WorldWideScience

Sample records for fed grass-clover silage

  1. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    The physical structure value of conserved grass/clover forages of spring harvest was evaluated by assessing effects of harvest time, conservation method, iNDF/NDF ratio and NDF intake (NDFI) per kg BW on chewing activity and fecal particle size in dairy heifers. A mixed sward consisting of ryegrass...

  2. Effects of toasting blue lupins, soybeans or barley as supplement for high-yielding organic dairy cows fed grass-clover silage ad libitum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Lund, Peter; Kristensen, Troels

    2008-01-01

    The effect of toasted supplement on milk production was examined in three experiments on an organic study farm during the winter 2004/2005. Three types of iso-energetic supplement feed, toasted or untreated, were examined in each experiment, with an untreated cereal mixture as control. The supple......The effect of toasted supplement on milk production was examined in three experiments on an organic study farm during the winter 2004/2005. Three types of iso-energetic supplement feed, toasted or untreated, were examined in each experiment, with an untreated cereal mixture as control....... The supplement under investigation was: lupins in experiment 1, barley in experiment 2 and soybeans in experiment 3. The same forage mixture of grass-clover silage (84% of DM), grass pellets (11% of DM) and straw (5% of DM) was fed ad libitum in all the experiments. Toasting decreased effective rumen protein...... of soybeans did not affect milk protein content. ECM yield was significantly higher (P = 0.002) for cows fed toasted soybeans than for cows fed untreated soybeans (28.1 versus 26.4 kg ECM) whereas there was no significant effect on ECM yield from toasting lupins or barley. It can be concluded...

  3. Evaluation of physical structure value in spring-harvested grass/clover silage and hay fed to heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Nørgaard, P.; Byskov, M.V.

    2015-01-01

    (Lolium perenne), red clover (Trifolium pratense) and white clover (Trifolium repens) was harvested in 2009 on May 9 (early) and 25 (late), and both cuts were conserved as silage and hay. The early silage, early hay, late silage and late hay contained dry matter (DM) of 454, 842, 250 and 828 g/kg, and NDF...

  4. Forage fiber effects on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Storm, Adam Christian

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of NDF content in highly digestible grass/clover silage on particle size reduction, ruminal stratification, and selective retention in dairy heifers. The reduction in particle size from feed to feces was evaluated and related to feed intake...... and ventral ruminal digesta, and feces samples were washed with neutral detergent in nylon bags of 10-μm pore size, freeze dried, and divided into small (1 mm) particles by dry-sieving. Chewing activity, rumen pool size, and apparent digestibility were...... measured. Intake of NDF increased linearly from 2.3 to 2.8 kg/d with greater NDF content of forages (P = 0.01), but silages were exposed to similar eating time (P = 0.55) and rumination time per kg NDF (P = 0.35). No linear effect of NDF content was found on proportion of LP in ingested feed boluses (P = 0...

  5. Effect of digestibility of grass-clover silage and concentrate to forage ratio on methane emission from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    the principles for indirect calorimetry The air flow was measured continuously, and the concentration of methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured in ingoing and outgoing air from the chambers every twelve and half minute. The cows were milked and feed twice daily, and yield and intake were registered......That methane emission from dairy cows is affected by concentrate to forage ratio is well known, whereas the effect of the quality of grass-clover silage is not well described. Besides this the purpose of the present study also was to test our new facilities for measuring methane emission from dairy...... and D, respectively. TMR forage DM consisted of 2/3 of one of the respective grass-clover silages and 1/3 maize silage, and concentrate (soya meal and wheat) proportion of DM was 20% (low) or 50% (high). Methane emissions from the cows were measured 20-22 hours in one of four chambers working after...

  6. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  7. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass...... can be improved by pre-wilting to a higher DM concentration before ensiling. Abbreviations AA, amino acids; AA-N, amino acid nitrogen; ADL, acid detergent lignin; aNDFom, neutral detergent fibre assayed with heat stable amylase and expressed exclusive of residual ash; CP, crude protein; CH4, methane...

  8. Effect of digestibility of grass-clover silage and concentrate to forage ratio on methane emission from dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    That methane emission from dairy cows is affected by concentrate to forage ratio is well known, whereas the effect of the quality of grass-clover silage is not well described. Besides this the purpose of the present study also was to test our new facilities for measuring methane emission from dairy...... the principles for indirect calorimetry The air flow was measured continuously, and the concentration of methane, oxygen and carbon dioxide were measured in ingoing and outgoing air from the chambers every twelve and half minute. The cows were milked and feed twice daily, and yield and intake were registered....... The experiment was analyzed as a 2*4 factorial design with parity as block effect. The methane emissions as total emission and per kg milk yield were significantly affected by concentrate proportion, but not by silage type. Cows on the high concentrate diets produced in average 617 liters of methane and cows...

  9. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass....... Methane (CH4) production was measured the last two days in each period in open-circuit respiration chambers. Results were analysed using a linear random regression model with DM concentration as fixed effect, cow and cut number x farmer as random intercepts and with a cut number x farmer random slope...... can be improved by pre-wilting to a higher DM concentration before ensiling. Abbreviations AA, amino acids; AA-N, amino acid nitrogen; ADL, acid detergent lignin; aNDFom, neutral detergent fibre assayed with heat stable amylase and expressed exclusive of residual ash; CP, crude protein; CH4, methane...

  10. Effects of maturity and harvest season of grass-clover silage and of forage-to-concentrate ratio on milk production of dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, L; Søegaard, K; Weisbjerg, M R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of maturity and season of harvest of grass-clover silages and forage:concentrate ratio (FCR) on feed intake, milk production, chewing activity, digestibility, and fecal consistency of Holstein dairy cows. Comparison included 2 cuts in spring season (early and late...... digestible than late maturity cuts, which was also reflected in a lower concentration of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) in early maturity cuts, whereas summer cuts had a higher crude protein concentration than spring cuts. Increased maturity decreased the intake of DM and energy, increased NDF intake...... kilogram of NDF increased with LFCR. This study indicates that silages from summer cuts have a similar value for milk production as do spring cuts, when forage digestibility is taken into account. Moreover, it appears that supplementation of extra concentrate has no effect on ECM production when forages...

  11. The effects of three silage inoculants on aerobic stability in grass, clover-grass, lucerne and maize silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Jatkauskas

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of homofermentative and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculants on fermentation and aerobic stability in a variety of crops and dry matter concentrations. The experiments were conducted with lucerne, ryegrass, ryegrass-timothy, red clover-ryegrass and whole crop maize using three additives in laboratory scale conditions. Each treatment and crop was replicated 5 five times when determining the chemical composition and aerobic stability in the silage. The data were statistically analyzed as a randomized complete block by using the GLM procedure of SAS. Additive application reduced pH and formation of butyric acid, alcohols and ammonia-N in all crops compared with the untreated silage (p < 0.05. The use of additives increased the content of lactic acid except heterofermentative LAB in maize with 276 g kg-1 DM and increased the content of acetic acid except homofermentative LAB in ryegrass-timothy and maize with 276 g kg-1 DM compared with the untreated silage (p < 0.05. It was observed that the aerobic stability of silages was improved significantly (p < 0.05 by using homofermentative and heterofermentative LAB inoculants.

  12. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2016-01-01

    of milk fat. Rapeseed supplementation is expected to increase milk production and to increase all C18 fatty acids in milk fat. An interaction between rapeseed and silage type is expected, as hydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in rapeseed is expected to be less when low fibre silage is fed. Thirty...... supplementation. Dry matter intake and milk production was higher for autumn than for spring silage. Rapeseed supplementation did not affect dry matter intake, but increased milk production. The concentrations of C18 : 1cis9, C18 : 2n6 and β-carotene and C18 : 3n3 in milk were increased whereas the concentrations...... of C16 : 0, riboflavin and α-tocopherol were decreased with autumn silage. The majority of C18 FAs in milk and α-tocopherol concentration increased with rapeseed whereas C11 : 0 to C16 : 0 FA were reduced. Autumn silage reduced biohydrogenation of C18 : 2n6, whereas rapeseed increased biohydrogenation...

  13. Voluntary intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed ensiled grass clover mixture harvested at three stages of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of grass maturity at harvest on silage ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The sward was harvested at the stem elongation, tasseling and flowering growth stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata. Three silages were offered to four Charolais wether sheep in an incomplete change over design with four periods. As the crop matured, there was an increase (P<0.001 in dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentration and a decrease in crude protein (CP concentration (P<0.001. Increasing maturity of grass ensiled showed a linear decrease (P<0.01 in voluntary silage intake of DM, OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, a linear decrease (P<0.01 in digestibility of silage DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, and a linear decrease in nitrogen balance (P<0.01. No quadratic response was recorded in silage intake, digestibility or N balance. The results suggest that grass maturity at harvest influences the nutritive value of grass silage, in terms of ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in sheep, as a result of changes in chemical composition.

  14. Effect of spring versus autumn grass/clover silage and rapeseed supplementation on milk production, composition and quality in Jersey cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Vogdanou, Stefania; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl

    2016-01-01

    of C16 : 0, riboflavin and α-tocopherol were decreased with autumn silage. The majority of C18 FAs in milk and α-tocopherol concentration increased with rapeseed whereas C11 : 0 to C16 : 0 FA were reduced. Autumn silage reduced biohydrogenation of C18 : 2n6, whereas rapeseed increased biohydrogenation...

  15. Effects of feeding level and NDF content of grass-clover silages on chewing activity, fecal particle size and NDF digestibility in dairy heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder

    2014-01-01

    , replicated with further restricted feeding levels (50%, 60%, 70% or 80% of ad libitum) in a balanced 4 × 4 × 4 Greco-Latin square design. Eating activity was estimated from test meal observations, while rumination activity was estimated from jaw movements logged by a jaw recorder system. Total tract...... digestibility was estimated from chromic oxide marker and fecal spot sampling, and fecal particle size distribution in washed and freeze-dried particulate DM was determined by dry sieving (2.36, 1.0, 0.5, 0.212 and 0.106 mm, and bottom bowl). Higher NDF content of silage stimulated longer eating time per kg DM...... intake (Peating time per kg DM intake (P

  16. Effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Lisbeth; Vestergaard, Jannie Steensig; Fretté, Xavier

    2010-01-01

    The effect of toasting field beans and of grass-clover: maize silage ratio on milk production, milk composition and the sensory quality of the milk was investigated in a 2   2 factorial experiment. Toasting of field beans resulted in lower milk contents of both fat (44.2 versus 46.1 g/kg, P = 0......-β-carotene (P = 0.04) and β-carotene (P = 0.05). Toasting of field beans compared with untreated field beans did not affect the milk content of carotenoids and had only small effects on fatty acid composition. Regarding the sensory quality, the four treatments resulted in milk being characterized...... by a distinctly fatty mouthfeel and creamy flavour and a pronounced sugar-sweet taste and creamy odour. The higher proportions of maize in the feed resulted, in general, in milk characterized by a significantly more intense maize odour (P 

  17. Effect of conservation and maturity of primary growth grass/clover on chewing activity and fecal particle size in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated structural effectiveness of NDF from of spring harvest grass/clover forages of primary growth by assessing chewing activity and feces particles >1.0 mm in heifers. Two batches of mixed ryegrass, red and white clover harvested in 2009 on May 9 and 25 were conserved as either si...... DM cut forages and silage stimulated rumination more effectively, and that heifers retain large forage particles in the rumen better with silage compared to hay....

  18. Effect of maturity and conservation of grass/clover on digestibility and rumen pH in heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anne-Katrine Skovsted; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate effects of maturity and conservation of primary growth grass/clover on apparent digestibility and rumen pH. Two batches of mixed ryegrass, red and white clover harvested in 2009 on May 9 and 25 were conserved as either silage or hay. The forages early silage (ES) and hay...... (EH), and late silage (LS) and hay (LH) had DM contents of 45, 84, 25 and 83%, and NDF contents of 32, 44, 42 and 50% of DM, respectively. Forages were fed as sole feed to four Jersey heifers of 435±30 kg BW in a 4×4 Latin square experiment. Feeding level was 90% of individual ad libitum intake......, divided in two daily meals at 0800 and 1530 h. Potentially digestible NDF (DNDF) was determined after 288 h in situ. Apparent digestibility of OM and NDF was estimated using Cr3O2 as marker. Rumen fluid pH in the medial and ventral rumen was measured with 1 h intervals from 0730 to 1530 h. Data...

  19. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and in soil N 2 O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N 2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N 2 O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N 2 O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N 2 as a source of N 2 O. 2: examining the link between N 2 O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N 2 O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N 2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N 2 O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m -2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor

  20. Relationship between nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emission in grass-clover pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports on a work assessing the relationship between gross N transformations in grass-clover soils and emissions of nitrous oxide. By this manner, the source strength of the biogenic processes responsible for nitrous oxide production is evaluated.

  1. Apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of grass-clover leys and of farmyard manure in an arable rotation. Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berge, Ten H.F.M.; Pikula, D.; Goedhart, P.W.; Schröder, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement values of grass-clover leys (NFRVGCL) and farmyard manure (NFRVFYM) were studied in a long-term (24 years) experiment. This paper reports the results for grass-clover leys (GCL). Five rates of farmyard manure (FYM) and four rates of

  2. Forbs enhance productivity of unfertilised grass-clover leys and support low-carbon bioenergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cong, Wen-Feng; Jing, Jingying; Rasmussen, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Intensively managed grasslands are dominated by highly productive grass-clover mixtures. Increasing crop diversity by inclusion of competitive forbs may enhance biomass production and sustainable biofuel production. Here we examined if one or all of three forbs (chicory, Cichorium intybus L.; car...

  3. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Storm, Adam Christian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The major microbial fermentation of forages and production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) takes place in the medial part of the rumen, whereas the absorption of VFA occurs through the rumen epithelium, for example the ventral sac. The objective was to study effects of forage neutral detergent fibre...

  4. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A. K. S.; Storm, A. C.; Weisbjerg, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    The major microbial fermentation of forages and production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) takes place in the medial part of the rumen, whereas the absorption of VFA occurs through the rumen epithelium, for example the ventral sac. The objective was to study effects of forage neutral detergent fibre...

  5. Juice-extracted grass pellets and sodium bicarbonate for cows in midlactation fed timothy grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Hernandez, J R; Brisson, G J; Girard, V

    1994-12-01

    Eighteen midlactation Holstein cows, averaging 80 to 125 d of lactation, were used in a trial of switchback design to evaluate two timothy silages, wilted or direct-cut and treated with formic acid, and three treatments, control, NaHCO3 added at 2% of DM, or juice-extracted grass pellets replacing 30% silage DM. Cows fed direct-cut silage that had been treated with formic acid consumed more DM (19.8 vs. 18.6 kg/d) than those fed wilted silage. The DMI was also increased with NaHCO3 and grass pellet treatments. However, NaHCO3 reduced digestibility of most nutrients without affecting pH of rumen fluid or degradation of DM and NDF. Compared with wilted silage, direct-cut silage that had been treated with formic acid contained more degradable NDF (86 vs. 84.5%). Milk yield (24.9 vs. 23.6 kg/d) was higher for cows fed direct-cut than wilted silage, but 4% FCM yield remained unchanged. Addition of NaHCO3 tended to increase yields of milk and 4% FCM. Treatments did not affect milk composition. Serum urea N was higher for cows fed the direct-cut silage than for cows fed wilted silage. Silage type had more impact on feed intake and performance than did NaHCO3 or juice-extracted grass pellets.

  6. Nitrous oxide emissions from crop sequences of grass-clover and wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuß, Roland; Blank, Britta; Christen, Olaf; Munch, Jean Charles; Neuhoff, Daniel; Schmid, Harald; Freibauer, Annette

    2013-04-01

    Organic farming is based on the principle of farm internal nitrogen cycling. Soil N input is managed by fertilization with manure if there is animal stock at the farm. Stockless farms use so called Green Manure, i.e., leguminous crops integrated in a crop sequence of cash crops. A mix of grass and clover is commonly used for this. The crop is either harvested and residues incorporated or whole plants are mulched and incorporated. In order to estimate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from organic farming and derive management recommendations, nitrous oxide (N2O) emission data from cultivation of leguminous crops is needed. Currently there is a deficit of published data, in particular for Germany. Hence, N2O fluxes from grass-clover and subsequent wheat cultivation were studied over two years at four sites, which are distributed evenly over Germany. Treatments were (i) harvest of grass-clover and incorporation of residues in fall followed by cultivation of winter wheat, (ii) incorporation of residues in spring followed by summer wheat, (iii) mulching of grass-clover and incorporation in fall followed by winter wheat, (iv) conventional winter wheat with mineral fertilizer. Treatment effects on N2O emissions were marginal compared to site effects such as soil and climate. Overall, direct emissions from the organic treatments were remarkably similar to those from conventional winter wheat with best practice application of mineral fertilizer. Incorporation in spring resulted in higher emissions than incorporation in fall, but there was no consistent difference between incorporation of residues and mulching. Based on the present study regional emission factors for crop sequences of grass-clover and wheat in Germany can be derived.

  7. Effects of grass-clover management and cover crops on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions in a stockless organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, Søren O; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions...... and cash-crop yields in an organic arable crop rotation on a sandy loam soil in a cool temperate climate. The four-course crop rotation included spring barley (with undersown grass-clover), grass-clover, potato and winter wheat (with undersown cover crop). Two fertilization treatments were compared: “−M...... in the rotation (spring barley, potato and winter wheat); actual digestion of grass-clover cuttings was not possible, instead digested pig manure was used as substitute for digested grass-clover. Nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored between April 2008 and May 2009. In general, application of digested manure had...

  8. Milk Production of Lactating Cows Fed Pangola Silage Ensiled with Irradiated Silage Innoculant and Fresh Cut Pangola Grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Buaphan, Sirirat; Boon-ek, Lertchatand; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Ten crossbred Holstein lactating cows of mid-lactation and similar body score condition were balanced across the 2 treatments containing Group 1: 5 cows given fresh cut Pangola grass and Group 2: 5 cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant, under Group Comparison Design. They were also provided with an exact amount of 1 kg meal concentrate to 1 kg of milk produced. Mineral supplement and water were supplied free choice. The results did show that the cows in Group 1 had significantly higher (P<0.05) roughage and total dry matter intake than did the cows in Group 2. However, milk production in Group 2 appeared to have a non-significant higher amount, the concentrations of Blood urea nitrogen, Blood glucose and Triiodothyronine were not significant different between groups. The body weight change increased in both groups. It can concluded that cows fed Pangola silage ensiled with silage innoculant seemed to have higher Digestibility Co-efficiency due to the high efficiency of silage innoculant fermentation. Then, silage quality would be improved by mean of silage innoculant application.

  9. Gastrointestinal metabolism of phytoestrogens in lactating dairy cows fed silages with different botanical composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njåstad, K. M.; Adler, S. A.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2014-01-01

    fed silages with different botanical composition. Four lactating rumen cannulated Norwegian Red cattle were assigned to a 4. ×. 4 Latin square with 1 cow per treatment period of 3 wk. The 4 treatment silages were prepared from grasslands with different botanical compositions: organically managed short...

  10. Comparison between grass-silages of different dry matter content fed to reindeer during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of whether the dry matter content of silage influenced performance when 17-month-old male reindeer were fed solely silage outdoor during winter. Two kinds of round-baled silages with different wilting times were offered to the animals; low dry matter (LDM silage with a mean of 39% DM, or high dry matter (HDM silage with a mean of 53% DM. The 115 reindeer were allotted to slaughter at the start of the experiment in October or to be fed until slaughter in January or March. During the first three weeks of the experiment small amounts of lichens were mixed with the silages and the reindeer adapted to the feeding without problems. The daily intake of DM did not differ significantly between reindeer fed the LDM or the HDM silage despite a highly significant difference in daily silage intake. This resulted in small but significantly higher gains in live weight for animals fed the LDM silage, caused by increased weight of the rumen content. All groups of reindeer either retained or lost carcass weight during the experiment, and no improvements or differences were obtained between the kinds of silages in carcass assessment or gains in fat in the abdominal cavity. Animals slaughtered in January had a lower carcass weight and dressing percentage than reindeer slaughtered in October and March. Environmental conditions during the experiment were good but nonetheless mobbing and illness still occurred. The present results concur with those of earlier studies suggesting that it seems to be the bulk of the ration rather than the dry matter content of the silage that limits the intake.

  11. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100......-chemicals production. The PBD, expressed as Potentially Disappeared Fraction (PDF) showed the highest adverse impact to biodiversity in maize, followed by straw, whereas the results showed relatively lower impact for ryegrass and grass-clover. The PFWTox (CTUe/t DM), at farm level was highest for straw, followed...... by maize, whereas the values were significantly lower for grass-clover and ryegrass. These variations in ranking of the different biomasses productions using different impact categories for environmental performance showed that it is important to consider a wider range of impact categories for assessing...

  12. Nitrate leaching in maize after cultivation of differently managed grass-clover leys on coarse sand in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    When grass-clover leys have been ploughed nitrate leaching may increase. However, management of leys before or after ploughing may affect the leaching risk. We examined the effect of cultivating a six year ley, which the last two years had been treated differently (grazing only; spring cut followed...... as reference. Shortening the grazing season in the grass-clover ley phase did not affect leaching after ploughing. In the following maize, the use of a perennial ryegrass catch crop in a high-yielding maize crop was not able to reduce nitrate leaching significantly, although leaching and maize yield tended...... as an undersown catch crop, despite yields of barley and ryegrass being less than half of the dry matter yields of unfertilized maize. The experiment illustrates that growing maize after ploughing of grass-clover leys without environmental consequences is difficult....

  13. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of maturity stage of grass at harvest on particle size in faeces from ewes fed grass silage ad libitum. Eighteen pregnant Swedish ewes bearing two foetuses were given one of three treatments as their only feed. The treatments were early (ECS...... pore size. The proportions of particles in the B, C, D, S and O fractions were affected by cutting time of the silaage (P ewes fed grass silages....

  14. The effect of silage cutting height on the nutritive value of a normal corn silage hybrid compared with brown midrib corn silage fed to lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, L; Moulder, B M; Mulrooney, C M; Teller, R S; Schmidt, R J

    2008-04-01

    A brown midrib (BMR) hybrid and a silage-specific non-BMR (7511FQ) hybrid were harvested at a normal cut height leaving 10 to 15 cm of stalk in the field. The non-BMR hybrid was also cut at a greater height leaving 45 to 50 cm of stalk. Cutting high increased the concentrations of dry matter (+4%), crude protein (+5%), net energy for lactation (+3%), and starch (+7%), but decreased the concentrations of acid detergent fiber (-9%), neutral detergent fiber (-8%), and acid detergent lignin (-13%) for 7511FQ. As expected, the BMR corn silage was 30% lower in lignin concentration than 7511FQ. After 30 h of in vitro ruminal fermentation, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber for normal cut 7511FQ, the same hybrid cut high, and the normal cut BMR hybrid were 51.7, 51.4, and 63.5%, respectively. Twenty-seven multiparous lactating cows were fed a total mixed ration composed of the respective silages (45% of dry matter) with alfalfa haylage (5%), alfalfa hay (5%), and concentrate (45%) (to make the TMR isocaloric and isonitrogenous) in a study with a 3 x 3 Latin square design with 21-d periods. Milk production was greater for cows fed the BMR hybrid (48.8 kg/d) compared with those fed the normal cut 7511FQ (46.8 kg/d) or cut high (47.7 kg/d). Dry matter intake was not affected by treatment. Feed efficiency for cows fed the BMR silage (1.83) was greater than for those fed high-cut 7511FQ (1.75), but was not different from cows fed the normal cut 7511FQ (1.77). Cows fed the BMR silage had milk with greater concentrations of lactose but lower milk urea nitrogen than cows on other treatments. Harvesting a silage-specific, non-BMR corn hybrid at a high harvest height improved its nutritive content, but the improvement in feeding value was not equivalent to that found when cows were fed BMR corn silage.

  15. Estimating grass-clover ratio variations caused by traffic intensities using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole

    ensuring that the whole parcel was imaged. Each image was geo-positioned. The image analysis comprised two steps: Extraction of green material and discrimination of grass and clover using the morphological opening approach. This paper shows the initial results using the automated imaging analysis algorithm......]. In order to evaluate the impact of different traffic intensities on the grass-clover, it is essential to know the ratio between grass and clover.   The objective of this paper was to develop and evaluate an automated image acquisition and image analysis method capable of estimating the grass clover ratio...... in spring 2007 using RTK-GPS auto steered tractors and implements. A Claas Axion tractor equipped with AutoFarm RTK AutoSteer guidance system was used to carry two parallel mounted cameras over the net parcels at a speed of 1 m s-1. In combination, the cameras sampled an area of 1.3 x 0.48 m with 2.1 Hz...

  16. Production of N{sub 2}O in grass-clover pastures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and in soil N{sub 2}O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N{sub 2}) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N{sub 2} lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N{sub 2}O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N{sub 2}O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N{sub 2} as a source of N{sub 2}O. 2: examining the link between N{sub 2}O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N{sub 2}O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 {+-} 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N{sub 2} was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N{sub 2}O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m{sup -2} was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised

  17. Dairy Replacement Performance Fed Various Recipes of Pangola (Digitaria eriantha) Silage Ensiled with Irradiated Silage Innoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prasanpanich, Somkiert; Boon-ek, Lerchart; Piadang, Nattayana

    2006-09-01

    Various kinds of Pangola silage ensiled with molasses and 2 types of silage innoculant (wild and mutant types). There were 6 recipes consisting of Treatment 1 : Pangola silage, Treatment 2: Pangola ensiled with molasses 4 % w/w, Treatment 3 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu wild type innoculant /gm Pangola, Treatment 4 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola, Treatment 5 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu wild type innoculant/gm Pangola and molasses 4 % w/w, Treatment 6 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola and molasses 4 % w/w. After 21 days of fermentation, silage sample was taken for nutritive value analysis. Preference testing on all silage recipes was studied using 18 dairy yearlings, aged 10-12 months old and weighed 200-300 kg, at 6 treatments with 3 animals each for 21 days in a Complete Randomized Design. The results did show that Treatment 1 had higher dry matter intake than those consisted of silage innoculant. However, when taking body weight changes and blood metabolites into account, Treatment 4 : Pangola ensiled with 106 cfu mutant type innoculant/gm Pangola, has an advantage on the ease of making process. Then, it is concluded that Treatment 4 is the most appropriate method to improve silage quality.

  18. Enchytraeids as indicator of soil quality in temporary organic grass-clover leys under contrasting management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maraldo, Kristine; Schmelz, Rüdiger; Larsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    One objective in organic farming is to sustain the quality of the soil resource. Because enchytraeids are an important soil faunal component, they stand as bioindicators of soil quality. We tested this candidature in a field experiment on loamy sand soil with 1- and 4-year old grass-clover leys...... subject to contrasting management regimes (cutting, slurry injection, grazing). Enchytraeid density, biomass and species composition was determined in 0–18 cm soil sampled in October, and again in March and May before and after slurry application, respectively. For soils retrieved in October, ley age had...... no consistent impact on enchytraeid density and biomass. Injection of slurry significantly affected the enchytraeid community at one sampling only but tended to sustain higher enchytraeid abundance in 1-year old leys throughout the year. One persistent feature was a larger enchytraeid community in the autumn...

  19. Methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets

    OpenAIRE

    B Santoso; B Mwenya; C Sar; J Takahashi

    2007-01-01

    Methane is produced as a result of anaerobic fermentation of the soluble and structural carbohydrates by methanogens in the rumen of ruminant animals. Removal of methane from rumen represents a loss of approximately 7.22% of gross energy intake. Four ruminally fistulated Cheviot wethers were used in a crossover design to determine methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets. The experimental diets consisted of either timothy silage or timothy hay a...

  20. Growth rate, carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing lambs fed buckwheat or maize silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan Keles

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated inclusion of buckwheat silage to the diet of growing lambs in terms of meat quality as compared to maize silage. Methods Buckwheat, rich in total phenols (TP, 33 g/kg dry matter [DM], was harvested at the end of the milk stage and ensiled in 40 kg plastic bags after wilting (294 g/kg silage DM. A total of 18 growing lambs (21.6±1.2 were individually fed isonitrogenous and isoenergetic total mixed rations (TMR for 75 d that either contained buckwheat or maize silage at DM proportions of 0.50. At the end of feeding trail all lambs were slaughtered to assess carcass characteristics and meat quality. Results Buckwheat silage increased (p0.05 on live weight gain and feed efficiency. Carcass weight, dressing percentage, meat pH, water holding capacity, cooking loss, shear force (kg/cm2, and total viable bacteria count of meat did not differ (p>0.05 between the treatments. However, TP content of meat increased (p<0.001 by feeding buckwheat TMR. Feeding buckwheat TMR also decreased (p<0.05 the b* values of meat. Conclusion The results provide that buckwheat silage is palatable and could successfully include TMR of growing lambs with no adverse effects on performance, carcass and meat quality. Additionally, feeding buckwheat silage to lambs offers increased TP in meat.

  1. Effects of strip intercropping concept with perennial diversified grass-clover strip and annual winter rye-winter vetch intercrop as energy crops

    OpenAIRE

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen , Anders; Carter, Mette S.; Ambus, Per; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2011-01-01

    The combination of perennials and annuals in a strip cropping system is challenging primarily because the interspecific competitive ability of the perennials towards the annuals seems to be too dominating. Especially at the first harvest (tillering) closest to the adjacent grass-clover strip severe total dry matter production reductions was found ranging from 25%, 5% and 20% in the vetch SC, rye SC and vetch-rye IC, respectively. Rye in particular was suffering from the grass-clover interspec...

  2. Methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Santoso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Methane is produced as a result of anaerobic fermentation of the soluble and structural carbohydrates by methanogens in the rumen of ruminant animals. Removal of methane from rumen represents a loss of approximately 7.22% of gross energy intake. Four ruminally fistulated Cheviot wethers were used in a crossover design to determine methane production and energy partition in sheep fed timothy silage- or hay-based diets. The experimental diets consisted of either timothy silage or timothy hay and a commercial concentrate (85:15, on DM basis. Variables measured were nutrients digestibility, energy balance and methane production. Apparent digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose were significantly higher (P<0.05 on sheep fed silage-based diet than those fed hay-based diet. Sheep fed silage-based diet had greater (P<0.01 urinary energy loss, methane and heat production, but lower (P<0.05 fecal energy loss. Methane production, either expressed as g kg-1 dry matter intake or g day-1 was markedly lower (P<0.05 in hay-based diet as compared to silage-based diet. There was a strong relationship between methane production (g day-1 and NDF digested (g day-1 (R2 = 88.4%, P<0.001. Methane production expressed as g kg-1 NDF digested in silage-based diet was higher (P<0.05 than in hay-based diet (66.44 vs 62.70. These results indicate that methane release by sheep increased with increasing NDF digested.

  3. Rumen microflora counts in milking buffalo cows fed maize silage and sorghum silage based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Pacelli

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available 4 cannulated buffalo milking cows were administered two different diets with the same energy and protein content based on maize silage (diet G1 and sorghum silage (diet G2. Total viable bacteria, cellulolytic and xilanolytic bacteria, fungi, protozoa and pH were determined on whole rumen content samples. Total viable bacteria, xilanolytic bacteria, fungi, protozoa counts and pH values did not show any significant difference between the two diets. Only the values regarding cellulolytic bacteria showed the tendency (P≤0,10 to be higher in diet G2 in comparison with diet G1. This fact was probably due to a lower content of indigestible fiber in diet G2 with respect to diet G1 (ADF 15.6 vs. 22.4 respectively.

  4. Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the feces of dairy cows fed whole crop maize silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyan; Wang, Chao; Li, Yanbing; Yu, Zhu; Xu, Qingfang; Li, Guangpeng; Minh, Tang Thuy; Nishino, Naoki

    2018-01-01

    In order to assess the survival of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in whole crop maize silage in the gut of dairy cows, one representative silage sample and three different feces samples were collected from dairy cows on three dairy farms in Hua Bei, China and three dairy farms in Kyushu, Japan. The composition of the bacterial community was examined by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Lactobacillus acetotolerans was detected in all bunker-made maize silage samples, regardless of the dairy farm or sampling region from which they were sourced. A total of eight LAB species were detected in the maize silage samples, of which three (L. acetotolerans, L. pontis and L. casei) appeared to survive digestion. The populations of L. acetotolerans in silage and feces were 10 6-7 and 10 3-4 copies/g, respectively, indicating that, even for the LAB species showing potential survival in the gut, competition in this niche may be harsh and the population may substantially decrease during the digestion process. It may be difficult for silage LAB to survive in the gut of silage-fed dairy cows, because marked decrease in population can take place during the digestion process, even for surviving species. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Effect of ambient temperature on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed brown-midrib maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine the impact of heat stress on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in sheep fed silages differing in fibre quality. The digestibility trial was conducted at three different ambient temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C for 24 h/d). The tested brown-midrib maize (Bm) silage had a higher nutrient digestibility, except for ether extract (EE) and a higher metabolisable energy (ME) content than the control maize (Con) silage. Nitrogen (N) excretion with faeces was higher but N excretion with urine was lower for sheep fed Bm silage, subsequently N balance did not differ between the two silages. Temperature had no effect on nutrient digestibility, except for crude protein (CP), but N excretion with urine was lower at elevated temperatures. A diet by temperature interaction was found for dry matter (DM) and organic matter (OM) digestibility. When the ambient temperature increased from 15°C to 25°C, the DM and OM digestibility increased in animals fed Con silage, but decreased in animals fed Bm silage. Concomitantly, ME estimated from digestible nutrients was higher for Bm than for Con at 15°C, but no differences were found at 25°C and 35°C. Effects of diet by temperature interaction, furthermore, were observed for EE and CP digestibility. Therefore, forage quality has to be considered when feeding heat-stressed animals.

  6. MEAT QUALITY FROM CHAROLAIS BULLS FED DIETS WITH DIFFERENT LEVELS OF CORN SILAGE INCLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Cozzi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of 6 intensive beef farms was selected according to the feeding plan adopted during the fattening period of Charolais bulls. Two farms did not include any corn silage in the diet (CS0, while corn silage represented 22% of the dietary DM in the second group of 2 farms (CS22, and it raised up to 44% of the dietary DM in the last 2 farms (CS44. Five bulls were randomly selected from each farm to be slaughtered in the same abattoir. Bulls age was similar across treatments but the CS44 bulls had a lower carcass weight (396 kg than the other two treatments (436 and 446 kg for CS0 and CS22, respectively. Carcass fleshiness (SEUROP and fatness scores were not affected by the level of corn silage in the diet. Meat quality was evaluated on a joint sample of the m. Longissimus thoracis, excised from the 5th to the 9th rib of each right half carcass 24 h post-mortem, after an ageing period of 10 d vacuum packaged at 4°C. Meat chemical analysis showed no variations in pH, DM, intramuscular fat and protein content due to the different silage inclusion in the diet. Only the cholesterol content was progressively reduced in the meat of bulls fed increasing quantities of corn silage according to a significant negative linear trend. Meat colour, cooking losses and shear force values were not affected by the diet. Therefore, based on these findings there are no substantial arguments against the use of a large amount of corn silage in the fattening diets of Charolais bulls.

  7. Feed intake, growth performance and digestibility in goats fed whole corn plant silage and Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaing, K.T.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Shortage and inconsistent quality of forage in developing countries are the major constraints to the development of ruminant sector. To overcome these problems, feeding of ruminants with conserved forages is an important feeding strategy to ensure the success of ruminant production in the third world countries. The use of whole corn plant as silage has drawn many attention due to high protein efficiency, relatively high digestible energy and total digestible nutrients. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine feed intake, growth performance and nutrients digestibility in goats fed different inclusion level of whole corn plant silage to Napier grass based diets. Fifteen male Boer cross goats around six months old and approximately 18.54 ? 1.83 kg of body weight were used as experimental animals. The goats were assigned into five treatment groups consisted of different proportions of Napier grass (G and whole plant corn silage (CS ?T1:100/0 G/CS; T2:75/25 G/CS; T3:50/50 G/CS; T4:25/75 G/CS and T5:0/100 G/CS. The increase of corn silage to Napier grass proportion demonstrates increase in dry matter intake and growth performance in the goats. The highest nutrient digestibility was observed in T5:0/100 G/CS and T3:50/50 G/CS. It can be concluded that high proportion of corn silage to grass diets had resulted in increases in feed intake and growth performance of goats. Feeding the animals with T5 and T3 resulted in high nutrient utilization compared to other treatments. However, the highest growth performance was observed in animals that were fed with T5 diets.

  8. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele de Jesus Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P<0.05 for the consumption of dry matter with maximum point value estimated at adding 23.25% additive. Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour were significant (P<0.05, by quadratic behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P<0.05, showing quadratic behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P<0.05 by the adding of brewery residue in marandu grass silage in quadratic way, with maximum value estimated of 1.57 g DM/bolus chewed in inclusion of 24.72% additive in grass silage. The conclusion is that intermediary levels adding of 20 to 25% dehydrated brewery residue affects certain parameters of ingestive behavior.

  9. Ingestive Behavior of Ovine Fed with Marandu Grass Silage Added with Naturally Dehydrated Brewery Residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jesus Ferreira, Daniele; de Moura Zanine, Anderson; de Paula Lana, Rogério; Lima de Souza, Alexandre; Divino Ribeiro, Marinaldo; Mattos Negrão, Fagton; Castro, Wanderson José Rodrigues; Nunes Parente, Henrique; Valério Geron, Luiz Juliano; de Azevedo Câmara, Larissa Rodrigues

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate the ingestive behavior of ovine fed Marandu grass silage with dehydrated brewery residue added. The experiment had a completely randomized design with five treatments and four repetitions, with the treatments levels of inclusion being of 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% natural matter of naturally dehydrated brewery residue for 36 hours to the marandu grass silage. 20 ovines were used and the experimental period was 21 days, 15 being for adaptation to diets. The use of brewery byproduct promoted quadratic effect (P Ingestion efficiency and rumination efficiency of dry matter (g DM/hour) were significant (P behavior, and NDF ingestion and rumination efficiency showed crescent linear behavior. The DM and NDF consumption expressed in kg/meal and in minutes/kg were also significant (P behavior. Rumination activity expressed in g DM and NDF/piece was influenced (P ingestive behavior.

  10. The combined effect of fertiliser nitrogen and phosphorus on herbage yield and change in soil nutrients of a grass/clover and grass-only sward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Snijders, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The combined effect of reduced nitrogen ( N ) and phosphorus ( P ) application on the production of grass- only and grass/ clover swards was studied in a five- year cutting experiment on a marine clay soil, established on newly sown swards. Furthermore, changes in soil N, P and carbon ( C ) were

  11. Performance of dairy cows fed conventional sorghum or corn silages compared to brown midrib sorghum silage: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the effects of feeding dairy cows conventional sorghum (CSS) or corn silages (CCS) vs. brown midrib sorghum silage (BMRSS) on dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition. Data from nine published articles (1984-2015) were used to contrast CSS (7...

  12. Failure of cellulolysis in the rumen of reindeer fed timothy silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica A. Olsen

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Three male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus calves were brought from mountain pastures in April and fed regrowth timothy (Phleum pratense silage with 76% leaves and 24.0% dry matter (DM ad libitum. The silage contained (on DM basis 25.4% cellulose, 12.0% crude protein and 19-6% water soluble carbohydrates. After an initial period of 11 days the daily silage intake rose to almost similar values for all animals, but independently of food intake, body mass (BM increased by as much as 13.3 kg for animal R3 during the first 21 days, compared to 4.4 kg and 2.8 kg for Rl and R2, respectively. At slaughter the wet weight of the rumen contents of animal R3 constituted 30.2% of the total BM, compared to 18.5% and 19.1% in animals Rl and R2, respectively. A reduced ability of the rumen micro-biota to ferment pure cellulose in vitro was observed in R3. The ruminal pH was 7.07 and the concentration of volatile fatty acids was only 50.0 mM in R3, indicating a low rate of fermentation. The initial rates of in vitro dry matter digestibility of timothy silage and standard hay were also affected by the rumen fermentation failure in animal R3. Depressed rumen cellulolysis, which may be related to natural periods of starvation prior to the feeding experiment, could have caused the low rate of fermentation and the large rumen size observed in this animal.

  13. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen efficiency, and animal performance of growing and finishing beef cattle fed warm-season legume (Stylosanthes capitata plus Stylosanthes macrocephala) silage replacing corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, W F; Pereira, O G; Ribeiro, K G; Santos, S A; Valadares Filho, S C

    2014-09-01

    It was hypothesized that Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande (ES) silage could be used as the single source of dietary forage for beef cattle and that performance on ES would be similar to corn silage (CS) at a 50:50 forage:concentrate. The objectives of this study were to evaluate intake, total and partial digestibility of nutrients, ruminal pH, ruminal ammonia, and productive performance in growing beef cattle fed diets with varying proportions of ES silage replacing CS. Treatments consisted of diets with ratios of 0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 100:0% ES:CS. Two experiments were conducted simultaneously. In the first experiment, 10 crossbred Holstein-Zebu bulls with an average initial weight of 272 ± 86 kg were used. The bulls were rumen and abomasums fistulated. An experimental design of two 5 × 5 Latin squares (Exp. 1) was used. The second experiment used 40 Nellore bulls with an average BW of 386 ± 30 kg in a completely randomized design (Exp. 2). Results showed a linear increase in CP intake (P Nitrogen balance, excretion of urinary urea, and plasma urea nitrogen did not respond to the inclusion of ES in the diet (P > 0.05). There was also no effect (P > 0.05) of ES inclusion on animal performance. Ruminal pH was not affected by an increased proportion of ES in the diet (P > 0.05), but ruminal pH was affected (P interaction (P nitrogen concentration. It can be concluded that ES silage can be used as a source of roughage in the diet of beef cattle during the growing and finishing phases at a proportion of 50% of DM in the total diet. Therefore, ES silage is a promising alternative dietary ingredient and the use of this alternative source of silage will depend on availability and economic factors.

  14. Energy partitioning and methane emission by sheep fed sorghum silages at different maturation stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Machado

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Energy partitioning and methane production by sheep fed silages of three commercially available sorghum hybrids (BRS 610, BR 700 and BRS 655 harvested at three maturation stages (milk, soft dough and floury were evaluated in open circuit respiration chambers. A complete randomized design was used in a 3 × 3 (hybrids × maturity stages factorial arrangement, and the means were compared by the Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK test (P0.10 among the treatments for the apparent digestibility of gross energy and metabolizability (qm. An interaction (P0.10 among treatments occurred in the daily methane production. There is substantial genetic diversity within sorghum species, determining different nutritional values. Sorghum genetics and maturity at harvest should not be an opportunity to reduce the contribution of agriculture to methane emissions.

  15. Boron fertilisation of organically managed grass-clover swards on coarse-textured soils: effects on botanical and element composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisbeth Linse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three trials were performed on two organic farms with dairy and suckler cows and using home-produced forage and feed crops, predominantly grass-clover ley, in order to determine whether boron (B is a limiting factor for legumes on coarse-textured soils in an area predisposed to low B soil concentrations. The effects of B fertilisation (applied as sprayed liquid on biomass yield, botanical composition and plant macro- and micronutrient concentrations relative to soil concentrations and livestock requirements were investigated. Boron fertilisation (i did not affect any yield, (ii increased the white clover percentage significantly in forage on one farm and (iii increased B concentrations in plants and soil on both farms, and (iv did not affect concentrations of other nutrients in forage on either farm. Thus, B was not an obvious limiting factor on these farms. Effects of management practices on interactions and ratios between B, calcium (Ca, potassium (K, magnesium (Mg and sodium (Na and their implications are discussed.

  16. Intake and performance of feedlot cattle fed diets based on high and low Brix sugar cane with or without calcium oxide and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Antunes Magalhães

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate low and high Brix diets, treated or not with 5 g of calcium oxide per kg of natural matter, and corn silage on intake, digestibility and performance of beef cattle. Forty cattle with initial body weight (BW of 350 kg were used: five composed the control group, 30 were distributed into random blocks (control and the other five were distributed in a 5 × 5 incomplete Latin square, with the objective of determining digestibility. The 30 animals evaluated for performance were slaughtered and empty body weight (EPW, carcass dressing and meat cuts were determined. The diet with corn silage (CS presented the best intake of the other ingredients and the best weight gain, except for neutral detergent fiber intake in g/kg of BW. Only carcass dressing, in relation to BW and EBW, was not affected by the treatments, and the others were greater for animals fed diets with sugar cane silage. Animals fed diets with high brix sugar cane silage and treated high brix sugar cane silage presented lower intake of indigestible neutral detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (g/kg of BW in relation to diets with low and high brix sugar cane silage, respectively. Animals fed diets with corn silage presented higher digestibility, except for crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrates. Animals subjected to diets with corn silage presented low excretion of nitrogen compounds and higher microbial crude protein synthesis. Animals fed sugar cane silage present greater intake, performance and digestibility. The use of lime during 15 or 20º Brix sugar cane ensilage does not alter intake, digestibility or performance of beef cattle.

  17. Feed intake, gastrointestinal system and body composition in reindeer calves fed early harvested first cut timothy silage (Phleum pratense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harri J. Norberg

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Early harvested first cut (EFC timothy silage was fed to five reindeer calves (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L. taken from their natural summer pasture and brought to Tromsø for feeding trial. The calves were housed indoors in metabolism cages and fed EFC timothy silage ad lib. during the trial, which lasted from late November 1994 until the end of February 1995, when animals subsequently were slaughtered. Daily feed intake, gastrointestinal (GI anatomy, body weight and body composition of the animals were examined. Timothy silage {Phleum praténse was harvested 21 June, 1994 in Tromsø, prewilted and stored as round bales containing 97% leaves. The EFC silage contained 42.1% dry matter (DM, and 18.1% crude protein, 20.7% cellulose, 16.9% hemicellulose and 28.0% water soluble carbohydrates (WSC of DM. Mean feed intake (DM 24 hours after the trial started (day 1 was 9-4 g/kg body mass (BM (S.D.+ 3-9, while the mean daily DM intake during days 15-74 comprised 24.2 g/kg BM (S.D.+ 6.1. All animals except one gained body weight during the trial. The median (range BM at start and at slaughter was 48.5 kg (34.5¬58.0 kg and 50.0 kg (42.0-53.5 kg, respectively. Median (range carcass weight % of BM was 58.0% (51.2-58.7% and muscle index value 0.0132 (0.0106-0.0176. The median reticulo-rumen (RR content wet weight (WW was 4601 g (range 2697-5000 g comprising 9.3% of the BM, and 85.1% of the total gastrointestinal wet weight content. The median (range gastrointestinal tract weight was 14.1% of BM (10.7-16.4%. Based on feed intake during the trial and body composition at slaughtet we conclude that first cut timothy silage is suitable as emergency feed to reindeer, as long as it is harvested in early growth stage with high proportion of leaves.

  18. Identification of lactic acid bacteria in the rumen and feces of dairy cows fed total mixed ration silage to assess the survival of silage bacteria in the gut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H; Ogata, Y; Yamamoto, Y; Nagao, S; Nishino, N

    2014-09-01

    The survival of silage lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the gut of dairy cows was evaluated by examining the LAB communities of silage and gut contents. Samples were collected at 2 different research institutes (Mie and Okayama) that offered total mixed ration (TMR) silage throughout the year. Silage and feces were sampled in August, October, and November at the Mie institute, whereas silage, rumen fluid, and feces were sampled in June and August at the Okayama institute. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis using Lactobacillus-specific primers was performed to detect LAB species in the samples. The selected bands were purified for species identification and the band patterns were used for principal component analysis. Lactic acid was the predominant fermentation product in all the TMR silages analyzed, and the lactic acid level tended to be constant regardless of the sampling time and region. A total of 14 LAB species were detected in the TMR silage samples, of which 5 (Lactobacillus acetotolerans, Lactobacillus pontis, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus suebicus, and Lactobacillus plantarum) were detected in the dairy cow feces. Most of the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands for the feces samples were also detected in the rumen fluid, suggesting that any elimination of silage LAB occurred in the rumen and not in the postruminal gut segments. The principal component analysis indicated that the LAB communities in the silage, rumen fluid, and feces were separately grouped; hence, the survival of silage LAB in the cow rumen and lower gut was deemed difficult. It was concluded that, although the gut LAB community is robust and not easily affected by the silage conditions, several LAB species can inhabit both silage and feces, which suggests the potential of using silage as a vehicle for conveying probiotics. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The use of urea by lactating dairy cows when fed maize silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    protein nitrogen. Comad & Hibbs (1968) found that an intake of 0,4-0,5 g NPN/kg bodymass coincided with decreased feed intakes. The levels of NPN in the maize silage used in the experiment was 46010of the crude protein in Experiment B and ...

  20. Microbial biomass, microbial diversity, soil carbon storage, and stability after incubation of soil from grass-clover pastures of different age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller-Stöver, Dorette Sophie; Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory incubation study with clover grass pasture soils of seven different ages (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 16 production years) was carried out to determine initial soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) stocks and potentials for greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CO2). Compared with the soil from...... the recently established pasture, an increase of total soil C and N was observed along with pasture age. Greenhouse gas emissions were low and not significantly different among the soils from younger pastures (0-5 years), but especially N2O emissions increased markedly in the soil from 16-year-old grass......-clover. Low emissions might mainly be due to an early C limitation occurring in the soils from younger pastures, which was also corroborated by decreasing levels of cold water-extractable C and early shifts within the microbial community. However, higher emissions from the old pasture soil were offset by its...

  1. Fatty acid composition of ruminal digesta and longissimus muscle from lambs fed silage mixtures including red clover, sainfoin, and timothy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campidonico, L; Toral, P G; Priolo, A; Luciano, G; Valenti, B; Hervás, G; Frutos, P; Copani, G; Ginane, C; Niderkorn, V

    2016-04-01

    as the sole silage in comparison with lambs given T-RC, T-SF-RC, and SF-RC. Rumenic acid (-9 -11 CLA) was detected at a greater percentage in the LM from the animals fed the T silage compared with animals fed the T-SF-RC treatment ( = 0.004). Contrarily, -9 -12 -15 18:3 was found at a greater concentration in the muscle from lambs in the SF-RC treatment compared with lambs in the other treatments ( < 0.001). Furthermore, the T-RC group showed a greater proportion of α-linolenic acid than the T group ( = 0.03). In conclusion, the effects of the 2 active compounds (PPO and tannins) appear to be similar and additive. Moreover, a silage composed of a mixture of RC and SF is an excellent forage for growing lambs in terms of i.m. fatty acid composition.

  2. Faecal particle-size distribution from ewes fed grass silages harvested at different stages of maturity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalali, Alireza; Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.

    2008-01-01

    , 47 and 44 g kg-1 h-1 and DM intake was 2.5, 2.1 and 1.5 kg d-1 for ECS, MCS and LCS silage, respectively. Faeces samples were collected during four days, washed in nylon bags, freeze dried and sieved into six sieving fractions; bottom bowl (B), 0.106 (C), 0.212 (D), 0.5 (S), 1.0 (M) and 2.36 (O) mm...

  3. Evaluation of protein supplementation for growing cattle fed grass silage-based diets: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Huhtanen, P; Joki-Tokola, E

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to develop empirical equations predicting growth responses of growing cattle to protein intake. Overall, the data set comprised 199 diets in 80 studies. The diets were mainly based on grass silage or grass silage partly or completely replaced by whole-crop silages or straw. The concentrate feeds consisted of cereal grains, fibrous by-products and protein supplements. The analyses were conducted both comprehensively for all studies and also separately for studies in which soybean meal (SBM; n=71 diets/28 studies), fish meal (FM; 27/12) and rapeseed meal (RSM; 74/35) were used as a protein supplement. Increasing dietary CP concentration increased (PCP concentration). The BWG responses were not different for bulls v. steers and heifers (1.4 v. 1.3 g per 1 g/kg DM increase in dietary CP concentration) and for dairy v. beef breeds (1.2 v. 1.7 g per 1 g/kg, respectively). The effect of increased CP concentration declined (PCP diet in each study). The BWG responses to protein supplementation were not related to the CP concentration in the control diet. The BWG responses increased (P0.10) with increasing proportion of concentrate in the diet. All protein supplements had a significant effect on BWG, but the effects were greater for RSM (PCP concentration improved (PCP intake. Assuming CP concentration of 170 g/kg BW marginal efficiency of the utilisation of incremental CP intake was only 0.05. Increasing dietary CP concentration had no effects on carcass weight, dressing proportion or conformation score, but it increased (P<0.01) fat score. Owing to limited production responses, higher prices of protein supplements compared with cereal grains and possible increases the N and P emissions, there is generally no benefit from using protein supplementation for growing cattle fed grass silage-based diets, provided that the supply of rumen-degradable protein is not limiting digestion in the rumen.

  4. In situ degrability of dry matter of sheep fed with corn silage with or without Bt gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silage corn is a food widely used, composing the bulk of feed for ruminants, because its present high nutritional value. Since the release by CNTBio seeds of modified genetically corn, many of it began to use transgenic silage corn, which was inserted into genetic code the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis gene that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillar pests of corn, so occurs the reduction of production costs and pesticide use. Due to rapid expansion of transgenic maize and your wide use in animal feed by producers, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degrability in situ in animal rumen, in order to estimate the nutritional value of silage corn with and without the Bt gene. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used four rumen fistulated sheep housed in individual pens for 56 days, including four periods. The animals were fed with silage with two varieties of plant corn to silage - DKB and AG, and their isogenic counterparts with the Bt gene, comprising four treatments. The degradability determination of dry matter (DM digestibility of silage corn treatments was determined by means of nylon bag in situ. After removal, the bags were washed and incubated, then placed in forced-circulation at 55°C to constant weight to determine the DM concentration. Data from in situ degradation of DM was adjusted in the mathematical model proposed by Ørskov and McDonald (1979. For the degradability of DM, the fraction “a” showed the interaction (p <0.05, where the variety DKB do not showed difference (p> 0.05 for the gene insertion. For AG, showed a slight decrease (p <0.05 when compared to its isogenic counterpart with the gene (35.68% and 37.85% respectively, means that the Bt gene reduced the solubility of DM of this fraction for AG range. The fact of the variety AG with and without the gene have suffered lower solubility of DM when compared the DKB with and without the gene is due to the fact of being

  5. Carcass characteristics of lambs fed diets containing silage of different genotypes of sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraci Marcos Alves Suassuna

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-five feedlot lambs (without defined breed, aged between 5 and 7 months, with average live weight of 17.7±3.7 kg were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of diets containing different genotypes of sorghum on morphometric measurements and qualitative characteristics of carcass and yields of primal cuts. The animals stayed in individual indoor pens for 42 days and slaughtered at an average weight of 26.24 kg. No significant differences were observed on morphometric measurements, hot (11.67 kg and cold (11.39 kg carcass weight, hot (44.46% and cold (43.37% carcass yields, biological yield and on cooling losses. There was also no significant effect of silages of different genotypes of sorghum on the weights and yields of retail cuts (neck, shoulder, rib, loin and leg and on the subjective evaluation of carcasses. It is possible to finish sheep without defined breed feeding them diets based on silages of sorghum, resulting in carcasses with high yield and good conformation.

  6. Effect of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference by dairy cows fed high-starch diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmicikewycz, A D; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of corn silage particle size and supplemental hay on rumen pH and feed preference in lactating dairy cows experiencing a bout of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). In this study, 12 lactating (8 ruminally cannulated), multiparous Holstein cows averaging 91±40d in milk and weighing 695±95kg (mean ± SD) were randomly assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square. During each of the four 21-d periods, animals were offered 1 of 4 diets that were chemically similar but varied in corn silage particle size and supplemental second cutting orchardgrass hay: short corn silage total mixed ration (TMR; ST); short corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (SH); long corn silage TMR (L); and long corn silage TMR with 5.6% supplemental hay (LH). Cows were allowed to adapt to this feeding scheme for 14d, and cannulated cows were then subjected to a rumen challenge to induce a bout of SARA by restricting feed before the challenge and providing 4kg of ground wheat via the rumen cannula. Although baseline pH was low, the SARA challenge lowered ruminal pH further for all cows regardless of diet. Daily average rumen pH decreased from 5.44 and 5.45 to 5.33 and 5.38 for ST and SH, respectively, and from 5.64 and 5.54 to 5.47 and 5.39 for L and LH, respectively, from baseline to challenge phase. Following the rumen challenge, rumen concentrations of acetate, propionate, butyrate, and valerate increased. Decreasing corn silage particle size significantly increased TMR and total DMI during all phases of the model. Feeding short corn silage TMR increased milk, protein, and lactose yields. Cows fed supplemental hay had increased fat yield and protein concentration in the milk and responded minimally to the effects of particle size selection when challenged with SARA. Cows consuming short corn silage TMR changed feed preference for longer forage particles during the course of the SARA challenge. During the recovery phase, however

  7. Performance, digestion, nitrogen balance, and emission of manure ammonia, enteric methane, and carbon dioxide in lactating cows fed diets with varying alfalfa silage-to-corn silage ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, C; Powell, J M; Aguerre, M J; Wattiaux, M A

    2015-01-01

    Two trials were conducted simultaneously to study the effects of varying alfalfa silage (AS) to corn silage (CS) ratio in diets formulated to avoid excess protein or starch on lactating dairy cow performance, digestibility, ruminal parameters, N balance, manure production and composition, and gaseous emissions [carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and ammonia-N (NH3-N)]. In trial 1 all measurements, except gas emissions, were conducted on 8 rumen-cannulated cows in replicated 4×4 Latin squares. In trial 2, performance and emissions were measured on 16 cows randomly assigned to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers in a 4×4 Latin square. Dietary treatments were fed as total mixed rations with forage-to-concentrate ratio of 55:45 [dietary dry matter (DM) basis] and AS:CS ratios of 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, and 80:20 (forage DM basis). Measurements were conducted the last 3d of each 21-d period. Treatments did not affect DM intake, DM digestibility, and milk/DM intake. However, responses were quadratic for fat-and-protein-corrected milk, fat, and protein production, which reached predicted maxima for AS:CS ratio of 50:50, 49:51, and 34:66, respectively. Nitrogen use efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased from 31 to 24g/100g as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20. Treatments did not alter NH3-N/milk-N but tended to have a quadratic effect on daily NH3-N emission. Treatments had a quadratic effect on daily CH4 emission, which was high compared with current literature; they influenced CH4 emission per unit of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake and tended to influence CO2/NDF intake. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and total-tract NDF digestibility increased linearly with increasing AS:CS ratio. In addition, as AS:CS ratio increased from 20:80 to 80:20, NDF digested increased linearly from 2.16 to 3.24kg/d, but CH4/digested NDF decreased linearly from 270 to 190g/kg. These 2 counterbalancing effects likely contributed to the observed quadratic response in daily CH4

  8. Nitrogen excretion of adult sheep fed silages made of a mixed sward or of pure unfertilised grass alone and in combination with barley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seip, Katharina; Breves, Gerhard; Isselstein, Johannes; Abel, Hansjörg

    2011-08-01

    Four adult rumen-fistulated wether sheep were fed silages combined with barley. The silages consisted of 48% grasses, 28% legumes and 24% other forbs (GCF) or of pure grass (G). The swards received no mineral fertiliser. The dry matter (DM) and fibre contents were lower in GCF than in G. Crude protein content of DM in GCF and G were 145 g/kg and 102 g/kg respectively. DM content as ash, lipids and non-fibrous carbohydrates were rather similar in both silages. About 40g DM were offered per kg BW0.75 and day either as silage alone or as a mixture of silage and barley (60:40). Faecal N excretion was greater with GCF than with G. The proportion of faecal bacterial and endogenous debris N reached 75 and 73% when GCF or G was fed, respectively. Undigested dietary N represented about 20%, and water soluble N accounted for 5-6% of faecal N. GCF caused more urinary N than G. Barley reduced urinary N excretion when supplemented to GCF. No dietary influence on urinary non-urea nitrogenous compounds was shown. GCF caused higher urinary urea N excretion than G and barley reduced this fraction when replacing part of GCF. Based on the urinary urea N proportions, it is concluded that N intake exceeded N requirement for any of the four diets fed. Dietary supplementation of ruminally fermentable carbohydrates can reduce urinary N excretion and this improves the efficiency of utilisation of N in N-unfertilised biodiverse grassland/ruminant farming systems.

  9. Correlations of the feeding behavior of lambs fed diets containing pearl millet silage with addition of urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomaz Cyro Guimarães de Carvalho Rodrigues

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate correlations among the feeding behavior, intake, in vitro digestibility and production parameters of feedlot-finished lambs. Thirty-two male uncastrated mixed-breed lambs with an average initial live weight of 17.39 ± 2.16 kg were distributed into four treatments (diets with eight replicates (animals each, as a function of their weight, in a completely randomized block design. Diets were composed of pearl millet silage with addition of levels of urea (0, 2, 4, and 6%, DM basis, ground corn, soybean meal, and a mineral mixture. The experimental period was 62 days, consisting of 10 days of adaptation and 52 days of data collection. Positive correlations were observed (P < 0.05 for rumination time and feeding efficiency in dry matter with the intakes of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, organic matter (OM, and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC. Negative correlations were detected (P < 0.05 between rumination efficiency in NDF and the intakes of DM, EE, NDF, OM, and NFC. Correlations were negative (P < 0.05 between the number of chews per cud and the digestibilities of DM, NDF, NFC, and TDN. The number of chews per day was negatively correlated (P < 0.05 with the digestibility of NDF and with TDN. Rumination time had a positive correlation (P < 0.05 with average daily gain (ADG and feed efficiency (FE. Feeding efficiency in DM was positively correlated (P < 0.05 with ADG and FE, whereas rumination efficiency in NDF was negatively correlated with ADG and positively with feed conversion. The increase in feeding efficiency for dry matter generated positive effects on nutrient intake, weight gain, and feed efficiency of the lambs fed diets containing pearl millet silage with addition of urea.

  10. Desempenho de cordeiros alimentados com silagem de girassol ou de milho com proporções crescentes de ração concentrada Performance of sheep fed sunflower silage or corn silage with increasing proportion of commercial concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Sartori Bueno

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos com o objetivo de avaliar o valor nutritivo de dietas à base de silagens de milho ou de girassol e o desempenho de ovinos alimentados com estas dietas acrescidas de níveis crescentes de concentrado comercial (20, 40 e 60%. Para avaliação do valor nutritivo e dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, utilizou-se delineamento em esquema fatorial (2x3, duas silagens e três proporções de ração comercial, com três ovinos por tratamento. Para avaliação do desempenho de cordeiros, o ensaio foi em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 2x3 (duas silagens e três proporções de ração comercial, com cinco cordeiros por tratamento. Os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente de MS, MO, FB, ENN, FDN, FDA e de celulose foram menores para as dietas à base de silagem de girassol. As dietas com silagem de milho apresentaram maiores valores de ingestão diária de matéria seca (709,5 x 609,7 g e ganho diário de peso vivo (181,8 x 108,2 g e menores de conversão alimentar (3,82 x 5,35 kg de MS/kg de ganho de PV que as de girassol. As dietas à base de silagem de girassol apresentaram valor nutritivo inferior às de silagem de milho, o que acarretou pior desempenho dos cordeiros. Os animais alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de girassol necessitam de maior quantidade de ração concentrada para obterem desempenho similar aos alimentados com silagem de milho.Two experiments were conduct to evaluate the effect of dietary nutritive value and performance of sheep fed corn- or sunflower silage-based diet with increasing concentrate proportion (20, 40 and 60%. A factorial design (2x3 was used to evaluate nutritive value and digestibility coefficient of two silages with three concentrate levels and three sheep for each treatment. For lamb performance, a randomized block design in a factorial arrangement (2x3 was used to evaluate lamb performance, with five Suffolk lambs/treatment. Apparent

  11. The fattening results of pigs fed with a diet with the participation of silage from steamed potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA BOCIAN

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The study included 60 finishers of the F1 crossbreds (Polish Large White x Polish Landrace, a half of gilts and barrows. Animals were divided into two groups of 30 individuals each. The control group (K amounted to pigs fed with a complete mixtures, while the experimental group (D - was fed a mixture with the participation of silage from steamed potatoes (26% DM. The mixtures were prepared on the basis of their own cereal pellets and a concentrate. Fattening animals started at body weight of about 30 kg and continued to the average body weight of about 115 kg. The body weight of animals and the quantity of the consumed feed mixtures were recorded during the fattening period. Meatiness of carcasses was evaluated according to the current classification of the EUROP apparatus IM-03.The analysis has been subjected to the following features: total weight gain, fattening period, average daily weight gain, slaughter age and consumption of feed during the fattening and slaughter features: warm carcass weight, slaughter efficiency, fat thickness, the depth of loin muscle and meat content in the carcass. The assessment also includes: the sales value of porker in accordance with the evaluation of their carcasses according to the EUROP and the cost of feeding porker during the whole period of fattening. It has been shown that the pigs in group K had a higher growth rate and earlier reached the slaughter weight than pigs from group D (P<0.01, whereas group D demonstrated a lower feed consumption. Group K was characterized by thinner backfat, higher loin muscle and higher meatiness than the carcasses of pigs from the group D (P<0.01. Carcasses of finishers from the group K were qualified to the most valuable classes S, E, U whereas group D to class E, U, R and O. Lower costs of porker production were shows in group D, whereas in the group K a higher value from the sale was attained. Nutrition with the participation of silage from steamed potatoes was less

  12. Evaluation of silage-fed biogas process performance using microbiological and kinetic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, Aa.

