CFR 23.3 - Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air Act. 23.3 Section 23.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL JUDICIAL REVIEW UNDER EPA-ADMINISTERED STATUTES § 23.3 Timing of Administrator's action under Clean Air...

  14. 75 FR 74046 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a... Colorado doing business as Xcel Energy to operate the Pawnee coal-fired power plant in Morgan...

  15. 75 FR 20863 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act Notice is hereby given that on April 16, 2010, a... complaint filed together with the Consent Decree that Defendants violated the Clean Air Act and regulations... bringing storage tanks and loading racks at their bulk gasoline terminals into compliance with the NSPS...

  16. 77 FR 5010 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g... shall jointly file a stipulation of dismissal with prejudice with the court, within 10 days of the...

  17. 77 FR 45605 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice,...

  18. 76 FR 75545 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-02

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is... request to the Court to dismiss this matter with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days following...

  19. 77 FR 14785 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g), notice is hereby given of a... would then dismiss the case with prejudice once EPA has fulfilled these obligations under the...

  20. 78 FR 30919 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... AGENCY Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), notice is hereby given of a... shall be terminated and the case dismissed with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days...

  1. 76 FR 17416 - Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... AGENCY Proposed Settlement Agreement, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... accordance with section 113(g) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (``CAA'' or the ``Act''), 42 U.S.C. 7413(g... dismiss this suit with prejudice. For a period of thirty (30) days following the date of publication...

  2. Implementation of the clean air strategy for Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandhu, H.S.; Angle, R.P. [Alberta Dept. of Environmental Protection, Alberta (Canada); Kelly, M. [Clean Air Strategic Alliance, Alberta (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Air quality and its effects on the environment and human health have received considerable attention during the last three decades in Alberta, Canada. Among the issues receiving a high priority are acid deposition, smog and global warming. There are various sources of emissions to Alberta`s atmosphere, many of which relate to the extraction, processing, and burning of fossil fuels; pulp and paper manufacture; and transportation. There are also natural sources of contaminants, such as particulates from forest fires and methane from bogs. The extraction, processing and combustion of fossil fuels play an important role in Alberta`s economy. The province produces over 80 % of the oil and natural gas in Canada, and nearly half the coal. Low sulphur coal is used in power plants to supply more than 90 % of the electricity used in this province by nearly three million people. As a result, Alberta is responsible for about 27 % of the CO{sub 2}, 23 % of the nitrogen oxides, and 16 % of the SO{sub 2} emissions generated in Canada. Alberta`s air quality is monitored by the Government of Alberta at nine continuous, eight intermittent, over 250 static, and 12 precipitation monitoring stations. Parameters such as carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulphur dioxide, particulates, and ion-content of precipitation are measured. Industry operates a large number of ambient and static SO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S monitoring stations across Alberta, with monitoring costs estimated at 56-80 million USD annually. The unique features of the Clean Air Strategy for Alberta (CASA) have already been published elsewhere. This presentation discusses the mechanism and progress on its implementation. (author)

  3. CLEAN-AIR heat pump. Reduced energy consumption for ventilation in buildings by integrating air cleaning and heat pump. Final Report; CLEAN-AIR heat pump - Reduceret energiforbrug til ventilation af bygninger ved luftrensning integreret med luft varmepumpe. Slut rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, L.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Molinaro, G.; Simmonsen, P.; Skocajic, S. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ. Institut for Byggeri og Anlaeg, Lyngby (Denmark); Hummelshoej, R.M.; Carlassara, L. [COWI A/S, Lyngby, (Denmark); Groenbaek, H.; Hansen, Ole R. [Exhausto A/S, Langeskov (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    This report summarizes task 1 of the Clean Air Heat Pump project - modelling and simulation on energy savings when using the clean air heat pump for ventilation, air cleaning and energy recovery. The total energy consumption of the proposed ventilation systems using clean air heat pump technology was calculated by a theoretical model and compared with the reference ventilation systems (conventional ventilation systems). The energy compared between the two systems includes energy used for heating, cooling and fan. The simulation and energy saving calculation was made for the application of the clean air heat pump in three typical climate conditions, i.e. mild-cold, mild-hot and hot and wet climates. Real climate data recorded from three cities in 2002 was used for the calculation. The three cities were Copenhagen (Denmark), Milan (Italy) and Colombo (Sir Lanka) which represent the above three typical climate zones. For the Danish climate (the mild cold climate), the calculations show that the ventilation system using clean air heat pump technology can save up to 42% of energy cost in winter compared to the conventional ventilation system. The energy saving in summer can be as high as 66% for the ventilation system with humidity control and 9% for the ventilation system without the requirement of humidity control. Since the Danish summer climate is very mild, over 80% of the yearly energy consumption for ventilation is used during winter season. It is, therefore, estimated that more than 35% annual energy saving for ventilation is expected in Denmark using the clean air heat pump ventilation technology. For the mild hot climate, e.g. the Italian climate, the calculations show that up to 63% of the energy saving can be achieved in summer season. For the winter mode, 17% reduction of the energy cost can be expected for the domestic use. For industrial use, the energy cost of the clean air heat pump may not be favourable due to the industrial price of gas in Italy is

  4. Evaluating The Operation Of Three Air Cleaners Working Individually In A Clean Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2011-01-01

    The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma......, photochemical air purifier and corona discharge ionizer. The concentrations of ultrafine particles, ozone and total volatile organic compounds were measured both in a duct and in a clean room. It was found that the studied air cleaning technologies increased the ozone level in the clean room and the duct....... The increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation...

  5. Identification of Selected Areas to Support Federal Clean Energy Goals Using Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belles, Randy [ORNL; Mays, Gary T [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A [ORNL; Poore III, Willis P [ORNL

    2013-12-01

    This analysis identifies candidate locations, in a broad sense, where there are high concentrations of federal government agency use of electricity, which are also suitable areas for near-term SMRs. Near-term SMRs are based on light-water reactor (LWR) technology with compact design features that are expected to offer a host of safety, siting, construction, and economic benefits. These smaller plants are ideally suited for small electric grids and for locations that cannot support large reactors, thus providing utilities or governement entities with the flexibility to scale power production as demand changes by adding additional power by deploying more modules or reactors in phases. This research project is aimed at providing methodologies, information, and insights to assist the federal government in meeting federal clean energy goals.

  6. Learning from 25 years of experience with the United States clean air act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, R.H. [Trinity Consultants Incorporated, Dallas, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Twenty-five years ago, the United States embarked on a quest to attain clean air. President Nixon, in signing the Clean Air Act of 1970, defined clean air as the objective for the `70s. Although enormous progress has been made, much remains to be done. Newly constructed industry is quite clean, but many older facilities continue to operate with antiquated controls. Significant advances have been made in cleaning up the emissions from new automobiles, but two factors have impaired progress. First, cars last longer than they did in 1970, so the average age of the fleet has increased. Second, travel has increased as people have moved to the suburbs. Thus, the emission decreases from clean cars have not been as great as expected. This presentation will address some of the lessons learned from the efforts in the United States to implement clean air programs. In a large number of countries, excessively elaborate studies have been substituted for action programs. Since much is now known about air quality, fairly brief studies can define programs that should be undertaken. What may take longer is developing public support and enthusiasm for improved air quality. In most cases, it is desirable to reduce spending on studies and increase spending on devising and implementing plans, as well as effectively communicating the necessary changes to the public. Balanced spending on studies- and action programs is essential to a sound air quality control program. (author)

  7. Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization Clean Coal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.R. [Pure Air Bailly Station, Chesterton, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Pure Air`s Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) Clean Coal Project successfully completed four and a half years of operation in December 1996 at Northern Indiana Public Service Company`s (NIPSCO) Bailly Generation Station. Included in this was a three year DOE demonstration period. The project was built by a joint venture company of Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc., utilizing Mitsubishi`s wet limestone flue gas desulfurization technology. The project met or exceeded all performance criteria. It has averaged 95.3% SO{sub 2} removal, 99.9% availability and produced 936,000 metric tons of high quality commercial gypsum during this four and a half year period. It demonstrated many advanced technology features including a single, large absorber module serving two boilers, a wastewater evaporation system, an air rotary sparger for oxidation, and a new technology for agglomerating gypsum. The AFGD system was designed, built, owned and operated by Pure Air and will continue to serve NIPSCO`s Bailly Station for at least another 15{1/2} years under an Own and Operate contract. The project enabled NIPSCO to cost effectively achieve full system wide compliance with the Phase 2 emission requirements for SO{sub 2} of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 almost eight years before the target date. The project was the recipient of the Outstanding Engineering Achievement Award from the National Society of Professional Engineers in 1993 and the 1993 Powerplant Award from Power magazine. The data presented in this paper are based on performance during the first three years of operation.

  8. 3 CFR - State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of January 26, 2009 State of California Request for Waiver Under 42 U.S.C. 7543(b), the Clean Air Act Memorandum for the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency Under the Clean Air Act (42...

  9. 40 CFR 22.34 - Supplemental rules governing the administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... administrative assessment of civil penalties under the Clean Air Act. 22.34 Section 22.34 Protection of... Clean Air Act. (a) Scope. This section shall apply, in conjunction with §§ 22.1 through 22.32, in...) of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 7413(d), 7524(c), 7545(d), and 7547(d))....

  10. New Air Cleaning Strategies for Reduced Commercial Building Ventilation Energy ? FY11 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Destaillats, Hugo; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2011-10-31

    The research carried out in this project focuses on developing novel volatile organic compounds (VOCs) air cleaning technologies needed to enable energy-saving reductions in ventilation rates. we targeted a VOC air cleaning system that could enable a 50% reduction in ventilation rates. In a typical commercial HVAC system that provides a mixture of recirculated and outdoor air, a VOC air cleaner in the supply airstream must have a 15% to 20% VOC removal efficiency to counteract a 50% reduction in outdoor air supply.

  11. Keeping the Air Clean and Safe: An Anthrax Smoke Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Scientists at work in the Planetary Protection division at NASA s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) sterilize everything before blasting it to the Red Planet. They take great pains to ensure that all spacecraft are void of bacterial life, especially the microscopic bacteria that can live hundreds of years in their spore states. No one is quite sure what Earthly germs would do on Mars, but scientists agree that it is safest to keep the Martian terrain as undisturbed as possible. Errant Earth germs would also render useless the instruments placed on exploration rovers to look for signs of life, as the life that they registered would be life that came with them from Earth. A team at JPL, headed by Dr. Adrian Ponce, developed a bacterial spore-detection system that uses a simple and robust chemical reaction that visually alerts Planetary Protection crews. It is a simple air filter that traps micron-sized bacterial spores and then submits them to the chemical reaction. When the solution is then viewed under an ultraviolet light, the mixture will glow green if it is contaminated by bacteria. Scientists can then return to the scrubbing and cleaning stages of the sterilization process to remove these harmful bacteria. The detection system is the space-bound equivalent of having your hands checked for cleanliness before being allowed to the table; and although intended to keep terrestrial germs from space, this technology has awesome applications here on Mother Earth. The bacterial spore-detection unit can recognize anthrax and other harmful, spore-forming bacteria and alert people of the impending danger. As evidenced in the anthrax mailings of fall 2001 in the United States, the first sign of anthrax exposure was when people experienced flu-like symptoms, which unfortunately, can take as much as a week to develop after contamination. Anthrax cost 5 people their lives and infected 19 others; and the threat of bioterrorism became a routine concern, with new threats popping up

  12. Risk Management Programs under Clean Air Act Section 112(r): Guidance for Implementing Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accidental release prevention programs under section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act (CAA) are related to and build on activities under the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, and Occupational Safety and Health Administration standards.

  13. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo

    2011-01-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some...... air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North...... technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long...

  14. Effectiveness of HVAC duct cleaning procedures in improving indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I; Tansel, B; Mitrani, J D

    2001-12-01

    Indoor air quality has become one of the most serious environmental concerns as an average person spends about 22 hr indoors on a daily basis. The study reported in this article, was conducted to determine the effectiveness of three commercial HVAC (Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning) duct cleaning processes in reducing the level of airborne particulate matter and viable bioaerosols. The three HVAC sanitation processes were: (1) Contact method (use of conventional vacuum cleaning of interior duct surfaces); (2) Air sweep method (use of compressed air to dislodging dirt and debris); (3) Rotary brush method (insertion of a rotary brush into the ductwork to agitate and dislodge the debris). Effectiveness of these sanitation processes was evaluated in terms of airborne particulate and viable bioaerosol concentrations in residential homes. Eight identical homes were selected in the same neighborhood. Two homes were cleaned using each procedure and two were used as controls. It was found that both particle count readings and bioaerosol concentrations were higher when cleaning was being performed than before or after cleaning, which suggests that dirt, debris and other pollutants may become airborne as a result of disturbances caused by the cleaning processes. Particle count readings at 0.3 micron size were found to have increased due to cigarette smoking. Particle counts at 1.0 micron size were reduced due to HVAC duct cleaning. Post-level bioaerosol concentrations, taken two days after cleaning, were found to be lower than the pre-level concentrations suggesting that the cleaning procedures were effective to some extent. Homes cleaned with the Air Sweep procedure showed the highest degree of reduction in bioaerosol concentration among the three procedures investigated.

  15. Radical observations during the Clean air for London project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, L. K.; Stone, D.; Clancy, N.; Lee, J. D.; Laufs, S.; Kleffmann, J.; Heard, D. E.

    2012-12-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Understanding the chemistry of free-radicals in the atmosphere is essential in improving predictions of the lifetimes of pollutants and spatial scales of their transport within urban areas. Results from earlier field campaigns in urban and polluted regions have demonstrated the significance of HONO photolysis and alkene ozonolysis in the production of HOx radicals. In many cases, however, measurements of HONO have not been made, reducing the ability to evaluate model successes for OH in these environments. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, RO2 and OH reactivity taken during the wintertime (January - February, 2012) and summertime (July - August, 2012) as part of the Clean air for London (ClearfLo) project in London. RO2 was detected using a newly developed flow-reactor laser-induced fluorescence technique which is able to discriminate between HO2 and organic peroxy radicals [1]. Low concentrations of radicals were observed during the wintertime, midday [OH], [HO2] and [RO2] were ~ 0.04, 0.8 and 1.5 pptv respectively, comparable to observations of radicals at other urban locations in winter [2,3,4], and which displayed a negative correlation with NO concentrations. OH reactivity was high and largely tracked the diurnal profiles of NOx and CO, with the highest reactivity ~100 s-1 observed during the morning rush hour. Analysis of factors controlling OH concentrations during the wintertime suggests that the formation of OH from the photolysis of O3 and subsequent reaction of O(1D) with H2O is a minor contribution both under high and low NOx conditions owing

  16. Self-Scrubbing Coal -- an integrated approach to clean air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, K.E. [Custom Coals Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Carefree Coal is coal cleaned in a proprietary dense-media cyclone circuit, using ultrafine magnetite slurries, to remove noncombustible material, including up to 90% of the pyritic sulfur. Deep cleaning alone, however, cannot produce a compliance fuel from coals with high organic sulfur contents. In these cases, Self-Scrubbing Coal will be produced. Self-Scrubbing Coal is produced in the same manner as Carefree Coal except that the finest fraction of product from the cleaning circuit is mixed with limestone-based additives and briquetted. The reduced ash content of the deeply-cleaned coal will permit the addition of relatively large amounts of sorbent without exceeding boiler ash specifications or overloading electrostatic precipitators. This additive reacts with sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) during combustion of the coal to remove most of the remaining sulfur. Overall, sulfur reductions in the range of 80--90% are achieved. After nearly 5 years of research and development of a proprietary coal cleaning technology coupled with pilot-scale validation studies of this technology and pilot-scale combustion testing of Self-Scrubbing Coal, Custom Coals Corporation organized a team of experts to prepare a proposal in response to DOE`s Round IV Program Opportunity Notice for its Clean Coal Technology Program under Public Law 101-121 and Public Law 101-512. The main objective of the demonstration project is the production of a coal fuel that will result in up to 90% reduction in sulfur emissions from coal-fired boilers at a cost competitive advantage over other technologies designed to accomplish the same sulfur emissions and over naturally occurring low sulfur coals.

  17. 40 CFR 60.3066 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3066 Section 60... Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3066 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

  18. 40 CFR 60.2971 - What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2971 Section 60... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2971 What are the emission limitations for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a)...

  19. Should You Have the Air Ducts in Your Home Cleaned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... home are present, you may wish to consider leaving the premises while the biocide is being applied ... About Indoor Air Quality U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Office of Radiation and Indoor Air Indoor Environments Division ( ...

  20. No Need to Wait for the Clean Air Dividend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shindell, Drew

    2012-01-01

    upfront costs of some measures can be prohibitive even when they eventually pay for themselves. But this can be overcome by mechanisms such as international financing of capital costs. For other measures, the costs are typically borne by a few while the benefits accrue to everybody. In such cases civil society and governments must get involved. Governments are starting to act. In February, the US, Canada, Sweden, Bangladesh, Ghana and Mexico launched the Climate and Clean Air Coalition to support implementation of measures like these. This coalition will hopefully expand and achieve rapid, widespread adoption of measures to cut black carbon and ozone. While the climate benefits will be substantial, it is important to note that these measures cannot substitute for cuts in carbon dioxide. Black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide and methane stay in the atmosphere for a fairly short time - a few days for black carbon and about a decade for methane. They thus respond quickly to emissions changes and give us substantial leverage over near-term climate change. In contrast, carbon dioxide is very long-lived and so responds slowly to emissions changes. This means that cuts have little immediate impact, but it also means they must be made now to avoid disastrous changes later on. Controlling short-lived climate pollutants is thus an issue of fairness. Much as failure to reduce carbon dioxide emissions soon would condemn future generations to disastrous change, failure to reduce near-term climate change condemns those alive today to suffer worsening effects of the sort already seen. Some wonder if we really can do both. We can, and we must.

  1. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA's Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  2. Air toxics provisions of the Clean Air Act: Potential impacts on energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hootman, H.A.; Vernet, J.E.

    1991-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the provisions of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments of 1990 that identify hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions and addresses their regulation by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It defines the major energy sector sources of these HAPs that would be affected by the regulations. Attention is focused on regulations that would cover coke oven emissions; chromium emission from industrial cooling towers and the electroplating process; HAP emissions from tank vessels, asbestos-related activities, organic solvent use, and ethylene oxide sterilization; and emissions of air toxics from municipal waste combustors. The possible implications of Title III regulations for the coal, natural gas, petroleum, uranium, and electric utility industries are examined. The report discusses five major databases of HAP emissions: (1) TRI (EPA`s Toxic Release Inventory); (2) PISCES (Power Plant Integrated Systems: Chemical Emissions Studies developed by the Electric Power Research Institute); (3) 1985 Emissions Inventory on volatile organic compounds (used for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program); (4) Particulate Matter Species Manual (EPA); and (5) Toxics Emission Inventory (National Aeronautics and Space Administration). It also offers information on emission control technologies for municipal waste combustors.

  3. Can commonly-used fan-driven air cleaning technologies improve indoor air quality? A literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinping; Mo, Jinhan; Li, Yuguo; Sundell, Jan; Wargocki, Pawel; Zhang, Jensen; Little, John C.; Corsi, Richard; Deng, Qihong; Leung, Michael H. K.; Fang, Lei; Chen, Wenhao; Li, Jinguang; Sun, Yuexia

    2011-08-01

    Air cleaning techniques have been applied worldwide with the goal of improving indoor air quality. The effectiveness of applying these techniques varies widely, and pollutant removal efficiency is usually determined in controlled laboratory environments which may not be realized in practice. Some air cleaners are largely ineffective, and some produce harmful by-products. To summarize what is known regarding the effectiveness of fan-driven air cleaning technologies, a state-of-the-art review of the scientific literature was undertaken by a multidisciplinary panel of experts from Europe, North America, and Asia with expertise in air cleaning, aerosol science, medicine, chemistry and ventilation. The effects on health were not examined. Over 26,000 articles were identified in major literature databases; 400 were selected as being relevant based on their titles and abstracts by the first two authors, who further reduced the number of articles to 160 based on the full texts. These articles were reviewed by the panel using predefined inclusion criteria during their first meeting. Additions were also made by the panel. Of these, 133 articles were finally selected for detailed review. Each article was assessed independently by two members of the panel and then judged by the entire panel during a consensus meeting. During this process 59 articles were deemed conclusive and their results were used for final reporting at their second meeting. The conclusions are that: (1) None of the reviewed technologies was able to effectively remove all indoor pollutants and many were found to generate undesirable by-products during operation. (2) Particle filtration and sorption of gaseous pollutants were among the most effective air cleaning technologies, but there is insufficient information regarding long-term performance and proper maintenance. (3) The existing data make it difficult to extract information such as Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR), which represents a common benchmark for

  4. Your Right to Clean Air, A Manual for Citizen Action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970

    This manual provides the citizen with basic information for taking action against air pollution. A summary of the effects of various concentrations of sulfur oxides, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, photochemical smog, and hydrocarbons is presented. Suggestions are made for obtaining information about community air pollution problems, and how…

  5. Evaluation of various activated carbons for air cleaning - Towards design of immune and sustainable buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighat, Fariborz; Lee, Chang-Seo; Pant, Bhuvan; Bolourani, Golnoush; Lakdawala, Ness; Bastani, Arash

    There are increased demands for security, sustainability and indoor air quality in today's building design, construction, operation and maintenance. Installation of air cleaning systems can improve the indoor air quality by reducing the air pollution levels, and enhance the building security against sudden release of chemical and/or biological agents. At the same time, air cleaning techniques may reduce the building energy consumption by reducing the outdoor air supply rate, hence lowering the needs for conditioning of outdoor air. While the air filtration of particulate matter is well standardized, the standards against which the performance of air cleaning for gaseous contaminants is measured or classified are still under development. This study examined the performance of various granular activated carbons (GACs) for the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from mechanically ventilated buildings. Eight different GACs (three virgin and five impregnated) were tested against toluene using a dynamic test system. The virgin GACs showed better performance than impregnated ones, the percentage and the type of impregnation affected the removal efficiencies. Tests were also conducted with selected GACs against toluene, cyclohexane and ethyl acetate at relative humidity (RH) values of 30%, 50% and 70%. The effect of humidity was dependant on the VOC used. Both for toluene and cyclohexane, the removal efficiency decreased as RH increased. However, higher humidity showed a positive impact on the removal of ethyl acetate.

  6. Wet-air oxidation cleans up black wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Sterling Organics produces the analgesic paracetamol (acetaminophen) at its Dudley, England, plant. The wastewater from the batch process contains intermediates such as para-aminophenol (PAP) and byproducts such as thiosulfates, sulfites and sulfides. To stay ahead of increasingly strict environmental legislation, Sterling Organics installed a wet-air oxidation system at the Dudley facility in August 1992. The system is made by Zimpro Environmental Inc. (Rothschild, Wis.). Zimpro's wet-air oxidation system finds a way around the limitations of purely chemical or physical processes. In the process, compressed air at elevated temperature and pressure oxidizes the process intermediates and byproducts and removes the color from the wastewater.

  7. Eastern States Harness Clean Energy to Promote Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2007-10-01

    States on the East Coast are including renewable energy and energy efficiency projects into their air quality plans that they submit to the EPA to address nonattainment for nitrogen oxides and other pollutants.

  8. Can Market Forces Clean The Air In Metro Manila?

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine Frances J. Corpuz

    1999-01-01

    Metro Manila, like many cities in Southeast Asia, is badly affected by poor air quality. Legislation has failed to combat the problem due to inadequate regulatory enforcement and industry's cavalier attitude towards pollution. However a recent economic study has found that a solution to this crisis could be provided by taxation and other similar economic instruments. The study drew on a wide range of research and information to get an overview of the air pollution situation in Metro Manila. T...

  9. California Clean Air Act: A compliance strategy for the City of San Diego`s non-emergency fleet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    Historically, parts of California have had the worst air quality in the nation. The California Energy Commission began experimenting with alternate fuels in the 1970`s in an effort to reduce harmful automobile emissions and hence, improve air quality. It is recognized that the costs to California which result from our air quality problems are immense. Ten to twenty billion dollars each year is the estimated damage in terms of health impacts, materials damages, lost agricultural crop output and forest damages. As the California population increases and health care costs escalate, the total monetary damages from air pollution will increase. The California Energy Commission goal to improve air quality became a mandate in 1988 with the passage of the California Clean Air Act (CCAA). The CCAA requires a revised air quality strategy for the San Diego district since we do not meet State air quality standards for smog, carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Smog remains San Diego`s major air quality problem, even though the annual number of days each year over the Federal standard has been reduced by 55 percent in the past ten years. Ten years ago about two-thirds of San Diego`s smog was transported from Los Angeles. Today more than 60 per cent of the days San Diego exceeds the State standard are from locally generated smog. It is estimated that 57% of the reactive hydrocarbon emissions (which react with nitrogen dioxide in the presence of sunlight to form smog) is from cars, trucks and buses. The Air Pollution Control District (part of the County of San Diego) is the office that the Air Resources Board has put in charge of creating regulations and designing strategy to reduce polluting emissions. The purpose of this project is to determine the full cost of acquiring and operating a municipal fleet which meets the mandates of the California Clean Air Act. With that information, a plan to meet the Clear Air Act (CCAA) requirements can be formulated by local government.

  10. Bias present in US federal agency power plant CO2 emissions data and implications for the US clean power plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurney, K. R.; Huang, J.; Coltin, K.

    2016-06-01

    Power plants constitute roughly 40% of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in the United States. Climate change science, air pollution regulation, and potential carbon trading policies rely on accurate, unbiased quantification of these large point sources. Two US federal agencies—the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency—tabulate the emissions from US power plants using two different methodological approaches. We have analyzed those two data sets and have found that when averaged over all US facilities, the median percentage difference is less than 3%. However, this small difference masks large, non-Gaussian, positive and negative differences at individual facilities. For example, over the 2001-2009 time period, nearly one-half of the facilities have monthly emission differences that exceed roughly ±6% and one-fifth exceed roughly ±13%. It is currently not possible to assess whether one, or both, of the datasets examined here are responsible for the emissions difference. Differences this large at the individual facility level raise concerns regarding the operationalization of policy within the United States such as the recently announced Clean Power Plan. This policy relies on the achievement of state-level CO2 emission rate targets. When examined at the state-level we find that one-third of the states have differences that exceed 10% of their assigned reduction amount. Such levels of uncertainty raise concerns about the ability of individual states to accurately quantify emission rates in order to meet the regulatory targets.

  11. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, R. [LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby & MacRae, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  12. 75 FR 43554 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“Clean Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-26

    ... of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (``Clean Water Act... Water Act, 33 U.S.C. 1311 and 1318, at thirteen of its facilities in Massachusetts by discharging pollutants in storm water associated with construction activity without a permit, failing to timely ]...

  13. Human Response to Ductless Personalised Ventilation: Impact of Air Movement, Temperature and Cleanness on Eye Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Fillon, Maelys; Bivolarova, Maria;

    2013-01-01

    The performance of ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation (DV) was studied in relation to peoples’ health, comfort and performance. This paper presents results on the impact of room air temperature, using of DPV and local air filtration on eye blink...... rate and tear film quality. In a test room with DV and six workstations 30 human subjects were exposed for four hours to each of the following 5 experimental conditions: 23 °C and DV only, 23 °C and DPV with air filter, 29 °C and DV only, 29 °C and DPV, and 29 °C and DPV with air filter. At warm...... environment facially applied individually controlled air movement of room air, with or without local filtering, did not have significant impact on eye blink frequency and tear film quality. The local air movement and air cleaning resulted in increased eye blinking frequency and improvement of tear film...

  14. CAN SORBENT-BASED GAS PHASE AIR CLEANING FOR VOCS SUBSTITUTE FOR VENTILATION IN COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William; Fisk, William J.

    2007-08-01

    This paper reviews current knowledge about the suitability of sorbent-based air cleaning for removing volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from the air in commercial buildings, as needed to enable reductions in ventilation rates and associated energy savings. The principles of sorbent air cleaning are introduced, criteria are suggested for sorbent systems that can counteract indoor VOC concentration increases from reduced ventilation, major findings from research on sorbent performance for this application are summarized, and related priority research needs are identified. Major conclusions include: sorbent systems can remove a broad range of VOCs with moderate to high efficiency, sorbent technologies perform effectively when challenged with VOCs at the low concentrations present indoors, and there is a large uncertainty about the lifetime and associated costs of sorbent air cleaning systems when used in commercial buildings for indoor VOC control. Suggested priority research includes: experiments to determine sorbent system VOC removal efficiencies and lifetimes considering the broad range and low concentration of VOCs indoors; evaluations of in-situ regeneration of sorbents; and an updated analysis of the cost of sorbent air cleaning relative to the cost of ventilation.

  15. Is the perception of clean, humid air indeed affected by cooling the respiratory tract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burek, Rudolf; Polednik, Bernard; Guz, Łukasz

    2017-07-01

    The study aims at determining exposure-response relationships after short exposure to clean air and long exposure to air polluted by people. The impact of water vapor content in the indoor air on its acceptability (ACC) was assessed by the occupants after a short exposure to clean air and an hour-long exposure to increasingly polluted air. The study presents a critical analysis pertaining to the stimulation of olfactory sensations by the air enthalpy suggested in previous models and proposes a new model based on the Weber-Fechner law. Our assumption was that water vapor is the stimulus of olfactory sensations. The model was calibrated and verified in field conditions, in a mechanically ventilated and air conditioned auditorium. Measurements of the air temperature, relative humidity, velocity and CO2 content were carried out; the acceptability of air quality was assessed by 162 untrained students. The subjective assessments and the measurements of the environmental qualities allowed for determining the Weber coefficients and the threshold concentrations of water vapor, as well as for establishing the limitations of the model at short and long exposure to polluted indoor air. The results are in agreement with previous studies. The standard error equals 0.07 for immediate assessments and 0.17 for assessments after adaptation. Based on the model one can predict the ACC assessments of trained and untrained participants.

  16. Window-mounted unit cleans air at hazardous waste site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battaglia, J.M. (Independent Equipment Corp., Raritan, NJ (United States)); Sawyer, P.

    1994-07-01

    Uncontrolled hazardous waste sites present the potential for exposure to numerous airborne chemicals--both identified and unidentified. This was the case at an Elizabeth, N.J., remediation project managed by a major environmental contractor. The four-acre site housed three active manufacturing facilities and was bordered by an operation commuter railroad line. About 6,300 drums of assorted organic chemicals, mostly acid chlorides and bromides, awaited sampling and removal. In addition, 120 tanks and vessels required sampling, characterization and removal. Due to site restrictions, support trailers were located relatively close to active work areas. Damaged drums littering the site contained water-reactive, organic acid chlorides and bromides, and released slight emissions during humid or rainy conditions. Shifting winds could (and did) carry trace releases or trace contaminants toward the trailers, potentially exposing unprotected workers. Efforts were begun to alleviate even trace contaminant at levels in the remediation site's temporary office trailers. One potential solution to managing trace contaminants at the site was to use a window-mounted, air conditioner-type unit that would replenish each trailer with filtered air three times an hour, and provide positive pressure in the trailer to compensate for repeated openings and closings of doors. The design uses common, off-the-shelf components to temper the approximately 10 percent makeup air, which provides positive pressure.

  17. Proceedings of the 10th world clean air congress. Impacts and management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaemaeri, J.; Tolvanen, M.; Anttila, P.; Salonen, R.O. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    Rapid economical growth and expansion of human population have produced a number of environmental problems with varying geographic dimensions. While local problems remain near the pollution sources, the focus of the scientific community is more and more shifted towards regional, continental and global consequences of air pollutants. The theme of the 10th Clean Air Congress `Growing Challenges from Local to Global` reflects the growing demand from the scientific and professional community working in air pollution prevention and environmental protection - more and more complex mechanisms should be understood on a growing spatial scale. The 10th World Clean Air Congress addresses in its more than 400 presentations, documented in three Volumes of Proceedings, the history, the present and the potential futures of the air pollution problems. This volume includes all papers of paths C `Pollutant Impacts`, D `Pollution Management`, and E `Health Effects`. Path C includes numerous highly relevant papers dealing with climate change and greenhouse gases, as well as with environmental effects of air pollutants mostly on materials and vegetation. The most critical issues on air pollutant management throw light on national and regional abatement strategies and on the applicability of various tools for pollution management. The path on effects on human health includes a session on `Air pollution epidemiology` sponsored by the Economic Commission for Europe and a session on `Health effect control strategies` sponsored by the UN World Health Organization. In these sessions invited speakers describe the current understanding of human responses to air pollution exposure

  18. 77 FR 41930 - Bleed Air Cleaning and Monitoring Equipment and Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-17

    ... an opportunity to participate in #0;the rule making prior to the adoption of the final rules. #0; #0... Equipment and Technology ACTION: Notice; request for information. SUMMARY: The FAA seeks information from industry developers, manufacturers, and the public related to effective air cleaning technology and...

  19. 78 FR 11682 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Settlement Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... violations of the Risk Management Program requirements of the Clean Air Act and 40 CFR part 68 at three of... reproduction costs. Please mail your request and payment to: Consent Decree Library, U.S. DOJ--ENRD, P.O....

  20. 78 FR 1883 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-09

    ... alleges that Wisconsin Public Service Corporation (``WPS'') failed to comply with certain requirements of... regulations. The complaint alleges that WPS failed to obtain appropriate permits and failed to install and... resolve past Clean Air Act violations and would require WPS to reduce harmful emissions of sulfur...

  1. Assessing the Link between Environmental Concerns and Consumers' Decisions to Use Clean-Air Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plax, Timothy G.; Kearney, Patricia; Ross, Ted J.; Jolly, J. Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A consulting contract with the California Air Resources Board led to a project examining how California drivers' and fleet managers' perceptions, attitudes, and consumer behavior regarding Clean Vehicle Technologies influenced their own energy choices when it came to purchasing vehicles. The consultants examined archival research, conducted focus…

  2. Key Technology and Experimental Results of the Clean Air Heated Facility for Supersonic Combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Zipeng; SONG Wenyan; LE Jialing

    2009-01-01

    The scramjet, which is the propulsion of hypersonic vehicle, has become the focus in many military developed countries. The ground tests play an important role in the research of scramjet. There is defect of test medium contamination (the thermochemical characteristic of the ground test medium is different from that of the flight medium) in existing ground test facilities for scramjet combustor experiment. To solve the problem of test medium contamination, the first clean air heated facility of China for scramjet combustor experiment is designed. The key technology of designing the clean air heated facility is summarized. By using bypass duct, combustor model is protected from high temperature. To reduce the switching time between main duct and bypass duct, solenoid valve and water-cooled system were used. Having centrosymmetric structure, the heat radiating area of the facility and heat loss of the facility are much lower than others. Clean air heated facility is adopted to conduct experiment, which is the first experiment of China in clean air inflow, research on hydrogen-fueled and ethylene-fueled ignition and combustion for scramjet combustor at different equivalence ratio. Successful ignition and sustained combustion of hydrogen has been achieved. Successful ethylene ignition and sustained main stream combustion is achieved with normal fuel injection and taking hydrogen as pilot flame. Experiment result shows that the wall pressure of combustor model rises when the equivalence ratio of hydrogen rises. As the wall pressure of combustor model rises, the pressure disturbance influences the shock train in the upstream.

  3. 75 FR 68094 - Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable... AGENCY [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0211; FRL-9215-5] Partial Grant and Partial Denial of Clean Air Act Waiver Application Submitted by Growth Energy To Increase the Allowable Ethanol Content of Gasoline to 15 Percent...

  4. 78 FR 63494 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-To Know Act On September 30, 2013, the Department of Justice lodged a proposed Consent... Door Company, Civil Action No. 6:13-cv-01738-MC. In this lawsuit filed under the Clean Air Act and...

  5. [Assessment of the air quality improment of cleaning and disinfection on central air-conditioning ventilation system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongliang; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Lihong; Wang, Fei; Xue, Zhiming

    2009-09-01

    To assess the effect of air quality of cleaning and disinfection on central air-conditioning ventilation systems. 102 air-conditioning ventilation systems in 46 public facilities were sampled and investigated based on Hygienic assessment criterion of cleaning and disinfection of public central air-conditioning systems. Median dust volume decreased from 41.8 g/m2 to 0.4 g/m2, and the percentage of pipes meeting the national standard for dust decreased from 17.3% (13/60) to 100% (62/62). In the dust, median aerobic bacterial count decreased from 14 cfu/cm2 to 1 cfu/cm2. Median aerobic fungus count decreased from 10 cfu/cm2 to 0 cfu/cm2. The percentage of pipes with bacterial and fungus counts meeting the national standard increased from 92.4% (171/185) and 82.2% (152/185) to 99.4% (165/166) and 100% (166/166), respectively. In the ventilation air, median aerobic bacterial count decreased from 756 cfu/m3 to 229 cfu/m3. Median aerobic fungus count decreased from 382 cfu/m3 to 120 cfu/m3. The percentage of pipes meeting the national standard for ventilation air increased from 33.3% (81/243) and 62.1% (151/243) to 79.8% (292/366) and 87.7% (242/276), respectively. But PM10 rose from 0.060 mg/m3 to 0.068 mg/m3, and the percentage of pipes meeting the national standard for PM10 increased from 74.2% (13/60) to 90.2% (46/51). The cleaning and disinfection of central air-conditioning ventilation systems could have a beneficial effect of air quality.

  6. Measuring the benefits of clean air and water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kneese, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    Methods are discussed for quantitatively estimating the benefits derived from the maintenance or improvement of air and water quality. Investigations are centered on two broad approaches. The first approach involves methods based, however indirectly, on observed human behavior with respect to environmental good, including travel to recreational opportunities of varying quality and prices paid for houses in different locations. The second approach involves questioning respondents about their willingness to pay for various hypothetical changes in environmental quality. Included in this book is the current state of the art regarding benefits assessment, including such tools as bidding games, surveys, property-value studies, wage differentials, risk-reduction evaluation, and mortality and morbidity cost estimation.

  7. Cleaning mechanism of particle contaminants on large aperture optical components by using air knife sweeping technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Longfei; Liu, Hao; Miao, Xinxiang; Lv, Haibing; Yuan, Xiaodong; Zhou, Hai; Yao, Caizhen; Zhou, Guorui; Li, Qin

    2017-05-01

    The cleaning mechanism of optical surface particle contaminants in the light pneumatic tube was simulated based on the static equations and JKR model. Cleaning verification experiment based on air knife sweeping system and on-line monitoring system in high power laser facility was set up in order to verify the simulated results. Results showed that the removal ratio is significantly influenced by sweeping velocity and angle. The removal ratio can reach to 94.3% by using higher input pressure of the air knife, demonstrating that the air knife sweeping technology is useful for maintaining the surface cleanliness of optical elements, and thus guaranteeing the long-term stable running of the high power laser facility.

  8. Regulatory policy issues and the Clean Air Act: Issues and papers from the state implementation workshops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, K. [ed.; Burns, R.E.

    1993-07-01

    The National Regulatory Research Institute (NRRI), with funding from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE), conducted four regional workshops` on state public utility commission implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). The workshops had four objectives: (1) to discuss key issues and concerns on CAAA implementation, (2) to encourage a discussion among states on issues of common interests, (3) to attempt to reach consensus, where possible, on key issues, and (4) to provide the workshop participants with information and materials to assist in developing state rules, orders, and procedures. From the federal perspective, a primary goal was to ensure that workshop participants return to their states with a comprehensive background and understanding of how state commission actions may affect implementation of the CAAA and to be able to provide guidance to their jurisdictional utilities. It was hoped that this would reduce some of the uncertainty utilities face and assist in the development of an efficient allowance market. This report is divided into two main sections. In Section II, eleven principal issues are identified and discussed. These issues were chosen because they were either the most frequently discussed or they were related to the questions asked in response to the speakers` presentations. This section does not cover all the issues relevant to state implementation nor all the issues discussed at the workshops; rather, Section II is intended to provide an overview of the,planning, ratemaking, and multistate issues. Part III is a series of workshop papers presented by some of the speakers. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  9. Give clean air the economic value it deserves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, H. [United Air Fund, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2000-07-01

    India contributes more to the management of the atmosphere than a country like the Netherlands. This is not to the credit of the Indian government; rather, it is merely a consequence of poverty. Poor people use almost no fossil fuels and emit almost no CO2. Paying developing countries for this environmental service to the world community would create a financial incentive to continue to provide this service in the future, while at the same time generating additional funds to improve the living standards of the poorest people. The attractiveness of this approach depends on one important assumption: the conventional development path - economic growth implies emissions - must be replaced by a sustainable development path delinks economic growth from increasing emissions. Rich industrialised countries also have an interest in such decoupling. The compensation they pay the developing countries would fall proportionately to the reduction of their CO2 emissions. So an incentive is created on both sides to switch over to a low-carbon energy strategy. After the completion of this transition, every country can use as much energy as it wants, because energy consumption would then no longer cause CO2 emissions. This is the picture of the future to which the United Air Fund aspires.

  10. Clean air with positive energy balance. Elisabeth hospital in Essen uses energy optimized air conditioning systems; Saubere Luft mit positiver Energiebilanz. Elisabeth-Krankenhaus in Essen nutzt energieoptimierte Lueftungsgeraete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunker, Ralf

    2009-02-15

    Thinking on a long-term basis, spontaneously acting - according to this slogan the Elizabeth hospital in Essen (Federal Republic of Germany) converts potentials of energy saving with the facility management. Parallel to the change of the endoscope department and the station Barbara with its 35 beds, the hospital had installed particularly energy-saving air conditioning systems which can be cleaned easily. A view behind the doors of the technology rooms.

  11. Bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with local air cleaning for improved IAQ in hospital patient rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mizutani, Chiyomi;

    2016-01-01

    The performance of a ventilated mattress (VM) used as a bed-integrated local exhaust ventilation system combined with air cleaning fabric (acid-treated activated carbon fibre (ACF) fabric) was developed and studied. The separate and combined effect of the VM and the local air cleaning for reducing...... micro-environment was exhausted. Two modes of operation were studied: 1) the exhausted polluted air was discharged out of the room and 2) the polluted air was cleaned by the ACF material installed inside the mattress and recirculated back into the room. Both modes of operation efficiently reduced...

  12. Investigation of efficiency of air cleaning from acetone using a segmental construction biofilter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denas Bacevičius

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds, e. g. acetone, have a direct impact on climate change, decrease of ozone in the air, and on the growth of greenhouse effect. One of the most popular air purifying methods from VOC is a biological air cleaning. Experimental investigations were conducted to determine the efficiency of the new structure of biofilter with polypropylene plates segments. During the investigations the efficiency of segmental construction biofilter of air purification at different initial concentrations of pollutants was determined. Different concentrations of pollutants were estimated during the acetone dilution with water. During the tests the efficiency of biofilter air purification from acetone vapor and its change under different concentrations of vapors was set. Based on test results, the maximum efficiency of biofilter air purification was up to 93%. Studies have shown that increasing the allowable pollutant concentration, the efficiency of air purification unit decreases. Increasing the concentration of supplied acetone vapor into the biofilter from 232 to 701 mg/m3, cleaning efficiency decreased from 92.8 to 82.3%. Since microorganisms fail to oxidize organic compounds, the filter works better at lower initial concentrations of pollutants.

  13. A review of the current geographic distribution of and debate surrounding electronic cigarette clean air regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, Joy; Vuolo, Mike; Kelly, Brian C

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the results of a systematic review of state, county, and municipal restrictions on the use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) in public spaces within the United States, alongside an overview of the current legal landscape. The lack of federal guidance leaves lower-level jurisdictions to debate the merits of restrictions on use in public spaces without sufficient scientific research. As we show through a geographic assessment of restrictions, this has resulted in an inconsistent patchwork of e-cigarette use bans across the United States of varying degrees of coverage. Bans have emerged over time in a manner that suggests a "bottom up" diffusion of e-cigarette clean air policies. Ultimately, the lack of clinical and scientific knowledge on the risks and potential harm reduction benefits has led to precautionary policymaking, which often lacks grounding in empirical evidence and results in spatially uneven diffusion of policy.

  14. 75 FR 15620 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AK62 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by requiring substantial... 37122) amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to...

  15. 76 FR 44829 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... Administration 49 CFR Part 571 [Docket No. NHTSA-2009-0175] RIN 2127-AK84 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 121, Air Brake Systems, to require improved...

  16. A Multilevel Test of Constrained Choices Theory: The Case of Tobacco Clean Air Restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuolo, Mike; Kadowaki, Joy; Kelly, Brian C

    2016-09-01

    According to Bird and Rieker's sociology of constrained choices, decisions and priorities concerning health are shaped by the contexts-including policy, community, and work/family-in which they are formulated. While each level received attention in the original and subsequent research, we contend their constrained choices theory provides a powerful multilevel framework for modeling health outcomes. We apply this framework to tobacco clean air restrictions, combining a comprehensive database of tobacco policies with the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 from ages 19 to 31. Using multilevel panel models, we find that clean air policies lower the odds of past 30 day smoking and dependence while controlling for other policy-, city-, and individual-level constraints. We also find unique between- and within-person effects, as well as gender effects, for the constraint levied by smoking bans. We argue for the theory's broad applicability beyond commonly cited findings regarding gender and biological influences.

  17. 78 FR 9623 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Air Brake Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 571 RIN 2127-AL11 Federal Motor Vehicle Safety... published a final rule that amended the Federal motor vehicle safety standard for air brake systems by... published a final rule in the Federal Register amending Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS)...

  18. The Impact of the Clean Air Acts on Coal Mining Employment in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Hoag, John H.; Reed, J. David

    2002-01-01

    This article provides empirical evidence that environmental legislation affecting coal mining employment passed in 1977 had different effects on Western Kentucky, where the coal is of higher sulfur content, compared to Eastern Kentucky, where coals are of lower sulfur content, while the 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act had no statistically significant impact in either region. The 1977 law generated a statistically significant reduction in West Kentucky employment. In addition, it appears ...

  19. Experimental Study on Indoor Air Cleaning Technique of Nano-Titania Catalysis Under Plasma Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Deli; YANG Xuechang; ZHOU Fei; WU Yuhuang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a new technique of air cleaning by plasma combined with catalyst was proposed, which consisted of electrostatic precipitation, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decomposition and sterilization. A novel indoor air purifier based on this technique was adopted. The experimental results showed that formaldehyde decomposition by the plasma-catalyst hybrid system was more efficient than that by plasma only. Positive discharge was better than negative discharge in formaldehyde removal. Meanwhile, the outlet concentration of ozone byproduct was effectively reduced by the nano-titania catalyst.

  20. Air Quality Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Facilities with operating permits for Title V of the Federal Clean Air Act, as well as facilities required to submit an air emissions inventory, and other facilities...

  1. Cleaning Pakistan's Air : Policy Options to Address the Cost of Outdoor Air Pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Triana, Ernesto; Enriquez, Santiago; Afzal, Javaid; Nakagawa,Akiko; Khan, Asif Shuja

    2014-01-01

    Pakistan's urban air pollution is among the most severe in the world and it engenders significant damages to human health and the economy. Air pollution, inadequate water supply, sanitation, and hygiene are the top environmental priority problems in Pakistan. Industrialization and urbanization, in conjunction with motorization, can result in further deterioration of urban air quality. This...

  2. 76 FR 36917 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... AGENCY Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition for Objection to State Operating Permit for TransAlta Centralia Generation, LLC--Coal- Fired Power Plant AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... to a citizen petition asking EPA to object to an operating permit issued by the Southwest Clean...

  3. Cleaning Products and Air Fresheners: Emissions and ResultingConcentrations of Glycol Ethers and Terpenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C.; Destaillat, Hugo; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Nazaroff,William W.

    2005-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to quantify emissions and concentrations of glycol ethers and terpenoids from cleaning product and air freshener use in a 50-m{sup 3} room ventilated at {approx}0.5 h{sup -1}. Five cleaning products were applied full-strength (FS); three were additionally used in dilute solution. FS application of pine-oil cleaner (POC) yielded 1-h concentrations of 10-1300 {micro}g m{sup -3} for individual terpenoids, including {alpha}-terpinene (90-120), d-limonene (1000-1100), terpinolene (900-1300), and {alpha}-terpineol (260-700). One-hour concentrations of 2-butoxyethanol and/or dlimonene were 300-6000 {micro}g m{sup -3} after FS use of other products. During FS application including rinsing with sponge and wiping with towels, fractional emissions (mass volatilized/dispensed) of 2-butoxyethanol and d-limonene were 50-100% with towels retained, {approx}25-50% when towels were removed after cleaning. Lower fractions (2-11%) resulted from dilute use. Fractional emissions of terpenes from FS use of POC were {approx}35-70% with towels retained, 20-50% with towels removed. During floor cleaning with dilute solution of POC, 7-12% of dispensed terpenes were emitted. Terpene alcohols were emitted at lower fractions: 7-30% (FS, towels retained), 2-9% (FS, towels removed), and 2-5% (dilute). During air-freshener use, d-limonene, dihydromyrcenol, linalool, linalyl acetate, and {beta}-citronellol were emitted at 35-180 mg d{sup -1} over three days while air concentrations averaged 30-160 {micro}g m{sup -3}.

  4. Removal of mercury vapor from ambient air of dental clinics using an air cleaning system based on silver nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiman Saeidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objective: Mercury is a toxic and bio-accumulative pollutant that has adverse effects on environmental and human health. There have been a number of attempts to regulate mercury emissions tothe atmosphere. Silver nanoparticles are a number of materials that have highly potential to absorb mercury and formation of mercury amalgam.The aim of this study is removal of mercury vapors in the dental clinic using a n a ir cleaning system based on silver nanoparticles. Methods: In this study, silver nanoparticles coated on the bed of foam and chemical and structural properties were determined using a number of methods such as UV-VIS-NIR spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM connected the X-ray Emission Spectroscopy Energy (EDS. The a ir cleaning system efficiency to remove of the mercury vapor in simulated conditions in the laboratory and real conditions in the dental clinicwere measured by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (CVAAS. Results: The images of SEM, showed that average sizeof silver nanoparticles in colloidal solution was ∼ 30nm and distribution of silver nanoparticles coated on foam was good. EDS spectrum confirmed associated the presence of silver nanoparticles coated on foam. The significantly difference observed between the concentration of mercury vapor in the off state (9.43 ± 0.342 μg.m-3 and on state (0.51 ± 0.031μg.m-3 of the a ir cleaning system. The mercury vapor removal efficiencyof the a ir cleaning system was calculated 95%. Conclusion : The air cleaning system based on foam coated by silver nanoparticles, undertaken to provide the advantages such as use facilitating, highly efficient operational capacity and cost effective, have highly sufficiency to remove mercury vapor from dental clinics.

  5. Accuracy of Linear Depolarisation Ratios in Clean Air Ranges Measured with POLIS-6 at 355 and 532 NM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freudenthaler Volker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Linear depolarization ratios in clean air ranges were measured with POLIS-6 at 355 and 532 nm. The mean deviation from the theoretical values, including the rotational Raman lines within the filter bandwidths, amounts to 0.0005 at 355 nm and to 0.0012 at 532 nm. The mean uncertainty of the measured linear depolarization ratio of clean air is about 0.0005 at 355 nm and about 0.0006 at 532 nm.

  6. Proceedings of the 21st DOE/NRC nuclear air cleaning conference; Volume 2, Sessions 9--16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    First, M.W. [ed.] [Harvard Univ., Boston, MA (United States). Harvard Air Cleaning Lab.

    1991-02-01

    The 21st meeting of the Department of Energy/Nuclear Regulatory Commission (DOE/NRC) Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference was held in San Diego, CA on August 13--16, 1990. The proceedings have been published as a two volume set. Volume 2 contains sessions covering adsorbents, nuclear codes and standards, modelling, filters, safety, containment venting and a review of nuclear air cleaning programs around the world. Also included is the list of attendees and an index of authors and speakers. (MHB)

  7. Human Response to Ductless Personalized Ventilation with Local Air Cleaning: Air Quality and Prevalence of SBS Symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Bivolarova, Maria; Fillon, Maelys

    2013-01-01

    ) and six workstations, three of which had DPV. The DV kept air temperature in the occupied zone (1.1 m above the floor). Pollution load was simulated by PVC floor covering and the bioeffluents generated by the subjects (60% recirculated room air). DPV sucked the air distributed over the floor by the DV...... and supplied it to the breathing zone of the subjects. The subjects were allowed to control the position of the DPV supply diffuser and the personalized flow rate. Each subject participated in five 4-hour experiments: 23 °C with DV only, 23 °C with DPV with air filter, 29 °C with DV only, 29 °C with DPV......The impact of local air cleaning and cooling of the head region by ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) on perceived air quality (PAQ) and Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. Thirty subjects participated in experiments performed in a test room with displacement ventilation (DV...

  8. Energy efficient biological air cleaning for farm stable ventilation; Energieffektiv biologisk luftrensning til staldventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenborg Nicolaisen, C.; Hansen, Mads P.R. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Stroem, J.; Soerensen, Keld [DXT. Danish Exergy Technology A/S, Skoerping (Denmark); Goetke, C. [Lokalenergi Aarhus, Viby J. (Denmark); Morsing, S.; Soerensen, Lars C. [SKOV A/S, Roslev (Denmark); Ladegaerd Jensen, T.; Pedersen, Poul [Videncenter for svineproduktion, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2013-05-01

    The project has been designed to reduce energy consumption for air purification by 30% while having a payback period of maximum 3 years. The project has achieved very significant results which are far above the target. Particularly satisfying is the wide range of new components that are launched in late 2012. By implementing the newly developed system at 100% cleaning (LPC 13 ventilators and Dynamic multistep control) in relation to Best Practice (SKOV's original system with DA600 fans) in a concrete pigsty, a saving of 61% and a simple payback of 1.7 years is achieved. Similarly, it is found that the energy used for pump operation can be reduced by 37% with the new Dynamic sprinkling control. At 20% cleaning a potential saving of 15% per year and a payback period of between 0 and 5 years was found, which is dependent on the desired performance as the capacities in the bio-filter's upper capacity range between 26 thousand to 30 thousand m3 / h entails costs for an additional extraction unit in the new solution. Furthermore, the newly developed components proved highly suitable for standard installations without air cleaning where a savings potential is 53% and the payback period 1.5 years. Product-wise, the project formed the basis for the development of: 1. New energy-efficient ventilation units (LPC11, 12,13) that are suitable for air purification; 2. A new energy-saving control principle (Dynamic Multi-Step) which is particularly suitable for low-energy ventilators; 3. A new energy-saving flow measurement system for ventilating ducts (Dynamic air to the central exhaust); 4. An energy-saving pressure control in common ducts (pressure control as a function of outside temperature); 5. Proposal for a new energy-saving pump operation for sprinkling of biological filters (Dynamic sprinkling). (LN)

  9. An introduction to the design, commissioning and operation of nuclear air cleaning systems for Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xinliang Chen; Jiangang Qu; Minqi Shi [Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (China)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    This paper introduces the design evolution, system schemes and design and construction of main nuclear air cleaning components such as HEPA filter, charcoal adsorber and concrete housing etc. for Qinshan 300MW PWR Nuclear Power Plant (QNPP), the first indigenously designed and constructed nuclear power plant in China. The field test results and in-service test results, since the air cleaning systems were put into operation 18 months ago, are presented and evaluated. These results demonstrate that the design and construction of the air cleaning systems and equipment manufacturing for QNPP are successful and the American codes and standards invoked in design, construction and testing of nuclear air cleaning systems for QNPP are applicable in China. The paper explains that the leakage rate of concrete air cleaning housings can also be assured if sealing measures are taken properly and embedded parts are designed carefully in the penetration areas of the housing and that the uniformity of the airflow distribution upstream the HEPA filters can be achieved generally no matter how inlet and outlet ducts of air cleaning unit are arranged.

  10. Interaction between Titles 2 and 3 of the Clean Air Act as amended, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szpunar, C.B.

    1996-02-01

    This report examines Some issues that would I affect the refining industry if the requirements for hazardous air pollutants set out in Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendments were to impede the market entrance of oxygenated fuels, as me; required by Title II. It describes the mandate for reformulated gasoline; considers gasoline characteristics in light of component shifts in refining; examines the supply of, demand for, and cost of various feedstocks and blendstocks; and identifies the emissions and atmospheric impacts that might result from the production and use of reformulated gasoline. Attention is focused on methanol and MTBE, two potential blendstocks that are also hazardous air pollutants, and on maximum achievable control technology standards, which might be applied to the stationary sources that produce them.

  11. Indoor secondary pollutants from cleaning product and air freshener use in the presence of ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singer, B.C.; Coleman, B.K.; Destaillats, H.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the formation of secondary pollutants resulting from household product use in the presence of ozone. Experiments were conducted in a 50-m(3) chamber simulating a residential room. The chamber was operated at conditions relevant to US residences in polluted areas during warm......-oil air freshener (AFR) was operated for several days. Cleaning products were applied realistically with quantities scaled to simulate residential use rates. Concentrations of organic gases and secondary organic aerosol from the terpene-containing consumer products were measured with and without ozone...... than 100 mu g m(-3)) in some experiments. Ozone consumption and elevated hydroxyl radical concentrations persisted for 10-12 h following brief cleaning events, indicating that secondary pollutant production can persist for extended periods. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  12. 75 FR 22559 - Federal Advisory Committee; Air University Board of Visitors; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Air University Board of Visitors; Charter Renewal AGENCY... the charter for the Air University Board of Visitors (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER..., 703-601-6128. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Board is a discretionary Federal advisory committee...

  13. 40 CFR 60.3064 - What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste and then restart it? 60.3064... Rule-Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3064 What must I do if I close my air curtain incinerator that burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and...

  14. 75 FR 11738 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Virginia; Revision to Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, is not placed on the Internet and will be... Throughout this document, whenever ``we,'' ``us,'' or ``our'' is used, we mean EPA. On January 14, 2009,...

  15. The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources: clean land, water, and air for healthy people and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Lisa Diaz; Wakild, Charles; Boothe, Laura; Hildebrandt, Heather J; Nicholson, Bruce

    2012-01-01

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources works with communities and other agencies to sustain clean air, water, and land. Sustainability efforts include protecting air quality through community design, community enhancement through brownfields revitalization, community development strategies to protect water resources, and the integration of natural resource conservation.

  16. OH and HO2 chemistry in clean marine air during SOAPEX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sommariva

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO] The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM. Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 17 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5–10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of O(1D to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30–40% for OH and 25–30% for HO2 was estimated for the model calculations using a Monte Carlo technique coupled with Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS.

  17. 75 FR 66125 - Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... National Park Service Federal Land Managers' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) AGENCY: National...' Air Quality Related Values Work Group (FLAG) was formed (1) to develop a more consistent and objective... constituencies (e.g., State air regulatory agencies, concerned citizens, environmental groups,...

  18. Air cleaning efficiency of deodorant materials under dynamic conditions: effect of air flow rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mizutani, Chiyomi; Bivolarova, Mariya Petrova; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    was evaluated as deodorant materials neutralising ammonia in air. The deodorant material efficiency was tested in a special experimental set-up consisting of a straight pipe section, an ammonia gas generator, a fan and a textile frame. The deodorant materials, placed in the pipe, were exposed to a flow of air...... mixed with ammonia gas at a concentration of 20 ppm and velocities of 0.05, 0.15, 0.3 and 1.2 m/s. The activated carbon fibers treated with acid had a high deodorizing effect for ammonia (0.8) at a velocity of 0.05 m/s. The deodorizing effect of this material decreased with the increase in the velocity....... The porous activated carbon fiber fabric did not have a deodorant effect....

  19. How can the Clean Development Mechanism contribute to better air quality?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, S.J.A. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2009-06-15

    Air pollutants and greenhouse gases are to a large extent emitted by the same sources, notably in the industry, transport and residential sectors. However, climate change mitigation is a global issue and is mostly driven by national and international policy. Local governments are in general more interested in improving urban air quality, which is posing serious health hazards across the globe. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) was designed to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, helping industrialised countries to achieve their targets under the Kyoto Protocol while contributing to sustainable development in developing countries. As of January 2009 over 4000 projects are in the pipeline. The CDM could be used by local governments and the private sector to finance projects that contribute to both climate change mitigation and better air quality. However, CDM projects in particularly the transport sector face a number of barriers. We identify the most important issues for such projects, as well as the lessons learnt and some recommendations based on four case studies in Asian cities related to biofuels and bus rapid transit systems. The main conclusions is that successful implementation of CDM projects beneficial for urban air quality depends on the applicability of approved CDM methodologies, the strong cooperation between project developers and local authorities, and the availability of data.

  20. Evaluation Clean Air Effects on Tehran City Residential Houses Price in 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aghapour Sabbagi M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundsandObjectives: Environmental activitiesunknownprice and value caused establishing of some unique characteristics for mentioned commodities. One of these characteristics was existing gap between private and social cost and benefit. For assessing these activities different approaches include travel cost, willingness to pay and hedonic price had been suggested. According to Tehran's air pollution problem, in this study Hedonic approach had was used for the assessment of healthy air on Tehran's residential house price.Materials and Method : Hedonic approach is one of the methods that are used for evolution environmental goods. In this method, each good's price is estimated as a functions of that good`s properties. To gather this study information 300 questionnaires has been collected by random sampling from different area of Tehran.Result: Results revealed that activities in order to reduce air pollutions, in addition to environmental value have economical value form the point of view of consumers. Also, results show that willingness to pay of every Tehran's citizens for every square meter of house located in region with less pollution is between 1120 to 1350 thousands Rials.Conclusion: According to the obtained results can be said that, clean air as an environmental good from the viewpoint of consumers has economic value that can be calculated this value using methods such as Hedonic.

  1. Evaluating the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health in China: the Price of Clean Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Hu, Y.; Russell, A. G.; Woo, J.; Streets, D. G.

    2003-12-01

    Population growth, rapid urbanization and economic development are contributing to increased energy consumption in China. One of the unintended consequences is poor air quality due to a lack of environmental controls. The coal dependent energy structure in China only worsens the situation. Quantification of the environmental costs resulting from air pollution is needed in order to provide a mechanism for making strategic energy policy that accounts for the life-cycle cost of energy use. However, few such studies have been conducted for China that examine the entire energy system. Here we examine the extent to which public health has been compromised due to elevated air pollution and how China could incorporate environmental costs into future energy and environmental policies. Taking the Shandong region in eastern China as a case study, we develop a high-resolution regional inventory for anthropogenic emissions of NOx, CO, PM2.5, PM10, VOCs, NH3 and SO2. SMOKE (Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions Modeling System) is used to process spatial and temporal distributions and chemical speciation of the regional emissions, MM5 (the Fifth-Generation NCAR/Penn State Meso-scale Model, Version 3) is used to generate meteorology and Models3/CMAQ (Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling System) is used to simulate ambient concentrations of particulates and other gaseous species in this region. We then estimate the mortality and morbidity in this region resulting from exposure to these air pollutants. We also estimate the monetary values associated with the resulting mortality and morbidity and quantify the contributions from various economic sectors (i.e. power generation, transportation, industry, residential and others). Finally, we examine the potential health benefits that adoption of best available or advanced energy (coal-based, in particular) and environmental technologies in different sectors could bring about. The results of these analyses are intended to provide

  2. Development of an air cleaning system for dissolving high explosives from nuclear warheads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, W.; Wilson, K.; Staggs, K.; Wapman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has a major effort underway in dismantling nuclear weapons. In support of this effort we have been developing a workstation for removing the high explosive (HE) from nuclear warheads using hot sprays of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solvent to dissolve the HE. An important component of the workstation is the air cleaning system that is used to contain DMSO aerosols and vapor and radioactive aerosols. The air cleaning system consists of a condenser to liquefy the hot DMSO vapor, a demister pad to remove most of the DMSO aerosols, a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter to remove the remaining aerosols, an activated carbon filter to remove the DMSO vapor, and a final HEPA filter to meet the redundancy requirement for HEPA filters in radioactive applications. The demister pad is a 4{double_prime} thick mat of glass and steel fibers and was selected after conducting screening tests on promising candidates. We also conducted screening tests on various activated carbons and found that all had a similar performance. The carbon breakthrough curves were fitted to a modified Wheeler`s equation and gave excellent predictions for the effect of different flow rates. After all of the components were assembled, we ran a series of performance tests on the components and system to determine the particle capture efficiency as a function of size for dioctyl sebacate (DOS) and DMSO aerosols using laser particle counters and filter samples. The pad had an efficiency greater than 990% for 0.1 {mu}m DMSO particles. Test results on the prototype carbon filter showed only 70% efficiency, instead of the 99.9% in small scale laboratory tests. Thus further work will be required to develop the prototype carbon filter. 7 refs., 18 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Clean air matters: an overview of traffic-related air pollution and pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; Diniz, Carmen Simone; Ribeiro, Helena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death. Thus, this commentary, based on the analysis of literature, presents the importance of the exposome concept and of epigenetics in identifying the role of the environment for better health conditions of pregnant women and newborns. In the final considerations, this study proposes the deepening of the subject and the mobilization in this regard, with a human rights-based approach to environmental health and to the increased awareness of pregnant women on the risks of air pollution and its effects on health. PMID:28225911

  4. OH and HO2 chemistry in clean marine air during SOAPEX-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Lewis

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Model-measurement comparisons of HOx in extremely clean air ([NO]<3  ppt are reported. Measurements were made during the second Southern Ocean Photochemistry Experiment (SOAPEX-2, held in austral summer 1999 at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in north-western Tasmania, Australia. The free-radical chemistry was studied using a zero-dimensional box-model based upon the Master Chemical Mechanism (MCM. Two versions of the model were used, with different levels of chemical complexity, to explore the role of hydrocarbons upon free-radical budgets under very clean conditions. The "detailed" model was constrained to measurements of CO, CH4 and 15 NMHCs, while the "simple" model contained only the CO and  CH4 oxidation mechanisms, together with inorganic chemistry. The OH and HO2 (HOx concentrations predicted by the two models agreed to within 5–10%. The model results were compared with the HOx concentrations measured by the FAGE (Fluorescence Assay by Gas Expansion technique during four days of clean Southern Ocean marine boundary layer (MBL air. The models overestimated OH concentrations by about 10% on two days and about 20% on the other two days. HO2 concentrations were measured during two of these days and the models overestimated the measured concentrations by about 40%. Better agreement with measured HO2 was observed by using data from several MBL aerosol measurements to estimate the aerosol surface area and by increasing the HO2 uptake coefficient to unity. This reduced the modelled HO2 overestimate by ~40%, with little effect on OH, because of the poor HO2 to OH conversion at the low ambient NOx concentrations. Local sensitivity analysis and Morris One-At-A-Time analysis were performed on the "simple" model, and showed the importance of reliable measurements of j(O1D and [HCHO] and of the kinetic parameters that determine the efficiency of  O(1D to OH and HCHO to HO2 conversion. A 2σ standard deviation of 30–40% for OH and

  5. Cooperative federalism and hydraulic fracturing: a human right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This Article argues that filling the energy governance gaps regarding unconventional natural gas can best be accomplished through collaborative governance that is genuinely adaptive and cooperative. Through cooperative federalism, combined with procedural rights for inclusive, innovative decision-making, state and non-state actors should design and implement the requisite safeguards before further natural gas development advances. Hydraulic fracturing provisions are strikingly fragmented and have sparked a fierce debate about chemical disclosure, radioactive wastewater disposal, and greenhouse gas emissions. United States natural gas production may stunt the direction and intensity of renewable energy by up to two decades and will not provide a bridge to a sound energy policy if it "erode[s] efforts to prepare a landing at the other end of the bridge." Unconventional natural gas extraction need not become a transition to a new addiction. This Article analyzes how cooperative federalism and inclusive decision-making can provide legitimacy and transparency when balancing property rights against police powers to regulate natural gas production.

  6. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigas, T.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Moran, E.; McGovern, F. M.; Jennings, S. G.; O’Dowd, C.

    2017-01-01

    Since the 1980’s, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980–2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72–79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks. PMID:28303958

  7. [Potential exposure to silver nanoparticles during spraying preparation for air-conditioning cleaning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowska, Elzbieta; Łukaszewska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Unique properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and products made of them have contributed to a rapid progress in the production and application of ENMs in different branches of industry and in factories with different production scale. Bearing in mind that nano-objects (nanoplates, nanofibres, nanoparticles), emitted during ENM production and application, can cause many diseases, even those not yet recognized, extensive studies have been carried all over the world to assess the extent of exposure to nano-objects at workstations and related health effects in workers employed in ENM manufacture and application processes. The study of potential exposure to silver nanoparticles contained in the preparation for air-conditioning cleaning (Nano Silver from Amtra Sp. z o.o.) involved the determination of concentrations and size distribution of particles, using different devices, allowing for tracing changes in a wide range of dimensions, from nano-size (10 nm) to micrometer-size (10 pm), of the particles which are usually inhaled by humans. The results of the study shows that even during a short-term spraying of Nano Silver preparation (for 10 s) at the distance of 52 cm from the place of preparation spraying--particles of 10 nm-10 microm can be emitted into in the air. During a three-fold preparation spraying in similar conditions differences in concentration increase were observed, but in each case the particles remained in the air for a relatively long time.

  8. Airborne lidar mapping of vertical ozone distributions in support of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, Edward E.; Nielsen, Norman B.; Livingston, John M.

    1992-01-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments mandated attainment of the ozone standard established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Improved photochemical models validated by experimental data are needed to develop strategies for reducing near surface ozone concentrations downwind of urban and industrial centers. For more than 10 years, lidar has been used on large aircraft to provide unique information on ozone distributions in the atmosphere. However, compact airborne lidar systems are needed for operation on small aircraft of the type typically used on regional air quality investigations to collect data with which to develop and validate air quality models. Data presented in this paper will consist of a comparison between airborne differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and airborne in-situ ozone measurements. Also discussed are future plans to improve the airborne ultraviolet-DIAL for ozone and other gas observations and addition of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) emission spectrometer to investigate the effects of other gas species on vertical ozone distribution.

  9. Sophisticated Clean Air Strategies Required to Mitigate Against Particulate Organic Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigas, T.; Ovadnevaite, J.; Ceburnis, D.; Moran, E.; McGovern, F. M.; Jennings, S. G.; O’Dowd, C.

    2017-03-01

    Since the 1980’s, measures mitigating the impact of transboundary air pollution have been implemented successfully as evidenced in the 1980–2014 record of atmospheric sulphur pollution over the NE-Atlantic, a key region for monitoring background northern-hemisphere pollution levels. The record reveals a 72–79% reduction in annual-average airborne sulphur pollution (SO4 and SO2, respectively) over the 35-year period. The NE-Atlantic, as observed from the Mace Head research station on the Irish coast, can be considered clean for 64% of the time during which sulphate dominates PM1 levels, contributing 42% of the mass, and for the remainder of the time, under polluted conditions, a carbonaceous (organic matter and Black Carbon) aerosol prevails, contributing 60% to 90% of the PM1 mass and exhibiting a trend whereby its contribution increases with increasing pollution levels. The carbonaceous aerosol is known to be diverse in source and nature and requires sophisticated air pollution policies underpinned by sophisticated characterisation and source apportionment capabilities to inform selective emissions-reduction strategies. Inauspiciously, however, this carbonaceous concoction is not measured in regulatory Air Quality networks.

  10. Preservation of atomically clean silicon surfaces in air by contact bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grey, Francois; Ljungberg, Karin

    1997-01-01

    When two hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces are placed in contact under cleanroom conditions, a weak bond is formed. Cleaving this bond under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, and observing the surfaces with low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we find that the or......When two hydrogen-passivated silicon surfaces are placed in contact under cleanroom conditions, a weak bond is formed. Cleaving this bond under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions, and observing the surfaces with low energy electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy, we find...... that the ordered atomic structure of the surfaces is protected from oxidation, even after the bonded samples have been in air for weeks. Further, we show that silicon surfaces that have been cleaned and hydrogen-passivated in UHV can be contacted in UHV in a similarly hermetic fashion, protecting the surface...

  11. Development of an emergency air-cleaning system for liquid-metal reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, R.K.

    1980-11-01

    A novel air cleaning concept has been developed for potential use in venting future commercial liquid metal fast breeder reactor containment buildings in the unlikely event of postulated core disruptive accidents. The passive concept consists of a submerged gravel bed to collect the bulk of particulate contaminates carried by the vented gas. A fibrous scrubber could be combined with the submerged gravel scrubber to enhance collection efficiencies for the smaller sized particles. The submerged gravel scrubber is unique in that water flow through the packed bed is induced by the gas flow, eliminating the need for an active liquid pump. In addition, design gas velocities through the packed bed are 10 to 20 times higher than for a conventional sand bed filter.