    1996-10-01

    In this study, different kinetic and microbiological methods were used to evaluate the growth and activity of key groups of bacteria degrading ley silage in one-phase and two-phase biogas processes. Emphasis was placed on studying the dynamic behaviour of different trophic groups resulting from the initiation of liquid recirculation in the processes. The microbiological methods included microscopy and most probable number (MPN) counts with different substrates. The kinetic methods included measurements of specific methanogenic activity (SMA) with acetate and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} as substrates, batch assays with trace element additions and measurement of conversion rates of mannitol and lactate in the digesters. In general, the initiation of liquid recirculation at first promoted the growth and/or activity of several trophic groups of bacteria, such as butyrate and propionate degraders and acetotrophic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens in the liquefaction/acidogenesis reactors of the two-phase processes. This was probably mainly due to the increased pH. However, after some time of liquid recirculation, an inhibition of some bacterial groups occurred, such as propionate degraders and methanogens in the methanogenic reactors of two-phase processes. This was probably due to increased concentrations of salts and free ammonia. The batch assays proved to be valuable tools in process optimization by the addition of trace elements. Here, the addition of cobalt significantly increased methane production from acetate. In this study, a more comprehensive understanding of the process behaviour in response to the initiation of liquid recirculation was achieved which could not have been obtained by only monitoring routine parameters such as pH, methane production and concentrations of organic acids and salts. 120 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  13. Performance of Holstein cows fed sugarcane or corn silages of different grain textures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrêa Clóvis Eduardo Sidnei

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn cultivated in Brazil is predominantly of hard texture, and more propense to decreased starch digestibility under late harvesting situations than dent hybrids. This work tested the utilization of dent corn as a way of extending the ensilage period without reducing animal performance, and evaluated the potential of sugarcane as a forage for high-producing dairy cows. Nine lactating Holstein cows were allocated to three 3 ' 3 latin squares and were fed 200 g of forage neutral detergent fiber per kg of dry matter as either hard texture corn ensiled at the half milk line stage of maturity, soft texture corn ensiled at the black layer stage, or sugarcane. There were no detectable differences between corn hybrids with regard to milk yield (34.2 vs 34.6 kg d-1 and composition, dry matter intake (23.0 vs 23.2 kg d-1 and total tract apparent digestibility of nutrients. Sugarcane decreased feed intake (21.5 kg d-1 and milk yield (31.9 kg d-1. Organic matter digestibility, chewing activity and rumen pH did not differ among treatments. Sugarcane seems to be a viable option to feed groups of Holstein cows during lactation stages in which nutrient demand is not at a maximum. The performance of dairy cows fed dent corn ensiled at the black layer stage of maturity was similar to the performance of cows fed flint corn ensiled at the half milk line stage.

  14. In vitro gas and methane production in rumen fluid from dairy cows fed grass silages differing in plant maturity, compared to in vivo data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macome, F M; Pellikaan, W F; Hendriks, W H; Warner, D; Schonewille, J T; Cone, J W

    2018-04-14

    The relationship between in vitro rumen CH 4 production of grass silages, using the gas production technique, and in vivo data obtained with the same cows and rations in respiration chambers was investigated. Silages were made from grass harvested in 2013 on May 6th, May 25th, July 1st and July 8th. The grass silages were used to formulate four different rations which were fed to 24 cows in early and late lactation, resulting in a slightly different dry matter intake (DMI; 16.5 kg/day vs. 15.4 kg/day). The experimental rations consisted of 70% grass silage, 10% maize silage, and 20% concentrates on a dry matter basis. Cows were adapted to the rations for 17 days before rumen fluid was collected via oesophageal tubing, and in vitro gas and CH 4 production were analysed. In vitro total gas and CH 4 production of the (ensiled) grass expressed as ml/g OM decreased with advancing maturity of the grass. The in vitro CH 4 production after 48 hr of incubation expressed in ml/g OM did not correlate with the in vivo CH 4 production expressed in g/kg organic matter intake or g/kg DMI (R 2  = .00-.18, p ≥ .287). The differences in CH 4 emission per unit of intake observed in vivo were rather small between the different rations, which also contributed to the observed poor relationship. Utilizing stepwise multiple regression improved the correlation only slightly. In vitro gas and CH 4 production varied based on whether donor cows were previously adapted to the respective ration or not, suggesting that careful adaption to the experimental diet should be envisaged in in vitro gas and CH 4 production experiments. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Methane production, ruminal fermentation characteristics, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, and milk production of dairy cows fed conventional or brown midrib corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Benchaar, C

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of replacing conventional corn silage (CCS) with brown midrib corn silage (BMCS) in dairy cow diets on enteric CH 4 emission, nutrient intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production, and N excretion. Sixteen rumen-cannulated lactating cows used in a crossover design (35-d periods) were fed (ad libitum) a total mixed ration (forage:concentrate ratio = 65:35, dry matter basis) based (59% dry matter) on either CCS or BMCS. Dry matter intake and milk yield increased when cows were fed BMCS instead of CCS. Of the milk components, only milk fat content slightly decreased when cows were fed the BMCS-based diet compared with when fed the CCS-based diet (3.81 vs. 3.92%). Compared with CCS, feeding BMCS to cows increased yields of milk protein and milk fat. Ruminal pH, protozoa numbers, total VFA concentration, and molar proportions of acetate and propionate were similar between cows fed BMCS and those fed CCS. Daily enteric CH 4 emission (g/d) was unaffected by dietary treatments, but CH 4 production expressed as a proportion of gross energy intake or on milk yield basis was lower for cows fed the BMCS-based diet than for cows fed the CCS-based diet. A decline in manure N excretion and a shift in N excretion from urine to feces were observed when BMCS replaced CCS in the diet, suggesting reduced potential of manure N volatilization. Results from this study show that improving fiber quality of corn silage in dairy cow diets through using brown midrib trait cultivar can reduce enteric CH 4 emissions as well as potential emissions of NH 3 and N 2 O from manure. However, CH 4 emissions during manure storage may increase due to excretion of degradable OM when BMCS diet is fed, which merits further investigation. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Enteric and manure-derived methane emissions and biogas yield of slurry from dairy cows fed grass silage or maize silage with and without supplementation of rapeseed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    to parity and days in milk. Two diets were based on maize silage with (MS+) or without (MS−) supplementation of crushed rapeseed, and the third diet was based on late cut grass silage without supplementation of crushed rapeseed (GS−). Dry matter intake, milk yield and composition were measured. Enteric......The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different dietary strategies on milk production and composition, enteric CH4 emissions, slurry storage losses of CH4 and total emissions of CH4 with and without biogas production. Fifty-four cows were allocated to three diets according......±standard deviation) was 25.3±2.5, 26.8±3.3 and 29.0±4.2 L CH4/kg ECM if manure was stored at 10 °C, 15 °C or 20 °C, respectively. When the slurry was digested in a laboratory scale biogas plant, the lowest total CH4 emissions per kg ECM were observed for MS+ (20.5 L CH4/ECM) and the highest for GS− (24.3 L CH4/ECM...

  17. Milk production is unaffected by replacing barley or sodium hydroxide wheat with maize cob silage in rations for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hymøller, Lone; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2014-01-01

    studies were organised as a 3×3 Latin square with three experimental periods and three different mixed rations. The rations consisted of grass-clover silage and maize silage (~60% of dry matter (DM)), rapeseed cake, soybean meal, sugar beet pulp and one of three different cereals as a major energy...... supplement: MCS, SHW or rolled barley (~25% of DM). When MCS replaced barley or SHW as an energy supplement in the mixed rations, it resulted in a lower dry matter intake; however, the apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, organic matter, NDF, starch and protein were not different between treatments...... VFA patterns and pH measures, it appeared that MCS possessed roughage qualities with respect to rumen environment, while at the same time being sufficiently energy rich to replace barley and SHW as a major energy supplement for milk production. The environmental impact, expressed as methane emissions...

  18. Silage quality, dry matter intake and digestibility by West African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silage quality, dry matter intake and digestibility by West African dwarf sheep of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum cv Ntchisi) harvested at 4 and 12 week. ... Grass mixtures were subjected to silage for 42 days. Quality and chemical composition of the silage was assessed. Silage was also fed to WAD sheep to determine the ...

  19. Effect of inclusion of different levels of silage on rumen microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers fed on rice straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thien Truong Giang Nguyen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena is a perennial tropical legume that can be directly grazed or harvested and offered to ruminants as hay, silage, or fresh. However, Leucaena contain phenolic compounds, which are considered anti-nutritional factors as these may reduce intake, digestibility and thus animal performance. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine effects of Leucaena silage (LS feeding levels on rumen microbial populations, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis in dairy steers. Methods Four, rumen fistulated dairy steers with initial weight of 167±12 kg were randomly assigned to receive dietary treatments according to a 4×4 Latin square design. Treatments were as followings: T1 = untreated rice straw (RS; Control, T2 = 70% RS+30% LS, T3 = 40% RS+60% LS, and T4 = 100% LS. Dairy steers were fed rice straw and LS ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate at 0.2% of body weight/d. Results Results revealed that the rumen microbial population, especially cellulolytic, proteolytic bacteria and fungal zoospores were enhanced in steers that received 60% of LS (p0.05. Protozoal population was linearly decreased with increasing level of LS (p<0.05. Moreover, N-balance and microbial protein synthesis were enhanced by LS feeding (p<0.05 and were the highest in 60% LS group. Conclusion Based on this study, it could be concluded that replacement of RS with 60% LS significantly improved microbial population and microbial protein synthesis in diary steers.

  20. The effects of legume seeds on the lactation performance of dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to study if locally produced organic legume seeds as protein supplement could improve the performance of dairy cows. The experiment was a cyclic change over design were the control diet consisted of grass silage and barley (60:40 on a dry matter (DM basis. Barley was replaced with rapeseed expeller (RSE, or isonitrogenous supplements of peas, untreated field beans (UFB, heat-treated FB (TFB or a lower level of TFB (TFB-low that provided the same dietary metabolizable protein concentrations as of UFB. None of the legume protein supplementations had effect on DM intake (DMI neither on energy corrected milk yield compared to control. The RSE treatment increased milk (24.8 vs. 23.6 kg d-1 and protein yield (913 vs. 863 g d-1 compared to other protein supplements. Heat-treated FB had no effect on DMI, milk or protein yield compared to UFB. Only RSE resulted in improvements in dairy cows performance in relation to the control diet.

  1. Effect of camelina oil or live yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on ruminal methane production, rumen fermentation, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Kairenius, P; Stefański, T; Leskinen, H; Comtet-Marre, S; Forano, E; Chaucheyras-Durand, F; Shingfield, K J

    2015-05-01

    The potential of dietary supplements of 2 live yeast strains (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) or camelina oil to lower ruminal methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) production and the associated effects on animal performance, rumen fermentation, rumen microbial populations, nutrient metabolism, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition of cows fed grass silage-based diets were examined. Four Finnish Ayrshire cows (53±7 d in milk) fitted with rumen cannula were used in a 4×4 Latin square with four 42-d periods. Cows received a basal total mixed ration (control treatment) with a 50:50 forage-to-concentrate ratio [on a dry matter (DM) basis] containing grass silage, the same basal total mixed ration supplemented with 1 of 2 live yeasts, A or B, administered directly in the rumen at 10(10) cfu/d (treatments A and B), or supplements of 60g of camelina oil/kg of diet DM that replaced concentrate ingredients in the basal total mixed ration (treatment CO). Relative to the control, treatments A and B had no effects on DM intake, rumen fermentation, ruminal gas production, or apparent total-tract nutrient digestibility. In contrast, treatment CO lowered DM intake and ruminal CH4 and CO2 production, responses associated with numerical nonsignificant decreases in total-tract organic matter digestibility, but no alterations in rumen fermentation characteristics or changes in the total numbers of rumen bacteria, methanogens, protozoa, and fungi. Compared with the control, treatment CO decreased the yields of milk, milk fat, lactose, and protein. Relative to treatment B, treatment CO improved nitrogen utilization due to a lower crude protein intake. Treatment A had no influence on milk FA composition, whereas treatment B increased cis-9 10:1 and decreased 11-cyclohexyl 11:0 and 24:0 concentrations. Treatment CO decreased milk fat 8:0 to 16:0 and total saturated FA, and increased 18:0, 18:1, 18:2, conjugated linoleic acid, 18:3n-3, and trans FA concentrations. Decreases in ruminal CH4

  2. Produção e qualidade do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst = Production and quality of milk from Holstein cows fed stargrass silages (Cynodon nlemfuensis Vanderyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Junior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o desempenho e a qualidade do leite produzido por vacas da raça Holandesa no terço final da lactação, alimentadas com silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de inoculante ou uréia em relação à silagem de milho. Foram avaliadas silagens de grama estrela com aplicação de aditivo enzimo-bacteriano na dosagem de 80 g deinoculante/tonelada, uréia na dosagem de 7 kg t-1 e silagem de milho. Para avaliação do desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade foram utilizadas seis vacas da raça Holandesas com peso médio de 480 kg distribuídas em delineamento (duplo quadrado latino (3 x 3. Asdigestibilidades da MS, PB e FDN foram maiores para a silagem de milho. O fornecimento de silagens de grama estrela com aditivo e com uréia não interferiu na produção e qualidade do leite, mostrando-se como alternativa para sistemas de produção animal com base emvolumosos conservados mediante a análise econômica da substituição da silagem de milho.The study aimed to evaluate animal performance and quality of milk from Holstein cows during the final third period of lactation fed stargrass silages supplied with inoculant or urea in relation to corn silage. Stargrass silages with enzymatic-bacterial inoculant (80 g of additive/ton of silage, urea supply (7 kg t-1 and corn silage were evaluated. Six Holstein cows with an average body weight of 480 kg were allocated in a double Latin square design (3 x 3. Corn silagepresented the highest values of DM, CP and NDF digestibility when compared to stargrass silages. Supplying Holstein cows with stargrass silages with additive and urea did not promote any effect on production and milk quality. Thus, it can be an alternative in animalproduction systems based on conserved roughage, depending on economical analysis for the replacement of corn silage.

  3. Effect of forage to concentrate ratio with sorghum silage as a source of forage on rumen fermentation, N balance, and purine derivative excretion in limit-fed dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kljak, K; Pino, F; Heinrichs, A J

    2017-01-01

    Sorghum silage has been shown to be a good alternative to corn silage for dairy cows; however, studies regarding heifers are insufficiently explored. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate effects of changing forage to concentrate ratio (FOR:CON) in diets based on sorghum silage on N digestibility, rumen fermentation, N balance, C excretion, and microbial N yield in limit-fed dairy heifers. A split-plot 4×4 Latin square design with 19-d periods (15 d of adaptation and 4 d of sampling) was conducted with 8 rumen cannulated dairy heifers (age 13.7±0.6mo and weight 364.8±17.6kg). Heifers were fed sorghum silage-based diets with 4 FOR:CON (85:15, 75:25, 65:35, and 55:45) balanced for similar metabolizable energy intake per unit of body weight and crude protein concentration. Diets were fed to allow 900 to 1,000g/d body weight gain and were fed once daily. Total collection of feces and urine was completed on d 15 to 19 to determine N, C, urea N, allantoin, uric acid, and creatinine excretion. Rumen contents were sampled on d 19 at 0, 1.5, 3, 4.5, 6, 9, 13, 17, 21, and 23h after feeding to measure pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA), ammonia-N, and free AA concentrations. The pH decreased linearly while ammonia-N and free AA levels increased linearly with decreasing FOR:CON of diets. Although mean total VFA did not differ among treatment diets, molar proportions of VFA did. Acetate proportion decreased while propionate and butyrate increased with decreasing FOR:CON. Intake of N and urea N excretion decreased with decreasing forage proportion in diets while total N excretion, apparent N digestibility, and N retention were not different. Intake of C and excretion in feces (g/d) decreased linearly with decreasing FOR:CON in diets. Creatinine, allantoin, and uric acid excretion were not affected by FOR:CON; however, microbial N yield tended to increase linearly with greater concentrate in diets. Heifers limit fed diets based on sorghum silage demonstrated the

  4. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P used to calculate accumulated N and OM intake (kg) and excretion for the 2 sexes. Sex had no effects (P > 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific literature and can be used to improve

  5. Digestion site of starch from cereals and legumes in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, M; Lund, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2009-01-01

    that investigated effects of various processing techniques on digestion kinetics. Data originated from four experiments with cows cannulated in the rumen, duodenum and ileum, and fed rations composed of the respective starch source and grass-clover silage balanced with soy bean meal and a mineral premix...

  6. Effects of replacing conventional corn silage with BMR corn silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research has shown that the (lignin reducing) brown mid-rib mutation in corn silage, which increases in vitro fiber digestibility, does not always improve fiber digestibility when fed as part of a TMR; however, feed intake and milk production are increased. The objectives of this experiment...

  7. Microbial community analysis of a biogas-producing completely stirred tank reactor fed continuously with fodder beet silage as mono-substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klocke, Michael; Mähnert, Pia; Mundt, Kerstin; Souidi, Khadidja; Linke, Bernd

    2007-03-01

    The bioconversion of renewable raw material to biogas by anaerobic microbial fermentation processes in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTR) is a valuable alternative resource of energy especially for rural areas. However, knowledge about the microorganisms involved in the degradation of plant biomass is still poor. In this study, a first analysis of the biogas-forming process within a CSTR fed continuously with fodder beet silage as mono-substrate is presented in the context of molecular data on the microbial community composition. As indicated by the conventional process parameters like pH value, content of volatile fatty acids, N:P ratio and the biogas yield, the biogas-forming process within the CSTR occurred with a stable and efficient performance. The average biogas yield based on volatile solids was 0.87m(3)kg(-1) at an organic loading rate of 1.2-2.3kgm(-3)d(-1). This amounts to 94% of the theoretical maximum. In order to identify microorganisms within the CSTR, a 16S rDNA clone library was constructed by PCR amplification applying a prokaryote-specific primer set. One hundred and forty seven clones were obtained and subsequently characterized by amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The sequences of 60 unique ARDRA patterns were estimated in a length of approximately 800-900bp each. Four of them were assigned to the domain Archaea and 56 to the domain Bacteria. Within the domain Archaea, all clones showed a close relationship to methanogenic species. Major bacterial groups represented in the clone library were the class Clostridia of the phylum Firmicutes (22% of all 16S rDNA clones), the class Deltaproteobacteria of the phylum Proteobacteria (24%), the class Bacilli of the phylum Firmicutes (22%) and members of the phylum Bacteroidetes (21%). Within these major groups, the highest biodiversity was found within the class Clostridia (35% of all operational taxonomic units). Members of the phyla Actinobacteria and Spirochaetes were represented only

  8. Nitrogen and mineral balance of lambs artificially infected with Haemonchus contortus and fed tanniferous sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharenberg, A; Heckendorn, F; Arrigo, Y; Hertzberg, H; Gutzwiller, A; Hess, H D; Kreuzer, M; Dohme, F

    2008-08-01

    Tanniferous temperate legumes are assumed to possess anthelmintic properties, but it is unclear whether this is the direct result of condensed tannins (CT) or is mediated indirectly via an improved metabolic protein supply. A metabolism experiment was conducted to differentiate between these factors by feeding the CT plant sainfoin (19.7% CP in DM) to lambs infected with the abomasal blood-sucking nematode Hemonchus contortus. A total of 18 infected lambs were fed sainfoin either untreated or treated with polyethylene glycol, a CT-inactivating agent, or a grass-clover mixture (13.2% CP in DM) over 3 wk (n = 6). Six uninfected lambs received the grass-clover mixture as a control. In addition to indicators of infection (fecal egg count, packed-cell volume, abomasal worm burden, and serum protein), nutrient digestibility, the balance of N and selected minerals, ruminal fluid characteristics, and plasma AA levels were determined mostly in the final experimental week. The specific effects of the sainfoin CT, the extra CP with sainfoin, and the infection were statistically evaluated by contrast analysis. The sainfoin CT exerted no beneficial effects on resilience to nematode infection and exerted only minor effects on ruminal ammonia or blood urea concentrations and the excretory pattern of N. Plasma alanine, aspartate, and proline concentrations tended to be greater (P < or = 0.09) because of the sainfoin CT, whereas the other AA remained unaffected. Intake of the mineral supplement was lower (P < 0.001) for lambs fed sainfoin compared with those fed sainfoin treated with polyethylene glycol. Feeding the high-protein sainfoin instead of the grass-clover mixture increased (P < 0.001) N retention and apparent OM digestibility, whereas digestibility of NDF and ADF were decreased (P < 0.001). Feeding sainfoin also decreased (P < or = 0.04) plasma alanine, glycine, isoleucine, and total nonessential AA compared with the grass-clover mixture. Although fecal egg count, worm

  9. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas contendo silagem de cana-deaçúcar tratada com aditivo químico ou microbiano para cordeiros = Apparent digestibility of diets containing sugar cane silage treated with chemical or microbial additives fed to lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Shinkai Gentil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar propicia benefícios logísticos à propriedade, contudo, as altas concentrações de etanol encontradas nas silagens pode reduzir o consumo voluntário, e conseqüentemente, afetar o desempenho animal. Foram utilizados 12 borregos Santa Inês (49±3 kg distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos completos casualizados. As rações foram compostas por 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado na MS, sendo os quatro tratamentos experimentais: a cana-de-açúcar in natura (CC, b silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com L. buchneri (SAD, c silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com 1,0% de uréia (U1,0 e d silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com 1,5% de uréia (U1,5. O coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN foi menor (p0,05 para as variáveis avaliadas. A ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar melhora a digestibilidade da FDN.Ensiling of sugar cane may contribute to improve operational efficiency at farm level. However, the high ethanol level found in sugar cane ensiled without additive may reduce voluntary feed intake and may affect animal performance. This experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of fresh sugar cane and sugar cane silage treated with microbial (Lactobacillus buchneri or chemical (urea additives on apparent digestibility of diets fed to lambs. Twelve Santa Inês lambs (49 ± 3 kg were assigned to a complete randomized block design and fed a 50:50 (concentrate: roughage ratio TMR. Experimental treatments were the roughage source: fresh sugar cane(FSC, sugar cane silage with L. buchneri (SCS + Lb, sugar cane silage with 1% urea (SCS1% or sugar cane silage with 1.5% urea (SCS1.5%. NDF digestibility coefficient was lower (p0.05 in nitrogen balance for all the comparisons evaluated. The sugar cane ensiled improve NDF digestibility.

  10. FEDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venable, John; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of design artefacts and design theories is a key activity in Design Science Research (DSR), as it provides feedback for further development and (if done correctly) assures the rigour of the research. However, the extant DSR literature provides insufficient guidance on evaluation...... to enable Design Science Researchers to effectively design and incorporate evaluation activities into a DSR project that can achieve DSR goals and objectives. To address this research gap, this research paper develops, explicates, and provides evidence for the utility of a Framework for Evaluation in Design...... Science (FEDS) together with a process to guide design science researchers in developing a strategy for evaluating the artefacts they develop within a DSR project. A FEDS strategy considers why, when, how, and what to evaluate. FEDS includes a two-dimensional characterisation of DSR evaluation episodes...

  11. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  12. Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongli Qu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05. Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05. The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

  13. Comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras alimentadas com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar ou silagem de milho Ingestive behavior in dairy cows fed sugar cane or corn silage based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro de Souza Mendonça

    2004-06-01

    . The animals were observed every 10 minutes, during 24 hours, to determine the time expended eating, ruminating and resting. There was no difference for the mean time expended eating and ruminating among the experimental diets. However, in the corn silage based diets, the animals expended less time idle, compared to those fed sugar cane based diets. Feeding efficiency, expressed in gNDF/h, showed no difference among the experimental diets. Rumination efficiency, expressed in gDM/h, was similar for the different diets. Rumination efficiency, expressed in gNDF/h (RUE NDF was higher for the corn silage based diet. There was no difference in RUE NDF among the sugar cane based diets. Cows fed sugar cane based diets showed higher time expended in idle and smaller DM intake, when compared those fed corn silage based diets.

  14. Maize silage as a finisher feed for Merino lambs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hannes

    2013-09-08

    Sep 8, 2013 ... Forage conservation plays an important role in animal production systems in South Africa. Large parts ... used in sheep production systems. European .... more lean growth. Table 2 Mean (±SE) growth parameters of Merino lambs fed four diets, differing in silage content. Maize silage inclusion level. P-Value.

  15. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  16. Replacing grass silage with pea-barley intercrop silage in the feeding of the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PURSIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of replacing wilted grass silage (GS with pea-barley intercrop silage (PBS on feed intake, diet digestibility and milk production was studied with 8 multiparous Ayrshire-cows in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Proportion of PBS was 0 (PBS0, 33 (PBS33, 67 (PBS67 or 100 (PBS100 % of silage dry matter (DM. The DM content was 559 and 255 g kg-1 for GS and PBS. Crude protein content was 131 and 170 g kg-1 DM, respectively. Pea-barley silage was more extensively fermented than GS with total fermentation acid content of 120 vs. 12 g kg-1 DM. Silage was fed for ad libitum intake and supplemented with on the average 13 kg concentrate per day. Silage DM intake was 9.2 (PBS0, 9.7 (PBS33, 9.0 (PBS67 and 7.1 (PBS100 kg per day (Pquadr. < 0.05. The energy corrected milk yield [30.3 (PBS0, 29.8 (PBS33, 30.3 (PBS67, 31.3 (PBS100 kg per day] was not significantly affected by the treatment. Milk protein concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.05 in response to feeding PBS. It is concluded that PBS can replace up to two thirds of wilted, moderate quality GS in the feeding of dairy cows because in this experiment pure pea-barley silage reduced silage intake.

  17. Profile of milk fatty acids from moxotó goats fed with different levels of manicoba (Manihot Glaziovii Muel Arg. silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítala Viviane Ubaldo Mesquita

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the manicoba silage use (Manihot glaziovii Muel Arg. in different roughage:concentrate ratios (30:70; 40:60; 50:50 and 60:40 % on the fatty acids profile of the milk from Moxotó goats. Eight multiparous goats with approximately 60 post-birth days and weigh 44 kg on average were used in a Double Latin Square with four treatments, four periods and four animals. Each period lasted 15 days with 10 days of adaptation to experimental diets and 5 days of milk collection. The results of the fatty acids analyses were submitted to the analysis of variance (ANOVA and regression. An increasing linear effect for the miristic acid (C14:0 and decreasing for the linoleic acid (C18:3 was observed in function of the silage levels in diet. The milk fat presented high contents of desirable fatty acids (C18:0 + unsaturated acids, considered as nutritionally important due to their benefits to the human health. It could be concluded that the manicoba silage could be included in the diet with the participation of up to 60%, presenting a nutrient supply of high nutritional value.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos da utilização de silagem de maniçoba (Manihot glaziovii Muel Arg. em diferentes relações volumoso:concentrado (30:70; 40:60; 50:50 e 60:40 % no perfil de ácidos graxos do leite de cabras da raça Moxotó. Foram utilizadas oito cabras multíparas com aproximadamente 60 dias pós-parto, pesando em média 44 kg, em um Quadrado Latino duplo 4 x 4, com quatro tratamentos, quatro períodos e quatro animais. Cada período teve duração de 15 dias, com 10 de adaptação às dietas experimentais e cinco dias de colheita de leite. Foi verificado efeito linear crescente do ácido mirístico (C14:0 e decrescente para o ácido linolênico (C18:3, em função dos níveis de silagem da dieta. A gordura do leite apresentou elevado teor de ácidos graxos desejáveis (C18:0 + insaturados

  18. Intake and performance of confined bovine fed fresh or ensilaged sugar cane based diets and corn silage Consumo e desempenho de bovinos confinados com dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Chamon de Castro Menezes; Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho; Felipe Antunes Magalhães; Rilene Ferreira Diniz Valadares; Laura Franco Prados; Edenio Detmann; Odilon Gomes Pereira; Maria Ignez Leão

    2011-01-01

    It was evaluated intake, total apparent digestibility, performance and feeding behavior of bovine fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane given fresh or crushed and given 72 hours after storage, ensilaged sugar cane with or without 1% of calcium oxide and concentrate at the proportion of 1% of the body weight. It was used 35 bovines, distributed in a random block design, with 5 treatments and 6 repetitions. The animals were housed in collective stalls with troughs individuali...

  19. Consumo, digestibilidade e desempenho de novilhas alimentadas com casca de café em substituição à silagem de milho Intake, digestibility and performance of dairy heifers fed coffee hulls replacing of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Monteiro Araújo Teixeira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a substituição da silagem de milho pela casca de café em dietas de novilhas leiteiras sobre os consumos, as digestibilidades aparentes totais dos nutrientes e o desempenho dos animais. Foram utilizadas 24 novilhas holandesas, puras e mestiças, distribuídas, de acordo com o peso inicial dos animais, em delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos (níveis de casca de café: 0,0; 7,0; 14,0 e 21,0% na base da MS total e seis repetições. Diariamente, todas as novilhas foram alimentadas com 2 kg de concentrado. Os consumos de MS aumentaram linearmente, enquanto os consumos de matéria natural (MN não foram influenciados pela inclusão de casca de café nas dietas. O aumento no consumo de MS foi de aproximadamente 20 g para cada unidade de casca de café adicionada na dieta (% MS e o consumo médio de MN foi de 13,84 kg/dia. As digestibilidades de MS, MO, PB, CT e FDN e a concentração de NDT das dietas reduziram linearmente com a substituição da silagem de milho pela casca de café, observando-se redução de 0,158 unidades percentuais na digestibilidade da MS para cada unidade de casca de café adicionada na dieta (% MS. A inclusão de casca de café afetou de modo negativo o ganho de peso, que reduziu linearmente (5,51 g de PV por unidade de casca de café adicionada a dieta conforme aumentaram os níveis de casca de café em substituição a silagem de milho. Em dietas para novilhas leiteiras, a casca de café pode substituir a silagem de milho em níveis de até 14% na MS total.The objective was to evaluate the replacement corn silage by coffee hulls in the diet on performance, total apparent digestibility of dairy heifers. Twenty-four dairy Holstein heifers, purebred and crossbred, were assigned, according to animal initial weight, to a randomized block design with four treatments (Coffee hulls levels: 0.0, 7.0, 14.0, and 21.0% DM basis and six replicates. All heifers were daily fed 2.0 kg

  20. Qualidade da carne de cordeiros criados em creep feeding com silagem de grãos úmidos de milho Meat quality of lambs fed with high moisture corn silage in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar níveis de substituição (0; 50 e 100% do milho grão seco moído pela silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM na ração de cordeiros alimentados em creep feeding. Vinte e quatro cordeiros Suffolk foram avaliados quanto às características quantitativas e qualitativas do músculo longissimus dorsi. Os animais foram abatidos ao atingirem 28 kg PV e suas carcaças resfriadas foram seccionadas em sete regiões anatômicas. Sobre a superfície do longissimus dorsi, no corte denominado lombo, foram tomadas as medidas: largura e profundidade máximas; mínima e máxima espessuras de gordura de cobertura e área de olho de lombo. Nos lombos, determinaram-se as proporções dos tecidos muscular, adiposo e ósseo, a composição química e a força de cisalhamento. Os resultados revelaram que não houve efeito dos tratamentos para a força de cisalhamento e nem para as medidas tomadas no longissimus dorsi, exceto para a área de olho de lombo, segundo regressão quadrática, com maiores valores para os tratamentos com SGUM. As análises de composição química do longissimus dorsi revelaram que os tratamentos influenciaram o teor de gordura no músculo, que aumentou linearmente de acordo com a inclusão de SGUM na ração. Não foi verificado efeito dos tratamentos sobre a composição tecidual dos lombos. Concluiu-se que é possível recomendar a substituição do milho grão pela silagem de grãos úmidos de milho para a dieta de cordeiros terminados em creep feeding, conservando a boa qualidade da carne.The experiment was carried to study three three levels (0, 50 e 100% of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn grain in rations of lambs fed in creep feeding. Twenty four Suffolk lambs were evaluated to qualitative and quantitative loin (longissimus dorsi characteristics. Lambs were weighed until to reach pre-fixed slaughter weight, 28 kg LW. Cold carcasses were cut in seven anatomical regions. Four

  1. Plant oil supplements reduce methane emissions and improve milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets without affecting milk yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, A R; Tapio, I; Vilkki, J; Shingfield, K J; Leskinen, H

    2018-02-01

    Four lipid supplements varying in chain length or degree of unsaturation were examined for their effects on milk yield and composition, ruminal CH 4 emissions, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and microbial ecology in lactating dairy cows. Five Nordic Red cows fitted with rumen cannulas were used in a 5 × 5 Latin square with five 28-d periods. Treatments comprised total mixed rations based on grass silage with a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40 supplemented with no lipid (CO) or 50 g/kg of diet dry matter (DM) of myristic acid (MA), rapeseed oil (RO), safflower oil (SO), or linseed oil (LO). Feeding MA resulted in the lowest DM intake, and feeding RO reduced DM intake compared with CO. Feeding MA reduced the yields of milk, milk constituents, and energy-corrected milk. Plant oils did not influence yields of milk and milk constituents, but reduced milk protein content compared with CO. Treatments had no effect on rumen fermentation characteristics, other than an increase in ammonia-N concentration due to feeding MA, RO, and SO compared with CO. Lipid supplements reduced daily ruminal CH 4 emission; however, the response was to some extent a result of lower feed intake. Lipids modified microbial community structure without affecting total counts of bacteria, archaea, and ciliate protozoa. Dietary treatments had no effect on the apparent total tract digestibility of organic matter, fiber, and gross energy. Treatments did not affect either energy secreted in milk as a proportion of energy intake or efficiency of dietary N utilization. All lipids lowered de novo fatty acid synthesis in the mammary gland. Plant oils increased proportions of milk fat 18:0, cis 18:1, trans and monounsaturated fatty acids, and decreased saturated fatty acids compared with CO and MA. Both SO and LO increased the proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids, total conjugated linolenic acid, and cis-9,trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid. Feeding MA clearly increased the Δ 9

  2. Desempenho e digestibilidade dos nutrientes em cordeiros alimentados com dietas contendo silagem de resíduos de peixe Performance and digestibility of nutrients in lambs fed diets containing fish residue silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mari Yamamoto

    2007-08-01

    randomly assigned to one of the following three diets: 1 control diet; 2 SRPAD - 8% freshwater fish (Oreochromis niloticus residue silage; or 3 SRPAM - 8% sea fish (Lophius gastrophisus residue silage. The fish residue silages partially replaced soybean meal in the diet; corn silage (40% DM basis was used as the sole forage source. Animals were feed-restricted and maintained in individual stalls; lambs were weighted every 14 days until they reached 32 kg of BW when biometrical measurements were taken. Twelve 7/8 Ile de France 1/8 Polwarth female lambs were used for determination of nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Dry matter intake and average daily weight were not affected by diet and gender averaging 891.83 and 240.26 g/day, respectively. However, lambs that received SRPAM had greater feed conversion (4.04 than those fed the control diet (3.81 and SRPAD (3.47. Male lambs showed greater body length (60.09 cm and forelimb height (56.11 cm than the female counterparts. Intake and digestibility (90.39% of EE was highest in lambs fed SRPAD while NDF digestibility (59.20% was lowest in those fed the control diet. It can be concluded that fish residue silage can partially replace soybean meal in the diet.

  3. Effect of plant oils in the diet on performance and milk fatty acid composition in goats fed diets based on grass hay or maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Laurence; Shingfield, Kevin J; Rouel, Jacques; Ferlay, Anne; Chilliard, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Based on the potential benefits to long-term human health there is interest in developing sustainable nutritional strategies for reducing saturated and increasing specific unsaturated fatty acids in ruminant milk. The impact of plant oil supplements to diets containing different forages on caprine milk fatty acid composition was examined in two experiments using twenty-seven Alpine goats in replicated 3 x 3 Latin squares with 28 d experimental periods. Treatments comprised of no oil (control) or 130 g/d of sunflower-seed oil (SO) or linseed oil (LO) supplements added to diets based on grass hay (H; experiment 1) or maize silage (M; experiment 2). Milk fat content was enhanced (Pdiets, resulting in 17, 15 and 14% increases in milk fat secretion, respectively. For both experiments, plant oils decreased (Pplant oil composition and forage in the diet. In conclusion, plant oils represent an effective strategy for altering the fatty acid composition of caprine milk, with evidence that the basal diet is an important determinant of ruminal unsaturated fatty acid metabolism in the goat.

  4. Influence of diets with silage from forage plants adapted to the semi-arid conditions on lamb quality and sensory attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, F S; Carvalho, G G P; Santos, E M; Araújo, G G L; Gois, G C; Rebouças, R A; Leão, A G; Santos, S A; Oliveira, J S; Leite, L C; Araújo, M L G M L; Cirne, L G A; Silva, R R; Carvalho, B M A

    2017-02-01

    Quality and sensory attributes of meat from 32 mixed-breed Santa Inês lambs fed diets composed of four silages with old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia Lind), buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris), Gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium), and Pornunça (Manihot sp.) were evaluated. Meat from lambs fed diet containing old man saltbush silage (P0.05). However, the silages led to differences (Pbuffelgrass silage. Diets formulated with buffelgrass silage for sheep reduce meat production. Based on the results for carcass weight and meat quality, old man saltbush and pornunça are better silages for finishing sheep. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microbial protein synthesis in young steers fed with grass silage and extruded corn Síntesis de proteína microbiana en novillos jóvenes alimentados con ensilaje de praderas y maíz extruido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial protein synthesis is essential to meet protein requirements in ruminants. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of incorporating extruded corn (Zea mays L. into the ration of young steers fed with grass silage on microbial protein synthesis (MPS. Twenty young steers in metabolic cages were used for supplying food. The treatments consisted of combinations of extruded corn (EC and ground corn (GC EC-10 (10% EC-30% GC; EC-25 (25% EC-15% GC and EC-40 (40% EC-0% GC. These foods constituted 40% of the ration (DM-based and the remaining 60% was grass silage. The MPS was calculated through the excretion of purine derivatives (PD in the urine, using total collection of urine. The inclusion of a higher percentage of extruded corn (EC-40 increased the PD excretion (51.85 mmol d-1, P La síntesis de proteína microbiana es fundamental para satisfacer los requerimientos proteicos en rumiantes. El objetivo de esta investigation fue evaluar el efecto de incluir maíz (Zea mays L. extruido en la ración de novillos alimentados con ensilaje de pradera, sobre la sintesis de proteina microbiana (MPS. Se emplearon 20 novillos jóvenes ubicados en jaulas metabólicas para suministro de los alimentos. Los tratamientos consistieron en combinaciones de maiz extruido (EC y maiz molido (GC EC-10 (10% EC-30% GC; EC-25 (25% EC-15% GC y EC-40 (40% EC-0% GC. Estos alimentos constituyeron el 40% de la ración (base MS y el restante 60% fue ensilaje de pradera. Se estimó la MPS a través de la excreción de derivados de purinas (PD en la orina, empleando colección total de orina. La inclusión de un mayor porcentaje de EC (EC-40 incrementó la excreción de PD (51.85 mmol d-1, P < 0,05. Los valores de excreción de PD fluctuaron entre 663 y 1078 μmol BW-075 d-1. La absorción de proteína microbiana y el flujo de N duodenal también se incrementaron por una mayor inclusión de EC (EC-40, P < 0,05. Las diferencias entre los tratamientos pueden

  6. Effect of legume–grass silages and α-tocopherol supplementation on fatty acid composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in organically produced bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Martinsson, K

    2012-01-01

    - or three-cut red clover–grass silages (R2 and R3, respectively) or two-cut birdsfoot trefoil–grass silage (B2). In Exp. 2, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover (S3) or long-term ley silage with white clover (L3) in combination with the supplementation of RRR...

  7. Dietary fish oil supplements depress milk fat yield and alter milk fatty acid composition in lactating cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kairenius, P; Ärölä, A; Leskinen, H; Toivonen, V; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A; Huhtanen, P; Hurme, T; Griinari, J M; Shingfield, K J

    2015-08-01

    The potential of dietary fish oil (FO) supplements to increase milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations and the associated effects on milk fatty acid (FA) composition, intake, and milk production were examined. Four multiparous lactating cows offered a grass silage-based diet (forage:concentrate ratio 58:42, on a dry matter basis) supplemented with 0, 75, 150, or 300g of FO/d (FO0, FO75, FO150, and FO300, respectively) were used in a 4×4 Latin square with 28-d experimental periods. Milk FA composition was analyzed by complementary silver-ion thin-layer chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and silver-ion HPLC. Supplements of FO decreased linearly dry matter intake, yields of energy-corrected milk, milk fat and protein, and milk fat content. Compared with FO0, milk fat content and yield were decreased by 30.1 and 40.6%, respectively, on the FO300 treatment. Supplements of FO linearly increased milk 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 concentrations from 0.07 to 0.18 and 0.03 to 0.10g/100g of FA, respectively. Enrichment of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 was accompanied by decreases in 4- to 18-carbon saturated FA and increases in total conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), trans FA, and polyunsaturated FA concentrations. Fish oil elevated milk fat cis-9,trans-11 CLA content in a quadratic manner, reaching a maximum on FO150 (from 0.61 to 2.15g/100g of FA), whereas further amounts of FO increased trans-10 18:1 with no change in trans-11 18:1 concentration. Supplements of FO also resulted in a dose-dependent appearance of 37 unique 20- and 22-carbon intermediates in milk fat. Concentrations of 16-, 18-, 20-, and 22-carbon trans FA were all increased by FO, with enrichment of trans 18:1 and trans 18:2 being quantitatively the most important. Decreases in milk fat yield to FO were not related to changes in milk trans-10,cis-12 CLA concentration or estimated milk fat melting point. Partial least square regression analysis indicated that FO-induced milk fat depression was associated with

  8. Effect of replacing dietary lucerne silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage containing different levels of condensed tannin on production of lactating dairy cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extensive degradation of crude protein (CP) in ensiled legumes impairs N utilization when these silages are fed to dairy cattle. Previously, we reported that feeding birdsfoot trefoil (BFT; Lotus corniculatus) with elevated levels of condensed tannin (CT) reduced silage nonprotein N and was associat...

  9. Effects of whey and molasses as silage additives on potato hash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potato hash silage (treated with no additive, or whey, or molasses) and MS were produced in 210 L drums for 90 days and the fermentation quality of the silages was determined thereafter. Diets were formulated and fed ad libitum to 32 South African Dorper lambs (23.5 ± 0.873 kg live weight) for 63 days. A digestibility study ...

  10. Blood constituents of holstein cows fed with corn or elephant-grass silages / Constituintes sangüíneos de vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com silagens de milho ou de capim-elefante

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Júnior

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of corn (Zea mays L. silage and elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silage on the nutrition of cows during lactation, over some of the blood constituents (glucose, triglycerides and urea. The treatments were three silages (corn silage, elephant-grass silage with bacterial inoculating, elephant-grass silage with enzyme-bacterial inoculating. Nine Holstein cows, with a medium weight of 520 kg, were distributed in experimental delineation of simultaneous triple Latin square. The blood glucose rates were considered normal, independents of the silage used. Concerning the triglicerides levels, it was verified that they are below normal to the different silages. One of the reasons would be the low fat level on the diet. The blood levels of urea observed on the three treatments are considered normal. There was not significant difference among the different kinds of silage in relation to the blood levels of urea, glucose and triglycerides.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos do fornecimento de silagem de milho (Zea mays L. e silagem de capim-elefante (Pennisetum purpureum Schum na alimentação de vacas em lactação, sobre alguns dos constituintes sangüíneos (glicose, triglicerídeos e uréia. Os tratamentos foram três silagens (silagem de milho, silagem de capim-elefante com inoculante bacteriano, silagem de capim-elefante com inoculante enzimo-bacteriano. Foram utilizadas nove vacas da raça holandesa, com peso médio de 520 kg, distribuídas em delineamento experimental de triplo quadrado latino simultâneo. As taxas de glicose sangüínea das vacas foram consideradas normais, independente do volumoso utilizado. Em relação aos níveis de triglicerídeos, verificou-se que estão abaixo do normal para os diferentes volumosos. Uma das razões seria o baixo nível de gordura na dieta. Os níveis sangüíneos de uréia observados nos três tratamentos são considerados normais

  11. Consumo, digestibilidade total e desempenho de novilhos Nelore recebendo dietas contendo diferentes proporções de silagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu e de sorgo Intake, apparent total tract digestibility and production of Nellore steers fed diets containing different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu and sorghum silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Helena Martins Chizzotti

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade total dos nutrientes e o desempenho de novilhos Nelore recebendo dietas contendo silagens de capim-braquiarão e de sorgo como fonte de volumoso nas proporções de 100:0, 67:33, 33:67 e 0:100, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizados 24 novilhos Nelore, castrados, com peso médio inicial de 380 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, com seis repetições, recebendo 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado, com base na matéria seca. O ensaio teve duração de 78 dias - 15 dias de adaptação seguidos de três períodos de 21 dias. Os consumos médios de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT, assim como a taxa de passagem, aumentaram linearmente com o incremento da silagem de sorgo nas dietas. Tendência semelhante foi observada para o ganho de peso médio diário, estimando-se acréscimos de 0,00313 kg/unidade de silagem de sorgo adicionada. As digestibilidades totais de MS, MO, PB e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN também apresentaram comportamento linear crescente com o incremento dos níveis de silagem de sorgo. Contudo, as digestibilidades aparentes do EE e dos CNF não foram influenciadas pelas dietas, registrando-se, respectivamente, valores médios de 80,1 e 89,5%. A associação de 67% de silagem de sorgo e 33% de silagem de capim-braquiarão consistiu em como boa alternativa de volumoso para a alimentação de novilhos Nelore, uma vez que promoveu consumo e ganho de peso próximos aos observados para a dieta contendo apenas silagem de sorgo.The objective of this trial was to study intake, apparent total tract digestibility, and production of Nellore steers fed diets containing the following ratios of Brachiaria brizantha and sorghum silages: 100:0, 67:33, 33:67, and 0:100 on dry matter (DM basis. Twenty-four castrated steers averaging 380 kg at the beginning

  12. Evaluation of the transfer of immunoglobulin from colostrum anaerobic fermentation (colostrum silage) to newborn calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Mara H; Pereira, Daniela I B; Borchardt, Jessica L; Sturbelle, Regis T; Rosa, Matheus C; Guedes, Marcio C; Gularte, Marcia A; Leite, Fábio P Leivas

    2014-11-01

    Colostrum silage is an anaerobic fermentation methodology of excess farm colostrum used to conserve and provide as milk replacement for calves. The present study aimed to evaluate the levels of immunoglobulins present in bovine colostrum silage and its absorption by newborn calves. The concentration of immunoglobulins was determined in fresh colostrum and colostrum silage stored for 12 months. The absorption of immunoglobulins by calves was assessed immediately after birth and 24 h after colostrum silage intake. The immunoglobulin levels were evaluated by ELISA. The results highlighted that colostrum silage kept similar levels of immunoglobulins as the ones in colostrum in natura, and can be transferred to newborn calves with similar amounts to calves fed with colostrum in natura. It is concluded that colostrum silage keeps viable immunoglobulins, and is able to transfer passive immunity to newborn calves. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. Performance of Holstein heifers fed sugarcane silages treated with urea, sodium benzoate or Lactobacillus buchneri Desempenho de novilhas Holandesas alimentadas com silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com uréia, benzoato de sódio ou Lactobacillus buchneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André de Faria Pedroso

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the performance of heifers fed sugarcane silages produced with and without additives. Thirty-two Holstein heifers were randomly assigned, in a block design, to evaluate rations (46% silage; 54% concentrate; 12% crude protein containing silages treated with (fresh basis urea (0.5%, sodium benzoate (0.1% or Lactobacillus buchneri (3.64x10(5 cfu g-1 . Inoculation with L. buchneri improved daily gain (1.24 vs. 0.94 kg day-1 , and the addition of benzoate resulted in better feed conversion (7.6 vs. 9.4 kg of dry matter per kg of live weight, in relation to the untreated silage (control. Treatments did not affect dry matter intake (mean of 2.19% of live weight. Rations containing silages treated with benzoate or L. buchneri showed lower cost per kg of weight gain. Treatment with urea did not improve animal performance, but the cost per kg of weight gain was lower than that of the control ration.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a performance de novilhas alimentadas com silagens de cana-de-açúcar tratadas com aditivos. Trinta e duas novilhas Holandesas foram aleatoriamente distribuídas em um delineamento em blocos, para avaliar rações (46% silagem; 54% concentrado; 12% proteína bruta contendo silagem tratada com (base matéria verde uréia (0,5%, benzoato de sódio (0,1% ou Lactobacillus buchneri (3,64x10(5 ufc g-1 . A inoculação de L. buchneri melhorou o ganho diário (1,24 vs. 0,94 kg dia-1 e a adição de benzoato melhorou a conversão alimentar (7,6 vs. 9,4 kg de matéria seca por kg de peso vivo, relativamente ao controle (silagem não tratada. Os tratamentos não afetaram o consumo de matéria seca (2,19% do peso vivo. As rações com silagens tratadas com benzoato ou L. buchneri mostraram menor custo por kg de ganho de peso. O tratamento com uréia não melhorou o desempenho animal, mas o custo por kg de ganho de peso foi menor do que na dieta controle.

  14. Carry-over of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dairy cows fed smoke contaminated maize silage or sugar beet pulp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Klop, A.; Herbes, R.; Eijkeren, van J.C.H.; Zeilmaker, M.J.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Traag, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    Fires and improper drying may result in contamination of feed with PCDD/Fs and PCBs. To predict the impact of elevated feed levels, it is important to understand the carry-over to edible products from food producing animals. Therefore, a carry-over study was performed with maize silage contaminated

  15. Consumo, digestibilidade e parâmetros ruminais em vacas gestantes alimentadas com silagem de rama de mandioca Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters in non lactating pregnant dairy cows fed cassava foliage silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Cristina Modesto

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para estudar os efeitos da substituição da silagem de milho pela silagem da rama de mandioca para vacas gestantes não-lactantes. Os níveis de substituição da silagem de milho pela silagem da rama de mandioca foram 0, 20, 40 e 60%. Foram avaliados o consumo e as digestibilidades de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, carboidratos totais (CT e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF, o pH e o nitrogênio amoniacal ruminal antes e 2, 4, 6 e 8 horas depois da alimentação da manhã. Foram utilizadas quatro vacas da raça Holandesa não-lactantes e no terço final de gestação, canuladas no rúmen, distribuídas em um quadrado latino 4 × 4. Não foi observado efeito do nível de substituição da silagem de milho pela silagem da rama de mandioca sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade dos nutrientes e os parâmetros ruminais, exceto a digestibilidade aparente de proteína bruta e as concentrações de nitrogênio amoniacal. Verificou-se efeito linear negativo para digestibilidade aparente da proteína à medida que a silagem de milho foi substituída pela de rama de mandioca. Também para o nitrogênio amoniacal foi observado efeito linear negativo 8 horas pós-prandial. A substituição da silagem de milho pela silagem da rama de mandioca, em todos níveis estudados, pode ser feita na alimentação de vacas gestantes não-lactantes, pois não modifica o consumo, os parâmetros ruminais e a digestibilidade da matéria seca e dos nutrientes, exceto proteína bruta e nitrogênio amoniacal no tempo de 8 horas pós-prandial.The objective of this trial was to study the effects of substituting corn silage by cassava foliage silage in the diets of non lactating, pregnant dairy cows. The levels of substitution of corn silage by cassava foliage silage were 0, 20, 40 and 60%. Intake and apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent

  16. Desempenho de Novilhos Santa Gertrudis Confinados Submetidos a Dietas com Diferentes Fontes Protéicas e Silagem de Milho, com ou sem Inoculante Animal Performance of Feedlot Santa Gertrudis Steers Fed Diets with Different Protein Sources and Corn Silage, with or without Inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Acosta Backes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de uma dieta alimentar contendo fontes protéicas de diferentes degradabilidades ruminais e silagem de milho preparada com ou sem inoculante PIONEER 1174, no desempenho animal. Foi conduzido um experimento fatorial, em que as fontes protéicas (farinha de carne e osso, uréia e uma mistura de ambas [50:50] foram combinadas com dois tipos de silagens, formando os seis tratamentos experimentais. Foram utilizados 36 novilhos Santa Gertrudis, com 3,5 anos de idade, distribuídos ao acaso nos tratamentos. Diferenças significativas não foram encontradas entre tratamentos para consumo de matéria seca e as interações entre fontes protéicas ou tipos de silagens também não foram significativas. Para o ganho médio diário de peso não houve diferença significativa entre tratamentos, mas a interação entre fontes protéicas mostrou-se significativa. Os animais alimentados com dietas contendo farinha de carne e ossos apresentaram ganhos significativos em relação aos alimentados com uréia. Contrastes entre tipos de silagens não mostraram diferença.The present work was carried out to evaluate the effect of diets with different protein sources of ruminal degradability and corn silage prepared with or without the inoculant PIONEER 1174 on animal performance. A factorial experiment was conducted, where the protein sources (meat and bone meal, urea and a mixture of both [50:50] were combined with two types of silage, composing six treatments. Thirty six 3.5 years old Santa Gertrudis steers were randomly assigned to the treatments. There were no difference between treatments for dry matter intake, not even when the interactions were made among protein sources or types of silage. For average daily gain there were no significant differences among treatments, but the interactions among protein sources were significant. Animals fed diets with meat and bone meal showed higher weight

  17. Digestibilidade aparente de dietas contendo silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com aditivo químico ou microbiano para cordeiros - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.260 Apparent digestibility of diets containing sugar cane silage treatedwith chemical or microbial additives fed to lambs - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.260

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Quirino Mendes

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available A ensilagem da cana-de-açúcar propicia benefícios logísticos à propriedade,contudo, as altas concentrações de etanol encontradas nas silagens pode reduzir o consumovoluntário, e conseqüentemente, afetar o desempenho animal. Foram utilizados 12 borregosSanta Inês (49 ± 3 kg distribuídos em um delineamento experimental de blocos completoscasualizados. As rações foram compostas por 50% de volumoso e 50% de concentrado na MS, sendo os quatro tratamentos experimentais: a cana-de-açúcar in natura (CC, bsilagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com L. buchneri (SAD, c silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com 1,0% de uréia (U1,0 e d silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com 1,5% de uréia (U1,5. O coeficiente de digestibilidade da FDN foi menor (p0,05 para as variáveis avaliadas.Ensiling of sugar cane maycontribute to improve operational efficiency at farm level. However, the high ethanol levelfound in sugar cane ensiled without additive may reduce voluntary feed intake and mayaffect animal performance. This experiment was performed to evaluate the effects of freshsugar cane and sugar cane silage treated with microbial (Lactobacillus buchneri or chemical(urea additives on apparent digestibility of diets fed to lambs. Twelve Santa Inês lambs (49 ± 3 kg were assigned to a complete randomized block design and fed a 50:50 (concentrate:roughage ratio TMR. Experimental treatments were the roughage source: fresh sugar cane(FSC, sugar cane silage with L. buchneri (SCS + Lb, sugar cane silage with 1% urea (SCS1% or sugar cane silage with 1.5% urea (SCS1.5%. NDF digestibility coefficient waslower (p0.05 in nitrogen balance for all thecomparisons evaluated. The sugar cane ensiled improve NDF digestibility.

  18. Fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of the perirenal fat of bulls fattened on grass silage and maize silage supplemented with tannins, garlic, maca and lupines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staerfl, S M; Soliva, C R; Leiber, F; Kreuzer, M

    2011-09-01

    Carcass fat composition of cattle fed a forage-based diet might be inferior with maize silage compared to grass-silage based systems. This was quantified using complete diets with concentrate. To test whether supplements may influence carcass fat properties as well, the maize-silage diet was additionally supplemented either with Acacia mearnsii tannins, garlic, maca or lupines, feeds rich in secondary metabolites. The perirenal fat of 6×6 bulls fed these six diets was analysed for fatty acid profile and shelf life. The n-6/ n-3 ratio was always higher than 11 with the maize silage treatments and 2 with grass silage. The supplements did not affect the occurrence of biohydrogenation intermediates, including rumenic acid. Shelf life, being twice as long with maize compared to grass silage, was either unaffected or tended to be impaired, especially with supplementary garlic. Overall, supplementation was not efficient in improving carcass fat properties of maize-silage fed bulls. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Quinoa-geheleplantensilage in het rantsoen van melkkoeien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.; Schooten, van H.; Pinxterhuis, I.

    2002-01-01

    Report of a feeding experiment with the aim to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of wilted grass-clover silage by quinoa whole crop silage on feed intake and milk production and milk composition of dairy cows.

  20. Round baled grass silage as food for reindeer in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove H. Aagnes

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Round baled silage of mixed grasses was tested as emergency food for reindeer in winter. The silage was made of leaf rich regrowth of Phleum pratense, Agrostis tenuis and Poa spp. It contained 33-3% dry matter (DM, and 14.8 % crude protein, 24.5% cellulose and 26.7% hemicellulose on a DM basis. Palatability, food intake, digestion, rumen fermentation, body mass (BM, carcass weight and gastrointestinal (GI anatomy were investigated. A group of adult female reindeer (n = 38, were taken from natural winter pasture and fed grass silage ad libitum. The majority (78% of the animals were eating silage after two days and 95% of the animals ate silage after five days. Five reindeer calves were taken from natural winter pasture and fed lichens ad libitum for 14 days after which they were starved for two days before being offered silage adlibitum. The median daily DM food intake was 370 g (range 250-610 g on the first day increasing to 810 g (range 530-1100 g at days 16 to 20. Median apparent digestibility coefficient (DC of DM was 64.3% (range 62.4-66.2%. The median in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD of the silage after 72 h of microbial digestion was 68.3 % (range 66.6-71.3 % (Ws=30, n,=5, n2=4, P<0.01. Median ruminal VFA concentration and pH were 48.2 mM (range 38.4-52.5 mM and 7.0 (range 6.95-7.17, respectively, in the reindeer calves (n=5. BM initially increased when the reindeer calves were fed silage, but stabilised after 11 days. The increased BM may have been due to an increased recticulo-rumen digesta load, which amounted to 19.6-23.7 % of BM (n=3. The carcass weight of the reindeer calves was 42.6-44.2% of the BM (n=3 after 47 days of silage feeding. The results indicate that although the round bale silage of mixed grasses of medium quality was highly palatable to reindeer it was apparantly of only limited value as an emergency food for the reindeer calves, as indicated by low DC of DM and low ruminal VFA concentration.

  1. Consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos alimentados com silagem de capim-mombaça Intake, digestibilities of the nutrients, and ruminal variables in cattle fed Mombaça-grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.R. Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente total e parcial dos nutrientes, o pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal em bovinos alimentados com silagem de capim-mombaça e concentrado nas seguintes proporções: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50 e 35:65, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizados quatro animais Holandês x Zebu, com peso corporal médio inicial de 229kg, canulados no rúmen e abomaso, e distribuídos em quadrado latino 4x4. Os consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos totais (CHOT, expressos em kg/dia, e a digestibilidade parcial dos carboidratos não fibrosos (CNF apresentaram comportamento linear crescente, com resposta platô nos níveis de concentrado de 54,1; 54,8; 52,9; 62,2; 55,2 e 52,7%. O consumo dos demais nutrientes, exceto da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN, e as digestibilidades aparente total de MS, MO e CNF e a parcial de MO aumentaram linearmente com o incremento do concentrado nas dietas. Não foram encontradas diferenças no consumo e nas digestibilidades aparente total e parcial da FDN. Para concentração de amônia e pH ruminal, observou-se efeito quadrático de tempo de amostragem, com valores máximos de 24,76mg/dL e 6,53 em 2,8 e 3,5 horas após a alimentação, respectivamente.Intake; total and partial digestibilities of nutrients; and ruminal pH and ammonia concentration were evaluated in beef cattle fed Mombaça-grass silage and concentrate at the following proportions: 80:20, 65:35, 50:50, and 35:65, in the dry matter basis. Four Holstein x Zebu steers, with average live weight of 229kg, fitted with ruminal and abomasal canullae, were used. The animals were allotted in a 4x4 latin square design. The intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (kg/day, as well the partials digestibilities of non fibrous carbohydrates (NFC increased linearly with plateau at the concentrate

  2. Milk production, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in lactating cows fed total mixed ration silages containing steam-flaked brown rice as substitute for steam-flaked corn, and wet food by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting brown rice grain for corn grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage containing food by-products on the milk production, whole-tract nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance in dairy cows. Six multiparous Holstein cows were used in a crossover design with two dietary treatments: a diet containing 30.9% steam-flaked corn (corn TMR) or 30.9% steam-flaked brown rice (rice TMR) with wet soybean curd residue and wet soy sauce cake. Dietary treatment did not affect the dry matter intake, milk yield and compositions in dairy cows. The dry matter and starch digestibility were higher, and the neutral detergent fiber digestibility was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR. The urinary nitrogen (N) excretion as a proportion of the N intake was lower for rice TMR than for corn TMR with no dietary effect on N secretion in milk and fecal N excretion. These results indicated that the replacement of corn with brown rice in TMR silage relatively reduced urinary N loss without adverse effects on feed intake and milk production, when food by-products such as soybean curd residue were included in the TMR silage as dietary crude protein sources. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  3. Brown Midrib forage sorghum silage for the dairy cow: nutritive value and comparison with corn silage in the diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Crovetto

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Rumen dry matter and fibre digestibility of brown midrib (BMR sorghum forage silage (SF in comparison to corn silage (CS was determined in situ using 3 fistulated dry cows. The effect of replacing CS with SF on milk production was studied in a change-over design with 58 lactating Italian Friesian cows fed two diets with similar composition. CS had a higher (P<0.001 rapidly degradable dry matter (DM fraction than SF (33.1 vs. 23.7, respectively, whilst the slowly degradable fraction was not different (46.3 vs. 48.7. Overall, the extent of DM rumen degradability was higher for CS. Rumen digestion rate of neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom tended to be higher (P=0.06 for SF than CS (3.08 vs. 2.49 %/h, respectively; however, effective rumen degradability of fibre was not different between silages. Neither milk yield (kg/d and 4%-fat corrected milk nor milk protein and fat contents were affected by treatment. Cows fed CS diet had lower (P<0.05 milk urea content compared with their SF counterparts (19.9 vs. 21.5 mg/dL, suggesting a better nitrogen utilization at the rumen level. In conclusion, feeding a BMR sorghum forage resulted in milk yield and quality similar to corn silage. However, to obtain comparable milk production as corn silage, the SF-based diet had to be supplemented with more starch from corn meal.

  4. Effects of nitrogen fertilisation rate and maturity of grass silage on methane emission by lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warner, D.; Hatew, B.; Podesta, S.C.; Klop, G.; Gastelen, van S.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    Grass silage is typically fed to dairy cows in temperate regions. However, in vivo information on methane (CH4) emission from grass silage of varying quality is limited. We evaluated the effect of two rates of nitrogen (N) fertilisation of grassland (low fertilisation (LF), 65 kg of N/ha; and high

  5. Desempenho e parâmetros nutricionais de fêmeas leiteiras em crescimento alimentadas com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar com concentrado Performance and nutritional parameters of growing heifers fed corn silage or sugar cane with concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Henrique do Nascimento Rangel

    2010-11-01

    ção à silagem de milho em sistemas de produção de leite com idade ao parto próxima dos 24 meses.This study evaluated the response of dairy heifers fed corn based silage with 1.3 kg/day of concentrated in comparison with three sugar cane-based diets corrected with 1% of urea + ammonium sulphate (9:1 (urea, with 1.3; 2.0 and 2.7 kg/day of concentrate. A total of 20 heifers were used (12 Holstein breed and 8 Brown Swiss breed heifers in a randomised block design, with 5 blocks formed on the basis of initial live weight and breed. The consumption of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber did not differ between corn-silage based diet and sugar-cane based diet. Higher consumption of ether extract was found when diet based on corn silage was supplied in comparison to those based on sugar cane. Intakes of total carbohydrate and non-fibrous carbohydrates differed between corn silage diet and those based on sugarcane (1.3 and 2.0 kg concentrate. Total digestible nutrient intake observed with supply of the diet based on corn silage was lower than that obtained with sugar cane (2 kg concentrate. Diets had a significant effect on coefficients of digestibility of crude protein, ether extract, total carbohidrates and neutral detergent fiber. There was no significant difference on total weight gain neither on average daily gain between the corn-silage based diet and the sugar-cane diet with 2.7 kg of concentrate in relation to the sugar-cane diets. Ruminal pH did not differ at collection times among experimental diets. The lowest concentration of N-NH3 was observed in animals fed corn silage-based diet 3 hours after feeding compared to the sugar cane-based treatments. A milk production system with heifers calving at 24 months and fed a diet containing moderate to high concentrate levels (± 45:55, forage:concentrate, sugar cane forage added with 1% of a mixture of urea + ammonium sulfate (9:1, urea:ammonium sulphate can be a substitute for corn silage.