  12. Extended-life nuclear air cleaning filters via dynamic exclusion prefilters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, S.R.; Crouch, H.S.; Bond, J.H. [Micro Composite Materials Corp., Durham, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The primary objective of this investigation was to ascertain if a dynamic, self-cleaning particulate exclusion precleaner, designed for relatively large dust removal (2 to 100+ {mu}m diameter particles) from helicopter turbine inlets, could be extended to submicron filtration. The improved device could be used as a prefilter for HEPA filtration systems, significantly increasing service life. In nuclear air cleaning, its use would reduce the amount of nuclear particulate matter that would otherwise be entrapped in the HEPA filter cartridge/panel, causing fouling and increased back pressure, as well as requiring subsequent disposal of the contaminated media at considerable expense. A unique (patent-pending) mechanical separation device has recently been developed to extract particulate matter from fluid process streams based on a proprietary concept called Boundary Layer Momentum Transfer (BLMT). The device creates multiple boundary layers that actively exclude particles from entering the perimeter of the device, while allowing air to traverse the boundaries relatively unimpeded. A modified two-dimensional (2-D) computerized flow simulation model was used to assist in the prototype design. Empirical results are presented from particle breakthrough and AP experiments obtained from a reduced-scale prototype filter. Particles larger than 0.23 {mu}m were actively excluded by the prototype, but at a higher pressure drop than anticipated. Experimental data collected indicates that the filter housing and the inlet flow configuration may contribute significantly to improvements in device particle separation capabilities. Furthermore, preliminary experiments have shown that other downstream pressure drop considerations (besides those just across the spinning filtration disks) must be included to accurately portray the AP across the device. Further detailed quantitative investigations on a larger scale (1,000 CFM) prototype are warranted. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. 40 CFR 60.3063 - When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3063 Section 60.3063 Protection of... Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3063 When must I comply if my air curtain incinerator burns only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? Table 1 of this subpart specifies the...

  14. 40 CFR 62.14820 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of 40 CFR part 60, Appendix A to... curtain incinerators that burn 100 percent wood wastes, clean lumber, and/or yard waste? 62.14820 Section... Before November 30, 1999 Air Curtain Incinerators That Burn 100 Percent Wood Wastes, Clean Lumber...

  15. 40 CFR 60.3067 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.3067 Section 60.3067... Incinerators That Burn Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.3067 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9...

  16. 40 CFR 60.2972 - How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? 60.2972 Section 60.2972... Only Wood Waste, Clean Lumber, and Yard Waste § 60.2972 How must I monitor opacity for air curtain incinerators that burn only wood waste, clean lumber, and yard waste? (a) Use Method 9 of appendix A of...

  17. A FEDERATED PARTNERSHIP FOR URBAN METEOROLOGICAL AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently, applications of urban meteorological and air quality models have been performed at resolutions on the order of km grid sizes. This necessitated development and incorporation of high resolution landcover data and additional boundary layer parameters that serve to descri...

  18. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macintosh, David L; Myatt, Theodore A; Ludwig, Jerry F; Baker, Brian J; Suh, Helen H; Spengler, John D

    2008-11-01

    A novel method for determining whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates attributable to central and portable ventilation/air cleaning systems is described. The method is used to characterize total and air-cleaner-specific particle removal rates during operation of four in-duct air cleaners and two portable air-cleaning devices in a fully instrumented test home. Operation of in-duct and portable air cleaners typically increased particle removal rates over the baseline rates determined in the absence of operating a central fan or an indoor air cleaner. Removal rates of 0.3- to 0.5-microm particles ranged from 1.5 hr(-1) during operation of an in-duct, 5-in. pleated media filter to 7.2 hr(-1) for an in-duct electrostatic air cleaner in comparison to a baseline rate of 0 hr(-1) when the air handler was operating without a filter. Removal rates for total particulate matter less than 2.5 microm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) mass concentrations were 0.5 hr(-1) under baseline conditions, 0.5 hr(-1) during operation of three portable ionic air cleaners, 1 hr(-1) for an in-duct 1-in. media filter, 2.4 hr(-1) for a single high-efficiency particle arrestance (HEPA) portable air cleaner, 4.6 hr(-1) for an in-duct 5-in. media filter, 4.7 hr(-1) during operation of five portable HEPA filters, 6.1 hr(-1) for a conventional in-duct electronic air cleaner, and 7.5 hr(-1) for a high efficiency in-duct electrostatic air cleaner. Corresponding whole house clean air delivery rates for PM2.5 attributable to the air cleaner independent of losses within the central ventilation system ranged from 2 m3/min for the conventional media filter to 32 m3/min for the high efficiency in-duct electrostatic device. Except for the portable ionic air cleaner, the devices considered here increased particle removal indoors over baseline deposition rates.

  19. 75 FR 22560 - Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Charter Renewal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board; Charter... that it is renewing the charter for the U.S. Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (hereafter referred to as the Board). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Freeman, Deputy Advisory Committee...

  20. In pursuit of clean air: a data book of problems and strategies at the state level. Supplement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garvey, D.B.; Moser, S.B.; Streets, D.G.

    1980-08-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977 and EPA regulations set stringent requirements for the control of emissions in areas where the National Ambient Air Quality Standards were being exceeded. This supplement updates a previous five-volume summary of nonattainment area designations and attainment strategies of the states as of July 1, 1980. It also contains maps of PSD Class I areas and additional information on coal production, coal reserves, and coal quality.

  1. Experimental evaluation on energy performance of innovative clean air heat pump for indoor environment control in summer and winter seasons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nie, Jinzhe; Fang, Lei; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2014-01-01

    Based on the air purification capacity of regenerative silica gel rotor, an innovative clean air heat pump (CAHP) was designed, developed and investigated through experimental studies. The CAHP integrated air purification, dehumidification and heating/cooling in one unit. A prototype of the CAHP...... was developed. Laboratory experimental studies were conducted to investigate its energy performance under different outdoor climates including cold, mild-cold, mild-hot and extremely hot and humid climates. The energy performance of the CAHP was then evaluated by comparing with a conventional air source heat...... pump. The results showed that to keep same indoor air quality, the CAHP could save substantial amount of energy. For example, compared to the conventional air source heat pump, the CAHP could save up to 59%, 40%, 30% of electricity for ventilation and air conditioning in a test room in summer...

  2. Exemptions for hookah bars in clean indoor air legislation: a public health concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Devon

    2010-01-01

    Popularity of waterpipe smoking or hookah smoking in the United States has been growing for some time now among youth and young adults. Currently, many cities and states have exemptions that allow hookah bars to remain in operation despite the passage of clean indoor air legislation. From a public health perspective this is concerning for many reasons. One public health concern with the increase in popularity of this type of tobacco use is the associated health effects. Another concern is that hookah smoke produces a sweet smelling aroma making it less obvious that patrons and employees of hookah bars are inhaling noxious fumes from mainstream smoke, as well as the toxins from the charcoal that is used to heat the tobacco. The purpose of this paper is to discuss smoke-free air legislation in relation to hookah use, the public health implications of exempting hookah bars from current smoke-free legislation, and implications for the public health nurse in protecting the public from the dangers of second-hand smoke, and limiting this new form of tobacco use.

  3. 77 FR 73459 - California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ... AGENCY California State Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Standards; Notice of Waiver of Clean Air Act..., challenging the need for CARB's own motor vehicle pollution control program based on lack of compelling and... Administrator shall waive preemption for California to enforce new motor vehicle emissions standards and...

  4. 76 FR 11280 - Notice of Lodging of an Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... February 14, 2011, a proposed Amendment to the consent decree in United States et al. v. Lafarge North... states or state agencies against Lafarge North America, Inc.'s, Lafarge Midwest, Inc.'s, and Lafarge Building Materials, Inc.'s (``Lafarge's'') for alleged violations of the Clean Air Act (``CAA'' or...

  5. 77 FR 38830 - Notice of Lodging of an Amendment to Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... June 25, 2012, a proposed Second Amendment to the consent decree in United States et al. v. Lafarge... and twelve states or state agencies against Lafarge North America, Inc., Lafarge Midwest, Inc., and Lafarge Building Materials, Inc. (``Lafarge'') for alleged violations of the Clean Air Act (``CAA''...

  6. 40 CFR 62.15395 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.15395 Section 62.15395 Protection of... require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? Yes. If you are subject...

  7. Plants + microbes: Innovative food crop systems that also clean air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. It is known that most biogeochemical cycles have a microbial link, and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, have long been established. Wetland plants and soil/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of all kinds of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and root microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an extraordinary adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. It is known that tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and machines enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes can are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors which operate without the need for human direction. We will

  8. Plants + soil/wetland microbes: Food crop systems that also clean air and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Mark; Wolverton, B. C.

    2011-02-01

    The limitations that will govern bioregenerative life support applications in space, especially volume and weight, make multi-purpose systems advantageous. This paper outlines two systems which utilize plants and associated microbial communities of root or growth medium to both produce food crops and clean air and water. Underlying these approaches are the large numbers and metabolic diversity of microbes associated with roots and found in either soil or other suitable growth media. Biogeochemical cycles have microbial links and the ability of microbes to metabolize virtually all trace gases, whether of technogenic or biogenic origin, has long been established. Wetland plants and the rootzone microbes of wetland soils/media also been extensively researched for their ability to purify wastewaters of a great number of potential water pollutants, from nutrients like N and P, to heavy metals and a range of complex industrial pollutants. There is a growing body of research on the ability of higher plants to purify air and water. Associated benefits of these approaches is that by utilizing natural ecological processes, the cleansing of air and water can be done with little or no energy inputs. Soil and rootzone microorganisms respond to changing pollutant types by an increase of the types of organisms with the capacity to use these compounds. Thus living systems have an adaptive capacity as long as the starting populations are sufficiently diverse. Tightly sealed environments, from office buildings to spacecraft, can have hundreds or even thousands of potential air pollutants, depending on the materials and equipment enclosed. Human waste products carry a plethora of microbes which are readily used in the process of converting its organic load to forms that can be utilized by green plants. Having endogenous means of responding to changing air and water quality conditions represents safety factors as these systems operate without the need for human intervention. We review

  9. FAA (Federal Aviation Administration) Air Traffic Activity: Fiscal Year 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-30

    busiest facilities . - in the system. Historical tables are included where possible to show changes in growth. Hub designations are based on the number...PALM $EACH FL M 1 PS! ZIC. 647 347 133. - WEST PALU EACH CO PARK FL N I psi 71 0 71 0 .’ " NEST PLAINS MUNICIPAL NO N Z14’ 13 0313 0 WesIt POIt VA N... designated 116 by the Federal Aviation Administration. 0 L Large 1.00% M Medium 0.25% to 0.99% S Small 0.05% to 0.24% SA N Nonhub Less than 0.05% APPROACH

  10. Microbiological water methods: quality control measures for Federal Clean Water Act and Safe Drinking Water Act regulatory compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root, Patsy; Hunt, Margo; Fjeld, Karla; Kundrat, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) data are required in order to have confidence in the results from analytical tests and the equipment used to produce those results. Some AOAC water methods include specific QA/QC procedures, frequencies, and acceptance criteria, but these are considered to be the minimum controls needed to perform a microbiological method successfully. Some regulatory programs, such as those at Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 40, Part 136.7 for chemistry methods, require additional QA/QC measures beyond those listed in the method, which can also apply to microbiological methods. Essential QA/QC measures include sterility checks, reagent specificity and sensitivity checks, assessment of each analyst's capabilities, analysis of blind check samples, and evaluation of the presence of laboratory contamination and instrument calibration and checks. The details of these procedures, their performance frequency, and expected results are set out in this report as they apply to microbiological methods. The specific regulatory requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 136.7 for the Clean Water Act, the laboratory certification requirements of CFR Title 40 Part 141 for the Safe Drinking Water Act, and the International Organization for Standardization 17025 accreditation requirements under The NELAC Institute are also discussed.

  11. Clean air. Measures against fine dust and nitrogen oxide; Luftreinhalteplanung. Massnahmen gegen Feinstaub und Stickstoffoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-10-15

    Within the meeting of the Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment (Hof, Federal Republic of Germany) on 23rd October, 2012, the following lectures were held: (1) Future development of emissions and immission in Germany (Johanna Appelhans); (2) Air pollution control in urban areas - Example Stuttgart (Ulrich Reuter); (3) Green zones in Munich and Augsburg - Results from the efficiency analysis 2012 (Manfred Ertl); (4) Photocatalytic efficiency of titanium dioxide - Pilot experiment Fulda (Marita Mang); (5) Emission behaviour of Euro V/5 and VI/6 vehicles in real operation (Stefan Hausberger); (6) Reduction of particles and NO{sub x} by means of Euro VI commercial vehicles (Stefan Kamm); (7) Possibilities of retrofitting at vehicles for the reduction of emissions of fine dust and nitrous oxides (Michael Himmen); (8) Measures for reduction of emissions at construction machinery (Hinrich Helms); (9) ChimCat/circledR - Catalytic reduction of emissions (Martin Pley); (10) Improvement of the immission behaviour at the Airport Munich (Hermann Blomeyer).

  12. Potential exposure to silver nanoparticles during spraying preparation for air-conditioning cleaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Jankowska

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Unique properties of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs and products made of them have contributed to a rapid progress in the production and application of ENMs in different branches of industry and in factories with different production scale. Bearing in mind that nano-objects (nanoplates, nanofibres, nanoparticles, emitted during ENM production and application, can cause many diseases, even those not yet recognized, extensive studies have been carried all over the world to assess the extent of exposure to nano-objects at workstations and related health effects in workers employed in ENM manufacture and application processes. Material and Methods: The study of potential exposure to silver nanoparticles contained in the preparation for airconditioning cleaning (Nano Silver from Amtra Sp. z o.o. involved the determination of concentrations and size distribution of particles, using different devices, allowing for tracing changes in a wide range of dimensions, from nano-size (10 nm to micrometrsize (10 µm, of the particles which are usually inhaled by humans. Results and Conclusions: The results of the study shows that even during a short-term spraying of Nano Silver preparation (for 10 s at the distance of 52 cm from the place of preparation spraying - particles of 10 nm-10 µm can be emitted into in the air. During a three-fold preparation spraying in similar conditions differences in concentration increase were observed, but in each case the particles remained in the air for a relatively long time. Med Pr 2013;64(1:57–67

  13. Criminal provisions of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and their interface with the United States sentencing guidelines. Master's thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, W.P.

    1991-09-30

    The growing severity of our societal response to environmental misconduct is reflected, in part, by the criminalization of environmental wrongs by both state and Federal governments. Indeed, the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 continue this trend, giving the Environmental Protection Agency, via the Department of Justice, significant new criminal enforcement tools. The importance attached to law enforcement of environmental laws is a relatively recent phenomenon and took a significant upswing in 1982 when the department of Justice created what is today the Environmental Crimes Section in what is now the Environment and Natural Resources Division, which section has grown steadily and now has over 25 attorneys who prosecute or assist in the prosecution of environmental crimes in the U.S.

  14. The Effects of Workplace Clean Indoor Air Law Coverage on Workers' Smoking-Related Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai-Wen; Liu, Feng; Gonzalez, MariaElena; Glantz, Stanton

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of workplace clean indoor air law (CIAL) coverage on worksite compliance with CIALs, smoking participation among indoor workers, and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoker indoor workers. This study improved on previous research by using the probability of a resident in a county covered by workplace CIALs, taking into account the state, county, and city legislation. The county-level probability of being covered by a CIAL is merged into two large nationally representative US surveys on smoking behaviors: Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (2001-2010) and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2000-2006) based on the year of the survey and respondent's geographic location to identify respondents' CIAL coverage. This study estimated several model specifications of including and not including state or county fixed effects, and the effects of workplace CIALs are consistent across models. Increased coverage by workplace CIALs significantly increased likelihood of reporting a complete smoking restriction by 8% and 10% for the two different datasets, decreased smoking participation among indoor workers by 12%, and decreased SHS exposure among nonsmokers by 28%. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  16. A 14-year longitudinal study of the impact of clean indoor air legislation on state smoking prevalence, USA, 1997-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Craig M; Lee, Joseph G L; Hudson, Suzanne; Hoover, Jeanne; Civils, Donald

    2017-06-01

    While clean indoor air legislation at the state level is an evidence-based recommendation, only limited evidence exists regarding the impact of clean indoor air policies on state smoking prevalence. Using state smoking prevalence data from 1997 to 2010, a repeated measures observational analysis assessed the association between clean indoor air policies (i.e., workplace, restaurant, and bar) and state smoking prevalence while controlling for state cigarette taxes and year. The impacts from the number of previous years with any clean indoor air policy, the number of policies in effect during the current year, and the number of policies in effect the previous year were analyzed. Findings indicate a smoking prevalence predicted decrease of 0.13 percentage points (p=0.03) for each additional year one or more clean indoor air policies were in effect, a predicted decrease of 0.12 percentage points (p=0.09) for each policy in effect in the current year, and a predicted decrease of 0.22 percentage points (p=0.01) for each policy in effect in the previous year on the subsequent year. Clean indoor air policies show measurable associations with reductions in smoking prevalence within a year of implementation above and beyond taxes and time trends. Further efforts are needed to diffuse clean indoor air policies across states and provinces that have not yet adopted such policies. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Contamination of Dental Unit Water and Air Outlets Following Use of Clean Head System and Conventional Handpieces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrnoosh Sadighi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and aims. Dental handpiece is a source of contamination because it is in constant touch with the oral cavity. Sterilization does not seem to be sufficient to prevent penetration of microorganisms into air and water lines of the unit, because negative pressure developed by valves (which are placed in water outlets and post shut-off inertial rotation of handpiece result in water and debris being sucked into air and water outlets of dental unit. The aim of this study was to compare dental unit contamination following use of clean head system handpieces and conventional handpieces.

    Materials and methods. Twenty-two dental units in the Department of Pediatric Dentistry in Shahid Beheshti Faculty of Dentistry were used for the purpose of this study. A 1.5×108 cfu/mm3 concentration of Staphylococcus epidermis (SE was used to contaminate the air and water outlets of dental units. Ten clean head system handpieces and 10 conventional handpieces were used for 30 seconds in the above-mentioned suspension. Microbial samples were collected from the air and water lines. Culturing and colony counting procedures were carried out. Data was analyzed by t-test; a value of p< 0.01 was considered significant.

    Results. Results demonstrated a significantly lower SE contamination in water outlets following the use of clean head system (p< 0.01.

    Conclusion. A lower tendency of clean head system handpieces to transmit SE compared to conventional system makes them a better choice for infection control.

  18. Saving energy in the make-up air unit (MAU) for semiconductor clean rooms in subtropical areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Jhy-Ming; Hu, Shih-Cheng [Department of Energy and Refrigerating Air-Conditioning Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology. 1, Sec. 3, Chung-Hsiao E. Rd. Taipei 106 (China); Chan, David Yih-Liang; Hsu, Rich Tsung-Chi; Lee, Jane Car-Cheng [Energy and Environment Research Labs, Industrial Technology Research Institute Bldg 51, 195, Sec. 4, Chung Hsing Rd, Chutung, Hinchu 106 Taiwan (China)

    2008-07-01

    The energy requirements to cool, dehumidify, preheat and/or humidify outdoor air are significant in the make-up air unit (MAU) of clean room air-conditioning systems, and can represent 30% to 65% of the total thermal energy required to maintain a clean room environment. Because of these high-energy requirements, cost-effective means to reduce energy costs can influence unit production costs. Reducing or displacing mechanical cooling or electrical heating requirements can achieve the greatest opportunity for significant energy savings. This paper, therefore, aims to improve the energy performance of the MAU system by properly arranging compositions of components of a typical MAU applied in a semiconductor clean room. Explicitly, we investigated the influence of various factors including the fan location (draft-through type vs. push-through type), chilled water system (single-chilled water temperature system vs. two chilled water temperature system) and reheating scheme (electrical heating vs. hot water provided by heat recovery chiller). The result shows that the draw-through type accompanied by two chilled water temperature system with heat recovery function exhibits the lowest electrical power consumption. (author)

  19. Effects of welding fumes on nuclear air cleaning system carbon adsorber banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberson, P.W. [Duke Power Company, Huntersville, NC (United States)

    1997-08-01

    Standard Technical Specifications for nuclear air cleaning systems include requirements for surveillance tests following fire, painting, or chemical release in areas communicating with the affected system. To conservatively implement this requirement, many plants categorize welding as a chemical release process, and institute controls to ensure that welding fumes do not interact with carbon adsorbers in a filter system. After reviewing research data that indicated welding had a minimal impact on adsorber iodine removal efficiency, further testing was performed with the goal of establishing a welding threshold. It was anticipated that some quantity of weld electrodes could be determined that had a corresponding detrimental impact on iodine removal efficiency for the exposed adsorber. This value could be used to determine a conservative sampling schedule that would allow the station to perform laboratory testing to ensure system degradation did not occur without a full battery of surveillance tests. A series of tests was designed to demonstrate carbon efficiency versus cumulative welding fume exposure. Three series of tests were performed, one for each of three different types of commonly used weld electrodes. Carbon sampling was performed at baseline conditions, and every five pounds of electrode thereafter. Two different laboratory tests were performed for each sample; one in accordance with ASTM 3803/1989 at 95% relative humidity and 30 degrees C, and another using the less rigorous conditions of 70% relative humidity and 80 degrees C. Review of the test data for all three types of electrodes failed to show a significant correlation between carbon efficiency degradation and welding fume exposure. Accordingly, welding is no longer categorized as a `chemical release process` at McGuire Nuclear Station, and limits on welding fume interaction with ventilation systems have been eliminated. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  20. We Care for Clean Air! The Contribution of ACCENT to Education and Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuepbach, Eva; Brimblecombe, Peter; Gross, Krisjanis; Jacobs, Mark J.; Ladstätter-Weißenmayer, Annette; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Slini, Theodora; Übelis, Arnolds; Uherek, Elmar

    2010-05-01

    A new booklet on: "We Care for Clean Air! Motivating the Next Generation of Atmospheric Scientists" (ISBN 978-88-95665-01-6) as recently published by the education community in ACCENT (www.accent-network.org/portal/education) is presented. Promoting creative and innovative researchers and teachers and encouraging the next generation to move into the field were among the key issues in ACCENT "Training and Education" (T&E). During the 5-year programme, a wealth of educational events (e.g., workshops) and programmes (e.g., "ACCENT FAR EAST") were organized and tools developed for teachers and learners at Universities and Schools around the globe. Activities such as National ACCENT Days or Cafés Scientifiques also targeted stakeholders, policy makers and the general public to increase the expertise in atmospheric composition change to a common level across Europe. The volume introduces the integrated learning environment, high-quality tools and methods for air quality and climate change science education created by ACCENT T&E, and provides an overview on the unbiased scientific information that has been didactically translated based on knowledge available from ongoing research projects.The core messages are that (i) the translation of complex issues in atmospheric composition and climate change science to non-scientists should be scientifically acceptable and that (ii) scientists should stay in control of the translation process. After the publication of the 4th Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) in 2007, ACCENT intensified its efforts to reach greater visibility and distribute the body of know-how, skills and competencies within the networked community of atmospheric scientists in the World Wide Web. For example, a Special Issue of the "Global Change Magazine for Schools" on IPCC 2007 contains a compact introduction to the basics of global warming for direct application in the classroom, also focusing on uncertainties and

  1. Improvement of self-cleaning type air filter%自洁式空气过滤器的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏

    2012-01-01

    The self-cleaning type air filter is fitted before air inlet pipe of air compressor completed for air separation plant. The domestic-made carriage has low service life, and in case of highly wet air the filter paper is liable to stick, which lowers the filtering efficiency, results in frequent repair of air compressor repair, and seriously impairs prolonged stable run of air separation plant. The service life of carriage of self-cleaning type air filter is extended and the filtering efficiency is improved through use of the non-woven filtering cotton blended with compound fiber, the carriage made of compound fiber, and the imported filter paper, adjustment of its programmable controller, and change of its back-blowing pressure and air supply. Here, the work principle of self- cleaning type air filter is briefed, the problems during its operation process are analyzed, and the implementation process and economic benefits of the improvement measures are described.%空分设备配套空压机进气管前设置自洁式空气过滤器,由于国内生产的滤筒使用寿命短,遇含湿量大的空气时滤纸易黏连,进而影响过滤效率,导致空压机检修频繁,严重影响了空分设备长周期稳定运行。通过增加复合纤维无纺滤棉,选用复合纤维滤筒和进口滤纸,调整自洁式空气过滤器的编程控制仪,以及改变反吹压力和反吹气源,达到延长自洁式空气过滤器的滤筒寿命和提高过滤效率的目的。简述自洁式空气过滤器的工作原理,分析其使用过程中存在的问题,阐述改进措施的实施过程及取得的经济效益。

  2. Methods for air cleaning and protection of building occupants from airborne pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolashikov, Zhecho Dimitrov; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2009-01-01

    germicidal irradiation (UVGI), photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), plasmacluster ions and other technologies for air disinfection and purification from pathogens are analyzed with respect to currently used air distribution principles. The importance of indoor air characteristics, such as temperature, relative...

  3. Seeing Through Smoke: Sorting through the Science and Politics in the Making of the 1956 British Clean Air Act (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, D. A.

    2010-12-01

    The 1952 “Killer Smog” left over 4000 citizens of Greater London dead in a single week. It was a highly visible environmental disaster, which pinned the British government with responsibility over factory and domestic coal smoke pollution. Within four years of the Smog, the British parliament passed the 1956 Clean Air Act, which was designed primarily to prevent the release of dark smoke from the chimneys of private dwellings and factories. This act is considered a significant turning point in the history of environmental regulation. Through the analysis of confidential documents from government ministries and Members of Parliament, my research has focused on how decisions were made following this man-made environmental catastrophe. The primary focus of this presentation will be to explore why the British government appeared lethargic in the face of its long-standing coal pollution problem and why it finally passed the first clean air act in the world. In this case, establishing responsibility and organizing research were the major time constraints on policy action. In the months following the 1952 Smog, government departments passed off responsibility and quarreled over jurisdiction in the smog matter. Ministries held responsible for air pollution jointly established the Committee on Air Pollution to find a solution to urban smog. In the years following, the Committee on Air Pollution compiled research on the health effects and economic impact of air pollution, deriving its information from a variety of sources. In its 1954 final report, the committee named smoke and sulfur dioxide the most likely culprits of the 1952 deaths, and it recommended the elimination of smoke-producing coal from the British market, a major change to how the British fueled their homes and factories. The resulting 1956 Clean Air Act was the product of numerous compromises over the economic, political, and social issues present in Great Britain at the time. The British government

  4. Clean Air Act: Confidential business information security manual (revised). Procedures manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomer, M.W.

    1998-08-01

    The procedures in this manual provide Federal, contractor, and subcontractor employees with the information necessary to utilize Confidential Business Information to perform their assigned duties without violating applicable Federal regulations protecting the rights of its owners.

  5. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to va...

  6. Screening procedure to evaluate effects of air pollution on Eastern Region wildernesses cited as Class I air quality areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Beth Adams; Dale S. Nichols; Anthony C. Federer; Keith F. Jensen; Harry Parrott

    1991-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service's Eastern Region manages eight wilderness areas that have been designated as Class I air quality areas by the Federal Clean Air Act. As part of this legislation, Federal land managers are required to consult with air pollution regulators on the potential impacts of proposed air pollution emissions--including phytotoxic gases and acidic...

  7. Clean Air for Anchorage and Fairbanks: Curriculum for Grades 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    Through the 10 lessons in this guide, elementary school students can be introduced to the characteristics of air, methods of air pollution control, air movement, and the health effects of polluted air. A directory of field trip sites and a list of teacher resources is included. Contained in each lesson plan are a materials list, general…

  8. Proceedings of the Clean Air Foundation's shifting mobility workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafini, E. [Clean Air Foundation, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    This workshop brought together organizations with transportation-related initiatives underway across Ontario. The objective of the workshop was to identify strategic options for developing and implementing effective transportation-related public education and outreach initiatives, as well as to identify barriers and opportunities for public participation in sustainable transportation programs and create opportunities for collaboration to maximize the efficiency of existing initiatives. Attendees included representatives from federal, provincial, municipal and regional governments, non-government organizations and the private sector from across Ontario. Three themes were identified: (1) activities focused on encouraging the shift from traveling in single occupant vehicles to transit, autosharing, trains, bicycles and carpooling, (2) activities focused on encouraging consumers to choose more fuel efficient and lower emission vehicles and fuels, and (3) activities focused on encouraging the motoring public to change habits that will increase fuel efficiency and lower emissions, such as not idling their vehicle and monitoring tire pressure. Keynote and panel presentations showcased existing collaborative sustainable transportation initiatives, including integrated transportation systems in Germany. In addition, a summary of outcomes from Pollution Probe's Transportation, Air Issues and Human Health conference was presented in order to provide strategic options for the future and to highlight barriers and opportunities. Strategy sessions were held to allow participants the opportunity to identify specific areas of collaboration. The Smart Commute Initiative was discussed. Emerging automobile technologies were discussed by the Canadian Vehicle Manufacturer's Association. Issues concerning educational programs in schools and in the workplace were examined, as well as the challenges of achieving a system of integrated and sustainable urban transportation. tabs

  9. Effects of indoor air purification by an air cleaning system (Koala technology) on semen parameters in male factor infertility: results of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, R; Vanella, S; Barzanti, R; Cani, C; Battaglia, C; Seracchioli, R; Venturoli, S

    2009-06-01

    A number of studies indicated a clear decline in semen quality in the past 30-50 years and there is accumulating evidence that this decline might result from exposure to high levels of air pollution. To examine the impact of environment on male reproductive ability, we undertook for the first time a pilot study on semen quality of infertile men exposed to purification of indoor air. Ten subjects with a history of unexplained male infertility and poor semen quality were exposed for at least 1 year to a cleaning indoor air system (Koala technology). The key feature of this air purifier is the unique innovative multiple filtering system. The treatment of total purification of indoor air showed neither improvements in semen parameters nor variation in reproductive hormones (P = N.S.), but induced an evident increase (P indoor air does not seem enough to improve semen quality, although the increase in leucocytic concentrations could indicate an activation of the role of immunosurveillance in a purified indoor air environment.

  10. Fighting ambient air pollution and its impact on health: from human rights to the right to a clean environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillerm, N; Cesari, G

    2015-08-01

    Clean air is one of the basic requirements of human health and well-being. However, almost nine out of 10 individuals living in urban areas are affected by air pollution. Populations living in Africa, South-East Asia, and in low- and middle-income countries across all regions are the most exposed. Exposure to outdoor air pollution ranks as the ninth leading risk factor for mortality, killing 3.2 million people each year, especially young children, the elderly, persons with lung or cardiovascular disease, those who work or exercise outdoors and low-income populations. In October 2013, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified outdoor air pollution as carcinogenic to humans, calling air pollution 'a major environmental health problem'. Human rights and environmental norms are powerful tools to combat air pollution and its impact on health. The dependence of human rights on environmental quality has been recognised in international texts and by human rights treaty bodies. The growing awareness of the environment has already yielded considerable legislative and regulatory output. However, the implementation of standards remains a pervasive problem. In the fight against violations of norms, citizens have a crucial role to play. We discuss the relevance of a yet to be proclaimed standalone right to a healthy environment.

  11. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R.; Carmalt, Claire J.; Parkin, Ivan P.

    2015-03-01

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications.

  12. Repellent materials. Robust self-cleaning surfaces that function when exposed to either air or oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Sathasivam, Sanjayan; Song, Jinlong; Crick, Colin R; Carmalt, Claire J; Parkin, Ivan P

    2015-03-06

    Superhydrophobic self-cleaning surfaces are based on the surface micro/nanomorphologies; however, such surfaces are mechanically weak and stop functioning when exposed to oil. We have created an ethanolic suspension of perfluorosilane-coated titanium dioxide nanoparticles that forms a paint that can be sprayed, dipped, or extruded onto both hard and soft materials to create a self-cleaning surface that functions even upon emersion in oil. Commercial adhesives were used to bond the paint to various substrates and promote robustness. These surfaces maintained their water repellency after finger-wipe, knife-scratch, and even 40 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. The formulations developed can be used on clothes, paper, glass, and steel for a myriad of self-cleaning applications.

  13. 75 FR 1770 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... Health and Environment, Air Pollution Division, to the Public Service of Colorado to operate the Hayden... Department of Public Health and Environment, Air Pollution Division, to the Public Service of Colorado...

  14. 77 FR 5518 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Public Health and Environment, Air Pollution Division, to CF&I Steel, d/b/a EVRAZ Rocky Mountain Steel... by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Air Pollution Division, to CF&I Steel,...

  15. Clean Air Act Standards and Guidelines for Energy, Engines, and Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page contains the stationary sources of air pollution for the energy, engines, and combustion industries, and their corresponding air pollution regulations. To learn more about the regulations for each industry, just click on the links below.

  16. 77 FR 54382 - Revisions of Five California Clean Air Act Title V Operating Permits Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... pollution control, Carbon dioxide, Carbon dioxide equivalents, Greenhouse gases, Hydrofluorocarbons... revisions to the Operating Permits (Title V) programs of the Monterey Bay Unified Air Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD), San Luis Obispo County Air Pollution Control District (SLOCAPCD), Santa Barbara...

  17. Preliminary calculations for the CAFE project (Clean Air For Europe); Calculs preparatoires pour la strategie thematique CAFE (Clean Air For Europe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-09-15

    The European Commission decided in 2001 an analysis program to reduce the atmospheric emissions. This report presents different limit scenari for France in 2020 (the reference scenari and the MTFR scenari, Maximum Technically Feasible Reduction), optimized scenari calculated by the RAINS model (Regional Air Pollution Information and Simulation), the costs of the scenari calculated with RAINS and the cost-benefit analysis of the strategy CAFE. From the study results, the benefits are higher than the costs, even with the most ambitious scenari. At an european level the emission reduction strategies have no effect on the employment but an impact on the Gross Domestic Product (decrease between 0,04 % and 0,12 % in function of the scenari). (A.L.B.)

  18. CLEAN-ROADS project: air quality considerations after the application of a novel MDSS on winter road maintenance activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretto, Ilaria; Malloci, Elisa; Tonidandel, Gabriele; Benedetti, Guido; Di Napoli, Claudia; Piazza, Andrea; Apolloni, Roberto; Cavaliere, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    With this poster we present the environmental benefit on air quality derived by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS pilot project. The CLEAN-ROADS project addresses the problem of the environmental pollution caused by de-icing salts during winter road maintenance activities in the Province of Trento (Italy). A demonstrative Maintenance Decision Support System (MDSS) has been developed in order to improve the intervention procedures of the road management service. Specifically it aims to optimize the efficiency of how available resources (e.g., salt consumption) are currently used while guaranteeing the current level of road safety. The CLEAN-ROADS project has been tested and validated on a test area located in a valley bottom (Adige Valley), where the highest optimization margins are to be expected. The project supports current road maintenance practices, which has proved to be reliable and accurate, with a new scalable and energy-efficient road monitoring system. This system is based on a network of road weather stations (road weather information system, RWIS) installed on the test route. It is capable to collect real-time data about the road conditions and to perform short-term and now-cast road weather forecasts, which actively integrate weather data and bulletins covering the target area [1]. This poster presents the results obtained from a three-year monitoring activity with the aim to (1) determine the impact of de-icing salts on air quality and (2) quantify the improvements obtained by the application of the CLEAN-ROADS project on air quality. The Ambient Air Quality and Cleaner Air for Europe Directive (2008/50/EC) states that contributions to exceedances of particulate matter PM10 limit values that are attributable to road winter salting may be subtracted when assessing compliance with air quality limit values, once provided that reasonable measures have been taken to lower concentrations [2]. As the de-icing salts used in road maintenance are mainly based

  19. 75 FR 13710 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ... this Clean Data regulation as a valid interpretation of the Clean Air Act NRDC v. EPA, 571 F. 3d 1245... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Junction Nonattainment Area; Determination Regarding Applicability of Certain Clean Air Act Requirements...

  20. Cleaning up the Nalon, Caudal and Nora rivers: FEDER provide 1,000 million pesetas for the HUNOSA project. Saneamiento de los rios Nalon, Caudal y Nora. El FEDER aporta mil millones para un proyecto de HUNOSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has recently approved aid from FEDER (European Regional Development Fund) for the HUNOSA project 'Cleaning discharge into public waterways from HUNOSA's coal washeries' to the value of 1,000 million pesetas. This is the maximum grant available from the Fund and equates to 45% of the total investment, estimated at 2,200 million pesetas. The project has been organised and carried out by HUNOSA and involves cleaning up the Nalon, Caudal and Nora rivers between 1990 and 1992. The project also includes a comprehensive study of the six washeries contributing to the pollution of the rivers and will apply to each the cheapest and most viable solution from an operational standpoint. 1 fig.

  1. 3D Air Quality and the Clean Air Interstate Rule: Lagrangian Sampling of CMAQ Model Results to Aid Regional Accountability Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, T. D.; Szykman, Jim; Pierce, Robert B.; Gilliland, A. B.; Engel-Cox, Jill; Weber, Stephanie; Kittaka, Chieko; Al-Saadi, Jassim A.; Scheffe, Rich; Dimmick, Fred; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) is expected to reduce transport of air pollutants (e.g. fine sulfate particles) in nonattainment areas in the Eastern United States. CAIR highlights the need for an integrated air quality observational and modeling system to understand sulfate as it moves in multiple dimensions, both spatially and temporally. Here, we demonstrate how results from an air quality model can be combined with a 3d monitoring network to provide decision makers with a tool to help quantify the impact of CAIR reductions in SO2 emissions on regional transport contributions to sulfate concentrations at surface monitors in the Baltimore, MD area, and help improve decision making for strategic implementation plans (SIPs). We sample results from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model using ensemble back trajectories computed with the NASA Langley Research Center trajectory model to provide Lagrangian time series and vertical profile information, that can be compared with NASA satellite (MODIS), EPA surface, and lidar measurements. Results are used to assess the regional transport contribution to surface SO4 measurements in the Baltimore MSA, and to characterize the dominant source regions for low, medium, and high SO4 episodes.

  2. Clean Air for Anchorage and Fairbanks: Curriculum for Grades 7-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    Ten lessons on air and air pollution comprise this guide for secondary school teachers. Among the topics addressed are pollutants, health effects, weather inversions, personal involvement, and automobile emissions. Particular emphasis is placed upon problems in Alaskan cities. Lesson plans contain a materials list, background information,…

  3. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  4. Cleaning up the air: effectiveness of air quality policy for SO2 and NOx emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der A, Ronald J.; Mijling, Bas; Ding, Jieying; Elissavet Koukouli, Maria; Liu, Fei; Li, Qing; Mao, Huiqin; Theys, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    Air quality observations by satellite instruments are global and have a regular temporal resolution, which makes them very useful in studying long-term trends in atmospheric species. To monitor air quality trends in China for the period 2005-2015, we derive SO2 columns and NOx emissions on a provincial level with improved accuracy. To put these trends into perspective they are compared with public data on energy consumption and the environmental policies of China. We distinguish the effect of air quality regulations from economic growth by comparing them relatively to fossil fuel consumption. Pollutant levels, per unit of fossil fuel, are used to assess the effectiveness of air quality regulations. We note that the desulfurization regulations enforced in 2005-2006 only had a significant effect in the years 2008-2009, when a much stricter control of the actual use of the installations began. For national NOx emissions a distinct decreasing trend is only visible from 2012 onwards, but the emission peak year differs from province to province. Unlike SO2, emissions of NOx are highly related to traffic. Furthermore, regulations for NOx emissions are partly decided on a provincial level. The last 3 years show a reduction both in SO2 and NOx emissions per fossil fuel unit, since the authorities have implemented several new environmental regulations. Despite an increasing fossil fuel consumption and a growing transport sector, the effects of air quality policy in China are clearly visible. Without the air quality regulations the concentration of SO2 would be about 2.5 times higher and the NO2 concentrations would be at least 25 % higher than they are today in China.

  5. 76 FR 58808 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... CONTACT: Geoffrey L. Wilcox, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of General Counsel, U.S...; fax number (202) 564-5601; e-mail address: wilcox.geoffrey@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION:...

  6. 76 FR 71027 - Proposed Settlement Agreements, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... of the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment, Air Pollution Control Division regarding... Department of Public Health and Environment regarding the issuance of a renewed title V permit for...

  7. 78 FR 60280 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... above. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Susmita Dubey, Air and Radiation Law Office (2344A), Office of...; telephone: (202) 564-5577; fax number (202) 564-5603; email address: dubey.susmita@epa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY...

  8. Qualitative Analysis and Study of the Microorganisms in Clean Air within Clean Room of the Pharmaceutical Industry%医药工业洁净室洁净空气微生物定性分析与探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕洪浩; 李俊杰; 徐慰倬

    2012-01-01

    ObjGCtive To study the distribution of the microorganisms in clean air within clean room of the pharmaceutical industry. Methods Test method for settling microbe was used in the clean air of some clean rooms. The microorganisms isolated were analysed by morphological observation, physiological and biochemical tests and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. Results A strain of actinomycete, four strains of fungi and ten strains of bacteria were derived in the experiment. Conclusion The clean air mainly consists of bacteria, a small amount of fungi and actinomycetes. Professionals of enterprise should master the distribution of bacteria, fungi and actinomycetes, analyze the causes of formation of the colony forming unit and take targeted methods of control for the environment of the clean room to guarantee the quality of products.%目的 探讨医药工业洁净室洁净空气中微生物分布情况.方法 对部分洁净室洁净空气进行沉降菌检测,采用形态学观察,生理生化反应检测以及16S rDNA序列测定等技术对微生物进行分析.结果 通过实验共获得放线菌1株,真菌4株,细菌10株.结论 一般洁净空气中以细菌为主,有少量真菌及放线菌,企业生产者应掌握这些菌的分布情况,分析这些菌落形成的原因,对洁净室环境做出针对性控制手段以保证产品质量.

  9. 75 FR 56530 - Clean Air Act Advisory Committee (CAAAC): Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... approximately 12:45 p.m. to 5 p.m. The meetings will also be held at the Crown Plaza at National Airport, in... meeting via a separate Federal Register notice. The agenda for the CAAAC full committee meeting on...

  10. 75 FR 78733 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice.... Oil & Refining Co., Case No. 3:10-cv-05899, was lodged with the United States District Court for the... of Justice will receive, for a period of thirty (30) days from the date of this publication,...

  11. 76 FR 22918 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-25

    ...-04038 (Northern District of Iowa), Department of Justice Case Number 90-5-2-1-2062/1. During the public... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice... their nitric acid plants. The Department of Justice will receive for a period of thirty (30) days...

  12. 77 FR 6822 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice..., a proposed Consent Decree in United States of America v. Columbus Manufacturing, Inc. Case No. 4:12... Justice will receive, for a period of thirty (30) days from the date of this publication,...

  13. 78 FR 59718 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice... of Justice lodged a proposed Consent Decree with the United States District Court for the Southern District of Texas in the lawsuit entitled United States v CITGO Petroleum Corporation, Case No....

  14. 76 FR 47239 - Notice of Lodging of Consent Decree Pursuant to the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-04

    ... States v. Caterpillar Inc., Civ. A. No. 11-1373 (BAH) (District of Colombia, Department of Justice Case... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice... Department of Justice will receive for a period of thirty (30) days from the date of this...

  15. United States Files Complaint Against Volkswagen, Audi and Porsche for Alleged Clean Air Act Violations

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Justice, on behalf of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, today filed a civil complaint in federal court in Detroit, Michigan against Volkswagen AG, Audi AG, Volkswagen Group of America, Inc., Volkswagen Gro

  16. 76 FR 77226 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-12

    ... June 3, 2011, Plaintiffs filed a complaint alleging that EPA failed to promulgate Federal... to promulgate a FIP by May 31, 2012 for VOC RACT rules for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard for all of the State and NOx RACT rules for the 1997 8-hour ozone standard for all of the State except...

  17. 76 FR 34983 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ... United States District Court for the District of Colorado: WildEarth Guardians, et al. v. Jackson, No. 1... and the other addressing North Dakota excess emissions during startup, shutdown, malfunction and... promulgate regional haze Federal Implementation Plans (``FIPs'') for Montana, North Dakota, Colorado and...

  18. HVAC--the importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, S O

    2004-01-01

    HVAC systems, if properly designed, installed, operated and maintained, will improve thermal conditions and air quality indoors. However, the success strongly depends on the design of the system and the quality of the components we use in our HVAC installations. Regrettably, several investigations have revealed that many HVAC installations have a lot of operational and maintenance problems, especially related to moisture, rain and snow entrainment. In short, it seems that too little attention is placed on the design of the intake section, despite the fact that there exists a large number of national and international guidelines and recommendations. This is a serious problem because the air intake is the initial component of the ventilation plant and as such the first line of defense against debris and other outdoor air pollutants. Unfortunately, the design is often an argued compromise between the architect, the civil engineer and the HVAC engineer. In the future, the technical, hygienic and microbiological feature of air intakes must be better ensured in order to avoid the air intake becoming a risk component as regards contamination and indoor air quality. Further, it seems that the magnitude of the problem is not well known, or recognized, by the building designers, engineers and professionals involved in the construction and operation of buildings. This fact needs to be addressed more seriously, because obviously there is a big difference between the idealistic architectonic design, engineering intentions and the real life situation. Several practical recommendations for design and operation of HVAC systems are presented. Following the recommendations will result in less pollution from the HVAC-system and increased indoor environmental quality.

  19. The effects of Title IV of the Clean Air Act amendments of 1990 on electric utilities: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report presents data and analyses related to Phase I implementation of the Clean Air Act Amendment by electric utilities. It describes the strategies used to comply with the Acid Rain Program in 1995, the effect of compliance on sulfur dioxide emissions levels, the cost of compliance, and the effects of the program on coal supply and demand. The first year of Phase I demonstrated that the market-based sulfur dioxide emissions control system could achieve significant reductions in emissions at lower than expected costs. Some utilities reduced aggregate emissions below legal requirements due to economic incentives; other utilities purchased additional allowances to avoid noncompliance. More than half of the utilities switched to or blended with lower sulfur coal, due to price reductions in the coal market which were partially due to the allowance trading program. 21 figs., 20 tabs.

  20. 75 FR 15655 - Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources in Accordance With Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 RIN 2060-AP91 Requirements for Control Technology Determinations for Major Sources... Division, Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (D205- 02), Environmental Protection Agency... facilities. Brick and Structural Clay Products; Clay 327122 Ceramic wall and floor tile manufacturing...

  1. 75 FR 38519 - Proposed Consent Decree, Clean Air Act Citizen Suit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ...-00946 PJH (N.D. C.A.). On March 5, 2010, Plaintiff filed a complaint to compel the U. S. Environmental... County Air Pollution Control District Rule 420'' (Imperial Rule 420), a State implementation plan (SIP... Rule 420. In addition, the proposed consent decree requires that following signature on such notice...

  2. 78 FR 27234 - Notification of a Public Teleconference of the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Development of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for NOX--Health Criteria. DATES: The public teleconference will be held on Wednesday, June 5, 2013 from 1:00 p.m. to 4:00 p.m. (Eastern Time). Location: The... on the scientific and technical aspects of issues related to the criteria for air quality...

  3. Environmental compliance guide. Guidance manual for Department of Energy compliance with the Clean Air Act: nonattainment areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1982-09-01

    The purpose of this manual is to identify information requirements associated with air quality permit applications in areas for which ambient pollutant levels currently exceed the national ambient air quality standards (nonattainment areas). The manual is to be used by project managers at the US Department of Energy (DOE), in conjunction with the DOE Environmental Compliance Guide, to provide preliminary estimates of information required to obtain air quality permits for DOE projects. An analysis of nonattainment area permitting found that permitting of all sources in such areas is done on the state or local levels; the Environmental Protection Agency does not grant permits in nonattainment areas. As a result, Federal information requirements for permitting in nonattainment areas are somewhat vague. To provide a more realistic picture of nonattainment area permitting, selected state and local regulations were surveyed, and were found to contain more detail on the information required for permit approval. The most potentially demanding information requirements associated with nonattainment area permitting are the determination of Lowest Achievable Emission Rate, the negotiation of external emission offsets, and the consideration of the environmental impacts of project alternatives in ozone and carbon monoxide nonattainment areas. In any state, a few information requirements for nonattainment area permitting are likely to overlap with information requirements of other permitting processes, such as those in the Prevention of Significant Deterioration procedure. These requirements are emissions data and air quality modeling and its associated input data requirements (meteorology, topography, etc.).

  4. Environmental health in China: progress towards clean air and safe water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Mauzerall, Denise L; Zhu, Tong; Liang, Song; Ezzati, Majid; Remais, Justin V

    2010-03-27

    Environmental risk factors, especially air and water pollution, are a major source of morbidity and mortality in China. Biomass fuel and coal are burned for cooking and heating in almost all rural and many urban households, resulting in severe indoor air pollution that contributes greatly to the burden of disease. Many communities lack access to safe drinking water and sanitation, and thus the risk of waterborne disease in many regions is high. At the same time, China is rapidly industrialising with associated increases in energy use and industrial waste. Although economic growth from industrialisation has improved health and quality of life indicators, it has also increased the release of chemical toxins into the environment and the rate of environmental disasters, with severe effects on health. Air quality in China's cities is among the worst in the world, and industrial water pollution has become a widespread health hazard. Moreover, emissions of climate-warming greenhouse gases from energy use are rapidly increasing. Global climate change will inevitably intensify China's environmental health troubles, with potentially catastrophic outcomes from major shifts in temperature and precipitation. Facing the overlap of traditional, modern, and emerging environmental dilemmas, China has committed substantial resources to environmental improvement. The country has the opportunity to address its national environmental health challenges and to assume a central role in the international effort to improve the global environment.

  5. Development of a software and hardware system for monitoring the air cleaning process using a cyclone-separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolaeva, B. K.; Borisov, A. P.; Zlochevskiy, V. L.

    2017-08-01

    The article is devoted to the development of a hardware-software complex for monitoring and controlling the process of air purification by means of a cyclone-separator. The hardware of this complex is the Arduino platform, to which are connected pressure sensors, air velocities, dustmeters, which allow monitoring of the main parameters of the cyclone-separator. Also, a frequency converter was developed to regulate the rotation speed of an asynchronous motor necessary to correct the flow rate, the control signals of which come with Arduino. The program part of the complex is written in the form of a web application in the programming language JavaScript and inserts into CSS and HTML for the user interface. This program allows you to receive data from sensors, build dependencies in real time and control the speed of rotation of an asynchronous electric drive. The conducted experiment shows that the cleaning efficiency is 95-99.9%, while the airflow at the cyclone inlet is 16-18 m/s, and at the exit 50-70 m/s.

  6. Validation of the criteria for initiating the cleaning of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) ductwork under real conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Jacques; Marchand, Geneviève; Cloutier, Yves; Lavoué, Jérôme

    2011-08-01

    Dust accumulation in the components of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems is a potential source of contaminants. To date, very little information is available on recognized methods for assessing dust buildup in these systems. The few existing methods are either objective in nature, involving numerical values, or subjective in nature, based on experts' judgments. An earlier project aimed at assessing different methods of sampling dust in ducts was carried out in the laboratories of the Institut de recherche Robert-Sauvé en santé et en sécurité du travail (IRSST). This laboratory study showed that all the sampling methods were practicable, provided that a specific surface-dust cleaning initiation criterion was used for each method. However, these conclusions were reached on the basis of ideal conditions in a laboratory using a reference dust. The objective of this present study was to validate these laboratory results in the field. To this end, the laboratory sampling templates were replicated in real ducts and the three sampling methods (the IRSST method, the method of the U.S. organization National Air Duct Cleaner Association [NADCA] and that of the French organization Association pour la Prévention et l'Étude de la Contamination [ASPEC]) were used simultaneously in a statistically representative number of systems. The air return and supply ducts were also compared. Cleaning initiation criteria under real conditions were found to be 6.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the IRSST method, 2.0 mg/100 cm(2) using the NADCA method, and 23 mg/100 cm(2) using the ASPEC method. In the laboratory study, the criteria using the same methods were 6.0 for the IRSST method, 2.0 for the NADCA method, and 3.0 for the ASPEC method. The laboratory criteria for the IRSST and NADCA methods were therefore validated in the field. The ASPEC criterion was the only one to change. The ASPEC method therefore allows for the most accurate evaluation of dust accumulation in HVAC

  7. Clean Air Act oversight: field hearings. Hearings before the Committee on Environment and Public Works, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, June 27, 1981 Seattle, Washington, June 30, 1981 Randolph, Vermont, July 1, 1981 Albany, New York, July 1, 1981 Fairbanks, Alaska, Part 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Part 7 of the field hearings report covers hearings held on June 27, 1981 in Seattle, Washington, June 30, 1981 in Randolph, Vermont, July 1, 1981 in Albany, NY, and also July 1, 1981 in Fairbanks, Alaska. A total of 122 witnesses appeared to express their views on reauthorizing the Clean Air Act and to suggest possible amendments. Witnesses represented federal and state agencies, local businesses, and public interest groups. Witnesses were asked to address the issues of health standards, the Prevention of Significant Deterioration rule, all air pollutants and the effects, and the lack of clear responsibility and flexibility in the Clean Air Act. Present at the Albany meeting were representatives from the Canadian government, which is concerned with the problem of transboundary pollution. The record includes the testimony and supporting materials submitted for the record. (DCK)

  8. 40 CFR 62.14830 - Does this subpart require me to obtain an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... operating permit unless you meet the relevant requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14525(a) through (h) and (j) through (o) and all of the requirements specified in 40 CFR 62.14531. ... an operating permit under title V of the Clean Air Act? 62.14830 Section 62.14830 Protection...

  9. A historical overview of the development of manganese (Mn) pharmacokinetic data under Section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for Manganese 2016A historical overview of the development of manganese (Mn) pharmacokinetic data under Section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA)William K BoyesBackground. In the 1990’s, the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as an octane-enh...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart A of... - Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 Phaseout Schedule for Production of Ozone-Depleting Substances H Appendix H to Subpart A of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Production and Consumption Controls Pt. 82, Subpt. A, App. H Appendix H to Subpart A of...

  11. A historical overview of the development of manganese (Mn) pharmacokinetic data under Section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract for Manganese 2016A historical overview of the development of manganese (Mn) pharmacokinetic data under Section 211(b) of the Clean Air Act (CAA)William K BoyesBackground. In the 1990’s, the use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as an octane-enh...

  12. Comparing toxic air pollutant programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, S.C. [ECKENFELDER Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This article compares state and federal toxic air pollutant programs. The Clean Air Act Ammendments created a program for the control of Hazardous Air Pollutants based on the establishment of control technology standards. State toxic programs can be classified into two categories: control technology-based and ambient concentration-based. Many states have opened to implement the MACT standards while enforcing their own state air toxics programs. Specific topics discussed include the following: the Federal air toxics program; existing state regulations; New Jersey Air Toxic Program; New York Toxics program.

  13. Issuance of the Clean Air Act Stationary Source Compliance Monitoring Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  14. Response to Request for EPA's Interpretation of Several Provisions of the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  15. Guidance On Enforcement of PSD Requirements Under the Clean Air Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  16. Issuance of PSD Permit to Sources Impacting Dirty and Clean Air Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  17. Photocatalytic equipment with nitrogen-doped titanium dioxide for air cleaning and disinfecting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son Le, Thanh; Buu Ngo, Quoc; Dung Nguyen, Viet; Chau Nguyen, Hoai; Hien Dao, Trong; Tin Tran, Xuan; Kabachkov, E. N.; Balikhin, I. L.

    2014-03-01

    Nitrogen-doped TiO2 nanoparticle photocatalysts were synthesized by a sol-gel procedure using tetra-n-butyl orthotitanate as a titanium precursor and urea as a nitrogen source. Systematic studies for the preparation parameters and their impact on the material's structure were carried out by multiple techniques: thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrophotometry showed that the nitrogen-doped TiO2 calcined at 500 °C for 3 h exhibited a spherical form with a particle size about 15-20 nm and crystal phase presented a mixture of 89.12% anatase. The obtained product was deposited on a porous quartz tube (D = 74 mm l = 418 mm) to manufacture an air photocatalytic cleaner as a prototype of the TIOKRAFT company's equipment. The created air cleaner was able to remove 60% of 10 ppm acetone within 390 min and degrade 98.5% of bacteria (total aerobic bacteria and fungi, 300 cfu m-3) within 120 min in a 10 m3 box. These photodegradation activities of N-TiO2 are higher than that of the commercial nano-TiO2 (Skyspring Inc., USA, particle size of 5-10 nm).

  18. Air cleaning performance of a new environmentally controlled primary crusher operator booth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organiscak, J A; Cecala, A B; Zimmer, J A; Holen, B; Baregi, J R

    2016-02-01

    The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) cooperated with 3M Company in the design and testing of a new environmentally controlled primary crusher operator booth at the company's Wausau granite quarry near Wausau, WI. This quarry had an older crusher booth without a central heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system, and without an air filtration and pressurization system. A new replacement operator booth was designed and installed by 3M based on design considerations from past NIOSH research on enclosed cab filtration systems. NIOSH conducted pre-testing of the old booth and post-testing of the new booth to assess the new filtration and pressurization system's effectiveness in controlling airborne dusts and particulates. The booth's dust and particulate control effectiveness is described by its protection factor, expressed as a ratio of the outside to inside concentrations measured during testing. Results indicate that the old booth provided negligible airborne respirable dust protection and low particulate protection from the outside environment. The newly installed booth provided average respirable dust protection factors from 2 to 25 over five shifts of dust sampling with occasional worker ingress and egress from the booth, allowing some unfiltered contaminants to enter the enclosure. Shorter-term particle count testing outside and inside the booth under near-steady-state conditions, with no workers entering or exiting the booth, resulted in protection factors from 35 to 127 on 0.3- to 1.0-μm respirable size particulates under various HVAC airflow operating conditions.

  19. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part I: Theoretical Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Éric; Héquet, Valérie

    2017-03-06

    This study demonstrated that a laboratory-scale recirculation closed-loop reactor can be an efficient technique for the determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) air purification devices. The recirculation closed-loop reactor was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: one is a perfectly mixed reservoir and the other is a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device itself. Based on the assumption that the ratio between the residence time in the PCO device and the residence time in the reservoir τP/τR tends to 0, the model highlights that a lab closed-loop reactor can be a suitable technique for the determination of the efficiency of PCO devices. Moreover, if the single-pass removal efficiency is lower than 5% of the treated flow rate, the decrease in the pollutant concentration over time can be characterized by a first-order decay model in which the time constant is proportional to the CADR. The limits of the model are examined and reported in terms of operating conditions (experiment duration, ratio of residence times, and flow rate ranges).

  20. Combining active chilled beams and air-cleaning technologies to improve the indoor climate in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian

    2013-01-01

    of air in offices. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop was selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included tests of the filter in a ductwork to study the efficiency of the filter. Moreover, the combined system of the filter and a chilled beam...... was tested in a room. The efficiency of the mechanical filter to remove ultrafine particles was examined using pure wax candles and salt as sources of emission of particles. The measurements in the duct showed that the efficiency of the filter ranged between 54% and 78% and that the pressure loss was less...... than 5 Pa (0.104 Ibf /ft2). Furthermore, the measurement results of the combined system showed that adding the filter accelerated the removal rate of the particles by 2 h-1. However, the efficiency of the chilled beam in exchanging heat was reduced by 38%....

  1. Eliminating second-hand smoke from Mexican-American households: outcomes from Project Clean Air-Safe Air (CASA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokhorov, Alexander V; Hudmon, Karen Suchanek; Marani, Salma K; Bondy, Melissa L; Gatus, Leticia A; Spitz, Margaret R; Wilkinson, Anna V; Hammond, S Katharine; Koehly, Laura M

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) is a major public health problem and a risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The objective of this randomized trial was to estimate the impact of a culturally-sensitive intervention to reduce SHS exposure in Mexican-American households. A total of 91 households (with a child under 18 years of age and two adults, one of whom was a smoker) were recruited from a population-based cohort of Mexican-American households and randomized to receive the experimental intervention (EI; n=47) or standard care (SC; n=44). Of these, 74 households (83%) provided baseline, 6-month, and 12-month survey and nicotine monitor data (EI, n=39; SC, n=35). The EI materials, designed to increase the participants' likelihood of adopting a smoke-free indoor home air policy, included one culturally-appropriate bilingual comic book for children and two fotonovelas for adults. Ambient nicotine levels significantly decreased over the 12 study months (F=13.6, DF=147; peffects of SHS increased from baseline to 6 and 12 months in the EI condition but not in the SC condition (F=6.0, DF=238; p<0.01), and smokers and quitters in the EI group reported an increased perception of health vulnerability compared to those in the SC group. Our low-cost intervention impacted SHS-related knowledge and exposure among Mexican Americans. This culturally-appropriate intervention has the potential to decrease SHS-related health problems in the target population substantially. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Influence of regional development policies and clean technology adoption on future air pollution exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, Mark; Mahmud, Abdullah; Hu, Jianlin; Bai, Song; Niemeier, Debbie A.; Handy, Susan L.; Gao, Shengyi; Lund, Jay R.; Sullivan, Dana Coe; Kleeman, Michael J.

    2010-02-01

    Future air pollution emissions in the year 2030 were estimated for the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) in central California using a combined system of land use, mobile, off-road, stationary, area, and biogenic emissions models. Four scenarios were developed that use different assumptions about the density of development and level of investment in transportation infrastructure to accommodate the expected doubling of the SJV population in the next 20 years. Scenario 1 reflects current land-use patterns and infrastructure while scenario 2 encouraged compact urban footprints including redevelopment of existing urban centers and investments in transit. Scenario 3 allowed sprawling development in the SJV with reduced population density in existing urban centers and construction of all planned freeways. Scenario 4 followed currently adopted land use and transportation plans for the SJV. The air quality resulting from these urban development scenarios was evaluated using meteorology from a winter stagnation event that occurred on December 15th, 2000 to January 7th 2001. Predicted base-case PM2.5 mass concentrations within the region exceeded 35 μg m -3 over the 22-day episode. Compact growth reduced the PM2.5 concentrations by ˜1 μg m -3 relative to the base-case over most of the SJV with the exception of increases (˜1 μg m -3) in urban centers driven by increased concentrations of elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). Low-density development increased the PM2.5 concentrations by 1-4 μg m -3 over most of the region, with decreases (0.5-2 μg m -3) around urban areas. Population-weighted average PM2.5 concentrations were very similar for all development scenarios ranging between 16 and 17.4 μg m -3. Exposure to primary PM components such as EC and OC increased 10-15% for high density development scenarios and decreased by 11-19% for low-density scenarios. Patterns for secondary PM components such as nitrate and ammonium ion were almost exactly reversed, with a 10

  3. Parametric Evaluation of an Innovative Ultra-Violet PhotocatalyticOxidation (UVPCO) Air Cleaning Technology for Indoor Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, Alfred T.; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Fisk, William J.

    2005-10-31

    An innovative Ultra-Violet Photocatalytic Oxidation (UVPCO) air cleaning technology employing a semitransparent catalyst coated on a semitransparent polymer substrate was evaluated to determine its effectiveness for treating mixtures of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) representative of indoor environments at low, indoor-relevant concentration levels. The experimental UVPCO contained four 30 by 30-cm honeycomb monoliths irradiated with nine UVA lamps arranged in three banks. A parametric evaluation of the effects of monolith thickness, air flow rate through the device, UV power, and reactant concentrations in inlet air was conducted for the purpose of suggesting design improvements. The UVPCO was challenged with three mixtures of VOCs. A synthetic office mixture contained 27 VOCs commonly measured in office buildings. A building product mixture was created by combining sources including painted wallboard, composite wood products, carpet systems, and vinyl flooring. The third mixture contained formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. Steady state concentrations were produced in a classroom laboratory or a 20-m{sup 3} chamber. Air was drawn through the UVPCO, and single-pass conversion efficiencies were measured from replicate samples collected upstream and downstream of the reactor. Thirteen experiments were conducted in total. In this UVPCO employing a semitransparent monolith design, an increase in monolith thickness is expected to result in general increases in both reaction efficiencies and absolute reaction rates for VOCs oxidized by photocatalysis. The thickness of individual monolith panels was varied between 1.2 and 5 cm (5 to 20 cm total thickness) in experiments with the office mixture. VOC reaction efficiencies and rates increased with monolith thickness. However, the analysis of the relationship was confounded by high reaction efficiencies in all configurations for a number of compounds. These reaction efficiencies approached or exceeded 90% for alcohols, glycol

  4. Clean air plans and action plans: perspectives from the viewpoint of environmental and public health; Luftreinhalteplaene und Aktionsplaene - eine Bewertung aus umweltmedizinischer Sicht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eikmann, T.; Herr, C. [Inst. fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen, Giessen (Germany); [Technische Univ. Dreden, Pirna (Germany). Inst. fuer Abfallwirtschaft und Altlasten; Koeckler, H. [Center for Environmental Systems Research (CESR), Univ. Kassel (Germany); [Mentec GmbH, Aue/Sa. (Germany); Nieden, A. zur [Inst. fuer Hygiene und Umweltmedizin, Universitaetsklinikum Giessen und Marburg, Justus-Liebig-Univ. Giessen, Giessen (Germany); FG Stadtklimatologie, Univ. Kassel (Germany); Katzschner, L. [FG Stadtklimatologie, Univ. Kassel (Germany); [INTECUS Dresden GmbH (Germany); Schimmelpfennig, M. [Gesundheitsamt der Stadt Kassel (Germany); Eikmann, S. [GUK - Gesellschaft fuer Umwelttoxikologie und Krankenhaushygiene mbH, Wetzlar (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    The present discussion on the health effects associated with airborne fine particulate matter has lead to an increased public interest in the general framework of compilation and evaluation of clean air plans and actions plans. While the surveys of the ''old'' clean air plans of the 80ies and 90ies of the last century relied on assessment of direct and indirect effects of air pollution on human health (and ecology), theses surveys are not part of the ''new'' clean air plans according to European law. This reduction of surveys and actions directed at threshold compliance only, abandons assessing, i.e., documentation and evaluation the health status and quality of life of populations. Assessment of individual and focus group specific sensibility and vulnerability becomes possible once health related, sociodemographic and environmental data are combined. By this, unequal life chance, i.e., unimpaired health as well as reasonable strategies towards minimizing environmental injustice can be identified. As of yet it is unclear, to what extend quality of life and quality of environment of populations living in air polluted areas are attributable to socioeconomic factors. Likewise, it is not known to which degree the environmental quality of individuals and families is self determined. This has to be considered especially for children, immigrants and women. These issues i.e., environmental justice/injustice should be considered in future projects on the development of clean air plans and especially actions plans derived thereof. Scientists, government officials and physicians working in field of preventive or environmental medicine cannot agree to a limitation of the cautionary principle to the bare compliance with thresholds. (orig.)

  5. 中央空调管道清洗机器人控制系统设计%Design of central air conditioning duct cleaning robot control system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何琴

    2011-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of central air conditioning duct diameter non-standard and the difficulty of the duct cleaning,the automatic centering technology was investigated. After analysing the central air conditioning duct cleaning robot control system,adopting a modular design thought, taking ATmega64 microcontroller as the control core,the relations between modules were established. A method was presented to the central air conditioning duct cleaning robot control system design. The cleaning technology was evaluated based on the existing cleaning technology. The results show that the cleaning robot can achieve automatic centering to adapt different pipe diameters to finish cleaning tasks, provide a broad application prospects for central air conditioning duct cleaning technology.%为解决中央空调管道清洗难及管径不规范等问题,将自动定心技术应用到管道清洗机器人中,开展了中央空调管道清洗机器人控制系统方案分析与设计.采用模块化的设计思想,以ATmega64单片机为控制核心,建立了各个功能模块之间的关系,实现了中央空调管道清洗机器人整个控制系统的方案设计.在现有的中央空调管道清洗技术基础上,对相关研究成果进行了对比分析及评价.研究结果表明,所设计的清洗机器人能够实现自动定心以适应不同的空调管径,完成清洗作业,为中央空调管道清洗技术提供了广阔的应用前景.

  6. Fate and aqueous transport of mercury in light of the Clean Air Mercury Rule for coal-fired electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzuman, Anry

    Mercury is a hazardous air pollutant emitted to the atmosphere in large amounts. Mercury emissions from electric power generation sources were estimated to be 48 metric tons/year, constituting the single largest anthropogenic source of mercury in the U.S. Settled mercury species are highly toxic contaminants of the environment. The newly issued Federal Clean Air Mercury Rule requires that the electric power plants firing coal meet the new Maximum Achievable Mercury Control Technology limit by 2018. This signifies that all of the air-phase mercury will be concentrated in solid phase which, based on the current state of the Air Pollution Control Technology, will be fly ash. Fly ash is utilized by different industries including construction industry in concrete, its products, road bases, structural fills, monifills, for solidification, stabilization, etc. Since the increase in coal combustion in the U.S. (1.6 percent/year) is much higher than the fly ash demand, large amounts of fly ash containing mercury and other trace elements are expected to accumulate in the next decades. The amount of mercury transferred from one phase to another is not a linear function of coal combustion or ash production, depends on the future states of technology, and is unknown. The amount of aqueous mercury as a function of the future removal, mercury speciation, and coal and aquifer characteristics is also unknown. This paper makes a first attempt to relate mercury concentrations in coal, flue gas, fly ash, and fly ash leachate using a single algorithm. Mercury concentrations in all phases were examined and phase transformation algorithms were derived in a form suitable for probabilistic analyses. Such important parameters used in the transformation algorithms as Soil Cation Exchange Capacity for mercury, soil mercury selectivity sequence, mercury activity coefficient, mercury retardation factor, mercury species soil adsorption ratio, and mercury Freundlich soil adsorption isotherm

  7. Economic effects of clean indoor air policies on bar and restaurant employment in Minneapolis and St Paul, Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Elizabeth G; Forster, Jean L; Erickson, Darin J; Lytle, Leslie A; Schillo, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Clean indoor air (CIA) policies have been adopted by communities across the United States and internationally to protect employees in all workplaces from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Concerns have been raised that banning smoking in workplaces, particularly in bars and restaurants, will result in severe, negative economic effects. Although objective studies have consistently found no significant economic effects from CIA policies, the concerns persist that CIA policies will negatively affect hospitality businesses. Employment in bars and restaurants in Minneapolis and St Paul, Minnesota, was independently evaluated over a five-year period during which CIA policies were established in each city. An interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate the short-, intermediate, and longer-term economic effects of the local CIA policies, accounting for the rest of the hospitality industry. The CIA policies were associated with an increase of three percent to four percent in employment for restaurants in Minneapolis and St Paul, after accounting for the rest of the hospitality industry. The CIA policies were inconsistent in their association with bar employment. A comprehensive CIA policy in Minneapolis was associated with an increase of five percent to six percent in bar employment, and St Paul had a one percent nonsignificant decrease in bar employment. The CIA policies continue to yield the best protection against workplace exposure to environmental tobacco smoke for bars and restaurant employees and were not associated with large employment changes for the short or longer term in two urban Midwestern cities in the United States.

  8. Air pollution-related health and climate benefits of clean cookstove programs in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anenberg, Susan C.; Henze, Daven K.; Lacey, Forrest; Irfan, Ans; Kinney, Patrick; Kleiman, Gary; Pillarisetti, Ajay

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 95% of households in Mozambique burn solid fuels for cooking, contributing to elevated indoor and outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations and subsequent health and climate impacts. Little is known about the potential health and climate benefits of various approaches for expanding the use of cleaner stoves and fuels in Mozambique. We use state-of-the-science methods to provide a first-order estimation of potential air pollution-related health and climate benefits of four illustrative scenarios in which traditional cooking fires and stoves are displaced by cleaner and more efficient technologies. For rural areas, we find that a 10% increase in the number of households using forced draft wood-burning stoves could achieve >2.5 times more health benefits from reduced PM2.5 exposure (200 avoided premature deaths and 14 000 avoided disability adjusted life years, DALYs, over a three-year project lifetime) compared to natural draft stoves in the same households, assuming 70% of households use the new technology for both cases. Expanding use of LPG stoves to 10% of households in five major cities is estimated to avoid 160 premature deaths and 11 000 DALYs from reduced PM2.5 exposure for a three-year intervention, assuming 60% of households use the new stove. Advanced charcoal stoves would achieve ∽80% of the PM2.5-related health benefits of LPG stoves. Approximately 2%–5% additional health benefits would result from reduced ambient PM2.5, depending on the scenario. Although climate impacts are uncertain, we estimate that all scenarios would reduce expected climate change-related temperature increases from continued solid fuel use by 4%–6% over the next century. All results are based on an assumed adjustment factor of 0.8 to convert from laboratory-based emission reduction measurements to exposure reductions, which could be optimistic in reality given potential for continued use of the traditional stove. We conclude that cleaner cooking

  9. US-China Clean Energy Research Center on Building Energy Efficiency: Materials that Improve the Cost-Effectiveness of Air Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hun, Diana E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The US–China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC) was launched in 2009 by US Energy Secretary Steven Chu, Chinese Minister of Science and Technology Wan Gang, and Chinese National Energy Agency Administrator Zhang Guobao. This 5-year collaboration emerged from the fact that the United States and China are the world’s largest energy producers, energy consumers, and greenhouse gas emitters, and that their joint effort could have significant positive repercussions worldwide. CERC’s main goal is to develop and deploy clean energy technologies that will help both countries meet energy and climate challenges. Three consortia were established to address the most pressing energy-related research areas: Advanced Coal Technology, Clean Vehicles, and Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). The project discussed in this report was part of the CERC-BEE consortia; its objective was to lower energy use in buildings by developing and evaluating technologies that improve the cost-effectiveness of air barrier systems for building envelopes.