  6. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, S; Hansen-Møller, J; Martinsson, K; Steinshamn, H; Gustavsson, A-M

    2012-08-01

    Phytoestrogens are hormone-like substances in plants that can substantially influence human health (positively or negatively), and when fed to dairy cows are partly transferred to their milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of varying the botanical composition and regrowth interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover or long-term ley silage with white clover, and the effects of supplementation with α-tocopherol were also tested. High concentrations of formononetin and biochanin A were found in all silage mixtures with red clover. The milk concentration of equol was highest for cows on the 2-cut red clover-grass silage diet (1,494 μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low. Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone concentration than the other diets (226 μg/kg of milk). Lengthening the regrowth interval increased the intake of secoisolariciresinol and decreased the recovery of lignans. Feeding long-term ley silage resulted in higher milk lignan concentrations but lower milk isoflavone concentrations than feeding short-term ley silage. The apparent recovery of all phytoestrogens except prunetin was highest on the 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet. No effect of α-tocopherol supplementation

  7. Replacing alfalfa silage with tannin-containing birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations for lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, G A; Grabber, J H; Muck, R E; Hymes-Fecht, U C

    2017-05-01

    Two lactation trials were conducted comparing the feeding value of silages made from birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT) to an alfalfa silage (AS) when fed as the principal forage in total mixed rations. Diets also included corn silage, high-moisture shelled corn, soybean meal, soy hulls, and supplemental fat. In trial 1, 32 lactating Holstein cows were blocked by days in milk, assigned to treatment sequences in 8 balanced 4 × 4 Latin squares, and fed 50% dietary dry matter from AS or 1 of 3 BFT silages containing 0.6, 1.2, or 1.7% CT. Diets averaged 17.5 to 19.5% crude protein and 26% neutral detergent fiber on a dry matter basis. Data were collected over the last 2 wk of each 4-wk period. Intakes were 1.3 to 2.8 kg of dry matter/d greater on BFT than on AS and cows gained 0.5 kg of body weight/d on BFT diets while losing 0.14 kg of body weight/d on the AS diet; this resulted in greater milk per dry matter intake (DMI) on AS. Linear effects indicated true protein yield and milk urea nitrogen declined with increasing CT concentration and quadratic effects indicated DMI, energy-corrected milk, and fat yield were increased at intermediate CT concentration. True protein yield and apparent N-efficiency were greater, and milk urea nitrogen lower, on all BFT diets than on AS. In trial 2, 50 lactating Holstein cows were fed a covariate AS diet for 2 wk and then blocked by parity and days in milk and randomly assigned to 1 of 5 diets that were fed continuously for 12 wk. Diets contained (dry matter basis) 48% AS, 16% AS plus 32% of 1 of 3 BFT silages with 0.5, 0.8, or 1.5% CT, or 48% of an equal mixture of each BFT silage. Diets averaged 16.5% crude protein and 30% neutral detergent fiber. Intake and milk yield tended to be lower on AS than BFT, but body weight gains averaged 0.6 kg/d on all diets. Cows fed any of the BFT silages had reduced milk urea nitrogen

  8. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smerjai Bureenok

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB, molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (p<0.05 than the others. In the feeding trial, the intake of silage increased (p<0.05 in the cow fed with the treated silage. Among the treatments, dry matter intake was the lowest in the silage treated with cassava meal. The organic matter, crude protein and NDF digestibility of the silage treated with molasses was higher than the silage without additive and the silage treated with FJLB. The rumen parameters: ruminal pH, ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N, volatile fatty acid (VFA, blood urea nitrogen (BUN and bacterial populations were not significantly different among the treatments. In conclusion, these studies confirmed that the applying of molasses improved fermentative quality, feed intake and digestibility of Napier grass.

  9. Tannin treated lucerne silage in dairy cow feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Rapetti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the addition of tannins to lucerne silage were investigated. At ensiling, chestnut hydrolyzable tannins were added to lucerne forage (T=tannins treated lucerne silage vs C=control lucerne silage. Fifty lactating Holstein cows, fed two diets different for lucerne silage treatment (C or T, were used in a cross-over design. In situ rumen soluble protein fraction (%CP was higher for C (67.9 vs 59.4; P<0.01, whereas potentially rumen degradable protein (%CP was lower (24.5 vs 32.1 for C and T; P<0.01. Intestinal rumen escape protein digestibility (% was numerically higher for T (48.3 vs 54.3. Dry matter intake (21.5 kg/d for both diets and milk yield (29.8 and 30.2 kg/d for C and T were not affected by dietary treatment, whereas FCM was slightly higher for T diet (27.5 vs 27.9 kg/d for C and T; P<0.10. Adding tannins to lucerne silage is effective in shifting part of N utilization from the rumen to the intestine, leading to similar productive performance in lactating cows.

  10. Desempenho, características de carcaça e resultado econômico de cordeiros criados em creep feeding com silagem de grãos úmidos de milho Live weight gain, carcass traits and economic results on lambs fed with high moisture corn silage in creep feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, estudar níveis de substituição (0; 50 e 100% do milho grão seco moído pela silagem de grãos úmidos de milho na ração de cordeiros alimentados em creep feeding. Vinte e quatro cordeiros Suffolk foram avaliados quanto ao desempenho, pesos e rendimentos das carcaças. Também foi realizada uma análise econômica. As rações foram fornecidas ad libitum, sendo suas sobras pesadas para o cálculo do consumo médio por animal. Ao atingirem 28 kg de peso vivo, os cordeiros foram submetidos a jejum por 16 horas e, então, novamente pesados para se obter o peso vivo ao abate. Após o abate, os animais foram eviscerados para se obterem os pesos e rendimentos de carcaça quente. As carcaças permaneceram por 24 horas em câmara de refrigeração, sendo novamente pesadas para se obterem os rendimentos de carcaça fria e as perdas por resfriamento. Os resultados revelaram que não houve efeito dos níveis de substituição sobre ganho médio diário de peso vivo, idade ao abate, pesos e rendimentos das carcaças quentes e frias, indicando que a silagem de grãos úmidos de milho pode ser utilizada em substituição ao milho moído na alimentação de cordeiros. Como o peso ao abate foi pré-fixado, as variações nas idades ao abate fizeram com que essa variável exercesse influência sobre os desempenhos, pesos e rendimentos e, quanto maiores essas idades, piores os resultados dos parâmetros avaliados. O tratamento com 50% de silagem de grãos úmidos apresentou os melhores resultados econômicos e o tratamento sem silagem de grãos úmidos foi o de menor rentabilidade.The experiment was carried to study three levels (0, 50 e 100% of high moisture corn silage replacing dry corn grain in rations of lambs fed in creep feeding. Twenty four Suffolk lambs were evaluated to live weight (LW gain and carcasses dressing-outs percentage. It was performed an economical analysis too. Rations in creep feeding were fed ad

  11. ‘Shrink’ losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.H.; Swanepoel, N.; Heguy, J.M.; Price, T.; Meyer, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Silage ‘shrink’ (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term ‘shrink’ is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90 ± 17, 68 ± 18 and 28 ± 21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses (‘older’ silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. - Highlights: • Corn silage piles were used to measure ‘shrink’ from construction to feedout • Shrink was wet weight, dry weight (oDM) and oDM volatiles corrected

  12. ‘Shrink’ losses in commercially sized corn silage piles: Quantifying total losses and where they occur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, P.H.; Swanepoel, N.; Heguy, J.M.; Price, T.; Meyer, D.M., E-mail: phrobinson@ucdavis.edu [Department of Animal Science, UCCE Stanislaus, San Joaquin & Merced Counties, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Silage ‘shrink’ (i.e., loss of fresh chopped crop between ensiling and feedout) represents a nutrient loss which can degrade air quality as volatile carbon compounds, degrade surface waterways due to seepage, or degrade aquifers due to seepage. Virtually no research has documented shrink in large silage piles. The term ‘shrink’ is often ill defined, but can be expressed as losses of wet weight (WW), oven dry matter (oDM), and oDM corrected for volatiles lost in the drying oven (vcoDM). Corn silage piles (4 wedge, 2 rollover/wedge, 1 bunker) from 950 to 12,204 tonnes as built, on concrete (4), soil (2) and a combination (1) in California's San Joaquin Valley, using a bacterial inoculant, covered within 24 h with an oxygen barrier inner film and black/white outer plastic, fed out using large front end loaders through an electronic feed tracking system, and from the 2013 crop year, were used. Shrink as WW, oDM and vcoDM were 90 ± 17, 68 ± 18 and 28 ± 21 g/kg, suggesting that much WW shrink is water and much oDM shrink is volatiles lost during analytical oven drying. Most shrink occurred in the silage mass with losses from exposed silage faces, as well as between exposed face silage removal and the total mixed ration mixer, being low. Silage bulk density, exposed silage face management and face use rate did not have obvious impacts on any shrink measure, but age of the silage pile during silage feedout impacted shrink losses (‘older’ silage piles being higher), but most strongly for WW shrink. Real shrink losses (i.e., vcoDM) of large well managed corn silage piles are low, the exposed silage face is a small portion of losses, and many proposed shrink mitigations appeared ineffective, possibly because shrink was low overall and they are largely directed at the exposed silage face. - Highlights: • Corn silage piles were used to measure ‘shrink’ from construction to feedout • Shrink was wet weight, dry weight (oDM) and oDM volatiles corrected

  13. Effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and gastric mucosa integrity of heavy pigs at slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Federico; Pascotto, Ernesto; Zanfi, Cristina; Spanghero, Mauro

    2013-12-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of whole ear corn silage on stomach development and on the incidence of gastric lesions was studied in heavy pigs. Three groups of 14 castrated male pigs were fed a control cereal-based diet and two diets containing whole ear corn silage (15% or 30% DM) from 90 kg bodyweight to slaughter at 170 kg. The diets with whole ear corn silage increased the amount of neutral detergent fibre in the stomach contents, the weight of the organs and the area of the pyloric region. Follicular gastritis was significantly lower and gastritis less severe in pigs fed the whole ear corn silage diets than pigs fed the control diet. The inclusion of whole ear corn silage in the diet influenced the development of the stomach and reduced the incidence of gastritis in heavy pigs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rendimentos de carcaça, composição tecidual e musculosidade da perna de cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar em dois níveis de concentrado Carcass yield, tissue composition, and leg muscularity of lambs fed corn silage or sugar cane in two levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M.B. Moreno

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da relação volumoso:concentrado e do tipo de volumoso nos rendimentos de carcaça e dos cortes comerciais, e sobre a composição dos tecidos e musculosidade da perna de 32 cordeiros Ile de France, terminados em confinamento, alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar, em duas relações volumoso:concentrado: de 60:40 ou 40:60. Os cordeiros foram abatidos aos 32kg de peso corporal; calcularam-se o peso e o rendimento da carcaça quente (PCQ e RCQ. Após 24 horas de refrigeração, obtiveram-se o peso e o rendimento da carcaça fria (PCF e RCF, o rendimento verdadeiro e as perdas por resfriamento. As carcaças foram divididas em cinco cortes comerciais, paleta, lombo, perna, costelas e pescoço, e a perna foi dissecada em músculo, osso e gordura, calculando-se as relações músculo:osso e músculo:gordura, além do índice de musculosidade da perna. Os cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho apresentaram maiores PCQ (16,05kg, PCF (15,61kg, RCQ (50,4% e RCF (49,0%. O rendimento de lombo foi menor nos cordeiros alimentados com cana-de-açúcar (9,1%. A cana-de-açúcar e a silagem de milho nas duas relações volumoso:concentrado estudadas não afetaram as proporções de osso, músculo e gordura e musculosidade da perna, e podem constituir a dieta desses animais sem diminuir as proporções desses tecidos, responsáveis pela qualidade da carne.The effects of roughage:concentrate ratio and type of roughage were evaluated on the carcass yield and commercial cuts, and tissue composition and leg muscularity of 32 Ile de France lambs finished in feedlot and fed corn silage or sugar cane in two roughage:concentrate ratios: 60:40 or 40:60. The lambs were slaughtered with 32kg of body weight and the weight and yield of hot carcass (WHC and YHC were determined. After refrigerated for 24h in cold camera, the weight and yield of cold carcass (WCC and YCC, real yield, and weight loss for cooling were obtained. The carcass

  15. Comportamento ingestivo e ingestão de água em caprinos e ovinos alimentados com feno e silagem de Maniçoba Ingestive behavior and water intake in goats and sheep fed with Maniçoba hay and silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Ricardo de Farias Zumba

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o comportamento ingestivo e consumo de água de caprinos e ovinos alimentados com feno ou silagem de maniçoba (Manihot epruinosa Pax & Hoffmann. Foram empregados sete caprinos sem padrão racial definido, com peso médio inicial de 14,6kg e oito ovinos da raça Santa Inês de 13,9kg. Os animais foram mantidos em baias individuais e distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 2 (forma de conservação x espécie animal. Foram avaliados os consumos de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, fibra em detergente neutro, extrato etéreo, carboidratos totais e carboidratos não fibrosos. Para estudo de comportamento ingestivo, os animais foram observados a cada cinco minutos durante 24h. Os animais alimentados com feno de maniçoba mostraram maior consumo de proteína bruta e extrato etéreo (56 e 24 g/dia em relação àqueles que receberam a maniçoba conservada pela fermentação (42 e 14g/dia, respectivamente. Não houve diferença entre os tempos de alimentação (405,00 e 399,38 min, ruminação (625,63 e 599,38 min e ócio (413,13 e 44,01 min entre os animais alimentados com silagem e feno de maniçoba, respectivamente. No entanto, os animais alimentados com maniçoba conservada mediante fermentação apresentaram menor consumo de água no bebedouro (0,473vs 0,990kg/dia para silagem e feno, respectivamente. Assim, conclui-se que o método de conservação de maniçoba não interferiu no comportamento ingestivo, mas a ingestão da maniçoba conservada mediante fermentação leva ao menorThe objective of this study was to evaluate the ingestive behavior and water intake of goats and sheep fed Manihot epruinosa Pax & Hoffmann silage or hay. Seven goats (average live weight 14,6 ± 1,24kg and eight sheep (average live weight 13,8 ± 1,22kg were allotted to individual pens. They were distributed in a completely randomized design, 2 x 2 factorial outline composed of

  16. The influence of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Camargo do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of covering methods on the nutritive value of corn silage and performance of dairy cows. Whole-plant corn was harvested at 340 g/kg of dry matter (DM and ensiled for 135 d in horizontal silos covered with one of the following methods: oxygen barrier film (45-µm thick + white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick over the oxygen barrier film (OB+WB; white-on-black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (WB; black polyethylene film (200-µm thick (B; or recycled black polyethylene film (200-µm thick covered with a layer of 10 cm of sugarcane bagasse (RB+SB. Nutrient composition, fermentation profile, and yeast and mold counts in edible silages were similar across treatments. Silage temperature during the storage period was 24.6, 28.7, 28.4 and 33.1 °C for RB+SB, OB+WB, WB and B, respectively, and the proportion of spoiled silage ranged from 28.7 (for the RB+SB treatment to 74.2 g/kg DM (for the B treatment. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments and averaged 21.9 kg/d. Milk production was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB (34.4 kg/d compared with those fed corn silage covered with B (30.4 kg/d, resulting in higher feed efficiency for RB+SB treatment. Silages covered with OB+WB and WB had intermediate values. In vivo digestibility of organic matter was higher for cows fed corn silage covered with RB+SB compared with those fed corn silage covered with WB and B, but were similar to those fed corn silage covered with OB+WB. The utilization of oxygen barrier films and the protection of polyethylene film with sugarcane bagasse are effective strategies to increase the recovery of digestible nutrients and, consequently, to enhance production efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

  17. Changes in methane emission, rumen fermentation, and methanogenic community in response to silage and dry cornstalk diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Liu; Zhuping, Zhu; Tongjun, Guo; Yongming, Luo; Hongmin, Dong

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of silage or dry cornstalk diets on methane emission, rumen fermentation, and methanogenic community, and reveal whether the change of methanogenic compositions was related to the methane production. A total of 39 sheep were divided into four groups, fed diets of different concentrate level based on silage or dry cornstalk roughage for 40 days. It was found that, at 20% concentrate level, the sheep fed silage could suppress methanogenesis significantly in contrast with the silage diet (p sheep significantly lower than 3.78 in the dry cornstalk-fed sheep (p methane output was related to roughage types. Furthermore, the methanogens was found to be significantly lower abundance (p sheep. Compared with dry cornstalk diet, silage diet of 20% concentrate reduced methane production, decreased methanogenic abundance, and induced change of Methanobrevibacter composition at strain levels. This study showed variation of methanogenic compositions at strain level and its probable relationship with methane production, and provided microbial information to explain the low methane output when the animals were fed silage. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Desempenho de novilhos Simental alimentados com silagem de sorgo, cana-de-açúcar e palhada de arroz tratada ou não com amônia anidra Performance of Simental steers fed sorghum silage, sugar cane and straw rice treated or not with anhydrous ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucon César Cardoso

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o desempenho de novilhos alimentados com dietas contendo palhada de arroz amonizada, palhada de arroz + uréia, cana-de-açúcar + uréia e silagem de sorgo. Utilizaram-se 16 novilhos, Simental PO, com peso vivo médio de 400 kg, distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado. O experimento teve duração de 88 dias, sendo 15 de adaptação e 61 dias de avaliação, divididos em três períodos de 21 dias. O consumo total de MS, que variou de 7,1 a 10,0 kg/dia, diferiu entre as dietas, registrando-se maiores consumos para os animais que receberam dietas contendo palhada de arroz amonizada e silagem de sorgo, que, por sua vez, não diferiram entre si. A conversão alimentar não diferiu entre as diferentes dietas, registrando-se valor médio de 6,6. Observou-se maior ganho de peso para os animais que receberam palhada de arroz amonizada (1,59 kg/dia em relação à palhada mais uréia (1,25 kg/dia. O efeito da amonização, melhorando o valor nutritivo da palhada de arroz, resultou em maior consumo voluntário deste volumoso e, conseqüentemente, em maior ganho diário de peso vivo dos animais, em relação à palhada de arroz não-tratada e suplementada com uréia.The performance of steers fed diets using as roughage rice straw treated with anydrous ammonia, rice straw+urea, sugar cane + urea and sorghum silage were evaluated. Sixteen PO Simental steers, averaging 400 kg initial LW, were assigned to a completely randomized design. The experiment last 88 days, 15 days of adaptation and 61 experimental days, divided in three periods of 21 days. Total DM intake, that ranged from 7.1 to 10.0 kg/day, differ among treatments, where higher intakes were observed for the animals fed ammoniated rice straw and sorghum silage, that did not differ. Feed:gain ratio did not differ among different diets, and an average value of 6.6 was recorded. It was observed higherweight gain for the animals fed ammoniated rice straw (1.59 kg/day in

  19. Study on evaluation of silage from pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit residue as livestock feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Nisarani Kollurappa Shivakumar; Vallesha, Naglapura Chandrashekara; Awachat, Vaibhav Bhagvan; Anandan, Samireddypalli; Pal, Din Taran; Prasad, Cadaba Srinivasa

    2015-03-01

    Pineapple is a commercially important fruit crop grown in Asian and African countries. Pineapple fruit residue (PFR) accounts for more than 65% of the processed fruits, and its disposal is a major problem due to its high moisture and sugar content predisposing it to fungal growth and spoilage. Silage technique was adopted to address this problem, and the PFR silage was evaluated for its feeding value. It was observed that on 15th day, the pH of PFR silage was 4.2-4.3 and lactic acid content was 6-8% (DM basis). Combination of 4 parts leafy crown and 1 part peels/pomace was found very ideal to achieve moisture content of 65-70% and produced a good quality silage with minimum fungal count (Feeding trial in two groups of sheep with 10 numbers in each group fed total mixed ration (TMR) comprising 62% PFR/maize silage and 48% concentrate mixture (DM basis) for 75-day period did not show any adverse effects on nutrient utilization (DM, CP, NDF, ADF), serum biochemical (total protein, creatinine, urea nitrogen, SGOT, SGPT), and mineral profile (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn) and supported a daily growth rate of 140 g. The overall performance was similar to those sheep fed TMR with maize green fodder silage. Feeding PFR silage replacing hybrid napier green fodder in two groups of cows with eight in each group showed an improvement in average daily milk yield by 3.0 lit per cow and fat content by 0.6 U fed PFR silage-based TMR as compared to cows fed hybrid napier green fodder-based TMR. In both studies (sheep or cows), there was no evidence of metabolic or health-related disorders indicating that PFR silage was effectively utilized. Pineapple fruit residue that was hitherto wasted was successfully converted to silage and was found to be a valuable alternative to conventional green fodder. Ensiling of PFR not only improved the economics of feeding but also helped in overcoming the disposal problem.

  20. Milk production and composition in Danish Holstein, Danish Red, and Danish Jersey cows supplemented with saturated or unsaturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Larsen, Mette Krogh; Hymøller, Lone

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to study the response in milk production and composition of substituting barley with either saturated or unsaturated fat in mixed rations (MR) for dairy cows. The experiment included 35 Danish Holstein (DH), 39 Danish Red (DR), and 31 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows from...... parturition until week 30 of lactation. Cows were ad libitum fed one of the three MR based on maize and grass/clover silage, barley, soybean meal, and dried sugar beet pulp. In the saturated ration (SFA), C16 rich fat substituted barley on dry matter (DM) basis; in the unsaturated ration (UFA), ground rape...

  1. Short-term effects of silage volatile compounds on feed intake and digestion in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, J L P; Amaral, R C; Goulart, R S; Zopollatto, M; Santos, V P; Toledo Filho, S G; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Lima, J R; Santos, M C; Nussio, L G

    2013-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate whether fermentation end products in silage affect intake and digestion in beef cattle. Six rumen-cannulated Nellore steers were randomly assigned to a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Each period consisted of 9 d for adaptation and 5 d for sample collection. Steers were housed in a tie-stall barn and individually fed once daily at 0800 h. The dietary treatments in Exp. 1 were as follows: 60% corn silage plus 40% concentrate (CON), 60% corn silage with added ethanol (2.8% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (ET), and 60% corn silage with added lactic acid (5.4% on a DM basis) and 40% concentrate (LA). The DMI was similar (P = 0.41) across treatments (average 11.7 kg/d); however, the LA treatment increased the ruminal pH (P = 0.01) and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P distillation. The treatments in Exp. 2 were as follows: 75% sugarcane silage with no volatile fraction (oven dried at 60°C and rehydrated) and 25% concentrate (75D), 75% sugarcane silage (original moisture content) and 25% concentrate (75W), and 40% sugarcane silage and 60% concentrate (40W). Approximately 21% of the DM content of sugarcane silage consisted of volatile compounds. The presence of these compounds did not alter the DMI (P = 0.36) but did increase both the acetate:propionate ratio (P fractional absorption rates of valerate (P distillation. In this short-term study, volatile compounds did not inhibit the DMI or the digestion process of the animals. On the contrary, volatile compounds contributed to the energy content of the silage, composing up to 10% of the energy value as determined by digestibility. Due to the short experimental periods, the results from this study should be interpreted with caution.

  2. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. II. Feeding of silage and concentrate from January to March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving 56 male reindeer calves, with a mean initial live weight of 39 kg (SD=4.6, was undertaken to evaluate the effect of the concentrate:silage ratio on the performance during feeding to slaughter. Forty four of the calves were divided in four groups, two groups each being allotted to diets with low, 60% (LC, or high, 80% (HC proportions of a commercial pelleted feed. The remaining twelve calves were slaughtered at the start of the experiment. The experimenral period lasted from January to March. The proportions of concentrate to silage were based on the dry matter (DM content. The silage, 44% DM, was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Animal health was good throughour the experimenr. Small amounts of lichens were mixed into the diets during the first rwo weeks of feeding and may have contributed to the lack of adapta-tionai problems. The mean daily intakes of DM and metabolisable energy were higher (P<0.01 for calves offered the HC-diet. Despite the higher feed intakes, the increased proportion of concentrate in the diet did not significantly alter live weight gains or carcass weight gains. However, the greater fat deposition (P<0.05 and better carcass gradings indicated a better condition of the animals at slaughtet when less silage was fed. This experiment was the the final part of a three year study of silage based diets for reindeer intended for slaughter and the general conclusion is that the best role of grass silage of this quality is as a limited part of the ration. The silage may, however, play an important role during the adaptation period and further detailed studies are needed to evaluate the applicability of silage as a part of the diet to reindeer.

  3. Degradação ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com silagem de sorgo contendo tanino suplementado com concentrado ou uréia = Ruminal degradability and microbial protein synthesis in cattle fed sorghum silages with tannin supplemented with concentrate or urea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Gisele de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Determinaram-se a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca (MS e a fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e a eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana em animais que consomem dietas contendo silagem de sorgo com diferentes teores de tanino. A degradação in situfoi avaliada por meio da incubação ruminal de silagens de sorgo contendo nível 1 (N1 e nível 2 (N2 de tanino por 0, 6, 24, 48 e 96h. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino4 x 4 duplicado. Os valores de degradabilidade potencial (DP da MS foram semelhantes entre as silagens, enquanto a degradabilidade efetiva (DE nas silagens foi reduzida ao adicionar concentradoà dieta. O fluxo de nitrogênio microbiano e a eficiência de síntese de proteína microbiana não foram afetados pela fonte de volumoso. Houve maior eficiência de síntese, expressa em relação à matériaorgânica e energia bruta digeridas no rúmen, nas dietas com silagem N1, quando as dietas foram suplementadas com concentrado. Não foi possível estabelecer relação consistente entre a presença de taninos e os parâmetros de degradação ruminal.This work aimed to determine ruminal parameters of dry mater (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and protein synthesis in the rumen of animals fed diets based on sorghum with different tannin levels. In situ degradation was evaluated by rumen incubation of level 1 (L1 and level 2 (L2 sorghum silages during 0, 6, 24, 48 and 96 hours. A duplicated 4 x 4 Latin Square was used. Potential degradability (PD of DM was similar among silages, whereas the effectivedegradability (ED decreased when the diets were supplemented with concentrate. Microbial nitrogen flux and microbial synthesis efficiency were not affected by roughage source. The synthesis efficiency, expressed in organic matter and crude protein digested inrumen, was higher in L1 tannin diets supplemented with concentrate. There was not relationship between the presence of tannins and the parameters of

  4. Consumo, digestibilidade e parâmetros ruminais em bovinos de corte alimentados com dietas contendo silagem de sorgo e pré-secado de capim-tifton 85 Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters in beef cattle fed diets with sorghum silage and tifton 85 haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odilon Gomes Pereira

    2007-12-01

    digesta, the pH and the ammonia ruminal concentration in beef cattle fed diets containing tifton 85 haylage and sorghum silage in the following proportions: 100:0; 68:32; 34:66 and 0:100, respectively in DM basis. Four crossed animals (H × Z fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, with average body weight of 364 kg were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square. The forage: concentrate ratio was 60:40, in DM basis. The daily intake of DM, OM, CP, total carbohydrates (TC, as well as the total apparent digestibility of CP, EE, NFC and NDF were not influenced by the diets, with mean values of 6.01, 5.69, 0.76, and 4.64kg/day and 67.94, 82.12, 84.43, and 53.57%, respectively. The intake of EE, NFC, NDF and TDN and the total apparent digestibility of DM, OM and TC linearly increased with the increment of sorghum silage in the forage. The ruminal and intestinal digestibility of DM, TC, NFC and NDF were not influenced by the diets. The pH was not influenced by the collection time or by the diets. The ammonia concentration was influenced by the collection times, estimating the maximum value of 13.14 mg/100 mL, at 2.90 hour after feeding. Ruminal digesta passage rates of 4.10, 4.22, 4.27, and 5.30%/hour were respectively estimated for diets containing 0, 32, 66, and 100% of sorghum silage in the forage. The level of sorghum silage in the diet did not influence the microbial efficiency. The use of Tifton 85 haylage associated with sorghum silage has shown to be a great alternative of forage for finishing beef cattle.

  5. A process-based emission model of volatile organic compounds from silage sources on farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.; Montes, F.; Cohen, M.; Mitloehner, F. M.

    2017-03-01

    the simulated dairy farm, a reduction of around 30% was found if cows were housed and fed in a barn rather than in an open lot, and 23% if feeds were delivered as four feedings per day rather than as one. Reducing the exposed face of storage can also be useful. Simulated use of silage bags resulted in 90% and 18% reductions in emissions from the storage face and whole farm, respectively.

  6. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  7. A study on testicular characteristics of ram lambs of Arsi breed fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of feeding two maize (Zea mays) varieties (Quality Protein Maize [QPM] and common maize [BH540]) on testicular characteristics of ram lambs was studied in the indigenous Arsi sheep breed. The two maize varieties were fed in whole plant silage (WPS), earless silage (ELS) and stover (S) forms for a period of 12 ...

  8. Desempenho, digestibilidade e balanço de nitrogênio em cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado Performance, digestibility and nitrogen balance of lambs fed corn silage or sugar cane based diets with two levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Utilizaram-se 32 cordeiros Ile de France, não-castrados, alimentados com dietas contendo silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar em duas relações volumoso:concentrado (60:40 ou 40:60. Os animais foram mantidos confinados individualmente com controle do alimento fornecido e das sobras e pesados semanalmente para determinação do ganho de peso diário e da conversão alimentar. Simultaneamente, foram realizados ensaios de digestibilidade e metabolismo para determinação do consumo e da digestibilidade dos nutrientes e do balanço de nitrogênio das dietas experimentais. O ganho de peso foi maior nos cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho, de 294,6 g/dia, e com a relação volumoso:concentrado 40:60, de 314,3 g/dia. A relação volumoso:concentrado influenciou apenas os consumos de fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e fibra em detergente ácido (FDA digestíveis, cujos maiores valores, de 125,26 e 48,97 g/dia, foram obtidos com a relação volumoso:concentrado 60:40. Os cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho apresentaram maior consumo de todos os nutrientes digestíveis, exceto proteína bruta (162,00 g/dia e carboidratos não-fibrosos (471,42 g/dia. As maiores digestibilidades de matéria orgânica (80,34% e carboidratos totais (80,71% foram obtidas com a relação 40:60 e as de matéria seca (78,91%, proteína bruta (81,30% e energia bruta (78,77%, nos cordeiros alimentados com cana-de-açúcar. Os maiores valores de nitrogênio ingerido, absorvido e retido, de 32,6; 20,5 e 13,7 g/dia, respectivamente, foram observados com o fornecimento das dietas com 40% de volumoso. O tipo de volumoso influencia mais a digestibilidade dos nutrientes que sua proporção na dieta.Thirty-two non castrated Ile de France lambs fed corn silage or sugar-cane based diets with two roughage:concentrate ratios (60:40 or 40:60 were used. The animals were kept individually confined with control of the supplied food and leftovers, weekly weighted for determination of

  9. In vivo efficacy of chicory silage against parasitic nematodes in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Desrues, Oliver; Williams, A.

    . Spadona) was ensiled and fermented for 5-12 weeks. 15 Jersey male calves (2-4 months) were stratified by live weight and randomly allocated to 2 groups: chicory (CHI, n=9) and control (CON, n=6). CHI and CON calves were fed with chicory silage and hay ad libitum, resp., for 8 weeks. Daily intake...

  10. Replacing alfalfa or red clover silage with birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations increases production of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymes-Fecht, U C; Broderick, G A; Muck, R E; Grabber, J H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare milk production and nutrient utilization in dairy cattle fed silage made from alfalfa (AL) or red clover (RC) versus birdsfoot trefoil (BFT) selected for low, normal, and high levels of condensed tannins. Condensed tannin contents of the 3 BFT silages were 8, 12, and 16 g/kg of DM by butanol-HCl assay. Twenty-five multiparous Holstein cows (5 fitted with ruminal cannulas) were blocked by days in milk and randomly assigned within blocks to incomplete 5×5 Latin squares. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] about 60% AL, 50% RC, or 60% of 1 of the 3 BFT; the balance of dietary DM was largely from high-moisture corn plus supplemental crude protein from soybean meal. Diets were balanced to approximately 17% crude protein and fed for four 3-wk periods; 2 wk were allowed for adaptation and production data were collected during the last week of each period. No differences existed in DM intake or milk composition due to silage source, except that milk protein content was lowest for RC. Yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, fat, protein, lactose, and solids-not-fat were greater for the 3 BFT diets than for diets containing AL or RC. Feeding BFT with the highest condensed tannin content increased yield of milk, protein, and solids-not-fat compared with BFT containing the lowest amount of condensed tannin. Moreover, milk-N/N-intake was higher, and milk urea nitrogen concentration and urinary urea-N excretion were lower for diets with normal levels of BFT than for AL or RC diets. Feeding RC resulted in the highest apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and hemicellulose and lowest ruminal concentrations of ammonia and free amino acids. Ruminal branched-chain volatile fatty acid levels were lowest for RC diets and diets with high levels of BFT and highest for the AL diet. Overall, diets containing BFT silage supported greater production than diets containing silage from AL or RC

  11. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente total dos nutrientes e ganho de peso de bovinos de corte alimentados com silagem de Brachiaria brizantha e concentrado em diferentes proporções Intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients and weight gain of beef cattle fed diets with different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha silage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ceolin da Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e as digestibilidades aparentes totais dos nutrientes e o ganho de peso de bovinos de corte recebendo dietas contendo concentrado e silagem de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu nas seguintes proporções: 20:80, 35:65, 50:50 e 65:35, com base na matéria seca. Foram utilizados vinte e quatro animais castrados Holandês x Zebu, com peso vivo inicial médio de 364 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Por ocasião da ensilagem, procedeu-se o tratamento do capim com o inoculante enzimo-bacteriano Nutroeste 50 t. Para o cálculo da matéria seca fecal, utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível (FDAI como indicador. Os animais foram alojados em baias individuais e alimentados ad libitum. O ensaio teve duração de 84 dias, divididos em três períodos de 28 dias após 15 dias de adaptação. Os consumos médios de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, proteína bruta (PB, extrato etéreo (EE e carboidratos totais (CHO e as digestibilidades aparentes totais de MS, MO, CHO e carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF elevaram linearmente com o aumento dos níveis de concentrado nas dietas. Comportamento semelhante foi observado para o ganho de peso médio diário, estimando-se incrementos de 0,0184 kg/unidade de concentrado adicionado. Contudo, as digestibilidades aparentes de PB, EE e fibra em detergente neutro (FDN não foram influenciadas pelas dietas, registrando-se, respectivamente, valores médios de 77, 88 e 60%. Silagem de Brachiaria brizantha não-emurchecida, constituindo 50% da dieta de bovinos H x Z, promoveu ganhos de peso em torno de 1,0 kg/dia.Intake and total apparent digestibilities of the nutrients and average daily gains (ADG by beef cattle fed diets based on concentrate and Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu silage in the following proportions: 20:80, 35:65, 50:50 and 65:35, in dry matter basis were evaluated. Twenty-four crossbred (Holstein x Zebu steers, with initial live weight of

  12. Valor nutritivo e desempenho de leitões alimentados com rações contendo silagem de grãos úmidos de milho Nutritive value and performance of piglets fed rations containing high moisture corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pinto de Oliveira

    2004-02-01

    high moisture corn silage (HMCS. Twelve crossbred (Landrace x Large-White x Duroc castrated males were allotted to metabolism cages, in a completely randomized design. The total feces and urine collection method was used. The values of digestible dry matter (DDM, digestible protein (DP, digestible starch (DS, digestible energy (DE, and metabolizable energy (ME of HMCS were 48.70, 3.77, 42.35%, and 2,389 and 3,327 kcal/kg, respectively, based on natural matter (60.18% DM. The experiment 2 was carried out to evaluate piglet performance and economic viability of diets with different substitution levels of dry yellow corn by HMCS. Forty-eight cross-breed (Landrace x Large-White x Duroc piglets were used. The piglets were divided into four treatments in a completely randomized design, with six experimental units and two piglets per experimental unit. The treatments consisted of a basal corn-soybean meal diet and three diets with increasing dry yellow corn substitution by HMCS levels (33, 66 and 100%, based on the digestible energy content of dry yellow corn and HMCS. There was no effect of increasing levels of HMCS on daily weight gain and daily feed intake. Linear reduction on feed conversion and diet cost per kilogram of weight gain was observed. Data indicate that dry corn can be completely replaced by HMCS on piglets diets, with improvement on performance and economic index.

  13. Total and partial digestibility, rates of digestion obtained with rumen evacuation and microbial protein synthesis in bovines fed fresh or ensiled sugar cane and corn silage Digestibilidade total e parcial, taxas de digestão obtidas com o esvaziamento ruminal e síntese de proteína microbiana em bovinos alimentados com cana-de-açúcar fresca ou ensilada e silagem de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Chamon de Castro Menezes

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available It was evaluated intake, rumen and intestinal digestibility and passage and digestion rates in bovines fed diets constituted of corn silage, crushed sugar cane and given fresh, crushed sugar cane and given after 72 hours of storage, ensiled sugar cane with 1% of calcium oxide and with no treatment and a same concentrate fixed at 1% of body weight. All roughage was corrected to contain 10% of crude protein. It was used five rumen-fistulated bovine with average weight of 240 ± 15 kg, distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. Abomasum and total fecal collection and two rumen evacuations were carried out in the morning. Animals fed corn silage based diet presented greater rumen digestibility of the protein and intestinal digestibility of the ether extract, greater intake and passage of dry matter, justifying greater intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber corrected for protein and ash (NDFap. The greatest passage rates in animals fed fresh sugar cane based diet justify greater intakes of dry matter and NDFap in relation to the one observed with sugar cane silage supply. Animal consuming corn silage diets present greater dry matter passage rate and NDFap digestion. Diets with fresh sugar cane, stored or not, favor dry matter passage rate and intake, in relation to ensiled sugar cane. The use of calcium oxide in the ensilage does not improve nutrient digestibility neither passage rate of the diet. Sugar cane stored for 72 hours has digestible traits similar to the ones of fresh sugar cane.Avaliaram-se os consumos, as digestibilidades ruminal e intestinal e as taxas de passagem e de digestão de nutrientes em bovinos alimentados com dietas constituídas de silagem de milho, cana-de-açúcar triturada e fornecida in natura, cana triturada e ofertada após 72 horas de armazenamento, cana-de-açúcar ensilada com 1 % de cal e sem tratamento e um mesmo concentrado fixado em 1% do peso corporal. Todos os volumosos foram corrigidos com ureia

  14. Potential of feeding beef cattle with whole corn crop silage and rice straw in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazli, Muhamad Hazim; Halim, Ridzwan Abdul; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Hussin, Ghazali; Samsudin, Anjas Asmara

    2018-02-17

    The potential of using whole corn crop silage and rice straw as an alternative feed for the beef cattle based on the intake and growth performance were evaluated. Using randomised completely block design, nine adult Mafriwal cattle were blocked intro three groups and treated with three different forage diets supplemented with 20% pelleted palm kernel cake on dry matter basis. The treatments were 100% rice straw (RS), 100% corn silage (CS) and an equal mixture of rice straw and corn silage (MIX) fed ad libitum. The animals were housed in individual pens, and the feeding trial was conducted for 12 weeks with 2 weeks of adaptation period. The results showed that CS had the best feed nutritive composition with the lowest concentration of highly indigestible fibre and the highest concentration of organic matter and energy. The CS also had the highest intake, and the corn silage inclusion in MIX managed to improve the intake on par with CS in terms of the dry matter intake of body weight (DMI of BW), voluntary intake (VI) and crude protein (CP) intake. Cattle fed with CS gave the highest and most stable BW gain with an average daily gain (ADG) of 808 g/day rivalling cross-bred cattle fed with high amount of concentrates. The all straw diet (RS) supplemented with PKC recorded a positive ADG of 133 g/day while the MIX gave 383 g/day matching total Napier grass diet.

  15. Rendimento dos componentes não-carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com silagem de milho ou cana-de-açúcar e dois níveis de concentrado Non-carcass components yield of lambs fed corn silage or sugar cane under two levels of concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greicy Mitzi Bezerra Moreno

    2011-12-01

    with corn silage or sugarcane under two levels of concentrate. Thirty-two non-castrated Ile de France lambs fed on corn silage or sugar cane with two roughage:concentrate ratios: 60:40 or 40:60. Lambs were confined until they reached 32 kg of body weight (BW, when they were slaughtered. After the bleeding, all non-carcass components (blood, skin, head, feet, rumen, reticulum, omasum, abomasum, small intestine, large intestine, spleen, liver, heart, lung with trachea, pancreas, kidneys with perirenal fat, omental and mesenteric fat were separated and weighed, and their percentages were calculated in relation to the BW. The content of gastrointestinal tract was greater in lambs which fed on sugar cane (15.17% and 60% of roughage (14.55%; while omental and kidney fats were greater in lambs that received corn silage, 0.53 and 0.63%, respectively. The roughage:concentrate ratio and type of forage affected the proportions of rumen, omasum and small intestine in relation to the total weight of gastrointestinal tract. The roughage:concentrate ratio and type of forage influence the content of the gastrointestinal tract of lambs, indirectly affecting the carcass yields. The type of food has greater influence on the proportions of the organs responsible for digestion and absorption of nutrients. The factors that influence the non-carcass components of lambs are varied and contradictory, requiring more research that might encourage their use and, consequently, add more value to the production systems of sheep meat.

  16. Carcaça e não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros recebendo polpa cítrica úmida prensada em substituição à silagem de milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.252 Carcass and non-carcass components of lambs fed with pressed citrus pulp replacing corn silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i1.252

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Yumi Noro

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a substituição da silagem de milho pela polpa cítrica úmida prensada (PCUP sobre as características de carcaça e dos não-componentes da carcaça de cordeiros da raça Santa Inês. Vinte quatro cordeiros com idade média de 90 dias e peso vivo inicial médio de 18 kg foram confinados durante 67 dias, alimentados com dietas contendo níveis crescentes de PCUP em substituição à silagem de milho (0, 25, 50, 75% da MS. Não foi verificada diferença (p>0,05 para peso vivo ao abate (32,8 kg, rendimento de carcaça quente (44,7%, rendimento verdadeiro (50,3% e não-componentes da carcaça. Em relação aos rendimentos dos cortes, apenas o rendimento de lombo foi afetado (pThe objective of this study was to evaluate the replacement of corn silage by pressed citrus pulp (PCP on carcass characteristics and non-carcass components of Santa Ines lambs. Twenty-four lambs with average age of 90 days and initial weight of 18 kg were maintained in feedlot for 67 days, fed with increasing levels of PCP replacing corn silage (0, 25, 50, 75%, DM basis. There was no difference (p>0.05 for live weight at slaughter (32.8 kg, hot carcass yield (44.7%, true yield (50.3% and non-carcass components. In relation to cut yields, only loin yield was affected (p<0.05 by the diet, which showed quadratic response. For the carcass measurements, only the arm length was affected by the diet, showing quadratic behavior. The percentage of fat and muscle showed quadratic behavior according to replacement levels. The results suggest that pressed citrus pulp can substitute corn silage for lambs in feedlot without affecting the carcass characteristics and the non-carcass components.

  17. Effects of different corn silage: Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Full fat extruded soybeans addition increased the ether extract in diets and content of conjugated linoleic acids in milk, but it had no effect on fat, protein and lactose content in milk. Milk fat and lactose were not affected by replacing corn silage with alfalfa silage in diets. Increasing alfalfa silage content in the diets increased ...

  18. Silage extracts used to study the mode of action of silage inoculants in ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa and two corn crops were ensiled with and without Lactobacillus plantarum MTD/1 silage inoculant and fermented for 4 or 60 d to assess the effect of the inoculant on in vitro rumen fermentation of the resulting silages. Water and 80% ethanol extracts of the silages with added glucose were als...

  19. Chemical composition, fermentation profile and apparent digestibility of sugarcane silage treated with chemical additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Pedroso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the indication of an additive for the ensilage of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.. In a laboratory trial, nine treatments were applied (g of additive/kg of fresh forage - FF to the sugarcane (RB867515, before ensiling in minisilos (15 x 30 cm PVC tubes during 78 days: untreated; urea (5 + sodium benzoate (0.5; urea (7.5 + benzoate (0.5; urea (5 + benzoate (0.75; urea (7.5 + benzoate (0.75; sodium propionate (1, 2 and 4; calcium hydroxide (10. Urea + benzoate in the lowest doses, propionate in the higher concentration and calcium hydroxide were selected, considering the ethanol content (26.5, 27.2 and 7.4 g/kg DM, respectively, total DM loss (88, 46 and 58 g/kg DM, respectively and digestibility (541, 496 and 516 g/kg DM, respectively of the silages. Silages treated with these doses of additives and the untreated silage (80 d of storage were fed (nine + seven d to 16 castrated male sheep (Santa Inês housed in metabolic cages. The silage with calcium hydroxide presented coefficients of apparent digestibility of DM (0.44, of NDF (0.4 and DM intake (20 g/kg live weight in the higher levels. Calcium hydroxide was superior to propionate and urea + benzoate, considering alcoholic fermentation control and reduction of losses in the silage and the forage’s nutritional value.

  20. Effect of harvest time and physical form of alfalfa silage on chewing time and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kornfelt, L. F.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Norgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    (DM)), and from each harvest, a chopped (theoretical cutting length: 19 mm) and an unchopped crop was ensiled in bales. The silages were fed restrictively to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (391 +/- 26 kg) in a 434 Latin square design. The cows were fed restrictively 80% of their ad...

  1. Sorghum silage supplemented with crambe meal improves dry matter intake and milk production in crossbred Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo Araújo, Saulo Alberto; Bicalho, Guilherme Pires; da Silva Rocha, Norberto; Bento, Cláudia Braga Pereira; Ortêncio, Marluci Olício

    2018-01-01

    We studied the feed intake and milk production of Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows fed sorghum silage diets and concentrates, with and without the addition of crambe meal. Using a change-over design for a total of 120 days, eight cows were fed two diets (concentrates + silages with and without crambe meal) in four 30-day periods, with four replications (animals). The crambe meal diet increased (P dry matter intake (DMI), crude protein intake (CPI), and non-fibrous carbohydrates intake (NFCI) as well as milk production (4.3%). No difference was noted (P > 0.05) for the milk composition between the treatments. Crambe meal as an additive in sorghum silage (100 g/kg in natural matter) showed a great potential for introduction in dairy farming as it substantially increases CP intake, does not reduce food intake, raises animal productivity, and does not affect milk composition.

  2. Effect of feeding silages or carrots as supplements to laying hens on production performance, nutrient digestibility, gut structure, gut microflora and feather pecking behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenfeldt, S; Kjaer, J B; Engberg, R M

    2007-08-01

    1. An experiment was carried out to examine the suitability of using maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots as foraging materials for egg-laying hens. Production performance, nutrient digestibility, gastrointestinal characteristics, including the composition of the intestinal microflora as well as feather pecking behaviour were the outcome variables. 2. The protein content of the foraging material (g/kg DM) was on average 69 g in carrots, 94 g in maize silage and 125 g in barley-pea silage. The starch content was highest in the maize silage (312 g/kg DM), and the content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) varied from 196 to 390 g/kg, being lowest in carrots. Sugars were just traceable in the silages, whereas carrots contained on average 496 g/kg DM. 3. Egg production was highest in hens fed either carrots or maize silage, whereas hens fed barley-pea silage produced less (219 vs. 208). Although the consumption of foraging material was high (33, 35 and 48% of the total feed intake on 'as fed' basis for maize silage, barley-pea silage and carrots, respectively) only a minor effect on nitrogen corrected apparent metabolisable energy (AME(n)) and apparent digestibility was seen. At 53 weeks of age, hens fed maize silage had AME(n) and apparent digestibility values close to the control group (12.61 and 12.82, respectively), whereas access to barley-pea silage and carrots resulted in slightly lower values (12.36 and 12.42, respectively). Mortality was reduced dramatically in the three groups given supplements (0.5 to 2.5%) compared to the control group (15.2%). 4. Hens receiving silage had greater relative gizzard weights than the control or carrot-fed groups. At 53 weeks of age, the gizzard-content pH of hens receiving silage was about 0.7 to 0.9 units lower than that of the control or carrot-fed hens. Hens fed both types of silage had higher concentrations of lactic acid (15.6 vs. 3.2 micromoles/g) and acetic acid (3.6 vs. 6.1 micromoles/g) in the gizzard contents

  3. The effect of partial replacement of corn silage on rumen degradability, milk production and composition in lactating primiparous dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Biricik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of partial replacement of corn silage with long alfalfa hay and/or coarse chopped wheat straw on neutral detergent fibre (NDF rumen degradability, milk yield and composition in late lactating dairy cows fed diets with 50% forage on dry matter basis. Twelve late lactating Holstein primiparous cows including four cows equipped with a rumen cannula, averaging 210 ± 20 d in milk and weighing 575 ± 50 kg were randomly assigned in a 4x4 Latin square design. During each of four 21-d periods, cows were fed 4 total mixed diets that were varied in the forage sources: 1 50% corn silage (CS, 2 35% corn silage + 15% wheat straw (CSW, 3 35% corn silage + 15% alfalfa hay (CSA, 4 25% corn silage + 10% wheat straw + 15% alfalfa hay (CSWA. The production of milk averaged 18.55, 20.41 and 20.06 kg/d for unadjusted milk production, 4% fat corrected milk and solid corrected milk, respectively, and was not affected by treatments. Likewise, milk composition or production of milk components was not affected by diets and averaged 4.69% fat, 3.66% protein, 4.51% lactose, 866 g/d fat, 665 g/d protein, 824 g/d lactose. Treatments had no effect on in situ NDF soluble, degradable and potential degradability of all diets, whereas the effective degradability (ED of NDF was greater for cows fed CS diet than for cows fed CSW, CSA and CSWA diets (P<0.05. These values suggested that the partial replacement of corn silage with alfalfa hay and/or wheat straw has no unfavourable effect on the productive parameters.

  4. The Effect of Kenaf (Hibiscus Cannabinus) on the Performance of Dairy Cattle fed on Kenaf and Napier grass (Pennisetum Purpereum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang'ara, J.N.N.; Kariuki, I.W.; KIruiro, E.M.; Ngugi, F.K.; Mwangi, J.N.

    1999-01-01

    Studies at PRC-Embu in 1996, indicated Kenaf to be a fast growing crop under low moisture condition. As a forage, it yielded between 2300-11300 kg ha -1 DM in AEZ LM3 and LM4, respectively. It could thus, supplement the Napier grass as a fodder for dairy cattle in the marginal and low potential areas which have perennial shortage of quality forage for dairy cattle. Trials were thus conducted to evaluate the effect supplementing Kenaf silage to Napier grass on growth and milk production of dairy cattle. First atrial using dairy calves was set to determine the effect of Kenaf silage fed at three different levels namely 0%, 50% and 100%. A second was also set using lactating dairy cattle fed with Napier at three levels of Kenaf silage viz. 50%, 25% and 0%. Results indicated that, the dry matter intake of Kenaf silage alone (3.28 kg day -1 ) was lower than a combination of Kenaf silage and Napier (3.93 kg day -1 ) and that of Napier alone (4.08 kg day -1 ). also a combination of 50:50 Napier and Kenaf silage gave a better animal performance than either Napier or Kenaf silage alone. It was concluded that, Kenaf silage is a good supplement for Napier in Marginal and low potential dairy zones of Kenaf silage

  5. Impact of dietary starch concentration formulated with two types of corn silage on methane and ammonia emissions in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate methane (CH4) and ammonia (NH3) emissions of lactating dairy cows fed different starch level and corn silage type. After the completion of an 8-wk production study, 48 Holstein cows were allocated to 1 of 4 air-flow controlled chambers (2 cows/chamber) for...

  6. Impact of NDF degradability of corn silage on the milk yield potential of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Spanghero

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The neutral detergent fibre (NDF degradability of corn silage samples, measured in vitro (ivNDFd by a filter bag system, was used to examine (i the relationship between the ivNDFd and that calculated from acid detergent lignin (L content (NDFd and (ii the impact of ivNDFd variations on the predicted milk yield (MY of dairy cows fed corn silage based diets. A total of 173 samples of corn silage were collected during a period of three years (2001-03 in different dairy farms of the Po Valley (Northern Italy. Each sample was analysed for chemical composition and was also tested in triplicate for the ivNDFd using the DaisyII incubator (Ankom, Tech. Co., Fairport, NY, USA with incubation time of 48hs. Moreover, the NDFd of samples was calculated from the L contents, while the measured ivNDFd values were used to estimate the NEl, the potential dry matter intakes (DMI and to predict the MY of cows. Corn silage samples of the three years were similar for NDF and starch contents (44.2 and 30.7% DM, on average, respectively while samples from 2003, in comparison with 2001 and 2002, had lower crude protein (6.9 vs 8.3-8.4% DM, P<0.01 and L contents (3.3 vs 3.6-3.9% DM, P<0.01 and higher ivNDFd values (53.3 vs 45.6-47.8%, P<0.01. The relationship between ivNDFd and NDFd was weak (R2=0.09, not significant. The MY predicted from the NEl content and DMI of corn silage (5.5 MJ/kg DM and 8.9 kg/d minus the maintenance energy costs, was 11.5 kg/d on average (coefficient of variation 20%. Our simulations indicate that a variation of ivNDFd by +1.0% changes the NEl of corn silage to have an expected variation in milk yield of +0.15 kg/d. If the ivNDFd is also used to predict the corn silage DMI then a +1.0% variation in ivNDFd of corn silage produces an overall +0.23 kg/d MY variation. The present results indicate that ivNDFd is highly variable in corn silage populations and differences in this nutritional parameter have an appreciable impact on the predicted milk

  7. Evaluation of silage diets offered to reindeer calves intended for slaughter. I. Feeding of silage and barley from September to March

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment involving 75 male reindeer calves (mean initial live weight 39.6 kg, SD=3.7 intended for slaughter was undertaken to study the effect of proporrion of barley to silage in the diets on animal performance. The calves were alloted to five groups including one group slaughtered at the start of the experiment in September. The remaining groups were offered diets containing either, 30% (LB, or 60% (HB rolled barley, based on the dry matter (DM content, until slaughter in November (LB and HB or in March (HB. The silage (43% DM was made from the primary growth of a predominantly grass sward preserved as plastic-wrapped big bales. Small amounts of lichens were mixed with the rations during rhe first two weeks of the experiment and the calves adapted well to the experimental diets. However, health problems and deaths occurred on borh rarions after five weeks of feeding. Since the animals fed the LB diet lost live weight and condition the experimental feeding of these calves were interrupted at the slaughter in November. Calves fed the LB diet had significantly lower daily DM intake (P<0.01. They also had lower live weighr gain (not significant, greater losses of carcass weight and fat in the abdominal cavity relative to those offered the HB diet. During the second period of the study the remaining animals offered the HB diet showed no signs of ill-health and increased live weight, carcass weighr, and fat in the abdominal cavity. The results of the presenr experiment indicate that when silage of the investigated quality is fed to reindeer calves rhe proportion of silage should not exceed 40% of the DM.

  8. SILAGE QUALITY OF CORN AND SORGHUM ADDED WITH FORAGE PEANUTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALKÍRIA GUIMARÃES CARVALHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corn and sorghum are standard silage crops because of their fermentative characteristics. While corn and sorghum silages have lower crude protein (CP contents than other crops, intercropping with legumes can increase CP content. Furthermore, one way to increase CP content is the addition of legumes to silage. Consequently, the research objective was to evaluate the fermentative and bromatological characteristics of corn (Zea mays and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor silages added with forage peanuts (Arachis pintoi. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replicates. The treatments consisted of corn silage, sorghum silage, forage peanut silage, corn silage with 30% forage peanut, and sorghum silage with 30% forage peanut. The results showed that the corn and sorghum added with peanut helped to improve the silage fermentative and bromatological characteristics, proving to be an efficient technique for silage quality. The forage peanut silage had lower fermentative characteristics than the corn and sorghum silages. However, the forage peanut silage had a greater CP content, which increased the protein contents of the corn and sorghum silages when intercropped with forage peanuts.

  9. Lessons from silage adoption studies in Honduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Reiber

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To date, silage adoption has been low in the tropics, particularly under smallholder conditions. Innovation and adoption processes of silage technologies were promoted in drought-constrained areas of Honduras using a flexible, site-specific and participatory research and extension approach. A total of about 250 farmers participated in training workshops and field days conducted in 13 locations. Smallholders successfully ensiled maize, sorghum and/or Pennisetum spp., mainly in heap and earth silos, while adoption of little bag silage (LBS was low. LBS proved useful as a demonstration, experimentation and learning tool. A ‘silage boom’ occurred in 5 locations, where favorable adoption conditions included the presence of demonstration farms and involvement of key innovators, lack of alternative dry season feeds, perceived benefits of silage feeding, a favorable milk market and both extension continuity and intensity. The lack of chopping equipment was the main reason for non-adoption by poor smallholders. The study showed that, when targeting production system needs and farmer demands, silage promotion can lead to significant adoption, including at smallholder level, in the tropics. This experience could contribute to an increase in effectiveness and sustainability of silage extension in similar situations elsewhere.

  10. THE INFLUENCE OF SILAGE ADDITIVES FOR QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF CLOVER-GRASS SILAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F LÁD

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We observed the infl uence of silage additives for choice qualitative parameters at 109 samples of clovergrass silages in working conditions. We evaluated total classifi cation and categorization to quality classes according to fermentation process. It has been found out positive effect of the silage additives for fermentation class and for total silage quality of silages. This positive effec t has been more considerable at classifi cation to the fermentation classes at clover-grass silages. The high content of crude fi bre decreased fermentation results and total silage quality at test clover-grass silages. The greatest (deterioration infl uence for clasifi cation to total quality class has crude fi bre content. It is see from correlation coefi cient at clover-grass silages – r = 0,75 (P < 0,05. The weak dependence r = 0,37 (P < 0,05 was detected between fermentation class and acetic acid content. It was detected large dependence between fermentation class and butyric acid content r = 0,73 (P < 0,05.

  11. Beet fed as such or ensiled with maize and fresh potatoes in diets for finishing bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucqué, C V; Fiems, L O; Cottyn, B G

    1994-01-01

    The use of beet for beef production after ensiling together with maize was studied in two experiments involving 112 and 114 White-blue bulls. In the first experiment maize silage (I) was compared with mixed silage of maize and fodder beet (II) or sugar beet (III) (ratio: 2/1, DM-basis). In the second experiment maize silage (I) was compared with mixed silage of 0.67 maize and 0.33 sugar beet (II) or maize silage and fresh sugar beet (ratio: 2/1, DM basis) (III) or fresh sugar beet and potatoes afterwards at 4% of the live weight and maize silage (IV). From day 113 onwards, mixed silage was also fed to group III and sugar beet were replaced by raw potatoes in group IV. The basic diet was always supplemented with concentrate at 0.75% of the live weight. In experiment 1 live weight gain was slightly but not significantly higher for the mixed silages, although daily net energy intake per kg metabolic weight was higher. Feed efficiency was not significantly different among groups. Mixed silages yielded more fat in the carcass. In the second experiment initial growth rates were not significantly affected by the use of sugar beet or mixed silages. Afterwards, they were increased in comparison with maize silage. Also in this experiment, daily net energy intake was increased by sugar beet, or by potatoes. Energy efficiency did not differ among groups. This experiment did not show significant differences for the carcass composition. However, EUROP fatness score was higher for diets containing one third sugar beet. Most meat quality parameters were not affected by the diets. Only the lightness was different between III and IV.

  12. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis, and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively: a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw, a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake, and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage. The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10 to increase the average daily gain (27% and feed efficiency (18% of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05. Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1+ and 1++ appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups. In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle.

  13. Functionally redundant but dissimilar microbial communities within biogas reactors treating maize silage in co-fermentation with sugar beet silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Susanne G; Ahmed, Sharif; Einfalt, Daniel; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Kazda, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Numerous observations indicate a high flexibility of microbial communities in different biogas reactors during anaerobic digestion. Here, we describe the functional redundancy and structural changes of involved microbial communities in four lab-scale continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTRs, 39°C, 12 L volume) supplied with different mixtures of maize silage (MS) and sugar beet silage (SBS) over 80 days. Continuously stirred tank reactors were fed with mixtures of MS and SBS in volatile solid ratios of 1:0 (Continuous Fermenter (CF) 1), 6:1 (CF2), 3:1 (CF3), 1:3 (CF4) with equal organic loading rates (OLR 1.25 kgVS m−3 d−1) and showed similar biogas production rates in all reactors. The compositions of bacterial and archaeal communities were analysed by 454 amplicon sequencing approach based on 16S rRNA genes. Both bacterial and archaeal communities shifted with increasing amounts of SBS. Especially pronounced were changes in the archaeal composition towards Methanosarcina with increasing proportion of SBS, while Methanosaeta declined simultaneously. Compositional shifts within the microbial communities did not influence the respective biogas production rates indicating that these communities adapted to environmental conditions induced by different feedstock mixtures. The diverse microbial communities optimized their metabolism in a way that ensured efficient biogas production. PMID:26200922

  14. Incorporação de ômega-3 no tecido muscular da tilápia do Nilo alimentada com dietas contendo silagem de cabeça de camarão Incorporation of n-3 in muscular tissue of Nile tilapia fed with shrimp head silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Nunes Costa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a incorporação de ômega-3 EPA (eicosapentaenóico e DHA (docosahexanóico no tecido muscular de tilápias do Nilo alimentadas com dietas suplementadas com diferentes níveis de silagem de cabeça de camarão Litopenaeus vannamei (0, 4, 8, 12, 16%. Foram analisados os teores de EPA, DHA e lipídios totais das dietas e dos tecidos musculares das tilápias. Os teores de lipídios totais variaram entre 6,70 a 10,30% nas dietas e 0,79 a 1,37% no tecido muscular. Através da análise de regressão, houve um aumento nos teores de ômega-3 (r=0,92 com a inclusão da silagem na dieta. Foi observada incorporação de 0,59% (1,34mg 100g-1 e 9,5% (40,50mg 100g-1 de EPA e DHA, respectivamente, no tratamento com 16% de silagem na dieta. A inclusão de 16% da silagem ácida de cabeça de camarão na dieta das tilápias aumentou significativamente os níveis de incorporação de EPA e DHA no filé.The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of diets supplemented with shrimp-head silage on the incorporation of n-3 in the Nile tilapia fillets. EPA (eicosapentaenoic, DHA (docosahexanoic and total lipids were determined by chromatography in feeds and the muscles of tilapia specimens were submitted to diets supplemented with a varying degree of silage (0, 4, 8, 12, 16%. The total lipid content ranged from 6.70 to 10.30% in the diets and from 0.79 to 1.37% in the tilapia fillets. In diet with high concentration of silage, it was observed an increase in the level of omega-3 (r=0.92. There was an incorporation of 0.59% (1.34mg 100g-1 and 9.5% (40.50mg 100g-1 of EPA and DHA, respectively, when the addition of silage to the diet was 16%. The results implication states that the inclusion of 16% of the shrimp head silage in the diet for tilapias increases the levels of incorporation of EPA and DHA in the filet.

  15. Substituição da silagem de milho por silagem de girassol na dieta de novilhos em confinamento: comportamento ingestivo Corn silage substituted by sunflower silage in the diet of fedlot steers: ingestive behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro da Silva Freitas

    2010-01-01

    silage and 0% sunflower silage; 70.94% corn silage and 29.06% sunflower silage and 38.27% corn silage and 61.73% sunflower silage, all with a 60:40 roughage:concentrate ratio. Time spent lying idle was greater for steers that consumed only corn silage as roughage compared to those that consumed sunflower silage. Time spent standing idle was similar between 33 (1.84 h and 66% sunflower silage (1.96 h and lower for 0% sunflower silage (1.62 h. The animals rumination time increased with the inclusion of sunflower on diet, with values of 8.61; 8.76 and 9.45 h, respectively for 0; 33 and 66% sunflower silage. Animals fed only with corn silage show better dry matter and neutral detergent fiber rumination efficiencies. The time spent feeding decrease with higher participation of sunflower silage.