  10. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héquet, Valérie; Batault, Frédéric; Raillard, Cécile; Thévenet, Frédéric; Le Coq, Laurence; Dumont, Éric

    2017-03-06

    The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m³ and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10(-3) m³. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm²) and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i) light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm(-2); (ii) air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s(-1); and (iii) initial toluene concentration C₀ (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv). The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I) were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m³·h(-1), were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I), the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  11. 蔬菜清洗中气流强化作用研究%Effects of Vegetable Cleaning Strengthened by Air Fl ow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云飞; 张青; 钱丽丽; 李方正

    2001-01-01

    The cleaning mechanisms of vegetable strengthened by air flo w were discussed in the paper. The flow field of cleaning water and the motion s tate of vegetables disturbed by air flow were primarily investigated. The result s s howed that the level of cleaning water was increased approximately 0.03 m due to plenty of gas bubbles near the free surface of water. The cleaning effects of v egetable were strengthened by entrainment of air free-jet and cavitation. Compa red those with non-immersed, the cleaning time for potatoes and greens pre-imm ersed in cool water for 10min, 30 min were also presented.%论述了蔬菜清洗中气流对强化洗净率的作用机理,初步实验研究气流对 洗涤水和蔬菜的扰动状况以及清洗效果。结果表明,在本试验条件下,大量空泡集聚在洗涤 水上部并使清 洗槽液面膨胀0.03 m,射流的卷吸和空泡溃灭强化了对蔬菜的冲刷效果,并给出了马铃薯和 小青菜在未浸泡和分别浸泡10 min、30 min后的洗净时间。

  12. Effect of Water Cleaning on Performance of Air Filtration Medias%水清洗对空气净化材料过滤性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓培; 卞思思; 常德强; 毛宁; 柳静献; 孙熙

    2012-01-01

    Air filtration media are designed for disposable, but in some application, it should be used for many times with water cleaning. Through experiments, the performances of polyester fiber layer media, which are cleaned with water for many times, including filtration elfieieney, resistance, dust capacity are studied in the paper. It was indicated by the results that water cleaning has less effect on filtration et/ieieney, resistance and dust capacity of the filter media. Therefore, air filtration media can be used repeatedly by way of water cleaning.%用于空气净化的材料一般为一次性使用,但有的应用场所需要对其进行反复水清洗多次使用。通过实验手段,研究常规涤纶纤维层滤料,在荷尘、清洗、烘干、荷尘等多次反复中其过滤效率、阻力、容尘量的变化情况。实验结果表明,清洗对滤料的过滤效率、阻力和容尘量没有明显的影响,滤料可以通过水清洗的方式反复使用。

  13. 78 FR 1251 - Notice of Lodging of Proposed Consent Decree Under the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-08

    ...., alleging violations of these statutes at Weylchem US, Inc.'s (``Weylchem'') facilities in Elgin, South... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Notice... States v. Weylchem US, Inc., Civil Action No. 3:12-cv-03639-CMC. In Weylchem, the United States...

  14. Negative pressure of the environmental air in the cleaning area of the materials and sterilization center: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciofi-Silva, Caroline Lopes; Hansen, Lisbeth Lima; Almeida, Alda Graciele Claudio Dos Santos; Kawagoe, Julia Yaeko; Padoveze, Maria Clara; Graziano, Kazuko Uchikawa

    2016-09-01

    to analyze the scientific evidence on aerosols generated during cleaning activities of health products in the Central Service Department (CSD) and the impact of the negative pressure of the ambient air in the cleaning area to control the dispersion of aerosols to adjacent areas. for this literature systematic review the following searches were done: search guidelines, manuals or national and international technical standards given by experts; search in the portal and databases PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL and Web of Science; and a manual search of scientific articles. the five technical documents reviewed recommend that the CSD cleaning area should have a negative differential ambient air pressure, but scientific articles on the impact of this intervention were not found. The four articles included talked about aerosols formed after the use of a ultrasonic cleaner (an increased in the contamination especially during use) and pressurized water jet (formation of smaller aerosols 5μm). In a study, the aerosols formed from contaminated the hot tap water with Legionella pneumophila were evaluated. there is evidence of aerosol formation during cleanup activities in CSD. Studies on occupational diseases of respiratory origin of workers who work in CSD should be performed. analisar as evidências científicas sobre aerossóis gerados durante atividades de limpeza dos produtos para saúde no Centro de Material e Esterilização (CME) e o impacto da pressão negativa do ar ambiente na área de limpeza para controle da dispersão de aerossóis para áreas adjacentes. para essa revisão sistemática de literatura foram realizadas: busca de diretrizes, manuais ou normas técnicas nacionais e internacionais indicadas por especialistas; busca no portal e bases de dados PUBMED, SCOPUS, Cinahl e Web of Science; e busca manual de artigos científicos. Os cinco documentos técnicos analisados preconizam que na área de limpeza do CME haja diferencial negativo de pressão do ar ambiente

  15. Manganese testing under a clean air act test rule and the application of resultant data in risk assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Darcie; Woodall, George M; Jarabek, Annie M; Boyes, William K

    2017-07-01

    In the 1990's, the proposed use of methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) as an octane-enhancing gasoline fuel additive led to concerns for potential public health consequences from exposure to manganese (Mn) combustion products in automotive exhaust. After a series of regulatory/legal actions and negotiations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued under Clean Air Act (CAA) section 211(b) an Alternative Tier 2 Test Rule that required development of scientific information intended to help resolve uncertainties in exposure or health risk estimates associated with MMT use. Among the uncertainties identified were: the chemical forms of Mn emitted in automotive exhaust; the relative toxicity of different Mn species; the potential for exposure among sensitive subpopulations including females, the young and elderly; differences in sensitivity between test species and humans; differences between inhalation and oral exposures; and the influence of dose rate and exposure duration on tissue accumulation of Mn. It was anticipated that development of specific sets of pharmacokinetic (PK) information and models regarding Mn could help resolve many of the identified uncertainties and serve as the best foundation for available data integration. The results of the test program included development of several unique Mn datasets, and a series of increasingly sophisticated Mn physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models. These data and models have helped address each of the uncertainties originally identified in the Test Rule. The output from these PBPK models were used by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) in 2012 to inform the selection of uncertainty factors for deriving the manganese Minimum Risk Level (MRL) for chronic exposure durations. The EPA used the MRL in the Agency's 2015 evaluation of potential residual risks of airborne manganese released from ferroalloys production plants. This resultant set of scientific

  16. Risk of exposure to second hand smoke for adolescents in Las Vegas casinos: an evaluation of the Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Christopher; Henriques, Dominic; York, Nancy; Lee, Kiyoung

    2012-01-01

    Since the Surgeon General's groundbreaking report of 1964, "Smoking and Health," the medical and scientific communities have uncovered the devastating effects of tobacco smoke on health. In reaction to these findings, local and state governments have enacted a variety of clean air acts to prevent unnecessary exposure to this known carcinogen. The Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act (NCIAA), a non-comprehensive smoke-free law, permits smoking in designated areas of casinos, bars, and taverns. With many Las Vegas casinos catering to all ages, this study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of NCIAA in protecting children from second hand smoke exposure. Using a device that measures ambient air particle matter concentrations, this study sampled the air quality in 15 casino gaming areas and corresponding non-smoking, children-friendly areas. The results indicate that current policy fails to preserve indoor air quality in these children-friendly areas. Furthermore, this research suggests the adoption of a more comprehensive, 100% smoke-free policy as the only effective remedy.

  17. Clean Power Plan Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are resources to help states as they develop state implementation plans under section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act to meet EPA's carbon pollution standards for existing power plants. Supplements www2.epa.gov/carbon-pollution-standards.

  18. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    1994-12-31

    This research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Trace elements considered in this project will include mercury, selenium, cadmium, and chlorine. Work in the first quarter has focused on trace element analysis procedures and sample acquisition. Several experts in the field of trace element analysis of coal have been consulted and these procedures are presently being evaluated.

  19. THE CHALLENGES OF AIR POLLUTION AND RESIDUAL RISK ASSESSMENT (EDITORIAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act (CAA), a comprehensive federal law that regulates air pollution from stationary and mobile sources, was first passed in 1963. The act has provided the primary framework for protecting human health and the environment. The CAA divides air pollutants into "criteri...

  20. 77 FR 16509 - Proposed Approval of Revision of Five California Clean Air Act Title V Operating Permits Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... definition of ``regulated air pollutant'' now includes greenhouse gases if the source has a potential to emit... Pollution Control District (MBUAPCD), San Luis Obispo County Air Pollution Control District (SLOCAPCD), Santa Barbara County Air Pollution Control District (SBCAPCD), South Coast Air Quality...

  1. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  2. Analysis and evaluation methods for chemical contaminants in clean room air; Kagaku osen no bunseki hyokaho clean room kukichu no kagaku osen busshitsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, T.

    1998-07-31

    As for, chemical contamination in a cleanroom air has taken up as a important problem. As the main source is building materials, after construction the execution of countermeasures is difficult. Out-gas evaluation and selection in building materials, chemical filters for removing specific organic matter and so on, are a large technical theme in the future and analytical techniques corresponding them become necessary. In this paper, analytical methods of airborne molecular contaminants (AMCs) are introduced. Main samples are AMCs in cleanroom atmosphere, on silicon wafer surface and out-gas from raw materials for cleanroom construction materials such as sealant, plastics and so on. Analytical methods consist of quantification of inorganic compounds, organic compounds and identification of abnormal spot with local/surface analysis. Various interesting findings with analytical data are obtained and investigated. 22 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. 77 FR 63827 - Request for Nominations of Experts for the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) Oxides...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... expertise described above. Nominations should be submitted in electronic format (preferred over hard copy... ``Confidential Financial Disclosure Form for Special Government Employees Serving on Federal Advisory Committees...

  4. Using soil records with atmospheric dispersion modeling to investigate the effects of clean air regulations on 60 years of manganese deposition in Marietta, Ohio (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Megan R; Gaudet, Brian J; Stauffer, David R; White, Timothy S; Brantley, Susan L

    2015-05-15

    Atmospheric emissions of metals from anthropogenic activities have led to deposition and contamination of soils worldwide. We quantified addition of manganese (Mn) to soils around the largest emitter of Mn in the United States (U.S.) using chemical analyses and atmospheric dispersion modeling (Second-Order Closure Integrated Puff (SCIPUFF)). Concentrations of soil-surface Mn were enriched by 9-fold relative to that of the parent material within 1 km of the facility. Elevated concentrations of Mn and chromium (Cr), another potentially toxic element that was emitted, document contamination only within 1 m of the soil surface. Total mass of Mn added per unit land area integrated over 1 m, mMn, equals ~80 mg Mn cm(-2) near the facility. Values of mMn remained above background up to tens of kilometers from the source. Air concentrations of Mn particles of 7.5-micron diameter simulated with SCIPUFF using available data for the emission rate and local meteorological conditions for 2006 were consistent with measured air concentrations. However, the Mn deposition calculated for 2006 with SCIPUFF yielded a cumulative value over the lifetime of the refinery (60 years) that is a factor of 15 lower than the Mn observed to have been added to the soils. This discrepancy can be easily explained if Mn deposition rates before 1988 were more than an order of magnitude greater than today. Such higher emissions are probable, given the changes in metal production with time and the installation of emission controls after the Clean Air Act (1970). This work shows that atmospheric dispersion models can be used with soil profiles to understand the changes in metal emissions over decadal timescales. In addition, the calculations are consistent with the Clean Air Act accounting for a 15-fold decrease in the Mn deposition to soils around the refinery per metric ton of Mn alloy produced. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on Cleaning Methods of Central Air Conditioning Water Cystem%中央空调水系统的清洗方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘孝刚

    2014-01-01

    为提高换热效率、防止和减少水的腐蚀,中央空调的冷却水系统和冷冻水系统都应定期进行清洗,以除去金属表面上的沉积物和杀灭微生物。对于新建的中央空调,其冷却水和冷冻水系统中的设备在制造加工中和运输储存期间都会发生锈蚀,带入的切削油、防锈油严重影响中央空调水系统的运行,在安装过程中还会下碎屑、油类、泥砂和杂质。因此,对中央空调水系统的清洗方法的研究显得尤为重要。%In order to improve thermal efficiency, prevent and reduce the corrosion of water, the cooling water system and chilled water system of central air conditioning should be regular cleaning, so as to remove sediments on the surface of metals and exterminate microorganisms. In term of the new central air conditioning, the equipments of cooling water system and chilled water system would be easily corroded in the process of manufacturing , storage and transportation, cutting oil, rust-proof oil brought in would seriously affect the operation of central air conditioning water system, during the installation process there will be fallen debris, oil, mud, sand and impurities. Therefore, the study of the central air conditioning water system cleaning methods is particularly important.

  6. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO{sub 2} take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry`s response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  7. Analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990: A forecast of the electric utility industry response to Title IV, Acid Deposition Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molburg, J.C.; Fox, J.A.; Pandola, G.; Cilek, C.M.

    1991-10-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 incorporate, for the first time, provisions aimed specifically at the control of acid rain. These provisions restrict emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]) from electric power generating stations. The restrictions on SO[sub 2] take the form of an overall cap on the aggregate emissions from major generating plants, allowing substantial flexibility in the industry's response to those restrictions. This report discusses one response scenario through the year 2030 that was examined through a simulation of the utility industry based on assumptions consistent with characterizations used in the National Energy Strategy reference case. It also makes projections of emissions that would result from the use of existing and new capacity and of the associated additional costs of meeting demand subject to the emission limitations imposed by the Clean Air Act. Fuel-use effects, including coal-market shifts, consistent with the response scenario are also described. These results, while dependent on specific assumptions for this scenario, provide insight into the general character of the likely utility industry response to Title IV.

  8. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Mohanty, M.K.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a run-of-mine coal sample collected from Amax Coal Company`s Delta Coal mine using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in circuitry arrangements. The {minus}60 mesh run-of-mine sample having an ash content of about 22% was cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 87% and a sulfur rejection value of 53% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Packed-Column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  9. Advanced physical coal cleaning to comply with potential air toxic regulations. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honaker, R.Q.; Paul, B.C.; Wang, D.

    1995-12-31

    Studies have indicated that the potentially hazardous trace elements found in coal have a strong affinity for coal pyrite. Thus, by maximizing the rejection of pyrite, one can minimize the trace element content of a given coal while also reducing sulfur emissions. The pyrite in most Illinois Basin coals, however, is finely disseminated within the coal matrix. Therefore, to remove the pyrite using physical coal cleaning techniques, the pyrite must be liberated by grinding the coal to ultrafine particle sizes. Fortunately, the coals being fed to pulverized coal boilers (PCB) are already ground to a very fine size, i.e., 70% passing 200 mesh. Therefore, this research project will investigate the use of advanced fine coal cleaning technologies for cleaning PCB feed as a compliance strategy. Work in this quarter has focused on the processing of a PCB feed sample collected from Central Illinois Power`s Newton Power Station using column flotation and an enhanced gravity separator as separate units and in a circuitry arrangement. The PCB feed sample having a low ash content of about 12% was further cleaned to 6% while achieving a very high energy recovery of about 90% in a single stage column flotation operation. Enhanced gravity treatment is believed to be providing excellent total sulfur rejection values, although with inferior ash rejection for the {minus}400 mesh size fraction. The circuitry arrangement with the Falcon concentrator as the primary cleaner followed by the Microcel column resulted in an excellent ash rejection performance, which out performed the release analysis. Trace element analyses of the samples collected from these tests will be conducted during the next report period.

  10. 77 FR 15267 - Clean Air Act Full Approval of Title V Operating Permits Program; Southern Ute Indian Tribe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... review of the Tribe's authority to regulate air pollution sources located within the exterior boundaries... jurisdiction to regulate non- Indian-owned air pollution sources located on fee lands within the Reservation... greenhouses gases as part of the Prevention of Significant Deterioration/Title V Greenhouse Gas Tailoring...

  11. Clean data

    CERN Document Server

    Squire, Megan

    2015-01-01

    If you are a data scientist of any level, beginners included, and interested in cleaning up your data, this is the book for you! Experience with Python or PHP is assumed, but no previous knowledge of data cleaning is needed.

  12. Proposed Deactivation and Closure of Federal Prison Camp, Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada. Environmental Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a...99 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON a. REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ?age 2 Cecembe~ 29, 2005 • Pamela J. Chandler, Chief Site Seleccion & Environmental Review Branch Federal Bureau of

  13. 中央空调风系统管道清洗的调查探讨%On exploration for investigation of pipeline cleaning of central air-conditioner wind system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温嘉

    2012-01-01

    The study illustrates the necessity for the cleaning of the central air-conditioner system,introduces the development status and problems in the cleaning industry of the central pipeline air-conditioner system at home and abroad,and has the perspective for the future of the cleaning industry of the central air-conditioner system in China.%阐述了中央空调风系统清洗的必要性,介绍了国内外中央空调风系统管道清洗行业的发展状况和存在的问题,展望了我国中央空调风系统管道清洗行业发展的大好前景。

  14. Guidelines for evaluating air pollution impacts on class I wilderness areas in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Joseph M. Eilers; Richard W. Fisher; Robert D. Doty

    1992-01-01

    The 1977 Clean Air Act legally mandated the prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) of air quality related values (AQRVs) on wilderness lands. Federal land managers are assigned the task of protecting these wilderness values. This report contains guidelines for determining the potential effects of incremental increases in air pollutants on natural resources in...

  15. Environmental Assessment: Proposed Deactivation and Closure of Federal Prison Camp Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    shark . Other faunal remains represented in the Deptford middens include white-tail deer, gray squirrel, rabbit, opossum, rodents, striped skunk...chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), and mercury . According to the U.S. Air Force, radon is not considered a concern in this area, and no testing has ever

  16. National Air Transportation Inspection Program, Federal Aviation Administration, March 4 - June 5, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    TRANSPORT INTL IACA AGL GL63 YPSILANTI MI AIR VECTORS AIRWAYS AVAA AEA EA61 NEWBURGH NY ( ( " "-’.*’*-" " .J *- ’-"V 4...Airlines ( Certificate Not 2. Executive SumA ry X a. ODR attached, Ist page x x b. ODR Supplemental Form attached, 2nd and 3rd pages . 3. Number of

  17. Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenni, A. J.; Day, D. E.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Sive, B. C.; Hecobian, A.; Zhou, Y.; Gebhart, K. A.; Hand, J. L.; Sullivan, A. P.; Li, Y.; Schurman, M. I.; Desyaterik, Y.; Malm, W. C.; Collett, J. L., Jr.; Schichtel, B. A.

    2016-02-01

    The Bakken formation contains billions of barrels of oil and gas trapped in rock and shale. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing methods have allowed for extraction of these resources, leading to exponential growth of oil production in the region over the past decade. Along with this development has come an increase in associated emissions to the atmosphere. Concern about potential impacts of these emissions on federal lands in the region prompted the National Park Service to sponsor the Bakken Air Quality Study over two winters in 2013-2014. Here we provide an overview of the study and present some initial results aimed at better understanding the impact of local oil and gas emissions on regional air quality. Data from the study, along with long-term monitoring data, suggest that while power plants are still an important emissions source in the region, emissions from oil and gas activities are impacting ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides and black carbon and may dominate recent observed trends in pollutant concentrations at some of the study sites. Measurements of volatile organic compounds also definitively show that oil and gas emissions were present in almost every air mass sampled over a period of more than 4 months.

  18. Oil and gas impacts on air quality in federal lands in the Bakken region: an overview of the Bakken Air Quality Study and first results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Prenni

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Bakken formation contains billions of barrels of oil and gas trapped in rock and shale. Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing methods have allowed for extraction of these resources, leading to exponential growth of oil production in the region over the past decade. Along with this development has come an increase in associated emissions to the atmosphere. Concern about potential impacts of these emissions on federal lands in the region prompted the National Park Service to sponsor the Bakken Air Quality Study over two winters in 2013–2014. Here we provide an overview of the study and present some initial results aimed at better understanding the impact of local oil and gas emissions on regional air quality. Data from the study, along with long term monitoring data, suggest that while power plants are still an important emissions source in the region, emissions from oil and gas activities are impacting ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides and black carbon and may dominate recent observed trends in pollutant concentrations at some of the study sites. Measurements of volatile organic compounds also definitively show that oil and gas emissions were present in almost every air mass sampled over a period of more than four months.

  19. 75 FR 22400 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petition To Object to Title V Permit for Wheelabrator...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIROMENTAL PROTECTION..., unless the petitioner demonstrates that it was impracticable to raise these issues during the comment period or that the grounds for objection or other issue arose after the comment period. EPA received a...

  20. 75 FR 64726 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Request for Nominations of Experts To Serve on the Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... subjects: Oxides of Nitrogen (NOX)-Sulfur Oxides (SOX) Monitoring and Network Design--A review of candidate... design requirements and a review of appropriate technology, sampling frequency, and overall program... activities, or the appearance of a lack of impartiality, as defined by Federal regulation. Ethics...

  1. 77 FR 24200 - Clean Air Act Operating Permit Program; Petitions for Objection to State Operating Permits for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-23

    ... catalytic reduction (``SCR'') control devices on pig iron emission units, even though these emission reductions are not federally enforceable; (3) Authorizing installation of SCR control devices by way of the modified pig iron title V permit violates PSD and the SIP because SCR will significantly increase...

  2. Relating health and climate impacts to grid-scale emissions using adjoint sensitivity modeling for the Climate and Clean Air Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henze, D. K.; Lacey, F.; Seltzer, M.; Vallack, H.; Kuylenstierna, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Anenberg, S.; Sasser, E.; Lee, C. J.; Martin, R.

    2013-12-01

    The Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) was initiated in 2012 to develop, understand and promote measures to reduce short lived climate forcers such as aerosol, ozone and methane. The Coalition now includes over 30 nations, and as a service to these nations is committed to providing a decision support toolkit that allows member nations to explore the benefits of a range of emissions mitigation measures in terms of the combined impacts on air quality and climate and so help in the development of their National Action Plans. Here we will present recent modeling work to support the development of the CCAC National Action Plans toolkit. Adjoint sensitivity analysis is presented as a means of efficiently relating air quality, climate and crop impacts back to changes in emissions from each species, sector and location at the grid-scale resolution of typical global air quality model applications. The GEOS-Chem adjoint model is used to estimate the damages per ton of emissions of PM2.5 related mortality, the impacts of ozone precursors on crops and ozone-related health effects, and the combined impacts of these species on regional surface temperature changes. We show how the benefits-per-emission vary spatially as a function of the surrounding environment, and how this impacts the overall benefit of sector-specific control strategies. We present initial findings for Bangladesh, as well as Mexico, Ghana and Colombia, some of the first countries to join the CCAC, and discuss general issues related to adjoint-based metrics for quantifying air quality and climate co-benefits.

  3. 48 CFR 52.236-12 - Cleaning Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning Up. 52.236-12 Section 52.236-12 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED... Cleaning Up. As prescribed in 36.512, insert the following clause: Cleaning Up (APR 1984) The...

  4. Development of air pollution control in the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreyhaupt, F.J.

    1988-02-01

    Since the end of the 2nd World War the emission of SO/sub 2/ in West Germany has risen by 3,7 mio tons per year paralleling rising industrial production. Before the sixties values for emmissions were fixed in respect to health risks. The phenomenon 'Waldsterben' (deforestation) in the late seventies necessitated limiting values to be set for the emission of SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ to gain a real reduction of these substances. More recently due to a number of other toxic effects e.g. cancinogenic of air pollutants, human health became relevant again. Under this aspect the observation of the air quality has won a new dimension.

  5. Health benefits of a reduction of PM10 and NO2 exposure after implementing a clean air plan in the Agglomeration Lausanne-Morges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Alberto; Künzli, Nino; Götschi, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Exposure to urban air pollution has been associated with adverse effects on cardio-vascular and respiratory health, both short and long term. Consequently, governments have applied policies to reduce air pollution. Quantitative health impact assessments of hypothetic changes in air pollution have been conducted at national and global level, but assessments of observed air pollution changes associated with specific clean air policies at a local or regional scale remain scarce. This study estimates health impacts attributable to a decrease in PM10 and NO2 exposure in the Agglomeration of Lausanne-Morges (ALM), Switzerland, between 2005 and 2015, corresponding to the implementation period of a supra-municipal plan of measures to reduce air pollution in different sectors such as transport, energy, and industry (called Plan OPair 05). The health impact assessment compares health effects attributed to air pollution exposure levels in 2015 (reference case) with those in 2005 (counterfactual scenario), using 2015 as baseline for all other input data. In the ALM, the modeled PM10 exposure reduction of 3.3μg/m(3) from 2005 to 2015 prevents 26 premature deaths (equivalent to around 290 years of life lost), 215 hospitalization days due to cardio-vascular and respiratory diseases as well as approximately 47,000 restricted activity days annually. Monetized health impacts of the reduction of PM10 exposure are valued at approximately CHF 36 million annually. Immaterial costs, mainly related to the economic valuation of years of life lost, dominate the monetized health impacts (90% of total value), while savings at the workplace (net loss in production and reoccupation costs) amount to about CHF 1.9 million, and savings in health care costs to about CHF 0.5 million. The assessment is sensitive to the value assigned to immaterial costs and to uncertainties in the relative risk estimates, whereas variations in the baseline year (i.e. using 2005 data instead of 2015 data) affect

  6. Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority Signs Legal Agreement with EPA and U.S. Department of Justice to Reduce Air Pollution at Two Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    (WASHINGTON) Under an agreement announced today by the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Justice, the Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (VIWAPA) will come into compliance with the federal Clean Air Act at its Krum Bay facility on

  7. 76 FR 21345 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office; Notification of Two Public Teleconferences of the Clean Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    ... plans for Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) Network Re-engineering. DATES: Two public... EPA CASAC Web site at http://www.epa.gov/casac . Any inquiry regarding EPA's PAMS Network Re... plans for PAMS Network Re-engineering. EPA's Office of Air and Radiation (OAR) designed the PAMS...

  8. 76 FR 36120 - Science Advisory Board Staff Office Notification of a Public Meeting of the Clean Air Scientific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... on EPA's Review of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Lead: Risk and Exposure Assessment... that are important to the design and scope of exposure and risk assessments, as well as other aspects...: Risk and Exposure Assessment Planning Document. DATES: The CASAC Lead Review Panel meeting will be...

  9. Effect of Air Cleaning Technologies in Conjunction With the Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Ekberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop and a 4 cm thick activated carbon filter were selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included testing of the filters, separately and combined, in a ductwork to study the efficiency...... of the filters. The removal efficiency of the mechanical filter for ultrafine particles was examined using burning candles as sources for emission of particles. The measurements in the duct showed that the efficiency of the particle filter ranged between approximately 50% and 80% and the pressure loss...... of gases. The measurement results showed that the efficiency of the combined filters ranged between approximately 30% and 80% and the pressure loss was less than approximately 20 Pascal at an airflow rate of 250 m3/h....

  10. Testing the efficacy and the potential effect on indoor air quality of a transparent self-cleaning TiO{sub 2}-coated glass through the degradation of a fluoranthene layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romeas, V.; Pichat, P.; Guillard, C.; Chopin, T.; Lehaut, C.

    1999-10-01

    Self-cleaning glass can be obtained by coating glass with a transparent, thin layer of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. To test the self-cleaning properties, fluoranthene--the most abundant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon in the atmospheric particulate matter--was sprayed over the glass. Under solar-like UV light, not only was fluoranthene removed at a rate of ca. 0.73 nmol/h per cm{sup 2} of glass but also all fluoranthene degradation products were, and thus the coated-glass transparency was recovered, which did not occur with noncoated glass. The fluoranthene percentage converted to volatile carbonyl products released into ambient air was lower with than without TiO{sub 2} coating; i.e., the self-cleaning glass could have a positive influence on indoor air quality. Mechanisms are discussed to account for the main primary products among the 40 fluoranthene photocatalytic degradation intermediate products which the authors identified.

  11. 48 CFR 36.512 - Cleaning up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning up. 36.512... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.512 Cleaning up. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.236-12, Cleaning Up, in solicitations and contracts when a...

  12. Health-related external cost assessment in Europe: methodological developments from ExternE to the 2013 Clean Air Policy Package.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kamp, Jonathan; Bachmann, Till M

    2015-03-03

    "Getting the prices right" through internalizing external costs is a guiding principle of environmental policy making, one recent example being the EU Clean Air Policy Package released at the end of 2013. It is supported by impact assessments, including monetary valuation of environmental and health damages. For over 20 years, related methodologies have been developed in Europe in the Externalities of Energy (ExternE) project series and follow-up activities. In this study, we aim at analyzing the main methodological developments over time from the 1990s until today with a focus on classical air pollution-induced human health damage costs. An up-to-date assessment including the latest European recommendations is also applied. Using a case from the energy sector, we identify major influencing parameters: differences in exposure modeling and related data lead to variations in damage costs of up to 21%; concerning risk assessment and monetary valuation, differences in assessing long-term exposure mortality risks together with assumptions on particle toxicity explain most of the observed changes in damage costs. These still debated influencing parameters deserve particular attention when damage costs are used to support environmental policy making.

  13. Removal of NO2 and O3 generated from corona discharge in indoor air cleaning with MnO2 catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, H.; Yu, R.; Mi, D.; Zhu, Y. M.

    2013-03-01

    The production rules and removal efficiency of harmful byproducts such as NO2 and O3 generated from DC corona discharge in indoor air cleaning were investigated. The production behaviours of NO2 and O3 and the relationship between the amount of catalyst (MnO2) and the removal rate of harmful byproducts were experimentally studied. Further, indoor application tests were carried out in a closed room with 90 m3. The results showed that the concentrations of NO2 and O3 produced by corona discharge linearly increased with discharge time. The NO2 yield is larger than O3 by almost one order of magnitude under the same discharge power. To satisfy the demand of Standard of Indoor Air Quality (GB/T18883-2002), the power consumption of unit volume should be less than 1 W m-3 and the catalyst MnO2 consumptions in positive-negative corona discharge were 200 cm3 W-1 and 100 cm3 W-1, respectively.

  14. Radiation detection field test at the Federal Express (FedEx) air cargo facility at Denver International Airport (DIA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Amy; Weirup, Dave; Hall, Howard; Dougan, Arden; Trombino, Dave; Mattesich, Gary; Hull, Ethan L.; Bahowick, Sally; Loshak, Alex; Gruidl, Jeremiah

    2004-07-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) recently conducted a field-test of radiation detection and identification equipment at the air cargo facility of Federal Express (FedEx) located at Denver International Airport (DIA) over a period of two weeks. Comprehensive background measurements were performed and were analyzed, and a trial strategy for detection and identification of parcels displaying radioactivity was implemented to aid in future development of a comprehensive protection plan. The purpose of this project was threefold: quantify background radiation environments at an air cargo facility; quantify and identify "nuisance" alarms; evaluate the performance of various isotope identifiers deployed in an operational environment. LLNL emplaced a primary screening detector that provided the initial detection of radiation anomalies in near real-time. Once detected, a secondary test location provided capability to perform higher-resolution analysis of the parcels or containers that triggered the primary detector. Two triggered radiation events were observed during the course of this project. Both of the radiation events were determined to be legitimate shipments of radioactive material. The overall effect of this project on FedEx operations and personnel was deemed to be minimal.

  15. Emission projections for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Section 812 second prospective Clean Air Act cost/benefit analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James H; Mullen, Maureen A; Bollman, Andrew D; Thesing, Kirstin B; Salhotra, Manish; Divita, Frank; Neumann, James E; Price, Jason C; DeMocker, James

    2008-05-01

    Section 812 of the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to perform periodic, comprehensive analyses of the total costs and total benefits of programs implemented pursuant to the CAAA. The first prospective analysis was completed in 1999. The second prospective analysis was initiated during 2005. The first step in the second prospective analysis was the development of base and projection year emission estimates that will be used to generate benefit estimates of CAAA programs. This paper describes the analysis, methods, and results of the recently completed emission projections. There are several unique features of this analysis. One is the use of consistent economic assumptions from the Department of Energy's Annual Energy Outlook 2005 (AEO 2005) projections as the basis for estimating 2010 and 2020 emissions for all sectors. Another is the analysis of the different emissions paths for both with and without CAAA scenarios. Other features of this analysis include being the first EPA analysis that uses the 2002 National Emission Inventory files as the basis for making 48-state emission projections, incorporating control factor files from the Regional Planning Organizations (RPOs) that had completed emission projections at the time the analysis was performed, and modeling the emission benefits of the expected adoption of measures to meet the 8-hr ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), the Clean Air Visibility Rule, and the PM2.5 NAAQS. This analysis shows that the 1990 CAAA have produced significant reductions in criteria pollutant emissions since 1990 and that these emission reductions are expected to continue through 2020. CAAA provisions have reduced volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions by approximately 7 million t/yr by 2000, and are estimated to produce associated VOC emission reductions of 16.7 million t by 2020. Total oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) emission reductions attributable to the

  16. Biodiesel Fuel Company Owner Pleads Guilty to Fraud and Clean Air Act Crimes Connected to Renewable Fuels Scheme / Philip J. Rivkin faces more than 10 years imprisonment and $51 million in restitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    WASHINGTON - Philip Joseph Rivkin, a.k.a. Felipe Poitan Arriaga, 50, today pleaded guilty to a Clean Air Act false statement and mail fraud as part of his role in a scheme to defraud EPA by falsely representing that he was producing millions of gall

  17. 浅析某血液制品车间的洁净空调设计%Brief Analysis of Design of Cleaning Air-conditioner Used in One Blood Product Workshop

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓盼盼

    2015-01-01

    Based on the design of cleaning air-conditioner used in one blood product workshop, and combined with the special condition and design requirements, the principles and methods in designing cleaning air-conditioner were introduced in this article. At the same time, the notices in the design of cleaning air-conditioner and the special features in designing cleaning air-conditioner for blood products were analyzed and discussed.%以某血液制品生产车间的洁净空调设计过程为依据,结合该类药品生产的特殊情况及设计要求,介绍了洁净空调系统设计的原则及方法等问题,分析探讨了洁净空调设计时应该注意的事项以及该类药品的洁净空调设计的特殊性。

  18. Overview of Clean Air Title V Financial Management and Reporting: A Handbook for Financial Officers and Program Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the Title V air operating permit regulations. This document is part of the Title V Policy and Guidance Database available at www2.epa.gov/title-v-operating-permits/title-v-operating-permit-policy-and-guidance-document-index. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Policy Decisions With Regard To The Applicability Of The Clean Air Act Requirements To The Strategic Petroleum Reserve

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  20. Effectiveness of a federal healthy start program in reducing the impact of particulate air pollutants on feto-infant morbidity outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihu, Hamisu M; August, Euna M; Mbah, Alfred K; Alio, Amina P; de Cuba, Raymond; Jaward, Foday M; Berry, Estrellita Lo

    2012-11-01

    We sought to assess (1) the relationship between air particulate pollutants and feto-infant morbidity outcomes and (2) the impact of a Federal Healthy Start program on this relationship. This is a retrospective cohort study using de-identified hospital discharge information linked to vital records, and air pollution data from 2000 through 2007 for the zip codes served by the Central Hillsborough Federal Healthy Start Project in Tampa, Florida. Mathematical modeling was employed to compute minimal Euclidean distances to capture exposure to ambient air particulate matter. The outcomes of interest were low birth weight (LBW), very low birth weight (VLBW), small for gestational age, preterm (PTB), and very preterm birth. We used odds ratios to approximate relative risks. A total of 12,356 live births were analyzed. Overall, women exposed to air particulate pollutants were at elevated risk for LBW (AOR = 1.24; 95% CI = 1.07-1.43), VLBW (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.09-2.29) and PTB (AOR = 1.18; 95% CI = 1.03-1.34). Analysis by race/ethnicity revealed that the adverse effects of air particulate pollutants were most profound among black infants. Infants of women who received services provided by the Central Hillsborough Federal Healthy Start Project experienced improved feto-infant morbidity outcomes despite exposure to air particulate pollutants. Environmental air pollutants represent important risk factors for adverse birth outcomes, particularly among black women. Multi-level interventional approaches implemented by the Central Hillsborough Federal Healthy Start were found to be associated with reduced likelihood for feto-infant morbidities triggered by exposure to ambient air particulate pollutants.