  16. Effect of increasing plant maturity in timothy-dominated grass silage on the performance of growing/finishing Norweigan Red bulls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, Åshild T.; Nørgaard, Peder; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2010-01-01

    of carcass fat more for H1 (0•163) than for H2 (0•134) but the same amount of energy was retained in the carcass per MJ net energy growth intake for these two groups. It is concluded that, apart from milk and concentrate fed to calves during the first months, an intensive beef production with NRF bulls......An investigation was made of the potential for attaining high daily live weight (LW) gain, high feeding efficiency and carcass quality in Norwegian Red (NRF) bulls fed grass silage harvested at early stages of maturity, supplemented with minimal amounts of concentrates. Roundbale silage...... and a formic acid-based additive applied. All silages were preserved with restricted fermentation. Silage DOMD values were 0•747, 0•70 and 0•647 for harvesting time (H) 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Silages were fed ad libitum as sole feed, or supplemented with 2-4 kg concentrate at increasing LW, to six bulls per...

  17. Composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros holandeses alimentados após o desaleitamento com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo Physical and chemical carcasses composition of Holstein calves fed after weaning with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gercílio Alves de Almeida Júnior

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a composição físico-química de carcaças de bezerros após desaleitamento até o abate com silagem de grãos úmidos ou grãos secos de milho ou sorgo para a produção de vitelos de carne rosa. Trinta bezerros holandeses foram distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com cinco blocos e seis tratamentos, e alimentados com seis rações com teores similares de proteína (18,5% PB e de energia (3,2 Mcal EM/kg de MS, formuladas com: milho seco moído (MM; silagem de grãos úmidos de milho (SGUM; sorgo seco com tanino moído (SCTM; silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo com tanino (SGUISCT; sorgo seco sem tanino moído; e silagem de grãos úmidos inteiros de sorgo sem tanino (SGUISST. Após o resfriamento, foram tomados nas meias-carcaças esquerdas os cortes da seção H&H para estimativa da composição tecidual da carcaça e os cortes no Longissimus dorsi à altura da 12ª e 13ª costelas para determinação da área de olho-de-lombo (AOL, da espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGS, da força de cisalhamento (FC e da composição química. Não houve efeito da composição das rações concentradas sobre a composição física e a relação entre tecidos na seção H&H, bem como para AOL, EGS e FC. A ração concentrada SGUM resultou em maiores teores de EE no Longissimus dorsi, mas não diferiu das rações SCTM e SSTM. A ração concentrada SGUM gerou maior deposição de gordura muscular em comparação à MM, no entanto, as rações SGUISCT e SGUISST não aumentaram essa deposição em comparação ao fornecimento dos grãos secos moídos. Todos os alimentos avaliados podem ser usados em rações concentradas para bezerros após o aleitamento, pois não comprometem a composições física e química da carca��a e conferem resultados similares.The physical and chemical carcasses composition of calves fed after weaning until slaughter with high moisture grains silage or dry ground grains of corn or sorghum

  18. Feeding value of low quality grass silage supplemented with maize silage for sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. VRANIC

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of interactions between low quality grass silage (GS dominated by orchardgrass and maize silage (MS on ad libitum intake, digestibility and nitrogen retention in wether sheep. The study consisted of four feeding treatments involving GS and MS alone and GS and MS mixtures in a ratio of 67:33 or 33:67 (dry matter (DM basis fed twice daily. The GS was high in DM (463 g kg–1, neutral detergent fibre (715 g kg–1DM and acid detergent fibre (429 g kg–1DM while low in crude protein (90.1 g kg–1DM. The DM content (g kg–1 and starch concentration (g kg–1DM of MS were 264 and 211, respectively. The inclusion of MS into diet had positive linear effects on fresh matter ad libitum intake (kg d–1 and g kg–1M0.75d–1 (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001 respectively, digestibility of DM (P < 0.01, organic matter (P < 0.01, acid detergent fibre (P < 0.05, starch (P < 0.001, digestibility of organic matter in DM (D-value (P < 0.001, nitrogen intake (P < 0.01 and nitrogen output in faeces (P < 0.01. A positive associative effect of low quality GS and MS was observed for ad libitum intake (kg d–1 and g kg–1M0.75d–1 of fresh matter (quadratic, P < 0.01, DM (quadratic, P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 respectively and organic matter (P < 0.001, for digestibility of DM, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, crude protein, starch and D-value (quadratic, P < 0.01, digestibility of organic matter (quadratic, P < 0.05, nitrogen intake (quadratic, P < 0.001 and nitrogen balance (quadratic, P < 0.05. It was concluded that differences between low quality GS and MS resulted in positive associative responses of GS and MS for all parameters measured (intake, digestibility and nitrogen retention.;

  19. Aerobic fungi in the rumen fluid from dairy cattle fed different sources of forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Natalicia Mendes de Almeida

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the aerobic microbiota of the rumen fluid from Holstein cows and heifers fed different tropical forage in the north of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 30 samples of rumen fluid from cows fed with sorghum silage were collected: 32 from cows fed Brachiaria brizantha, 12 from heifers that received sorghum silage and 11 from calves fed sugar cane foliage. The culture was carried out using the agar Sabouraud medium and the solid C medium, containing microcrystalline cellulose. The isolated mycelial fungi were identified by microculture technique and yeasts by micromorphological and physical-chemical analysis. Specific identification for yeasts was confirmed by ribosomal DNA sequence analysis. The presence of fungal colonies was confirmed on the Sabouraud medium for 100% of the samples. No significant differences were observed comparing the concentrations of mycelia fungi in the rumen fluid from cows fed different forages and for the two categories evaluated, fed sorghum silage. Yeast populations in the rumen fluid from heifers fed sugarcane were higher compared with those receiving sorghum silage. The yeast Pichia kudriavzevii (Candida krusei was the most frequent and among the mycelial fungi, the genus Aspergillus was the most frequently observed, corresponding to 56% of the samples. Future studies should elucidate the variations in the populations of these microorganisms considering the carbohydrate sources in the tropical forages and the animal categories. The ecological or pathogenic role of these microorganisms should also be considered, aiming at improved productivity and health of cattle.

  20. Synergistic action of enzyme preparations towards recalcitrant corn silage polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.; Streekstra, H.; Schols, H.A.; Gruppen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Corn silage, its water unextractable solids (WUS) and enzyme recalcitrant solids (ErCS) and an industrial corn silage-based anaerobic fermentation residue (AFR) represent corn substrates with different levels of recalcitrance. Compositional analysis reveals different levels of arabinoxylan

  1. Effects of cutting height and maturity on the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, J M; Kung, L

    2003-06-01

    We studied the effect of increasing the cutting height of whole-plant corn at the time of harvest from 12.7 (NC) to 45.7 (HC) cm on yield and nutritive value of silage for dairy cows. Three leafy corn silage hybrids were harvested at NC and HC at about 34% dry matter (E) and 41% DM (L) and ensiled in laboratory silos. Increasing the height of cutting lowered yields of harvested DM/ha. In addition, the concentrations of DM and starch were higher but the concentrations of lactic acid, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber were lower in HC than in NC. The concentration of acid detergent lignin was also lower in HC, but only in corn harvested at E. In vitro digestion (30 h) of NDF was greater in HC (50.7%) than NC (48.3%). Calculated yield of milk per tonne of forage DM was greater for HC than for NC at E but not at L. In a lactation experiment, increasing the height of cutting of another leafy corn silage hybrid, TMF29400, in general also resulted in similar changes in nutrient composition as just described. When fed to lactating dairy cows, HC corn silage resulted in tendencies for greater NDF digestion in the total tract, higher milk production and improved feed efficiency, but there were no differences in 3.5% fat corrected milk between treatments. Results of this study suggest that increasing the cutting height of whole plant corn at harvest can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for lactating dairy cows.

  2. Desempenho de bezerros de corte alimentados com diferentes fontes protéicas associadas à silagem de sorgo colhida em duas alturas de corte Performance of beef calves fed with different protein sources associated with silage of sorghum harvested in two different heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Miranda Vargas Júnior

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas três fontes protéicas (uréia - U, farinha penas - Fp e farelo soja - Fs associadas a duas silagens de sorgo (silagens de sorgo corte alto - SCA e corte baixo - SCB por intermédio do desempenho de bezerros de corte, confinados por 84 dias. Foram utilizados 36 bezerros mestiços (Charolês/RedAngus/Nelore, castrados, com cinco meses de idade e pesando em média 146,44 kg. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD; o consumo de matéria seca expressos em kg/dia (CMS, percentagem de peso vivo (CMSPV e peso metabólico (CMSPM; e a conversão alimentar (CA. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado por intermédio de um fatorial 3x2. Houve efeito significativo na interação silagem versus fonte protéica para a variável GMD, com o maior GMD para SCAFp (1,61 kg/animal/dia versus a SCBFs (1,32 kg/animal/dia. Os demais parâmetros não diferiram estatisticamente quando analisada a interação ou isoladamente a silagem ou fonte protéica. A silagem de sorgo corte alto promoveu numericamente um maior GMD e CMS.Three protein sources (urea - U; feather meal - Fm; soybean meal - Sm associated to two sorghum silage (sorghum at high cutting - SHC; and sorghum at low cutting - SLC were evaluated by measuring beef calf performance, confined for 84 days. Thirty-six crossbred (Charolês/RedAngus/Nelore castrated calves, with five months of age and average weight alive on the 146.44 kg, were used. Average daily weight gain (DWG; the dry matter intake expressed in kg/day (DMI, percentage live weight (DMILW and percentage of metabolic weight (DMIMW and the feed : gain ratio (FGR were evaluated. The treatments followed a 3x2 factorial in a completely randomized design. There was significant effect in the interaction silage versus protein source for variable DWG, with the higher DWG for SHCFm (1.61 kg/animal/day versus SLCSm (1.32 kg/animal/day. The other parameters did not differ when the interaction or separately the silage or protein

  3. THE EFFECTS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED MAIZE SILAGE ON THE CONTENTS OF FATTY ACIDS IN BODY TISSUES OF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa SIMINSKA

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the evaluation of fatty acids contents in meat and selected offal in lambs fed a diet containing silage of whole plants of genetically modified maize (Bt MON 810 line. The material consisted of 14 Polish Merino lambs of mean start body weight 24 kg. There were two feeding groups selected of 7 lambs each. In the control group (K the lambs were fed isogenic maize silage, which in the second group (GMO was substituted with the modified maize silage (Bt MON 810 line. After 70 days of feeding (feed portions were standardised according to the DLG system the lambs were slaughtered and dissected. The results were evaluated statistically and the significance of differences was calculated with the two factor variation analysis (nutrition, tissue. Feeding genetically modified maize silage did not change, in a statistically significant way, the contents of any main fatty acids in the pool of all acids nor the contents of the totals and their proportions, while the factor causing clear differences was the tissue. Differences for the majority of the results were statistically significant. Statistically significant interactions noted (nutrition x tissue are probably due to different values of these traits in the analysed tissues.

  4. Storage quality and marketability potential of bagged silage for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bagged sole maize and maize–cowpea silages in three bag sizes were assessed at 42 and 282 d post-ensiling for sensory and chemical quality. A survey of dairy farmers on silage use and preferences was conducted in the Chikwaka communal area and Marirangwe small-scale commercial farming area. Only silage ...

  5. Silage fermentation attributes and certain rumen parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neither species nor maturity stage had a significant effect on silage ammonia nitrogen, or lactic, acetic and butyric acid concentrations. For P. maximum silage total N was higher at full bloom than at the boot stage. D. eriantha had a higher total nitrogen content than P. maximum silage at the boot stage. Rumen pH was lower ...

  6. Methane emissions changed nonlinearly with graded substitution of alfalfa silage with corn silage and corn grain in the diet of sheep and relation with rumen fermentation characteristics in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, A; Lowe, K; Kittelmann, S; Janssen, P H; Ledgard, S; Pacheco, D

    2016-08-01

    Feeding grain and corn silage have been proposed as practices to reduce enteric methane (CH) emissions per unit of intake from ruminants, but the inclusion level required in the diet is normally not specified. The objectives of the current study were to determine the CH emission factor (g/kg DMI) of sheep fed alfalfa silage substituted with increasing levels of corn silage or corn grain at a fixed DMI level (2% of BW) and determine its relationship with rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial community composition and with in vitro fermentation characteristics of the same diets incubated using a standard laboratory method. Romney ewe hoggets (approximately 14 mo old; = 64) were randomly allocated to 8 dietary treatments, which included chaffed alfalfa silage alone or substituted with either 25, 50, 75 or 100% corn silage or 25, 50 or 65% rolled corn grain on a DM basis. After acclimatization to the diet, DMI and CH emissions were measured from individual sheep for 2 consecutive days in open-circuit respiration chambers and a rumen sample was collected at 3 h after feeding. The same diets were also incubated in an automated in vitro gas production system for 48 h using rumen liquid of fistulated nonlactating dairy cows grazing pasture. Increasing the substitution of alfalfa silage with corn silage or corn grain in the diet of sheep resulted in a quadratic response ( alfalfa silage. The ratio of acetate + butyrate to propionate + valerate and the propionate proportion alone in rumen liquid were the strongest single predictors for CH/DMI in the overall data set and explained 37.1 and 32.5%, respectively, of the variation in CH/DMI. Methanogens of (21.1% of total methanogens; = 0.247) and (10.7% of total methanogens; = -0.411) clades had weak to moderate correlations with in vivo CH/DMI. There was a weak quadratic relationship ( alfalfa forage diet when fed at 2% of BW to sheep; however, implications on predicting its influence on greenhouse gas emissions per

  7. Mammary cell turnover and expression of lipogenic genes in response to silage induced CLA and diet energy density in lactating cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Baumgard, L H; Nielsen, T Skau

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate possible effects of silage induced differences in milk conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and diet energy density on cell turnover and production capacity in the mammary gland. Cows were given high levels of canola fat and fed either grass or maize...

  8. In vitro gas and methane production of silages from whole-plant corn harvested at 4 different stages of maturity and a comparison with in vivo methane production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macome, F. M.; Pellikaan, Wilbert F; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J; Hatew, B.; Schonewille, J T; Cone, John W

    2017-01-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between in vitro and in vivo CH4 production by cows fed corn silage (CS)-based rations. In vivo CH4 production was measured in climate respiration chambers using 8 rumen-cannulated Holstein-Friesian cows. In vitro CH4 production was measured using

  9. Substituição do grão de milho pelo grão de milheto em dietas contendo silagem de milho ou silagem de capim-elefante na alimentação de bovinos de corte Replacement of corn grain by pearl millet grain in diets containing corn or elephant grass silage fed beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renato Silva Gonçalves

    2010-09-01

    experiment was to evaluate the effects of replacing corn grain by pearl millet grain in diets containing corn silage or elephant grass silage on feed intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and ruminal parameters of beef cattle. Six cannulated Nellore steers were distributed in a 6 x 6 Latin square, in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme, with two sources of roughages (corn silage or elephant grass silage and three levels of replacement of corn grain by pearl millet grain (0, 50 or 100%. Replacement of corn grain by pearl millet grain and the roughage sources did not affect nutrient intake. However, the use of elephant grass silage increased acid detergent fiber and decreased starch intake when compared to diets containing corn silage. There was no effect of replacement of corn grain by pearl millet grain on digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. However, there was an increase of digestibility of ether extract and the highest values were observed for diets containing 50 and 100% of pearl millet grain in relation to diets containg 100% corn grain, regardless to roughage source. Digestibility of starch was also increased by the replacement of corn grain by pearl millet grain. Roughage source also had an effect on neutral and acid detergent fiber digestibilities, which increased with the use of elephant grass silage. Replacement of corn grain by pearl millet grain in the diet decreases ruminal ammonia concentration without changing concentrations of ruminal acetate, propionate, total volatile fatty acids and ruminal pH. The use of elephant grass silage increases ruminal acetate concentration and acetate:propionate ratio.

  10. Replacing alfalfa silage with tannin-containing birdsfoot trefoil silage in total mixed rations for lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lactation trials were conducted to assess the feeding value of silage made from populations of birdsfoot trefoil (BFT, Lotus corniculatus L.) that had been selected for low (BFTL), medium (BFTM), and high (BFTH) levels of condensed tannins (CT). These silages were compared to an alfalfa silage (...

  11. Effect of replacing corn with brown rice in a total, mixed, ration silage on milk production, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen balance in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaji, Makoto; Matsuyama, Hiroki; Hosoda, Kenji; Nonaka, Kazuhisa

    2012-08-01

    Nine multiparous Holstein cows were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design to determine the effects of substituting corn grain with brown rice (BR) grain in total mixed ration (TMR) silage on milk yield, ruminal fermentation and nitrogen (N) balance. The TMR silages were made from the ensiling of TMR containing (dry matter basis) 50.1% forage in rice silage and corn silage combination, and 49.9% concentrate. The grain portion of the diets contained 31.2% steam-flaked corn, 31.2% steam-flaked BR or an equal mixture of corn and BR. Dietary treatments did not affect dry matter intake, milk yield and milk fat, protein and lactose yields. The ruminal pH and total volatile fatty acid concentrations were not affected by dietary treatment. The urinary N excretion decreased linearly (P excretion. Our results indicate that steam-flaked BR is a suitable replacement for steam-flaked corn in dairy cow diets, and that it can be included in rations to a level of at least 31.2% of dry matter without adverse effects on milk production, when cows were fed rice silage and corn silage-based diets. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Avaliação econômica e desempenho de machos e fêmeas Canchim em confinamento alimentados com dietas à base de silagem de milho e concentrado ou cana-de-açúcar e concentrado contendo grãos de girassol Economic evaluation and performance of feedlot male and female Canchim fed corn silage and concentrate or sugar cane plus concentrate with sunflower seed based diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes Fernandes

    2007-08-01

    bulls, 10 castrated males and 10 females averagfing 15 months old and 289 kg BW were housed in individual stalls, for 105 days and weighted in the beginning of the experiment and every 35 days. At the end of the feedlot, all the animals were slaughtered in commercial frigorific and measures of carcass characteristics were made. Young bulls showed higher nutrient intakes as compared to females, in absolute values and in relation LW values. The castrated males presented intermediary values, not differing from young bulls and females. Young bulls presented higher daily weight gain and muscular development, represented by the largest rib eye area. They were also more efficient as for feed conversion and carcass yield. No effect was observed for diets on the ingestion of nutrients, except for EE, that was higher for the diet with sugarcane + sunflower seed, with more of this nutrient. Diets also did not influence performance of the animals. Diet with corn silage showed more economically viable to raised young cattle in fed lot finishing. Young bulls were the animals more adequate for the exploration of young cattle in feedlot, independently of diet.

  13. Effect of corn silage hybrids differing in starch and neutral detergent fiber digestibility on lactation performance and total-tract nutrient digestibility by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Fonseca, A C; Sniffen, C J; Formigoni, A; Shaver, R D

    2015-01-01

    Selection for hybrids with greater starch and NDF digestibility may be beneficial for dairy producers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of feeding a TMR containing a floury-leafy corn silage hybrid (LFY) compared with a brown midrib corn silage hybrid (BMR) for intake, lactation performance, and total-tract nutrient digestibility in dairy cows. Ninety-six multiparous Holstein cows, 105±31d in milk at trial initiation, were stratified by DIM and randomly assigned to 12 pens of 8 cows each. Pens were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments, BMR or LFY, in a completely randomized design; a 2-wk covariate period with cows fed a common diet followed by a 14-wk treatment period with cows fed their assigned treatment diet. Starch digestibilities, in situ, in vitro, and in vivo, were greater for LFY compared with BMR; the opposite was observed for NDF digestibility. Cows fed BMR consumed 1.7kg/d more dry matter than LFY. Although, actual-, energy-, and solids-corrected milk yields were greater for BMR than LFY, feed conversions (kg of milk or component-corrected milk per kg of DMI) did not differ. Fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were similar, as milk fat content was greater for cows fed LFY (4.05%) than BMR (3.83%). Cows fed BMR had lower milk urea nitrogen concentration, but greater milk protein and lactose yields compared with LFY. Body weight change and condition score were unaffected by treatment. Total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage; however, dry matter intake and milk and protein yields were greater for cows fed the BMR corn silage. Although total-tract starch digestibility was greater for cows fed the LFY corn silage, feed efficiency was not affected by hybrid type due to greater dry matter intake and milk and protein yields by cows fed the BMR corn silage. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Digestibility, nitrogen utilization, and voluntary intake of ensiled crab waste-wheat straw mixtures fed to sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abazinge, M D; Fontenot, J P; Allen, V G

    1994-03-01

    Crab waste and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) straw mixtures, ensiled with different additives, were evaluated in metabolism and palatability trials. Crab waste and straw were mixed in proportions of 1:1, wet basis, with 20% water and different additives, and ensiled in 210-L metal drums double-lined with polyethylene bags. Thirty crossbred wethers (40 kg initial BW) were fed a 1) basal diet consisting of 75% orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) hay and 25% concentrate, 2) ensiled crab waste-wheat straw, with 16% (vol/wt) added glacial acetic acid, 3) crab waste-wheat straw ensiled with 20% dry molasses, 4) crab waste-wheat straw ensiled with 20% dry molasses and a microbial inoculant, and 5) ensiled wheat straw supplemented with urea. Apparent digestibility of DM and CP was lower (P < .05) for acetic acid-treated silages than for silages containing molasses. Nitrogen retention was higher (P < .05) for molasses-inoculant-treated silage than for the molasses-treated silage (5.4 vs 3.9 g/d). Ruminal NH3 N and blood urea N were higher (P < .05) for lambs fed the molasses-treated silages than for those receiving the acetic acid-treated crab waste mixture. Among the wethers fed crab waste silages, intake was lower (P < .01) for wethers receiving the acetic acid-treated silage than for those fed the molasses-treated mixtures. Treatment of crab waste-straw mixtures with molasses produced a palatable silage that was efficiently utilized by wethers.

  15. Digestion and ruminal fermentation of cocoa pod silage based ration enriched by gliricidia and calliandra leaves on goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puastuti W

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In term of availability, cacao pod is potential for ruminant feed. According to its nutrients content, cacao pod can be used as feed fiber source. Protein sources materials must be added when cacao pod was ensilaged due to low protein content of this material. The aim of this study was to investigate digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation of goat fed grass or cacao pod based ration. Randomized block design and 20 heads of lambs (16.95±2.36 kg to evaluated 5 type of rations: R (50% grass + 50% concentrate; S (50% cacao pod silage + 50% concentrate; SG (50% cacao pod-gliricidia silage + 50% concentrate; SK (50% cacao pod-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate dan SC (50% cacao pod-mixture of gliricidia-calliandra silage + 50% concentrate. Feeding trial was conducted for over 15 weeks. Measurements were taken on feed digestibility and rumen-fermentation end-products after 3 weeks of treatments. Results shows that nutrients digestibility was different significantly among the groups of treatments (P<0.05. Digestibillity of organic matter, NDF and energy of R ration was those of higher significantly (P<0.05 than those of other groups. N-ammonia of rumen from goat feed R ration was higher (P<0.05 than other groups. Total VFA and each component were different among the groups (P<0.05, however the value was similar among the groups of cacao pod silage rations. It is concluded that cacao pod silaged based rations enriched by Gliricidia and Calliandra leaves did not produce similar digestibility value and end products of rumen fermentation with grass based ration.

  16. Produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa alimentadas com fenos de alfafa e de tifton-85 e silagem de milho Milk production and composition of Holstein cows fed with alfafa and tifton-85 hays and corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clóves Cabreira Jobim

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos da ingestão dos fenos de alfafa e tifton-85 e da silagem de milho na produção e composição do leite de vacas da raça Holandesa, multíparas, com peso vivo médio de 460 kg, em início de lactação, num experimento em triplo quadrado latino, simultâneo, com três linhas (vacas e três colunas (volumoso. Não houve efeito (p > 0,05 dos diferentes volumosos na produção e na composição do leite, nem nas porcentagens e produções de gordura, de proteína, de lactose e de sólidos totais. Também a contagem de células somáticas não foi afetada pelos tratamentos. Os resultados da análise econômica mostraram que a silagem de milho proporcionou maior margem líquida por litro de leite/dia produzido.This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of intake of alfalfa and tifton-85 hays and corn silage on the milk production and composition of multiparous Holstein cows, averaging 460 kg in body weight, at the beginning of lactation, using a triple Latin square, simultaneous, with three lines (cows and three columns (forages. There was no effect (p > 0.05 of the different types of forage on the milk production and composition, or on the percentage the production of fat, protein, lactose, total solids, and somatic cell count. The results of the economic analysis showed that the corn silage provided a larger liquid margin for liters of milk produced per day.

  17. Effects of feeding Mediterranean buffalo sorghum silage versus maize silage on the rumen microbiota and milk fatty acid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ann Huws, Sharon; Chiariotti, Antonella; Sarubbi, Fiorella; Carfì, Francesca; Pace, Vilma

    2012-01-01

    Sorghum presents a sustainable feedstock for Mediterranean buffaloes due to its reduced water and nitrogen requirements compared with maize, which is currently fed primarily. We investigated the effects of feeding sorghum as opposed to maize on Mediterranean buffalo rumen microbial diversity and milk fatty acid content. Four cannulated lactating Mediterranean buffalo cows were fed a basal diet for one month before switching either to maize or sorghum-silage based diets for a 3-month period. Buffaloes were then changed over to the contrasting diet for a further one month. Rumen and milk samples were collected at the end of each month. DGGE- and T-RFLP-based dendrograms generated from rumen samples did not show an effect of diet on rumen bacterial diversity. Milk samples also did not differ in terms of their fatty acid content post sorghum feeding as compared with maize feeding. Thus, sorghum provides an environmentally beneficial alternative to maize for feeding Mediterranean buffalo with little effect on rumen microbial diversity or milk fatty acid composition compared with maize feeding.

  18. Determination of gross energy of silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meineri

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The gross energy (GE of forage is not directly used in rationing systems, but its evaluation is the starting point for an estimate of the digestible, metabolisable and net energy. As far as grass silages are concerned, their GE is 4 to 10% higher that of the grass source.

  19. Fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of silage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    silage made from different ratios of cattle manure and maize residues were investigated. Manure (fresh) ... mixtures were analysed for: in vitro dry matter digestibility,. aCid-detergent fibre, neutral-detergent fibre, ... discovery that it was readily consumed and used by cattle after it had been ensiled with ground hay in a ratio of ...

  20. Nutritive value of brewers’ grain and maize silage for fattening rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guermah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Specific knowledge of the nutritive value of raw materials is fundamental to formulate balanced diets for rabbits and allows greater use of by-products and non-conventional feedstuffs. This paper examines the feeding value of sun-dried brewers’ grain and maize silage (whole plant for fattening rabbits. Twenty-four individually caged 8-wk-old rabbits were used to determine the digestibility. Both wet products were sun-dried and ground before being incorporated into a basal diet. The inclusion level at the expense of all basal ingredients amounted to 30%. Basal diet and both experimental diets were fed ad libitum to 8 rabbits during the 4-d balance trial. The determined digestibility of protein, fat, crude fibre and neutral detergent fibre digestibility amounted to 76.2 and 77.2%; 86.5 and 99.1%; 8.1 and 8.3% and 28.0 and 13.5%, respectively, for brewers’ grain and maize silage. The digestible energy content amounted to 11.66 MJ/kg dry matter (DM (brewers’ grain and 11.10 MJ/kg DM (maize silage. Both by-products have potential as alternative feedstuff in rabbit diets. However, further experiments are necessary to determine the effect of ensilaging the whole maize plant, as a significantly lower (P<0.001 feed intake was observed.

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF ADDITIVES FOR QUALITATIVE PARAMETERS OF SILAGE FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. LÁD

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available We observed the influence of silage additives for choice qualitative parameters at clover-grass silages in working conditions. We evaluated total classification and categorization to quality classes according to fermentative process. It has been found out positive effect of the silage additives for fermentative class and for total silage quality of silages. This positive effect has been more considerable at the classification to the fermentative classes at clover-grass silages. The high content of crude fibre decreased fermentative results and total silage quality at test clovergrass silages. The greatest (deterioration influence for clasification to total quality class has crude fibre content. It is see from correlation coefficient at clover-grass silages r = 0.75 (P < 0.05. The weak dependence r = 0.37 (P < 0.05 was detected between fermentative class and acetic acid content. It was detected large dependence between fermentative class and butyric acid content r = 0.73 (P < 0.05. The silages with additives had better degree of proteolysis and higher value of lactic acid. The additive improved fermentative quality. The result of better fermentative process was reduction of crude fibre values with maintainance of energy content.

  2. Nitrogen fertilization of grass/clover swards under cutting or grazing by dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2009-01-01

    Intensively managed perennial ryegrass/white clover (Lolium perenne L. and Trifolium repens L.) swards receive relatively high levels of fertilizer N, and high N surpluses can subsequently be found. The N-fertilization effects on growth, yield, and herbage quality were therefore examined on three...... farms over a period of three years. Nitrogen was applied at four rates (0, 75, 150, and 225 kg N year-1) with cutting or grazing regime in Year 1 and Year 2, after establishment. A spring-only application of 150 kg N was compared with four applications during the season, which was the fertilization...... management in the rest of the experiment. N-response was greatly affected by management. Under cutting it was higher in Year 1 [16 kg dry matter (DM) kg-1 N] than in Year 2 (9 and 13 kg DM kg-1 N with and without residual effects of fertilization in Year 1). Under grazing with one or two rest periods...

  3. Grass-clover undersowing affects nitrogen dynamics in a grain legume–cereal arable cropping system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Mundus, Simon; Jensen, Erik Steen

    2012-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out in an arable organic cropping system and included a sequence with sole cropped fababean (Vicia faba L.), lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.), pea (Pisum sativum L.), oat (Avena sativa L.) and pea–oat intercropping with or without an undersown perennial ryegrass...

  4. Nitrogen cycling in organic farming systems with rotational grass-clover and arable crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Jørgen; Grant, Ruth; Olesen, Jørgen E.

    2006-01-01

    Organic farming is considered an effective means of reducing nitrogen losses compared with more intensive conventional farming systems. However, under certain conditions, organic farming may also be susceptible to large nitrogen (N) losses. This i especially the case for organic .....

  5. N transfer in three species grass-clover mixtures with chicory, ribwort plantain or caraway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aimsThere is substantial evidence that legume-derived Nitrogen (N) is transferred to neighboring non-legumes in grassland mixtures. However, there is sparse information about how deep rooted non-legume forage herbs (forbs) influence N transfer in multi-species grasslands. Methodology......Red clover (Trifolium pretense L.) was grown together with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and one of three forb species: chicory (Cichorium intybus L.), ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) or caraway (Carum carvi L.) in a field experiment. During the first year after the establishment, red...... clover leaves were labeled with 15N-urea to determine the N transfer from red clover to companion ryegrass and forbs. ResultsOn an annual basis, up to 15 % of red clover N was transferred to the companion ryegrass and forbs, but predominantly to the grass. The forb species did not differ in their ability...

  6. N transfer in three species grass-clover mixtures with chicory, ribwort plantain or caraway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Carlsson, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Background and aimsThere is substantial evidence that legume-derived Nitrogen (N) is transferred to neighboring non-legumes in grassland mixtures. However, there is sparse information about how deep rooted non-legume forage herbs (forbs) influence N transfer in multi-species grasslands. Methodolo...

  7. Short-term residual N unaffected by forbs in grass-clover mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhamala, Nawa Raj; Rasmussen, Jim; Cong, Wenfeng

    2017-01-01

    We determined the effect on residual nitrogen (N) of including forbs (chicory, ribwort plantain and caraway) in perennial ryegrass-red clover mixtures. Although soil N inputs during the grassland phase differed markedly between mixtures, in a pot experiment we found no differences...... in the potentially mineralizable N of the soil or in the dry matter production and N content of the spring barley test crop. The fertilizer value of the grassland mixtures corresponded to 10 g N/m2, irrespective of forb inclusion. Thus, the inclusion of nonlegume forbs did not negatively affect short-term residual N...

  8. Voluntary feed intake and growth performance of slow-growing pigs fed on increasing levels of ensiled potato hash meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncobela, C N; Kanengoni, A T; Thomas, R S; Chimonyo, M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine voluntary feed intake and growth performance of Windsnyer pigs fed on increasing levels of potato hash silage meal. Thirty-six growing Windsnyer pigs (19 kg ± 5.59) (mean ± standard deviation (SD)) were individually and randomly assigned to six experimental diets containing 0, 80, 160, 240, 320 and 400 g/kg DM of potato hash silage. Diets containing the potato hash silage were formulated using diet dilution method from 0 g/kg and 400 g/kg. Six pigs were fed on each diet ad libitum for 6 weeks. Average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), gain to feed (G/F) ratio, scaled feed intake (SFI) and scaled average daily gain (SADG) were measured weekly. Increasing levels of potato hash silage caused a decrease (P < 0.05) in ADG, G/F ratio and SADG. The ADFI interacted significantly (P < 0.05) with the inclusion level of potato hash silage and week of feeding. Pigs fed on 240 g/kg potato hash silage had greater ADFI in the second, third and fourth week of feeding. There was a quadratic increase (P < 0.05) in ADFI. There was a linear decrease (P < 0.05) in ADG and G/F ratio and SADG as the potato hash silage level increased. Using piecewise regression, potato hash silage can be included up to 240 g/kg DM in Windsnyer pigs without undermining growth performance.

  9. Spineless cactus associated with Tifton hay or sugarcane bagasse may replace corn silage in sheep diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Sacramento Ribeiro, Julimar; Santos, Luana Lira; de Lima Júnior, Dorgival Morais; de Albuquerque Mariz, Tobyas Maia; Ladeira, Márcio Machado; de Azevedo, Paulo Sérgio; Lima, Carolyny Batista; Dos Santos Silva, Maria Josilaine Matos

    2017-06-01

    The effect of the replacement of corn silage with spineless cactus associated with Tifton 85 hay or sugarcane bagasse was evaluated on the performance, body weight components and sheep meat quality. Twenty-one Santa Inês male sheep with initial body weight of 22.9 ± 2.9 kg were used. They were confined in individual stalls for 74 days receiving the following diets: corn silage + concentrate (CS); spineless cactus + Tifton 85 hay + concentrate (TH); spineless cactus + sugarcane bagasse + concentrate (SB). After the feedlot period, the animals were slaughtered and their body components were weighed and sampled. Data were submitted to Tukey's test at 5% probability. The average daily gain (0.25 vs 0.14 kg), cold carcass weight (13.3 vs 13.7 kg), loin muscularity (0.6 vs 0.4 kg) and liver weight (0.7 vs. 0.5 kg) were higher (P  0.05) by the treatments and presented about 20.1% of crude protein, 6.1% of crude fat and shear force of 2.0 kgf/cm 2 . In complete diets for sheep, Tifton 85 hay associated with spineless cactus provides greater weight gain, cold carcass muscularity and organ weight when compared to those for animals fed with corn silage as exclusive roughage. Sugarcane bagasse associated with spineless cactus may replace corn silage in complete diets for sheep.

  10. Desempenho produtivo e digestibilidade pela tilápia do NILO (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 alimentada com dietas suplementadas com níveis crescentes de silagem ácida de pescado Yielo and digestibility performance by the Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus, 1758 fed with diets with increasing levels of acid silage of fishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Emília de Sousa Gomes Pimenta

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Conduziram-se estes experimentos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápias e o desempenho produtivo da tilápia alimentada com dietas contendo (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 5,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita por metodologia indireta, utilizando-se 1,0% de Cr2O3 como indicador, incorporado à ração. No desempenho foram utilizados 2000 alevinos de tilápia nilótica, com peso médio inicial de 0,525g, acondicionados em hapas de 1m², dispostos em 1 viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF, consumo de ração total (CRT, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA e acréscimo em comprimento (AC. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDA, 95,5%; CDA da proteína bruta, 96,7%; CDA do extrato etéreo, 97,2% e CDA da energia bruta, 95,4%. Não houve diferença significativa no consumo de ração total. Observou-se efeito quadrático para ganho de peso final, conversão alimentar aparente e acréscimo em comprimento. Conclui-se que este alimento pode ser eficientemente utilizado pela tilápia nilótica.The experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues of the Nile tilapia. The treatments were based on the increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40% of the acid silage by substitution of fish meal in the diets. In the digestibility assay a total of 200 sexually inverted juveniles were used. The average weight was 2.0 g and were kept in 40 liter aquariums. Feces collect

  11. Composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos da carne de bovinos de diferentes condições sexuais recebendo silagem de milho e concentrado ou cana-de-açúcar e concentrado contendo grãos de girassol Chemical traits and fatty acids composition of beef from young bulls, steers and heifers fed corn silage and concentrate or sugarcane and concentrate with sunflower grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Rodrigo Mendes Fernandes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar as características químicas e a composição em ácidos graxos do contrafilé (músculo Longissimus de tourinhos, novilhos e novilhas da raça Canchim. Os animais foram terminados em confinamento com duas dietas experimentais, uma com silagem de milho e concentrado e outra com cana-de-açúcar e concentrado contendo grãos de girassol. Os teores de umidade, proteína e minerais no músculo não diferiram entre as dietas e as condições sexuais dos animais. A carne de novilhos terminados com a dieta com grãos de girassol apresentou maior teor de lipídios (3,31% em comparação à dos animais de outras categorias. Os animais que receberam a dieta com grãos de girassol apresentaram maiores concentrações de ácido linoléico conjugado (18:2 cis9, trans-11 (0,73% e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (8,12% no músculo, e também relações mais elevadas de ácidos graxos insaturados:saturados (0,93 e ácidos graxos poliinsaturados:saturados (0,16 em comparação àqueles que receberam a dieta convencional, à base de silagem de milho (0,34%; 6,31%; 0,86; e 0,11, respectivamente. A composição em ácidos graxos da carne de bovinos pode ser melhorada com a utilização de cana-de-açúcar e grãos de girassol na dieta dos animais terminados em confinamento.The objective in this work was to evaluate the chemical characteristics and the fatty acids composition of beef loin (Longissimus muscle of young bulls, steers and heifers of Canchim breed. The animals were finished in feedlot system and fed two experimental diets, one with corn silage and concentrate (SIL and the other with sugar cane, as exclusive roughage, and concentrate containing sunflower grains (CNA. Differences were not detected in relation to moisture, protein and mineral contents between diets or sexual categories. The meat from steers that received the CNA diet had higher lipid content (3.31% in relation to meat from young bulls and heifers

  12. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...... of this experiment, feeding 16% CP compared with 14% CP in the ration can increase feed intake and milk production....

  13. A simple method for determining maize silage density on farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Krüger

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Several methodologies have been tested to evaluate silage density, with direct methods most popular, whereas indirect methods that can be used under field conditions are still in development and improvement stages. This study aimed to establish relationships between estimates of maize silage density determined using a direct and an indirect method, in an endeavor to provide an alternative to direct measurement for use in the field. Measurements were performed on maize silage in 14 silos. The direct method involved the use of a metal cylinder with a saw-tooth cutting edge attached to a chainsaw to extract a core of silage. Density of the silage was determined taking into consideration the cylinder volume and dry matter weight of silage removed at 5 points on the silage face. With the indirect method, a digital penetrometer was used to estimate silage density by measuring the penetration resistance at 2 points adjacent to the spots where the silage cores were taken, i.e. 10 readings per silo. Values of penetration resistance (measured in MPa were correlated with the values of silage mass (kg/m3 obtained by direct measurement through polynomial regression analysis. A positive quadratic relationship was observed between penetration resistance and silage density for both natural matter and dry matter (R² = 0.57 and R² = 0.80, respectively, showing that the penetrometer was a reasonably reliable and simple indirect method to determine the density of dry matter in maize silage. Further testing of the machine on other silos is needed to verify these results. Keywords: Ensiled matter, penetrometer, resistance, silos evaluation.

  14. Propanol in maize silage at Danish dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the prevalence maize silage containing propanol, the seasonal variation in propanol content of maize silage, and correlations between propanol and other fermentation products in maize silage collected from 20 randomly selected Danish dairy farms...... farms, the maize silage had ≥5 g propanol/kg DM. The present study indicates that dairy cows in Denmark are commonly exposed to propanol and that approximately 20% of the dairy cows will have an intake in the range of 75-100 g propanol/d under common feeding conditions....

  15. Digestibilidade e desempenho de alevinos de tilápia do nilo (Oreochromis Niloticus alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes níveis de silagem ácida de pescado Digestibility and performance of nile tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus fed diets with different levels of acid silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinez Moraes de Oliveira

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os experimentos foram conduzidos para avaliar os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes e da energia bruta da silagem ácida de resíduos da filetagem de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus para alevinos de tilápia nilótica e o desempenho dos alevinos recebendo níveis crescentes (0, 10, 20, 30, 40 % da silagem ácida em substituição à farinha de peixe na ração. Na digestibilidade foram utilizados 200 alevinos revertidos sexualmente, com peso médio de 2,0 g e acondicionados em aquários de 40 litros. A coleta de fezes foi feita durante 7 dias seguintes e a determinação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente e energia metabolizável aparente foi feita por metodologia indireta, tendo sido utilizado 1% de Cr2O3 como indicador incorporado à ração. No desempenho, foram utilizados 2000 alevinos revertidos sexualmente com peso médio de 0,45 g, acondicionados em "hapas" de 1m², dispostos em um viveiro escavado. As variáveis analisadas foram: ganho de peso final (GPF, consumo de ração total (CRT, conversão alimentar aparente (CAA, acréscimo em altura (AA e em comprimento (AC. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 5 tratamentos e 4 repetições. Os valores de digestibilidade encontrados foram: coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, 95,49%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta, 96,66%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente do extrato etéreo, 97,18%; coeficiente de digestibilidade aparente da energia bruta, 95,44%, e energia digestível aparente 2.880,02 kcal/kg. Não houve diferença significativa (P> 0,05 para ganho de peso final, consumo de ração total, conversão e acréscimo em altura. Observou-se aumento linear (PThe experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients of the nutrients and gross energy of acid silage of filetage residues from Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. This silage was given

  16. Intake and milk yield of Zebu cows fed Moringa forage ensiled with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Poor nutrition of Zebu cattle grazing low quality native pastures is still a major constraint to milk production in Nigeria. High protein Moringa oleifera silage fed to these animals has potential to improve local milk production. In this study, moringa forage (MF) was ensiled with cassava peel (CSP) at 30, 50 and 70 % inclusion ...

  17. Effects of moisture content or particle size on the in situ degradability of maize silage and alfalfa haylage in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A study using four Holstein cows with ruminal cannulas was conducted to evaluate the degradability of different moisture content or particle size of maize silage and alfalfa haylage. The maize silage (MS; 20-mm length and alfalfa haylage (AH; 40-mm length samples were wet (wet maize silage, MSW; wet alfalfa haylage, AHW, dried (dried maize silage, MSD; dried alfalfa haylage, AHD, or ground to pass through a 2.5-mm screen (dried ground maize silage, MSG; dried ground alfalfa haylage, AHG. Samples were incubated in the rumen for 2, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h. Cows were fed ad libitum and allowed free access to water. High moisture content treatment of MSW expressed a lower rinsing NDF and ADF degradability at 2 h (P < 0.05 compared with dried samples (MSD and MSG. Different moisture content and particle size had a significant impact (P < 0.05 on the NDF degradability at 72 h, ADF degradability at 36, 48, and 72 h, and ruminally degradable ADF. All of the highest values were observed in small particle size and low moisture content AHG treatment. Based on this study, sample processing, such as drying and grinding, should be considered when evaluating nutritive values of forages.

  18. Effect of feeding buckwheat and chicory silages on fatty acid profile and cheese-making properties of milk from dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälber, Tasja; Kreuzer, Michael; Leiber, Florian

    2013-02-01

    Fresh buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) had been shown to have the potential to improve certain milk quality traits when fed as forages to dairy cows. However, the process of ensiling might alter these properties. In the present study, two silages, prepared from mixtures of buckwheat or chicory and ryegrass, were compared with pure ryegrass silage (Lolium multiflorum) by feeding to 3 × 6 late-lactating cows. The dietary dry matter proportions realised for buckwheat and chicory were 0.46 and 0.34 accounting also for 2 kg/d of concentrate. Data and samples were collected from days 10 to 15 of treatment feeding. Buckwheat silage was richest in condensed tannins. Proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and α-linoleic acid in total fatty acids (FA) were highest in the ryegrass silage. Feed intake, milk yield and milk gross composition did not differ among the groups. Feeding buckwheat resulted in the highest milk fat concentrations (g/kg) of linoleic acid (15.7) and total PUFA (40.5; both P milk fat was similar across treatments, but its apparent recovery in milk relative to the amounts ingested was highest with buckwheat. The same was true for the occurrence of FA biohydrogenation products in milk relative to α-linolenic acid intake. Recovery of dietary linoleic acid in milk remained unaffected. Feeding buckwheat silage shortened rennet coagulation time by 26% and tended (P milk and to contribute to improved cheese-making properties.

  19. Peanut cake concentrations in massai grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano S. Lima

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the best concentration of peanut cake in the ensiling of massai grass of the chemical-bromatological composition, fermentative characteristics, forage value rate, ingestion estimates, and digestibility of dry matter in the silage. Materials and methods. The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Farm of São Gonçalo dos Campos at the Federal University of Bahia, Brazil. The treatments consisted of massai grass that was cut at 40 days and dehydrated, in addition to 0%, 8%, 16%, and 24% peanut cake in the fresh matter and treatment without cake. The material was compressed in experimental silos (7 liter that were opened after 76 days. Results. The addition of 8-24% peanut cake improved the silage’s chemical-bromatological parameters, increased the dry matter and non-fiber carbohydrates and reduced the fibrous components. There was a linear increase in the estimated values of digestibility and the ingestion of dry matter depending on the levels of peanut cake in the silage. There was an improvement in the fermentative characteristics, with a quadratic effect positive for levels of ammoniacal nitrogen. The forage value rate increased linearly with the inclusion of peanut cake. Conclusions. The inclusion of up to 24% peanut cake during ensiling of massai grass increases the nutritive value of silage and improves fermentation characteristics.

  20. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  1. Mechanically processed corn silage digestibility and intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Franco da Silveira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The dry matter content increase due to the extension of the harversted period beginning and the kind of hybrid used can affect the starch digestibility and voluntary intake of ruminants. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the best corn hybrid and processing type of silage corn, and evaluate the possible effects on starch digestibility and voluntary intake of lambs. It was used 24 Santa Inês lambs with average age of three months and average initial weight of 25.0 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2 factorial design (dent and flint hybrids; crushed and not crushed. The processing of the dent hybrid resulted in less dry matter intake (0.583 kg/day associated to higher total digestibility of dry matter and starch, 68.21 and 95.33% respectively. Thus, the processing of corn plants used for silage should be performed on hybrids with the dent grain texture to provide the best digestibility of silage to lambs.

  2. Comportamento ingestivo de ovinos alimentados com dietas compostas de silagem de capim-elefante amonizada ou não e subprodutos agroindustriais Ingestive behaviour of sheep fed with ammoniated or non-ammoniated elephantgrass silage and agro industrial by-products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidson Giordano Pinto de Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos do uso de silagem de capim-elefante amonizada ou não com uréia (5% na base da MS e da substituição do concentrado (milho e farelo de soja por farelo de cacau (FC ou torta de dendê (TD na dieta sobre o comportamento ingestivo de ovinos Santa Inês. Dezoito ovinos machos não-castrados (peso médio inicial de 22,62 kg, alojados em baias individuais, foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos, dois volumosos (silagem de capim-elefante amonizada ou não com uréia e três níveis de substituição do concentrado (milho + farelo de soja por farelo de cacau ou torta de dendê (0% FC e TD, 40% FC e 40% TD na dieta, fornecida na proporção de 60:40 volumoso:concentrado. O período experimental foi de 78 dias, sendo 15 dias destinados à adaptação dos animais às dietas. Os animais foram observados a cada cinco minutos, durante dois períodos de 24 horas/dia, no final do período experimental. Foram registrados o tempo despendido em alimentação, ruminação e ócio e o número e o tempo de mastigações merícicas por bolo ruminado. Não houve diferença entre os tempos de alimentação, ruminação e ócio. A amonização do capim-elefente e a inclusão do farelo de cacau no concentrado aumentaram a eficiência de ruminação, mas a maioria dos parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo avaliados não sofreu alterações.The effects of feeding elephantgrass silage ammoniated or not with urea (5% DM basis and the concentrate replacement (corn and soybean meal by cocoa meal (CM or palm cake (PC on the ingestive behaviour of 18 Santa Inês non-castrated male sheep averaging 22.62 kg of initial body weight were studied. The animals were allotted to individual pensas a completely randomized design with six treatments, two roughages (elephantgrass silage ammoniated with urea or not and three concentrate replacement level with by cocoa meal or palm cake (0% CM and PC, 40% CM

  3. Associative effects between orchardgrass and red clover silages on voluntary intake and digestion in sheep: Evidence of a synergy on digestible dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niderkorn, V; Martin, C; Rochette, Y; Julien, S; Baumont, R

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the associative effects between orchardgrass () and red clover () silages as a model of preserved grass-legume mixture on voluntary intake parameters and digestive efficiency in sheep. Ten sheep were assigned to a repeated 5 × 5 Latin square design, in which 5 proportions of orchardgrass and red clover silages were tested (0:100, 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, and 0:100, on a DM basis). Measurements were performed simultaneously on intake, feeding behavior (eating time and chewing activity), digestive parameters (nutrient digestibility and rumen parameters), nitrogen balance, and enteric methane (CH) emissions using the SF6 tracer technique. Positive associative effects were observed on daily voluntary DMI ( sheep were fed with at least 50% red clover (1.56-1.59 kg/d) compared with those fed with 0 or 25% red clover (1.29 and 1.45 kg/d, respectively; Methane yield decreased linearly with increasing proportion of red clover ( sheep fed 100% orchardgrass to 16.1 g/kg DMI for sheep fed 100% red clover. Mixtures of orchardgrass and red clover quadratically ( = 0.03) decreased urinary nitrogen losses and tended ( = 0.099) to quadratically increase nitrogen retention. This synergy between orchardgrass and red clover silages could improve animal performances in addition to the known agronomic benefits of grass-legume mixtures.

  4. Performance and metabolite profile of dairy cows fed tropical grasses and concentrates containing crude protein with low or high degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael dos Santos Gomes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows distributed into two simultaneous Latin squares (5 × 5 as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement formed by chopped sugarcane or elephant grass silage, both with high or low protein degradability supplements and a corn silage as a control treatment, were compared using orthogonal contrasts. The studied variables were the performance, plasma concentrations of urea-N, glucose, and creatinine, urine-N and milk urea-N, and the nychthemeral variation in NH3-N in the rumen fluid of dairy cows. Nutrient intake, milk production, and milk composition were affected by the treatments. The total mixed ration containing elephant grass silage combined with rumen undegradable protein (RUP provided balanced amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the rumen. This effect may explain the 18% increase in milk yield compared with the other treatments. The diurnal pattern of ruminal NH3-N was interpreted with a sinusoid model. In general, cows fed elephant grass silage exhibited higher concentrations of blood plasma and milk urea-N than animals fed sugarcane. The cows that consumed elephant grass silage with rumen degradable protein concentrate showed a higher milk urea-N compared with animals that consumed elephant grass silage with the RUP concentrate. The use of diets based on corn silage leads to a better use of nitrogen compounds because these diets resulted in lower levels of urea-N in the plasma, urine, and milk at the same level of milk production compared with diets containing elephant grass silage or chopped sugarcane as roughages. In sugarcane-based diets, even greater nitrogen losses in the urine are observed, despite the presence of readily fermentable carbohydrates in the diet.

  5. CONTINUOUS STALL FEEDING OF PINEAPPLE SILAGE AS THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    feeding as the only form of roughage. Previous results have shown that pineapple plant material can be used effectively as silage for cattle. (Henke, Willett & Maruyama, 1945; Bishop, Gradwell, Nell. & Bradfield, 1965; Bishop, van Niekerk, Nell & Smith,. 1967). This silage is cheap, being a waste product from old pineries.

  6. Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat extruded soybeans on milk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... in milk fat and performance of dairy cows. ... increased the ether extract in diets and content of conjugated linoleic acids in milk, but it had no effect ... corn silage with alfalfa silage for dairy cows adding plant extracts, animal fats or their blends in diets. High quality AS was found essentially equal in energy ...

  7. Influence of wheat bran as a silage additive on chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of wheat bran (WB) as a silage additive on chemical composition, in situ degradability and in vitro gas production of citrus pulp silage (CPS) was investigated. The whole fresh citrus pulp was manually chopped and used as untreated or treated with 6, 12, or 18 g WB/kg fresh citrus pulp for ensiling. The data were ...

  8. Características da carcaça e da carne de cordeiros terminados com dietas contendo diferentes proporções de silagens de grãos de milho - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451 Components of live weight, carcass and meat caracteristics of lambs fed with diets containing corn grain silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i2.3451

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliane Gasparino

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados componentes do peso vivo, características objetivas e subjetivas da carcaça, características físico-químicas do músculo Longissimus lumborum e a proporção dos principais tecidos que compõem o lombo de 24 cordeiros, machos não castrados, mestiços Hampshire Down, terminados em confinamento e alimentados com dietas diferentes à base de silagem de grãos de milho úmidos, com inclusão de girassol ou ureia. Os tratamentos não afetaram: peso vivo ao abate, peso da carcaça quente, rendimentos de carcaça, sangue, pele, aparelho reprodutor com bexiga, aparelho respiratório, baço, rins e gordura perirrenal, fígado, coração, trato gastrintestinal vazio, cabeça e patas. Não houve diferença significativa para peso da carcaça fria, condição corporal, conformação de carcaça, cobertura de gordura, consistência de gordura, cor da carne, espessura de gordura, área de olho de lombo, proteína bruta; proporções de: músculo, ossos, gordura e outros tecidos do músculo Longissimus lumborum. Perda por cozimento, índice de fragmentação miofibrilar e índices de cores L*, a* e b* não diferiram quanto aos tratamentos. Os cordeiros podem ser terminados com qualquer uma das dietas, pois apresentaram semelhanças para as características analisadasThe study evaluated the live weight components, objective and subjective carcass characteristics and physical-chemical characteristics of the Longissimus lumborum muscle and the proportion of tissues that constitute the loin of twenty-four intact males lambs, Hampshire Down crossbreed, fattened in a drylot system. The lambs were fed with different diets based on corn grain silage with the addition of sunflower seeds or urea. The treatments did not affect live weight and hot carcass weight at slaughter, carcass yield, blood, skin, reproductive system with bladder, respiratory system, spleen, kidneys and perineal fat, liver, heart, empty gastrointestinal tract, head or feet

  9. Effect of grass silage chop length on chewing activity and digestibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garmo, T.H.; Randby, Å.T.; Eknæs, M.

    2008-01-01

    ad libitum and supplemented with 6 kg concentrate. Early harvested silage significantly decreased total ration eating (ET), rumination (RT) and chewing time (CT) per kg silage DM compared with normal harvested silage (CT = 38 vs. 46 min kg-1 DM). Chopping of silage reduced CT significantly, mainly...

  10. Effects of whey and molasses as silage additives on potato hash ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p2492989

    Abstract. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of whey or molasses on the fermentation quality when added to potato hash silage. In addition, lamb performance, digestibility and feed intake of diets containing potato hash silage were compared with a diet containing maize silage (MSd). Potato hash silage.

  11. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ridwan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1 vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2 vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3 vegetable waste + onggok, (T4 vegetable waste + onggok + rice straw, (T5 vegetable waste + pollard, (T6 vegetable waste + pollard + rice straw. Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 was used as innoculant. The quality of silages was evaluated by measuring pH, temperature, population of lactic acid bacteria and lactic acid production. Nutrient characteristic was determined by proximate and fiber analysis. Results showed that pH of silages were not affected by treatments, but silage treated with rice bran, with or without rice straw addition, had higher temperature compared with others (29 oC or 28.3 oC. The highest population of lactic acid bacteria (1.65 x 109 cfu/g was found in silage using rice straw and onggok (T4, but the highest lactic acid production (0.41% was measured in silage using rice straw and rice bran (T2. In general, the use of rice bran as carbohydrate sources gave the highest lactic acid production followed by pollard and onggok. Different carbohydrate source gave different nutrients characteristic. Although the result was not significantly different, silage with highest protein content was measured in silage with pollard as carbohydrate source, followed with rice bran and onggok. The result showed that all carbohydrate sources used in this experiment can be used as silage ingredient resulting in good vegetable waste silage.

  12. THE QUALITY OF MAIZE SILAGES FROM WEST REGION OF SLOVAKIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Juráček

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the quality of maize silages from Western Slovak Region analyzed in 2009 and 2010 on the Department of animal nutrition, Faculty of agrobiology and food resources, Slovak university of agriculture in Nitra, Slovakia. Maize silages were evaluated on the base of nutritional value, the result of fermentation process and silage quality according to Regulation of the Government of Slovak Republic no. 439/2006, appendix no.7, part C – Silage. We found in maize silages the average dry matter content 357.87 g.kg-1 (2009 and 340.00 g.kg-1 (2010 while only in 2010 samples had got 15.4 % of dry matter content below 300 g.kg-1. Content of crude fiber was lower than 260 g.kg-1 of dry matter in all samples. Higher content of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber had maize silages from 2010. The average value of net energy of lactation was 6.32 MJ.kg-1 of dry matter (2009 and 6.27 MJ.kg-1 of dry matter (2010. Only in one sample from 2010 we found a lower lactic acid content than 10 g.kg-1 of original matter. Content of acetic acid was lower in silages from 2009 (24.33 g.kg-1 of dry matter in comparison with silages from 2010 (28.92 g.kg-1 of dry matter. Undesirable butyric acid was not found in maize silages. The value of pH fluctuated from 3.52 to 3.80 (2009 and from 3.58 to 4.14 (2010. Only 17 % of evaluated samples satisfied the criteria for silage of I. class in 2009 and 23 % in 2010 mainly because of the higher acetic acid content.

  13. Padrões da distribuição nictemeral do comportamento ingestivo de vacas leiteiras, ao início e ao final da lactação, alimentadas com dieta à base de silagem de milho Ingestive behavior nycterohemeral patterns of dairy cows, at the beginning and at the end of lactation, fed a corn silage based diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Fischer

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos dos estádios de lactação inicial e final sobre o comportamento e a distribuição nictemeral do comportamento ingestivo foram avaliados com oito vacas leiteiras, consumindo uma dieta à base de silagem de milho. A análise espectral das séries de tempos horários de mastigação (ingestão ou ruminação foi realizada usando os dados modificados pela transformação finita de Fourier. Foi realizada análise de variância destes dados e a análise dos periodogramas e diagramas de fase. A duração média das refeições e o consumo de matéria seca foram superiores, enquanto o tempo unitário de ruminação foi inferior no período inicial em relação ao final da lactação. A distribuição dos tempos de ingestão e de ruminação nos estádios inicial e final de lactação seguiu, respectivamente, periodicidades de 24, 12, 8 e 4 horas e de 24, 12 e 8 horas. Foi constatado efeito significativo do estádio de lactação para o tempo gasto ingerindo e ruminando no componente de ritmo 4. O estádio da lactação influenciou alguns parâmetros do comportamento ingestivo e sua ritmicidade.The effects of the stage of lactation upon the ingestive behavior nycterohemeral patterns were evaluated with eight dairy cows eating a corn silage based diet. Spectral analysis was performed through application of the finite Fourier transformation upon hourly duration of eating or ruminating time series. Variance analysis and inspection of phase diagrams and periodograms were done upon modified data. The mean meal duration and dry matter intake were larger while the unitary ruminating time was inferior at the beginning than at the end of the lactation. Nycterohemeral patterns of time spent eating or ruminating at the beginning and at the end of lactation followed mainly periodicities of, respectively, 24, 12, 8 and 4 hours and 24, 12 and 8 hours. A significant effect of stage of lactation was observed at the rhythm component 4 for both time spent

  14. Effect of applying bacterial inoculants containing different types of bacteria to corn silage on the performance of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, K G; Kim, S C; Staples, C R; Adesogan, A T

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of applying different bacterial inoculants to corn silage at the time of ensiling on the performance of lactating dairy cows. Corn plants were harvested at 35% dry matter (DM), chopped, and ensiled in 2.4-m-wide bags after application of (1) no inoculant (CON); (2) Biotal Plus II (B2) containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and Propionibacteria freudenreichii; (3) Buchneri 40788 (BUC) containing Lactobacillus buchneri; or (4) Buchneri 500 (B500) containing Pediococcus pentosaceus and L. buchneri. All inoculants were supplied by Lallemand Animal Nutrition (Milwaukee, WI). Each of the 4 silages was included in separate total mixed rations consisting of 44% corn silage, 50% concentrate, and 6% alfalfa hay (DM basis). Fifty-two lactating Holstein cows were stratified according to milk production and parity and randomly assigned at 22 d in milk to the 4 dietary treatments. Cows were fed for ad libitum consumption and milked twice daily for 49 d. Dietary treatment did not affect intakes (kg/d) of DM (20.0), crude protein (CP; 3.7), neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 5.7), or acid detergent fiber (ADF; 3.6), or digestibility (%) of DM (73.9) or CP (72.4). However, NDF digestibility was lower in cows fed B2 compared with those fed other diets (45.3 vs. 53.0%). Consequently, cows fed B2 had lower digestible NDF intake (kg/d) than those fed other diets (2.5 vs. 3.0 kg/d). Dietary treatment did not affect milk yield (32.3 kg/d), efficiency of milk production (1.61), concentrations of milk fat (3.18%) and protein (2.79%), or yields of milk fat (1.03 kg/d) and protein (1.26 kg/d). Inoculant application to corn silage did not affect milk yield or feed intake of cows. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Feed Value of Cactus and Cactus Silage

    OpenAIRE

    ÇÜREK, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The nutrient composition, and feed value of cactus were evaluated through total collection and nylon bag techniques. In the first trial conducted with 3 Chios rams, digestion coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extracts, crude fiber and nitrogen-free extracts of cactus leaves (cladodes) and cactus silage were found to be 57.57, 79.20, 72.69, 79.13, 27.95 and 84.14%; 57.32, 69.40, 33.21, 90.10, 13.08 and 78.45%, respectively. The contents of digestible protein, eth...

  16. Characteristics of Lactobacillus parafarraginis ZH1 and its role in improving the aerobic stability of silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q H; Yang, F Y; Zhang, J G; Shao, T

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacillus parafarraginis ZH1 isolated from silage was characterized, and the effects of inoculating ZH1 and Lact. buchneri (LB) on the aerobic stability of sweet corn stalk (SCS) silage and whole-plant oat (WPO) silage ensiled at 15 and 30°C were studied. After ensiling of SCS or WPO in plastic bottle silo for 45 days, silos were opened, and aerobic stability was studied by monitoring temperature change with thermo recorders in silage for 6 days. SCS silage and WPO silage were well conserved naturally at both storage temperatures. However, silages were prone to aerobic deterioration due to the presence of residual yeasts. ZH1 inoculated silages ensiled at both temperatures, LB inoculated silages ensiled at 30°C had better aerobic stability than the uninoculated silages and the LB-inoculated silage at 15°C. Strain ZH1 improved the aerobic stability of SCS silage and WPO silage ensiled at both 15 and 30°C, while LB improved the aerobic stability of silage only ensiled at the high temperature of 30°C. The new strain ZH1 can be used as an effective inhibitor for aerobic deterioration of silage maintained from 15 to 30°C. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Microbial population, chemical composition and silage fermentation of cassava residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napasirth, Viengsakoun; Napasirth, Pattaya; Sulinthone, Tue; Phommachanh, Kham; Cai, Yimin

    2015-09-01

    In order to effectively use the cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) residues, including cassava leaves, peel and pulp for livestock diets, the chemical and microbiological composition, silage preparation and the effects of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) inoculants on silage fermentation of cassava residues were studied. These residues contained 10(4) to 10(5) LAB and yeasts, 10(3) to 10(4) coliform bacteria and 10(4) aerobic bacteria in colony forming units (cfu) on a fresh matter (FM) basis. The molds were consistently at or below the detectable level (10(2) cfu of FM) in three kinds of cassava residues. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) content of cassava residues were 17.50-30.95%, 1.30-16.41% and 25.40-52.90% on a DM basis, respectively. The silage treatments were designed as control silage without additive (CO) or with LAB inoculants Chikuso-1 (CH, Lactobacillus plantarum) and Snow Lacto (SN, Lactobacillus rhamnosus) at a rate of 5 mg/kg of FM basis. All silages were well preserved with a low pH (below 4.0) value and when cassava residues silage treated with inoculants CH and SN improved fermentation quality with a lower pH, butyric acid and higher lactic acid than control silage. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Controlling docks by stubble cultivation

    OpenAIRE

    Dierauer, Hansueli; Siegrist, Franziska; Weidmann, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    The stubble cultivation cuts the dock roots below growth points. The vegetative plant parts are then cut off from the water and nutrient supply, and regrowth is inhibited. Practical recommendation • Summer dock treatment is especially worthwhile in dry summers with catch crop cultivation and after early maturing crops (winter barley, whole-crop silage) or with an early tillage of grass-clover. • After grass-clover lay or cereal harvest, undercut the dock plants at a depth of 12-15 cm...