  1. Enabling the environmentally clean air transportation of the future: a vision of computational fluid dynamics in 2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Jeffrey P.; Khodadoust, Abdollah; Alonso, Juan J.; Darmofal, David L.; Gropp, William D.; Lurie, Elizabeth A.; Mavriplis, Dimitri J.; Venkatakrishnan, Venkat

    2014-01-01

    As global air travel expands rapidly to meet demand generated by economic growth, it is essential to continue to improve the efficiency of air transportation to reduce its carbon emissions and address concerns about climate change. Future transports must be ‘cleaner’ and designed to include technologies that will continue to lower engine emissions and reduce community noise. The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be critical to enable the design of these new concepts. In general, the ability to simulate aerodynamic and reactive flows using CFD has progressed rapidly during the past several decades and has fundamentally changed the aerospace design process. Advanced simulation capabilities not only enable reductions in ground-based and flight-testing requirements, but also provide added physical insight, and enable superior designs at reduced cost and risk. In spite of considerable success, reliable use of CFD has remained confined to a small region of the operating envelope due, in part, to the inability of current methods to reliably predict turbulent, separated flows. Fortunately, the advent of much more powerful computing platforms provides an opportunity to overcome a number of these challenges. This paper summarizes the findings and recommendations from a recent NASA-funded study that provides a vision for CFD in the year 2030, including an assessment of critical technology gaps and needed development, and identifies the key CFD technology advancements that will enable the design and development of much cleaner aircraft in the future. PMID:25024413

  2. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K. [Tellus Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  3. Experimental Study on Efficient Photocatalysis Air Cleaning Device%一种光触媒高效空气净化器的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫其年; 刘志强; 杨景发; 张子生

    2011-01-01

    In order to achieve the purpose of efficient air purification , based on the physical method,the sketch map of cyclotron duct for diversion and syntonic light source structure were designed by using the Photocatalysis of TiO2 and the biology effect of ozone and ultraviolet. The efficient photocatalysis air cleaning cartridge which was used for poultry house has the advantage of advanced air-filtering ability, enduring and stable effect as well as wide range of application. The cartridge's efficiency of removing germ,formaldehyde and ammonia was 90.9%, 63.9% and 86.2% respectively.%为了达到高效净化空气的目的,从物理方法入手,利用二氧化钛光触媒的光催化作用、短波紫外线和臭氧的生物效应原理,通过"多波段谐振光源"和"导流回旋风道"的设计,研制出一款光触媒高效空气净化器,具有净化空气能力强、效果持久稳定、无二次公害和维持费用低、操作简便、适用范围广等优点.细菌的去除效率在90.9%以上,甲醛去除效率为63.9%,氨去除效率为86.2%.

  4. The implement of air pollution detection and clean based on the TP-4 sensor%基于TP-4传感器的空气污染检测及清理的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周凡力; 耿建平

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at indoor air pollution, a kind of effective detection and clean design scheme for cleaning indoor air and improving living environment was proposed. Degree of air pollution indoor was tested by TP-4 sensors, and sending the data to calculate by microcontroller, then the microcontroller controled the air pollution treatment to e-liminate the air pollution according to the results. The microcontroller processing method adopted PID real-time control technology to make the air clean. The technology adopted in this scheme can clean air quickly,suit to family and office environment.%针对室内空气污染,提出了一种有效的检测及清理设计方案,以达到清洁室内空气、保障生活环境的目的.采用TP-4传感器对室内空气污染程度进行检测,将检测采样结果送到单片机进行处理,由单片机根据处理结果控制空气污染处理器来消除空气中的污染.单片机处理方法则采用PID实时控制技术,使空气始终保持在清洁状态下.该方案采用的控制技术能迅速清洁空气,适用于家庭与办公环境下的空气清理.

  5. Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

    2010-05-01

    The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA

  6. 电子工业厂房洁净空调系统施工监理的控制要点%On controlling points for construction inspection for cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕坤

    2015-01-01

    Combining with engineering cases,the paper analyzes the features of cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops, and illustrates the monitoring controlling points for the cleaning air-conditioner system of electronic industrial workshops from the materials and equipment entry,installation of air-conditioner wind system and air-conditioner water system,so as to enhance the cleaning air-conditioner system to achieve the expected effect.%结合工程案例,分析了电子工业洁净空调系统的特点,并从材料和设备进场、空调风系统安装、空调水系统安装三个方面出发,阐述了电子工业厂房洁净空调系统施工的监理控制要点,促使洁净空调系统达到预期的效果。

  7. Applying for and using CMAQ funds: Putting the pieces together. A Clean Cities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This guide provides the basic concepts to aid in an alternative fuel vehicle market development program developing an application for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program funding. The US Department of Energy`s Clean Cities Program is an aggressive, forward-thinking alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market development program. The stakeholders in any Clean Cities Program subscribe to the common philosophy that, through participation in a team-oriented coalition, steady progress can be made toward achieving the critical mass necessary to propel the AFV market into the next century. An important component in the successful implementation of Clean Cities Program objectives is obtaining and directing funding to the capital-intensive AFV market development outside of the resources currently offered by the Department of Energy. Several state and local funding sources have been used over the past decade, including Petroleum Violation Escrow funds, vehicle registration fees, and state bond programs. However, federal funding is available and can be tapped to implement AFV market development programs across the nation. Historically, opportunities to use federal funding for AFV projects have been limited; however, the one remaining federal program that must be tapped into by Clean Cities Programs is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program. CMAQ is a 6-year, $6 billion federal program formed by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA).

  8. Applying for and using CMAQ funds: Putting the pieces together. A Clean Cities guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This guide provides the basic concepts to aid in an alternative fuel vehicle market development program developing an application for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program funding. The US Department of Energy`s Clean Cities Program is an aggressive, forward-thinking alternative fuel vehicle (AFV) market development program. The stakeholders in any Clean Cities Program subscribe to the common philosophy that, through participation in a team-oriented coalition, steady progress can be made toward achieving the critical mass necessary to propel the AFV market into the next century. An important component in the successful implementation of Clean Cities Program objectives is obtaining and directing funding to the capital-intensive AFV market development outside of the resources currently offered by the Department of Energy. Several state and local funding sources have been used over the past decade, including Petroleum Violation Escrow funds, vehicle registration fees, and state bond programs. However, federal funding is available and can be tapped to implement AFV market development programs across the nation. Historically, opportunities to use federal funding for AFV projects have been limited; however, the one remaining federal program that must be tapped into by Clean Cities Programs is the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) Improvement Program. CMAQ is a 6-year, $6 billion federal program formed by the Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA).

  9. Clean Cities ozone air quality attainment and maintenance strategies that employ alternative fuel vehicles, with special emphasis on natural gas and propane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santini, D.J.; Saricks, C.L.

    1998-08-04

    Air quality administrators across the nation are coming under greater pressure to find new strategies for further reducing automotive generated non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has established stringent emission reduction requirements for ozone non-attainment areas that have driven the vehicle industry to engineer vehicles meeting dramatically tightened standards. This paper describes an interim method for including alternative-fueled vehicles (AFVs) in the mix of strategies to achieve local and regional improvements in ozone air quality. This method could be used until EPA can develop the Mobile series of emissions estimation models to include AFVs and until such time that detailed work on AFV emissions totals by air quality planners and emissions inventory builders is warranted. The paper first describes the challenges confronting almost every effort to include AFVs in targeted emissions reduction programs, but points out that within these challenges resides an opportunity. Next, it discusses some basic relationships in the formation of ambient ozone from precursor emissions. It then describes several of the salient provisions of EPA`s new voluntary emissions initiative, which is called the Voluntary Mobile Source Emissions Reduction Program (VMEP). Recent emissions test data comparing gaseous-fuel light-duty AFVs with their gasoline-fueled counterparts is examined to estimate percent emissions reductions achievable with CNG and LPG vehicles. Examples of calculated MOBILE5b emission rates that would be used for summer ozone season planning purposes by an individual Air Quality Control Region (AQCR) are provided. A method is suggested for employing these data to compute appropriate voluntary emission reduction credits where such (lighter) AFVs would be acquired. It also points out, but does not quantify, the substantial reduction credits potentially achievable by substituting gaseous

  10. EIA's role in the analysis of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 and the development of the National Allowance Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beamon, J.A.; Linders, M.J. (Energy Information Administration, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Throughout 1990 the Energy Information Administration (EIA) provided continuous data and analytic support to Congress during its deliberations on Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAA). Congress requested the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to review and analyze the sections that would affect electric utilities, specifically those relating to acid deposition (Title IV). By providing knowledgeable and impartial analysis, EIA clarified the likely effects of the various legislative proposals and helped Congress finalize the amendments. Even though the CAA is now law, EIA's efforts have not ended. During the analysis of the various proposals, EIA and EPA created a National Allowance Database (NAD). Now, under an agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), a new version of the NAD is being developed to facilitate the implementation of the acid deposition provisions of the CAA. This article describes the analyses undertaken, points out where EIA's efforts led to improved understanding of the likely impacts of the CAA, and outlines EIA's continued efforts to assist EPA in the implementation of the amendments. 6 tabs.

  11. Floatable, Self-Cleaning, and Carbon-Black-Based Superhydrophobic Gauze for the Solar Evaporation Enhancement at the Air-Water Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiming; Chen, Jingwei; Guo, Dawei; Cao, Moyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2015-06-24

    Efficient solar evaporation plays an indispensable role in nature as well as the industry process. However, the traditional evaporation process depends on the total temperature increase of bulk water. Recently, localized heating at the air-water interface has been demonstrated as a potential strategy for the improvement of solar evaporation. Here, we show that the carbon-black-based superhydrophobic gauze was able to float on the surface of water and selectively heat the surface water under irradiation, resulting in an enhanced evaporation rate. The fabrication process of the superhydrophobic black gauze was low-cost, scalable, and easy-to-prepare. Control experiments were conducted under different light intensities, and the results proved that the floating black gauze achieved an evaporation rate 2-3 times higher than that of the traditional process. A higher temperature of the surface water was observed in the floating gauze group, revealing a main reason for the evaporation enhancement. Furthermore, the self-cleaning ability of the superhydrophobic black gauze enabled a convenient recycling and reusing process toward practical application. The present material may open a new avenue for application of the superhydrophobic substrate and meet extensive requirements in the fields related to solar evaporation.

  12. Who is afraid of smoking bans? An evaluation of the effects of the Spanish clean air law on expenditure at hospitality venues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Villar, Jaume; López-Nicolás, Ángel

    2015-11-01

    In January 2011 Spain modified clean air legislation in force since 2006, removing all existing exceptions applicable to hospitality venues. Although this legal reform was backed by all political parties with parliamentary representation, the government's initiative was contested by the tobacco industry and its allies in the hospitality industry. One of the most voiced arguments against the reform was its potentially disruptive effect on the revenue of hospitality venues. This paper evaluates the impact of this reform on household expenditure at restaurants and bars and cafeterias. We used household expenditure micro-data for years 2006-2012 to estimate models for the probability of observing expenditures and the expected level of expenditure. We applied a before-after analysis with a wide range of controls for confounding factors and a flexible modeling of time effects in order to identify the effects of the reform. Our results suggest that the reform caused a 2% reduction in the proportion of households containing smokers but did not cause reductions in households' expenditures on restaurant services or on bars and cafeteria services.

  13. Nutrient, organic carbon, and chloride concentrations and loads in selected Long Island Sound tributaries—Four decades of change following the passage of the Federal Clean Water Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullaney, John R.

    2016-03-10

    Trends in long-term water-quality and streamflow data from 14 water-quality monitoring sites in Connecticut were evaluated for water years 1974–2013 and 2001–13, coinciding with implementation of the Clean Water Act of 1972 and the Connecticut Nitrogen Credit Exchange program, as part of an assessment of nutrient and chloride concentrations and loads discharged to Long Island Sound. In this study, conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection, data were evaluated using a recently developed methodology of weighted regressions with time, streamflow, and season. Trends in streamflow were evaluated using a locally weighted scatterplot smoothing method. Annual mean streamflow increased at 12 of the 14 sites averaging 8 percent during the entire study period, primarily in the summer months, and increased by an average of 9 percent in water years 2001–13, primarily during summer and fall months. Downward trends in flow-normalized nutrient concentrations and loads were observed during both periods for most sites for total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate nitrogen, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon. Average flow-normalized loads of total nitrogen decreased by 23.9 percent for the entire period and 10.9 percent for the period of water years 2001‒13. Major factors contributing to decreases in flow-normalized loads and concentrations of these nutrients include improvements in wastewater treatment practices, declining atmospheric wet deposition of nitrogen, and changes in land management and land use.

  14. On the way towards clean air. Plan to improve the air quality of the Zuidvleugel area, Netherlands; Op weg naar schone lucht. Plan van Aanpak Luchtkwaliteit Zuidvleugel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janse, P.; Klooster, J.P.G.N.

    2006-01-15

    An overview is given of measures to be taken to improve the air quality in the area Zuidvleugel of western urban area in the Netherlands ('Randstad'), including an estimation of costs to implement and realize the measures in a short term. [Dutch] In de Zuidvleugel van de Randstad is de lucht vervuild. De luchtkwaliteit voldoet niet aan de Europese normen voor de stoffen stikstofdioxide (NO2) en fijn stof (PM10). Verbetering van de luchtkwaliteit staat daarom hoog op de agenda van de rijksoverheid en bestuurders in de Zuidvleugel. In opdracht van de Provincie Zuid-Holland heeft CE een inventarisatie, beoordeling en kostenraming gemaakt van maatregelen om de luchtkwaliteit te verbeteren. Vervolgens heeft CE een voorstel geformuleerd voor een effectief maatregelpakket, dat in beginsel op korte termijn kan worden uitgevoerd. Bij het samenstellen van het maatregelpakket is rekening gehouden met: effect op luchtkwaliteit (in termen van concentraties); kosteneffectiviteit; uitvoerbaarheid (maatschappelijk draagvlak/honing en azijn); termijn waarop gestart kan worden met uitvoering. In het rapport zijn de hoofdlijnen opgenomen van het pakket van maatregelen in de Zuidvleugel en een indicatie van de kosten in de periode 2006-2010.

  15. 15 CFR 923.45 - Air and water pollution control requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Air and water pollution control....45 Air and water pollution control requirements. The program must incorporate, by reference or otherwise, all requirements established by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, as amended (Clean...

  16. 75 FR 14352 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; PSD Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Michigan; PSD... significant deterioration (PSD) construction permit program under the Federal Clean Air Act (CAA). This program affects major stationary sources in Michigan that are subject to or potentially subject to the PSD...

  17. Evaluation of air cleanness degree of the urban environment based on negative air ion concentration%基于空气负离子浓度的城市环境空气清洁度评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王薇; 余庄; 冀凤全

    2013-01-01

    .Based on the measurement and research of indoor and outdoor of urban environments, air quality was assessed using ion polarity ratio and air ion assessment index (CI). The results show that air cleanness degree increases gradually from urban indoor environment to urban residential environment to country and natural environment. In urban residential environment, the air quality of low high-density residential environment is the best, the NAI concentration reaches to 289 N/cm3 at average value, and its air quality reaches to 1.7 for the cleanest; but high-level residential environment is the worst, the air quality of low high-density residential environment is the best, the NAI concentration reaches to 139 N/cm3 at average value, and its air quality reaches to 0.08 for threshold, maybe heavy pollution. In urban indoor environments, the air quality with natural ventilation and fresh air into the room is the best, and placed the negative ion generator has improved indoor air quality significantly. So the article suggests taking effective measures to increase the distribution of NAI concentration in urban planning and construction in order to improve the urban ecological environment to create a comfortable air environment, and taking the negative air ion concentration as a monitoring and evaluation indicators of the indoor environment, so as to provide a scientific basis and design concept for urban planning and construction, urban forestry planning, energy planning and environmental protection in the future.

  18. 76 FR 16646 - Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION Circadian, Inc., Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc... concerning the securities of Clean Energy Combustion, Inc. (n/k/a Clean Energy Combustion Systems, Inc...

  19. Energy Saving Measures of Clean Air Conditioning System in Solid Dosage Forms Workshop of Pharmaceutical Companies%浅谈药厂固体制剂车间净化空调系统的节能措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张帆

    2012-01-01

    According to large energy consumption of clean air-conditioning system in solid dosage forms workshop of pharmaceutical companies, combining with the project cases, this paper suggests three energy saving measures.%针对药厂固体制剂车间净化空调系统能耗大的问题,结合具体的工程案例,有针对性地提出了几种有效的节能措施。

  20. The Effect of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act on Food Services and Drinking Places Sales and Numbers, 1998-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Monica A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Philadelphia enacted its Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA) nearly 2 years before the statewide CIAA. In this study, we assessed the economic impact of CIAAs on 4 types of food services and drinking places and addressed the predominant limitation of previous pre–post ban studies, namely the lack of control for confounders and changes in secular trends over time. Methods We analyzed data from Pennsylvania Department of Revenue Quarterly 1998–2011 taxable county-level revenue sales and number of food services and drinking places. Region-specific and type-specific adjusted sales and number of food services and drinking places accounted for consumer spending as a general economic indicator. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series methodology assessed changes in trend and level. Results Pennsylvania CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales or numbers except for an increase in sales in Philadelphia for limited-service eating places and in the surrounding 4 counties for special food services. Philadelphia CIAA was associated with an increase in adjusted numbers of full-service restaurants in Philadelphia and the rest of the state, special food services in Philadelphia, and drinking places in the rest of the state, and a decrease in the number of special food services in the surrounding counties. Philadelphia CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales except for an increase in special food services in the rest of the state. Conclusion Overall, CIAAs had no negative business-related impact and, for the most part, suggest a positive impact on restaurant sales and numbers. Our results provide further support for comprehensive CIAA ordinance for restaurants. PMID:24286275

  1. The effect of Philadelphia and Pennsylvania Clean Indoor Air Act on food services and drinking places sales and numbers, 1998-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhen-Qiang; Fisher, Monica A

    2013-11-27

    Philadelphia enacted its Clean Indoor Air Act (CIAA) nearly 2 years before the statewide CIAA. In this study, we assessed the economic impact of CIAAs on 4 types of food services and drinking places and addressed the predominant limitation of previous pre-post ban studies, namely the lack of control for confounders and changes in secular trends over time. We analyzed data from Pennsylvania Department of Revenue Quarterly 1998-2011 taxable county-level revenue sales and number of food services and drinking places. Region-specific and type-specific adjusted sales and number of food services and drinking places accounted for consumer spending as a general economic indicator. Segmented regression analysis of interrupted time-series methodology assessed changes in trend and level. Pennsylvania CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales or numbers except for an increase in sales in Philadelphia for limited-service eating places and in the surrounding 4 counties for special food services. Philadelphia CIAA was associated with an increase in adjusted numbers of full-service restaurants in Philadelphia and the rest of the state, special food services in Philadelphia, and drinking places in the rest of the state, and a decrease in the number of special food services in the surrounding counties. Philadelphia CIAA had no significant effect on adjusted sales except for an increase in special food services in the rest of the state. Overall, CIAAs had no negative business-related impact and, for the most part, suggest a positive impact on restaurant sales and numbers. Our results provide further support for comprehensive CIAA ordinance for restaurants.

  2. Quality management manual. National EU air quality reference laboratory of the Federal Environmental Agency; Qualitaetsmanagementhandbuch. Nationales EU-Luftqualitaets-Referenzlabor im Umweltbundesamt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    The 'Air' Department of the Federal Environmental Agency initiated a quality management system according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17025 in order to carry out its tasks as a EU reference laboratory for air pollution monitoring. Harmonisation of measurements is attempted not only in the Federal Republic of Germany but world-wide. This is to be achieved by standardising the activities of reference laboratories on the basis of the DIN EN standards. The quality management system comprises complex organisational, technical and staff-oriented measures to ensure quality-relevant procedures and to control the interdependences between the individual processes. The specifications contained in this report are to ensure that quality requirements are met, and that the QM system will be updated continuously in order to ensure constant improvement.

  3. 楼宇自控系统在制药企业洁净空调中的应用%Building Automation System in the Pharmaceutical Business Clean Air-conditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝刚

    2013-01-01

      This paper described the clean air-conditioning system engineering of a pharmaceutical company, elaborated the structure, function and implementation way of its air-conditioning control system, and pointed out the importance of understanding the working principle and process of air-conditioning to the electrical system designers in air-conditioning automatic control design.%  介绍了某制药企业洁净空调系统工程,详细阐述了其空调控制系统的结构、功能和实现方式。并指出在空调自动控制设计中,了解具体工程的空调工作原理及工艺流程对电气系统设计工程师的重要性。

  4. Practice and Discourse of Judicial Operators in their Decisions of Migration Control: The Case of the Federal Administrative Justice in the City of Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lila García

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes to investigate the practice and discourse of the judicial operators of the federal administrative justice in the Federal City of Buenos Aires, which is the judiciary base established by the Argentine Migration Law (No. 25,871 to authorize or take part in the migration control decisions made by the Immigration Board (Dirección Nacional de Migraciones, DNM. This investigation goes from the doctorate research, focused primarily on federal administrative files and resolutions where DNM has intervened for the period 2004-2010. Upon these primary sources, which operated as means to review the Argentine migration policy, and its materiality, some exponents were chosen to think what they show about this judicial doing and saying in migration matters: the practice of “no-serve notice”, the references to delinquency, an upper-valuation in family issues and a negative to become part of the process.

  5. Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Lewis M.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recently entered into a nonexclusive license agreement with Applied Cryogenic Solutions (ACS), Inc. (Galveston, TX) to commercialize its Gas-Liquid Supersonic Cleaning and Cleaning Verification Spray System technology. This technology, developed by KSC, is a critical component of processes being developed and commercialized by ACS to replace current mechanical and chemical cleaning and descaling methods used by numerous industries. Pilot trials on heat exchanger tubing components have shown that the ACS technology provides for: Superior cleaning in a much shorter period of time. Lower energy and labor requirements for cleaning and de-scaling uper.ninih. Significant reductions in waste volumes by not using water, acidic or basic solutions, organic solvents, or nonvolatile solid abrasives as components in the cleaning process. Improved energy efficiency in post-cleaning heat exchanger operations. The ACS process consists of a spray head containing supersonic converging/diverging nozzles, a source of liquid gas; a novel, proprietary pumping system that permits pumping liquid nitrogen, liquid air, or supercritical carbon dioxide to pressures in the range of 20,000 to 60,000 psi; and various hoses, fittings, valves, and gauges. The size and number of nozzles can be varied so the system can be built in configurations ranging from small hand-held spray heads to large multinozzle cleaners. The system also can be used to verify if a part has been adequately cleaned.

  6. 40 CFR 52.2301 - Federal compliance date for automobile and light-duty truck coating. Texas Air Control Board...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal compliance date for automobile... PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Texas § 52.2301 Federal compliance date for automobile and..., automobile and light-duty truck coating operations were to have complied with final control limits of §...

  7. MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The MEMS and Nano-Technology Clean Room is a state-of-the-art, 800 square foot, Class 1000-capable facility used for development of micro and sub-micro scale sensors...

  8. SRF Clean Rooms and Cryomodule Assembly

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Three primary cleanroom facilities used for the SRF cryomodule production program are available. All 3 clean rooms have class 10 and class 100 areas. The largest is...

  9. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries, Pathway #2: Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-oil Pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). Strategic Energy Analysis Center. Technology Systems and Sustainability Analysis Group; Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the fast pyrolysis biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the fast pyrolysis biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the fast pyrolysis biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  10. Federal Air Pollutant Emission Regulations and Preliminary Estimates of Potential-to-Emit from Biorefineries. Pathway #1: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass-to-Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars-to-Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yimin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bhatt, Arpit [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heath, Garvin [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Thomas, Mae [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States); Renzaglia, Jason [Eastern Research Group, Lexington, MA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Biorefineries are subject to environmental laws, including complex air quality regulations that aim to protect and improve the quality of the air. These regulations govern the amount of certain types of air pollutants that can be emitted from different types of emission sources. To determine which federal air emission regulations potentially apply to the sugars-to-hydrocarbon (HC) biorefinery, we first identified the types of regulated air pollutants emitted to the ambient environment by the biorefinery or from specific equipment. Once the regulated air pollutants are identified, we review the applicability criteria of each federal air regulation to determine whether the sugars-to-HC biorefinery or specific equipment is subject to it. We then estimate the potential-to-emit of pollutants likely to be emitted from the sugars-to-HC biorefinery to understand the air permitting requirements.

  11. Physical and Radiative Properties of Aerosol Particles across the Caribbean Basin: A Comparison between Clean and Perturbed African Dust and Volcanic Ash Air Masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, H.; Ogren, J. A.; Sheridan, P. J.; Mayol-Bracero, O.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosol’s optical and physical properties were measured during year 2007 at Cape San Juan, a ground-based station located at the northeastern tip of Puerto Rico. The three cases investigated were classified according to the origin of the air masses: clean (C), African dust (AD), and volcanic ash (VA). The instrumentation used included a sunphotometer to determine volume size distributions and aerosol optical thickness (AOT), a 3-wavelength nephelometer to determine the scattering coefficient (σsp), and a 3-wavelength particle/soot absorption photometer (PSAP) to measure the absorption coefficient (σap). The average volume size distributions were trimodal for the C (peaks at 0.14, 0.99 and 4.25 µm radius) and AD (peaks at 0.11, 1.30 and 2.00 µm radius) cases and bimodal for the VA (peaks at 0.19 and 2.75 µm radius) case. Fine and coarse modes maxima for AD occurred at radii smaller than for VA, confirming the different origins of those particles. The average values for the total σsp were higher for AD (82.9 Mm-1) and VA (33.7 Mm-1) compared to C (16.6 Mm-1). The same happened for the AOT maximum values at 500 nm with 0.92, 0.30, and 0.06 for AD, VA, and C, respectively. The observed increase in the values of the Angstrom exponent (å) is indicative of a decrease in the size of the particles associated to VA (å= 0.27) and AD (å =0.89) when compared to C (å =0.24). The volume size distributions and thus the mass were dominated by the coarse mode (> 1.0 µm) especially for the AD case. Results have shown that AD as well as VA has a significant impact on the physical and radiative properties across Puerto Rico and the Caribbean. Additional results on the AOT wavelength dependence and on the annual variability of the properties under study will be presented.

  12. 41 CFR 102-74.210 - What steps must Executive agencies take to promote ridesharing at Federal facilities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and services to bicyclists; (3) Provide non-monetary incentives as provided by other provisions of law... exist. (b) Under the Federal Employees Clean Air Incentives Act (Public Law 103-172), agencies shall— (1... 103-172; (ii) Description of each program; (iii) Extent of employee participation in, and costs to the...

  13. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-30

    The New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) demonstrated a combination of technologies at its Milliken Station in Lansing, New York, designed to: (1) achieve high sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency, (2) bring nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions into compliance with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), (3) maintain high station efficiency, and (4) eliminate waste water discharge. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advance coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of nine selected in January 1991 from 33 proposals submitted in response to the program's fourth solicitation.

  14. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2002-11-30

    The New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) demonstrated a combination of technologies at its Milliken Station in Lansing, New York, designed to: (1) achieve high sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency, (2) bring nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions into compliance with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), (3) maintain high station efficiency, and (4) eliminate waste water discharge. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advance coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of nine selected in January 1991 from 33 proposals submitted in response to the program's fourth solicitation.

  15. Relevant results of studies performed in North Rhine-Westfalia dealing with health effects of air pollutants due to mobile sources, compared with health effects of other urban pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, E. [Ministry for Environment, Duesseldorf (Germany). Regional Planning and Agriculture

    1995-12-31

    In 1975 in North Rhine-Westfalia, Federal Republic of Germany, according to the Federal Immission Control Act, five areas with high air pollution were determined. For these areas Clean Air Plans were drawn up. Clean Air Plans shall comprise a representation of emissions and immissions established for all or specific air pollutants, information about the impacts recorded for assets worthy of protection (human beings, animals and plants, water, the atmosphere etc.), any findings obtained as to the causes and effects of such air pollution, an assessment of any forthcoming changes in emission and immission conditions, details on immission levels and characteristic immission values and the measures envisaged for the reduction and prevention of air pollution. In accordance with these requirements epidemiological investigations of adults and children were performed in connection with the Clean Air Plans

  16. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devices The Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  17. Federal Gasoline Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to regulate fuels and fuel additives for use in mobile sources if such fuel, fuel additive or any emission products causes or contributes to air or water pollution that may endanger the public health or welfare.

  18. Rice- and butterfly-wing effect inspired self-cleaning and low drag micro/nanopatterned surfaces in water, oil, and air flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bixler, Gregory D; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-01-01

    In search of new solutions to complex challenges, researchers are turning to living nature for inspiration. For example, special surface characteristics of rice leaves and butterfly wings combine the shark skin (anisotropic flow leading to low drag) and lotus leaf (superhydrophobic and self-cleaning) effects, producing the so-called rice and butterfly wing effect. In this paper, we study four microstructured surfaces inspired by rice leaves and fabricated with photolithography techniques. We also present a method of creating such surfaces using a hot embossing procedure for scaled-up manufacturing. Fluid drag, self-cleaning, contact angle, and contact angle hysteresis data are presented to understand the role of sample geometrical dimensions. Conceptual modeling provides design guidance when developing novel low drag, self-cleaning, and potentially antifouling surfaces for medical, marine, and industrial applications.

  19. Parameter optimization and experiment on air-screen cleaning device of rapeseed combine harvester%风筛选式油菜联合收割机清选机构参数优化与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 金诚谦; 梁苏宁; 汤庆; 吴崇友

    2015-01-01

    为分析油菜田间实际收获作业状态时风筛选式油菜联合收割机清选机构参数对清选损失率和籽粒含杂率的影响,基于双滚筒风筛选式可移动田间联合收获试验平台,对振动筛振幅、曲柄转速、风机转速和风机倾角4个参数进行了Plackett-Burman 试验和响应面回归试验,试验分析表明振动筛振幅和曲柄转速是影响清选损失率的主要因素,风机转速是影响籽粒含杂率的主要因素。采用响应面试验方法分析了单因素和双因素对清选效果的影响,建立了清选损失率和籽粒含杂率的回归数学模型并优化求解了一组最优参数组合,以一组接近最优参数组合:振动筛振幅35 mm,曲柄转速392 r/min,风机转速1750 r/min,风机倾角29°进行了试验验证,清选损失率和籽粒含杂率分别为0.90%和0.45%。理论求解的清选损失率和籽粒含杂率分别为0.38%和0.48%,与试验值的绝对误差分别为0.52%和−0.03%,籽粒含杂率误差较小,清选损失率误差较大。与该清选机构常用工作参数时的清选损失率和籽粒含杂率对比,清选损失率降低了61%,籽粒含杂率降低了58%。该研究结果和优化方法可为风筛选式油菜联合收割机清选机构的参数选择和优化提供参考。%China is one of the major rapeseed production countries in the world, but the harvesting mechanization is still backward, and high mechanical harvest loss is a key inhibiting factor for rapeseed production.In order to reduce the harvest loss ratio, the effects of the parameters of air-screen cleaning device of rapeseed combine harvester on cleaning loss ratio and percentage of impurities in grain under the actual field harvest operating condition are needed to understand. In this paper, a Plackett-Burman test and a response surface test were designed to study the 4 parameters: vibration screen amplitude, crank revolving speed, fan revolving speed

  20. Interpretation of 40 CFR 52.21 Federal Regulations for the Prevention of Significant Air Quality Deterioration (PSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database.

  1. American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) Federal Energy Management Program Technical Assistance Project 224 Altus Air Force Base Solar Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russo, Bryan J.

    2010-09-30

    The principal goal of this project was to evaluate altus Air Force Base for building integrated silicon or thin film module photovoltaic opportunities. This report documents PNNL's efforts and documents study conclusions.

  2. Technical and economic consequences of mine air temperature limits in black coal mines of the Federal Republic of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muecke, G.

    1986-08-01

    The state of mine air conditioning in the FRG is reviewed. Mine air temperature limits and occupational health requirements according to the 1984 regulation for black coal mines are explained. Cooling technologies applied in various mines are described, including operation of underground or surface central refrigeration stations, cold-water spray machines, air blowers etc. Mine air cooling is shown with the example of a 750 m long longwall face at 1150 m depth and 50 C rock temperature. A further example is given of cooling a 2000 m long roadway with road heading work advancing 6 m/d at the same mining depth and temperature conditions. Parameters of cooling equipment and an hx-diagram for cooling effects are provided. Air conditioning costs are assessed: investment costs of refrigeration equipment with 1 MW cooling capacity are 3.0 million DM and operating costs of nominal one kW capacity are one million DM/y. These costs amount to specific operating costs of 3 DM/t of coal in one mine and 4.50 DM/t in a second mine. Cooling capacity of 470 kW for air conditioning during road heading work increased heading costs by 330 DM/m. 18 references.

  3. Coal can be a Clean Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Redevelopment and expansion of United States coal resources are economic necessities. Environmentalists' objections to the less expensive, available United States coal, that introduces large amounts of SOx and particulates into the air, may be overcome with the options of coal cleaning, tall stacks, material recovery and stack cleaning. (BT)

  4. Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The Supersonic Gas-Liquid Cleaning System Research Project consisted mainly of a feasibility study, including theoretical and engineering analysis, of a proof-of-concept prototype of this particular cleaning system developed by NASA-KSC. The cleaning system utilizes gas-liquid supersonic nozzles to generate high impingement velocities at the surface of the device to be cleaned. The cleaning fluid being accelerated to these high velocities may consist of any solvent or liquid, including water. Compressed air or any inert gas is used to provide the conveying medium for the liquid, as well as substantially reduce the total amount of liquid needed to perform adequate surface cleaning and cleanliness verification. This type of aqueous cleaning system is considered to be an excellent way of conducting cleaning and cleanliness verification operations as replacements for the use of CFC 113 which must be discontinued by 1995. To utilize this particular cleaning system in various cleaning applications for both the Space Program and the commercial market, it is essential that the cleaning system, especially the supersonic nozzle, be characterized for such applications. This characterization consisted of performing theoretical and engineering analysis, identifying desirable modifications/extensions to the basic concept, evaluating effects of variations in operating parameters, and optimizing hardware design for specific applications.

  5. 电动双位定风量阀在洁净手术部空调系统中的应用%The Application of Electrical Dual-position Consistent Air Valve in Air-Conditioning System of Clean Operation Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦用佳; 刘亮

    2012-01-01

    The stability and energy-saving of dual-position consistent air valve was explained,in terms of consistent air volume(air change rate) to cleanroom and consistent make-up air volume(pressure cascade of clean zone) by using the valve.%从恒定洁净室风量(换气次数)及恒定新风量(洁净区的压力梯度)的角度,利用电动双位定风量阀,阐述电动双位定风量阀在洁净空调系统上所具有的稳定性及节能性。

  6. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    Clean Cap mix generates more bleed water than the reference Saltstone formulation because the specific gravity of water, the carrier fluid, is less than that of the carrier fluid in Saltstone, 1 versus 1.1 to 1.2, respectively. In addition, the development of slurry structure as a result of hydration reactions is slightly slower than in the salt solution slurry. In other words, the Clean Cap mix has a slightly longer gel time. The lower density of the carrier fluid and the slower development of slurry structure, enable more settling to occur (more standing water) in the Clean Cap slurry. Consequently, for the same rheological properties, the Clean Cap slurry will have more bleed water. In an attempt to reduce the bleed water, the water to premix ratio was lowered and dispersants (high range water reducers) were added. Below water to premix ratios of 0.35, little bleed water and settling was observed. However, a low water to premix Clean Cap mix is not recommended because processing has not been demonstrated in the Saltstone facility. The lowest water to premix ratio processed in Z-Area was 0.478 in the last attempt to produce a clean cap. Although this option may provide significant advantages (less bleed water and potentially better flow) process testing in the Saltstone Facility or in a pilot scale facility in conjunction with laboratory testing will be required to demonstrate mixing, pumping and flow properties. Other additives were tested to minimize bleed water. These additives were found to be unsatisfactory in one or more ways and therefore, were not recommended at this time. An air entraining agent and a thickener had some benefit in reducing bleed water but were found too difficult to implement as an additive in the Saltstone facility. Surfactants (air entrainers) added to the mixing water in the hold tank could generate foam as the result of agitation to mix the tank, and the thickener increased the apparent viscosity and yield stress.

  7. 77 FR 12524 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Lead Ambient Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    ... Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed rule...) under the Clean Air Act (CAA). This submittal incorporates the National Ambient Air Quality...

  8. 75 FR 12087 - Determination of Attainment, Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... several related actions under the Clean Air Act (CAA) affecting the Indiana portion (Lake and Porter... Indiana to exempt sources of Nitrogen Oxides (NO X ) in Lake and Porter Counties from CAA Reasonably... request for Lake and Porter Counties, also published in today's Federal Register, the Chicago-Gary-Lake...

  9. 75 FR 56889 - Revisions to the California State Implementation Plan, San Diego County Air Pollution Control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption... it without proposing it in advance. However, in the Proposed Rules section of this Federal Register..., part D of the Clean Air Act do not create any new requirements but simply approve requirements that the...

  10. We Pollute the Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    1.Clean air is important to good health.If the aircontains impurities,they may be absorbed by ourbodies and make us ill.We need clean air,butunfortunately,air pollution is generally present,especially in cities. 2.Our cities have many factories,which we need tomake food products,clothing and many other things.

  11. Annual report 1999 of the air pollution monitoring network of the German Federal Environmental Agency; Jahresbericht 1999 aus dem Messnetz des Umweltbundesamtes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilke, S.; Uhse, K. [comps.

    2000-12-01

    In this annual report the results of the air pollution monitoring network of the German Federal Environmental Agency (FEA) are presented for the year 1999. The network consists of 23 stations (9 stations with personnel and 14 automatically working container stations) which are situated in rural areas. As the data set was thoroughly quality controlled reliable statements on trends can be made. (orig.) [German] Im vorliegenden Jahresbericht werden die Ergebnisse aus dem Messnetz des Umweltbundesamtes fuer das Jahr 1999 vorgestellt, interpretiert und mit den Messungen aus frueheren Jahren verglichen. Das UBA-Messnetz besteht heute aus insgesamt 23 in laendlichen Regionen gelegenen Stationen, wovon 9 Messstellen personell besetzt und 14 automatisch arbeitende Containerstationen sind. Die Datensaetze sind in sich homogen, d.h. es wurden im Verlauf der Jahre keine gravierenden Veraenderungen an den Messbedingungen vorgenommen, weder bei der Probenahme noch bei der Analytik. Die Daten wurden einer eingehenden Qualitaetspruefung unterzogen, sowohl intern als auch bei internationalen Ringvergleichen der Analysenverfahren. (orig.)

  12. State perspectives on clean coal technology deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreland, T. [State of Illinois Washington Office, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    State governments have been funding partners in the Clean Coal Technology program since its beginnings. Today, regulatory and market uncertainties and tight budgets have reduced state investment in energy R and D, but states have developed program initiatives in support of deployment. State officials think that the federal government must continue to support these technologies in the deployment phase. Discussions of national energy policy must include attention to the Clean Coal Technology program and its accomplishments.

  13. Estimación de la Incidencia de Cáncer de Tiroides en Capital Federal y el Gran Buenos Aires (período 2003-2011 Incidences Rates of Thyroid Cancer in Buenos Aires (2003-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo N Faure

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia del cáncer de tiroides ha aumentado significativamente en las últimas décadas en el resto del mundo. En Argentina no existe un registro nacional de cáncer por lo que la incidencia del mismo no puede establecerse. Por lo tanto, nuestro objetivo fue estimar la incidencia de cáncer de tiroides en la población de la Ciudad Autánoma de Buenos aires y Gran Buenos Aires así como la relación por género y la histología en el período de 2003 hasta 2011. Asumiendo que la población de afiliados a la Obra Social de la Policía Federal Argentina es representativa de los habitantes de Buenos Aires y el conurbano calculamos que la incidencia es de 6,51 casos/100.000 habitantes/año, con un incremento en 25 años mayor al doble, con predominio del carcinoma papilar frente al folicular.Thyroid cancer incidence has significantly risen worldwide in the last decades. In Argentina, there is no national cancer registry; therefore its incidence can not be established. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence of thyroid cancer in the population of Buenos Aires City and suburbs, and the relationship between gender and histology over the period 2003-2011. Assuming that the population affiliated to the Social Security of the Argentine Federal Police is representative of the inhabitants of Buenos Aires City and suburbs, we estimate an incidence of 6.51 cases/100,000 population/year, with an increasing incidence of almost double from 1981-1986 to 2003-2011. An increase in papillary thyroid cancer was mainly responsible for this rising trend. Incidence rates were higher for females (11.76/100,000 women compared to those for males (2.65/100,000 men. Among men and women of all ages, the highest rate of incidence was for tumor size < 1 cm.

  14. Communicating with clean technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, S.

    1996-09-01

    The potential role of computer-based communications on energy consumption, sustainable development, and the environment were discussed. Various potential benefits derivable from applications such as teleconferencing, videoconferencing, distance-learning, and teleworking as alternatives to travel by car or plane, data transmission by telefax, e-mail, or the Internet, and the resulting effect on paper consumption were cited as examples of how clean computer technology will have significant impact on energy policy and behaviour. It was contended that even if the environmental benefits are not yet promoted as widely as they should be, the increasing danger of air pollution and ozone depletion, combined with the falling cost of telecommunications, productivity gains and improved bottom lines will force the adoption of computer-based communication by mainstream society. 8 refs.

  15. Indoor environmental and air quality characteristics, building-related health symptoms, and worker productivity in a federal government building complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukcso, David; Guidotti, Tee Lamont; Franklin, Donald E; Burt, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Building Health Sciences, Inc. (BHS), investigated environmental conditions by many modalities in 71 discreet areas of 12 buildings in a government building complex that had experienced persistent occupant complaints despite correction of deficiencies following a prior survey. An online health survey was completed by 7,637 building occupants (49% response rate), a subset of whom voluntarily wore personal sampling apparatus and underwent medical evaluation. Building environmental measures were within current standards and guidelines, with few outliers. Four environmental factors were consistently associated with group-level building-related health complaints: physical comfort/discomfort, odor, job stress, and glare. Several other factors were frequently commented on by participants, including cleanliness, renovation and construction activities, and noise. Low relative humidity was significantly associated with lower respiratory and "sick building syndrome"-type symptoms. No other environmental conditions (including formaldehyde, PM10 [particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter indoor air quality standards, there is an identifiable population of occupants with a high prevalence of asthma and allergic disease who disproportionately report discomfort and lost productivity due to symptoms and that in "normal" buildings these outcome indicators are more closely associated with host factors than with environmental conditions. We concluded from the experience of this study that building-related health complaints should be investigated at the work-area level and not at a building-wide level. An occupant-centric medical evaluation should guide environmental investigations, especially when screening results of building indoor environmental and air quality measurements show that the building and its work areas are within regulatory standards and industry guidelines.

  16. Study and Evaluation of Liquid Air Energy Storage Technology For a Clean and Secure Energy Future Challenges and opportunities for Alberta wind energy industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi H. Alyami

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Global energy demand is steadily increasing each year. Many jurisdictions are seeking to incorporate sustainable and renewable energy sources to help meeting the demand and doing so in a responsible method to the environment and the next generation. In a wide-context, renewable energy sources are promising, yet cannot be controlled in such a way that is responsive to energy demand fluctuation. Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES technology seeks to bridge the gap that exists between energy supply and demand in an effort to mitigate the current demand deficiency. The volume ratio of air to liquid air is nearly 700:1. Liquid air is a dense energy carrier that is by converting renewable energy at off-peak periods into liquid air the energy can be stored until a peak-demand period when energy producers are maximising output to meet the demand. The energy is then retrieved from the liquid air through rapid expansion as it re-gasifies through a gas turbine and converted into electricity. A commercial scale pilot plant in Slough, UK illustrates the application of this technology empirically. The application of this technology in Canada might have challenges as public policy respective jurisdictions play a role. A case of point of applications where LAES can be integrated is the renewable energy market; particularly the wind power in Alberta. This paper’s analysis embraces wind power industry in Alberta from the perspective of both the electric system operator and the power generation plant. As such, it serves as an alleviating proposal of the current wind energy issues in Alberta – including the uncertainty of forecasting system. The analysis assumed energy storage technologies as a viable stand-alone mitigation with no consideration of the current technological and operational advancements in power systems such HVDC grids, distributed generation concepts and among others.

  17. Illness from air pollution : a Halton perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nosal, R.M. [Ontario Ministry of Health, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2002-03-14

    This report highlights the impact of air pollution on the health of Halton residents and describes how the Health Department will be involved in many initiatives in 2002. The health effects associated with air pollution include asthma and other respiratory problems. The federal government estimates that air pollution can be linked to 5,000 premature deaths each year in eleven major cities. The Ontario Medical Association claims pollution related illnesses cost the province more than $1 billion annually. Approximately 1,000 residents of Toronto die prematurely each year as a result of air pollution. Children, the elderly, and those with respiratory conditions or heart disease are most vulnerable. The actions proposed by the Regional Municipality of Halton at the local level include: the promotion of public transit; expanding Halton's Clean Air Partnership to include private sector partners by 2003; studying the possibility of providing more bicycle paths to reduce reliance on the automobile; and, promoting public awareness of the impact of smog on public health. The Halton Partners for Clean Air is a consortium of 12 public sector organizations which was developed to help reduce smog across the region. In 2002, the Partnership will expand to include local industry where the greatest reductions in air pollution can be achieved. One of the main goals of the Partnership is to reduce traffic congestion and associated environmental and health problems associated with air pollution around schools. 1 tab.

  18. Experiment research on multi factors of air-and-screen cleaning device of vertical axial flow%纵轴流风筛式清选装置多因素试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张义峰; 衣淑娟

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the cleaning performance of cleaning device of the vertical axial flow of rice combine,the orthogonal rotation experimental researches based on the air-and-screen cleaning device test-bed of longitudinal axial flow designed by ourself is studied.Then the effect of three parameters such as crank rotational speed,centrifugal fan rotational speed and centrifugal fan rake angle on power consumption,dirt percentage and percentage loss is analyzed.With the regression equation of performance index by adopting primary function method and MATLAB optimization and solution are conducted to obtain a optimization parameter after comprehensive assessing as follows: crank rotational speed is 235r/min, centrifugal fan rotational speed is 764r/min and centrifugal fan rake angle is 28°, which is verified through experiment ,the performance index is satisfied.The study can provide referential experience for the design, manufacturing and operating of the screen cleaning device.%为了改善纵轴流水稻收获机清选装置的清选性能,在自行研制了纵轴流风筛式清选装置试验台的基础上进行正交旋转试验研究,分析了清选装置的曲柄转速、离心风机转速、离心风机倾角三个参数对功耗、含杂率、损失率的影响.利用各性能指标的回归方程,采用主目标函数法,用MATLAB进行优化求解,综合评定后得到优化参数为:曲柄转速为235r/min,离心风机转速为764r/min,风机倾角为28°,通过验证试验后,所得到的性能指标均满足要求.通过研究,可为清选装置的设计、制造和使用提供可借鉴的依据.

  19. 76 FR 49711 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; State of New Jersey; Regional Haze...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ...., excluding Federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Robert F. Kelly, State Implementation Planning... number is (212) 637-4049. Mr. Kelly can also be reached via electronic mail at kelly.bob@epa.gov... (July 6, 2005)), many states relied on EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) to satisfy key elements...

  20. Study and Evaluation of Liquid Air Energy Storage Technology For a Clean and Secure Energy Future Challenges and opportunities for Alberta wind energy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Hadi H. Alyami; Ryan Williams

    2015-01-01

    Global energy demand is steadily increasing each year. Many jurisdictions are seeking to incorporate sustainable and renewable energy sources to help meeting the demand and doing so in a responsible method to the environment and the next generation. In a wide-context, renewable energy sources are promising, yet cannot be controlled in such a way that is responsive to energy demand fluctuation. Liquid Air Energy Storage (LAES) technology seeks to bridge the gap that exists between energy su...

  1. pH Control in Fog and Rain in East Asia: Temporal Advection of Clean Air Masses to Mt. Bamboo, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Klemm

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fog and rain was collected during an 18-day period in January 2011 at Mt. Bamboo, northern Taiwan. Almost 300 hourly fog samples and 16 daily rain samples were taken. One single fog sample (pH 3.17 was influenced by local volcanic activity, otherwise the pH ranged from 3.23 to 6.41 in fog and from 3.59 to 6.31 in rain. All the respective air masses arrived from the northeast, but exhibited two distinct groups: Group_1 had high concentrations of all ions (median interquartile range of total ion concentrations 3200–6200 µeq.·L−1 and low pHs (median 3.52, the respective air masses had travelled over densely populated and industrialized regions of mainland China. Group_2 was from air masses with long travel times over the ocean and relatively low total ion concentrations (80–570 µeq.·L−1 and higher pHs (median 4.80. The cleanest samples are among the cleanest reported in the literature of worldwide fog and rain. In both groups, the pH was governed by the balance of sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, and, in some cases, calcium. The variability of these ions was higher than the variability of 10−pH, which shows that the pH is a rather robust parameter in contrast to its drivers such as non-sea-salt sulfate.

  2. Clean Energy Policy Analyses: Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  3. Clean Energy Policy Analyses. Analysis of the Status and Impact of Clean Energy Policies at the Local Level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2010-12-01

    This report takes a broad look at the status of local clean energy policies in the United States to develop a better understanding of local clean energy policy development and the interaction between state and local policies. To date, the majority of clean energy policy research focuses on the state and federal levels. While there has been a substantial amount of research on local level climate change initiatives, this is one of the first analyses of clean energy policies separate from climate change initiatives. This report is one in a suite of reports analyzing clean energy and climate policy development at the local, state, and regional levels.

  4. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  5. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ashraful; Tawale, Nanda; Patel, Archana; Dibley, Michael J; Jadhao, Sunil; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-09-09

    Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP) exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves.

  6. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraful Alam

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves.

  7. Household Air Pollution Intervention Implications: Findings from Qualitative Studies and a Field Trial of Clean Cookstoves in Two Rural Villages in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Ashraful; Tawale, Nanda; Patel, Archana; Dibley, Michael J.; Jadhao, Sunil; Raynes-Greenow, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to household air pollution is estimated to be the 3rd largest contributor to the global burden of disease and the largest contributor in South Asia. Unacceptability of improved cook stoves by the intended user has been identified as a crucial factor hindering uptake and sustained use. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the socio-cultural factors that influence acceptance of improved cookstoves and conducted a systematic field trial in two rural villages in Maharashtra, India. The qualitative study used semi-structured in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. We included women primarily responsible for household cooking, their husbands, senior women in their households, and community health workers. We also conducted kitchen observations. The results indicated low awareness and knowledge of the health risks associated with traditional cookstove use although high prevalence of household air pollution (HAP) exposure symptoms among all groups. Women were resigned to using traditional cookstoves although they did not like them. The field trial findings were dominated by responses concerned with convenience and health advantages. We identify important issues to be considered when introducing an improved cookstove programme that will increase acceptability and potentially sustained used of improved cookstoves. PMID:27618083

  8. Understanding in-situ ozone production in the summertime through radical observations and modelling studies during the Clean air for London project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Lisa; Stone, Daniel; Sharp, Thomas; Garraway, Shani; Bannan, Thomas; Percival, Carl; Hopkins, James; Holmes, Rachel; Hamilton, Jacqui; Lee, James; Laufs, Sebastian; Kleffmann, Jörg; Heard, Dwayne

    2014-05-01

    With greater than 50 % of the global population residing in urban conurbations, poor urban air quality has a demonstrable effect on human health. OH and HO2 radicals, (collectively termed HOx) together with RO2 radicals, mediate virtually all of the oxidative chemistry in the atmosphere, being responsible for the transformation of primary emissions into secondary pollutants such as NO2, O3 and particulates. Here we present measurements of OH, HO2, partially speciated RO2 (distinguishing smaller alkane related RO2 from larger alkane/alkene/aromatic related RO2), ClNO2 and OH reactivity measurements taken during the ClearfLo campaign in central London in the summer of 2012. Comparison with calculations from a detailed box model utilising the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2 tested our ability to reproduce radical levels, and enabled detailed radical budgets to be determined, highlighting for example the important role of the photolysis of nitrous acid (HONO) and carbonyl species as radical sources. Speciation of RO2 enabled the break-down of ozone production from different classes of VOCs to be calculated directly and compared with model calculations. Summertime observations of radicals have helped to identify that increases in photolytic sources of radicals on warm, sunny days can significantly increase local ozone concentrations leading to exceedances of EU air quality recommendations of 60 ppbV. The photolytic breakdown of ClNO2 to Cl atoms can more than double radical concentrations in the early morning; although the integrated increase in radical concentrations over a 24 hr period in model runs when ClNO2 photolysis is included is more modest. On average we calculate just under a 1 ppb increase in ozone due to the presence of ClNO2 in London air. OH reactivity was found to be greatest during morning and evening rush hours. Good agreement between the modelled OH reactivity and observations could be achieved when reactivity associated with model generated photo

  9. Wagging ETOM's Long Tail: MOOCs, Hangouts on Air, and Formal and Informal Undergraduate Experiences with Climate Change Science and Clean Energy Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Stiles, G.; Alley, R. B.; Akuginow, E.; McNeal, K.; Blockstein, D.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can reasonably be described as a "wicked problem" meaning that it is complex, difficult and multi-faceted, although critical to equitable development and the sustainability of human civilization. But while the Wikipedia definition says such problems are "impossible" to solve, not even to try will lead to certain failure. "Earth: The Operators' Manual" (ETOM) was an NSF-funded informal science education project with 3 hour-long TV programs appearing on PBS in 2011 and 2012, along with live presentations by series host, Penn State's Richard Alley, and others at 5 major science centers. Uniquely among climate change programming, ETOM gave equal time to identifying solutions along with climate science, and made all its materials freely available via YouTube. Formal and informal science educators can register to download HD videos for classroom and outreach use, and signups have ranged from middle schools to 4-year colleges. Building on the success of the series and Alley's companion tradebook of the same name, Penn State working with Coursera invited Alley to develop a MOOC entitled "Energy, The Environment and Our Future" that similarly combined the essential science along with clean energy solutions. The course reached more than 30,000 students in the first semester of 2014. More recently the ETOM team has partnered with the National Council for Science and the Environment (NCSE) to develop "READ for the EARTH," an NSF EAGER project, offering campuses the opportunity to adopt Alley's book, the ETOM videos (including "How To Talk To An Ostrich"), NCSE's www.CAMELclimatechange.org web site and other resources for both formal and informal uses. Some campuses have used the book with honors classes, and some are exploring adapting ETOM as a first year reading experience for all freshman. Our presentation will share reactions to the MOOC, to the pilot phases of "READ for the EARTH" and present both qualitative and quantitative results. Some of the most

  10. ASRM process development in aqueous cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swisher, Bill

    1992-12-01

    Viewgraphs are included on process development in aqueous cleaning which is taking place at the Aerojet Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) Division under a NASA Marshall Space and Flight Center contract for design, development, test, and evaluation of the ASRM including new production facilities. The ASRM will utilize aqueous cleaning in several manufacturing process steps to clean case segments, nozzle metal components, and igniter closures. ASRM manufacturing process development is underway, including agent selection, agent characterization, subscale process optimization, bonding verification, and scale-up validation. Process parameters are currently being tested for optimization utilizing a Taguci Matrix, including agent concentration, cleaning solution temperature, agitation and immersion time, rinse water amount and temperature, and use/non-use of drying air. Based on results of process development testing to date, several observations are offered: aqueous cleaning appears effective for steels and SermeTel-coated metals in ASRM processing; aqueous cleaning agents may stain and/or attack bare aluminum metals to various extents; aqueous cleaning appears unsuitable for thermal sprayed aluminum-coated steel; aqueous cleaning appears to adequately remove a wide range of contaminants from flat metal surfaces, but supplementary assistance may be needed to remove clumps of tenacious contaminants embedded in holes, etc.; and hot rinse water appears to be beneficial to aid in drying of bare steel and retarding oxidation rate.

  11. Federal Holidays

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Federal law (5 U.S.C. 6103) establishes the following public holidays for Federal employees. Please note that most Federal employees work on a Monday through Friday...

  12. 78 FR 45925 - Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Clean Water Act: Availability of List Decisions AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Section 303(d) of the Clean Water Act (CWA) requires that each state identify...

  13. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  14. Preperation for a Clean Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurimas Ralys

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews techniques for preparing clean surfaces used in the manufacturing process, considers the types of clean surfaces and their role in modern production and provides the classification methods of arranging such surfaces. The paper also discusses the principles of methods for solvent cleaning, aqueous cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, precision cleaning and mechanical cleaning. The study focuses on the possibility of adjusting a clean surface using a water flow, including cavitation.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Enabling Mobile Air Quality App Development with an AirNow API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, T.; White, J. E.; Ludewig, S. A.; Dickerson, P.; Healy, A. N.; West, J. W.; Prince, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) AirNow program works with over 130 participating state, local, and federal air quality agencies to obtain, quality control, and store real-time air quality observations and forecasts. From these data, the AirNow system generates thousands of maps and products each hour. Each day, information from AirNow is published online and in other media to assist the public in making health-based decisions related to air quality. However, an increasing number of people use mobile devices as their primary tool for obtaining information, and AirNow has responded to this trend by publishing an easy-to-use Web API that is useful for mobile app developers. This presentation will describe the various features of the AirNow application programming interface (API), including Representational State Transfer (REST)-type web services, file outputs, and RSS feeds. In addition, a web portal for the AirNow API will be shown, including documentation on use of the system, a query tool for configuring and running web services, and general information about the air quality data and forecasts available. Data published via the AirNow API includes corresponding Air Quality Index (AQI) levels for each pollutant. We will highlight examples of mobile apps that are using the AirNow API to provide location-based, real-time air quality information. Examples will include mobile apps developed for Minnesota ('Minnesota Air') and Washington, D.C. ('Clean Air Partners Air Quality'), and an app developed by EPA ('EPA AirNow').

  16. GSPEL - Air Filtration Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Evaluation capabilities for air filtration devicesThe Air Filtration Lab provides testing of air filtration devices to demonstrate and validate new or legacy system...

  17. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  18. Cleaning of South African coal using a compound dry cleaning apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Haibin; Luo Zhenfu; Zhao Yuemin; Wu Wanchang; Zhang Cuiyu; Dai Ningning

    2011-01-01

    The compound dry cleaning principle is briefly described. A beneficiation test on South African coal was conducted using a model compound dry cleaning apparatus. Excellent results were obtained and the optimum operating parameters were determined. They are: an amplitude of 3.0 ram, a motor frequency of 47.5 Hz, an air volume of 50%, a transverse angle of 7°, and a longitudinal angle of -2°. These conditions yield a clean coal containing 11% ash and a coal production of 75%. The organic efficiency, η, is 95.86%. These results show that the South African coal can be separated effectively by compound dry cleaning, which will popularize the compound dry cleaning method.

  19. Air Pollution Monitoring | Air Quality Planning & Standards ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-08

    The basic mission of the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards is to preserve and improve the quality of our nation's air. To accomplish this, OAQPS must be able to evaluate the status of the atmosphere as compared to clean air standards and historical information.

  20. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-14

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

  1. Cleaning and surface properties

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M

    2007-01-01

    Principles of precision cleaning for ultra high vacuum applications are reviewed together with the techniques for the evaluation of surface cleanliness. Methods to verify the effectiveness of cleaning procedures are discussed. Examples are presented to illustrate the influence of packaging and storage on the recontamination of the surface after cleaning. Finally, the effect of contamination on some relevant surface properties, like secondary electron emission and wettability is presented.

  2. Clean Energy Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    For the past several years, the IEA and others have been calling for a clean energy revolution to achieve global energy security, economic growth and climate change goals. This report analyses for the first time progress in global clean energy technology deployment against the pathways that are needed to achieve these goals. It provides an overview of technology deployment status, key policy developments and public spending on RDD&D of clean energy technologies.

  3. 基于PLC的洁净手术室净化空调新风机组自动控制的设计与实现%Design and implementation of automatic control for clean operating department clean air-conditioning fresh air units based on PLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙可; 刘杰; 王晨

    2011-01-01

    净化空调系统由新风机组、循环机组和送风管道组成,新风机组的作用是为手术室提供新风,并将室外新风进行初步净化及热湿处理后送入循环机组,经新风机组处理的新风和手术室回风在循环机组中再进行过滤及热湿处理后送入手术室.笔者成功设计了某市医院洁净手术室净化空调自动控制系统,并实现该系统的稳定运行.目前该项目设计的自动控制系统先已投入使用,运行效果良好,达到了设计的所有指标,取得了用户的认可.控制系统采用西门子S7-200系列PLC作为控制器,与上位机通过PROFIBUS现场总线技术实现通信.PLC是连接上位机与现场传感器、执行器等的桥梁,向上将底层传感器、变送器采集的温湿度、压差等信号上传至上位机,向下将上位机的控制信号传达给现场执行器.文章重点介绍了洁净手术室净化空调自动控制系统新风机组的组成及实时监控的实现.%Air cleaner system consists of fresh air handling unit, cycle unit and air pipe. The fresh air handling unit is to provide fresh air for the operating room, purify fundamentally the air from outside and send it to the cycle unit after hydrothermal process. The air processed through the fresh air handling unit, and the air in the operating room is going to be filtered again in the cycle unit and send it back to the operating room after another hydrothermal process. This paper succeeded in designing the automatic control system of air cleaner in the Da Shiqiao Central Hospital, and accomplished the stable operation of the system. SIMENS S7 - 200 series of PLC is the controller, corresponded with upper computer through PROFIBUS Fieldbus Technology. PLC is the bridge linking the upper computer, field sensor and actuator, which uploads the temperature, humidity and pressure differential collected by the sensor and trasmitter froth the lower-layer to the upper computer, and meanwhile transmits

  4. 40 CFR 35.936-10 - Federal procurement regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal procurement regulations. 35.936... FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works-Clean Water Act § 35.936-10 Federal procurement regulations. Regulations applicable to direct Federal procurement...

  5. [Analysis and research on cleaning points of HVAC systems in public places].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiaolan; Han, Xu; Chen, Dongqing; Jin, Xin; Dai, Zizhu

    2010-03-01

    To analyze cleaning points of HVAC systems, and to provides scientific base for regulating the cleaning of HVAC systems. Based on the survey results on the cleaning situation of HVAC systems around China for the past three years, we analyzes the cleaning points of HVAC systems from various aspects, such as the major health risk factors of HVAC systems, the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems, cleaning methods and acceptance points of the air ducts and the parts of HVAC systems, the onsite protection and individual protection, the waste treatment and the cleaning of the removed equipment, inspection of the cleaning results, video record, and the final acceptance of the cleaning. The analysis of the major health risk factors of HVAC systems and the formulation strategy of the cleaning of HVAC systems is given. The specific methods for cleaning the air ducts, machine units, air ports, coil pipes and the water cooling towers of HVAC systems, the acceptance points of HVAC systems and the requirements of the report on the final acceptance of the cleaning of HVAC systems are proposed. By the analysis of the points of the cleaning of HVAC systems and proposal of corresponding measures, this study provides the base for the scientific and regular launch of the cleaning of HVAC systems, a novel technology service, and lays a foundation for the revision of the existing cleaning regulations, which may generate technical and social benefits to some extent.

  6. Photocatalytic Solutions Create Self-Cleaning Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A Stennis Space Center researcher investigating the effectiveness of photocatalytic materials for keeping the Center's buildings free of grime turned to a solution created by PURETi Inc. of New York City. Testing proved successful, and NASA and the company now share a Dual Use Technology partnership. PURETi's coatings keep surfaces clean and purify surrounding air, eliminating pollution, odors, and microbes.

  7. Cleaning of solar cell arrays; Rausgeputzt fuer die Sonne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petzold, Katrin

    2010-07-01

    The degree of soiling of solar cell arrays depends on the installation site, which may involve, e.g., animal shelter air, bird droppings or desert sand. Heavy rain has a cleaning effect, or else professional cleaning with osmotic water will be necessary. (orig.)

  8. Federal Environmental Permitting Handbook. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-05-01

    The handbook consists of eight chapters addressing permitting and licensing requirements under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (CERCLA/SARA), the Atomic Energy Act (AEA), the Clean Air Act (CAA), the Clean Water Act (CWA), the Federal Insectide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), and the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA). Each chapter consists of: (1) an introduction to the statute and permitting requirements; (2) a diagram illustrating the relationship between permitting requirements under the statute being discussed and permitting requirements from other environmental statutes which may have to be addressed when applying for a particular permit (e.g., when applying for a RCRA permit, permits and permit applications under the CWA, CAA, SDWA, etc. would have to be listed in the RCRA permit application); and, (3) a compilation of the permitting requirements for the regulatory program resulting from the statute. In addition, the Handbook contains a permitting keyword index and a listing of hotline telephone numbers for each of the statutes.

  9. 78 FR 57629 - Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC; Notice of Filing Take notice that on September 9, 2013, Eagle Valley Clean Energy, LLC filed Form 556 and a petition for certification as a...

  10. 7 CFR 201.33 - Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or... (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Labeling in General § 201.33 Seed in bulk or large quantities; seed for cleaning or processing. (a) In the case of seed in bulk, the information required...

  11. Federalism Lives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A. E. Dick

    1987-01-01

    Examines the concept of federalism in terms of its past history and its encouraging future. Calls for a revival of concern for federalism not simply as a convenient administrative arrangement but as a fundamental constitutional value. (BSR)

  12. Elements of Clean-room Technology and Contamination Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Kapoor

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The heart of the clean room is the high efticiency particualte air (HEPA/ultra-low penetration air (ULPA filter, which provides the highest level of air cleaning ever achieved by a singleprocess step. Filter technology has seen tremendous growth in terms of ultimate performance and air handling capacity. Mere installation of ULPA filters of 99.99995 per cent efficiency for 0.2 um aerosol is not sufficient for achieving the desired performance of a clean room. Other design aspects like flow fields, face velocity, number of air changes, make-up air fractions and precise control of other environmental parameters (temperature, humidity, airflow, noise, vibrations, electrostatic discharge, etc. are equally important.

  13. 29 CFR 1917.154 - Compressed air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressed air. 1917.154 Section 1917.154 Labor Regulations...) MARINE TERMINALS Related Terminal Operations and Equipment § 1917.154 Compressed air. Employees shall be... this part during cleaning with compressed air. Compressed air used for cleaning shall not exceed...

  14. Mechanical cleaning of graphene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, A.M.; Calado, V.E.; Barreiro, A.; Watanabe, K.; Taniguchi, T.; Vandersypen, L.M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of graphene due to residues from nanofabrication often introduces background doping and reduces electron mobility. For samples of high electronic quality, post-lithography cleaning treatments are therefore needed. We report that mechanical cleaning based on contact mode atomic force mi

  15. Development and Implementation of Critical Loads for Atmospheric Deposition: Federal Land Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, E. M.

    2004-12-01

    Critical loads for atmospheric deposition have been widely developed and used in Europe, Canada, and other countries. Critical loads are used to influence air pollution emissions reductions, thereby protecting and restoring aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. In the United States, federal land management agencies are adopting the critical load concept as a potentially valuable resource management tool. Certain parks and wilderness areas are currently being affected by anthropogenic nitrogen and sulfur deposition. Effects of excess deposition include acidification, nitrogen enrichment, toxicity, and changes in biotic communities. Streams in both Shenandoah and Great Smoky Mountains National Parks are experiencing chronic and episodic acidification and brook trout fisheries in Shenandoah have been affected. High elevation ecosystems in Rocky Mountain National Park are undergoing subtle changes in aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems attributable to atmospheric deposition. Natural resources in many other federal areas have been affected or are at risk from deposition. Federal land managers are refining strategies for critical loads that include working with scientists to identify resources sensitive to deposition, defining resource protection criteria that will meet management objectives, and estimating and implementing critical loads. Critical loads will be used in resource management decisions and federal land management planning. They will be used to evaluate management actions and assess progress towards meeting management goals. Federal land managers will also communicate critical loads information to air pollution regulatory agencies to inform emissions management strategies for clean air.

  16. 活性炭和植物吸收对室内空气甲醛净化的影响%Effect of the Activated Carbon and Plants Uptake on the Formaldehyde Cleaning in Indoor Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖秋实; 李苑; 杨宇婷; 张艳北; 史春玲; 秦红梅; 文静; 江长胜

    2011-01-01

    The indoor air pollution in urban resident is very serious, formaldehyde has become one of the most important indoor air pollutants in China. In this study, ivy (Scinda psusaureu), green dill (Hedera nepalensis van. Sinensis) and activated carbon were selected as the research objects, and the author used the closed chamber technique to study the absorption capacity of plants and chemicals on formaldehyde. The results showed that green dill, ivy and activated carbon were all good for indoor formaldehyde purification. 1 day later, the purifying efficiency decreased in the order as follows: ivy+activated carbon (formaldehyde cleaning rate was 38.27%)>ivy (34.31%)>green dill+activated carbon (32.20%)>green dill (5.61%)>activated carbon (3.73%). 10 days later, the purifying efficiency decreased in the order as follows: ivy+activated carbon (69.91%)>green dill+activated carbon (64.28%)>ivy (60.44%)>activated carbon (57.50%) >green dill (24.99%). Combining the plants and activated carbon had the better efficiency of formaldehyde cleaning rate than using plants or activated carbon singly, and long time had better effect than short time.%城市住宅的室内空气污染十分严重,甲醛已经成为中国目前室内空气中的首要污染物.以绿萝、常春藤与活性炭为研究对象,采用密闭箱法进行净化甲醛能力的研究.结果表明,绿萝、常春藤与活性炭均对室内空气中甲醛具有良好的净化作用,24 h后的甲醛净化能力大小依次为:常春藤+活性炭(甲醛去除率38.27%)>常春藤(34.31%)>绿萝+活性炭(32.20%)>绿萝(5.61%)>活性炭(3.73%);10天后的净化效果排序为:常春藤+活性炭(69.91%)>绿萝+活性炭(64.28%)>常春藤(60.44%)>活性炭(57.50%)>绿萝(24.99%).植物与活性炭联合作用对甲醛净化效果比单一用植物或活性炭效果好,而且长期作用比短期作用效果好.

  17. ENHANCED CHEMICAL CLEANING: A NEW PROCESS FOR CHEMICALLY CLEANING SAVANNAH RIVER WASTE TANKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketusky, E; Neil Davis, N; Renee Spires, R

    2008-01-17

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has 49 high level waste (HLW) tanks that must be emptied, cleaned, and closed as required by the Federal Facilities Agreement. The current method of chemical cleaning uses several hundred thousand gallons per tank of 8 weight percent (wt%) oxalic acid to partially dissolve and suspend residual waste and corrosion products such that the waste can be pumped out of the tank. This adds a significant quantity of sodium oxalate to the tanks and, if multiple tanks are cleaned, renders the waste incompatible with the downstream processing. Tank space is also insufficient to store this stream given the large number of tanks to be cleaned. Therefore, a search for a new cleaning process was initiated utilizing the TRIZ literature search approach, and Chemical Oxidation Reduction Decontamination--Ultraviolet (CORD-UV), a mature technology currently used for decontamination and cleaning of commercial nuclear reactor primary cooling water loops, was identified. CORD-UV utilizes oxalic acid for sludge dissolution, but then decomposes the oxalic acid to carbon dioxide and water by UV treatment outside the system being treated. This allows reprecipitation and subsequent deposition of the sludge into a selected container without adding significant volume to that container, and without adding any new chemicals that would impact downstream treatment processes. Bench top and demonstration loop measurements on SRS tank sludge stimulant demonstrated the feasibility of applying CORD-UV for enhanced chemical cleaning of SRS HLW tanks.