  19. FERMENTATION PROCESS CHARACTERISTICS OF DIFFERENT MAIZE SILAGE HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bíro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to detect the fermentation process differences in different hybrid maize silage. We conserved in laboratory conditions hybrids of whole maize plants with different length of the vegetative period (FAO number. Maize hybrids for silage were harvested in the vegetation stage of the milk-wax maturity of corn and the content of dry matter was from 377.7 to 422.8 g.kg-1. The highest content of dry matter was typical for silages made from the hybrids with FAO number 310 (400.0 g.kg-1 and FAO 300a (400.4 g.kg-1. The content of desirable lactic acid ranged from 23.7 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 350 to 58.9 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 420. We detected the occurrence of undesirable butyric acid in silages from hybrids FAO 250, 300b, 310 and 380. The highest content of total alcohols we found in silages made from hybrid with FAO number 240 (25.2 g.kg-1 of dry matter. Ammonia contents were in tested silages from 0.153 (FAO 270 to 0.223 g.kg-1 of dry matter (FAO 240. The lowest value of silage titration acidity we analyzed in silage made from hybrid FAO 420 (3.66. We observed in maize silages with different length of plant maturity tested in the experiment differences in content of lactic acid, total alcohols, titration acidity, pH and content of fermentation products.

  20. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  1. Comportamento ingestivo e digestão de nutrientes em bovinos de corte alimentados com silagem de capim - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.5782 Intake behavior and nutrient digestion of beef cattle fed with grass silage - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v31i4.5782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maity Zopollatto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do teor de matéria seca, uso de inoculante bacteriano e a redução do tamanho de partículas da silagem de capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum, sobre os parâmetros digestivos. Utilizaram-se sete novilhos da raça Nelore, em delineamento experimental Quadrado Latino 7 x 7. Os tratamentos foram: T1: Umidade original, partícula menor, sem inoculante bacteriano; T2: Umidade original, partícula menor, com inoculante bacteriano; T3: Emurchecido, partícula maior, com inoculante bacteriano; T4: Emurchecido, partícula maior, sem inoculante bacteriano; T5: Umidade original, partícula maior, com inoculante bacteriano; T6: Umidade original, partícula maior, sem inoculante bacteriano; T7: Umidade original, partícula maior, sem inoculante bacteriano, com milheto. Os tratamentos não influenciaram as taxas de passagem de sólidos (2,4% hora-1 e de líquidos (3,2% hora-1, o consumo de matéria seca (1,1% do PV e nem o comportamento ingestivo. Observaram-se os seguintes tempos (minutos dia-1 e taxas (min kg MS-1 de ingestão de MS (293 e 68; de ruminação (432 e 102 e de mastigação (725 e 170, respectivamente. Os valores médios de digestibilidade da MS (61,4%, FDA (59,7%, PB (43,9% e FDN (60,3% não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Os procedimentos adotados na ensilagem não resultaram em alterações significativas nos parâmetros avaliados.The main objective was to study the effect of dry matter content, the addition of bacterial inoculant and particle size reduction on Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum silage on digestive parameters. Seven ruminally cannulated Nellore beef steers were randomly assigned to a 7 x 7 Latin Square design. Treatments were described as follows: T1: wet forage + small particle; T2: T1 + inoculant; T4: wilting + large particle; T3: T4 + inoculant; T6: wet forage + large particle; T5: T6 + inoculant; T7: T6 + ground pearl millet grain. The ruminal passage rate of solid (2.35% h-1 and liquid (3.17% h-1 phases

  2. Desempenho produtivo de fêmeas leiteiras alimentadas com silagem de milho e concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão Productive performance of growing dairy heifers fed corn silage and soybean or cottonseed meal based concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Alvarenga Santos

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas dietas com silagem de milho e concentrado à base de farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão para fêmeas leiteiras. Quatro dietas experimentais foram constituídas da combinação de dois níveis de concentrado (1 ou 2 kg e duas fontes proteicas (farelo de soja ou farelo de algodão. Observou-se efeito da interação nível de concentrado × fonte proteica no consumo de matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e no consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT. A quantidade de concentrado influenciou os consumos de proteína bruta (PB, FDN, extrato etéreo (EE, carboidratos nãofibrosos (CNF, matéria orgânica (MO e de PB por kg de NDT. Não houve efeito nas digestibilidades da MS, FDN, MO e para NDT, porém a fonte proteica influenciou as digestibilidades de PB, EE e CNF. Houve efeito da quantidade de concentrado sobre o ganho de peso (GP e da interação quantidade de concentrado × fonte proteica sobre o ganho de peso por cm de ganho em altura da cernelha. A dieta com 1 kg de concentrado à base de farelo de algodão foi insuficiente para ganho de peso de 800 g/dia, enquanto as dietas com 2 kg de concentrado propiciaram o maior ganho de peso. Entretanto, a dieta constituída de 2 kg de concentrado à base de farelo de soja foi mais eficiente, pois propiciou maior crescimento linear das novilhas, com ganho médio de 820 g por dia. Equações de predição do peso corporal com base no perímetro torácico apresentam maior acurácia em relação a equações baseadas em outras medidas lineares.Diets for dairy heifers were assessed with corn silage and soybean or cotton seed based concentrate. Four experimental diets consisting of the combination of two concentrate levels, 1 or 2 kg, and two protein sources, soybean meal or cotton seed meal. The effect of the interaction was observed for intake of dry matter (DM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF in % live weight and total digestible nutrient intake (TDN. The quantity of

  3. Feasibility of Hydrothermal Pretreatment on Maize Silage for Bioethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Jian; Thomsen, Mette Hedegaard; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2010-01-01

    The potential of maize silage as a feedstock to produce bioethanol was evaluated in the present study. The hydrothermal pretreatment with five different pretreatment severity factors (PSF) was employed to pretreat the maize silage and compared in terms of sugar recovery, toxic test, and ethanol...... the liquors from the five conditions were not toxic to the Baker’s yeast. Pretreatment under 195°C for 7 min had the similar PSF with that of 185°C for 15 min, and both gave the higher ethanol concentration of 19.92 and 19.98 g/L, respectively. The ethanol concentration from untreated maize silage was only 7...

  4. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A.T.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Nørgaard, Peder

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased from 23.4 kg when H1 was offered without concentrate supplement to 29.1 and 32.8 kg when supplemented with 4 or 8 kg concentrate, respectively. None of the other diets equaled the yield obtained by H1 plus 8 kg of concentrate. Feed intake and yield of cows offered H3 plus 4...... was offered without concentrates and H3 with 16 kg/d, giving a total of 11 diets. Cows, blocked according to parity and calving date, were introduced to the experiment before calving and kept in the experiment until wk 16 of lactation. Silage was offered ad libitum in loose housing and concentrate...

  5. Effect of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) silage and hay on established populations of Haemonchus contortus and Cooperia curticei in lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckendorn, Felix; Häring, Dieter Adrian; Maurer, Veronika; Zinsstag, Jakob; Langhans, Wolfgang; Hertzberg, Hubertus

    2006-12-20

    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of dried and ensiled sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on established populations of Haemonchus contortus (abomasum) and Cooperia curticei (small intestine) in lambs under controlled conditions. Twenty-four parasite naïve lambs were inoculated with a single dose of infective larvae of these parasites 28 days prior to the start of the feeding experiment. Twenty-four days post-infection, 4 days prior to the start of the feeding experiment, animals were allocated to four groups according to egg excretion, live weight and sex. Groups A and B received sainfoin hay and control hay, respectively, for 16 days. Groups C and D were fed on sainfoin silage or control silage for the same period. Feeds were offered ad libitum and on the basis of daily refusals were supplemented with concentrate in order to make them isoproteic and isoenergetic. Individual faecal egg counts on a dry matter basis (FECDM) were performed every 3-4 days and faecal cultures and packed cell volume (PCV) measurements were done weekly. After 16 days of experimental feeding, all animals were slaughtered and adult worm populations were determined. The consumption of conserved sainfoin was associated with a reduction of adult H. contortus (47% in the case of hay, P<0.05; 49% in the case of silage, P=0.075) but had little effect on adult C. curticei. Compared to the controls, H. contortus specific FECDM was reduced by 58% (P<0.01) in the sainfoin hay group and by 48% (P=0.075) in the sainfoin silage group. For both sainfoin feeds FECDM specific to C. curticei were significantly decreased when compared to the control feeds (hay 81% and silage 74%, both tests P<0.001). Our data suggest that different mechanisms were responsible for the reduction in FECDM in response to feeding tanniferous fodder. For H. contortus, the decrease seemed to be due to a nematocidal effect towards adult H. contortus. In contrast for C. curticei, the reduction in FECDM appeared to

  6. The effect of ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate on reducing radiocaesium transfer from grass silage to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. PAASIKALLIO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the effect of ammonium ferric hexacyanoferrate (AFCF on the transfer of radiocaesium from grass silage to the tissues of male lambs. During ensiling, a formic acid based additive and AFCF were sprayed on grass contaminated with 134Cs and the mixture was allowed to incubate for 45 days. A dose of 21 mg AFCF d-1, fed to sheep offered contaminated silage for fourteen days, reduced 134Cs transfer to muscle by 45% compared to that of control sheep. An equivalent dose of AFCF administered in a capsule reduced transfer by only 3%. In another experiment, AFCF intake of 50, 100 and 150 mg d-1 for ten days reduced 134Cs transfer to sheep muscle by 75, 82 and 86%, respectively. In control lambs, of average live weight 38 and 47 kg, the feed to muscle 134Cs transfer coefficient averaged 0.15 d kg-1, but equilibrium between tissue and feed 134Cs had probably not been reached due to the short feeding period. Increasing doses of AFCF from 0 to 150 mg d-1 increased the faecal/urinary 134Cs ratio from 2 to 42.;

  7. Diurnal behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Peres Netto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The diurnal ingestive behavior of dairy cows on alfalfa pastures supplemented with corn silage and concentrate was evaluated. Sixteen Holstein dairy cows in mid-lactation were used in a randomized block design. The treatments were partial replacement of corn silage for limited alfalfa grazing time (LGT or unlimited grazing time (UGT. Rotational alfalfa grazing was used and the amount of concentrate fed was the same in both treatments. Behavioral activities observed were time spent grazing, rumination and idleness, during four days, from 8:00 AM to 7:00 PM. From 2:00 to 5:00 PM grazing was intermittent and short-lasting on UGT, whereas on LGT grazing activity was longer than UGT in the morning and at the end of the afternoon. Restriction in available grazing time clearly influenced the distribution of time spent with grazing, rumination and idleness throughout the day. However, this effect was not observed in the total time spent in these activities.

  8. Performance of Beef Steers Fed Brewers Grain Ensiled With Hay or Forage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Keingatti, R.K.; Abate, A.N.

    1999-01-01

    yearling Boran beef steers were fed on brewers grain ensiled with Rhodes grass hay or sorghum silage to assess steer nutrient intake, growth and fed conversion efficiency. Forage sorghum variety 'E6518' harvested at grain milk growth stage produced young sorghum silage while that harvested beyond had dough stage made old sorghum silage. At ensiling, brewers grain was mixed with hay, young or old sorghum at ratio of 60:40, 50:50 and 50:50 to produce silage A, B and C. Thirty Boran Steers were used in the experiment where 10 steers were fed on each of the three types of silage. The initial steer group weight averaged 187.6, 188.6 and 186.2 kg for those on diet A, B and C. The steers ate silage A,B and C for 68 days, the initial 12 days being the adaptation period. The pH of A, B and C were 4.7, 4.6 and 4.7. The mean composition of A, B and C were dry matter, 27.5, 23.2 and 23.4%, organic matter, 91.4, 90.0 and 90.3%, crude protein, 12.1 11.2 and 9.8%, crude fibre,26.5, 24.2 and 25.3%. Steer dry matter intake was 3.1, 4.3 and 4.5 kg on A, B and C. Diet A caused loss in steer weight while B and C produced steady growth. Steers on A lost 243 g daily while those on B and C gained 357 and 371 g daily. Feed efficiency expressed in gain per 100 kg dry matter was negative on A but 8.28 and 8.30 kg on B and C. The steer growth rates are similar to cattle grazed on improved ley or fodder and fed a limited amount of concentrates. The three types of silage required protein supplementation to increase growth

  9. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw. PMID:27429981

  10. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuff Oladosu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  11. Fermentation Quality and Additives: A Case of Rice Straw Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladosu, Yusuff; Rafii, Mohd Y; Abdullah, Norhani; Magaji, Usman; Hussin, Ghazali; Ramli, Asfaliza; Miah, Gous

    2016-01-01

    Rice cultivation generates large amount of crop residues of which only 20% are utilized for industrial and domestic purposes. In most developing countries especially southeast Asia, rice straw is used as part of feeding ingredients for the ruminants. However, due to its low protein content and high level of lignin and silica, there is limitation to its digestibility and nutritional value. To utilize this crop residue judiciously, there is a need for improvement of its nutritive value to promote its utilization through ensiling. Understanding the fundamental principle of ensiling is a prerequisite for successful silage product. Prominent factors influencing quality of silage product include water soluble carbohydrates, natural microbial population, and harvesting conditions of the forage. Additives are used to control the fermentation processes to enhance nutrient recovery and improve silage stability. This review emphasizes some practical aspects of silage processing and the use of additives for improvement of fermentation quality of rice straw.

  12. Fish silage as feed ingredient for fish and livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rurangwa, E.; Vuuren, van A.M.; Poelman, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present report analyses through a literature review the potential of fish silage to valorise fish processing by-products into economically relevant protein sources for fish and livestock feed production in East Africa.

  13. Nutritional evaluation of elephant-grass silages with different levels of by-products from the cashew juice industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Holanda Ferreira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility (AD, and degradability in situ of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum silages containing 0, 35.0, 70.0, 105.0, and 140.0 g kg-1 by-product from dried cashew apple (DCBP (as fed basis. A completely randomized design with four replicates was adopted. For the study of degradability in situ, one adult male cattle was used in a completely randomized design with split plots. Intake and AD of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, hemicellulose, and cellulose were evaluated, and the digestible energy (DE and nitrogen balance (NB of the silages were determined. The degradability in situ of DM, CP, and NDF was also determined. Addition of DCBP provided an increase in the intakes of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF. No effects of the levels of addition of DCBP were observed on the coefficients of AD of the silages. Regarding NB, positive values were only detected in the treatment with 105.0 g kg-1 DCBP. In the analysis of the degradability in situ, the incubation periods increased the rates of disappearance of DM, CP, and NDF. However, no effect of the levels of DCBP were observed on the effective degradability of DM. The by-product from dried cashew apple can be included at up to 140.0 g kg-1 in silages of elephant grass, but the high contents of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen may compromise the use and availability of nitrogen to the animals.

  14. Silagens de girassol e de milho em dietas de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade aparente Sunflower and corn silages in lactating cow diets: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Leite

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente de dietas, contendo diferentes proporções de silagem de girassol em substituição à silagem de milho, para vacas leiteiras em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, que produziam 25kg leite/dia, distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5´5. Os tratamentos foram compostos por: 100% de silagem de girassol e concentrado (100SG, 66% de silagem de girassol mais 34% de silagem de milho e concentrado (66SG, 34% de silagem de girassol mais 66% de silagem de milho e concentrado (34SG, 100% de silagem de milho e concentrado (100SM e 100% de silagem de milho mais caroço de algodão (16,5% da matéria seca e concentrado (SM+CA. A ingestão de matéria seca (17,8kg para 100SG e 21,6kg para 100SM, a ingestão de matéria orgânica (15,5kg para 100SG e 20,2kg para 100SM, a ingestão de fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (8,1kg para 100SG e 9,9kg para 100SM, a digestibilidade aparente da fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (30,7% para 100SG e 51,4% para 100SM e da fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido (28,4% para 100SG e 49,4% para 100SM foram menores para a dieta 100SG comparada à dieta 100SM (PThe intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and the intake of crude protein were evaluated in lactating Holstein cows fed sunflower silage (SS in replacement of corn silage (CS in their diets. Five ruminal cannulated cows, 60 to 82 days in milk, were arranged in a 5 x 5 latin square design. The treatments werethe following: 100% corn silage (100CS and concentrate; 34% sunflower silage plus 66% corn silage (34SS and concentrate; 66% sunflower silage plus 34% corn silage (66SS and concentrate; 100% sunflower silage (100SS and concentrate;and 100% corn silage plus whole cotton seed (CS-WCS and concentrate. Dry matter (17.86kg for 100SS and 21.62kg for 100CS and organic matter intake (17.5kg for 100SS and

  15. Biogenic amines and hygienic quality of lucerne silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlejnkova Veronika

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment examined the influence of two different silage additives of biological (Lactococcus lactis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus faecium, enzyme xylanase and chemical (43% formic acid, 30% ammonium formate, 10% propionic acid, 2% benzoic acid types on biogenic amines concentration, nutrient content, fermentation process, and microbiologic indicators in lucerne (Medicago sativa silage after 90 days of fermentation. The biological additive significantly (P < 0.05 increased putrescine (+51%, lactic acid (+11% and protein content (+11% in comparison with control silage. It significantly decreased cadaverine (−29%, histamine (−57%, spermidine (−15%, spermine (−55%, acetic acid (−40%, ethanol (−55%, ammonium (−25% and ash (−9%. After the chemical-additive treatment, greater amounts of histamine and tyramine were recorded. Significant decrease was observed in the concentrations of putrescine (−18%, cadaverine (−55%, spermidine (−47%, spermine (−45%, lactic acid (−16%, acetic acid (−46%, ammonium (−59%, ash (−13% and fat (−24%. Populations of bacteria associated with lactic acid fermentation, moulds, yeasts, enterobacteria and total microorganisms count were also influenced. Both biological and chemical additives can be highly recommended for producing high-quality silages meeting hygienic requirements. In lucerne silage, the chemical preservative showed a stronger effect in achieving the health safety of silage compared to the biological inoculant.

  16. Preserving elephantgrass and energycane biomass as silage for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodard, K.R.; Prine, G.M.; Bates, D.B.; Chynoweth, D.P. (Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States). Inst. of Food and Agricultural Sciences)

    1991-01-01

    Elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.) and energycane (Saccharum sp.) are being evaluated in the colder subtropics of Florida, USA, as biomass energy crops. At one location near Gainesville, annual dry biomass yields of elephantgrass (full-season growth) in excess of 45 Mg ha{sup -1} have been reported. Our objective was to determine if these prolific bunchgrasses could be stored as silage. Three elephantgrasses (two 'tall' and one 'dwarf') and a tall energycane were harvested one, two, and three times per year and ensiled (directcut) during 1986 and 1987. Mean pH values ranged from 3.8 to 4.0 for tall elephantgrass silages made from plants harvested at the different frequencies. Highest pH values were obtained from silages made from immature dwarf elephantgrass plants harvested three times per year (2-year mean was 4.3). Lactic acid was the major end-product of fermentation in most silages with the exception of those made from immature dwarf elephantgrass and energycane plants, where lactic and acetic acids were both major fermentation components. Dry matter (DM) recoveries for all silages ranged from 843 to 984 g kg{sup -1} of DM ensiled. The ease with which elephantgrass and energycane were preserved as silage was attributed to adequate levels of water-soluble carbohydrates and the inherently low buffering capacities in standing forages. (author).

  17. New inoculants on maize silage fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábia Giovana do Val de Assis

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bacterial inoculants at two inoculation rates on chemical and biological characteristics of maize silage. The treatments consisted of two inoculating rates (5 and 6 log cfu g-1 of forage for each strain of lactic acid bacteria (LAB identified as Lactobacillus buchneri, L. hilgardii, or L. plantarum. The maize was ensiled in experimental PVC silos. Samples were taken for the determination of the contents of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, organic acids and alcohols, for the evaluation of the populations of lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, filamentous fungi, and for the determination of pH values during ensilage and after 30 or 90 days of fermentation. The doses of inoculants did not promote significant differences on the evaluated characteristics. There was effect of inoculants on acetic acid, 1.2-propanediol, LAB population, filamentous fungi, and pH value. No significant influence of the treatments with inoculants was observed in the variables DM, WSC, CP, lactic acid concentrations, or ethanol. The maximum temperature, i.e., the time to achieve the maximum temperature (TMT and aerobic stability (AS, was not influencied by treatments. However, a decrease in maximum temperature, an increase in TMT, and improvement in the AS were observed after 90 days of fermentation. These results proved the advantage of microbial inoculation. The treatments influenced LAB populations and filamentous fungi, but no effect was observed on the yeast population. The best inoculation dose is 6 cfu g-1 of forage because it provides higher reduction of filamentous fungi in maize silage, thereby decreasing the aerobic deterioration by these microorganisms.

  18. Fermentation characteristics of different purpose sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum stands out among other plants recommended for ensiling due to its forage composition, its resistance to drought, and its planting range. New cultivars of grain and sweet sorghum that can be used for silage production are available, but there is little information regarding their ensiling characteristics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics at the ensiling of different purpose sorghum cultivars, at two crop periods. The trial was carried out at the Plant Production Department of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, Rondônia, Brazil, and chemical analyses were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, at the Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The experimental design used was a randomized block, in split-plot design, with four replicates. The plot treatments consisted of six sorghum cultivars grown for different purposes (grain sorghum: BRS 308 and BRS 310; forage sorghum: BR 655 and BRS 610; sweet sorghum: BRS 506 and CMSXS 647. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping seasons (first crop and second crop. The grain sorghum cultivar BRS 310 was the only one that had suitable dry matter content for ensiling; however, it was also the only one that did not show ideal water soluble carbohydrate content for ensiling. Nevertheless, all treatments presented pH below than 4.2 and ammonia nitrogen lower than 12% of total N, which indicates that the fermentation inside the silo had proceeded well. For sweet sorghum cultivars, higher ethanol and butyric acid content were observed for the first crop than for the second crop. All evaluated sorghum cultivars can be used for silage production, but the use of sweet sorghum is recommended at the second crop.

  19. Milk production response to varying protein supply is independent of forage digestibility in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Lene; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Hymøller, Lone

    2014-01-01

    , and 45% concentrate on a dry matter (DM) basis. Different digestibilities were obtained by replacing a high-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a high-digestible corn silage with a low-digestible grass-clover silage combined with a low-digestible corn silage. Organic matter digestibilities were...... 79.8 and 74.7% in the high- and low-digestibility rations, respectively. Dietary CP concentration in the ration was increased by substituting barley and sugar beet pulp with rapeseed meal and soybean meal, whereby CP increased from 13.9 to 14.0% (Lp) to 15.7 to 16.0% (Hp). All cows were offered 3 kg...

  20. Effects of adding food by-products mainly including noodle waste to total mixed ration silage on fermentation quality, feed intake, digestibility, nitrogen utilization and ruminal fermentation in wethers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Kyohei; Yani, Srita; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kumagai, Hajime

    2012-11-01

    Four wethers were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to evaluate the applicability of two types of total mixed ration (TMR) silage with food by-products. Four food by-products (i.e., potato waste, soy sauce cake, soybean curd residue and noodle waste) were obtained and mixed with commercial concentrate (CC) as TMR silage. The two types of TMR silage, T1 and T2, each contained CC, in addition to all by-products for T1 (TRE1), and soy sauce cake and noodle waste for T2 (TRE2) on a dry matter (DM) basis. The silage was well-fermented with low pH values and high lactic acid concentration. As the experimental treatments, T1, T2 and CC (CTL) were fed with a basal diet. The result showed that the digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) were higher for T1 than for CC (P < 0.05), while crude protein digestibility was not significantly different among T1, T2 and CC. The retained nitrogen was not affected by inclusion of food by-products. Ruminal pH in TRE1 and TRE2 immediately decreased compared to that in CTL. The study suggested that the two types of TMR silage, including food by-products, might be used as a substitute for commercial concentrate. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Chemical composition and fatty acids profile on Longissimus muscle of crossbred bulls fed with sugar cane or sorghum silage and finished with 3.4 or 4.8 mm of fat thicknessComposição química e perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus de bovinos de diferentes grupos genéticos alimentados com silagem de sorgo ou cana-de-açúcar e terminados com 3,4 ou 4,8 mm de espessura de gordura de cobertura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Haruyosi Ito

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical composition and fatty acid profile of Longissimus muscle of cattle from three genetic groups (ZEB - Zebu, LIZ - Limousin vs. Zebu and ANZ - Angus vs. Zebu fed sorghum silage + 1.0% of body weight of concentrate or sugar cane + 1.2% of body weight of concentrate and were slaughtered at one of two fat thickness levels (3.4 or 4.8 mm fat thickness. Were used 36 bulls with age 21 months and weighing 330 ± 44.0 kg finished in feedlot after 115 or 147 days. There were no differences in moisture content (74.09%, ash (0.99%, protein (21.61%, total lipids (1.69% and total cholesterol (37.83 mg/100 g of muscle among the genetic groups and diets. The Longissimus muscle of animals slaughtered at 3.4 mm of fat thickness had higher moisture content (75.40% and ash (1.03% when compared to slaughtered 4.8 mm (72.78 and 0.96%, respectively. Genetic groups LIZ showed higher concentrations of eicosapentaenoic acid (0.45% and omega 3 (0.98% compared to ZEB (0.18 and 0.62%, respectively and ANZ (0.25 and 0.70%, respectively. The diet consists of sugar cane resulted in increased deposition of fatty acid palmitoleic (3.07% in relation to diet composed of sorghum silage (2.57%. This result was obtained due to higher activity of the enzyme ?9desaturase C16 in animals fed with sugar cane. Sorghum silage increased the deposition of acid 22:4 n-6 (0.14% compared to sugar cane (0.10%. The fat thickness levels of the carcasses had no effect on fatty acid composition, except for the ratio omega 6/omega 3. The slaughter of animals with 3.4 mm of fat thickness provided the best ratio omega 6/omega 3 (7.33 vs. 8.63. The chemical composition and fatty acid profile of Longissimus muscle of animals analyzed in this study show little variation in terms of genetic groups, diets and fat thickness levels.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar a composição química e o perfil de ácidos graxos do músculo Longissimus de bovinos de

  2. Effects of feeding silage and grain from glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, ruminal digestion, and milk production in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donkin, S S; Velez, J C; Totten, A K; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2003-05-01

    Lactating dairy cows were used to determine effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant or insect-protected corn hybrids on feed intake, milk production, milk composition, and ruminal digestibility. Corn resistant to European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) infestation (Bt-MON810), or its nontransgenic control (Bt-CON), were planted in alternating fields during two successive years. One-half of each strip was harvested for whole plant corn silage and the remainder was allowed to mature and harvested as grain. Effects of feeding diets containing either Bt-MON810 or Bt-CON grain and silage were determined in two experiments (1 and 2) conducted during successive years. In experiment 3, glyphosate-tolerant Roundup Ready corn (RR-GA21) or its nontransgenic control (RR-CON) corn were grown in alternating fields during one cropping season. Diets contained 42 to 60% corn silage and 20 to 34% corn grain from Bt-MON810, RR-GA21, or the appropriate nontransgenic counterpart; treatments were applied using a switchback design. Cows were fed ad libitum and milked twice daily. There were no differences for nutrient composition between silage sources or between grain sources within an experiment. Data for experiments 1 and 2 indicated similar dry matter intake (DMI), 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) production, and milk composition between Bt-MON810 and Bt-CON diets. There were no differences for DMI, 4% FCM production, and milk composition between RR-GA21 and RR-CON diets. There was no difference in ruminal degradability, determined separately for corn silage and corn grain, for RR-GA21 or Bt-MON810-hybrids compared with their respective controls. These data demonstrate equivalence of nutritional value and production efficiency for corn containing Bt-MON810 compared with its control and for RR-GA21 corn compared with its control.

  3. The effect silage aditives supplementation on dynamic fermentation process, quality and aerobic stability of corn silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Václav Pyrochta

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment, the effect of additives supplementation on the fermentation quality of corn silage was examined, compared with the untreated control (K. The aditive „A“ contained bacterial component of (Propionibactrium acidipropionici – MA126/4U 3*1010 and Lactobacillus plantarum – MA18/5U. The effective substances of bacterial inoculants „B“, selected were bacterial strains of (Lactobacillus casei ssp. rhamnosus LC – 705 DSM 7061 4*1011, Propionibacterium freudenreichii spp. shermanii JS DSM 6067 2-4*1011. There were used as effective substances of bacterial inoculants „C“ lactic bacteria and enzyme (Lactobacillus plantarum CCM 3769 1.67*1010, Lactococcus lactis CCM 4754 1.67*1010, Enterococcus faecium CCM 6226 1.67*1010, Pediococcus pentosaceus CCM 3770 1,67*1010, cellulase, hemicellulase, sodium benzoate. They were applied in the dose of prescript by producer. At conservations with all aditivum were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase of lactic acid formation from 55.31±9.72 g/kg DM of control silage to 59.60±10.84 g/kg DM aditivum „A“, 59.36±10.04 g/ kg DM aditivum „B“ rather to 60.74±9.90 g/kg DM aditivum „C“. Aditives „A“ and „B“ were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase propoinic acid and total fermentation acid content in silages occured. The fermentation characteristics in the microbial aditivum silages by us were more favourable. The date of fermentation was statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase the contents of acetic acid from 45.49±2.83 g/kg DM of 4st day to 63.07±4.25 g/kg DM of 32ndday rather to 67.70±2.94 g/kg DM of 64st day. There were statistically significant (P < 0.01 increase contents of acetic acid and total acid content. The date of fermentation was statistically significant (P < 0.01 degressive of pH.

  4. Silage produces biofuel for local consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamoto, Hiroko K; Horita, Mitsuo; Cai, Yimin; Shinozaki, Yukiko; Sakaki, Keiji

    2011-11-01

    In the normal process of bioethanol production, biomass is transported to integrated large factories for degradation to sugar, fermentation, and recovery of ethanol by distillation. Biomass nutrient loss occurs during preservation and degradation. Our aim was to develop a decentralized ethanol production system appropriate for farm or co-operative level production that uses a solid-state fermentation method for producing bio-ethanol from whole crops, provides cattle feed, and produces no wastes. The idea is to incorporate traditional silage methods with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Harvested, fresh biomass is ensiled with biomass-degrading enzymes and yeast. Multiple parallel reactions for biomass degradation and ethanol and lactic acid production are induced in solid culture in hermetically sealed containers at a ranch. After fermentation, ethanol is collected on site from the vapor from heated fermented products. The parallel reactions of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were induced efficiently in the model fermentation system. In a laboratory-scale feasibility study of the process, 250 g of freshly harvested forage rice with 62% moisture was treated with 0.86 filter paper units/g dry matter (DM) of cellulase and 0.32 U/g DM of glucoamylase. After 20 days of incubation at 28°C, 6.4 wt.% of ethanol in fresh matter (equivalent to 169 g/kg DM) was produced. When the 46 wt.% moisture was gathered as vapor from the fermented product, 74% of the produced ethanol was collected. Organic cellular contents (such as the amylase and pronase degradable fractions) were decreased by 63% and organic cell wall (fiber) content by 7% compared to silage prepared from the same material. We confirmed that efficient ethanol production is induced in nonsterilized whole rice plants in a laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation system. For practical use of the method, further study is needed to scale-up the fermentation volume, develop an efficient

  5. Silage produces biofuel for local consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitamoto Hiroko K

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the normal process of bioethanol production, biomass is transported to integrated large factories for degradation to sugar, fermentation, and recovery of ethanol by distillation. Biomass nutrient loss occurs during preservation and degradation. Our aim was to develop a decentralized ethanol production system appropriate for farm or co-operative level production that uses a solid-state fermentation method for producing bio-ethanol from whole crops, provides cattle feed, and produces no wastes. The idea is to incorporate traditional silage methods with simultaneous saccharification and fermentation. Harvested, fresh biomass is ensiled with biomass-degrading enzymes and yeast. Multiple parallel reactions for biomass degradation and ethanol and lactic acid production are induced in solid culture in hermetically sealed containers at a ranch. After fermentation, ethanol is collected on site from the vapor from heated fermented products. Results The parallel reactions of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were induced efficiently in the model fermentation system. In a laboratory-scale feasibility study of the process, 250 g of freshly harvested forage rice with 62% moisture was treated with 0.86 filter paper units/g dry matter (DM of cellulase and 0.32 U/g DM of glucoamylase. After 20 days of incubation at 28°C, 6.4 wt.% of ethanol in fresh matter (equivalent to 169 g/kg DM was produced. When the 46 wt.% moisture was gathered as vapor from the fermented product, 74% of the produced ethanol was collected. Organic cellular contents (such as the amylase and pronase degradable fractions were decreased by 63% and organic cell wall (fiber content by 7% compared to silage prepared from the same material. Conclusions We confirmed that efficient ethanol production is induced in nonsterilized whole rice plants in a laboratory-scale solid-state fermentation system. For practical use of the method, further study is needed to

  6. Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of using different levels of pistachio by-products silage on composition and blood parameters of Holstein dairy cows. ... The goal of this research was to study about the effect of using pistachio hulls silage in cow's nutrition. The initial ... Key words: Dairy cattle's, milk production, pistachio by-product, silage, tannin.

  7. Monitoring and Modeling Temperature Variations Inside Silage Stack Using Novel Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Shahrak Nadimi, Esmaeil; Blanes-Vidal, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: By monitoring silage temperature at different locations inside silage stacks, it is possible to detect any significant increases in temperature occurring during silage decomposition. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop novel noninvasive wireless sensor nodes for measuring ...

  8. Monitoring and modeling temperature variations inside silage stacks using novel wireless sensor networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, O.; Nadimi, E.S.; Blanes-Vidal, V.

    2009-01-01

    By monitoring silage temperature at different locations inside silage stacks, it is possible to detect any significant increases in temperature occurring during silage decomposition. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop novel noninvasive wireless sensor nodes for measuring the temper...

  9. Effects of condensed tannins in wrapped silage bales of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) on in vivo and in situ digestion in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, K; Aufrère, J; Andueza, D; Le Morvan, A; Picard, F; Pourrat, J; Baumont, R

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the condensed tannins (CTs) in wrapped silage bales of sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) and examine their potential action on in vivo and in situ digestive characteristics in sheep. Silage was made from sainfoin, cut at two phenological stages. The first phenological stage, at which silage was made, was from the first vegetation cycle at the end of flowering and the second stage silage was made from regrowth, 5 weeks after the first cut, but before flowering. The silages made from the two phenological stages were fed to 12 rumen-fistulated sheep in a crossover design. Of the 12 sheep, six received polyethylene glycol (PEG) to bind with and remove the effects of CT, whereas the other six were dosed with water. Organic matter digestibility, total-tract N digestibility and N (N) balance were measured over 6 days. Kinetic studies were performed on total N, ammonia N (NH3-N) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) in rumen fluid before and 1.5, 3 and 6 h after feeding. The kinetics of degradation of dry matter and N from Dacron bags suspended in the rumen were also determined. Biological activity of CT (protein-binding capacity) and CT concentration were greater for the silage made from sainfoin at the early flowering stage. Total-tract N digestibility was increased by the addition of PEG (P < 0.001) to the sainfoin silage before flowering (P < 0.001). CTs decreased N excretion in urine (P < 0.05) and increased faecal N excretion (P < 0.001), but had no effect on body N retention, which is beneficial for the animal. Ruminal N degradability was smaller in the presence of active CT (P < 0.001) at both phenological stages; however, soluble N (P = 0.2060) and NH3-N (P = 0.5225) concentrations in rumen fluid remained unchanged. The results of this experiment indicate that CT in the sainfoin retain their ability to affect the nutritive value of preserved forage legumes.

  10. Physiochemical Characteristics and Molecular Structures for Digestible Carbohydrates of Silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refat, Basim; Prates, Luciana L; Khan, Nazir A; Lei, Yaogeng; Christensen, David A; McKinnon, John J; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-10-18

    The main objectives of this study were (1) to assess the magnitude of differences among new barley silage varieties (BS) selected for varying rates of in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility (ivNDFD; Cowboy BS with higher ivNDFD, Copeland BS with intermediate ivNDFD, and Xena BS with lower ivNDFD) with regard to their carbohydrate (CHO) molecular makeup, CHO chemical fractions, and rumen degradability in dairy cows in comparison with a new corn silage hybrid (Pioneer 7213R) and (2) to quantify the strength and pattern of association between the molecular structures and digestibility of carbohydrates. The carbohydrate-related molecular structure spectral data was measured using advanced vibrational molecular spectroscopy (FT/IR). In comparison to BS, corn silage showed a significantly (P carbohydrates were significantly (P carbohydrate content of the silages. In conclusion, the univariate approach with only one-factor consideration (ivNDFD) might not be a satisfactory method for evaluating and ranking BS quality. FT/IR molecular spectroscopy can be used to evaluate silage quality rapidly, particularly the digestible fiber content.

  11. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in silage products of Shahrekord city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Sharifzadeh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the silage samples. Methods: Silage samples obtained from 150 different farms in Shahrekord city (Iran and after DNA extraction, all samples were analyzed by PCR technique using one pair of primers for presence of this pathogen. The amplified products were detected on 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: Listeria monocytogenes was isolated in 4 (2% of the 150 samples. The detection of this bacterium from silage samples in Shahrekord city indicated that these products could create a serious risk in public health of animal and human. The findings showed that in positive silage samples for Listeria monocytogenes, the pH value was about five and it was due to bacterial activity in these products. Conclusions: The quality of silage and hygiene parameters and good herd health management play an important role in the microbiological quality of herd and farm. Considering the high specificity and sensitivity of the employed PCR technique, it is recommended to be useful technique for identification of Listeria monocytogenes.

  12. Effects of feeding forage soybean silage on milk production, nutrient digestion, and ruminal fermentation of lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Mustafa, A. F.; Seguin, P.

    2008-01-01

    and AS constituted 72% of the forage in each diet, with corn silage constituting the remaining 28%. Twenty Holsteins cows in early lactation were used in a switchback design. Four lactating Holsteins cows fitted with ruminal cannulas were used to determine the effects of dietary treatments on ruminal fermentation...... parameters and in vivo total tract nutrient utilization. Relative to AS, SS contained 15, 28, and 25% more neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and crude protein, respectively. Dry matter intake (23.5 vs. 25.1 kg/d) and milk yield (35.5 vs. 37.2 kg/d) were lower for cows fed SS than for those fed.......8 vs. 3.6%) and milk urea nitrogen concentrations (15.6 vs. 14.3 mg/dL) compared with cows fed AS. Ruminal pH was lower, whereas ruminal NH3-N concentration was greater in cows fed SS than in cows fed AS. Total tract digestibilities of dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent fiber were...

  13. Effects of lactic acid bacteria silage inoculation on methane emission and productivity of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, J.L.; Hindrichsen, I.K.; Klop, G.; Kinley, R.D.; Milora, N.; Bannink, A.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility,

  14. Moisture Concentration Variation of Silages Produced on Commercial Farms in the South-Central USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Han

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of forage crops as silage offers opportunity to avoid the high risk of rain-damaged hay in the humid south-central USA. Recent developments with baled silage or baleage make silage a less expensive option than typical chopped silage. Silage has been important in the region primarily for dairy production, but baleage has become an option for the more extensive beef cattle industry in the region. Silage samples submitted to the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Forage Quality Lab from 2006 through 2013 were assessed for dry matter (DM and forage nutritive characteristics of chopped silage and baleage of the different forage types from commercial farms primarily in Louisiana and Mississippi. Of the 1,308 silage samples submitted, 1,065 were annual ryegrass (AR with small grains (SG, the warm-season annual (WA grasses, sorghums and pearl millet, and the warm-season perennial (WP grasses, bermudagrass and bahiagrass, providing the remaining samples. Concentration of DM was used to indicate an effective ensiling opportunity, and AR silage was more frequently within the target DM range than was the WA forage group. The AR samples also indicated a high-quality forage with average crude protein (CP of 130 g/kg and total digestible nutrient (TDN near 600 g/kg. The cooler winter weather at harvest apparently complicated harvest of SG silage with chopped SG silage lower in both CP and TDN (104 and 553 g/kg, respectively than either AR silage or baleage of SG (137 and 624 g/kg for CP and TDN, respectively. The hot, humid summer weather along with large stems and large forage quantities of the WA grasses and the inherently higher fiber concentration of WP grasses at harvest stage indicate that preservation of these forage types as silage will be challenging, although successful commercial silage samples of each forage type and preservation approach were included among samples of silages produced in the region.

  15. Efeito do Estádio Vegetativo do Sorgo (Sorghum bicolor, (L. Moench sobre a Composição Química da Silagem, Consumo, Produção e Teor de Gordura do Leite para Vacas em lactação, em Comparação à Silagem de Milho (Zea mays (L. Effect of the Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, (L. Moench Growth Stage on the Silage Chemical Composition, Intake, Milk Production and Fat on Dairy Cattle, Compared with Corn Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argélia Maria Araújo Dias

    2001-12-01

    and the lactating order and consisted of three cows and three periods. Each period was performed by 28 days. The following treatments were tested: CS -- corn silage, SSB -- sorghum silage in a boot stage and, SSM -- sorghum silage in a milk grain stage in addition to 25 kg of spineless cactus animal/day and commercial concentrate according to milk production. The animals fed with corn silage showed the highest dry matter intake of the silage and of the total diet, when compared to those fed with sorghum silage at the two growth stage tested. There were no significant effects of the vegetative stage on sorghum silage intake. It was observed higher milk yield and 4% fat corrected milk yield for the animals that consumed corn silage compared to the animals that received sorghum silage in the milk grain stage. The cows fed with sorghum silage at the boot stage did not differ fron those fed the other two treatments. No significant differences were observed among the tested silages for the milk fat content.

  16. Apparent digestibility coefficients and consumption of corn silage with and without Bt gene in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    .05 confirming the values found by several authors in studies with sheep fed to corn silage. The CDA of CP had an effect only for GMO (p>0.05 in which the lowest result was observed for GMO (40.42 than their isogenic counterparts without the gene (47.58%, this because transgenic hybrids had lower CP content in the sheet (p<0.005, with values of 12.15 for GMO and 13.04 to varieties without the gene, one possible explanation for this fact are the production of Cry1Ab protein by gene Bt in the plant, which would lead to a decrease in protein content of plant components.

  17. Sustaining Milk Production by use Sorghum Silage and Sweet Potato and Sweet Potato Vines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouda, J.O

    2002-01-01

    Dairy sector in Kenya is an important source of rural employment and farm income besides provision of milk consumed in the urban centres. Dairy cattle nutrition and sustenance of production through out the year are constraints to production. Feeding during dry season is a major problem and can be alleviated through cultivation of high yielding fodder crops and feed conservation. The current work evaluated the nutritive value of sorghum silage (SS) and sweet potato vines (SPV) as feeds for dairy production in the dry highlands. On-station work involved performance trial of dairy cattle fed on varying proportions of SS and SPV while on farm work involved demonstration and popularization of sorghum and SPV utilization technology. The dry matter (DM), crude protein, (CP) neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) contents for SS ranged from 267.3-350.7, 50.0-70.6, 60.8 and 55.0-67.3 g kg - 1 respectively. The corresponding values for SPV were 129.5-190.4, 83.4-179.1, 300.9-383.5 and 61.5-68.0 g kg - 1. Daily milk yield ranged from 3.44 l d - 1 when SS alone was fed to 15 l d - 1 when combination of SS and SPV was fed to dairy cows. Most farmers rationed sorghum and fed as green chop besides SS especially during the dry season. Improvement and sustenance of milk production was observed on-farm, showing that sorghum and SPV utilization technology has generated great potential of enhancing dairy production

  18. Using Gamma Radiation for the Improvement of Silage Inoculant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wongwicharn, Aporn; Ljinakakr, Nongpanga; Piadang, Patharakorn

    2006-09-01

    A total of 117 acid producing baceria were isolated from grass and silage samples. Almost all isolates, 115 isolates posses homfermentative fermentation. All isolates produced lactic acid in a range of 0.36-2.05%. From their growth and their ability in producing lactic acid, two isolates, a coccus (T3-2-02) and a rod (T3-0-01) were selected for a mixed wild type strains for silage inoculant. After irradiation the wild type strains with gama ray, 51 and 58 isolates of high acid producer were selected from T3-2-02 and T3-0-01 strains, respectively. After testing the growht characteristics and the acid productivity, a coccus strain, MC08 and a rod stain, MR4 were choosen as a mixed irradiated starter culture strains for grass silage fermentation using a 50 dats old Pangola grass (Digitaria eriantha). The experiment was divided into 6 treatments. Treatmet I was the control. Treatmment 2, 4% molasses was added ro the grass. Treatment 3, a mixed wild type strains (T3-2-02+ T3-0-01) was inoculated into the grass. Treatment 4, a mixed irradiated strains (MC08+ MR04) was used. Treatment 5, A mixed wild tpye strains was used and supplemented with 4% molasses. Treatnebt 6, A mixed irradiated strain was assed and supplemented with 4% molasses. The results showed that a qualified silage can be obtained within a week from either the treatment inoculated with starter culture together with4% molasses (T5 and T6) or the treatment supplemented with 4% molasses alone (T2). further more, Silage of the treatments that using starter culture supplemented with 4% molasses gave volatile acid in a requred quantity. Silage of the treatments that inoculated either with a wild type pr a mixed irradiated starter culture posses bether quality than the control treatment. Further more silage that used irradiated starter culture showed a faster ffermentation and higher lactic acid production tha silage that uses wild type starter culture.

  19. Subprodutos industriais na ensilagem de capim-elefante para cabras leiteiras: consumo, digestibilidade de nutrientes e produção de leite Industrial by-products in elephant grass silage for dairy goats: intake, nutrient digestibility and milk yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobel Beserra de Oliveira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido para avaliar o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente e a produção do leite em cabras alimentadas com silagens de capim-elefante contendo subprodutos industriais. Utilizaram-se oito cabras da raça Saanen, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos 4 × 4, com 4 períodos de 14 dias (10 dias de adaptação e 4 dias para coleta de dados. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de capim-elefante + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de farelo de mandioca + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% de casca de café + concentrado; silagem de capim-elefante com 15% farelo de cacau + concentrado. Os maiores consumos de matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO, carboidratos totais (CT, carboidratos não-fibrosos (CNF e nutrientes digestíveis totais foram observados entre os animais alimentados com a silagem contendo farelo de mandioca. As silagens com farelo de mandioca ou casca de café promoveram maior consumo de extrato etéreo. Os maiores valores de digestibilidade da MS, MO, EE e CT foram obtidos na dieta contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca. O valor de digestibilidade dos CNF foi semelhante entre as dietas contendo silagem de capim-elefante com farelo de mandioca, casca de café e farelo de cacau. A digestibilidade de fibra em detergente neutro e de fibra em detergente ácido foi maior para a silagem sem aditivo, com farelo de mandioca ou farelo de cacau. Entre os subprodutos avaliados, o farelo de mandioca é o que promove maiores consumos, digestibilidades dos nutrientes e produção de leite em cabras alimentadas com silagem de capim-elefante.The experiment was carried out to evaluate the intake, apparent digestibility and the milk yield of goats fed elephant grass silages containing industrial by-products. Eight Saanen breed goats were used, distributed in two 4 × 4 Latin squares, with four 14-day periods (ten days of adaptation and four days for data collection. The treatments were

  20. The Effects of Additives in Napier Grass Silages on Chemical Composition, Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J. Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake,...

  1. THE EFFECTS OF INOCULANT LACTIC ACID BACTERIA ON THE FERMENTATION AND AEROBIC STABILITY OF SUNFLOWER SILAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisun Koc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of actic acid bacterial inoculant on the fermentation and aerobic stability of sunflower silages. Sunflower was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1174 (Pioneer®,USA was used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculant. Inoculant was applied 6.00 log10 cfu/g silage levels. Silages with no additive served as controls. After treatment, the chopped sunflower was ensiled in the PVC type laboratory silos. Three silos for each group were sampled for chemical and microbiological analysis on days 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 56 after ensiling. At the end of the ensiling period, all silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test for 14 days. Neither inoculant improved the fermentation parameters of sunflower silages. At the end of the ensiling period, inoculant increased lactic acid bacteria (LAB and decreased yeast and mould numbers of silages. Inoculant treatment did not affect aerobic stability of silages.

  2. Microbiological Quality of Panicum maximum Grass Silage with Addition of Lactobacillus sp. as Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsih, S.; Sulistiyanto, B.; Utama, C. S.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate microbiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp as starter. The completely randomized design was been used on this research with 4 treaments and 3 replications. The treatments were P0 ( Panicum maximum grass silage without addition Lactobacillus sp ), P1 ( Panicum maximum grass silage with 2% addition Lactobacillus sp), P2 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 4% addition Lactobacillus sp) and P3 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 6% addition Lactobacillus sp).The parameters were microbial populations of Panicum maximum grass silage (total lactic acid bacteria, total bacteria, total fungi, and Coliform bacteria. The data obtained were analyzed variance (ANOVA) and further tests performed Duncan’s Multiple Areas. The population of lactic acid bacteria was higher (PMicrobiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp was better than no addition Lactobacillus sp.

  3. Evaluation of anaerobic degradation, biogas and digestate production of cereal silages using nylon-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negri, Marco; Bacenetti, Jacopo; Fiala, Marco; Bocchi, Stefano

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the degradation efficiency and the biogas and digestate production during anaerobic digestion were evaluated for the cereal silages most used to feed biogas plants. To this purpose, silages of: maize from the whole plant, maize from the ear, triticale and wheat were digested, inside of nylon bags, in laboratory scale digesters, for 75days. Overall, the test involved 288 nylon bags. After 75days of digestion, the maize ear silage shows the highest degradation efficiency (about 98%) while wheat silage the lowest (about 83%). The biogas production ranges from 438 to 852Nm(3)/t of dry matter for wheat and ear maize silage, respectively. For all the cereal silages, the degradation as well as the biogas production are faster at the beginning of the digestion time. Digestate mass, expressed as percentage of the fresh matter, ranges from 38% to 84% for wheat and maize ear silage, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of grazing strategy on limiting nitrate leaching in grazed grass-clover pastures on coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Urinations of ruminants on grazed pastures increase the risk of nitrate leaching. The study investigated the effect of reducing the length of the grazing season on nitrate leaching from a coarse sandy, irrigated soil during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. In both years, precipitation was above the long...... concentrations of 23, 19 and 13 mg/L for an estimated proportion area occupied by urine patches of 0.33, 0.26 and 0.16, respectively. Thus, N concentrations in G and CG exceeded the EU limit of 11.3 mg N/L. Under the prevailing conditions, the time of urination did not appear important. The estimated background...

  5. Apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of grass-clover leys and of farmyard manure in an arable rotation. Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikula, D.; Berge, Ten H.F.M.; Goedhart, P.W.; Schröder, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    The apparent nitrogen fertilizer replacement value of farmyard manure (NFRVFYM) was studied in a long-term experiment on a loamy sand soil at Grabow, Poland. The experiment combined five rates of FYM with four nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates in two rotations (RotA and RotB) started in

  6. Influence of wheat bran as a silage additive on chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dear User!

    2012-06-22

    Jun 22, 2012 ... CPS with 5% DM sugar beet pulp had lower ADF, and higher NDF and CP concentration, compared with control group. Moreover, they showed that the addition of sugar beet pulp to CPS had no effect on silage pH. Chaudhry and Naseer (2006) added a mixture of poultry litter and corn forage to fresh citrus ...

  7. The quality of silage of different sorghum genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Cangussú Tolentino

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to select from among 24 sorghum genotypes the superior ones for silage production. The study was conducted in the experimental field of Embrapa Maize & Sorghum, in the municipality of Sete Lagoas, Minas Gerais State. It used 24 forage sorghum genotypes, 21 being hybrids from the crossing of grain sorghum females and forage males (12F38019, 12F38006, 12F40006, 12F40005, 12F40019, 12F37016, 12F37005, 12F37043, 12F39006, 12F39005, 12F39019, 12F38005, 12F38007, 12F37007, 12F39007, 12F40007, 12F38014, 12F37014, 12F39014, 12F40014 e 12F38009 and three witnesses: BRS 610, BRS 655 and Volumax. It estimated productivity per area, in vitro dry matter digestibility, and assessed the bromatological and fermentation characteristics of sorghum silage. In vitro dry matter digestibility, unavailable protein in neutral detergent, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ashes and protein, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose and lignin differed as to the genotypes tested. The pH and the ammoniacal nitrogen of the silage also showed differences between genotypes. Most of the genotypes tested are favorable for silage production, except the hybrid with higher lignin content 12F370014, and the hybrids 12F37007 and 12F370014, which showed the highest NDFap values.

  8. Ensiling characteristics and feeding value of silage made from cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, silage made from cattle waste being ensiled with maize residues (ECW), was evaluated with respect to ensiling characteristics and feeding value. Cattle waste was obtained from cows that were fin- ished on a high-concentrate (80%) diet. It was collected together with maize residues which served as ...

  9. Fruit agribusiness waste as an additive in elephant grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Cardoso de Azevedo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential use of fruticulture waste as an additive in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cultivar Napier silage at different densities, defining the effect of fermentative quality, microbiological characteristics and bromatological composition. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications in a 4 x 3 factorial scheme, comprising a control, banana waste (BW, mango waste (MW, and passion fruit waste (PFW at three densities (400, 500 and 600 kg green matter [GM] m-3. The effect of ensiling density was greatest in the exclusively elephant grass silage, where a compaction of 600 kg GM m-3 contributed to improvements in fermentation and microbiological processes. The addition of banana waste to the elephant grass silage promoted improvements only in bromatological composition, raising the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, and non-fiber carbohydrate (NFC content and reducing fiber components (neutral detergent fiber [NDFap] and acid detergent fiber [ADFap] corrected for ash and protein, but the addition of banana waste did not favor the fermentative or microbiological processes. The addition of passion fruit and mango by-products promoted increased DM and favored the fermentative, microbiological, and bromatological silage processes, regardless of density.

  10. Fermentative attributes of wilted vs. unwilted Digitaria eriantha silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Silages made from directly cut or wilted Digitaria eriantha treated with or without molasses were evaluated to determine fermentative characteristics. The grass was harvested at the boot stage of growth and the material was ensiled in 1 kg mini-silos. Treatments were arranged in a factorial design of two moisture levels ...

  11. Effects of Silo Type on Silage Quality and Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to determine how storage structure affects alfalfa silage dry matter losses and quality. A study was conducted for two consecutive years. Each year, second cutting alfalfa was ensiled in one bunker silo (4.9 x 21 x 3.5 m), one pressed bag silo (2.4 x 52 m) and one oxygen-limiting s...

  12. Effects of feeding corn silage, pelleted, ensiled, or pelleted and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of corn silage (CS) and alfalfa (pelleted (AP), haylage (AH), or combination (APH)) on lamb growth and carcass characteristics. The objective of Experiment 1 (Exp. 1) was to compare AH to CS in lamb feedlot diets on lamb growth and carcass characteristics.

  13. Nutritional potential of post extraction residues and silage from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The nutritional potential of post extraction residues and silage from leaves of five local cassava varieties cultivated in south west Nigeria namely Ilaro, Oko-iyawo, Mafamipa, Odongbo, Idileru as feed for ruminants, was evaluated using chemical composition and in - vitro dry matter digestibility as indices. Chemical ...

  14. In vitro cytotoxicity of fungi spoiling maize silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have; Larsen, Thomas Ostenfeld

    2011-01-01

    production and in vitro cytotoxicity have been determined for fungal agar and silage extracts. All 8 fungal species significantly affected Caco-2 cell viability in the resazurin assay, with large variations for each species and growth medium. The 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of the major P...

  15. Chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of potato-wheat straw silage treated with molasses and lactic acid bacteria and corn silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeinasab, Y; Rouzbehan, Y; Fazaeli, H; Rezaei, J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of molasses and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, and in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters of an ensiled potato-wheat straw mixture in a completely randomized design with 4 replicates. Wheat straw was harvested at full maturity and potato tuber when the leaves turned yellowish. The potato-wheat straw (57:43 ratio, DM basis) mixture was treated with molasses, LAB, or a combination. Lalsil Fresh LB (Lallemand, France; containing NCIMB 40788) or Lalsil MS01 (Lallemand, France; containing MA18/5U and MA126/4U) were each applied at a rate of 3 × 10 cfu/g of fresh material. Treatments were mixed potato-wheat straw silage (PWSS) without additive, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01, PWSS + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil Fresh LB + 5% molasses, PWSS inoculated with Lalsil MS01 + 5% molasses, and corn silage (CS). The compaction densities of PWSS treatments and CS were approximately 850 and 980 kg wet matter/m, respectively. After anaerobic storage for 90 d, chemical composition, silage fermentation characteristics, in vitro gas production (GP), estimated OM disappearance (OMD), ammonia-N, VFA, microbial CP (MCP) production, and cellulolytic bacteria count were determined. Compared to CS, PWSS had greater ( butyric acids concentrations. When PWSS was treated with molasses, LAB, or both, the contents of CP and lactic and acetic acids increased, whereas NDFom, ammonia-N, and butyric acid decreased ( fermentation quality of PWSS was lesser than that of CS. However, addition of molasses and molasses + LAB improved fermentation quality of PWSS.

  16. Influence of individual or mixed cellulase and xylanase mixture on in vitro rumen gas production kinetics of total mixed rations with different maize silage and concentrate ratios

    OpenAIRE

    ELGHANDOUR, MONA MOHAMED MOHAMED YASSEEN; KHOLIF, AHMED EID; MÁRQUEZ-MOLINA, OFELIA; VÁZQUEZ-ARMIJO, JOSÉ FERNANDO; PUNIYA, ANIL KUMAR; SALEM, ABDELFATTAH ZEIDAN MOHAMED

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of cellulase, xylanase, and their mixture (1:1, v/v) on in vitro rumen fermentation of five mixed rations with different maize silage (F) to concentrate (C) ratios (0F:100C, 25F:75C, 50F:50C, 75F:25C, 100F:0C). Samples were incubated using rumen inoculum from Brown Swiss cows fed ad libitum a total mixed ration of concentrate and alfalfa hay (1:1). Gas production (GP) was recorded after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h of incubation. Interaction effects...

  17. Evolution of fungal population and mycotoxins in sorghum silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Palacio, Agustina; Mionetto, Ana; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah

    2016-12-01

    Silage, one of the most important feed sources for cattle, is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage moulds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of this study was to identify the mycobiota of sorghum silages, to determine the presence of aflatoxins and fumonisins, and to correlate these results with physical parameters of the silage. A total of 275 samples of sorghum were collected from dairy farms in the south-west region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The presence of fungi was observed in all of the sorghum samples with values varying from 0.2 × 10 4 to 4085 × 10 4 UFC g -1 . Significant difference were detected in the total number of fungi during the storage period; at six months there is a high risk of fungal spoilage. The most frequent genera isolated from sorghum samples were Penicillium (70%), Aspergillus (65%), Absidia (40%), Fusarium (35%), Paecilomyces (35%) and Alternaria, Cladosporium, Gliocadium and Mucor (30%). The toxigenic species most frequently found were Penicillium citrinum, Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium nygamai. Only two samples were contaminated by AFB1 with levels of 1 and 14 µg kg -1 . Fumonisin was detected in 40% of freshly harvest samples with levels ranged from 533 µg kg -1 to 933 µg kg -1 . The use of silo bags seems to be an effective tool to store sorghum. However, the presence of toxigenic fungi show that regular screening for mycotoxins levels in silages must be performed to avoid the exposure of animals to contaminated feed and the introduction of these compounds into the food chain.

  18. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. Results In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica (P. manshurica, Candida ethanolica (C. ethanolica, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (Z. bailii isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d. With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01 stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. Conclusion The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii, probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant

  19. Characterization of culturable yeast species associating with whole crop corn and total mixed ration silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huili; Hao, Wei; Ning, Tingting; Zheng, Mingli; Xu, Chuncheng

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the association of yeast species with improved aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR) silages with prolonged ensiling, and clarified the characteristics of yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration. Methods Whole crop corn (WCC) silages and TMR silages formulated with WCC were ensiled for 7, 14, 28, and 56 d and used for an aerobic stability test. Predominant yeast species were isolated from different periods and identified by sequencing analyses of the 26S rRNA gene D1/D2 domain. Characteristics (assimilation and tolerance) of the yeast species and their role during aerobic deterioration were investigated. Results In addition to species of Candida glabrata and Pichia kudriavzevii (P. kudriavzevii) previously isolated in WCC and TMR, Pichia manshurica (P. manshurica), Candida ethanolica (C. ethanolica), and Zygosaccharomyces bailii (Z. bailii) isolated at great frequency during deterioration, were capable of assimilating lactic or acetic acid and tolerant to acetic acid and might function more in deteriorating TMR silages at early fermentation (7 d and 14 d). With ensiling prolonged to 28 d, silages became more (p<0.01) stable when exposed to air, coinciding with the inhibition of yeast to below the detection limit. Species of P. manshurica that were predominant in deteriorating WCC silages were not detectable in TMR silages. In addition, the predominant yeast species of Z. bailii in deteriorating TMR silages at later fermentation (28 d and 56 d) were not observed in both WCC and WCC silages. Conclusion The inhibition of yeasts, particularly P. kudriavzevii, probably account for the improved aerobic stability of TMR silages at later fermentation. Fewer species seemed to be involved in aerobic deterioration of silages at later fermentation and Z. bailii was most likely to initiate the aerobic deterioration of TMR silages at later fermentation. The use of WCC in TMR might not influence the predominant yeast

  20. Transfer of Chernobyl radiocaesium (134Cs and 137Cs) from grass silage to milk in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voors, P.I.; Weers, A.W. van

    1991-01-01

    The transfer of Chernobyl radiocaesium through the silage-cow-milk pathway has been investigated under normal farming conditions. A period in which grass silage with a relatively high level of radiocaesium was fed was preceded and followed by period of low-level contaminated feeds. An average transfer coefficient from feed to milk, F m , of 0.25% d liter -1 has been derived for radiocaesium. A simple two-compartmental model has been applied to predict the radiocaesium concentration in milk from the intake with feed. An estimate of three model parameters, F (fractional digestibility of radiocaesium in feed and the fraction secreted in both urine and milk), m and u (transfer rates from the body fluids to milk and urine) was made on the basis of a sampling and measurement programme on the urine, faeces and milk of two cows during a 48 h period. With the derived F-value of 0.13 and a u/m-ratio of 51 liter d -1 , the model appeared to predict a 1.5-fold lower concentration of radiocaesium milk than was actually measured. This discrepancy was consistent with the observed rather low total excretion of radiocaesium. With an F-value of 0.19, acceptable agreement between predicted and measured radiocaesium concentrations in milk was reached. (author)

  1. The effects of pressed sugar beet pulp silage (PBPS and dairy whey on heavy pig production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Sardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of pressed beet pulp silage (PBPS replacing barley for 10% and 20% (DM basis were studied on heavy pigs fed dairy whey-diluted diets. 60 Hypor pigs (average initial weight of 28 kg, 30 barrows and 30 gilts, were homogeneously allocated to three exper- imental groups: T1 (control in which pigs were fed a traditional sweet whey- diluted diet (the ratio between whey and dry matter was 4.5/1; T2 in which PBPS replaced barley for 10% (DM basis during a first period (from the beginning to the 133rd day of trial and thereafter for 20% (DM basis; T3 in which PBPS replaced barley for 20% (DM basis throughout the experimental period. In diets T2 and T3 feed was dairy whey-diluted as in group T1. No significant (P>0.05 differences were observed concerning growth parameters (ADG and FCR. Pigs on diets contain- ing PBPS showed significantly higher (P<0.05 percentages of lean cuts and lower percentages of fat cuts. On the whole, ham weight losses during seasoning were moderate but significantly (P<0.05 more marked for PBPS-fed pigs as a prob- able consequence of their lower adiposity degree. Fatty acid composition of ham fat was unaffected by diets. With regard to m. Semimembranosus colour, pigs receiving PBPS showed lower (P<0.05 “L”, “a” and “Chroma” values. From an economical point of view it can be concluded that the use of PBPS (partially replacing barley and dairy whey in heavy pig production could be of particular interest in areas where both these by products are readily available.