  18. Handbook on Air Cleaning Particulate Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1952-09-01

    collisions are inelas- tic and if the particles are solid, e.g., A perfectly homogeneous aerosol would fumes of lead, zinc oxide, magnesium ox- have a ag of...EQUIPMENT 47 am T I J" mao AT Fig. 3.1-Assembly Drawing of the Modified Cascade Impacto ." Fig. 3.2-Modified Cascade Impactor - DisassembledFi.3-MdfeCace mct

  19. What is Clean Cities? October 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Brochure describes the Clean Cities program and includes the contact information for its 85 coalitions. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Vehicle Technologies Program (VTP), Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership that reduces petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Clean Cities contributes to the energy, environmental, and economic security of the United States by supporting local decisions to reduce our dependence on imported petroleum. Established in 1993 in response to the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 1992, the partnership provides tools and resources for voluntary, community-centered programs to reduce consumption of petroleum-based fuels. In nearly 100 coalitions, government agencies and private companies voluntarily come together under the umbrella of Clean Cities. The partnership helps all parties identify mutual interests and meet the objectives of reducing the use of petroleum, developing regional economic opportunities, and improving air quality. Clean Cities deploys technologies and practices developed by VTP. These include idle-reduction equipment, electric-drive vehicles, fuel economy measures, and renewable and alternative fuels, such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (propane), electricity, hydrogen, biofuels, and biogas. Idle-reduction equipment is targeted primarily to buses and heavy-duty trucks, which use more than 2 billion gallons of fuel every year in the United States while idling. Clean Cities fuel economy measures include public education on vehicle choice and fuel-efficient driving practices.

  20. An experimental and numerical study of water jet cleaning process

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Anirban; Balachandar, Ram

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we have experimentally, numerically and theoretically investigated the water jet cleaning process. Very high speed water jets (~80-200 m/s) are used in such cleaning operations. These jets diffuse in the surrounding atmosphere by the process of air entrainment and this contributes to the spreading of the jet and subsequent decay of pressure. Estimation of this pressure decay and subsequent placement of the cleaning object is of paramount importance in manufacturing and material processing industries. Also, the pressure distribution on the cleaning surface needs to be assessed in order to understand and optimize the material removal process. Experimental study is performed to understand the pressure characteristics. A Semi-empirical model for capturing the air entrainment has been added to the commercial CFD package FLUENT. The simulation results are validated against ours as well as previous experimental findings. The numerical results have shown that the optimal stand-off distance in cleaning ...

  1. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  2. Effective Cleaning Radius Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churnetski, B.V.

    2001-10-15

    This report discusses results of testing done in the Savannah River Laboratory half tank and full tank mockup facilities using kaolin clay slurries and the relationship between cleaning radius and pump and slurry characteristics.

  3. Clean Energy Finance Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    This tool is for state and local governments interested in developing a financing program to support energy efficiency and clean energy improvements for large numbers of buildings within their jurisdiction.

  4. 40 CFR 88.308-94 - Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-fuel fleet vehicles. 88.308-94 Section 88.308-94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.308-94 Programmatic requirements for clean-fuel fleet vehicles. (a) Multi-State nonattainment areas. The...

  5. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  6. Hanford Site air operating permit application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, which amended the Federal Clean Air Act of 1977, required that the US Environmental Protection Agency develop a national Air Operating Permit Program, which in turn would require each state to develop an Air Operating Permit Program to identify all sources of ``regulated`` pollutants. Regulated pollutants include ``criteria`` pollutants (oxides of nitrogen, sulfur oxides, total suspended particulates, carbon monoxide, particulate matter greater than 10 micron, lead) plus 189 other ``Hazardous`` Air Pollutants. The Hanford Site, owned by the US Government and operated by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, is located in southcentral Washington State and covers 560 square miles of semi-arid shrub and grasslands located just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. This land, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas historically used for the production of nuclear materials, waste storage, and waste disposal. About 6 percent of the land area has been disturbed and is actively used. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application consists of more than 1,100 sources and in excess of 300 emission points. Before January 1995, the maintenance and operations contractor and the environmental restoration contractor for the US Department of Energy completed an air emission inventory on the Hanford Site. The inventory has been entered into a database so that the sources and emission points can be tracked and updated information readily can be retrieved. The Hanford Site Air Operating Permit Application contains information current as of April 19, 1995.

  7. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  8. Solar-Panel Dust Accumulation and Cleanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Air-fall dust accumulates on the solar panels of NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers, reducing the amount of sunlight reaching the solar arrays. Pre-launch models predicted steady dust accumulation. However, the rovers have been blessed with occasional wind events that clear significant amounts of dust from the solar panels. This graph shows the effects of those panel-cleaning events on the amount of electricity generated by Spirit's solar panels. The horizontal scale is the number of Martian days (sols) after Spirit's Jan. 4, 2005, (Universal Time) landing on Mars. The vertical scale indicates output from the rover's solar panels as a fraction of the amount produced when the clean panels first opened. Note that the gradual declines are interrupted by occasional sharp increases, such as a dust-cleaning event on sol 420.

  9. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air....... These contradictions should motivate manufacturers and researchers to develop new efficient filtration techniques and/or improve the existing ones. Development of low polluting filtration techniques, which are at the same time easy and inexpensive to maintain is the way forward in the future....

  10. Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage, and Disposal Facilities-Organic Air Emission Standards for Process Vents and Equipment Leaks - Technical Amendment - Federal Register Notice, April 26, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document corrects typographical errors in the regulatory text of the final standards that would limit organic air emissions as a class at hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDF) that are subject to regulation under subtitle

  11. Appalachian clean coal technology consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutz, K.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium (ACCTC) has been established to help U.S. coal producers, particularly those in the Appalachian region, increase the production of lower-sulfur coal. The cooperative research conducted as part of the consortium activities will help utilities meet the emissions standards established by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, enhance the competitiveness of U.S. coals in the world market, create jobs in economically-depressed coal producing regions, and reduce U.S. dependence on foreign energy supplies. The research activities will be conducted in cooperation with coal companies, equipment manufacturers, and A&E firms working in the Appalachian coal fields. This approach is consistent with President Clinton`s initiative in establishing Regional Technology Alliances to meet regional needs through technology development in cooperation with industry. The consortium activities are complementary to the High-Efficiency Preparation program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, but are broader in scope as they are inclusive of technology developments for both near-term and long-term applications, technology transfer, and training a highly-skilled work force.

  12. Review of current and anticipated regulations on air protection in the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jilek, P.; Novotny, V. [Ministry of the Environment of the Czech Republic, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Environmental issues, especially the solution of the air pollution problem, have taken on great significance in the Czech Republic (which was a part of the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic until the end of 1992) since the 1989 {open_quotes}Velvet{close_quotes} Revolution. The former CSFR Federal Committee for the Environment and both the Republic Ministries started immediately with creating new environmental legislation, which is the main governmental tool for protecting the environment in the newly developing democracy state system with a market oriented economy. The inspiration for that activity was found in legislation of developed countries - member states of the European Union, and in German environmental law in particular. This paper surveys the major laws and regulations that gradually came into force in the Czech Republic since 1990. The provisions of the primary significance are the Act No.309/1991 S.B., dated July 9, 1991, on the protection of the air against pollutants - The Clean Air Act, the Act No.218/1992 S.B., dated April 27, 1992, which changes and supplements the Act No.309 - The Clean Air Act, the Measure of the Federal Committee for the Environment of October 1, 1991 to the Clean Air Act, and its amended wordings of June 23, 1992, 84/1991 S.B., and 84/1992 S.B., the Act No.389/1991 S.B., dated September 10, 1991 on the state administration of air protection and charges for the pollution of air, and several regulations based on the Act No.389/1991 S.B., issued in the period 1992 -1993.

  13. Clean Elements in Abelian Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Angelina Y M Chin

    2009-04-01

    Let be a ring with identity. An element in is said to be clean if it is the sum of a unit and an idempotent. is said to be clean if all of its elements are clean. If every idempotent in is central, then is said to be abelian. In this paper we obtain some conditions equivalent to being clean in an abelian ring.

  14. Self-cleaning geopolymer concrete - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsaffirah Zailan, Siti; Mahmed, Norsuria; Bakri Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al; Sandu, Andrei Victor

    2016-06-01

    Concrete is the most widely used construction materials for building technology. However, cement production releases high amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) to the atmosphere that leads to increasing the global warming. Thus, an alternative, environmental friendly construction material such as geopolymer concrete has been developed. Geopolymer concrete applies greener alternative binder, which is an innovative construction material that replaces the Portland cement. This technology introduced nano-particles such as nanoclay into the cement paste in order to improve their mechanical properties. The concrete materials also have been developed to be functioned as self-cleaning construction materials. The self-cleaning properties of the concrete are induced by introducing the photocatalytic materials such as titania (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO). Self-cleaning concrete that contains those photocatalysts will be energized by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and accelerates the decomposition of organic particulates. Thus, the cleanliness of the building surfaces can be maintained and the air surrounding air pollution can be reduced. This paper briefly reviews about self-cleaning concrete.

  15. Columnar modelling of nucleation burst evolution in the convective boundary layer – first results from a feasibility study Part III: Preliminary results on physicochemical model performance using two "clean air mass" reference scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Hellmuth

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Paper I of four papers, a revised columnar high-order model to investigate gas-aerosol-turbulence interactions in the convective boundary layer (CBL was proposed. In Paper II, the model capability to predict first-, second- and third-order moments of meteorological variables in the CBL was demonstrated using available observational data. In the present Paper III, the high-order modelling concept is extended to sulphur and ammonia chemistry as well as to aerosol dynamics. Based on the previous CBL simulation, a feasibility study is performed using two "clean air mass" scenarios with an emission source at the ground but low aerosol background concentration. Such scenarios synoptically correspond to the advection of fresh post-frontal air in an anthropogenically influenced region. The aim is to evaluate the time-height evolution of ultrafine condensation nuclei (UCNs and to elucidate the interactions between meteorological and physicochemical variables in a CBL column. The scenarios differ in the treatment of new particle formation (NPF, whereas homogeneous nucleation according to the classical nucleation theory (CNT is considered. The first scenario considers nucleation of a binary system consisting of water vapour and sulphuric acid (H2SO4 vapour, the second one nucleation of a ternary system additionally involving ammonia (NH3. Here, the two synthetic scenarios are discussed in detail, whereas special attention is payed to the role of turbulence in the formation of the typical UCN burst behaviour, that can often be observed in the surface layer. The intercomparison of the two scenarios reveals large differences in the evolution of the UCN number concentration in the surface layer as well as in the time-height cross-sections of first-order moments and double correlation terms. Although in both cases the occurrence of NPF bursts could be simulated, the burst characteristics and genesis of the bursts are completely different. It is demonstrated

  16. Research of the heliostat cleaning method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiliang; Liu, Xiaobin [Himin Solar Energy Group Co., Ltd, Dezhou City (China); Wang, Zhifeng [CAS, Beijing (China). Inst. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    Heliostat is the core component of Solar Power Tower system. It can straightly affect the efficiency of whole system. Because the heliostats run outside, and are discovered in the air, dust and dirt accumulates gradually on the surface of reflector. Then, it will gradually decrease the reflectivity of mirror so that reduce the whole efficiency. The article analyzed environment factors, and researched selecting availably cleaning method of heliostat for different conditions. (orig.)

  17. Políticas nacionales y escenarios locales. Reflexiones sobre la implementación del Programa Federal de Construcción de Viviendas en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires National Policies and Local Scenarios. Reflections on the implementation of the Federal Housing Program in the City of Buenos Aires As políticas nacionais e os cenários locais. Reflexões sobre a implementação do Programa Federal de Habitação na cidade de Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ostuni

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEste trabajo propone indagar acerca de la cuestión de la vivienda construida por el sector público en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, utilizando como eje el actual Programa Federal de Construcción de Viviendas, lanzado en el año 2004. Se trata de una política de alcance nacional llevada a cabo por la Subsecretaría de Desarrollo Urbano y Vivienda de la Nación, dependiente del Ministerio de Infraestructura y Planificación Federal. El interés en atender al programa aludido se explica por tratarse de la política habitacional de mayor magnitud en décadas. A priori, podría implicar un cambio en el rol del Estado en relación con los problemas habitacionales, traducido en una importante asignación de recursos económicos y técnicos para afrontar la cuestión. El artículo expresa el proceso de investigación concretado en una tesis de maestría, y en su actual continuación — y ampliación — en una tesis doctoral.AbstractThis work proposes an inquiry on housing built by the public sector in the city of Buenos Aires, using the current Federal Program for Housing Development launched in 2004, as its core. This program is a nation-wide policy carried out by the Urban Development and Housing Undersecretary’s Office, which depends on the Ministry of Infrastructure and Federal Planning. The author’s interest on this subject comes from the idea of it being the housing policy with the highest impact of the last decades. A priori, it could entail a change of the State’s role in relation with housing problems, transformed in an important assignment of economic and technical resources in order to face the situation. This speech exposes the investigation process that was concreted in a Masters thesis and that still continues as a Doctoral Thesis.ResumoEste artigo pretende indagar sobre a questão da habitação construída pelo estado na Cidade de Buenos Aires, fazendo um análise do Programa Federal de Habitação, lançado no ano de

  18. Discussion paper : air quality and official plan policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-14

    This document presents an outline of the issues that must be considered when addressing air quality issues within the Region of Halton, Ontario. Data from the Ontario Ministry of Environment suggest that Halton's air quality is generally worse than that of Hamilton or Toronto. For that reason, the Ecological Environmental Advisory Committee recommends that general policies and implementation permitting policies respecting air quality and climate change be considered as part of the Region's Directions Report toward enacting amendments to the Region's Official Plan. The main reason for the region to be concerned about air quality is the public health of its citizens. The main sources of air pollution include fossil-fueled power plants, transportation, and the impacts of urban sprawl. Other industrial activities and residential heating also make significant contributions. Addressing any single issue at source could result in many benefits for all issues. Since municipalities do not have the resources to monitor clean air (as they do for clean water), the Region is advised to establish appropriate policies to meet these challenges. It is suggested that Halton should adopt the Federation of Canadian Municipalities' plan to achieve 20 per cent of the Kyoto Target, and reduce its total emission tonnage of greenhouse gases by 20 - 25 per cent. It is also suggested that the Region should adopt the province's anti-smog action plan regarding nitrous oxide and sulphur dioxide emissions. 4 tabs.

  19. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation??s (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  20. Ambient Air Quality Data Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Office of Air and Radiation's (OAR) Ambient Air Quality Data (Current) contains ambient air pollution data collected by EPA, other federal agencies, as well as...

  1. Federal Lands

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer consists of federally owned or administered lands of theUnited States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Only areas of 640 acres or more are...

  2. 75 FR 30800 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Texas Clean Energy Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for Texas Clean Energy Project, Ector County... Federal funding for the proposed Texas Clean Energy Project (TCEP) near Odessa, Texas. The project would comprise planning, design, construction and operation by Summit Texas Clean Energy, LLC (Summit) of a coal...

  3. Performance Assessment of Hazardous Air Pollutant (HAP)Free Chemical Paint Strippers on Military Coatings for Validation to Federal Specification TT-R-2918A

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Free Chemical Paint Strippers on Military Coatings for Validation to Federal Specification TT-R-2918A by Lindsey Blohm Oak Ridge Institute for... chemical -agent- resistant coating (CARC) painted panels is shown in Fig. 1. The top layers of topcoat are tan and the bottom layers of topcoat are green...methylene-chloride-based strippers for removing Army chemical agent resistant coatings (CARC). Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD): Army Research

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory...

  5. CORAL REEF BIOLOGICAL CRITERIA: USING THE CLEAN ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coral reefs are declining at unprecedented rates worldwide due to multiple interactive stressors including climate change and land-based sources of pollution. The Clean Water Act (CWA) can be a powerful legal instrument for protecting water resources, including the biological inhabitants of coral reefs. The objective of the CWA is to restore and maintain the chemical, physical and biological integrity of water resources. Coral reef protection and restoration under the Clean Water Act begins with water quality standards - provisions of state or Federal law that consist of a designated use(s) for the waters of the United States and water quality criteria sufficient to protect the uses. Aquatic life use is the designated use that is measured by biological criteria (biocriteria). Biocriteria are expectations set by a jurisdiction for the quality and quantity of living aquatic resources in a defined waterbody. Biocriteria are an important addition to existing management tools for coral reef ecosystems. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework to aid States and Territories in their development, adoption, and implementation of coral reef biocriteria in their respective water quality standards. The Technical Support Document “Coral Reef Biological Criteria: Using the Clean Water Act to Protect a National Treasure” will provide a framework for coral re

  6. The Clean Coal Technology Program: Lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is a unique partnership between the federal government and industry that has as its primary goal the successful introduction of new clean coal utilization technologies into the energy marketplace. Clean coal technologies being demonstrated under the CCT Program are establishing a technology base that will enable the nation to meet more stringent energy and environmental goals. Most of the, demonstrations are being conducted at commercial scale, in actual user environments, and under circumstances typical of commercial operations. These features allow the potential of the technologies to be evaluated in their intended commercial applications. Each application addresses one of the following four market sectors: advanced electric power generation; environmental control devices; coal processing for clean fuels; and industrial applications. The purpose of this report is fourfold: Explain the CCT program as a model for successful joint government industry partnership for selecting and demonstrating technologies that have promise for adaptation to the energy marketplace; set forth the process by which the process has been implemented and the changes that have been made to improve that process; outline efforts employed to inform potential users and other interested parties about the technologies being developed; and examine some of the questions which must be considered in determining if the CCT Program model can be applied to other programs.

  7. Neutrino Detection With CLEAN

    CERN Document Server

    McKinsey, D N

    2005-01-01

    This article describes CLEAN, an approach to the detection of low-energy solar neutrinos and neutrinos released from supernovae. The CLEAN concept is based on the detection of elastic scattering events (neutrino-electron scattering and neutrino-nuclear scattering) in liquified noble gases such as liquid helium, liquid neon, and liquid xenon, all of which scintillate brightly in the ultraviolet. Key to the CLEAN technique is the use of a thin film of wavelength-shifting fluor to convert the ultraviolet scintillation light to the visible. This allows the same liquid to be used as both a passive shielding medium and an active self-shielding detector, allowing lower intrinsic radioactive backgrounds at low energies. Liquid neon is a particularly promising medium for CLEAN. Because liquid neon has a high scintillation yield, has no long-lived radioactive isotopes, and can be easily purified by use of cold traps, it is an ideal medium for the detection of rare nuclear events. In addition, neon is inexpensive, dense...

  8. Clean energy microgrids

    CERN Document Server

    Obara, Shin'ya

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the latest technology in microgrids and economic, environmental and policy aspects of their implementation, including microgrids for cold regions, and future trends. The aim of this work is to give this complete overview of the latest technology around the world, and the interrelation with clean energy systems.

  9. Cleanly: trashducation urban system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reif, Inbal; Alt, Florian; Ramos, Juan David Hincapie

    are exacerbated by a poor personal trash management culture. In this paper we present Cleanly, an urban trashducation system aimed at creating awareness of garbage production and management, which may serve as an educational plat-form in the urban environment. We report on data collected from an online survey...

  10. Clean Cities Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-12-19

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities offers a large collection of Web-based tools on the Alternative Fuels Data Center. These calculators, interactive maps, and data searches can assist fleets, fuels providers, and other transportation decision makers in their efforts to reduce petroleum use.

  11. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  12. WINDOW-CLEANING

    CERN Multimedia

    Environmental Section / ST-TFM

    2001-01-01

    The two-month window-cleaning session on the Meyrin, Prévessin and LEP sites will soon begin. The cleaning contractors will work from Monday to Saturday, every week from 4.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. The work will be organised so as to disturb users as little as possible. In any event, a work notice will be left in each office 24 hours beforehand. To prevent any damage to documents or items which could occur despite the precautions taken, please clear completely the window-sills and the area immediately around them. If, however, for valid reasons, the work cannot be done on the scheduled day, please inform the Environmental Section by telephoning: 73753 / 74233 / 72242 If you are going to be absent during this two-month period, we should be grateful if you would clear the above mentioned areas before your departure. REMINDER To allow more thorough cleaning of the entrance doors to buildings and also facilitate the weekly work of the cleaning contractors, we ask you to make use of the notice boards at the...

  13. 77 FR 64980 - Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding of Collegiate Clean Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  14. Investigation of influencing factors for bacterial density in air in clean operating room%洁净手术室术间空气细菌密度影响因素的调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈郁; 钱小毛; 冯惠娟; 陈小娣

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解洁净手术室术间空气细菌密度影响因素,探讨相应的护理对策.方法 对5间千级、万级和十万级手术室的45台手术进行动态条件下空气细菌检测,检测方法采用自然沉降法,结果计算后用CFU/m3表示.结果 所有手术间的术前空气含菌量均为0~23 CFU/m3,随着手术时间的延续空气细菌数逐渐增加,不同手术持续时间的术后检测:<1 h组为202~778 CFU/m3,1~2 h组为582~1332 CFU/m3,2~3 h组为672~1993 CFU/m3,<3 h组为713~2108 CFU/m3;不同手术人员数的术后检测:≤4人组为202~471 CFU/m3,5~8人组为355~901 CFU/m3,9~12人组为614~1443 CFU/m3,≥13人组为878~2108 CFU/m3;不同术中开门次数的术后检测:≤6次组为202~328 CFU/m3,7~11次组为562~889 CFU/m3,12~16次组为673~1870 CFU/m3,≥17次组为882~2108 CFU/m3.结论 影响术间空气细菌含量与手术时间长短,室内人员数,以及术间开门的次数有关,为了减缓手术过程空气细菌密度增大趋势,必须加强术间动态条件下的检测和一系列有效的预防措施.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the influencing factors of bacteria density in clean operating room environment and discuss the corresponding nursing measures. METHODS Air bacteria density of in 5 operating room (thousand level, ten thousand level, hundred thousand level) under dynamical condition in which 45 operations were undertaken was tested by means of natural precipitation method, and the result was named with CFU/m3. RESULTS The bacteria density in operating room before the surgery was between 0 to 23 CFU/m3. The number of bacteria was increased with the operating-time. Postoperative detection to surgery duration showed that, the bacteria density after surgery was 202~778 CFU/m3 ; in less than 1 hour group 1 to 2 hours group 582~ 1332 CFU/m3; 2 to 3 hours group 672~1993 CFU/m3 and more than 3 hours group 713~2108 CFU/m3. The postoperative detection to different

  15. Houston's Novel Strategy to Control Hazardous Air Pollutants: A Case Study in Policy Innovation and Political Stalemate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, Ken; Linder, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Although ambient concentrations have declined steadily over the past 30 years, Houston has recorded some of the highest levels of hazardous air pollutants in the United States. Nevertheless, federal and state regulatory efforts historically have emphasized compliance with the National Ambient Air Quality Standard for ozone, treating "air toxics" in Houston as a residual problem to be solved through application of technology-based standards. Between 2004 and 2009, Mayor Bill White and his administration challenged the well-established hierarchy of air quality management spelled out in the Clean Air Act, whereby federal and state authorities are assigned primacy over local municipalities for the purpose of designing and implementing air pollution control strategies. The White Administration believed that existing regulations were not sufficient to protect the health of Houstonians and took a diversity of both collaborative and combative policy actions to mitigate air toxic emissions from stationary sources. Opposition was substantial from a local coalition of entrenched interests satisfied with the status quo, which hindered the city's attempts to take unilateral policy actions. In the short term, the White Administration successfully raised the profile of the air toxics issue, pushed federal and state regulators to pay more attention, and induced a few polluting facilities to reduce emissions. But since White left office in 2010, air quality management in Houston has returned to the way it was before, and today there is scant evidence that his policies have had any lasting impact.

  16. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  17. Fiscal Federalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2013-01-01

    in the Western literature? Second, are there any problems with existing principles of fiscal federalism and, if so, how to refine them? Third, how are refined principles relevant to the Chinese case and what policies should the Chinese government pursue in the future? Based on an in-depth and critical review...... relations is not without controversy. This paper aims to make a theoretical contribution to the ongoing debate on ‘fiscal federalism’ by addressing crucial questions regarding China's central–local fiscal relations: first, to what extent do Chinese central–local fiscal relations conform to fiscal federalism...

  18. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-03-01

    The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  19. PingFederate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PingFederate Server provides Identity Federation and Single Sign On Capabilities. Federated identity management (or identity federation) enables enterprises to...

  20. Multi-stage cleaning plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kullendorff, A.; Wikner, J.

    1980-12-09

    A cleaning plant positioned within an annular fluidized bed combustion chamber is divided into a plurality of separate cleaning stages, wherein a first stage is located adjacent the fluidized bed and additional stages are arranged within the first stage. Each stage comprises a plurality of separate cleaning devices which act in parallel, while cleaning devices of different stages act in series to remove debris from the combustion gases that exit from the fluidized bed combustion chamber.

  1. Sustainable development with clean coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  2. Clean coal technology: Export finance programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-30

    Participation by US firms in the development of Clean Coal. Technology (CCT) projects in foreign countries will help the United States achieve multiple national objectives simultaneously--addressing critical goals related to energy, environmental technology, industrial competitiveness and international trade. US participation in these projects will result in an improved global environment, an improvement in the balance of payments and an increase in US jobs. Meanwhile, host countries will benefit from the development of economically- and environmentally-sound power facilities. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (Public Law 101-549, Section 409) as supplemented by a requirement in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102-486, Section 1331(f)) requires that the Secretary of Energy, acting through the Trade Promotion Coordinating Committee Subgroup on Clean Coal Technologies, submit a report to Congress with information on the status of recommendations made in the US Department of Energy, Clean Coal Technology Export Programs, Report to the United States Congress, February 1992. Specific emphasis is placed on the adequacy of financial assistance for export of CCTS. This report fulfills the requirements of the Act. In addition, although this report focuses on CCT power projects, the issues it raises about the financing of these projects are also relevant to other CCT projects such as industrial applications or coal preparation, as well as to a much broader range of energy and environmental technology projects worldwide.

  3. Clean slate corrective action investigation plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Clean Slate sites discussed in this report are situated in the central portion of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), north of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) on the northwest portion of the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) which is approximately 390 kilometers (km) (240 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These sites were the locations for three of the four Operation Roller Coaster experiments. These experiments evaluated the dispersal of plutonium in the environment from the chemical explosion of a plutonium-bearing device. Although it was not a nuclear explosion, Operation Roller Coaster created some surface contamination which is now the subject of a corrective action strategy being implemented by the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project (NV ERP) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) activities will be conducted at three of the Operation Roller Coaster sites. These are Clean Slate 1 (CS-1), Clean Slate 2 (CS-2), and Clean Slate 3 (CS-3) sites, which are located on the TTR. The document that provides or references all of the specific information relative to the various investigative processes is called the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP). This CAIP has been prepared for the DOE Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) by IT Corporation (IT).

  4. Cleaning of Free Machining Brass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, T

    2005-12-29

    We have investigated four brightening treatments proposed by two cleaning vendors for cleaning free machining brass. The experimental results showed that none of the proposed brightening treatments passed the swipe test. Thus, we maintain the recommendation of not using the brightening process in the cleaning of free machining brass for NIF application.

  5. A Clean Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAGGIECHEN

    2004-01-01

    If you have US$1 million, do you invest in car production or cleaning car emissions? More cars than ever are hitting the roads and demand is rising.Cleaner cars are being called for, as the government strives to reduce car emission. So there is an obvious market both for cars and for new emission control technologies.Theoretically, you should make money by investing in either of them in China today.

  6. Clean Power on Tap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China adopts the most advanced nuclear power technologies to meet long-term energy needs Nuclear power has taken center stage in China’s nationwide cam-paign to develop new and clean energy sources. In the latest effort, Chinese state-owned nuclear power giants invested over 40 billion yuan ($5.86 billion) as an initial funding injection to build a new plant under the

  7. CLEAN: CLustering Enrichment ANalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medvedovic Mario

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Integration of biological knowledge encoded in various lists of functionally related genes has become one of the most important aspects of analyzing genome-wide functional genomics data. In the context of cluster analysis, functional coherence of clusters established through such analyses have been used to identify biologically meaningful clusters, compare clustering algorithms and identify biological pathways associated with the biological process under investigation. Results We developed a computational framework for analytically and visually integrating knowledge-based functional categories with the cluster analysis of genomics data. The framework is based on the simple, conceptually appealing, and biologically interpretable gene-specific functional coherence score (CLEAN score. The score is derived by correlating the clustering structure as a whole with functional categories of interest. We directly demonstrate that integrating biological knowledge in this way improves the reproducibility of conclusions derived from cluster analysis. The CLEAN score differentiates between the levels of functional coherence for genes within the same cluster based on their membership in enriched functional categories. We show that this aspect results in higher reproducibility across independent datasets and produces more informative genes for distinguishing different sample types than the scores based on the traditional cluster-wide analysis. We also demonstrate the utility of the CLEAN framework in comparing clusterings produced by different algorithms. CLEAN was implemented as an add-on R package and can be downloaded at http://Clusteranalysis.org. The package integrates routines for calculating gene specific functional coherence scores and the open source interactive Java-based viewer Functional TreeView (FTreeView. Conclusion Our results indicate that using the gene-specific functional coherence score improves the reproducibility of the

  8. Creeping Federalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that make taxharmonization difficult to impose. Other types of harmonization have a less clear-cut costbenefitanalysis. A federal commercial code that is uniform across member states reducestransaction and information costs, compared to leaving important code issues to memberstates; further, many states may...

  9. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  10. 9 CFR 166.14 - Cleaning and disinfecting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION SWINE HEALTH PROTECTION General Provisions § 166.14 Cleaning and... which are registered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (7 U.S.C. 136 et seq... without expense to the United States Department of Agriculture....

  11. Midwest Clean Energy Application Center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuttica, John; Haefke, Cliff

    2013-12-31

    The Midwest Clean Energy Application Center (CEAC) was one of eight regional centers that promoted and assisted in transforming the market for combined heat and power (CHP), waste heat to power (WHP), and district energy (DE) technologies and concepts throughout the United States between October 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. The key services the CEACs provided included: Market Opportunity Analyses – Supporting analyses of CHP market opportunities in diverse markets including industrial, federal, institutional, and commercial sectors. Education and Outreach – Providing information on the energy and non-energy benefits and applications of CHP to state and local policy makers, regulators, energy end-users, trade associations and others. Information was shared on the Midwest CEAC website: www.midwestcleanergy.org. Technical Assistance – Providing technical assistance to end-users and stakeholders to help them consider CHP, waste heat to power, and/or district energy with CHP in their facility and to help them through the project development process from initial CHP screening to installation. The Midwest CEAC provided services to the Midwest Region that included the states of Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

  12. Acid rain compliance and coordination of state and federal utility regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordhaus, R.R. [Van Ness, Feldman, and Curtis, P.C., Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) impose new controls on emissions by electric utilities of the two major precursors of acid rain: sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen. Utilities, and the utility holding company systems and power pools of which they are members, will be subject to extensive and costly compliance obligations under the new stature. Most of these utilities, utility systems, and power pools are regulated by more than one utility regulatory authority. Utility regulators will need to coordinate their policies for ratemaking and for review of acid rain compliance strategies if least-cost solutions are to be implemented without imposing on rate payers and utility shareholders the costs and risks of inconsistent regulatory determinations. This article outlines the scope of the coordination problem and spells out possible approaches that utility regulators may take in dealing with it. Topics covered include the following: the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments; acid rain (SO2); acid rain (NOx); costs of compliance; implications for utility regulation - federal and state utility regulatory framework; potential jurisdictional conflicts under existing state/federal utility regulatory scheme - single utility, holding companies, power pools; Utility regulatory issues under the 1990 amendments - planning conflicts, operational conflicts; methods for dealing with potential jurisdictional conflicts; coordination mechanisms - informal consultation, rulemaking,coordination of adjudicatory proceedings, FERC rate filings.

  13. Relationship between Air Traffic Selection and Training (AT-SAT)) Battery Test Scores and Composite Scores in the Initial en Route Air Traffic Control Qualification Training Course at the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Ronald Scott

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: This study focused on the development and use of the AT-SAT test battery and the Initial En Route Qualification training course for the selection, training, and evaluation of air traffic controller candidates. The Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was used to measure the linear relationship between the…

  14. Entre la escuela y el trabajo. El tránsito a la vida adulta de los jóvenes en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y el Distrito Federal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina A. Ferraris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tránsito a la vida adulta es un proceso que incluye múltiples experiencias que invo - lucran el equilibrio de ntrada y salida de diferentes roles. La perspectiva de curso de vida permite estudiar a los sujetos y las familias en el tiempo; asume las transiciones como diversas, socialmente creadas y modeladas por circunstancias históricas y por tradiciones culturales. En esta investigación se analiza el calendario de salida de la escuela y comienzo de la vida laboral de los jóvenes de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires en Argentina y el Distrito Federal en México al comienzo del presente siglo.

  15. Enhancing State Clean Energy Workforce Training to Meet Demand. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Devashree

    2010-01-01

    Recent state policy and federal funding initiatives are driving the demand for clean energy in both the short and long term. This increased demand has created the need for many more workers trained or retrained in a variety of clean energy jobs. In response, states are utilizing funding under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009…

  16. Federal Control of Geological Carbon Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reitze, Arnold W. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2011-04-01

    The United States has economically recoverable coal reserves of about 261 billion tons, which is in excess of a 250-­year supply based on 2009 consumption rates. However, in the near future the use of coal may be legally restricted because of concerns over the effects of its combustion on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In response, the U.S. Department of Energy is making significant efforts to help develop and implement a commercial scale program of geologic carbon sequestration that involves capturing and storing carbon dioxide emitted from coal-burning electric power plants in deep underground formations. This article explores the technical and legal problems that must be resolved in order to have a viable carbon sequestration program. It covers the responsibilities of the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Departments of Energy, Transportation and Interior. It discusses the use of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the Clean Air Act, the National Environmental Policy Act, the Endangered Species Act, and other applicable federal laws. Finally, it discusses the provisions related to carbon sequestration that have been included in the major bills dealing with climate change that Congress has been considering in 2009 and 2010. The article concludes that the many legal issues that exist can be resolved, but whether carbon sequestration becomes a commercial reality will depend on reducing its costs or by imposing legal requirements on fossil-fired power plants that result in the costs of carbon emissions increasing to the point that carbon sequestration becomes a feasible option.

  17. Clean Industrial Room for Drift Tube Assembling

    CERN Document Server

    Glonti, GL; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Kroa, G; Manz, A; Potrap, I N; Rihter, P; Stoletov, G D; Tskhadadze, E G; Chepurnov, V F; Chirkov, A V; Shelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    Description of a clean industrial room for assembly of drift tubes for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS experiment is presented. High quality specifications on the detectors to be produced demanded creation of a workplace with stable temperature and humidity, as well as minimum quantity of dust in the room. Checking of parameters of intra-room air during long period of continuous work has been confirmed correctness of the designed characteristics of the climatic system installed in the clean room. The room large volum (\\sim 190 m^3), the powerful and flexible climatic system, and simplicity of service allow assembling of detectors with length up to 5 m. Subsequent checking of functionality of the assembled detectors has shown high quality of assembling (the amount of rejected tubes does not exceed 2 %). It demonstrates conformity to the assembling quality requirements for mass production of drift chambers for the muon spectrometer.

  18. ANALYSIS ON TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES CLEANING OIL PIPELINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana PǍTRAŞCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the researches are presented concerning the technological processes of oil pipelines.We know several technologies and materials used for cleaning the sludge deposits, iron and manganese oxides, dross, stone, etc.de on the inner walls of drinking water pipes or industries.For the oil industry, methods of removal of waste materials and waste pipes and liquid and gas transport networks are operations known long, tedious and expensive. The main methods and associated problems can be summarized as follows: 1 Blowing with compressed air.2 manual or mechanical brushing, sanding with water or dry.3 Wash with water jet of high pressure, solvent or chemical solution to remove the stone and hard deposits.4 The combined methods of cleaning machines that use water jets, cutters, chains, rotary heads cutters, etc.

  19. Department of Energy Air Emissions Annual Report Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 61, Subpart H Calendar Year 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, Richard [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-06-30

    As defined in the preamble of the final rule, the entire DOE facility on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) must meet the 10 mrem/yr ED standard.1 In other words, the combined ED from all radiological air emission sources from Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Complex), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) and any other DOE operation on the reservation must meet the 10 mrem/yr standard. Compliance with the standard is demonstrated through emission sampling, monitoring, calculations and radiation dose modeling in accordance with approved EPA methodologies and procedures. DOE estimates the ED to many individuals or receptor points in the vicinity of ORR, but it is the dose to the maximally exposed individual (MEI) that determines compliance with the standard.

  20. Air Pollution Primer. Revised Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corman, Rena

    This revised and updated book is written to inform the citizens on the nature, causes, and effects of air pollution. It is written in terms familiar to the layman with the purpose of providing knowledge and motivation to spur community action on clean air policies. Numerous charts and drawings are provided to support discussion of air pollution…