  2. Relative partitioning of N from alfalfa silage, corn silage, corn grain and soybean meal into milk, urine, and feces, using stable 15N isotope

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative partitioning of nitrogen (N) in alfalfa silage (AS), corn silage (CS), corn grain (CG) and soybean meal (SBM) in milk, urinary and fecal N in lactating dairy cows. For eleven days, twelve multiparous late-lactation Holstein cows (means ± SD; ...

  3. Replacing conventional or brown-mid rib corn silage with brown-mid rib sudangrass silage in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forages that use less water, but are high in digestibility, are sought as alternatives to traditional forages such as corn silage. Brown mid-rib (BMR) sudangrass is a possible alternative that can provide high-quality forage as a replacement for corn silage. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  4. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice crop residue based silage ensiled with addition of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Santoso

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Silage is the feedstuff resulted from the preservation of forages through lactic acid fermentation. The aim of this study was to evaluate nutritive value, fermentation characteristics and nutrients digestibility of rice crop residue based silage ensiled with epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The mixture of rice crop residue (RC, soybean curd residue (SC and cassava waste (CW in a 90: 5: 5 (on dry matter basis ratio was used as silage material. Three treatments silage were (A RC + SC + CW as a control; (B RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculums from rice crop residue; (C RC + SC + CW + LAB inoculums from king grass. Silage materials were packed into plastic silo (1.5 kg capacity and stored for 30 days. The results showed that crude protein content in B and C silage was higher than that of silage A, but NDF content in silages B and C was lower than that of silage A. Lactic acid concentration was higher (P < 0.01 in silage C compared to silage B and A, thus pH value of silage C was lower (P < 0.01 than silage B and A. Silage C had the highest Fleigh point than that of other silages. Dry matter and organic matter digestibilities were higher in silages B and C (P < 0.01 than that of control silage. It was concluded that the addition of LAB inoculums from king grass to rice crop residue based silage resulted a better fermentation quality compared to LAB inoculums from rice crop residue.

  5. Influence of rice whole-crop silage diet on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics and muscle-related gene expression in Japanese Black steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Masahiro; Hikino, Yasuko; Imanari, Mai; Matsumoto, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Naoyuki

    2016-07-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a diet largely comprising rice whole-crop silage (rWCS) on growth performance, carcass and meat characteristics, and expression of genes involved in muscle growth of Japanese Black steers. Steers were randomly separated into rWCS-fed (rWCS ad libitum and restricted feeding of concentrate) and concentrate-fed groups. Total digestible nutrient intake and daily gain (DG) decreased in rWCS-fed steers in comparison with concentrate-fed steers, whereas dressed carcass weight and final body weight did not significantly differ between the groups. Decreases in drip loss in the muscle of rWCS-fed steers may be caused by α-tocopherol and β-carotene in muscle. Feeding large amounts of rWCS to steers may maintain quantitative productivity of beef steers equally to a concentrate-based diet, and improve the qualitative productivity. Results of gene expression suggest that activation of skeletal muscle growth in rWCS-fed steers may occur at the late fattening period owing to a decrease in myostatin and increase in myosin heavy chain gene expression. Preadipocyte factor-1 and myostatin genes may be strongly involved in the control of lipid accumulation. This rearing system would allow beef production to switch to rWCS-based diets from concentrate-based diets. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Effects of restriction of silage fermentation with formic acid on milk production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. JAAKKOLA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of silage fermentation quality and type of supplementation on milk production. Thirty two Finnish Ayrshire dairy cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with four 21-day experimental periods and 4 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Silage fermentation was modified with formic acid (FA, which was applied at the rates equivalent to 0 (FA0, 2 (FA2, 4 (FA4 or 6 (FA6 litres t-1 grass of pure formic acid (as 100% FA. Dietary treatments consisted of four silages, a protein supplementation (no supplement or rapeseed meal 1.8 kg d-1 and a glucogenic substrate (no supplement or propylene glycol 225 g d-1. Increasing the application rate of FA restricted silage fermentation curvilinearly, as evidenced by higher concentrations of ammonia N and butyric acid in FA4 than FA2 silage. Similarly the use of FA resulted in curvilinear changes in the silage dry matter intake and milk yield. The highest milk and protein yields were achieved with FA6, while the milk yield with FA2 was higher than with FA4. Interactions were observed between silage type and supplementation. Rapeseed meal increased milk yield irrespective of the extent of silage fermentation, but the magnitude of response was variable. Propylene glycol was most beneficial with restrictively fermented silages FA4 and FA6. In conclusion, restriction of silage fermentation with a high rate of formic acid is beneficial in milk production. Interactions between silage composition and concentrate types suggest that the responses to supplementary feeding depend on silage fermentation characteristics.;

  7. Chemical composition of corn and sorghum silage with inclusion of whole-plant soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Laion Antunes Stella; Vanessa Peripolli; Ênio Rosa Prates; Júlio Otávio Jardim Barcellos

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the chemical and fermentation quality of corn and sorghum silage enriched with whole-plant soybeans. Whole soybean proportions of 75%, 50% and 25% were used for ensiling corn or sorghum. The increasing inclusion levels of whole-plant soybeans resulted in a linear increase in the dietary protein content of corn and sorghum silage and in an increase in acid detergent fiber of corn silage, while a decrease was observed in the energy content of corn silage and in neutral dete...

  8. The use of Lactobacillus species as starter cultures for enhancing the quality of sugar cane silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila, C L S; Carvalho, B F; Pinto, J C; Duarte, W F; Schwan, R F

    2014-02-01

    Sugar cane (Saccharum spp.) is a forage crop widely used in animal feed because of its high dry matter (DM) production (25 to 40 t/ha) and high energy concentration. The ensiling of sugar cane often incurs problems with the growth of yeasts, which leads to high losses of DM throughout the fermentative process. The selection of specific inoculants for sugar cane silage can improve the quality of the silage. The present study aimed to select strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugar cane silage and to assess their effects when used as additives on the same type of silage. The LAB strains were inoculated into sugar cane broth to evaluate their production of metabolites. The selected strains produced higher concentrations of acetic and propionic acids and resulted in better silage characteristics, such as low yeast population, lower ethanol content, and lesser DM loss. These data confirmed that facultative heterofermentative strains are not good candidates for sugar cane silage inoculation and may even worsen the quality of the silage fermentation by increasing DM losses throughout the process. Lactobacillus hilgardii strains UFLA SIL51 and UFLA SIL52 resulted in silage with the best characteristics in relation to DM loss, low ethanol content, higher LAB population, and low butyric acid content. Strains UFLA SIL51 and SIL52 are recommended as starter cultures for sugar cane silage. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dynamics in the microbiology of maize silage during whole-season storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Kristensen, N.B.; Raun, B.M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To monitor seasonal variations in the microbiology of maize silage and to determine whether the risk of fungal spoilage varies during whole-year storage. Methods and Results: A continuous survey of 20 maize silage stacks was conducted over a period from three to 11 months after ensiling...... variations in the microbiology of maize silage over a whole storage season. The risk of fungal spoilage was highest 5-7 months after ensiling and lowest after 11 months. Significance and Impact of the Study: This information is valuable in the assessment of health risks connected with spoiled maize silage...

  10. THE QUALITY OF CORN SILAGE PRODUCT FROM TECHNOPARK OF BANYUMULEK LOMBOK, WEST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fitri Sari

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available West Nusa Tenggara province is one potential area for farming of cattle and has been chosen as location for developing a Technopark in Banyumulek. Forage preservation as silage is a program to support the sustainability of forage for beef cattle. Silage was made using whole corn crop and additives of rice bran and Lactobacillus plantarum 1A-2 as inoculum under a block randomized design. Three treatments were given and 10 replications of each month. Evaluation of silage quality, based on chemical and microbiological analysis, showed that silage making during 3 months in Technopark Banyumulek is good and stable.

  11. A process-based emission model of volatile organic compounds from silage sources on farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonifacio, H. F.; Rotz, C. A.; Hafner, S. D.

    2017-01-01

    such as those from dairy farms. A process-based model for predicting VOC emissions from silage was developed and incorporated into the Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM, v. 4.3), a whole-farm simulation of crop, dairy, and beef production systems. The performance of the IFSM silage VOC emission model...... performance, economics, and environmental impacts of farm production. As a component of IFSM, the silage VOC emission model was used to simulate a representative dairy farm in central California. The simulation showed most silage VOC emissions were from feed lying in feed lanes and not from the exposed face...

  12. Additives effect on chemical composition and quality of sisal co-product silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Gustavo Neves Brandão

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation profile and nutritional value of sisal co-product silage (SC subjected to seven treatments (additives, were evaluated. The SC was ensiled in natura and added with: soy meal, urea, wheat meal, palm kernel cake, A. sisalana dust, licuri cake and cottonseed cake. Experimental silos with capacity for approximately 15 kg of silage, were used. The silos were opened 60 days after ensilage process. It was used a completely randomized design with three replications. The SC in natura present low values of dry mater (DM 12.3% and the additives increased dry matter silages, exception for urea. The SC silage additivated with soybean meal (pH 4.9 and palm kernel cake (butyric acid = 0.07% DM differed, respectively, for pH and butyric acid, compared with in natura SC silage (pH = 4.1 and butyric acid = 0.03% DM. The addition of soybean meal, urea, cottonseed meal, wheat bran and palm kernel, increased crude protein (CP of in natura SC silage. The NDF in silage increased with addition of cottonseed meal or palm kernel cake (60.1 and 66.2% DM in relation in natura SC silage (42.9% DM. The in natura and additivated silages of SC were considered as good or excellent quality.

  13. Research note: The silage characteristics of two varieties of forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the dough stage the GS had higher neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents than FS (592g kg-1 and 379g kg-1 vs. 533g kg-1 and 339g kg-1 DM, respectively). In the silage harvested at milk stage, the pH of FS alone decreased most slowly, whereas at the dough stage the pH of the GS ...

  14. Crude glycerin combined with sugar cane silage in lamb diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Carlos Alberto Alves; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; da Silva, Camilla Flávia Portela Gomes; Cabral, Ícaro dos Santos; Pereira, Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro; dos Reis, Larissa Gomes; de Almeida, Flávio Moreira; Souza, Lígia Lins

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the level of crude glycerin (CG) on in vitro fermentation kinetics (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), on in vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation (0, 30, 60, and 90 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage), and intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance (0, 20, 55, 82, and 108 g/kg DM of sugar cane silage) in lambs. The in vitro trials were conducted in a completely randomized design with three repetitions. The in vivo trial was conducted in a Latin square design with five repetitions (5 × 5). For variables in which the F test was considered significant, the statistical interpretation of the effect of CG substitution levels was carried out through regression analyses. Kinetic parameters were not affected by CG inclusion. On in vitro NDF degradation, a significant effect of CG levels was observed on the potentially degradable fraction of NDF, the insoluble potentially degradable fraction of NDF, and the undegradable NDF fraction. The intake and digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance were not affected by CG inclusion. The CG levels change in vitro NDF degradability parameters; however, there were no changes in animal intake, digestibility, and nitrogen balance with the inclusion levels used.

  15. Sugar cane tip silage with cassava agroindustry residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odnei Francisco Gargantini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to determine the effects of adding levels of 0; 5; 10; 15 and 20% of cassava natural matter, peel dried in the sun or bran scan cassava over the nutritional value of sugarcane tip silage. To reach the proposal, 36 experimental silos were used. They were weighed at closing and after 60 days of fermentation, before opening to obtain the gas and effluent losses. Samples were collected for pH determination and chemical composition. Values of dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, mineral matter and total digestible nutrients were determined. There were differences between silages for all variables, except for crude protein when cassava peel or cassava bran scan was used. The pH values and effluent production were not affected by the use of the residues. However, the gas losses were lower when cassava peel was added. To improve the quality of sugar cane tip silage, it is recommended the use of cassava peel dried in the sun or cassava bran scan at the level of 20% in natural matter, upon ensilage.

  16. Emission of volatile organic compounds from silage: Compounds, sources, and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Sasha D.; Howard, Cody; Muck, Richard E.; Franco, Roberta B.; Montes, Felipe; Green, Peter G.; Mitloehner, Frank; Trabue, Steven L.; Rotz, C. Alan

    2013-10-01

    Silage, fermented cattle feed, has recently been identified as a significant source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) to the atmosphere. A small number of studies have measured VOC emission from silage, but not enough is known about the processes involved to accurately quantify emission rates and identify practices that could reduce emissions. Through a literature review, we have focused on identifying the most important compounds emitted from corn silage (the most common type of silage in the US) and the sources of these compounds by quantifying their production and emission potential in silage and describing production pathways. We reviewed measurements of VOC emission from silage and assessed the importance of individual silage VOCs through a quantitative analysis of VOC concentrations within silage. Measurements of VOC emission from silage and VOCs present within silage indicated that alcohols generally make the largest contribution to emission from corn silage, in terms of mass emitted and potential ozone formation. Ethanol is the dominant alcohol in corn silage; excluding acids, it makes up more than half of the mean mass of VOCs present. Acids, primarily acetic acid, may be important when emission is high and all VOCs are nearly depleted by emission. Aldehydes and esters, which are more volatile than acids and alcohols, are important when exposure is short, limiting emission of more abundant but less volatile compounds. Variability in silage VOC concentrations is very high; for most alcohols and acids, tolerance intervals indicate that 25% of silages have concentrations a factor of two away from median values, and possibly much further. This observation suggests that management practices can significantly influence VOC concentrations. Variability also makes prediction of emissions difficult. The most important acids, alcohols, and aldehydes present in silage are probably produced by bacteria (and, in the case of ethanol, yeasts) during fermentation and

  17. Factors affecting the cholesterol content of milk of cows fed conserved feeds in a TMR system throughout the year

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Strzałkowska; Artur Jóźwik; Emilia Bagnicka; Józef Krzyżewski; Ross G. Cooper; Jarosław Olav Horbańczuk

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cholesterol content in the milk of high yielding cows fed a uniform diet composed of conserved feeds over the whole year. The investigationswere conducted on 124 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, selected fromherd yielding 8457 kg milk with 4,58 % and 3,56 % of fat and protein content, respectively. The cows were maintained in a loose barn and fed ad libitum with TMR (total mixed ration) throughout the year. The diets consisted of corn silage ...

  18. Effects of adding urea on fermentation quality of pruned persimmon branch silage and its digestibility, preference, nitrogen balance and rumen fermentation in beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Zang, Yanqing; Lv, Renlong; Takahashi, Toshiyoshi; Yoshida, Norio; Yang, Huanmin

    2014-03-01

    Four cattle were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design experiment to study digestibility, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen retention and preference of ensiling pruned persimmon branch (PPB) chips treated with urea. After 60 days of ensiling, urea-treated PPB showed higher (P excretion as well as nitrogen retention in cattle fed urea-treated PPB were higher (P ruminal ammonia-N levels in cattle fed urea-treated PPB were higher (P ruminal pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and the acetic : propionic acid ratio of rumen content were unaffected by diets. The rank order of preference was rice straw > low-urea > no-urea > high-urea. The results suggested that urea treatment of PPB inhibited growth of mold and yeast during silage storage, enhanced its digestibility and had nutritive value almost equivalent to that of rice straw. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Browse silage as potential feed for captive wild ungulates in southern Africa: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanyisile R. Mbatha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the review was to assess the potential of indigenous browse trees as sustainable feed supplement in the form of silage for captive wild ungulates. Several attempts to use silage as feed in zoos in temperate regions have been conducted with success. Information on silage from the indigenous browse trees preferred by wild ungulates in southern Africa is scanty. The use of silage from the browse trees is of interest as it has potential to reduce or replace expensive feed sources (pellets, fruits and farm produce currently offered in southern African zoos, game farms and reserves, especially during the cold-dry season. Considerable leaf biomass from the indigenous browse trees can be produced for silage making. High nutrient content and minerals from indigenous browsable trees are highly recognised. Indigenous browse trees have low water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC that render them undesirable for fermentation. Techniques such as wilting browse leaves, mixing cereal crops with browse leaves, and use of additives such as urea and enzymes have been studied extensively to increase WSC of silage from the indigenous browse trees. Anti-nutritional factors from the indigenous browse preferred by the wild ungulates have also been studied extensively. Indigenous browse silages are a potential feed resource for the captive wild ungulates. If the browse trees are used to make silage, they are likely to improve performance of wild ungulates in captivity, especially during the cold-dry season when browse is scarce. Research is needed to assess the feasibility of sustainable production and the effective use of silage from indigenous browse trees in southern Africa. Improving intake and nutrient utilisation and reducing the concentrations of anti-nutritional compounds in silage from the indigenous browse trees of southern Africa should be the focus for animal nutrition research that need further investigation. Keywords: Anti-nutritional factors

  20. Substituting oat hay or maize silage for portion of alfalfa hay affects growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility of weaned calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yang; Zou, XinPing; Li, XiZhi; Guo, Gang; Ji, Peng; Wang, Yan; Li, ShengLi; Wang, YaJing; Cao, ZhiJun

    2018-01-01

    Objective The impact of forage feeding strategy on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in post-weaning calves was investigated. Methods Forty-five female Holstein calves (body weight [BW] = 79.79±0.38 kg) were enrolled in the 35-d study at one week after weaning and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. All diets were fed as total mixed ration containing 60% (dry matter [DM] basis) of basal starter feed and 40% (DM basis) of forage, but varied in composition of forage source including i) alfalfa (40% DM, AH); ii) alfalfa hay (26.7% DM)+oat hay (13.3% DM; OH); iii) alfalfa hay (26.7% DM)+corn silage (13.3% DM; WS). Results Dry matter intake was not different among treatment groups (p>0.05). However, BW (pcalves fed AH and OH were greater than WS-fed calves, whereas heart girth was greater in OH-fed calves than those fed AH and WS (pfeeding oat hay to postweaning calves increased crude protein digestibility (pcalves. PMID:28728373

  1. Effect of harvest time of red and white clover silage on chewing activity and particle size distribution in boli, rumen content and faeces in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornfelt, L F; Nørgaard, P; Weisbjerg, M R

    2013-06-01

    The study examined the effects of harvest time of red and white clover silage on eating and ruminating activity and particle size distribution in feed boli, rumen content and faeces in cows. The clover crops were harvested at two stages of growth and ensiled in bales. Red clover crops had 36% and 45% NDF in dry matter (DM) at early (ER) and late (LR) harvest, respectively, and the white clover crops had 19% and 29% NDF in DM at the early (EW) and late (LW) harvest, respectively. The silages were fed restrictively (80% of ad libitum intake) twice daily to four rumen cannulated non-lactating Jersey cows (588 ± 52 kg) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Jaw movements (JM) were recorded for 96 h continuously. Swallowed boli, rumen mat, rumen fluid and faeces samples were collected, washed in nylon bags (0.01 mm pore size) and freeze-dried before dry sieving through 4.750, 2.360, 1.000, 0.500, 0.212 and 0.106 mm into seven fractions. The length (PL) and width (PW) values of rumen and faeces particles within each fraction were measured by use of image analysis. The eating activity (min/kg DM intake; P values for white clover silage. The mean ruminating time (min/kg DM), daily ruminating cycles (P values at later harvest time. The proportion of washed particle DM of total DM in boli (P values of rumen mat and faeces, but only one peak (mode 1) for PL values. There was no difference in the mean and mode 1 PW and PL value in rumen mat between the four treatments. The mean PL, mode PL, mode 2 PW and mean PW in faeces were highest for LR (P value in faeces was found in LR (P values of rumen mat and faeces particles are most likely related to the leaves and the stems/petioles. In conclusion, the mean total chewing activity per kg DM was lowest for the white clover silage and increased for both silages due to later harvest time. The mean particle size in boli was smallest for LR, whereas the mean PL and PW in faeces were highest for the LR.

  2. Fermentative profile and bacterial diversity of corn silages inoculated with new tropical lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A O; Ávila, C L S; Pinto, J C; Carvalho, B F; Dias, D R; Schwan, R F

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of inoculation of strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from sugarcane grown in a Brazil on the quality of corn silage. Three strains of Lactobacillus buchneri (UFLA SLM11, UFLA SLM103 and UFLA SLM108), five strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (UFLA SLM08, UFLA SLM41, UFLA SLM45, UFLA SLM46 and UFLA SLM105), and one strain of Leuconostoc mesenteroides (UFLA SLM06) were evaluated at 0, 10, 30, 60 and 90 day after inoculating corn forage. The inoculation of the LAB strains did not influence the chemical composition of the silage, but pH, acetic acid and 1,2-propanediol were affected by treatment. The silages inoculated with UFLA SLM11 and SLM108 contained the lowest yeast and filamentous fungi counts during fermentation. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family, Clostridium genus were detected in the silages inoculated with Lact. buchneri UFLA SLM 11, 103 and 108, as shown by DGGE analysis. Silages inoculated with Lact. buchneri UFLA SLM 11 showed higher aerobic stability. The Lact. buchneri UFLA SLM11 strain was considered promising as a starter culture or inoculant for corn silages. The selection of microbial inoculants for each crop promotes improvement of silage quality. Studies on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of silage provide useful information for improving ensiling techniques. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Snijmaïs met beperkt kunstmest fosfaat = Silage maize with limited phosphate fertiliser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schooten, van H.A.; Riel, van J.W.

    2011-01-01

    In 2008 and 2010 field research was carried out on sandy soil with different forms of starter fertilisation in silage maize at different fertilisation levels of nitrogen and phosphate. No differences were found in yield and composition of the silage maize among the forms of starter fertilisation

  4. Nutritive value of maize silage in relation to dairy cow performance and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, Nazir A; Yu, Peiqiang; Ali, Mubarak; Cone, John W; Hendriks, Wouter H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298620936

    Maize silage has become the major forage component in the ration of dairy cows over the last few decades. This review provides information on the mean content and variability in chemical composition, fatty acid (FA) profile and ensiling quality of maize silages, and discusses the major factors which

  5. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled...

  6. Effects of N application on agronomic and environmental parameters in silage maize production on sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Neeteson, J.J.; Withagen, J.C.M.; Noy, I.G.A.M.

    1998-01-01

    The current nitrogen (N) use in silage maize production can lead to considerable N losses to the environment. Maize growers fear that a reduction of N inputs needed to minimize N losses might depress yields. The objective of this study was therefore to quantify: (1) the response of silage maize dry

  7. Effect of silage maize hybrid (dry down vs. stay green) on dairy cow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Schooten, van H.A.; Laar, van H.

    2008-01-01

    A randomized block design experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two contrasting silage maize hybrids (DD: dry down vs. SG: stay green) harvested at 33% dry matter (DM) on in situ degradation and dairy cow performance. Thirty-eight Red-HF cows were assigned to two silage treatments and

  8. Fermentation Characteristics and Lactic Acid Bacteria Succession of Total Mixed Ration Silages Formulated with Peach Pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Hu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the use of peach pomace in total mixed ration (TMR silages and clarify the differences in aerobic stability between TMR and TMR silages caused by lactic acid bacteria (LAB. The TMR were prepared using peach pomace, alfalfa hay or Leymus chinensis hay, maize meal, soybean meal, cotton meal, limestone, a vitamin-mineral supplement, and salt in a ratio of 6.0:34.0:44.4:7.0:5.0:2.5:1.0:0.1 on a dry matter (DM basis. Fermentation quality, microbial composition, and the predominant LAB were examined during ensiling and aerobic deterioration. The results indicated that the TMR silages with peach pomace were well fermented, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. The aerobic stability of TMR silages were significantly higher than that of TMR. Compared with TMR silages with alfalfa hay, TMR silage with Leymus chinensis hay was much more prone to deterioration. Although the dominant LAB were not identical in TMR, the same dominant species, Lactobacillus buchneri and Pediococcus acidilactici, were found in both types of TMR silages after 56 d of ensiling, and they may play an important role in the aerobic stability of TMR silages.

  9. Digestibilidade e absorção aparentes em vacas da raça holandesa alimentadas com palma forrageira (Opuntia ficus-indica mill em substituição à silagem de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench Apparent digestibility and absorption od holstein cows fed diets with forage cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica mill in replacement of sorghum silage (Sorghum bicolor (L. moench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulciene Karla Bezerra de Andrade

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito de quatro níveis (0, 12, 24 e 36% de palma forrageira em substituição à silagem de sorgo, na ração de vacas da raça holandesa em lactação, sobre a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, da matéria orgânica (DAMO, da proteína bruta (DAPB, do extrato etéreo (DAEE, da fibra em detergente neutro (DAFDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (DAFDA, dos carboidratos totais (DACHT e dos carboidratos não-fibrosos (DACNF, o teor de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT e os coeficientes de absorção aparente de cálcio (Ca, fósforo (P, potássio (K e sódio (Na. Foram utilizadas oito vacas, com peso médio de 590 kg e produção média de leite de 27 kg/dia, distribuídas em dois quadrados latinos simultâneos (4x4, sendo quatro animais, quatro períodos e quatro níveis de inclusão de palma na ração. A inclusão de palma forrageira na dieta influenciou a digestibilidade aparente de todos os nutrientes, sendo descrito por função quadrática. Foi possível estimar por intermédio desta função um teor máximo de NDT de 77,43% para utilização de 16,51% de palma na dieta. O aumento nos teores de CNF e a redução da FDN das rações foram responsáveis pelo comportamento quadrático na digestibilidade dos nutrientes. As absorções aparentes de Ca, P e Na foram influenciadas quadraticamente com o aumento dos níveis de palma na ração, enquanto o K aumentou linearmente. A relação Ca:P que proporcionou a melhor absorção desses elementos minerais foi de 1,9:1.It was evaluated the effect of four levels forage cactus in replacement of sorghum silage, in diets of lactating Holstein cows, on the apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, organic matter (ADOM, crude protein (ADCP, ether extract (ADEE, neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF and acid (ADADF, total carbohydrates (ADTCH and nonfiber carbohydrates (ADNFC, content of total digestible nutrients (TDN and apparent absorption of calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P

  10. Efeito do acipin sobre a degradabilidade e taxa de passagem de silagens de capim-elefante e de milho, em bovinos Holandês × Zebu Effect of acipin on the degradability and rate of passage of elephant-grass and corn silages in Holstein × Zebu cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. Henriques

    2004-12-01

    without acipin was lower as compared to elephantgrass silage with acipin and to corn silage with or without acipin, that were similar. The passage rates of the ruminal solids were higher in animals fed on corn silage, and the ruminal liquid passage rates were higher in animals fed on elephantgrass silage. The addition of acipin improved the degradability of DM, CP and NDF of elephantgrass silage.

  11. Silage fermentation and ruminal degradation of stylo prepared with lactic acid bacteria and cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Zi, Xuejuan; Cai, Yimin

    2017-10-01

    In order to improve the silage fermentation of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) in tropical areas, stylo silages were prepared with commercial additives Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso-1 (CH1), L. rhamnasus Snow Lact L (SN), Acremonium cellulase (CE) and their combination as SN+CE or CH1 + CE, and the fermentation quality, chemical composition and ruminal degradation of these silages were studied. Stylo silages treated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) or cellulase, the pH value and NH 3 -N ⁄ total-N were significantly (P fermentation and ruminal degradation than SN+CE treatment. The results confirmed that LAB or LAB plus cellulase treatment could improve the fermentation quality, chemical composition and ruminal degradation of stylo silage. Moreover, the combined treatment with LAB and cellulase may have beneficial synergistic effects on ruminal degradation. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Rumen fermentation characteristics, nitrogen balance and growth in lambs fed methane digester effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goedeken, F.K.; Paterson, J.A.; Koeln, L.L.; Fischer, J.R.; Williams, J.E.

    1985-06-01

    A laboratory silo trial, two lamb metabolism trials and a lamb growth trial were conducted to compare the nitrogen (N) value of swine methane digester effluent (MDE) to that of urea. Using laboratory silos (four/treatment), fermentation characteristics were measured for silages containing cracked corn, ground wheat straw and MDE added at levels of 0, 4, 8 or 12% of silage dry matter (DM). Lactic acid concentration increased linearly with up to 8% MDE addition, but then decreased with 12% MDE. Butyric acid was highest with 12% MDE, indicating an undesirable fermentation. In a metabolism study, DM, organic matter and N digestibilities and N balance were similar between urea and MDE, but DM digestibility was lower for ensiled diets (52%) than diets fed fresh daily (59.4%). Mean ruminal volatile fatty acid, ruminal ammonia-N and plasma urea-N concentrations were similar between urea- and MDE-fed lambs. Plasma urea-N was higher and ruminal isovaleric acid lower in animals fed ensiled than fresh diets. In the second metabolism trial, digestibility of N was lowest for MDE and highest for soybean meal, but N balance was similar among all diets.

  13. Fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of tanzania grass silage containing additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. A. F. Melo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of Tanzania grass silage containing additives. The following treatments were applied: silage without additive (SWA; silage treated with 2.17% limestones (SLS; silage treated with 2.17% urea (SUR, and silage treated with a combination of additives: 7.5% corn meal, 5.3% molasses powder, 1.1% urea and 1.1% limestone (SA1, and 10% corn meal, 2.93% molasses powder, 1.1% urea and 0.97% limestone (SA2. All silages containing additives exhibited a higher mean pH than SWA, but this did not negatively affect their fermentation quality. The titratable acidity of SWA (7.84 was higher than that of SUR (3.28, SLS (4.80, SA1 (3.30 and SA2 (3.80. The mean ammoniacal nitrogen was 10% lower in relation to total nitrogen in all silages, except for SUR, indicating a good fermentation profile. Effluent loss was lower for silages containing additives (P<0.005, with losses of 22.5, 12.1, 12.3 and 7.85 kg/t for SLS, SUR, SA1 and SA2, respectively, compared to SWA (46.1 kg/t. Dry matter content, total digestible nutrients and non-fibrous carbohydrates increased with inclusion of the additives, while neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose content decreased. Dry matter digestibility was higher in SA1 and SA2 (45.8% and 44.4%, respectively compared to the other silages, while SA2 did not differ from SWA (43.4%. The combination of chemical and organic additives had a positive synergistic effect to reduce effluent losses, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber and to increase dry matter digestibility, thus increasing nutrient availability. These silages therefore represent a good-quality final product.

  14. Effects of microbial enzymes on starch and hemicellulose degradation in total mixed ration silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Ning

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study investigated the association of enzyme-producing microbes and their enzymes with starch and hemicellulose degradation during fermentation of total mixed ration (TMR silage. Methods The TMRs were prepared with soybean curd residue, alfalfa hay (ATMR or Leymus chinensis hay (LTMR, corn meal, soybean meal, vitamin-mineral supplements, and salt at a ratio of 25:40:30:4:0.5:0.5 on a dry matter basis. Laboratory-scale bag silos were randomly opened after 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 56 days of ensiling and subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, carbohydrates loss, microbial amylase and hemicellulase activities, succession of dominant amylolytic or hemicellulolytic microbes, and their microbial and enzymatic properties. Results Both ATMR and LTMR silages were well preserved, with low pH and high lactic acid concentrations. In addition to the substantial loss of water soluble carbohydrates, loss of starch and hemicellulose was also observed in both TMR silages with prolonged ensiling. The microbial amylase activity remained detectable throughout the ensiling in both TMR silages, whereas the microbial hemicellulase activity progressively decreased until it was inactive at day 14 post-ensiling in both TMR silages. During the early stage of fermentation, the main amylase-producing microbes were Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (B. amyloliquefaciens, B. cereus, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis in ATMR silage and B. flexus, B. licheniformis, and Paenibacillus xylanexedens (P. xylanexedens in LTMR silage, whereas Enterococcus faecium was closely associated with starch hydrolysis at the later stage of fermentation in both TMR silages. B. amyloliquefaciens, B. licheniformis, and B. subtilis and B. licheniformis, B. pumilus, and P. xylanexedens were the main source of microbial hemicellulase during the early stage of fermentation in ATMR and LTMR silages, respectively. Conclusion The microbial amylase contributes to starch hydrolysis during the

  15. Utilization of Bioslurry on Maize Hydroponic Fodder as a Corn Silage Supplement on Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Production of Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. D. Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to study the effect of addition of 7% DM maize hydroponic fodder (MHF in corn silage on digestibility and milk production of dairy cows. The experiment used a completely randomized block design with two treatments, and four replications. The treatments were dairy cows fed with grass (Pennisetum purpureum, corn silage, and concentrate (R0, and dairy cows fed with grass (P. purpureum, corn silage, concentrate, and MHF (R1. This research used eight dairy cows with initial average milk production of 13.01±2.96 L/d. MHF was produced in a hydroponic system using bioslurry as a fertilizer enriched with mineral fertilizer. Variables observed were chemical composition of bioslurry, nutrient content of ration, daily dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, Total Digestible Nutrient (TDN, and Digestible Energy (DE. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, except for milk production using ANCOVA. Supplementation of MHF resulted a higher total dry matter intake on R1 than R0 (P<0.05, 12.99±0.063 kg/head/d, and 11.98±0.295 kg/head/d, respectively. The digestibility of nutrients were not affected by the addition of MHF. Energy consumption in R1 was also higher than R0 (P<0.05, 49.95±0.36 Mkal/kg, and 46.11±0.54 Mkal/kg, respectively. Supplementation of MHF also increased nitrogen consumption, R1 was higher than R0 (P<0.05, 318.3±2.3 g/head/d, and 295.9±3.5 g/head/d, respectively, and could maintain the persistency of milk production at the end of lactation. It can be concluded that supplementation of MHF in corn silage can increase dry matter intake, energy consumption, and nitrogen consumption, also can maintain nutrient digestibility and maintain persistency of milk production during late lactation of dairy cows.

  16. Growth and Survival of Genetically Manipulated Lactobacillus plantarum in Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R; O'donnell, A G; Gilbert, H G; Hazlewood, G P

    1992-08-01

    The growth and persistence of two genetically manipulated forms of Lactobacillus plantarum NCDO (National Collection of Dairy Organisms) 1193 have been monitored in grass silage. Both recombinants contained pSA3, a shuttle vector for gram-positive organisms that encodes erythromycin resistance. In one of the recombinants, pSA3 was integrated onto the chromosome, whereas in the other, a pSA3 derivative designated pM25, which contains a Clostridium thermocellum cellulase gene cloned into pSA3, was maintained as an extrachromosomal element. This extrachromosomal element is a plasmid. Rifampin-resistant mutants were selected for the recombinants and the parent strain. When applied to minisilos at a rate of 10 CFU/g of grass, both the recombinants and the parent strain proliferated to dominate the epiphytic microflora and induced an increase in the decline in pH compared with that of the noninoculated silos. The presence of extra genetic material did not appear to disadvantage the bacterium in comparison with the parent strain. The selective recovery of both strains by using rifampin and erythromycin was confirmed by Southern hybridization. Interestingly, the free plasmid (pM25) appeared more stable in silage than was expected from studies in MRS broth. The plasmid was retained by 85% of the rifampin-resistant L. plantarum colonies isolated from a day 30 silo. These data answer an important question by showing that genetically manipulated recombinants of L. plantarum can proliferate and compete with epiphytic lactic acid bacteria in silage.

  17. Effects of feeding brown midrib corn silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay on lactational performance of Holstein dairy cows for the first 180 days of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Eun, J-S; Thacker, C R; Young, A J; Dai, X; Nestor, K E

    2013-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to test a hypothesis that lactating dairy cows fed 35% brown midrib (BMR) corn silage and 25% alfalfa hay (dry matter (DM) basis) would consume more DM around peak lactation compared with those fed conventional corn silage (CS), resulting in longer peak milk production. Twenty-eight multiparous Holstein cows were used starting at the onset of lactation through 180 d in milk (DIM). Treatments were formulated to maintain a forage-to-concentrate ratio of 60:40, differing only in the CS hybrids used. Two dietary treatments were assessed in a completely randomized design: total mixed ration based on conventional CS (CCS) and total mixed ration based on BMR silage. Through peak lactation (1-60 DIM), DM intake was not different between dietary treatments, whereas DM intake post-peak lactation (61-180 DIM) tended to increase by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (25.8 vs. 24.7 kg/d). Cows fed the BMR diet tended to lose less body weight through peak lactation compared with those fed the CCS diet (-0.22 vs. -0.52 kg/d). Although milk yield was not different between dietary treatments through peak lactation, milk yield post-peak lactation increased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet (41.0 vs. 38.8 kg/d). Yield of 3.5% fat-corrected milk was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (41.4 kg/d, on average), but milk fat concentration decreased by feeding the BMR diet compared with the CCS diet post-peak lactation (3.47 vs. 3.80%). Overall milk protein concentration was similar between dietary treatments throughout the experiment (2.96%, on average), whereas milk protein yield tended to be higher for the BMR diet post-peak lactation compared with the CCS diet (1.19 vs.1.13 kg/d). Feeding BMR silage with a high dietary concentration of alfalfa hay maintained more body weight, but did not affect milk production through peak lactation; however, cows fed the BMR diet post-peak lactation consumed more

  18. Comparison of Chemical and Degradability Characteristics of Green Forage and Silage of Sorghums Varieties with Corn Using In vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hedayatipour

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and fermentative parameters of three fresh forages and silages of sorghum including Sweet, Pegah and Speedfeed varieties were compared with corn using in vitro method, also degradability coefficients of forages and silages were determined by in situ method. Forages were planted in the same condition and harvested in soft dough stage, then ensilaged in four replicates for each time of 30, 60 and 90 days of preservation in mini silos. Buffering capacity in green Sweet sorghum was lower than corn and Speedfeed, and acid detergent fiber and water soluble carbohydrates respectively were significantly highest and lowest in fresh forage of Speedfeed sorghum. In time of 60 days, percent of acid detergent lignin of corn silage was lower than Sweet and Speedfeed sorghum silages; similarly, residual water soluble carbohydrate was lowest in corn silage. The lactate Concentration in corn and Pegah sorghums was higher than Sweet and Speedfeed silages. In corn and Sweet sorghum silages, Contents of acetic acid and ammonium nitrogen were highest and lowest, respectively. In nylon bag experiment, Degradation rate of corn and Pegah sorghum forages were significantly higher than Sweet and Speedfeed sorghums that cause to more effective degradability with passage rate of 0.08 in this forages. Also, the slowly degradation coefficient of corn silage was higher than sorghums silages. In conclusion, Speedfeed sorghum forage is not suitable for making silage in comparison others, and corn silage had more potential of degradability.

  19. Doubly fed induction machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2005-10-11

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load including an energy converter device having a doubly fed induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer coupled to the energy converter device to control the flow of power or energy through the doubly fed induction machine.

  20. Adaptation of Methanogenic Inocula to Anaerobic Digestion of Maize Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Wojcieszak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A well-balanced microbial consortium is crucial for efficient biogas production. In turn, one of a major factor that influence on the structure of anaerobic digestion (AD consortium is a source of microorganisms which are used as an inoculum. This study evaluated the influence of inoculum sources (with various origin on adaptation of a biogas community and the efficiency of the biomethanization of maize silage. As initial inocula for AD of maize silage the samples from: (i an agricultural biogas plant (ABP which utilizes maize silage as a main substrate, (ii cattle slurry (CS, which contain elevated levels of lignocelluloses materials, and (iii raw sewage sludge (RSS with low content of plant origin materials were used. The adaptation of methanogenic consortia was monitored during a series of passages, and the functionality of the adapted consortia was verified through start-up operation of AD in two-stage reactors. During the first stages of the adaptation phase, methanogenic consortia occurred very slowly, and only after several passages did the microbial community adapts to allow production of biogas with high methane content. The ABP consortium revealed highest biogas production in the adaptation and in the start-up process. The biodiversity dynamics monitored during adaptation and start-up process showed that community profile changed in a similar direction in three studied consortia. Native communities were very distinct to each other, while at the end of the Phase II of the start-up process microbial diversity profile was similar in all consortia. All adopted bacterial communities were dominated by representatives of Porphyromonadaceae, Rikenellaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Synergistaceae. A shift from low acetate-preferring acetoclastic Methanosaetaceae (ABP and RSS and/or hydrogenotrophic Archaea, e.g., Methanomicrobiaceae (CS prevailing in the inoculum samples to larger populations of high acetate-preferring acetoclastic

  1. Growth and Survival of Genetically Manipulated Lactobacillus plantarum in Silage

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, R.; O'Donnell, A. G.; Gilbert, H. G.; Hazlewood, G. P.

    1992-01-01

    The growth and persistence of two genetically manipulated forms of Lactobacillus plantarum NCDO (National Collection of Dairy Organisms) 1193 have been monitored in grass silage. Both recombinants contained pSA3, a shuttle vector for gram-positive organisms that encodes erythromycin resistance. In one of the recombinants, pSA3 was integrated onto the chromosome, whereas in the other, a pSA3 derivative designated pM25, which contains a Clostridium thermocellum cellulase gene cloned into pSA3, ...

  2. Co-digestion of ley crop silage, straw and manure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordberg, Aa.; Edstroem, M. [Swedish Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-08-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of ley crop silage, wheat straw and liquid manure with liquid recirculation was investigated in laboratory- and pilot scale. An organic loading rate of 6.0 g Vs L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when 20% of liquid manure (TS-basis) was added, whereas an organic loading rate of 2.5 g VS L{sup -1} d{sup -1} was obtained when the manure was replaced with a trace element solution. The methane yield varied between 0.28 and 0.32 L g VS{sup -1}, with the value being lowest for a mixture containing 60% silage, 20% straw and 20% manure (TS-basis), and highest for 100% ley crop silage. The concentration of ammonia-N was maintained at ca 2 g L{sup -1} by adjusting the C:N-ratio with straw. To achieve good mixing characteristics with a reasonable energy input at TS-concentrations around 10%, the particle sizes of straw and silage had to be reduced with a meat mincer. The digester effluent was dewatered, resulting in a solid phase that could be composted without having to add amendments or bulking agents, and a liquid phase containing 7-8% TS (mainly soluble and suspended solids). The liquid phase, which should be used as an organic fertilizer, contained up to 90% of the N and 74% of the P present in the residues. Calculations of the costs for a full-scale plant showed that a biogas price of SEK 0.125 MJ{sup -1} (0.45 k Wh{sup -1}) is necessary to balance the costs of a 1-MW plant. An increase in plant size to 4 MW together with an increase in compost price from SEK 100 tonnes{sup -1} to SEK 370 tonnes{sup -1} and a 20% rise in the methane yield through post-digestion (20%) would decrease the price to SEK 0.061 MJ{sup -1} (0.22 kWh{sup -1}). (au) 15 refs.

  3. Effect of rice straw silage treated with rumen microbes of buffalo on digestibility and ecosystem of cattle rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalib A

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of rice straw silage with addition of buffalo rumen microbes was conducted to improve the ruminal digestion of rice straw in ongole cattle. Three fistulated cattles were each introduced to dietary treatment: I. Untreated rice straw (JPTP, II. Rice straw ensilaged with buffalo rumen microbes (SJPMR-Kr, and ID. Elephant grass (RG. All diets were formulated isonitrogeneous (14% crude protein and fed to animals over a period of 4 weeks. After 4 weeks of feeding trial, rwnen fluid of the animals were evaluated to digest its own basal diet (as substrate. The results show that cumulative gas production resulting from the substrate fermented (96 hours by rumen fluid from cattle fed diet II is 205% of the diet I and 151 % of the diet ID. Measurements of DMD of the substrates after the gas production procedure show the similar trend (ie. DM digestibilities for JPTP= 33%; SJPMR-Kr= 54% dan RG= 45%. Means of in sacco DMD (72 hours incubation confirm the results of gas production (ie. in sacco DM Digestibilities for JPTP= 35%; SJPMR-Kr= 44% and RG= 39%. All results described between treatments are highly significant different (P0.05, except for total VFA (ie. JPTP= 0.52 mg Inri; SJPMR-Kr= 3,37 mg Inri and RG= 3.15 mg Inri.

  4. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solli, Linn; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New results from continuous anaerobic co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM). • Co-digestion of FWS and CM has a high biogas potential. • Optimal mixing ratio of FWS/CM is 13–16/87–84 volume%. • High input of FWS leads to accumulation of NH4+ and VFAs and process failure. - Abstract: This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8 L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37 °C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% – 6% – 13% – 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FWS and CM was 0.400 L CH4 gVS −1 , obtained during the period with loading of 16% FWS in R2. Compared to anaerobic digestion of CM only, the methane production was increased by 100% at most, when FWS was added to the feed stock. The biogas processes failed in R1 and R2 during the periods, with loadings of 16% and 19% FWS, respectively. In both reactors, the biogas processes failed due to overloading and accumulation of ammonia and volatile fatty acids

  5. Dynamics Associated with Prolonged Ensiling and Aerobic Deterioration of Total Mixed Ration Silage Containing Whole Crop Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huili Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the dynamics associated with prolonged ensiling and aerobic deterioration of whole crop corn (WCC silages and total mixed ration (TMR silages containing WCC (C-TMR silages to clarify the differences that account for the enhanced aerobic stability of TMR silages. Laboratory-scale barrel silos were randomly opened after 7, 14, 28, and 56 d of ensiling and were subjected to analyses of fermentation quality, microbial and temperature dynamics during aerobic exposure. WCC and C-TMR silages were both well preserved and microorganisms were inhibited with prolonged ensiling, including lactic acid bacteria. Yeast were inhibited to below the detection limit of 500 cfu/g fresh matter within 28 d of ensiling. Aerobic stability of both silages was enhanced with prolonged ensiling, whereas C-TMR silages were more aerobically stable than WCC silages for the same ensiling period. Besides the high moisture content, the weak aerobic stability of WCC silage is likely attributable to the higher lactic acid content and yeast count, which result from the high water-soluble carbohydrates content in WCC. After silo opening, yeast were the first to propagate and the increase in yeast levels is greater than that of other microorganisms in silages before deterioration. Besides, increased levels of aerobic bacteria were also detected before heating of WCC silages. The temperature dynamics also indicated that yeast are closely associated with the onset of the aerobic deterioration of C-TMR silage, whereas for WCC silages, besides yeast, aerobic bacteria also function in the aerobic deterioration. Therefore, the inclusion of WCC might contribute to the survival of yeast during ensiling but not influence the role of yeast in deterioration of C-TMR silages.

  6. Effect of fibrolytic enzymes on the fermentation characteristics, aerobic stability, and digestibility of bermudagrass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, D B; Adesogan, A T; Krueger, N; Littell, R C

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the nutritive value and aerobic stability of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) silage could be improved by addition of proprietary, exogenous cellulase/hemicellulase enzyme preparations at ensiling. A 5-wk regrowth of Tifton 85 bermudagrass was conserved without treatment (control) or after treatment with exogenous fibrolytic enzymes including Promote NET (Pr), Biocellulase X-20 (X20), Biocellulase A-20 (A20), and Enzyme CT. The respective enzymes were applied at half the recommended rate, the recommended rate, or twice the recommended rate corresponding to 0.65, 1.3, and 2.6 g/kg of DM, 7.3, 14.5, and 29 mg/kg of DM, at 7.3, 14.4, and 29 mg/kg of DM, and 89, 178, and 356 mg/kg of DM, for Pr, X20, A20, and CT, respectively. The enzymes were sprayed on the bermudagrass at ensiling (not added at feeding as suggested by the manufacturers) to test the objectives of the study. Six 1-kg replicates of chopped (5 cm) forage were ensiled for 145 d in 2.8-L mini silos. Three silos per treatment were used for chemical analysis and 3 for aerobic stability monitoring. The silage juice was analyzed for organic acids, pH, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), ammonia-N, and soluble N. Freeze-dried samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and acid detergent fiber (ADF). In vitro digestibility of DM (IVDMD), NDF (IVNDFD), and ADF (IVADFD) were determined after digesting the silages in buffered rumen fluid for 6 or 48 h in 2 ANKOM(II) Daisy Incubators. Compared with the other silages, those treated with Pr had lower DM losses, and lower pH and ammonia-N concentration than control silages. Residual WSC concentration was greater in Pr- and CT-treated silages than in control silages and greater in Pr-treated silages than CT-treated silages. Compared with control silages, NDF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and CT, and ADF concentration was lower in silages treated with Pr, X20, and A20

  7. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Wilted and Additive-Treated Grass Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, TM; Tham, WA

    2003-01-01

    Grass was field-dried to 3 different dry matter (DM) levels (200, 430 and 540 g/kg) and inoculated with 106–107 cfu/g of a Listeria monocytogenes strain sharing a phagovar occasionally involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Formic acid (3 ml/kg) or lactic acid bacteria (8·105/g) with cellulolytic enzymes were applied only to forages with low and intermediate DM levels. Forages were ensiled in laboratory silos (1700 ml) and were stored at 25°C for 30 or 90 days. After 90 days of storage, L. monocytogenes could not be detected in any silo, except one with the high dry matter grass without additive. After 30 days of storage, between 102 and 106 cfu L. monocytogenes/g silage were isolated from the untreated silages. Increasing the DM content from 200 to 540 g/kg did not reduce listeria counts possibly because of the lower production of fermentation acids (higher pH). In silages treated with additives, counts of L. monocytogenes were always lower than in silages without additive. In wet silages (DM 200 g/kg) both additives were effective, but in the wilted silages (DM 430 g/kg) only the bacterial additive reduced listeria counts below detection level. Listeria counts were highly correlated to silage pH (r = 0.92), the concentration of lactic acid (r = -0.80) and the pooled amount of undissociated acids (r = -0.83). PMID:14650546

  8. NUTRITIVE VALUE OF SILAGE OF PIATÃ GRASS MONOCROP AND INTERCROPING WITH SORGHUM FOR FORAGE AND GRAZING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia da Cruz Quintino

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the time of cutting on the nutritive value of Piatã silage grass in monocrop and intercropping with sorghum for cutting and grazing. We used a randomized block design with four replications. Treatments were arranged in a split plot design, with systems as plots (Piata grass, sorghum for cutting and grazing, and intercropping, cutting ages as sublots (70, 90, and 110 days after sowing. The minisilos were opened at 46 days to evaluate silage crude protein (CP, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total digestible nutrients (TDN, ammonia nitrogen, lignin, and pH. We observed significant interaction between system and age on the variables CP, ADF, NDF, lignin and pH. With the advancement of age, there was a linear reduction in crude protein content of 0.12, 0.08, and 0.16 percentage units for each day after sowing in sorghum silage, sorghum grass and grass + Piata, respectively. There was a linear increase in the pH value of sorghum silage + grass due to the advancement of age of 0.03 units for each day after sowing. In sorghum silage and monocrop grass, the pH did not vary with the cutting age, with values of 4.63 and 5.20, respectively. Sorghum systems showed potential for the production of good quality silage at 70 days of age. Keywords: cutting age; minisilo; silage; tropical grass.

  9. Nutritional value of grass silage of mombasa associated with additives agroindustrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to evaluate the chemical composition of grass silage-mombasa associated with different additives in four times of opening the silo. The experiment was conducted in UFGD. After harvesting the forage, biomass in natura crushed, was taken to the lab, homogenized and enriched on the basis of natural mass, with the following additives: 5% wheat bran, 5% of waste (broken grain and soy ice cream cone of soybean, 5% urea in natural matter and the witness (without additive.The silos were opened after (unprocessed material, 15, 30 and 45 days, for the analysis of chemical composition. The data obtained were analyzed through the statistical programme SISVAR and averages were compared to 5% of probability, by Skott-Knot. The grass silage- mombasa without additive presented major (P0.05 of grass silage- mombasa associated with 5 of urea in 15 days and 45 of silage. The grass silage-mombasa with 5% urea showed the highest crude protein content at time 0 and differed from other treatments. The silage of mombasa associated with 5% urea provided greater in vitro digestibility of dry matter to 15 days of silage.

  10. Wasted cabbage (Brassica oleracea silages treated with different levels of ground corn andsilage inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauton Vilela de Rezende

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to evaluate the chemical composition, fermentation profile, and aerobic stability of cabbage silages treated with ground corn and inoculant. The evaluated treatments were: addition of 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 g of ground corn per kilogram of cabbage (fresh matter basis, with or without a bacterial inoculant composed of Lactobacillus plantarumand Pediococcus pentosaceus. As expected, ground corn additions increased the dry matter (DM content of cabbage silage, and high values were observed for the highest level of addition (540 g kg−1. Conversely, the crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin contents decreased with ground corn additions. The in vitro dry matter digestibility coefficients increased slightly with ground corn additions, but all cabbage silages had digestibility higher than 740 g kg−1 of DM. In the fermentation process, the pH values of cabbage silages increased linearly because of the high levels of ground corn addition. Cabbage ensiled with 200 and 300 g kg−1 of ground corn had high ammonia N production and fermentative losses (effluent and gas. Cabbage silage treated with 600 g kg−1 of ground corn had lower maximum pH values during aerobic exposure, but all silages had constant temperature during aerobic exposure. The ensiling of wasted cabbage is possible and we recommend the application of 400 g kg−1ground corn to improve the silage quality, whereas the use of the inoculant is unnecessary.

  11. Fermentation Characteristics and Microbial Diversity of Tropical Grass-legumes Silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roni Ridwan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Calliandra calothyrsus preserved in silage is an alternative method for improving the crude protein content of feeds for sustainable ruminant production. The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of silage which contained different levels of C. calothyrsus by examining the fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity. Silage was made in a completely randomized design consisting of five treatments with three replications i.e.: R0, Pennisetum purpureum 100%; R1, P. purpureum 75%+C. calothyrsus 25%;, R2, P. purpureum 50%+C. calothyrsus 50%; R3, P. purpureum 25%+C. calothyrsus 75%; and R4, C. calothyrsus 100%. All silages were prepared using plastic jar silos (600 g and incubated at room temperature for 30 days. Silages were analyzed for fermentation characteristics and microbial diversity. Increased levels of C. calothyrsus in silage had a significant effect (p<0.01 on the fermentation characteristics. The microbial diversity index decreased and activity was inhibited with increasing levels of C. calothyrsus. The microbial community indicated that there was a population of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. casei, L. brevis, Lactococcus lactis, Chryseobacterium sp., and uncultured bacteria. The result confirmed that silage with a combination of grass and C. calothyrsus had good fermentation characteristics and microbial communities were dominated by L. plantarum.

  12. Co-Digestion of Sugar Beet Silage Increases Biogas Yield from Fibrous Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einfalt, Daniel; Kazda, Marian

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the easily degradable carbohydrates of the sugar beet silage (S) will improve the anaerobic digestion of grass silage (G) more profoundly compared to co-digestion of sugar beet silage with maize silage (M). M : S and G : S mixtures were tested in two continuous laboratory-scale AD experiments at volatile solid ratios of 1 : 0, 6 : 1, 3 : 1, and 1 : 3 at organic loading rates of 1.5 kgVS m−3 day−1. While the sugar beet effects in mixtures with maize silage were negligible, co-digestion with grass silage showed a beneficial performance. There, the specific methane production rate was 0.27 lN kg−1VS h−1at G : S ratio of 6 : 1 compared to G : S 1 : 0 with 0.14 lN kg−1VS h−1. In comparison to G : S 1 : 0, about 44% and 62% higher biogas yields were obtained at G : S 6 : 1 and 3 : 1, respectively. Also, the highest methane concentration was found in G : S at ratio of 1 : 3. Synergistic increase of methane yield was found in co-digestion in both experiments, but higher effect was realized in G : S, independently of the amount of sugar beet silage. The findings of this study emphasize the improvement of AD of grass silage by even low addition of sugar beet silage. PMID:27807538

  13. Use of additives and pre-wilting in Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Abbado Neres

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of tropical grasses silage has become common in ruminant feed. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics, nutritional value, pH, fermentative capacity, ammonia nitrogen / total nitrogen (NH3N/total N of Tifton 85 bermudagrass grass silage with different additives and wilting. The treatments were: pre-drying in the sun for two hours before silage, use of inoculant-enzymatic addition of soybean hulls, corn grits addition and use of salt in the surface layer of the silo. The experimental design was completely randomized with 6 treatments and 4 replications. Plants of Tifton 85 bermudagrass with 38 days of growth were ensiled in experimental silos with Bunsen valve type with packing densities of 236 kg of silage per m³ for Tifton 85 bermudagrass pre-dried in the sun and 294 kg of silage per m³ for the other treatments. The proportions of soybean hulls and corn grits added to the silage were calculated based on the initial DM content of Tifton 85 bermudagrass order to obtain MS 320 g kg-1 for the material to be ensiled. The buffering capacity did not differ between treatments in getting 29.56 (meqHCl/100gMS. It was found that the concentration of ammonia nitrogen did not differ between silages and remained low (3.22 g kg-1, the pH after silo opening was also similar with an average of 4.09 getting above 4.2 only in Tifton 85 bermudagrass silage without pre-treatment. The crude protein was higher in silages Tifton 85 bermudagrass and Tifton 85 bermudagrass with soybean hulls (17.48 g kg-1. The use corn grits caused a reduction in the values of NDF. The use of salt on the surface the layer reduced the production of latic and acetic acid.

  14. Biogenic amines and mycotoxins concentrations in baled silage from organic and conventional farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jovaišienė

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of the current study was to investigate biogenic amines and mycotoxins concentrations in baled silage (mainly Poaceae family grasses prepared in organic and conventional farms and to relate these parameters to fermentative parameters. The mean dry matter (DM content was 364.10±93.31 and 424.70±95.93g/kg in the silage from organic and conventional farms respectively. The silage samples from organic farms had 17.00% higher (P≤ 0.05 tyramine (TY than the silage from conventional farms. Conventional farm samples were characterized by 46.00% higher histamine (HIS (P≤ 0.05, 9.80% higher putrescine (PUT (P≤ 0.05, 17.30% higher cadaverine (CAD (P≤ 0.05. Aflatoxins (AFL (total and zearalenone (ZEN, T-2/HT-2 concentrations were higher respectively 16.00% (P≤ 0.05 and 13.40% (P≤ 0.05, 1.80% (P≤ 0.05 in the silage prepared in organic farms. Deoxynivalenol (DON concentration was higher 42.40% (P≤ 0.05 in silage from conventional farms. Volatile fatty acids (VFA, lactic acid, ethanol, pH and ammonia nitrogen showed that the silage samples from organic and conventional farms were of good quality. Our study suggests differences in biogenic amine formation or mycotoxins content in silage from organic and conventional farming, but, overall, the measured values are too low to be relevant for animal health. Furthermore, these differences might as well be due to the difference in dry matter content and plant maturity between the organic and conventional silage samples.

  15. Fermentative characteristics of coffee pulp silage with different proportions of coffee hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adauto Ferreira Barcelos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and fermentation characteristics of the coffee pulp silages with different proportions of coffee hulls. The material was ensiled in PVC with 150 mm diameter by 750 mm high, according to the treatments: coffee pulp (CoP, CoP + 20% of coffee hulls (CH, CoP + 40% of CH and CoP + 60% CH in a completely randomized design with six replications. The silos were opened 60 days after closing, when samples were taken for determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, lignin, cellulose, pH, N-NH3, caffeine, calcium (Ca, phosphorus (P and in vitro digestibility of dry matter. We also determined gas production and effluent. There was a linear increase in DM content and pH, and a linear decrease of CP, NDF and ADF, lignin, cellulose, caffeine, Ca and P. This reduction occurs because the coffee hulls have lower levels than pulp to CP, NDF, ADF, caffeine, Ca and P. There was also a linear reduction in N-NH3 values, and only the highest percentage of silage with coffee hulls obtained below 10%, considered as the limit for good quality silage. Effluent production was higher for silage shelled coffee pulp and do not get any production in silage with 60% coffee hull. There was no significant difference in vitro digestibility of dry matter among treatments. The coffee hulls was effective in increasing DM content of CoP silage and to reduce NDF, ADF, N-NH3, providing nutritional value of silage satisfactory for cattle feed, creating an alternative for recovery of such waste. When considering the DM content found in silages, the amount of bark best coffee to be added to coffee pulp for the production of silage is between 30% and 35%.

  16. Effects of absorbens supplementation on the fermentation quality of brewers' grains silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Doležal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the experiment was the effect of absorbens supplementation on the fermentation quality of brewers´ grains silage by comparing with the untreated control. As effective substance of experimental groups were barleygroats and malt sprouts. The addition of malt sprouts „B“ and barleygroats „C“ in our experiment conditions increased statistically significantly (P<0.01 the content of DM in silage. The addition of malt sprouts decreased pH value in experimental silage (4.29±0.007 in comparison with control silage (4.43±0.049. The malt sprouts increased significantly (P<0.01 the contents of lactic acid (67.15±2.796 g/kg DM, sum of acids (84.30±2.97 g/kg DM and decreased (P<0.01 in the trial the ethanol content (0.51±0.102 g/kg DM and acetic acid content (17.15±0.227 g/kg DM. Silage with malt sprouts has the highest (P<0.01 ammonia content from all silages in trial (966,67±33,33 mg/kg DM. The use of absorbens inhibited significantly (P<0.01 in comparison with control silage (without absorbens the content of propionic and butyric acid production. Brewers´grain silage with malt sprouts and barleygroats addition were free of butyric and propionic acid, but had higher lactic acid content. These results indicate that malt sprouts addition in the ensiling process may improve the fermentation quality of the brewers´grain silage.

  17. FERMENTATION QUALITY OF KING GRASS SILAGE TREATED WITH LIQUID OR DRIED INOCULANT OF LACTIC ACID BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritive value and fermentation characteristic of king grass silage treated with addition of liquid or dried lactic acid bacteria (LAB inoculant. Experiment was arranged to a completely randomized design with four treatments and three replications. Four treatments as follows (A king grass without LAB inoculant as the control; (B king grass + 30 ml of liquid of epiphytic LAB inoculant/kg of fresh forage; (C king grass + 30 g of freeze-dried powder of LAB inoculant/kg of fresh forage; (D king grass + 30 g of centrifuged powder of LAB inoculant/kg of fresh forage. The liquid LAB inoculant was sprayed on the top of grass and then mannualy mixed by hand. The intial LAB concentration in all inoculants were 1.0 × 106 cfu/g. About 500 g of silage materials were ensiled into plastic silos and stored at room temperatures (approximately 28oC for 30 days. Results showed that pH value, concentrations of lactic acid, N-amonia (NH3-N, butyric acid and total volatile fatty acids (VFA as well as Fleigh Point were affected by treatment of LAB inoculant. Silage treated with liquid or dried of LAB inoculant had lower (P<0.01 pH value compared to the control silage. Concentrations of NH3-N and butyric acid significantly decreased (P<0.01 in silage treated with LAB inoculants. Silage treated with centrifuged powder of LAB inoculant had the highest (P<0.05 Fleigh Point than other silage. In vitro neutral detergent fiber (NDF digestibility was significantly higher (P<0.05 in silage treated with LAB inoculant compared to the control silage.

  18. Biogas from grass silage - Measurements and modeling with ADM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Konrad; Lübken, Manfred; Gehring, Tito; Wichern, Marc; Horn, Harald

    2010-11-01

    Mono fermentation of grass silage without the addition of manure was performed over a period of 345days under mesophilic conditions (38 degrees C). A simulation study based on the IWA Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) was done in order to show its applicability to lignocellulosic biomass. Therefore, the influent was fractioned by established fodder analysis (Weender analysis and van Soest method). ADM1 was modified with a separate compound of inert decay products similar to the approach of Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1). Furthermore, a function, which described the influence of solids on the process of hydrolysis, has been integrated to reproduce reliable ammonium concentrations. The model was calibrated by using the modified Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient to evaluate simulation quality. It was possible to fit observed data by changing only hydrogen inhibition constants and the maximum acetate uptake rate. The extended ADM1 model showed good agreement with measurements and was suitable for modeling anaerobic digestion of grass silage. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical properties and fermentation profile of maize silage on large farms in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Zurak

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize silage is the main forage for ruminant livestock in Croatia. Production of substances determines quality of ensiling during the process and, therefore, has an impact on nutritive value, consumption, and health of cattle. Since in Croatia there is no systematic research of ensiling quality, this study aimed to determine quality parameters values of maize silage from large farms in continental Croatia during the spring of 2016. In total 33 samples of maize silage were representatively sampled by taking silage from the entire cross-section of the silo. Selected quality parameters included dry matter (DM and ash contents, pH and titratable acidity, water holding capacity, particle size of the whole silage and separated grains, and aroma according to the "Sil-All for corn silage" (Danstar Ferment Ag, Switzerland. Nearly half of the analyzed samples had DM content outside the optimal range (300 – 400 g*kg-1. The pH value of silages was within the optimal range (3.5 – 4.2 which indicated that the active phase of ensiling was properly done. However, two-thirds of samples had an undesirable aroma which indicated changes of fermentation products occurred during the stable phase. Titratable acidity of tested silages, with a range from 11.61 to 128.93 meqv. NaOH*100 g-1 DM, indicated their different buffering properties in the rumen. Water holding capacity varied from 4.4 to 8.57 g*g-1 DM and this range implied variable fiber content in analyzed samples. Grain content in silages ranged from 23.86 to 45.05% whereas its geometric particle size was in a range from 2.15 to 4.3 mm. When considering particle distribution of whole silage on PSPS (Penn State Forage Particle Separator sieves, a half or more than half samples had content on individual sieves outside the optimal ranges. In conclusion, maize silages on large dairy and fattening farms in continental Croatia are very variable in quality and, in many parameters, of lower quality than the

  20. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  1. Potential Water Retention Capacity as a Factor in Silage Effluent Control: Experiments with High Moisture By-product Feedstuffs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okine Abdul Razak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of moisture absorptive capacity of pre-silage material and its relationship with silage effluent in high moisture by-product feedstuffs (HMBF is assessed. The term water retention capacity which is sometimes used in explaining the rate of effluent control in ensilage may be inadequate, since it accounts exclusively for the capacity of an absorbent incorporated into a pre-silage material prior to ensiling, without consideration to how much the pre-silage material can release. A new terminology, ‘potential water retention capacity’ (PWRC, which attempts to address this shortcoming, is proposed. Data were pooled from a series of experiments conducted separately over a period of five years using laboratory silos with four categories of agro by-products (n = 27 with differing moisture contents (highest 96.9%, lowest 78.1% in fresh matter, respectively, and their silages (n = 81. These were from a vegetable source (Daikon, Raphanus sativus, a root tuber source (potato pulp, a fruit source (apple pomace and a cereal source (brewer’s grain, respectively. The pre-silage materials were adjusted with dry in-silo absorbents consisting wheat straw, wheat or rice bran, beet pulp and bean stalks. The pooled mean for the moisture contents of all pre-silage materials was 78.3% (±10.3. Silage effluent decreased (p<0.01, with increase in PWRC of pre-silage material. The theoretical moisture content and PWRC of pre-silage material necessary to stem effluent flow completely in HMBF silage was 69.1% and 82.9 g/100 g in fresh matter, respectively. The high correlation (r = 0.76 between PWRC of ensiled material and silage effluent indicated that the latter is an important factor in silage-effluent relationship.

  2. Silage feed advice for pig farmers: Farmers Weekly report on ICOPP feeding trial at FAI Farms

    OpenAIRE

    Clements, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    A trial is conducted at FAI Farms, as part of the Core Organic II ICOPP project, to assess the use of alternative sources of protein (peas and beans) as part of a lucerne-silage based ration for pigs.

  3. Silage quality of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars ensiled with different levels of millet meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A.P Costa

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The silage quality of Brachiaria brizantha cultivars ensiled with different levels of millet meal was evaluated. The experimental design was a completely randomized with three replications in a factorial 3 x 4, with three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha: marandu, xaraés, and piatã and four levels of millet meal 0, 5, 10, and 15%. The addition of millet meal improved the quality of B. brizantha silage. The inclusion of the additive at 15% provided the best nutritional values. The piatã silage had the lowest contents of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, and lignin and the highest content of total digestible nutrients, being a better quality silage as compared to those of xaraés and marandu grasses.

  4. Trichoderma longibrachiatum acetyl xylan esterase 1 enhances hemicellulolytic preparations to degrade corn silage polysaccharides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumüller, K.G.; Streekstra, H.; Gruppen, H.; Schols, H.A.

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation of a Trichoderma longibrachiatum preparation to an industrial Aspergillus niger/Talaromyces emersonii enzyme mixture demonstrated synergy for the saccharification of corn silage water-unextractable solids (WUS). Sub-fractions of the crude T. longibrachiatum preparation obtained after

  5. A new nordic structure evaluation system for diets fed to dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Peder; Nadeau, E.; Randby, Å.T.

    2010-01-01

    EI/kRI ratios were parameterized as the mean eating (mETf), mean ruminating time (mRTf) per intake of forage NDF (NDFIf) and themETf/mRTf ratio by a Meta analysis of 75 published values from cattle fed three types of unchopped forages with or without supplementation with concentrates. The intake of NDF from......, and with studies as random effect for ruminating time. The mRTf value per kg forage NDF decreased at increased BW and DNFIf/BW. The mETf value increased at increasing BW and at decreasing DM contents of grass silage. Intake of NDF from rolled barley stimulated ruminating time by 3/4 of the stimuli from DNFIf....... The mETf/mRTf ratio, the mETf and mRTf values of grass silage fed to a standard cow, BW=625 kg, 0.7% NDFIf per kg of BW were predicted to 0.41 (min/min), and 41 and 109 (min/kg NDF), respectively....

  6. Influence of glyphosate-tolerant (event nk603) and corn rootworm protected (event MON863) corn silage and grain on feed consumption and milk production in Holstein cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, R J; Fanning, K C; Kleinschmit, D; Stanisiewski, E P; Hartnell, G F

    2003-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of a glyphosate-tolerant (event nk603) and a corn rootworm protected (event MON863) corn hybrid on feed intake and milk production compared with the nontransgenic hybrid and two reference hybrids. In Experiment 1, 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of four treatments in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 28-d periods. Diets contained 40% (dry matter [DM] basis) of either 1) glyphosate-tolerant corn silage (GT), 2) nontransgenic control corn silage, or 3) two nontransgenic reference hybrids which are commercially available. Each diet also contained 23% corn grain from the same hybrid that supplied the silage. At ensiling, rapid drying conditions prevailed and the GT hybrid was the last to be harvested which resulted in greater DM content at similar physiological maturity. The 4% fat-corrected milk (FCM) yield and DMI were reduced for cows fed the GT corn diet due to the higher DM content of the GT silage (37.1 vs. 33.2 kg/d and 4.05 vs. 3.61% of BW, respectively). There was no effect of the GT diet on milk composition or efficiency of 4% FCM production that averaged 1.43 kg/kg of DM intake for all diets. In Experiment 2, 16 multiparous Holstein cows were assigned to one of four treatments in replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Diets contained 26.7% (DM basis) corn grain from either 1) corn rootworm protected (event MON863) corn hybrid, 2) nontransgenic control corn hybrid, or 3) the same two nongenetically enhanced reference hybrids used in Experiment 1. The 4% FCM yield (34.8 kg/d) and DM intake (4.06% of BW) were unaffected by diet. Efficiency of FCM production (average 1.32 kg/kg of DMI) was not affected by diet. In summary, these two studies indicated that insertion of a gene for glyphosate tolerance or corn rootworm protection into a corn hybrid did not affect its nutritional value (as measured by efficiency of milk production) for lactating dairy cows compared with conventional

  7. Effects of timing of corn silage supplementation on digestion, fermentation pattern, and nutrient flow during continuous culture fermentation of a short and intensive orchardgrass meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Soder, K J; Waghorn, G

    2010-08-01

    Using a dual-flow continuous culture fermenter system, this study evaluated the effect of timing of corn silage supplementation on ruminal digestion and nutrient flows following a short and intensive orchardgrass herbage meal. Treatments included 28 g dry matter (DM) of corn silage added either 9h (9BH; 0700 h) or 1h (1BH; 1500 h) before adding 42 g DM orchardgrass herbage or no corn silage (control; 70 g DM herbage). Herbage was fed as follows: 66% of the total herbage meal at 1600 h, 22% at 1720 h, and the remaining 12% at 1840 h. Effluent was analyzed for organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), and neutral detergent fiber (NDF). Purine concentrations in effluent and bacterial isolates were used to estimate the partition of effluent N flow into bacterial and nonbacterial fractions, and to calculate true OM digestibility. Fermenters were sampled for pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA), and NH(3)-N at 0730, 1100, 1530, 1600, 1720, 1840, and 2000 h on d 10. Data were analyzed as a 3 x 4 Latin square experimental design. True digestibilities for OM (average of 78.5%) and CP (average of 84.6%), and apparent NDF digestibility (average of 82.7%) were not affected by treatment. Mean ruminal pH was lower for 9BH than for 1BH, averaging 5.6 and 6.5, respectively. Molar proportions of acetate were not affected by treatment. Propionate concentration was greater for 9BH than for 1BH, averaging 20.5 and 18.1mM, respectively. Diurnal patterns of pH, NH(3)-N, and acetate:propionate ratio were affected by treatment: 9BH had the lowest values for all measurements as the day progressed. The NH(3)-N concentration and effluent NH(3)-N flow were higher for 1BH (11.4 mg/100mL and 0.26 g/d, respectively) than for 9BH (8.8 mg/100mL and 0.20 g/d, respectively). Effluent NH(3)-N flow (as a % of total N flow) was the lowest for 9BH. Bacterial efficiency was not affected by treatments, with a mean of 10.5 g of N/kg of OM truly digested. Under the same resource allocation (pasture plus supplement

  8. Mycotoxin occurrence on baled and pit silages collected in Co. Meath

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McElhinney C.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies of baled silages produced in Ireland have identified considerable filamentous fungal contamination. Many of these fungi are toxigenic, capable of producing secondary metabolites, namely mycotoxins. Mycotoxins are potentially detrimental to livestock health and some can pose a risk to consumers of animal products. Baled (n=20 and pit (n=18 silages from a sample of farms (n=38 in Co. Meath were examined to assess the occurrence of mycotoxins and ascertain whether sampling position within the pit silos (feed face vs. 3 m behind the feed face has an effect on mycotoxin content or other chemical compositional variables. Of the 20 mycotoxins assayed, baled silages contained [mean of positive values (no. of values in mean] mycotoxin concentrations (μg/kg dry matter of beauvericin 36 (2, enniatin (enn. A 9.3 (3, enn. A1 54 (8, enn. B 351 (9, enn. B1 136 (10, mycophenolic acid (MPA 11,157 (8 and roquefortine C (Roq. C 1037 (8 and pit silages contained beauvericin 25 (2 enn. A1 18 (2, enn. B 194 (9, enn. B1 57 (3, MPA 287 (6, Roq. C 3649 (6 and zearalenone 76 (1. There was no difference (P>0.05 observed in the mycotoxin concentrations between baled and pit silages, and 11 of the 20 mycotoxins assayed were below the limits of detection. The position of sampling had no effect on the mycotoxin concentration detected in pit silages. It is concluded that mycotoxin concentrations detected in these pit and baled silages in Co. Meath did not exceed EU regulation or guidance limits, and that similar chemical composition and mycotoxin concentration values occurred at the pit silage feed face and 3 m behind this feed face.

  9. Effects of sodium diacetate on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XianJun Yuan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage. After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (p<0.05 decreased silage pH with the lowest value in silage with 7 g/kg of SDA. The proliferations of enterobacteria, yeasts, molds and clostridia were inhibited by SDA, resulted in lower ethanol, propionic and butyric acid concentrations and dry matter loss in SDA treated silages than control. The increasing SDA linearly decreased free amino acid N (p<0.001, ammonia N (p = 0.018 and non-protein N (p<0.001, while linearly increased water soluble carbohydrate (p<0.001 and peptide N (p<0.001. It is speculated that SDA accelerated the shift from homofermentative to heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria during the silage fermentation, indicated by lower lactic acid production in SDA-9 than SDA-7 silages after 60 days of ensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg.

  10. Nutritional evaluation of elephant-grass silages with byproduct of annato

    OpenAIRE

    Rêgo,Margareth Maria Teles; Neiva,José Neuman Miranda; Rêgo,Aníbal Coutinho do; Cândido,Magno José Duarte; Clementino,Rossana Herculano; Restle,João

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the nutritional value of elephant-grass silages containing annato byproduct. Twenty intact rams were distributed in a complete randomized block design with five diets (0; 4; 8; 12 and 16% annato byproduct in the silage) and four replications and used to estimate the intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, content of total digestible nutrients and nitrogen balance. The addition of annato byproduct raised the intakes of dry matter (DM), organi...

  11. The influence of feeding crimped kernel maize silage on broiler production, nutrient digestibility and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjitkar, S; Karlsson, A H; Petersen, M A; Bredie, W L P; Petersen, J S; Engberg, R M

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out in parallel with male Ross 308 broilers over 37 d. An experiment with a total of 736 broilers was performed to study the effect of dietary inclusion of crimped kernel maize silage (CKMS) on broiler production and meat quality. Another study with 32 broilers was carried out from 21 to 25 d to investigate the inclusion of CKMS on nutrient digestibility. In both trials, 4 dietary treatments were used: wheat-based feed (WBF), maize-based feed (MBF), maize-based feed supplemented with 15% CKMS (CKMS-15) and maize-based feed supplemented with 30% CKMS (CKMS-30). Compared with MBF, the dry matter (DM) intakes of broilers receiving CKMS-15 and CKMS-30, respectively, were numerically 7.5 and 6.2% higher and feed conversion ratio 6 and 12% poorer (significant for 30% CKMS), although there were no significant differences in AME content between the three diets. At 37 d, the body weight of birds receiving 15% CKMS was similar to birds fed with MBF. However, the inclusion of 30% CKMS decreased broiler growth. Dietary supplementation with CKMS significantly reduced the apparent digestibility of phosphorus. The fat digestibility was significantly lower for CKMS-30 than for the other three diets. Broiler mortality decreased significantly when CKMS was added to the diet. The consumption of drinking water was significantly lower in all maize-based diets as compared to WBF and was lowest in broilers fed with CKMS-30. An improved litter quality in terms of DM content and a lower frequency of foot pad lesions was observed with broilers supplemented with both dietary levels of CKMS. The addition of CKMS to maize-based diets increased juiciness, tenderness and crumbliness of the meat. In conclusion, the dietary supplementation of 15% CKMS had no negative effect on broiler growth and positively influenced bird welfare in terms of mortality and foot pad health. Therefore, the addition of 15% CKMS to maize-based diets is considered an advantageous feeding

  12. INFLUENCE OF SILAGE ADDITIVES ON FERMENTATION OF HIGH MOISTURE CRIMPED CORN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Gálik

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to find influence of different silage additives on silages fermentation and nutritional value made from high moisture crimped corn, which were conserved in semi experimental conditions. Three variants were examined, untreated control (C, and two experimental variants conserved by biological (variant A and chemical (variant B additives. The maize crimped corn was hermetically filled into plastic bins with the capacity 50 dm3. In silage conserved by additives was lower content of crude fibre (significantly in both experimental variants and higher content of nitrogen free extract, starch and total sugars (significantly in variant A established. In silages form both experimental variants we found significantly lower content of lactic acid. The highest concent we detected in silage conserved without additives. In silage conserved by biological inoculant we found lower content of acetic acid and higher content of butyric acid, but their content was generally very low. Additives used in the experiment decreased content of amonia (0.074 g.kg-1 in variant A and 0.095 g.kg-1 of dry matter in variant B and alcohols too.

  13. Fermentative characteristics and nutritional value of elephant grass silage added with dehydrated banana peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Maria Santos Brant

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the fermentative losses and nutritional value of elephant grass silages with the increasing of inclusion levels of dehydrated banana peel. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, with six treatments and four replications, being the silage exclusively from elephant grass, and five levels of inclusion of banana peel to the elephant grass silage, as the following - 5; 10; 15; 20 and 25%, being added based on natural matter. The addition of the banana peel in the silage reduced linearly (p < 0.05 the pH, the ammoniacal nitrogen and the losses of the fermentative process. In addition, the inclusion of banana peel increased linearly (p < 0.05 the dry matter and non-fibrous carbohydrates. On the other hand, the neutral detergent fiber and the acid detergent fiber were linearly reduced with the inclusion of the banana peel (p < 0.05, but there was no change in the dry matter digestibility in situ. The inclusion of dehydrated banana peel in elephant grass silage reduces the losses of the fermentation process with more consistent results at the 25% inclusion level, however, it reduces the silage nutritional value due to fibrous and protein quality.

  14. Effects of Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition and Fermentation Characteristics of Barley Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah, S. M.; Kim, D. H.; Lee, H. J.; Joo, Y. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, S. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of bacterial inoculants on chemical composition and fermentation indices of barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at 24% dry matter (DM) and wilted to 47.9% DM. The wilted barley forage was chopped to 3–5 cm length and applied with no inoculant (CON), L. plantarum (1×1010 cfu/g, LP) or Effective Microorganisms (0.5×109 cfu/g, EM). Then the forages were ensiled in four replications for each treatment in 20 L mini silos and stored for 100 days. The contents of crude protein and ether extract were higher in CON silage ensiled for 100-d, while the contents of DM and crude ash were higher in EM silage (p0.05). The pH, ammonia-N concentration and lactate to acetate ratio were higher (p<0.05) in CON silage, while lactate concentrations were higher (p<0.05) in CON and LP silage. Acetate concentration and lactic acid bacteria was increased (p<0.05) by both inoculants (LP and EM), but propionate concentration and yeast was increased (p<0.05) by EM and LP, respectively. These results indicated that the fermentation quality of barley silage was improved by the application of bacterial inoculants. PMID:25049981

  15. The quality of silage of corn grain and spent P. ostreatus mushroom substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamović Milan J.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition, fermentation quality, mycological and mycotoxicological analyses of silage mixture, made of ground corn grain and spent P. ostreatus mushroom substrate, were investigated in this paper. Dry matter content in high moisture ground corn, at the time of ensiling was 70%, and in the spent substrate (on the Salt Cedar wood shaving basis was 52.7%. Corn grain to spent substrate ratio in trials was: 100:0% (I, 90:10% (II, 80:20% (III and 70:30% (IV respectively. Content of the lignocellulose fractions in silage was slightly increased, and protein content was slightly decreased with the increase of spent substrate content. Contents of the VFA (volatile fatty acids in silage, pH value, and NH3-N content were for the silage of very good quality. In the spent substrate 9 mold species were found, from which the most frequent were genus Penicillium, Paecilomyces variotii, and Trichoderma harzianum. In ground corn grain silage (I presence of the yeasts was dominant (90.000/g. In combined trials (II-IV only Penicillium (P. brevicompactum and P. echinulatum mold species were found. Presence of molds and yeasts in investigated trials was within tolerated values for ensiled feedstuffs. Mycotoxin presence in silage was not determined.

  16. Qualitative parameters of sugarcane silages treated with urea and calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Cristina dos Santos Guimarães Martins

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the fermentation parameters, chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates of sugarcane silages treated with urea and calcium oxide (CaO. Upon ensiling, the treatments applied to the sugarcane were: 1% urea; 0.5% urea + 0.5% CaO; and 1% CaO, in relation to a control silage, without additive. The chemical additives (urea and CaO were added at ensiling, in an amount calculated based on the fresh matter (as is. A completely randomized design consisting of four treatments (silages and nine replicates was adopted. The material was conditioned in PVC mini-silos for five months. At the end of the storage period, silos were weighed again and samples were collected to quantify the losses caused by fermentation, dry matter recovery, pH, and ammonia nitrogen (N-NH3 of the silages and to evaluate the chemical composition and fractionation of carbohydrates. The silage with 1% CaO showed the highest recovery of dry matter, and in terms of carbohydrate fractionation, it showed the highest levels of soluble and potentially soluble carbohydrates. Addition of 1% CaO during ensiling reduces the fermentation losses of sugarcane silages.

  17. Corn yield for silage and grains in different integrated crop-livestock systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laíse da Silveira Pontes

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the objective was to assess the influence of two doses of N (90 and 180 kg N ha-1, added to the winter pastures, two integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS, with and without trees and five positions between the tree rows, on the corn (Zea mays L. quality and productivity, for silage and grain. Adopting the complete randomized block design, the treatments included three replicates. In 2006, following the 14 x 3 m spacing (currently with 158 trees ha-1 the trees were planted in 6 out of the 12 paddocks. While the corn was implemented during summer of 2013/2014, cattle grazing on the annual pasture was done during the prior winter, in both ICLS. Corn for silage was reaped at the R5 phenological stage, whereas for grains it was done at 176 days post seeding. For silage, the corn plants were grinded and then stocked in the experimental mini PVC silos. The silage varied slightly in quality along the positions between the tree rows. The differences observed between N levels in the dry matter, crude protein (CP and grain productivity are expressions of the residual effects of the winter fertilization. Silage quality was improved by the shade effect which minimized the acid detergent fiber and raised the CP, although it reduced the corn production for silage and grains by 52%. Some feasible techniques to reduce these losses are discussed.

  18. Silage quality of sorghum and Urochloa brizantha cultivars monocropped or intercropped in different planting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Gonçalves Ribeiro

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Recently it has emerged a technique for silage production of intercropping systems of annual crop with forage through crop-livestock integration, aiming to reduce the deficit forage in the offseason. The study was conducted to evaluate the fermentation characteristics and nutritional value of silage of sorghum and Urochloa brizantha cultivars monocropped or intercropped in different planting systems. The experiment was a randomized block design, with three replications, in a 3x2+4 factorial arrangement, with three cultivars of Urochloa brizantha (Marandu; Xaraes and Piata intercropped with grain sorghum in two planting systems (row and between rows and four monocrops (Sorghum, Marandu palisadegrass, Xaraes palisadegrass and Piata palisadegrass. The planting system of intercropping systems did not interfere with fermentation characteristics and chemical composition of silages. The same was found for Urochloa cultivars. Silages from intercropping sorghum with Urochloa brizantha cultivars had lower pH values, buffering capacity, acetic and butyric acids and higher values of lactic acid, besides showed superior quality, as for the parameters dry matter, ether extract and total digestible nutrient than silages from grasses produced in monocropping system. Therefore, silages of intercropping systems ensure fermentation and nutritional quality, providing interesting supplementary bulky options to be used in the offseason for feeding animals.

  19. Effect of grape pomace on fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Shen, Yixin; You, Minghong; Zhang, Yu; Yan, Jiajun; Li, Daxue; Bai, Shiqie

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of grape pomace (GP) with different adding levels (0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, fresh matter basis), alone (GP-LAB) or in combine with an inoculant LAB (GP+LAB), on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage. After 90 days of ensiling in vacuumized mini-silos, silages were subject to a 7-day aerobic stability test, in which chemical, microbial and polyphenol composition were measured. In the GP-LAB group, adding GP decreased (P butyric acid in silage. In the GP+LAB group, adding GP increased (P butyric acid concentration in silage. Polyphenol level was reduced (P fermentation. During aerobic exposure, the fungi count, pH value and silage temperature increased (P fermentation products, microbial counts, chemical and polyphenol composition were considered, the use of 10% GP+LAB at ensiling could provide a valuable source for improved fermentation quality and aerobic stability of sweet sorghum silage. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Nutritive value and fermentation quality of palisadegrass and stylo mixed silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana S; Ribeiro, Karina G; Pereira, Odilon G; Mantovani, Hilário C; Cecon, Paulo R; Pereira, Rosana C; Silva, Janaina de L

    2018-01-01

    The nutritive value and fermentation quality of palisadegrass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraes) and stylo (Stylosanthes capitata × S. macrocephala cv. Campo Grande) mixed silages were evaluated. The experiment was analyzed in a factorial scheme (5 × 2) in a completely randomized design using increasing levels of stylo (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% on a fresh matter basis) on palisadegrass silages, with and without microbial inoculants (MI). With the increased ratio of stylo in mixed silages, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and lignin content increased in silages. The presence of MI promoted lower DM content, and higher neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein, ADF and lignin content. The acid detergent insoluble nitrogen content and the lactic acid bacteria populations were not affected by treatments. The in vitroDM digestibility was affected by the interaction of levels of the stylo and MI. The pH, NH 3 -N/total nitrogen and butyric acid concentrations decreased with increasing levels of stylo. Better nutritive value and quality of fermentation was found in the silage containing higher proportions of this stylo mixed with palisadegrass. The microbial inoculant evaluated did not alter the nutritive value or quality of the fermentation of the silages in this experiment. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  1. Diversity of formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase genes in the rumens of roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed different diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhipeng; Henderson, Gemma; Yang, Yahan; Li, Guangyu

    2017-01-01

    Reductive acetogenesis by homoacetogens represents an alternative pathway to methanogenesis to remove metabolic hydrogen during rumen fermentation. In this study, we investigated the occurrence of homoacetogen in the rumens of pasture-fed roe deer (Capreolus pygargus) and sika deer (Cervus nippon) fed either oak-leaf-based (tannin-rich, 100 mg/kg dried matter), corn-stover-based, or corn-silage-based diets, by using formyltetrahydrofolate synthetase (FTHFS) gene sequences as a marker. The diversity and richness of FTHFS sequences was lowest in animals fed oak leaf, indicating that tannin-containing plants may affect rumen homoacetogen diversity. FTHFS amino acid sequences in the rumen of roe deer significantly differed from those of sika deer. The phylogenetic analyses showed that 44.8% of sequences in pasture-fed roe deer, and 72.1%, 81.1%, and 37.5% of sequences in sika deer fed oak-leaf-, corn-stover-, and corn-silage-based diets, respectively, may represent novel bacteria that have not yet been cultured. These results demonstrate that the rumens of roe deer and sika deer harbor potentially novel homoacetogens and that diet may influence homoacetogen community structure.

  2. Nutritional value of sorghum silage of different purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur Behling Neto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sorghum is a crop that stands out as an alternative to corn due to lower soil fertility demand and increased tolerance to drought. Lack of information about the qualitative behaviour of sorghum hinders the recommendation of different purpose sorghum cultivars. The goal was to evaluate the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of different purpose sorghum cultivar silages, at two cropping seasons. The trial was conducted at the Plant Production Department, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Rondônia, Colorado do Oeste campus, and chemical analyses and in vitro incubation were performed at the Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Federal University of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá campus. The experimental design was a randomized block with a split-plot arrangement and four replications. Plot treatments consisted of six different purpose sorghum cultivars (BRS 308 and BRS 310, grain sorghum; BR 655 and BRS 610, forage sorghum; and BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, sweet sorghum. Split-plot treatments consisted of two cropping periods (first crop and second crop. Forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 demonstrated higher non-fiber carbohydrate content and lower potentially digestible fibre content than the other cultivars did. Sweet sorghum cultivars had higher levels of water soluble carbohydrates and non-protein nitrogen based on protein, lower indigestible neutral detergent fibre content at second crop, and higher in vitro dry matter digestibility than the other cultivars. The silages of sweet sorghum cultivars BRS 506 and CMSXS 647, and forage sorghum cultivar BRS 655 presented higher nutritional values.

  3. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with dried distillers grains with solubles at 2 dietary crude protein levels on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality. As socie......Dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) is an alternative source of feed protein for dairy cows. Previous studies found that DDGS, based on grains other than corn, can substitute for soybean meal and canola cake as a dietary protein source without reducing milk production or quality....... As societal concerns exist, and in many areas strict regulation, regarding nitrogen excretion from dairy cows, the dairy industry has focused on reducing dietary protein level and nitrogen excretion. In the present study, we investigated the use of DDGS as a protein source, at a marginally low dietary crude...... protein (CP) levels, in a grass-clover and corn silage-based ration. The experiment involved 24 Holstein cows and 2 protein sources (DDGS or soybean-canola mixture) fed at 2 levels of CP (14 or 16%) in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of both protein source...

  4. Effects of lactic acid bacteria silage inoculation on methane emission and productivity of Holstein Friesian dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J L; Hindrichsen, I K; Klop, G; Kinley, R D; Milora, N; Bannink, A; Dijkstra, J

    2016-09-01

    Inoculants of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used to improve silage quality and prevent spoilage via increased production of lactic acid and other organic acids and a rapid decline in silage pH. The addition of LAB inoculants to silage has been associated with increases in silage digestibility, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield. Given the potential change in silage and rumen fermentation conditions accompanying these silage additives, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LAB silage inoculants on DMI, digestibility, milk yield, milk composition, and methane (CH4) production from dairy cows in vivo. Eight mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were grouped into 2 blocks of 4 cows (multiparous and primiparous) and used in a 4×4 double Latin square design with 21-d periods. Methane emissions were measured by indirect calorimetry. Treatments were grass silage (mainly ryegrass) with no inoculant (GS), with a long-term inoculant (applied at harvest; GS+L), with a short-term inoculant (applied 16h before feeding; GS+S), or with both long and short-term inoculants (GS+L+S). All diets consisted of grass silage and concentrate (75:25 on a dry matter basis). The long-term inoculant consisted of a 10:20:70 mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, and Lactobacillus buchneri, and the short-term inoculant was a preparation of Lc. lactis. Dry matter intake was not affected by long-term or short-term silage inoculation, nor was dietary neutral detergent fiber or fat digestibility, or N or energy balance. Milk composition (except milk urea) and fat and protein-corrected milk yield were not affected by long- or short-term silage inoculation, nor was milk microbial count. However, milk yield tended to be greater with long-term silage inoculation. Methane expressed in units of grams per day, grams per kilogram of DMI, grams per kilogram of milk, or grams per kilogram of fat and protein-corrected milk yield was not affected by long- or short

  5. A survey of fermentation products and bacterial communities in corn silage produced in a bunker silo in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Han, Hongyan; Gu, Xueying; Yu, Zhu; Nishino, Naoki

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the current practice of corn silage management in China, samples of bunker-made silage were collected from 14 farms within a 500-km radius of Beijing for the analysis of fermentation products and bacterial communities. Mean values for dry matter (DM) content were as low as 250 g/kg in both corn stover (St) and whole crop corn (Wc) silages, and pH values averaged 4.48 and 3.73, respectively. Only three of the 14 silages exhibited a lactic-to-acetic acid ratio > 1.0, indicating that the presence of acetic acid was predominant in fermentation. Although 1,2-propanediol content was marginal in most cases ( 25 g/kg DM. In contrast, 3 St silages had large amounts (> 10 g/kg DM) of butyric acid, and two of the three butyrate silages also had high concentrations of 1-propanol. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis demonstrated that the bacterial community appeared similar in 10 out of the 14 silage samples. Bands indicating Lactobacillus buchneri, L. acetotolerans and Acetobacter pasteurianus were found in both the St and Wc silages, accounting for the high acetic acid content found across silage samples. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Chemical composition and nutrient degradability in elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis isolated from the rumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DANIELE J. FERREIRA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical and bromatological composition and in situ degradability of elephant grass silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis isolated from cattle rumen. A complete randomized design was used with four treatments and six replications: elephant grass silage, elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Streptococcus bovis JB1 strains; elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Streptococcus bovis HC5 strains; elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Enterococcus faecium with six replications each. The pH and ammoniacal nitrogen values were lower (P<0.05 for the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively. The silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis had a higher crude protein content (P<0.05 and there were no differences for the fiber contents in the silage. The (asoluble fraction degradability, especially in the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, had higher values, 30.77 and 29.97%, for dry matter and 31.01 and 36.66% for crude protein, respectively. Inoculation with Streptococcus bovis improved the fermentation profile, protein value and rumen degradability of the nutrients.

  7. Effect of Microbial and Chemical Combo Additives on Nutritive Value and Fermentation Characteristic of Whole Crop Barley Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Amanullah, Sardar M.; Lee, Hyuk Jun; Joo, Young Ho; Kim, Sam Churl

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of microbial and chemical combo additives on nutritive values, fermentation indices and aerobic stability of whole crop barley silage. Barley forage (Youngyang) was harvested at about 30% dry matter (DM) by treatments, chopped to 5 cm length and treated with distilled water only (CON), Lactobacillus plantarum (INO), propionic acid (PRO) or an equal mixture of INO and PRO (MIX). Barley forages were ensiled in 4 replications for 0, 2, 7, and 100 days. On 100 days of ensiling, MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) in vitro DM digestibility than CON silage, but lower (p<0.05) acid detergent fiber concentration. The pH in all treated silages was lower (p<0.05) than CON silage. The MIX silage had higher (p<0.05) lactate concentration and lactate to acetate ratio than in CON, but lower (p<0.05) yeast count. Aerobic stability in CON, PRO, and MIX silages were higher (p<0.05) than in INO silage. It is concluded that microbial and chemical combo additives using L. plantarum and propionic acid could efficiently improve nutritive values of barley silage in terms of increased in vitro DM digestibility compared to other treatments. In addition, all treatments except CON reduced yeast count which is the initiate microorganism of aerobic spoilage. PMID:26323517

  8. Factors affecting the cholesterol content of milk of cows fed conserved feeds in a TMR system throughout the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Strzałkowska

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cholesterol content in the milk of high yielding cows fed a uniform diet composed of conserved feeds over the whole year. The investigationswere conducted on 124 Polish Holstein-Friesian cows, selected fromherd yielding 8457 kg milk with 4,58 % and 3,56 % of fat and protein content, respectively. The cows were maintained in a loose barn and fed ad libitum with TMR (total mixed ration throughout the year. The diets consisted of corn silage and grass silage (at 50:50 ration on dry matter basis and concentrates with mineral-vitaminmixture additives. Samples of milk were collected individually from each cow at monthly intervals during the whole year. The cholesterol content in milk (mg/dL and in milk fat (mg/g was related to the stage of lactation, season of the year, somatic cell count and fat content, but was not affected by the parity. The cholesterol content in daily milk yield (mg/cow/day depended also on parity. Even though the cows were fed a uniform diet throughout the year according to the TMR system the cholesterol content in milk differed among seasons.

  9. Determination of region-specific data of yield and quality of alternatives to silage maize in fodder crops – field trails with forage gras and clover grass mixtures, Sorghum as well as whole plant silage of grain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wosnitza, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This project should generate current regional results over a period of three years about the parameter yield and quality of alternative fodder crops to maize; this includes grass and clover grass mixtures, silage maize, varieties of Sorghum/millets and whole plant silages of wheat, rye and triticale. The tested silage maize showed the highest and most reliable average dry matter yield with 23 tons per hectare, with a very low variance. The Sorghum and millet varieties had dry matter yields of 3 to 5 tons per hectare below the silage maize yield but with individual values fluctuating in a broad range within years and locations. With values far below 28% the dry matter contents were not suitable for ensiling. The grass and clover grass mixtures are good, stable and established alternatives to maize for silage. They achieved high yields comparable with these of Sorghum but stable and with a highly suitable dry matter content for ensiling. The yield of the whole plant silages was up to 22% lower compared with maize. So none of the alternative crops can compete with the high level yield of silage maize in its favoured region, therefore would be a combination of two crops recommended. But some individual locally adapted mixtures or varieties of the alternative crops reached nearly 80% of the maize yield. Silage maize showed the highest level of the net energy content for lactation (NEL, followed by the values of the fodder crops and the whole plant silages. The Sorghum varieties showed the lowest NEL value of all tested cultures. The highest crude protein showed the fodder crops contents. Silage maize, Sorghum and the whole plant silages had values lying nearly around the 50% mark of the fodder crops.

  10. Substituting oat hay or maize silage for portion of alfalfa hay affects growth performance, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility of weaned calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The impact of forage feeding strategy on growth performance, ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility in post-weaning calves was investigated. Methods Forty-five female Holstein calves (body weight [BW] = 79.79±0.38 kg were enrolled in the 35-d study at one week after weaning and randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments. All diets were fed as total mixed ration containing 60% (dry matter [DM] basis of basal starter feed and 40% (DM basis of forage, but varied in composition of forage source including i alfalfa (40% DM, AH; ii alfalfa hay (26.7% DM+oat hay (13.3% DM; OH; iii alfalfa hay (26.7% DM+corn silage (13.3% DM; WS. Results Dry matter intake was not different among treatment groups (p>0.05. However, BW (p<0.05 and average daily gain (p<0.05 of calves fed AH and OH were greater than WS-fed calves, whereas heart girth was greater in OH-fed calves than those fed AH and WS (p<0.05. Ruminal fermentation parameters including proportion of butyric acid, acetated-to-propionate ratio, concentration of total volatile fatty acid, protozoal protein, bacterial protein, and microbial protein in rumen were the highest in OH (p<0.05 and the lowest in WS. Compared with the AH and WS, feeding oat hay to postweaning calves increased crude protein digestibility (p<0.05, and decreased duration of diarrhea (p<0.05 and fecal index (p<0.05. Conclusion Our results suggested that partially replacing alfalfa hay with oat hay improved ruminal fermentation, nitrogen utilization, and reduced incidence of diarrhea in post-weaning dairy calves.

  11. Characterization, identification and application of lactic Acid bacteria isolated from forage paddy rice silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuikui; Wang, Yanping; Li, Dongxia; Cai, Yimin; Pang, Huili

    2015-01-01

    There has been growing interest to develop forage rice as a new feed resource for livestock. This study was to characterize the natural population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and select potentially excellent strains for paddy rice silage preparation in China. One hundred and twenty-six strains were isolated and screened from paddy rice silage prepared using a small-scale fermentation system, and ninety-nine of these isolates were considered to be LAB based on their Gram-positive and catalase-negative morphology and the production of most of their metabolic products as lactic acid. These isolates were divided into eight groups (A-H) on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. The Group A to H strains were identified as Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum subsp. plantarum (species ratio: 8.1%), L. casei (5.1%), Leuconostoc (Ln.) pseudomesenteroides (11.1%), Pediococcus (P.) pentosaceus (24.2%), Enterococcus (E.) mundtii (12.1%), Lactococcus (Lc.) garvieae (15.2%), E. faecium (9.1%) and Lc. lactis subsp. lactis (15.2%) based on sequence analyses of their 16S rRNA and recA genes. P. pentosaceus was the most abundant member of the LAB population in the paddy rice silage. A selected strain, namely L. casei R 465, was found to be able to grow under low pH conditions and to improve the silage quality with low pH and a relatively high content of lactic acid. This study demonstrated that forage paddy rice silage contains abundant LAB species and its silage can be well preserved by inoculation with LAB, and that strain R 465 can be a potentially excellent inoculant for paddy rice silage.

  12. Concentration of mycotoxins and chemical composition of corn silage: a farm survey using infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, P; Novinski, C O; Junges, D; Almeida, R; de Souza, C M

    2015-09-01

    This work evaluated the chemical composition and mycotoxin incidence in corn silage from 5 Brazilian dairy-producing regions: Castro, in central-eastern Paraná State (n=32); Toledo, in southwestern Paraná (n=20); southeastern Goiás (n=14); southern Minas Gerais (n=23); and western Santa Catarina (n=20). On each dairy farm, an infrared thermography camera was used to identify 3 sampling sites that exhibited the highest temperature, a moderate temperature, and the lowest temperature on the silo face, and 1 sample was collected from each site. The chemical composition and concentrations of mycotoxins were evaluated, including the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2; zearalenone; ochratoxin A; deoxynivalenol; and fumonisins B1 and B2. The corn silage showed a highly variable chemical composition, containing, on average, 7.1±1.1%, 52.5±5.4%, and 65.2±3.6% crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients, respectively. Mycotoxins were found in more than 91% of the samples, with zearalenone being the most prevalent (72.8%). All samples from the Castro region contained zearalenone at a high average concentration (334±374µg/kg), even in well-preserved silage. The incidence of aflatoxin B1 was low (0.92%). Silage temperature and the presence of mycotoxins were not correlated; similarly, differences were not observed in the concentration or incidence of mycotoxins across silage locations with different temperatures. Infrared thermography is an accurate tool for identifying heat sites, but temperature cannot be used to predict the chemical composition or the incidence of mycotoxins that have been analyzed, within the silage. The pre-harvest phase of the ensiling process is most likely the main source of mycotoxins in silage. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Cutting Time, Ensiling Duration and Microbial Additives on Chemical Composition of Alfalfa Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H. Delavar

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to assess the effects of daytime cutting management (p.m. vs. a.m. cut, ensiling duration and adding microbial inoculants on chemical composition of alfalfa silage. For this, Second growth Alfalfa harvested at the early bud stage of development after a sunny day at sundown (about 1900 h; PM alfalfa, whereas the second half was cut next day at sunup (about 0800 h; AM alfalfa. After cutting, alfalfa Forage was chopped by using a chopper to a length of 8 to10 cm, and then ensiled without or with microbial additive as factorial experiment (2×2 with repeated measurement design. Silages were provided in laboratory silos (6 repeats in every treatment lined with two layers of plastic, after air exclusion. Silos were opened at 3, 10 and 30 day for determination of pH and other chemical analysis. The numerically lower pH of PM vs. AM silages indicates that the former forage was more extensively fermented possibly because of its increased total non structural carbohydrate (TNC concentration. Shifting alfalfa harvesting from sun up to sundown significantly decreased NDF% and ADF%, because of the dilution effect associated with increased concentrations of TNC in the former forage. The NPN content and N-NH3 concentration of the silages treated in the afternoon was lower compared with AM group. CP content decreased, but NDF, ADF, NPN and N-NH3 concentration increased during ensiling time. Silage pH decreased by using of microbial additive and ensiling time. Dry matter and nitrogen losses were lower in silages treated by microbial inoculants, and, increased with increasing fermentation time. It can be concluded that microbial additives and time of cutting can be used as proper way to improve fermentation situation and silage quality.

  14. Real-time dry matter content of corn silage by a microwave sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily dry matter (DM intake in dairy cow is a central point to meet nutritional requirements and optimal performance, reducing the incidence of metabolic diseases. DM content of some forages, such as silages, can undergo huge variations during storing, affecting the total daily DM consumed. Reference laboratory method is time consuming and cannot be applied to daily changes in diet composition. Currently, new promising real-time technologies are available to monitor the DM content of feeds. The aim of the study was to test and calibrate a portable microwave sensor (MS for DM content in corn silage samples. Twenty-two samples were collected from a corn silage front; sampling procedure was optimized to collect as much as DM content variability as possible within the samples. MS readings were performed with 3 different methods for each samples: 1 directly on the silage front, 2 with the MS over the collected sample and 3 with MS placed under the sample. After the first MS reading, a correspondent silage sample was obtained by a silage corer for readings 2 and 3 and the laboratory DM content assay. A simple regression analysis was performed (JMP, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 2015 over obtained data. Results evidences as the best MS reading method is represented by the probe burdening on the sample (R2=0.75 with respect to the other methods. The obtained results outlined as, with a correct reading method, MS can be valuable tool to determine DM content of corn silage directly at farm level.

  15. Intake and digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench silages with different tannin contents in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Matos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R, with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R, without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R, without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3 were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids and six repetitions (sheep was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R.

  16. Effects of different levels of sunflower residue silage replacement with alfalfa hay on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Razzagzadeh

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing alfalfa hay with different levels of sunflower residual silage (SRS on fattening performance of Azari male buffalo calves. Thirty calves with 138.33 Kg of BW fed experimental diets in a completely randomized design with 5 groups and 6 replicates. The five groups (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 included 0 (control, 25, 50, 75 and 100 percent replacement of alfalfa hay with SRS, respectively in basal diet. The results showed that dry matter intake (DMI was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. The highest and the lowest DMI were shown at the groups 1 and 5, respectively, however there was no significant difference between the groups 2, 3, and 4 with control. Daily weight gain (DWG was significantly different between the groups (p<0.05. Group 5 had significantly lower DWG than groups 1, 2 and 3, furthermore there were no significant difference between groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. Feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly different among the groups (p<0.05. There was no significant difference among the groups 1, 2, 3 and 4. But these groups had significantly better FCR than the group 5. The best FCR was obtained for group3. It may conclude that alfalfa hay can be substituted with SRS at 50 % level with no negative effects on Azari male buffalo calves fattening performance.

  17. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and magnesium intake on some blood and urine minerals and acid-base balance of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic salts contained in a concentrate mixture and magnesium (Mg intake on some blood and urine minerals in cows fed a grass silage based diet. Four diets provided either 16 g or 33 g total dietary Mg/day, and had either a low or high cation-anion difference. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB of the diets, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was +31 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +340 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (1.0 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.5 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. Cows fed the low DCAB diet had a lower urinary pH (P

  18. Efeito do Lactobacillus buchneri na fermentação, estabilidade aeróbia e no valor nutritivo de silagem de cana-de-açúcar Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri on fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Quirino Mendes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados para avaliar o valor nutritivo, a estabilidade aeróbia de silagens de cana-de-açúcar e a digestibilidade aparente de rações contendo essas silagens. No experimento 1, a cana-de-açúcar foi ensilada sem aditivo ou inoculada com cepas NCIMB 40788 do Lactobacillus buchneri (5 x 10(4 ufc/g de matéria verde. Amostras das silagens foram analisadas e comparadas à cana-de-açúcar in natura para avaliação da estabilidade aeróbia, considerando os dados de temperatura, pH e perdas de MS das silagens. No experimento 2, utilizaram-se 12 cordeiros distribuídos em blocos completos casualizados e mantidos em gaiolas para ensaio de metabolismo recebendo rações contendo cana-de-açúcar in natura, silagem de cana-de-açúcar sem aditivo ou silagem de cana-de-açúcar tratada com Lactobacillus buchneri. Os teores de matéria seca, carboidratos solúveis e ácido acético foram maiores na silagem com aditivo. O teor de etanol não diferiu entre as silagens. A silagem tratada com aditivo apresentou menor perda de matéria seca e manutenção do pH durante o período de avaliação em aerobiose. A digestibilidade aparente de fibra em detergente neutro, fibra em detergente ácido e hemicelulose foram maiores nas rações contendo silagem de cana-de-açúcar.Two trials were performed to evaluate the nutritive value and aerobic stability of sugar cane silage, as well as apparent digestibility of diets containing these silages. In trial 1, sugar cane was ensiled without additive or inoculated with strains NCIMB 40788 of Lactobacillus buchneri (5 x 10(4 cfu/g wet basis. Silages were sampled, analyzed, and compared with fresh sugar cane. Aerobic stability was evaluated by controlling the temperature, pH, and dry matter losses of the silages. In trial 2, twelve lambs were assigned to a complete randomized block design and placed in metabolism crates and fed with diets composed by fresh sugar cane, sugar cane silage without

  19. Microbial inoculant effects on silage and in vitro ruminal fermentation, and microbial biomass estimation for alfalfa, bmr corn, and corn silages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Third cut alfalfa, brown mid-rib (bmr) corn, and corn were chopped and inoculated with one of four different strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Uninoculated silage was the control treatment. For each crop, four mini-silos 1-L glass jars were ensiled per treatment. All silos were fermented for 60...

  20. Ruminal degradability and carbohydrates and proteins fractioning of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oat and/or legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Bumbieris Junior, Valter Harry; Jobim, Cloves Cabreira; Emile, Jean Claude; Rossi, Robson; Calixto Junior, Moyses; Branco, Antonio Ferriani

    2011-01-01

    It was aimed to evaluate the ruminal degradability, and the fractioning of carbohydrates, as well as of the nitrogen fractions of triticale silages in singular culture or in mixtures with oats and/or legumes. The treatments had been: triticale silage (X. Triticosecale Wittimack) (ST); triticale silage + forage pea (Pisum arvense) (STE); triticale silage + oats (Avena strigosa Scheb) + forage pea + vetch (Vicia sativa) (STAE). Three castrated bovine Prim’Holstein males had been used, with aver...

  1. Exploring the Feasibility of Using Silage-Based Feed with Alternative Sources of Protein in Organic Pig Rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth C. Clements

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Current regulations for organic pig and poultry production systems permit feed ingredients of non-organic origin at an inclusion rate of up to 5 per cent. This is primarily due to concerns that there is an insufficient supply of organic protein on the European Union market, in terms of quality and quantity, to meet the nutritional requirements of pigs and poultry raised on organic farms. However, 100 per cent organic diets for monogastric livestock will become compulsory in the EU from 1 January 2018, and there is therefore a need to develop sustainable feeding strategies based on organic feeds. This feed trial conducted in the UK explores the feasibility of using a silage-based feeding system for Gloucester Old Spot pigs, and compares the inclusion of soya, beans and peas as protein sources in terms of pig growth performance. No significant difference in the pen mean daily live weight gain was observed during the grower phase (pen mean age of 11-14 weeks between the diet groups. However, during the finisher phase (pen mean age of 15-22 weeks, pigs on the soya and pea rations had significantly faster growth rates than pigs fed the bean ration. It is speculated that the slight shortfall in growth rate observed in the pigs fed the bean ration may be offset by the lower cost of production of beans in the UK. This feasibility trial demonstrates that a 100 per cent organic diet for pigs using alternative, locally-grown sources of protein as part of a forage-based ration can provide a viable alternative to a soya-based diet.

  2. Fermentation profile and identification of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts of rehydrated corn kernel silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, B F; Ávila, C L S; Bernardes, T F; Pereira, M N; Santos, C; Schwan, R F

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical and microbiological characteristics and to identify the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts involved in rehydrated corn kernel silage. Four replicates for each fermentation time: 5, 15, 30, 60, 90, 150, 210 and 280 days were prepared. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and PCR-based identification were utilized to identify LAB and yeasts. Eighteen bacteria and four yeast species were identified. The bacteria population reached maximum growth after 15 days and moulds were detected up to this time. The highest dry matter (DM) loss was 7·6% after 280 days. The low concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates (20 g kg -1 of DM) was not limiting for fermentation, although the reduction in pH and acid production occurred slowly. Storage of the rehydrated corn kernel silage increased digestibility up to day 280. This silage was dominated by LAB but showed a slow decrease in pH values. This technique of corn storage on farms increased the DM digestibility. This study was the first to evaluate the rehydrated corn kernel silage fermentation dynamics and our findings are relevant to optimization of this silage fermentation. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Silage of white oat under nitrogen fertilization and pre-wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Zamarchi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The forage conservation as silage is a way to provide good quality forage during grazing scarcity periods, in this way, the objective was to evaluate the effect of pre-wilting and nitrogen fertilization on the fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of white oat silage, in two harvest stages. The experiment was conducted in 2011 at UTFPR, Dois Vizinhos-PR, Brazil. The experimental design was in a randomized blocks with two factorial arrangement and three replicates. The main treatments were six nitrogen doses: 0, 40, 80, 120, 160 and 200 kg ha-1, and secondary the stages of cutting for silage: early flowering with and without pre-wilting, and at blooming without pre-wilting. It was observed that nitrogen fertilization promoted a reduction in pH and mineral content of the silage, reducing fiber content and increasing crude protein content (CP, when made at oat early flowering. The effect of pre-wilting in early flowering inhibits the production of effluents and has higher levels of CP, without any effect on the fermentation and nutritional value. The silage at blooming stage features better standards of fermentation, with lower pH and buffering capacity, but with lower nutritional value.

  4. Effect of microbial inoculants on the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarloiy, M; Yansari, A Teimouri

    2008-04-15

    This study investigated the effect of a new microbial inoculant product on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage in big silo over one year that used beef cattle. Six Holstein beef steer (BW = 225 +/- 17) were allotted to 2 x 2 repeated Latin square design at two 21 days periods (adaptation, 14 days and sample collection, 7 days) for evaluation the effect of microbial inoculation on the composition and nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle. Two treatments, forages were untreated or treated at ensiling with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici silage inoculants. After 45 days from ensiling, the ration that contained 94.5 and 5, 0.2, 0.2, 0.1% of DM silage and ground barely, mineral-vitamin, dicalcium phosphate, salt, respectively, were offered for free choice consumption. Treatment with Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacterium acidipropionici inoculant increased daily dry matter intake and subsequently NDF, ether extract, crude protein and ash. Apparent digestibility of DM and nutrients were significantly increased by microbial inoculation. Microbial inoculation can improve the nutritive value of corn silage for beef cattle.

  5. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Lammers, Peter Schulze; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2016-01-14

    Oxygen (O₂) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O₂ measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO₂) generated by the introduction of O₂ in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O₂ sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O₂ versus CO₂ (each 0-15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O₂ measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO₂. For the O₂ in situ measurement in silage, all O₂ sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O₂ depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O₂ penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O₂ concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations.

  6. Occurrence of Pre- and Post-Harvest Mycotoxins and Other Secondary Metabolites in Danish Maize Silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Ida M. L. Drejer; Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2014-01-01

    Maize silage is a widely used feed product for cattle worldwide, which may be contaminated with mycotoxins, pre- and post-harvest. This concerns both farmers and consumers. To assess the exposure of Danish cattle to mycotoxins from maize silage, 99 samples of whole-crop maize (ensiled and un-ensiled) were analyzed for their contents of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary fungal metabolites by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method specifically targets the majority of common pre- and post-harvest fungi associated with maize silage in Denmark. Sixty-one samples contained one or more of the 27 analytes in detectable concentrations. The most common mycotoxins were zearalenone, enniatin B nivalenol and andrastin A, found in 34%, 28%, 16% and 15% of the samples, respectively. None of the samples contained mycotoxins above the EU recommended maximum concentrations for Fusarium toxins in cereal-based roughage. Thus, the present study does not indicate that Danish maize silage in general is a cause of acute single mycotoxin intoxications in cattle. However, 31 of the samples contained multiple analytes; two samples as much as seven different fungal metabolites. Feed rations with maize silage may therefore contain complex mixtures of fungal secondary metabolites with unknown biological activity. This emphasizes the need for a thorough examination of the effects of chronic exposure and possible synergistic effects. PMID:25089350

  7. Comparison of harvesting and transport issues when biomass crops are handled as hay vs silage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worley, J.W. [Georgia Univ., Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering; Cundiff, J.S. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States). Dept. of Biological Systems Engineering

    1996-04-01

    Because of frequent rainfall, hay making is problematic in central Florida. High biomass yields can be produced, but the crops must be handled as silage. Because of the long available harvest season, the cost of making silage should be less here than in other regions. Harvest of silage in central Florida with two different systems, standard (35-55 Mg/ha yield) and high-capacity (based on a hypothesized forage chopper expected to handle 55-75 Mg/ha yield), was simulated. Simulated harvest and transport cost for three versions of the standard system ranged from $108.10/dry Mg, when juice was expressed prior to ensiling in 320-Mg silage bags, to $114.15, when the chopped material was directly ensiled in an above-ground pile. Total cost was $101.70 for the high-capacity system. These costs compare to $57.25/dry Mg for hay. It appears that silage is not competitive with hay for cellulose feedstock, even in the advantageous climate of central Florida. (Author)

  8. Effect of Replacing Alfalfa Hay with Alfalfa Silage in High Performance Dairy Cattle Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nabi allah aghaziarati farahani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Four-handed fifty lactating Holstein cows with mean body weight of, 597± 40 and 50±20 and days in milk body Condi from sure of 3.1±0.4 were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 3 treatments. Each treatment had 3 pens and each pen had 50 cows. The experiment lasted for 60 days (10 days adaptation and 50 days collection period. Concentrate to forage ratio was 60 to 40 and alfalfa hay replaced with alfalfa silage. Dry mater intake, milk yield and composition did not changed significantly due to complete replacement of alfalfa hay with alfalfa silage. Milk urea nitrogen increased significantly (15.85 vs 14.69 mg/dl when alfalfa silage was replaced with alfalfa hay. Rumen pH were similar in all treatments and higher than 6.0 of alfalfa silage diet. The result of this experiment indicated that in TMR based ration alfalfa hay can replaced completely with the alfalfa silage.

  9. Effect of additives on the physical and chemical characteristics of sugar cane silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia do Rosario Rodrigues

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the efficiency of different additives on chemical composition, pH, ethanol production, content of volatile fatty acids (VFAs, nutritional losses during fermentation, and changes in fibrous fractions, in the levels of non-fibrous and total carbohydrates during the sugar cane silage fermentation process with different additives. The treatments consisted of control (no additive; corn meal, at 10% of natural matter; molasses, at 10% of natural matter; urea, at 2% of natural matter; and microbial inoculant for sugarcane silage (Lactobacillus plantarum, Kera-Sil® in a proportion of 2 g L-1 of water using a 2 liter solution per ton of ensilage. The experimental design was a completely randomized design with five treatments and five replications. The urea treatment provided the best preparation of silage, taking into account the pH and bromatological composition when compared to silages made with the other tested additives, and the control. The sugarcane silage showed a loss of 5.86% on average of dry matter, not differing from others additives used. There was an increase in crude protein content when urea was used. There was no difference between the treatment for fiber losses in neutral detergent and total digestible nutrients.

  10. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Guilin; Sun, Yurui; Li, Menghua; Jungbluth, Kerstin H.; Maack, Christian; Buescher, Wolfgang; Schütt, Kai-Benjamin; Boeker, Peter; Schulze Lammers, Peter; Zhou, Haiyang; Cheng, Qiang; Ma, Daokun

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen (O2) concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O2 measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2) generated by the introduction of O2 in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O2 sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE), galvanic oxygen cell (GOC) sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS). Laboratory cross calibration of O2 versus CO2 (each 0–15 vol.%) was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O2 measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO2. For the O2 in situ measurement in silage, all O2 sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm) to monitor the O2 depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A). The second test (Test-B) simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O2 penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each) on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O2 concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations. PMID:26784194

  11. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia corn silage quality on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding (from November 2003 to May 2004. In this paper the nutritive value of corn silage on 19 dairy family farms from 5 counties was investigated. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500. Scottish calibration models had been applied and determined: dry matter corrected (DM, organic matter (OM crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy (ME, pH value, fermented ME in ME (FME/ME, starch and digestibility of OM in DM (D-value. The results show high DM (391.78 g kg-1, starch (335.13 g kg-1ST and NDF (425.33 g kg-1ST content. In average the silage was stabile (pH 3.7, had suitable FME/ME content (0.81 and good digestibility (D-value 71.6%, but of low CP content (65.19 g kg-1. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were observed for DM, OM, CP, NDF, pH, starch and FME/ME.

  12. Forage quality on family farms in Croatia grass silage quality on family farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the applied research project: “Forage evaluation by NIR spectroscopy” was to monitor the nutritive value of grass silage, corn silage and hay on family farms in Croatia over 6-month feeding (from November 2003 to May 2004 Over last 15 years, grass silage become of the same importance in dairy cows nutrition as other traditionally conserved forage in Croatia. In this paper the nutritive value of grass silage on 19 dairy family farms from 5 counties was investigated. Extension service staff recommended dairy nutrition based on monthly silage analysis by NIRS instrument (Foss, Model 6500. Scottish calibration models were applied and following parameters are estimated: dry matter corrected (DM, crude protein (CP, degradable crude protein (DCP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, metabolizable energy (ME, pH value, ammonia nitrogen, sugar, digestibility of organic matter in dry matter (D-value and intake factor by cattle (IF. The results show big variations in the average nutritive values of all the investigated parameters. The biggest variations were observed in DM (from 166-785 g kg-1, CP (60-220 g kg-1DM, NDF (300-605 g kg-1DM and NH3-N (61-530 g N kg-1 of total N. Statistically significant differences (P<0.05 were observed for DM, NDF, ME, sugar content and D-value.

  13. Development of a new lactic acid bacterial inoculant for fresh rice straw silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Geun Kim

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective Effects of newly isolated Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation and chemical composition of fresh rice straw silage was evaluated in this study. Methods Lactic acid bacteria (LAB from good crop silage were screened by growing them in MRS broth and a minimal medium with low carbohydrate content. Selected LAB (LAB 1821 were Gram-positive, rods, catalase negative, and were identified to be Lactobacillus plantarum based on their biochemical characteristics and a 16S rRNA analysis. Fresh rice straw was ensiled with two isolated LAB (1821 and 1841, two commercial inoculants (HM/F and P1132 and no additive as a control. Results After 2 months of storage at ambient temperature, rice straw silages treated with additives were well-preserved, the pH values and butyric and acetic acid contents were lower, and the lactic acid content and lactic/acetic acid ratio were higher than those in the control (p0.05 effect on acid detergent fiber or neutral detergent fiber contents. Crude protein (CP content and in vitro DM digestibility (IVDMD increased after inoculation of LAB 1821 (p<0.05. Conclusion LAB 1821 increased the CP, IVDMD, lactic acid content and ratio of lactic acid to acetic acid in rice straw silage and decreased the pH, acetic acid, NH3-N, and butyric acid contents. Therefore, adding LAB 1821 improved the fermentation quality and feed value of rice straw silage.

  14. Utilization of Cacao Pod Husk Silage as Cattle Ration Mixture at Taluditi, Pohuwatu Regency, Gorontalo Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, M.; Pratama, H. Y.; Martono, E.

    2018-02-01

    Cacao plantation produces cacao pod husks (CPHs) by-products during the harvest period. This research aimed to make benefits the CPH, preserved with silage technology as cattle ration mixture, investigate the adequacy of nutrient for the cattle after treated with addition of CPH silage, and investigate the quota of cattle treated with CPH silage addition. The research design was conducted by giving extension and field observation that was carried out at Taluditi on July to August 2015 during the activity of Student Community Service (KKN PPM UGM Unit Gorontalo 02). The secondary data was gathered from the Department of Agriculture and Plantation Pohuwatu Regency, and also supporting references. The number of respondents in each location was about 30 - 40 people. The research results showed that the silage preservation technology can be well received by the farmers. There was improvement of cattle ration nutrient supplemented with CPH compared to that of ration nutrient which was usually be used by the farmers or standard ration nutrient. The research also resulted in fresh CPH production 2,625.741 tons/year, CPH silage production 2,140.549 tons/year and load capacity + 575 heads/day weight 250-300 kg.

  15. Relationships between the addition rates of cellulase or glucose and silage fermentation at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Kawamoto, Hidenori; Cai, Yi-Min

    2010-06-01

    The influence of the application rates of cellulase preparation and glucose on silage fermentation at different temperatures was studied with the straw of naked barley (Hordeum vulgare L. emand Lam) and guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.). Addition rate of cellulase and glucose, temperature and their interaction had significant effects on pH value, lactic acid content, butyric acid content and propionic acid content of naked barley straw silage and significant effects on all the parameters of guineagrass silage (P 0.05). Under all the temperatures, the pH values of barley straw and guineagrass silages were reduced by cellulase and glucose addition even at the lowest rate (P butyric acid production varied with their application rates and silage storage temperature. The addition rate of restricting butyric acid fermentation was lower at 20 degrees C than that at 30 degrees C, and it was the lowest at 40 degrees C where cellulase and glucose addition restricted butyric acid fermentation even at 0.1 g/kg and 10 g/kg, respectively, when compared to the control. While the addition rate was lower than the above level, cellulase and glucose addition also promoted butyric acid fermentation.

  16. In vitro methane production and quality of corn silage treated with maleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanber Kara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of maleic acid (MA addition to corn at ensiling on silage quality and in vitro methane and total gas production, metabolisable energy (ME, and organic matter digestibility (OMD parameters by using in vitro gas production techniques. Forage corn was ensiled either without (control group: MA 0 or with three different dosages of maleic acid, 0.5% (MA 0.5, 1.0% (MA 1.0, and 1.5% (MA 1.5 w/w of the fresh material for 60 days. As a result of this study, neutral detergent fibre level was decreased in the MA 1.5 group (P<0.05. The 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5% addition of maleic acid to forage corn at ensiling increased lactic acid concentration (P<0.05 in silage and reduced propionic acid (P<0.05. Iso-valeric acid concentration in the organic acids of the silage was decreased with maleic acid addition (P<0.05. The maleic acid addition decreased in vitro ruminal methane production (P<0.01. The silage pH value, and acetic, butyric and isobutyric acid concentrations and in vitro total gas production, OMD, and ME values did not change by MA addition (P>0.05. It was concluded that MA addition could reduce methane emission without any negative effects on silage nutrient composition or in vitro ruminal fermentation parameters.

  17. In situ degradability of dry matter and fibrous fraction of sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Ferreira Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate in situ degradability and degradation kinetics of DM, NDF and ADF of silage, with or without tannin in the grains. Two isogenic lines of grain sorghum (CMS-XS 114 with tannin and CMS-XS 165 without tannin and two sorghum hybrids (BR-700 dual purpose with tannin and BR-601 forage without tannin were ensiled; dried and ground silage samples were placed in nylon bags and introduced through the fistulas. After incubation for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, bags were taken for subsequent analysis of fibrous fractions. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replicates and 4 treatments and means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. As for the DM degradation rate, silage of CMSXS165without tannin was superior. Silages of genotypes BR700 and CMSXS 114 with tannin showed the highest values of indigestible ADF (59.54 and 43.09%. Regarding the NDF, the potential degradation of silage of CMSXS165 line without tannin was superior. Tannin can reduce ruminal degradability of the dry matter and fibrous fractions.

  18. Kinnow madarin (Citrus nobilis lour × Citrus deliciosa tenora) fruit waste silage as potential feed for small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malla, B A; Rastogi, A; Sharma, R K; Ishfaq, A; Farooq, And J

    2015-01-01

    Study was conducted to ascertain the quality of Kinnow mandarin waste (KMW) silage and its utilization by adult male goats. KMW was collected, dried to 30% dry matter level and ensiled in silo pit after addition of disodium hydrogen orthophosphate as source of phosphorus as KMW is deficient in phosphorus. Oat was collected at milking stage, chopped finely and ensiled in a silo pit for 2 months. Twelve nondescript local adult male goats of about 8-10 months age and mean body weight of 23.00±0.90 kg were selected. The goats were randomly allotted on body weight as per randomized block design into two equal groups, six animals in each group (n=6) namely "oat silage (OS)" and "Kinnow silage." Goats were offered weighed quantities of respective silage on ad libitum basis. The silages were evaluated for proximate principles and silage quality attributes. Differences were found between chemical composition of both silages with higher organic matter, ether extracts, nitrogen free extract (p0.05 for CP) and possess comparable (2.23 vs. 2.06; p>0.05) calcium content. The pH, ammonia nitrogen (percent of total nitrogen) and soluble carbohydrate content were lower (4.20 vs. 3.30; 4.14 vs. 3.80; 2.73 vs. 1.86; p0.05) among the two dietary groups. It can be concluded that KMW can be used to prepare good quality silage for feeding of goats.

  19. The effects of additives in napier grass silages on chemical composition, feed intake, nutrient digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureenok, Smerjai; Yuangklang, Chalermpon; Vasupen, Kraisit; Schonewille, J Thomas; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro

    2012-09-01

    The effect of silage additives on ensiling characteristics and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silages was studied. Napier grass silages were made with no additive, fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB), molasses or cassava meal. The ensiling characteristics were determined by ensiling Napier grass silages in airtight plastic pouches for 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 45 d. The effect of Napier grass silages treated with these additives on voluntary feed intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation and microbial rumen fermentation was determined in 4 fistulated cows using 4×4 Latin square design. The pH value of the treated silages rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 d of the start of fermentation, as compared to the control. Lactic acid content of silages treated with FJLB was stable at 14 d of fermentation and constant until 45 d of ensiling. At 45 d of ensiling, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of silage treated with cassava meal were significantly lower (pNapier grass.

  20. Soybean milk residue ensiled with peanut hulls: fermentation acids, cell wall composition, and silage utilization by mixed ruminal microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C-M J

    2005-08-01

    Preservation of soybean milk residue (SMR) by ensiling with peanut hulls (PEH) and subsequent utilization of silage by mixed ruminal microorganisms were investigated. Treatments were combinations of SMR with PEH at the following ratios: 100:0, 78:22, 71:29, and 60:40 (fresh weight basis). After eight weeks of ensiling, silage lactic acid, crude protein, ether extract, and non-fiber carbohydrates were highest when SMR was ensiled alone and reduced as amounts of SMR decreased. Similar trends were observed for silage in vitro dry matter digestibility, and gas and volatile fatty acid production by ruminal microorganisms. Conversely, silage pH, dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, cellulose, and lignin increased accordingly. The ensiling treatment appeared to alter silage cell wall composition. In particular, silage treated with PEH at the low level (78:22) resulted in reduced fiber contents and lignification. The silage (SMR:PEH=78:22) had enhanced efficiency of both silage fermentation and in vitro ruminal fermentation pattern.

  1. Effect of corn silage harvest maturity and concentrate type on milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, N.A.; Tewoldebrhan, T.A.; Zom, R.L.G.; Cone, J.W.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The variation in maturity at harvest during grain filling has a major effect on the carbohydrate composition (starch:NDF ratio) and fatty acid (FA) content of corn silages, and can alter the FA composition of milk fat in dairy cows. This study evaluated the effect of silage corn (cv. Atrium)

  2. Conservation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Sunflower Silages as Affected by The Maturity Stages and Fibrolytic Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Erdoğan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Silage quality and nutritive value of sunflower silages ensiled with different level of fibrolytic enzymes at blooming, milk and dough stages were investigated. Fibrolytic enzyme complex (Viscozyme® L, V2010 Sigma Novozyme was applied 0, 1, 1.5 and 2.5 ml/kgDM at ensiling. The dry matter (DM yield increased with each increment of the maturity stage. Dry matter (DM, ether extract (EE and crude cellulose (CC contents of silages increased also in each delay in harvesting, while crude protein (CP, NDF and ADF contents of silages were the highest in blooming stage. The pH was higher in sunflower silage harvested at dough stage when compared to blooming stage, while acetic, propionic and butyric acid concentrations were all higher in blooming stage, although there were no differences in lactic acid concentrations among harvesting periods. Although silage structural carbohydrate composition was not significantly affected by any enzyme dose, Dose III enzyme treatment at the dough was associated with the highest concentration of lactic acid. Overall, there was no profound effect of enzyme supplementation on nutritive value and silage characteristics of sunflower silage.

  3. The effects of urea-treated potato pulp (PP) ensiled with beet pulp or wheat bran pellets to reduce moisture of PP and flake density of corn grain supplemented with the PP silage on digestibility and ruminal fermentation in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masahito; Saito, Waka; Ooi, Motoki

    2010-06-01

    The effects of adding beet pulp or wheat bran to urea-treated potato pulp (PP) in order to reduce moisture of PP silage and flake density of corn grain on digestibility and ruminal fermentation in beef steers were studied in a split-plot design experiment. The whole-plot treatments were PP silage mixed with 0% added pellets (CON), 9% (as-fed basis) beet pulp pellets (BP) or 9% (as-fed basis) wheat bran pellets (WB) as water-absorbing materials. The subplot treatments consisted of supplements formulated to contain either high-density corn (HDC) or low-density corn (LDC). BP steers consumed more (BP vs WB, P = 0.011) concentrate than did WB steers, whereas hay intake did not differ between the treatments. Dry matter (BP vs WB, P = 0.023) and organic matter (BP vs WB, P = 0.029) digestibility were higher for BP steers than for WB steers. Starch digestibility was higher (P = 0.006) for LDC than for HDC. There were no differences in the concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen among the treatments. Molar proportions of ruminal acetate were higher for BP steers than for WB steers (BP vs WB, P = 0.030). Conversely, molar proportions of propionate were lower for BP steers than for WB steers (BP vs WB, P = 0.044). Flake density of corn did not affect ruminal characteristics. In conclusion, from the viewpoint of feed intake and digestibility, BP is superior to WB as a moisture control material for urea-treated PP silage, and flake density of corn supplemented with urea-treated PP silage does not alter ruminal fermentation.

  4. Corn plant arrangement and its effect on silage quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Reimann Skonieski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of the row spacing between corn plants on silage quality. Different spacing between corn rows (40, 60, and 80 cm was used, but the population of plants was maintained around 65,000/ha in all treatments. Analysis of variance was carried out and means were compared by Tukey's test at 5% of probability. A reduction in row spacing provided better spatial distribution of plants, but did not alter morphological composition or dry matter production. The corn with most equidistant spatial distribution (lowest row spacing showed an increase in lignin concentration, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates, and showed a decrease in total digestible nutrients when compared with 80 cm row spacing. However, the organic digestibility matter was not affected by the treatments. The content and quality of protein were higher for 80 cm row spacing compared with the other levels; also, protein content was reduced as the spacing between rows became smaller. The only mineral affected was calcium, which had the lowest value at higher levels of spacing. Although differences were detected for many variables, the most appropriate spacing between rows should also take into account economic and practical aspects when choosing the best plant arrangement.

  5. Sorghum silage production system in Cariri, Paraíba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebson Pereira Cândido

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the sorghum farming and ensiling systems in the Cariri region of Paraíba State (Brazil, and to identify different groups of producers based on productive characteristics using frequency distributions, and principal component and cluster analyses. A total of 100 milk producers in the Caturité and Boqueirão municipalities in the dairy region of Cariri, Paraíba, were selected to fill out a questionnaire comprised of 32 questions to collect data on both qualitative and quantitative variables. Of the 100 properties studied, 88% cultivated sorghum as silage forage for feeding dairy cows, demonstrating the importance of this cultural practice in the region of Cariri. Statistical analyses based on the variables studied identified four groups, composed of 35, 8, 6, and 39 farmers. The sorghum cultivation and ensiling production system in Cariri can be improved through the evaluation and improvement of soil fertility to obtain higher forage production, application of weed control using herbicides, and implementation of mechanized planting and harvesting to improve efficiency and reduce costs associated with manpower.

  6. Components of genetic variability of ear length of silage maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sečanski Mile

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate following parameters of the ear length of silage maize: variability of inbred lines and their diallel hybrids, superior-parent heterosis and genetic components of variability and habitability on the basis of a diallel set. The analysis of genetic variance shows that the additive component (D was lower than the dominant (H1 and H2 genetic variances, while the frequency of dominant genes (u for this trait was greater than the frequency of recessive genes (v Furthermore, this is also confirmed by the dominant to recessive genes ratio in parental inbreeds for the ear length (Kd/Kr> 1, which is greater than unity during both investigation years. The calculated value of the average degree of dominance √H1/D is greater than unity, pointing out to superdominance in inheritance of this trait in both years of investigation, which is also confirmed by the results of Vr/Wr regression analysis of inheritance of the ear length. As a presence of the non-allelic interaction was established it is necessary to study effects of epitasis as it can have a greater significance in certain hybrids. A greater value of dominant than additive variance resulted in high broad-sense habitability for ear length in both investigation years.

  7. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  8. Differential mesenteric fat deposition in bovines fed on silage or concentrate is independent of glycerol membrane permeability

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Ana Paula; Lopes, Paula A.; Costa, Ana Sofia H.; Martins, Susana V.; Santos, Nuno C.; Prates, José A. M.; Moura, Teresa F.; Soveral, Graça

    2011-01-01

    © The Animal Consortium 2011 In the meat industry, the manipulation of fat deposition in cattle is of pivotal importance to improve production efficiency, carcass composition and ultimately meat quality. There is an increasing interest in the identification of key factors and molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of specific fat depots. This study aimed at elucidating the influence of breed and diet on adipose tissue membrane permeability and fluidity and their interplay on ...

  9. Aspects of physiological effects of sodium zeolite A supplementation in dry, non-pregnant dairy cows fed grass silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, J M; Frandsen, A M; Thilsing-Hansen, T

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to monitor serum and urine biochemical changes in dairy cows during and after oral administration of a synthetic sodium aluminium-silicate (zeolite A). A prospective longitudinal study involving four non-pregnant and non-lactating cows was chosen. Cows were...

  10. Effect of Different Silage Storing Conditions on the Oxygen Concentration in the Silo and Fermentation Quality of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uegaki, Ryuichi; Kawano, Kazuo; Ohsawa, Ryo; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Yamamura, Kohji

    2017-06-21

    We investigated the effects of different silage storing conditions on the oxygen concentration in the silo and fermentation quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Forage rice was ensiled in bottles (with or without space at the bottlemouth, with solid or pinhole cap, and with oxygen scavenger, ethanol transpiration agent, oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent, or no adjuvant) and stored for 57 days. The oxygen concentration decreased with the addition of the oxygen scavenger and increased with that of the ethanol transpiration agent. The oxygen scavenger facilitated silage fermentation and fungus generation, whereas the ethanol transpiration agent suppressed silage fermentation and fungus generation. However, the combined use of the oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent facilitated silage fermentation and also suppressed fungus generation. Overall, this study revealed the negative effects of oxygen on the internal silo and the positive effects of the combined use of the oxygen scavenger and ethanol transpiration agent on silage fermentation quality.

  11. Effects of sodium diacetate on the fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa silage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, XianJun; Wen, AiYou; Desta, Seare T.; Wang, Jian; Shao, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sodium diacetate (SDA) on fermentation profile, chemical composition and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Methods Fresh alfalfa was ensiled with various concentrations of SDA (0, 3, 5, 7, and 9 g/kg of fresh forage). After 60 days of the ensiling, the samples were collected to examine the fermentative quality, chemical composition and aerobic stability. Results The application of SDA significantly (pensiling. Alfalfa silages treated with SDA at 7 g/kg had highest Flieg’s point and remained stable more than 9 d during aerobic exposure under humid and hot conditions in southern China. Conclusion SDA may be used as an additive for alfalfa silages at a level of 7 g/kg. PMID:28111451

  12. Supply of nutrients and productive responses in dairy cows given diets based on restrictively fermented silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. HUHTANEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to review research which has evaluated the feeding of dairy cows with diets containing large proportions of grass silage. In Finland, milk production systems evolved are based on the use of restrictively fermented silages. Higher potential yields, smaller production risks than with cereal grains, short grazing period and high digestibility of grasses grown in northern latitudes have facilitated this development. Factors affecting nutrient supply from these diets are discussed. Digestibility is determined mainly by the stage of maturity at harvesting and it is not markedly affected by the level of energy and protein supplementation. Intake of grass silage is influenced both by digestibility and fermentation characteristics. Efficiency of microbial synthesis is high in animals given diets based on restrictively fermented silage but rumen fermentation pattern is characterised by low molar proportions of propionate. Production responses to additional concentrate are relatively small, especially when the amount of concentrate exceeds 10 kg day-1. High substitution of silage dry matter (DM, negative associative effects on digestion and partitioning of energy towards body tissues account for small production responses. Protein supplementation has consistently increased milk protein yield but responses do not appear to be related to the level of milk production, silage crude protein content, amount of concentrate or stage of lactation. The new protein evaluation system provides an accurate prediction of protein yield with the typical Finnish dairy cow diets. The high slopes (ca. 0.5 between protein supply and milk protein yield within experiments suggest that protein supply is suboptimal and protein supplements are used with a high efficiency.;

  13. Digestibility, fermentation and microbiological characteristics of Calotropis procera silage with different quantities of grape pomace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clérison dos Santos Belém

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Preserving forage plants adapted to a semi-arid climate as silage may minimize the animal feed deficit during drought. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different quantities of grape pomace added to Calotropis procera silage on its fermentation, in vitro digestibility, total digestible nutrients and microbiology. A completely randomized experimental design was used with four treatments (0, 10, 20 and 40% fresh matter and four replicates. The silos were opened after 90 days of ensilage, and the soluble carbohydrate, ethanol, organic acid and ammoniacal nitrogen concentrations; pH; fermentation loss; dry matter (DM recovery; DM density, and microbial populations were determined. The pH (3.96-3.87 was adequate for ensiling in all silage samples. The soluble carbohydrate concentration decreased (p<0.05, and the ethanol concentration increased with increasing quantities of grape pomace. The lactic acid concentration decreased (p<0.05 from 5.3 to 1.94% DM, and the acetic, propionic and butyric acid concentrations increased with increasing quantities of grape pomace. The lactic acid bacteria decreased linearly (p <0.05, varying from 6.43 to 5.82 log CFU/g silage. The mold and yeast population variations fit best using a third-order polynomial equation (p <0.05. Enterobacteria and Clostridium spp were not observed. Adding grape pomace to the silage increased the effluent and gas loss; the latter varied from 5.35 to 14.4%. The total digestible nutrient (TDN variation fit best using a second-order polynomial equation, and the maximum value was estimated at 82.95% DM with 3.5% grape pomace using the regression equation. The percent digestibility decreased linearly (p<0.05 with increasing quantities of grape pomace. We show that Calotropis procera has potential as silage even without adding grape pomace.

  14. Effects of ensiling density on nutritive value of maize and sorghum silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekin Sucu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies were conducted to determine the effects of different ensiling densities on fermentation, aerobic stability, and nutritive value of maize and sorghum silages. Maize and sorghum were harvested at dough (363 g/kg and milk stages (275 g/kg, respectively. Herbages were chopped approximately 1.5 cm after harvest and then ensiled in mini silos at high and low-bulk densities for 8.5 weeks. Different bulk densities were achieved by ensiling different weights of herbage in the fixed-volume mini silos (1.5-L anaerobic jars, Weck, Germany. The obtained dry matter (DM densities were 168 and 216 kg of DM/m3 for maize forage and 132 and 178 kg of DM/m3 for sorghum forage. Fermentation kinetics, the rate of aerobic deterioration upon aerobic exposure, and nutrient digestibility were followed during the periods of ensiling (on days 2, 4, 8, 15, and 60. In all cases, increased packing density resulted in silages with lower acetate content, ammonium N levels, and fermentation losses, but lactate content did not differ. Butyrate was detected in appreciable amounts only in sorghum silage. Propionate was not detected in any silage. Tightly packed silages remained stable upon exposure to air. Tight packing increases the digestibly of nutrients and improves the energy content of silages. These data show that high density limits air infiltration and reduces the oxidation loss during storage and feed-out. As a consequence, more dry matter is recovered and more energy is preserved.

  15. Effects of wilting and molasses addition on fermentation and bacterial community in guinea grass silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, N; Li, Y; Wang, C; Parvin, S

    2012-03-01

    Acetic acid is considered an important preservative in tropical grass ensiling. The objective of the current experiments was to follow the ensiling fermentation of low dry matter (DM) tropical grass as a model to study changes in bacterial communities during acetic acid fermentation. Direct-cut and wilted guinea grass silage was prepared with and without molasses. A high acetic acid level was observed during the fermentation of direct-cut silage, and long storage increased the butyric acid and ethanol content if molasses was not added. The lactic acid production in wilted silage was greater than the acetic acid production, but prolonged ensiling decreased the lactic to acetic acid ratio regardless of molasses addition. Adding molasses enhanced the lactic acid content in both direct-cut and wilted silage. The bacterial community, identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, was affected by wilting and molasses addition. Bands for Pantoea sp. and Morganella sp. became faint when acetic acid fermentation was suppressed, and those for Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactococcus garvieae were detected when lactic acid fermentation was enhanced by wilting and molasses addition. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis were found throughout the ensiling process in all silage types. Distinct changes occurred in the bacterial community in guinea grass silage because of wilting and molasses addition. These changes could explain how lactic acid fermentation was enhanced but could not help determine which bacteria were associated with enhanced acetic acid fermentation. The study reveals the effects of wilting and molasses during ensiling of low DM tropical grasses and the associated bacteria. © 2011 The Authors. Letters in Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Evaluation of potato hash silage from two bacterial inoculants and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pigs were allocated in a complete randomized block design with four treatments, and each treatment consisted of eight boars and eight sows. Pigs were fed ad libitum, feed intake was measured daily while body masses were recorded at the start and weekly throughout the experimental period. The dry matter intake ...

  17. Multi-mycotoxin analysis of maize silage by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Storm, Ida Marie Lindhardt Drejer; Rasmussen, Peter Have

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method for determination of 27 mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites in maize silage. The method focuses on analytes which are known to be produced by common maize and maize-silage contaminants. A simple pH-buffered sample extraction was developed on the basis of a very...... fast and simple method for analysis of multiple pesticide residues in food known as QuEChERS. The buffering effectively ensured a stable pH in samples of both well-ensiled maize (pH7). No further clean-up was performed before analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The method...

  18. Effects of different fertilizers on quantity and quality of silage corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Francia

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Different fertilizers, ammonia sulfate and urea (MIN, Fertil 12.5 (ORG and Azoslow (ORG-MIN were compared in a silage corn crop. Total biomass yield was above 55.0 t ha-1 for all fertilizers. Azoslow showed the highest dry matter content (40.8%. No differences among the fertilizers were found in protein content (4.9% on average at waxy ripening, with the control showing the lowest value (3.9%. There were also no differences in silage quality among the fertilizers. The N budget was estimated in order to quantify the residual nitrogen amounts at harvest and the efficiency of fertilizers.

  19. Nutritive value, fermentation characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of sorghum silage treated with inoculants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, M E; Foster, J L; McCuistion, K C; Redmon, L A; Jessup, R W

    2013-01-01

    Fibrolytic enzymes and microbial inoculants have the potential to improve the value of sorghum feedstuff and feedstock. An experiment was conducted to determine nutritive value, ensiling characteristics, and in situ disappearance kinetics of 4 sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silage varieties: Dairy Master BMR (DBMR; brown midrib; Richardson Seed, Vega, TX), PS 747 (PS; photoperiod sensitive; Pogue Seed, Kenedy, TX), Silo 700D (S700D; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed), and MMR 381/73 (MMR; conventional forage type; Richardson Seed) pretreated with fibrolytic enzyme (xylanase plus cellulase, XC; 50:50 mixture of Cellulase Plus and Xylanase Plus; Dyadic, Juniper, FL) or microbial [Promote ASB (Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum); Cargill Animal Nutrition, Indianapolis, IN; PRO] inoculants. The greatest yield was for cultivar PS and the least for MMR. Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentration was least for XC-treated silage, and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentration was least for XC- and PRO-treated silage. When silage was treated with XC, concentrations of NDF concentrations decreased, on average, 4.81% across all cultivars and ADF concentrations decreased, on average, 3.23% in all cultivars except MMR. Inoculant PRO reduced the NDF concentration of DBMR by 6.47%. The ADF concentrations of DBMR and PS treated with PRO were decreased by 3.25%. Treating sorghum silage with XC or PRO reduced the NDF and ADF fractions, which increased cell wall degradability. In vitro true digestibility was greatest for PRO-treated DBMR, whereas acid detergent lignin was least for PRO-treated DBMR. Aerobic stability was not improved by PRO; however, aerobic stability of XC-treated MMR was 63 h greater than that of the control. Acetate concentrations were greatest for XC-treated MMR, which explains the 63-h improvement in aerobic stability due to the inhibition of fungi. However, inoculant PRO did not improve yeast and mold counts or aerobic stability of sorghum

  20. Comparative microbiota assessment of wilted Italian ryegrass, whole crop corn, and wilted alfalfa silage using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and next-generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Kuikui; Minh, Tang Thuy; Tu, Tran Thi Minh; Tsuruta, Takeshi; Pang, Huili; Nishino, Naoki

    2017-02-01

    The microbiota of pre-ensiled crop and silage were examined using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and next-generation sequencing (NGS). Wilted Italian ryegrass (IR), whole crop corn (WC), and wilted alfalfa (AL) silages stored for 2 months were examined. All silages contained lactic acid as a predominant fermentation product. Across the three crop species, DGGE detected 36 and 28 bands, and NGS identified 253 and 259 genera in the pre-ensiled crops and silages, respectively. The NGS demonstrated that, although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) became prevalent in all silages after 2 months of storage, the major groups were different between crops: Leuconostoc spp. and Pediococcus spp. for IR silage, Lactobacillus spp. for WC silage, and Enterococcus spp. for AL silage. The predominant silage LAB genera were also detected by DGGE, but the presence of diverse non-LAB species in pre-ensiled crops was far better detected by NGS. Likewise, good survival of Agrobacterium spp., Methylobacterium spp., and Sphingomonas spp. in IR and AL silages was demonstrated by NGS. The diversity of the microbiota described by principal coordinate analysis was similar between DGGE and NGS. Our finding that analysis of pre-ensiled crop microbiota did not help predict silage microbiota was true for both DGGE and NGS.

  1. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (Pdiets v. the SS diet further increased (Pdiets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  2. Comparison of Maize Silage-based Diets for Dairy Cows Containing Extruded Rapeseed Cake or Extruded Full-fat Soybean as Major Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Třináctý

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The trial was carried out on four Holstein cows with initial milk yield of 27.3 ± 1.7 kg.day−1. Cows were divided into two groups – the first was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake (D-ERC, the second one was fed a diet based on extruded full-fat soybean (D-EFFS, both diets contained maize silage and meadow hay. The experiment was divided into 4 periods of 42 days. Intake of dry matter, crude protein and NEL was not affected by the treatment (P > 0.05 while the intake of PDIA, PDIN and PDIE was lower in D-ERC than in D-EFFS (P < 0.05. Milk yield in D-ERC (22.6 kg.d−1 was lower than in D-EFFS (24.7 kg.d−1, P < 0.001 while concentration of milk fat and protein were reverse (P < 0.05. Smaller portion of essential AADI in crude protein intake (CPI in D-ERC resulted in lower efficiency of CPI utilization for milk protein synthesis in comparison to D-EFFS being 313 and 327 g.kg−1, respectively (P < 0.01. Concentration of AA in blood plasma was not affected by the type of diet except of His and Ile that were higher in D-EFFS (P < 0.01.

  3. Corn silage hybrid type and quality of alfalfa hay affect dietary nitrogen utilization by early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, M S; Neal, K; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; Nestor, K E

    2013-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of corn silage (CS) hybrids and quality of alfalfa hay (AH) in high-forage dairy diets on N utilization, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by early-lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous Holstein cows were used in a duplicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. The 8 cows (average days in milk = 23 ± 11.2) were surgically fitted with ruminal cannula, and the 2 squares were conducted simultaneously. Within square, cows were randomly assigned to a sequence of 4 diets: conventional CS (CCS) or brown midrib CS (BMR) was combined with fair-quality AH [FAH: 46.7% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and 18.4% crude protein (CP)] or high-quality AH (HAH: 39.2% NDF and 20.7% CP) to form 4 treatments: CCS with FAH, CCS with HAH, BMR with FAH, and BMR with HAH. Diets were isonitrogenous across treatments, averaging 15.9% CP. Each period lasted a total of 21 d, with 14 d for treatment adaptation and 7d for data collection and sampling. Intake of DM and milk yield did not differ in response to CS hybrids or AH quality. Although feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N output by 24%, it did not affect fecal N output. Feeding HAH decreased urinary N output by 15% but increased fecal N output by 20%. Nitrogen efficiency [milk N (g/d)/intake N (g/d)] tended to increase for BMR treatments. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was lower for cows fed BMR-based diets than for those fed CCS-based diets but was not affected by quality of AH. Feeding BMR-based diets or HAH decreased milk urea N concentration by 23 or 15%, respectively, compared with CCS-based diets or FAH. Total volatile fatty acid concentration increased with HAH but was not influenced by CS hybrids. Feeding BMR-based diets decreased urinary N-to-fecal N ratio (UN:FN), and it was further reduced by feeding HAH. Although cows fed the BMR-based diets tended to increase milk N-to-manure N ratio, the

  4. Annual maize and perennial grass-clover strip cropping for increased resource use efficiency and productivity using organic farming practice as a model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Johansen, Anders; Carter, Mette Sustmann

    2013-01-01

    A cropping system was designed to fulfill the increasing demand for biomass for food and energy without decreasing long term soil fertility. A field experiment was carried out including alternating strips of annual maize (Zea mays L.) and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) – clover (Trifolium...

  5. Fatty Acids, α-Tocopherol, β-Carotene and Lutein Contents in Forage Legumes, Forbs and a Grass-Clover Mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgersma, A.; Søegaard, Karen; Jensen, Søren Krogh

    2013-01-01

    plantain ( Plantago lanceolata )) and three legume species (yellow sweet clover ( Melilotus officinalis ), lucerne ( Medicago sativa ), and birdsfoot trefoil ( Lotus corniculatus ))] and a perennial ryegrass-white clover mixture were investigated in a cutting trial with four harvests (May-October) during...

  6. Nitrate leaching and residual effect in dairy crop rotations with grass-clover leys as influenced by sward age, grazing, cutting and fertilizer regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Askegaard, Margrethe; Rasmussen, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Intensive dairy farming, with grass-arable crop rotations is challenged by low N use efficiency that may have adverse environmental consequences. We investigated nitrate leaching and N fertility effects of grass–clover leys for five years in two organic crop rotations with different grassland...

  7. Effects of four short-chain fatty acids or salts on fermentation characteristics and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xian J; Wen, Ai Y; Wang, Jian; Desta, Seare T; Dong, Zhi H; Shao, Tao

    2018-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of four chemicals on the fermentation quality and aerobic stability of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage. Wilted alfalfa was ensiled without additive (control), or with formic acid (FA), potassium diformate (KDF), sodium diacetate (SDA) or calcium propionate (CAP). After 60 days of ensiling, the pH values in FA, KDF and SDA silages were lower (P < 0.05) compared to that of control and CAP silages, and chemicals (P < 0.05) decreased butyric acid and ammonia N concentrations and populations of aerobic bacteria and yeasts compared to the control. The SDA and CAP silages had a higher (P < 0.05) lactic acid bacteria content compared to the FA and KDF silages. The SDA and CAP silages had higher (P < 0.05) acetic and propionic acid contents compared to the other silages, respectively. The ammonia N concentrations in the FA and KDF silages were lower compared to the other silages during the first 5 days of aerobic exposure, and then increased sharply to 105 and 100 g kg -1 total N, respectively, which was higher (P < 0.05) than that of the SDA and CAP silages on day 9 of aerobic exposure. Yeasts and aerobic bacteria counts in SDA silage slowly increased and remained at lower levels compared to the other silages after 7 days of aerobic exposure. Additives prolonged the aerobic stability duration compared to the control, and the SDA and CAP silages remained stable for more than 216 h, followed by the KDF and FA silages (202 and 196 h, respectively). © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 or Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1 on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silages ensiled at two dry matter contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W; Schmidt, R J; McDonell, E E; Klingerman, C M; Kung, L

    2009-08-01

    Whole-plant corn was harvested at 33 (normal) and 41% (moderately high) dry matter (DM) and ensiled in quadruplicate 20-L laboratory silos to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 (LB) or L. plantarum MTD-1 (LP) alone, or in combination, on the fermentation and aerobic stability of the resulting silage. Aerobic stability was defined as the amount of time after exposure to air for the silage temperature to reach 2 degrees C above ambient temperature. The chopped forage was used in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: normal and moderately high DM contents, LB at 0 (untreated) or 4 x 10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, and LP at 0 or 1 x 10(5) cfu/g. After 240 d of ensiling, corn silage harvested at the moderately high DM had higher pH, higher concentrations of ethanol, and more yeasts compared with the silage ensiled at the normal DM content. Inoculation with LB did not affect the concentration of lactic acid in silages with a moderately high DM, but decreased the concentration of lactic acid in the silage with normal DM. Higher concentrations of acetic acid were found in the silage treated with LB compared with those not treated with this organism. Inoculation with LP increased the concentration of lactic acid only in the silage with the normal DM content. The concentration of acetic acid was lower in silage treated with LP with a moderately high DM content, but greater in the silage treated with LP with the normal DM content when compared with silages without this inoculant. Appreciable amounts of 1,2-propanediol (average 1.65%, DM basis) were found in all silages treated with LB regardless of the DM content. The addition of L. buchneri increased the concentration of NH(3)-N in silages but the addition of L. plantarum decreased it. Aerobic stability was improved in all silages treated with LB, with greater aerobic stability occurring in the silage with moderately high DM compared with silage with normal DM content. Inoculation with LP had no

  9. Effects of chemical additives on the fermentation quality and N distribution of alfalfa silage in south of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Hou, Chen; Tang, Haiyang; Wang, Qian; Shen, Yixin

    2016-12-01

    In order to better utilize the last cut alfalfa harvested before killing frost in a high moisture environment, the effects of chemical additives on the quality of alfalfa silage were studied in south of China. The alfalfa was freshly harvested at branching stage, and wilted by dry matter content of about 300 g/kg (fresh matter basis). Silage was prepared by using a small-scale silage fermentation system, where sucrose, potassium citrate, sodium carbonate, formic acid, acetic acid and propionic acid were used as silage additives, and no additives served as control. These silos were stored at ambient temperature (5-20°C), and the silage qualities were analyzed after 120 days of fermentation. All additive treatments affected the chemical composition and N distribution, increased the water-soluble content and crude protein contents, decreased non-protein nitrogen (NPN) content, and enhanced the in vitro ruminal dry matter digestibility (except for sodium carbonate). Silages treated with organic acids were preserved with significantly (P acids resulted in high quality of alfalfa silage ensiled before killing frost, with formic acid having the best effect. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  10. The effects of feeding mixed cereal-tree forage legume silages on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of feeding mixed cereal-tree forage legume silages on mild yield and composition in lactating. BZ Mugweni, M titterton, BV Maasdorp, JF Mupangwa, F Gandiya. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  11. Recent information on nutritive values of maize silage and its importance in beef cattle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rade

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents the latest scientific accomplishments in selection of silage hybrids with a special regard to digestibility as a quality parameter of the maize plant. The most important quality parameters, necessary in silage maize hybrid selection with the aim of completely defining their nutritive values, are presented in the case of the most demanded MRI hybrids of all maturity groups and encompass the following: the whole plant DM yield, the share of ears in DM yield, NDF, ADF and ADL content, and especially in vitro DM digestibility according to the Tilley and Terry method. Hybrids can be compared by the use of the exact values for the stated criteria and at the same time it is possible to make actual recommendations for certain production. The importance of the whole maize plant silage is manifested in beef cattle feeding, as the use of 3-12 kg silage day-1 with the appropriate feed concentrate significantly contributes to the more economic production of beef for which the demand in our country is realistic.

  12. Characterization and application of lactic acid bacteria for tropical silage preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pholsen, Suradej; Khota, Waroon; Pang, Huili; Higgs, David; Cai, Yimin

    2016-10-01

    Strains TH 14, TH 21 and TH 64 were isolated from tropical silages, namely corn stover, sugar cane top and rice straw, respectively, prepared in Thailand. These strains were selected by low pH growth range and high lactic acid-producing ability, similar to some commercial inoculants. Based on the analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence and DNA-DNA relatedness, strain TH 14 was identified as Lactobacillus casei, and strains TH 21 and TH 64 were identified as L. plantarum. Strains TH 14, TH 21, TH 64 and two commercial inoculants, CH (L. plantarum) and SN (L. rhamnosus), were used as additives to fresh and wilted purple Guinea and sorghum silages prepared using a small-scale fermentation method. The number of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the forages before ensilage was relatively low but the numbers of coliform and aerobic bacteria were higher. Sorghum silages at 30 days of fermentation were all well preserved with low pH (3.56) and high lactic acid production (72.86 g/kg dry matter). Purple Guinea silage inoculated with LAB exhibited reduced count levels of aerobic and coliform bacteria, lower pH, butyric acid and ammonia nitrogen and increased lactic acid concentration, compared with the control. Strain TH 14 more effectively improved lactic acid production compared with inoculants and other strains. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  13. [Effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tibetan Plateau on silage fermentation quality of Elms nutans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Ke, Wencan; Jing, Peixin; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Ming; Yu, Yingwen; Guo, Xusheng

    2015-10-04

    In order to detect the effect of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Tibetan Plateau on silage fermentation quality of Elms nutans. We used 3 isolated lactic acid bacteria with better growth at low temperatures of 10 and 15 degrees C at ensiling of Elymus nutans. Subsequently, effects of the selected lactic acid bacteria on fermentation profiles of Elymus nutans silages stored at 15 and 25 degrees C were evaluated by using the same species of commercial inoculants as the control. PP-6 isolated from Tibetan Plateau could ferment raffinose, lactose, sorbitol, melibiose and sucrose, and LS-5 could ferment cottonseed sugar, laetrile, rhamnose, lactose, sorbitol, xylose, arabinose, melibiose and sucrose, but the same species of commercial strains could not use these sugars. Inoculation of these three strains into Elymus nutans at 15 and 25 degrees C ensiled for 50 d, we found that LS-5 significantly reduced silage pH, propionic acid concentration and ratio of ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen at 15 degrees C (P lactic acid concentration (P < 0.05), resulting in a lower ratio of ammonia nitrogen/total nitrogen, saved more crude protein and significantly reduced neutral detergent fiber content (P < 0.05) as compared with the commercial strains. The three isolated strains can improve silage quality of Elymus nutans growing on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau at low temperature, but these strains have no obvious advantages at 25 degrees C in comparison with the commercial inoculants.

  14. Grain, silage and forage sorghum hybrid resistance to insect and bird damage, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 32 grain and 30 forage type sorghum hybrids were evaluated for resistance to insect, disease, and bird damage in Tifton, Georgia. These hybrids plus 33 silage type and 5 pearl millet hybrids also were evaluated for sugarcane aphid resistance near Griffin, Georgia. A total of 10 insect pes...

  15. Effects of cover crops on the nitrogen fluxes in a silage maize production system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, J.J.; Dijk, van W.; Groot, de W.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Rye and grass cover crops can potentially intercept residual soil mineral nitrogen (SMN), reduce overwinter leaching, transfer SMN to next growing seasons and reduce the fertilizer need of subsequent crops. These aspects were studied for 6 years in continuous silage maize cv. LG 2080 production

  16. A Compound Sensor for Simultaneous Measurement of Packing Density and Moisture Content of Silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Delun; Meng, Fanjia; Sun, Wei; Deng, Shuang

    2017-12-28

    Packing density and moisture content are important factors in investigating the ensiling quality. Low packing density is a major cause of loss of sugar content. The moisture content also plays a determinant role in biomass degradation. To comprehensively evaluate the ensiling quality, this study focused on developing a compound sensor. In it, moisture electrodes and strain gauges were embedded into an ASABE Standard small cone for the simultaneous measurements of the penetration resistance (PR) and moisture content (MC) of silage. In order to evaluate the performance of the designed sensor and the theoretical analysis being used, relevant calibration and validation tests were conducted. The determination coefficients are 0.996 and 0.992 for PR calibration and 0.934 for MC calibration. The validation indicated that this measurement technique could determine the packing density and moisture content of the silage simultaneously and eliminate the influence of the friction between the penetration shaft and silage. In this study, we not only design a compound sensor but also provide an alternative way to investigate the ensiling quality which would be useful for further silage research.

  17. Increasing harvest maturity of whole-plant corn silage reduces methane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatew, B.; Bannink, A.; Laar, van H.; Jonge, de L.H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of increasing maturity of whole-plant corn at harvest on CH4 emissions by dairy cows consuming corn silage (CS) based diets. Whole-plant corn was harvested at a very early [25% dry matter (DM); CS25], early (28% DM; CS28), medium (32% DM;

  18. Regression-kriged soil organic carbon stock changes in manured corn silage-alfalfa production systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurately measuring soil organic C (SOC) stock changes over time is essential for verifying agronomic management effects on C sequestration. This study quantified the spatial and temporal changes in SOC stocks on adjacent 65-ha corn silage-alfalfa production fields receiving liquid dairy manure in...

  19. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the quality of Kikuyu silage. | M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small-scale laboratory silos were used to study the fermentation process of Kikuyu (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst) silage prepared from grass grown at three nitrogen fertilizer levels (300, 400 and 500 kg N/ha/year). Kikuyu grass was cut at three and six weeks growth stages. High nitrogen levels appeared to improve ...

  20. FEEDING BROWN MIDRIB FORAGE SORGHUM SILAGE AND CORN GLUTEN FEED TO LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown midrib (BMR) forage sorghum contains less lignin , resulting in increased NDF digestibility compared to conventional sorghum . An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of BMR forage sorghum silage in diets containing wet corn gluten feed (WCGF). The objective was to determine the e...

  1. Dry matter losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Koehler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient feed management is important for a sustainable and economic agricultural production. One of the main points for improving the efficiency is the reduction of feed losses. In the present investigation the dry matter (DM losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in farm scaled bunker silos were analysed. The method of determining DM losses was the total-in versus total-out DM mass flow of the silos, including the determination of DM content and other silage parameters via manual sampling. The results taken from 48 silos showed on average for all investigated crops 9–12% of DM losses. Density and feed out rate showed a negative correlation to DM losses in maize silages. According to the applied method for determining DM losses on farm scale, a guideline of 8% can be suggested for maximum DM losses in bunker silos for grass and maize silages. The described method seems to be applicable for improving the feed management by using largely automated measurements on the harvest and feeding side.

  2. maize silage and/or eragrostis curvula hay for wintering pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    end of mating and the rate of conception. As the body mass of the cows at the end of the breeding season decreased from 435 kg (silage) to 378 kg (veld) reconception de- creased from 87,5 %to 25%(Table I). This tends to substan- tiate the fmdings of Lamond (1970), who refers to a criti- calor target mass before conception.

  3. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van M.

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products

  4. A short communication on complete maize silage diets for dairy cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A short communication on complete maize silage diets for dairy cows. H.E. Smit. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's ...

  5. Vohrntary intake of hay and silage: The role of intake related nrmen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments were conducted to examine the difference in in- take between hay and silage made from lucerne (Medicago sativa) and whether these differences could be accounted for in terms of physical rumen characteristics. Voluntary intake was lowest on lucerne hay ensiled with molasses (16% on a. DM basis) and ...

  6. Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved by chemical and biological additives during fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslava Michálková

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in amino acid profile of alfalfa silage preserved with chemical or biological additives were studied in fresh and wilted silage. The chemical additive was formic acid and the biological additive consisted of Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. plantarum, L. brevis, L. buchneri and Pediococcus pentosaceus. Second cut alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. was harvested at the bloom stage, ensiled in mini silos (15 dm3 and fermented at 20–23 °C for 12 weeks. The dry matter of the fresh silage was 228 g . kg−1 and 281.6 g . kg−1 for the wilted before ensiling. The amino acid content was estimated by using an automatic amino acid analyzer AAA (INGOS Prague. The results of the experiments indicated that amino acid breakdown was inhibited by increased dry matter and the use of chemical and biological additive. Additionally, the content of amino acids was found to change in relation to the degree of wilting and formic acid treatment yielded the lowest amino acid breakdown. The amino acid breakdown was also reduced by biological preservative especially in the silage with a higher level of dry matter content.

  7. Lactic acid bacteria active during the fermentation of wheat silage in small scale silos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, N.J.; Parker, J.A.; Moon, L.C.; Ely, L.O.

    1981-01-01

    Wheat was ensiled and periodically analyzed for lactic acid bacteria present. Initially Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus cellobiosus and Streptococcus lactis predominated. After two to four days enterococci including S. faecium and S. bovis were present in high populations as well as Lactobacillus plantarum. It was concluded that mixed populations of enterococci and L. plantarum are active in the successful fermentation of wheat silage.

  8. Microbiological and molecular determination of mycobiota in fresh and ensiled maize silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, M A; Kuldau, G A

    2007-01-01

    The mycobiota of fresh and ensiled maize was studied with culturing techniques and a DNA sequence-based approach. Freshly chopped and ensiled maize were collected for 2 y from 12 farms in Pennsylvania. Samples were plated on selective media and isolates identified by morphology and sequences of the internal transcribed spacer regions of rDNA, 800-900 bp of the 5' end of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha gene and a portion of the rodA gene (Aspergillus fumigatus only). ITS regions were amplified from total silage DNA, cloned, sequenced and compared to fungal ITS sequences in GenBank with the BLAST-N algorithm. For samples analyzed by both methods, the molecular technique detected a greater number of species than selective plating. Plating recovered several Penicillium and Fusarium species and Aspergillus fumigatus, while molecular analysis detected Alternaria, Penicillium and Fusarium species. Data from both methods found that Fusarium and Penicillium were the dominant mycotoxigenic fungi in silage, while yeast made up the majority all fungi recovered or detected. Known mycotoxigenic species often accounted for 50% or more of the total number of species isolated or detected at each site. Viable Fusaria were not isolated from or detected in ensiled maize, suggesting that Fusarium species do not survive the ensiling process. Results from this study suggest that given the numerous species of fungi present in silage with mycotoxin producing ability, there is a strong possibility that silage may be contaminated with multiple toxins simultaneously.

  9. The formation of volatile N-nitrosamines in kikuYl grass silage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ter content of 3090 without any additives. After fermenta- tion a silage sample was macerated in a Waring blender in aqueous soiution. The fibrous material was filtered off and lead acetate and sulphamic acid were added to the extract to prevent the formation of artifacts (Van Broekhoven &. Davies, 1980). The extract was ...

  10. THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION AND ACCEPTABILITY OF CACTI (Opuntia ficus indica)-LEGUME MIXED SILAGE

    OpenAIRE

    J. GUSHA; S. KATSANDE; P.I. ZVINOROVA; S. NCUBE

    2013-01-01

    The potential of making silage using dry browse legume hay (Acacia angustissima, Leucaena leucocephala, Calliandra callothrysus and Macroptilium Atropurpureum) mixed with fresh cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) for winter supplementation of veld grass was evaluated using the proximate, tannins and the pH analyses. Chemical analysis revealed that N values were significantly increased (P

  11. Effects of various inulin levels on in vitro digestibility of corn silage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of various inulin levels on in vitro true dry matter digestibility (IVTDDM) and in vitro neutral detergent fibre digestibility (IVTDNDF) of corn silage (CS), perennial ryegrass (PR), and common vetch/oat hay (VO). Inulin was added to the fermenter at concentrations of 0 (CSC, ...

  12. Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina del Palacio

    Full Text Available Abstract Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43% and Aspergillus (36%, with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3 µg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000 µg/kg and 12,400 µg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.

  13. Nitrous oxide emissions from silage maize fields under different mineral nitrogen fertilizer and slurry applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenigen, van J.W.; Kasper, G.J.; Velthof, G.L.; Pol-van Dasselaar, van den A.; Kuikman, P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Intensive dairy farming systems are a large source of emission of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O), because of high nitrogen (N) application rates to grasslands and silage maize fields. The objective of this study was to compare measured N2O emissions from two different soils to default N2O

  14. Prohexadione-calcium rate and timing effects on alfalfa interseeded into silage corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohexadione-Ca (PHD) can enhance establishment of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, L.) interseeded into silage corn (Zea mays, L.), but optimal application rates and timing for this growth regulator are unknown. Two experiments examined how single or split applications of 0.25 to 1.0 kg a.i. ha-1 of PHD o...

  15. Alfalfa interseeded into silage corn can enhance productivity and soil and water conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa and corn silage are widely planted for dairy forage production systems throughout the northern regions of the USA, accounting for about 0.8 and 1.9 million hectares per year, respectively. Much of this area could benefit from strategies to reduce soil erosion and nutrient losses. Because the...

  16. Dietary effect of silage type and combination with camelina seed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science ... Dietary effect of silage type and combination with camelina seed on milk fatty acid profile and antioxidant capacity of sheep milk. D Mierlita, S Vicas ... Feeding the MS diets increased net energy for lactation (NEL) intake, raw milk yield and fat, protein and lactose yields. Feeding ...

  17. Using Modern Diagnostic Methods for Technological Discipline Assessment of Maize Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gálik Roman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the analysis of compliance with the technological discipline in silage quality assessment based on sampling the silage wall using thermal imaging and penetrometer method for silage compaction. Experimental measurements were done in a selected company, which has built a silage trough with a capacity of 6,624 m3, in which the maize (hybrid KWS – KALIFF FAO 440 with a 36% solids content was ensiled. A thermal camera ThermoPro TM TP8S IR and cone penetrometer Eijkelkamp were used for measurements. The results obtained suggest that also undesirable heating was found in the sampling area, since the maximum temperature at some places in the depth of 0.5 m reached a temperature of 36.4 °C. According to regression and correlation analysis, we found direct linear relationship between penetration resistance and penetration depth in a 6 m and 1.5 m height (R = 0.938 respectively R = 0.970.

  18. Effect of inclusion of citrus pulp inxaraés grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Issamu Yasuoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of different levels of pelleted citrus pulp (PCP on the quality of xaraés grass silage. Xaraés grass was ensiled at 54 days of growth with 0, 10, 20 and 30% PCP and divided into 20 experimental silos (five repetitions/treatment. A completely randomized design was adopted. The silos were opened after 67 days for the determination of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, pH, and titratable acidity of the silages. The inclusion of PCP did not influence DM content, but reduced CP content. NDF and ADF content decreased with the addition of citrus pulp. Regarding pH, a significant difference was only observed for the inclusion of 30% PCP. Titratable acidity in the silage was lower in the absence of PCP (0% compared to the treatment with 30% (P<0.05. The inclusion of 30% PCP in xaraés grass silage is indicated since it improves the quality of the fibrous fraction, while maintaining acceptable pH values.

  19. Adding sweet potato vines improve the quality of rice straw silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Ji, Shuren; Wang, Qian; Qin, Mengzhen; Hou, Chen; Shen, Yixin

    2017-04-01

    Rice straw and sweet potato vines are the main by-products of agricultural crops, and their disposal creates problems for the environment in the south of China. In order to establish an easy method for making rice straw silage successfully, experiments were conduct to evaluate fermentation quality and nutritive value of rice straw silages ensiled with or without sweet potato vine. Paddy rice straw (PR) and upland rice straw (UP) were ensiled alone or with sweet potato vines (SP) by a ratio of 1:1 (fresh matter basis), over 3 years. Compared with rice straw silages ensiled alone, the mixed-material silages (PR + SP, UR + SP) showed higher fermentation quality with lower propionic acid content and NH 3 -N ratio of total N, and higher (P sweet potato vines in the regions where rice and sweet potato are harvested at same season, and the sweet potato vines have the potential to improve rice straw fermentation quality with low water soluble carbohydrate content in south of China. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  20. Assessment of dietary ratios of red clover and corn silages on milk production and milk quality in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorby, J M; Ellis, N M; Davies, D R

    2016-10-01

    Twenty-four multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were used in a replicated 3×3 Latin square changeover design experiment to test the effects of changing from corn (Zea mays) silage to red clover (Trifolium pratense) silage in graded proportions on feed intakes, milk production, and whole-body N and P partitioning. Three dietary treatments with ad libitum access to 1 of 3 forage mixtures plus a standard allowance of 4kg/d dairy concentrates were offered. The 3 treatment forage mixtures were, on a dry matter (DM) basis: (1) R10: 90% corn silage and 10% red clover silage, (2) R50: 50% corn silage and 50% red clover silage, and (3) R90: 10% corn silage and 90% red clover silage. In each of 3 experimental periods, there were 21d for adaptation to diets, and 7d for measurements. Diet crude protein intakes increased, and starch intakes decreased, as the silage mixture changed from 90% corn to 90% red clover, although the highest forage DM intakes and milk yields were achieved on diet R50. Although milk fat yields were unaffected by diet, milk protein yields were highest with the R 0250 diet. Whole-body partitioning of N was measured in a subset of cows (n=9), and both the daily amount and proportion of N consumed that was excreted in feces and urine increased as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased. However, the apparent efficiency of utilization of feed N for milk protein production decreased from 0.33g/g for diet R10 to 0.25g/g for diet R90. The urinary excretion of purine derivatives (sum of allantoin and uric acid) tended to increase, suggesting greater flow of microbial protein from the rumen, as the proportion of red clover silage in the diet increased, and urinary creatinine excretion was affected by diet. Fecal shedding of E. coli was not affected by dietary treatment. In conclusion, even though microbial protein flow may have been greatest from the R 0450 diet, optimum feed intakes and milk yields were achieved on a diet that contained a

  1. Use of principal factor analysis to generate a corn silage fermentative quality index to rank well- or poorly preserved forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Antonio; Giuberti, Gianluca; Bruschi, Sara; Fortunati, Paola; Masoero, Francesco

    2016-03-30

    To investigate corn silage fermentative quality, a principal factor analysis was carried out on a database consisting of 196 corn silages sampled from the core, lateral and apical parts of silo feed-out face and characterised by 36 variables. Eleven principal factor components (PCs) were retained and interpreted. Two PCs were related to chemical and digestibility variables; four PCs were characterised by end-products associated with clostridia, heterolactic, homolactic or aerobic fermentations; two PCs were associated with mycotoxins produced by Penicillium roqueforti or by Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium spp., while three PCs explained ensiling procedures adopted to store corn silages. Lower (P forages. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Characterization of silage made from sweet potato vines using corn meal as additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Corrêa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the fermentative and nutritional characteristics of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas vine silage using different levels of corn meal as additive. A completely randomized design consisting of seven levels of the additive (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% corn meal and four replicates was used, totaling 28 laboratory mini-silos (experimental units. The different levels of additive in sweet potato vine silage exerted quadratic effects on the content of dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent insoluble protein (NDIP, acid detergent insoluble protein (ADIP, and total carbohydrates. There was an increase in DM content with inclusion of the additive and CP was reduced from 11.23% (no additive to 9.46% (30% additive in sweet potato vine silage. NDIP and ADIP content was lower in sweet potato vine silage containing 30% additive (1.15% and 0.70%, respectively. No significant differences in organic matter, ashes, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, or total digestible nutrients were observed between the different levels of additive. Regarding fermentative parameters, a quadratic effect of sweet potato vine silage containing different additive levels was observed on pH, ammoniacal nitrogen as a percentage of total nitrogen [N-NH3 (%NT], and losses from gases and effluent. A lower pH was observed at a level of the additive of 15% (3.31 and higher values at levels of 20%, 25% and 30% (3.88, 3.89 and 3.88, respectively. The  N-NH3 values (%NT ranged from 2.84% (no additive to 3.59% (15% additive, and the lowest loss from gases and effluents was 2.38% DM and 199 kg/t in sweet potato vine silages containing 30% and 10% additive, respectively. Sweet potato vine is a good-quality roughage alternative that can be stored as silage, as along as a water-absorbing additive such as corn meal is used at a level no less than 20%.

  3. Effect of concentrate feeding strategy on the performance of dairy cows fed total mixed rations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. KHALILI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available concerning the effects of offering additional concentrates with total mixed ration (TMR on milk production. The aim of the present study was to compare TMR representing simplified feeding (TMR1 with TMR combined with a decreasing amount of additional concentrate (TMR2C. Finnish Ayrshire cows (39 were housed in a loose housing barn. TMR1 consisted of a mixed ration of grass silage (0.49 and concentrates (0.51. In TMR2C, the same grass silage and concentrate were mixed in a ratio of 55:45. In TMR2C, cows were offered additional concentrates from automatic feeders differing in composition from the concentrate in TMR1 [6.5 kg d-1 (first 100 days, Phase 1, 3.0 kg d-1 (subsequent 50 days, Phase 2 and no concentrate thereafter (Phase 3]. During the whole experiment (224 days, total consumption of concentrates per cow averaged 2426 kg dry matter (TMR1 and 2414 kg dry matter (TMR2C. There were no significant differences in mean total dry matter, metabolizable energy, crude protein or absorbed amino acid intakes. During Phase 2, total intake of all cows fed TMR2C was one kg lower (P = 0.10 than for cows fed TMR1. This was due to differences in total feed intake of multiparous cows. Average yields (kg d-1 of milk, energy corrected milk, protein, fat and lactose were not significantly different between diets. During Phase 2, primiparous cows tended to produce more energy corrected milk on TMR2C than on TMR1. The results showed that both TMR1 and TMR2C were equal feeding strategies for early lactating cows and cows did not benefit from greater concentrate consumption in early stage of lactation when total consumption of concentrates was similar.;

  4. Characterization of linoleic acid (C18:2) concentration in commercial corn silage and grain hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldin, M; Ying, Y; Fan, Y; Roth, G; Casper, D P; Harvatine, K J

    2018-01-01

    Corn silage and high-moisture corn grain are commonly recognized as risk factors for biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression and may be due to the high concentration of linoleic acid (C18:2) in corn. Corn silage and corn grain have a low concentration of fatty acids (FA), but due to their high inclusion rate in diets they contribute substantially to unsaturated FA intake. The first objective of this study was to characterize the contribution of individual plant parts to total FA in whole-plant chopped corn. The second objective was to characterize the variation in FA profile in commercial silage and grain hybrids and evaluate the relationship between FA profile and other nutrients. To determine the location of FA in the corn plant, 4 stalks from 4 different commercial hybrids were separated into stalk, husk and shank, leaves, cob, and kernels. On a dry matter basis, 80.5% of total FA were in the kernels, 11.8% in the leaves, 5.1% in the stalk, 1.7% in the cob, and 1.0% in the husk and shank. More than 96% of the oleic acid (C18:1) and 92.5% of the C18:2 was in the kernels, whereas 71.0% of the linolenic acid (C18:3) was in the leaves. Next, the FA composition of fresh whole-plant chopped corn from 124 silage hybrids and grain from 72 grain hybrids was determined over 2 yr from test plots in Pennsylvania. Last, to extend the characterization, FA composition of whole-plant corn silage from 45 hybrids grown in test plots in South Dakota were characterized. In the fresh whole-plant chopped corn from PA test plots, C18:2 as a percentage of total FA averaged from 48.7% in 2013 (percentiles: 10th = 45.2, 90th = 52.2) and 48.0% in 2014 (percentiles: 10th = 44.1, 90th = 49.4). Concentration of C18:2 in corn grain averaged 57.5% in the 2013 (percentiles: 10th = 53.4, 90th = 60.8) and 56.1% in 2014 (percentiles: 10th = 53.5, 90th = 59.4). In the corn silage from South Dakota, the concentration of C18:2 as percentage of total FA averaged 45.4% (percentiles: 10th = 39

  5. Relationships between urine pH and electrolyte status in cows fed forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Shinichi; Sato, Tomoe; Murai, Iori; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Nonaka, Kazuhisa; Oshita, Tomoko

    2011-06-01

    Data of 20 balance measurements from Holstein dairy cows and urine samples from 24 Japanese Black beef cows were collected to evaluate the relationships between urine pH and electrolyte status in cows fed forages. The ratio of forages in the diet was 70-100% in dairy cows and beef cows were fed Italian ryegrass silage and wheat bran. Mean urine pH in dairy cows was 8.10, ranging from 7.27 to 8.71, and that in beef cows was 7.73, ranging from 7.42 to 8.12. There were positive correlations between urine pH and urinary K contents (P = 0.0012) or K intake (P = 0.019) in dairy cows, although plasma Na, Cl and K had no effect on urine pH. There was a weak negative correlation (P = 0.039) between urine pH and urinary Na content in dairy cows. However, there were no significant correlations between urine pH and urinary Na, Cl and K contents in beef cows. These results indicate that the concentrated urinary K due to the increased K intake may directly enhance urine pH in dairy cows fed mainly forages. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  6. Citrus pulp pellets as an additive for orange bagasse silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Grizotto

    2017-03-01

    efficiently conserved as silage if the initial DM content is at least 25%. The inclusion of 20% (in relation to orange bagasse weight citrus pulp pellets as moisture-absorbing additive is recommended to guarantee adequate fermentation and to reduce losses inherent to the ensiling process.

  7. Ensiling Characteristics and the Nutrient Degradability of a By-product Feed-based Silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. I. Kim

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the ensiling characteristics and the in situ degradability of a by-product feed (BF-based silage. Before ensilation, the BF-based mixture was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial inoculant on a wet basis and ensiled for up to 4 weeks. The BF-based silage contained on average 39.3% moisture, 13.4% crude protein (CP, and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber (NDF, 49% total digestible nutrient, and 37.8% physically effective NDF1.18 on a dry matter (DM basis. Ensiling the BF-based silage for up to 4 weeks affected (p<0.01 the chemical composition to a small extent, increased (p<0.05 the lactic acid and NH3-N content, and decreased (p<0.05 both the total bacterial and lactic acid bacterial counts from 109 to 108 cfu/g when compared to that before ensiling. These parameters indicated that the silage was fermented and stored well during the 4-week ensiling period. Compared with rice or ryegrass straws, the BF-based silage had a higher (p<0.05 water-soluble and filterable fraction, a lower insoluble degradable DM and CP fraction (p<0.05, a lower digestible NDF (p<0.05 fraction, a higher (p<0.05 DM and CP disappearance and degradability rate, and a lower (p<0.05 NDF disappearance and degradability rate. These results indicated that cheap, good-quality BF-based roughage could be produced by ensiling SMS, RPB, rice bran, and a minimal amount of straw.

  8. An Assessment of Three Different In Situ Oxygen Sensors for Monitoring Silage Production and Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilin Shan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen (O2 concentration inside the substrate is an important measurement for silage-research and-practical management. In the laboratory gas chromatography is commonly employed for O2 measurement. Among sensor-based techniques, accurate and reliable in situ measurement is rare because of high levels of carbon dioxide (CO2 generated by the introduction of O2 in the silage. The presented study focused on assessing three types of commercial O2 sensors, including Clark oxygen electrodes (COE, galvanic oxygen cell (GOC sensors and the Dräger chip measurement system (DCMS. Laboratory cross calibration of O2 versus CO2 (each 0–15 vol.% was made for the COE and the GOC sensors. All calibration results verified that O2 measurements for both sensors were insensitive to CO2. For the O2 in situ measurement in silage, all O2 sensors were first tested in two sealed barrels (diameter 35.7 cm; height: 60 cm to monitor the O2 depletion with respect to the ensiling process (Test-A. The second test (Test-B simulated the silage unloading process by recording the O2 penetration dynamics in three additional barrels, two covered by dry ice (0.6 kg or 1.2 kg of each on the top surface and one without. Based on a general comparison of the experimental data, we conclude that each of these in situ sensor monitoring techniques for O2 concentration in silage exhibit individual advantages and limitations.

  9. Nutritional evaluation of safflower silage and biomass, seed and oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Possenti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The  objective  of  this study  was  to evaluate the nutritional value of safflower biomass  (Carthamus tinctorium L. ensiled in three treatments. An apparent nutrient digestibility assay was conducted using sheep and the chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM were determined in the biomass and silages obtained. The production of DM, seeds and crude oil per hectare safflower crop was also quantified and was 12.4±4.9, 2.9±1.5 and 0.7 ±0.2 t/ha, respectively. The following ensiling treatments  were applied: FS = freshly ensiled safflower; WS = wilted safflower (sun exposure for 2 hours; SCP = safflower + 5% citrus pulp. The chemical composition of the FS, WS and SCP silages, respectively, was 10.8, 11.15 and 10.07% crude protein, 55.22, 55.4 and 52.2% neutral detergent fiber, and 55.6, 53.45 and 57.87% in vitro DM digestibility. A randomized complete block design with animal weight as blocks was used. The apparent DM digestibility of the silages was 55.96, 55.54 and 57.94% and total digestible nutrients were 57.62, 57.49 and 57.87% for FS, WS and SCP, respectively. The results  indicate  the use  of  safflower conserved  as  silage  in ruminant diets as an alternative to roughage. However, the biomass ensiling treatments showed no differences in terms of physicochemical parameters, intake or nutrient digestibility of the silages that would justify their application.

  10. Effects of Lactobacillus formosensis S215Tand Lactobacillus buchneri on quality and in vitro ruminal biological activity of condensed tannins in sweet potato vines silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangwe, M C; Rangubhet, K T; Mlambo, V; Yu, B; Chiang, H I

    2016-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of two microbial inoculants; Lactobacillus formosensis and Lactobacillus buchneri on fermentation quality, chemical composition, aerobic stability and in vitro ruminal biological activity of condensed tannins in sweet potato vines silage. Sweet potato vines were ensiled for 28 and 60 days; without inoculant (CON), with Lact. buchneri (LB) or with Lact. formosensis (LF), both inoculants applied to achieve 1 × 10 6  CFU g -1 fresh forage. Lactobacillus formosensis silage had lower pH and higher lactic acid than all treatments. Yeasts and moulds were not detected in LB silage after ensiling. Lactobacillus buchneri silage was more aerobically stable than all treatments, whereas LF was more stable than CON silage. In vitro ruminal biological activity of condensed tannins was lower in microbial-inoculated silages than CON after ensiling. Lactobacillus formosensis improved fermentability by reducing silage pH and improved aerobic stability by producing more propionate, which inhibited yeast activity. Lactobacillus buchneri improved aerobic stability of the silage by producing more acetate. Both strains effectively reduced the antinutritional effect of condensed tannins after ensiling. Lactobacillus formosensis has the potential to be used as a silage inoculant because of its ability to improve fermentability and aerobic stability in sweet potato vines silage. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Performance and milk composition of dairy goats as affected by the dietary level of stoned olive cake silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurhan Keles

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective The current study compared the effects of dietary levels of two phase stoned olive cake (OC in form of silage (OCS on milk production and quality of Saanen goats. Methods The OCS included in total mixed ration (TMR at dry matter proportions of 0.0 (OC0, 0.10 (OC10, and 0.20 (OC20. The TMR were fed to a total of 18 goats in a completely randomized design for a period of 5 weeks. Results Dietary treatments had no effect on the milk yield of Saanen goats, but the daily milk fat production was greater (p<0.05 at feeding OC20. The total phenolic (TP compounds contents increased (p<0.01 in each increment of OCS in TMR and this was also reflected in the TP contents of milk. The C8:0, C10:0, C12:0, and C14:0 saturated fatty acids (FAs in milk fat decreased (p<0.01 with increasing dietary level of OCS, but the decrease (p<0.001 in C16:0 and the increase (p<0.01 in C18:0 in milk fat occurred similarly at each inclusion level of OCS. Only OC20 reduced (p<0.05 the total saturated FA, yet the reduction (p<0.01 in n6/n3 ratio and atherogenicity index occurred in both OC10 and OC20. Conclusion Two phase stoned OCS increases milk quality not only through modifying the milk FA composition, but also by increasing the milk TP content. These favorable changes in milk quality are closely associated with the dietary level of OCS.

  12. Effects of a gradually increased load of fish waste silage in co-digestion with cow manure on methane production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solli, Linn; Bergersen, Ove; Sørheim, Roald; Briseid, Tormod

    2014-08-01

    This study examined the effects of an increased load of nitrogen-rich organic material on anaerobic digestion and methane production. Co-digestion of fish waste silage (FWS) and cow manure (CM) was studied in two parallel laboratory-scale (8L effective volume) semi-continuous stirred tank reactors (designated R1 and R2). A reactor fed with CM only (R0) was used as control. The reactors were operated in the mesophilic range (37°C) with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days, and the entire experiment lasted for 450 days. The rate of organic loading was raised by increasing the content of FWS in the feed stock. During the experiment, the amount (volume%) of FWS was increased stepwise in the following order: 3% - 6% - 13% - 16%, and 19%. Measurements of methane production, and analysis of volatile fatty acids, ammonium and pH in the effluents were carried out. The highest methane production from co-digestion of FW